WorldWideScience

Sample records for surficial mapping study

  1. Surficial Geologic Map of the Town of Randolph, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG10-2 Wright, S., Larsen, F., and Springston, G., 2010,�Surficial Geologic Map of the Town of Randolph, Vermont: Vermont Geological Survey...

  2. Surficial geologic map of the Dillingham quadrangle, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.

    2018-05-14

    The geologic map of the Dillingham quadrangle in southwestern Alaska shows surficial unconsolidated deposits, many of which are alluvial or glacial in nature. The map area, part of Alaska that was largely not glaciated during the late Wisconsin glaciation, has a long history reflecting local and more distant glaciations. Late Wisconsin glacial deposits have limited extent in the eastern part of the quadrangle, but are quite extensive in the western part of the quadrangle. This map and accompanying digital files are the result of the interpretation of black and white aerial photographs from the 1950s as well as more modern imagery. Limited new field mapping in the area was conducted as part of a bedrock mapping project in the northeastern part of the quadrangle; however, extensive aerial photographic interpretation represents the bulk of the mapping effort.

  3. Map Database for Surficial Materials in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, David R.; Reheis, Marith C.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Van Sistine, D. R.

    2009-01-01

    The Earth's bedrock is overlain in many places by a loosely compacted and mostly unconsolidated blanket of sediments in which soils commonly are developed. These sediments generally were eroded from underlying rock, and then were transported and deposited. In places, they exceed 1000 ft (330 m) in thickness. Where the sediment blanket is absent, bedrock is either exposed or has been weathered to produce a residual soil. For the conterminous United States, a map by Soller and Reheis (2004, scale 1:5,000,000; http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/of03-275/) shows these sediments and the weathered, residual material; for ease of discussion, these are referred to as 'surficial materials'. That map was produced as a PDF file, from an Adobe Illustrator-formatted version of the provisional GIS database. The provisional GIS files were further processed without modifying the content of the published map, and are here published.

  4. Surficial geologic map of the Mount Grace-Ashburnham-Monson-Webster 24-quadrangle area in central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Janet R.

    2013-01-01

    The surficial geologic map shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 24 7.5-minute quadrangles (1,238 mi2 total) in central Massachusetts. Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and as resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, and organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for assessing water resources, construction-aggregate resources, and earth-surface hazards, and for making land-use decisions. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text (PDF), quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  5. Surficial geologic map of the Norton-Manomet-Westport-Sconticut Neck 23-quadrangle area in southeast Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Byron D.; Stone, Janet R.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.; Kincare, Kevin A.

    2012-01-01

    The surficial geologic map shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 23 7.5-minute quadrangles (919 mi2 total) in southeastern Massachusetts. Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and as resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, and organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for assessing water resources, construction aggregate resources, and earth-surface hazards, and for making land-use decisions. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text (PDF), quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  6. Pilot Study Using the Augmented Reality Sandbox to Teach Topographic Maps and Surficial Processes in Introductory Geology Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Terri L.; Reed, Sarah; Hsi, Sherry; Woods, John A.; Woods, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial thinking is often challenging for introductory geology students. A pilot study using the Augmented Reality sandbox (AR sandbox) suggests it can be a powerful tool for bridging the gap between two-dimensional (2D) representations and real landscapes, as well as enhancing the spatial thinking and modeling abilities of students. The AR…

  7. Preliminary mapping of surficial geology of Midway Valley Yucca Mountain Project, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesling, J.R.; Bullard, T.F.; Swan, F.H.; Perman, R.C.; Angell, M.M.; Gibson, J.D.

    1992-04-01

    The tectonics program for the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada must evaluate the potential for surface faulting beneath the prospective surface facilities. To help meet this goal, Quaternary surficial mapping studies and photolineament analyses were conducted to provide data for evaluating the location, recency, and style of faulting with Midway Valley at the eastern base of Yucca Mountain, the preferred location of these surface facilities. This interim report presents the preliminary results of this work

  8. Surficial Geologic Map of the Worcester North-Oxford- Wrentham-Attleboro Nine-Quadrangle Area in South- Central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Byron D.; Stone, Janet R.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    studies discuss the ages of multiple glaciations, the nature of glaciofluvial, glaciolacustrine, and glaciomarine deposits, and the processes of ice advance and retreat across Massachusetts (Koteff and Pessl, 1981; papers in Larson and Stone, 1982; Oldale and Barlow, 1986; Stone and Borns, 1986; Warren and Stone, 1986). This compilation of surficial geologic materials is an interim product that defines the areas of exposed bedrock and the boundaries between glacial till, glacial stratified deposits, and overlying postglacial deposits. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This surficial geologic map layer covering nine quadrangles revises previous digital surficial geologic maps (Stone and others, 1993; MassGIS, 1999) that were compiled on base maps at regional scales of 1:125,000 and 1:250,000. The purpose of this study is to provide fundamental geologic data for the evaluation of natural resources, hazards, and land information within the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

  9. Preliminary surficial geologic map database of the Amboy 30 x 60 minute quadrangle, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, David R.; Miller, David M.; Phelps, Geoffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    The surficial geologic map database of the Amboy 30x60 minute quadrangle presents characteristics of surficial materials for an area approximately 5,000 km2 in the eastern Mojave Desert of California. This map consists of new surficial mapping conducted between 2000 and 2005, as well as compilations of previous surficial mapping. Surficial geology units are mapped and described based on depositional process and age categories that reflect the mode of deposition, pedogenic effects occurring post-deposition, and, where appropriate, the lithologic nature of the material. The physical properties recorded in the database focus on those that drive hydrologic, biologic, and physical processes such as particle size distribution (PSD) and bulk density. This version of the database is distributed with point data representing locations of samples for both laboratory determined physical properties and semi-quantitative field-based information. Future publications will include the field and laboratory data as well as maps of distributed physical properties across the landscape tied to physical process models where appropriate. The database is distributed in three parts: documentation, spatial map-based data, and printable map graphics of the database. Documentation includes this file, which provides a discussion of the surficial geology and describes the format and content of the map data, a database 'readme' file, which describes the database contents, and FGDC metadata for the spatial map information. Spatial data are distributed as Arc/Info coverage in ESRI interchange (e00) format, or as tabular data in the form of DBF3-file (.DBF) file formats. Map graphics files are distributed as Postscript and Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files, and are appropriate for representing a view of the spatial database at the mapped scale.

  10. Surficial Geologic Map of the Bennington Area, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG2017-1 DeSimone, D. J., 2017, Surficial Geology of the Bennington Area, Vermont: VGS Open File report VG2017-1, scale 1:12,000. Data may include...

  11. Surficial geologic map of the Heath-Northfield-Southwick-Hampden 24-quadrangle area in the Connecticut Valley region, west-central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Janet R.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    The surficial geologic map layer shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 24 7.5-minute quadrangles (1,238 mi2 total) in west-central Massachusetts. Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and as resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, and organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for assessing water resources, construction aggregate resources, and earth-surface hazards, and for making land-use decisions. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text, quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  12. Surficial geologic map of the Burlington, Vermont 7.5 minute quadrangle

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG09-1 Wright, S., S. Fuller, S. Jones, A. McKinney, S. Rupard, and S.D. Shaw, 2009,�Surficial geologic map of the Burlington, Vermont 7.5 minute...

  13. Quaternary allostratigraphy of surficial deposit map units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstrom, S.C.; Wesling, J.R.; Swan, F.H.; Taylor, E.M.; Whitney, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Surficial geologic mapping at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is relevant to site characterization studies of paleoclimate, tectonics, erosion, flood hazards, and water infiltration. Alluvial, colluvial, and eolian allostratigraphic map units are defined on the basis of age-related surface characteristics and soil development, as well as lithology and sedimentology indicative of provenance and depositional mode. In gravelly alluvial units, which include interbedded debris flows, the authors observe a useful qualitative correlation between surface and soil properties. Map units of estimated middle Pleistocene age typically have a well-developed, varnished desert pavement, and minimal erosional and preserved depositional microrelief, associated with a soil with a reddened Bt horizon and stage 3 carbonate and silica morphology. Older units have greater erosional relief, an eroded argillic horizon and stage 4 carbonate morphology, whereas younger units have greater preservation of depositional morphology, but lack well-developed pavements, rock varnish, and Bt and Kqm soil horizons. Trench and gully-wall exposures show that alluvial, colluvial and eolian dominated surface units are underlain by multiple buried soils separating sedimentologically similar deposits; this stratigraphy increases the potential for understanding the long-term Quaternary paleoenvironmental history of Yucca Mountain. Age estimates for allostratigraphic units, presently based on uranium-trend dating and regional correlation using soil development, will be further constrained by ongoing dating studies that include tephra identification, uranium-series disequilibrium, and thermoluminescence methods

  14. Project plan-Surficial geologic mapping and hydrogeologic framework studies in the Greater Platte River Basins (Central Great Plains) in support of ecosystem and climate change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Margaret E.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Slate, Janet L.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Sawyer, David A.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Platte River Basin area spans a central part of the Midcontinent and Great Plains from the Rocky Mountains on the west to the Missouri River on the east, and is defined to include drainage areas of the Platte, Niobrara, and Republican Rivers, the Rainwater Basin, and other adjoining areas overlying the northern High Plains aquifer. The Greater Platte River Basin contains abundant surficial deposits that were sensitive to, or are reflective of, the climate under which they formed: deposits from multiple glaciations in the mountain headwaters of the North and South Platte Rivers and from continental ice sheets in eastern Nebraska; fluvial terraces (ranging from Tertiary to Holocene in age) along the rivers and streams; vast areas of eolian sand in the Nebraska Sand Hills and other dune fields (recording multiple episodes of dune activity); thick sequences of windblown silt (loess); and sediment deposited in numerous lakes and wetlands. In addition, the Greater Platte River Basin overlies and contributes surface water to the High Plains aquifer, a nationally important groundwater system that underlies parts of eight states and sustains one of the major agricultural areas of the United States. The area also provides critical nesting habitat for birds such as plovers and terns, and roosting habitat for cranes and other migratory birds that travel through the Central Flyway of North America. This broad area, containing fragile ecosystems that could be further threatened by changes in climate and land use, has been identified by the USGS and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln as a region where intensive collaborative research could lead to a better understanding of climate change and what might be done to adapt to or mitigate its adverse effects to ecosystems and to humans. The need for robust data on the geologic framework of ecosystems in the Greater Platte River Basin has been acknowledged in proceedings from the 2008 Climate Change Workshop and in draft

  15. Surficial Geologic Map of the Southern Two-Thirds of the Woodbury Quadrangle, Vermont, Washington County, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG2015-3 Springston, G, Thomas, E, and Kim, J, 2015,�Surficial Geologic Map of the Southern Two-Thirds of the Woodbury Quadrangle, Vermont,...

  16. Surficial Geologic Map of the Evansville, Indiana, and Henderson, Kentucky, Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David W.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Counts, Ronald C.; Martin, Steven L.; Andrews, William M.; Newell, Wayne L.; Murphy, Michael L.; Thompson, Mark F.; Taylor, Emily M.; Kvale, Erik P.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2009-01-01

    The geologic map of the Evansville, Indiana, and Henderson, Kentucky, area depicts and describes surficial deposits according to their origin and age. Unconsolidated alluvium and outwash fill the Ohio River bedrock valley and attain maximum thickness of 33-39 m under Diamond Island, Kentucky, and Griffith Slough, south of Newburgh, Indiana. The fill is chiefly unconsolidated, fine- to medium-grained, lithic quartz sand, interbedded with clay, clayey silt, silt, coarse sand, granules, and gravel. Generally, the valley fill fines upward from the buried bedrock surface: a lower part being gravelly sand to sandy gravel, a middle part mostly of sand, and a surficial veneer of silt and clay interspersed with sandy, natural levee deposits at river's edge. Beneath the unconsolidated fill are buried and discontinuous, lesser amounts of consolidated fill unconformably overlying the buried bedrock surface. Most of the glaciofluvial valley fill accumulated during the Wisconsin Episode (late Pleistocene). Other units depicted on the map include creek alluvium, slackwater lake (lacustrine) deposits, colluvium, dune sand, loess, and sparse bedrock outcrops. Creek alluvium underlies creek floodplains and consists of silt, clayey silt, and subordinate interbedded fine sand, granules, and pebbles. Lenses and beds of clay are present locally. Silty and clayey slackwater lake (lacustrine) deposits extensively underlie broad flats northeast of Evansville and around Henderson and are as thick as 28 m. Fossil wood collected from an auger hole in the lake and alluvial deposits of Little Creek, at depths of 10.6 m and 6.4 m, are dated 16,650+-50 and 11,120+-40 radiocarbon years, respectively. Fossil wood collected from lake sediment 16 m below the surface in lake sediment was dated 33,100+-590 radiocarbon years. Covering the hilly bedrock upland is loess (Qel), 3-7.5 m thick in Indiana and 9-15 m thick in Kentucky, deposited about 22,000-12,000 years before present. Most mapped surficial

  17. Surficial geologic map of Berrien County, Michigan, and the adjacent offshore area of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Byron D.; Kincare, Kevin A.; O'Leary, Dennis W.; Newell, Wayne L.; Taylor, Emily M.; Williams, Van S.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Abraham, Jared E.; Powers, Michael H.

    2017-12-13

    The surficial geologic map of Berrien County, southwestern Michigan (sheet 1), shows the distribution of glacial and postglacial deposits at the land surface and in the adjacent offshore area of Lake Michigan. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Drill-hole information correlated in cross sections provides details of typical stratigraphic sequences that compose one or more penetrated geologic map units. A new bedrock geologic map (on sheet 2) includes contours of the altitude of the eroded top of bedrock and shows the distribution of middle Paleozoic shale and carbonate units in the subcrop. A sediment thickness map (also on sheet 2) portrays the extent of as much as 150 meters of surficial materials that overlie the bedrock surface.The major physical features of the county are related principally to deposits of the last Laurentide ice sheet that advanced and then retreated back through the region from about 19,000 to 14,000 radiocarbon years before present. Glacial and postglacial deposits underlie the entire county; shale bedrock crops out only in the adjacent offshore area on the bottom of Lake Michigan. All glacial deposits and glacial meltwater deposits in Berrien County are related to the late Wisconsinan glacial advances of the Lake Michigan ice lobe and its three regional recessional moraines, which cross the county as three north-northeast-trending belts.From east to west (oldest to youngest), the three moraine belts are known as the Kalamazoo, Valparaiso, and Lake Border morainic systems. The till-ridge morainic systems (Lake Border and local Valparaiso morainic systems) consist of multiple, elongate moraine ridges separated by till plains and lake-bottom plains. Tills in ground and end moraines in Berrien County are distinguished as informal units, and are correlated with three proposed regional till units in southwestern Michigan

  18. Assessment of Convolution Neural Networks for Surficial Geology Mapping in the South Rae Geological Region, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasim Latifovic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mapping of surficial geology is an important requirement for broadening the geoscience database of northern Canada. Surficial geology maps are an integral data source for mineral and energy exploration. Moreover, they provide information such as the location of gravels and sands, which are important for infrastructure development. Currently, surficial geology maps are produced through expert interpretation of aerial photography and field data. However, interpretation is known to be subjective, labour-intensive and difficult to repeat. The expert knowledge required for interpretation can be challenging to maintain and transfer. In this research, we seek to assess the potential of deep neural networks to aid surficial geology mapping by providing an objective surficial materials initial layer that experts can modify to speed map development and improve consistency between mapped areas. Such an approach may also harness expert knowledge in a way that is transferable to unmapped areas. For this purpose, we assess the ability of convolution neural networks (CNN to predict surficial geology classes under two sampling scenarios. In the first scenario, a CNN uses samples collected over the area to be mapped. In the second, a CNN trained over one area is then applied to locations where the available samples were not used in training the network. The latter case is important, as a collection of in situ training data can be costly. The evaluation of the CNN was carried out using aerial photos, Landsat reflectance, and high-resolution digital elevation data over five areas within the South Rae geological region of Northwest Territories, Canada. The results are encouraging, with the CNN generating average accuracy of 76% when locally trained. For independent test areas (i.e., trained over one area and applied over other, accuracy dropped to 59–70% depending on the classes selected for mapping. In the South Rae region, significant confusion was found

  19. Geologic Map and Engineering Properties of the Surficial Deposits of the Tok Area, East-Central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2007-01-01

    The Tok area 1:100,000-scale map, through which the Alaska Highway runs, is in east-central Alaska about 160 km west of the Yukon border. The surficial geologic mapping in the map area is in support of the 'Geologic Mapping in support of land, resources, and hazards issues in Alaska' Project of the USGS National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program. The Tok map area contains parts of three physiographic provinces, the Alaska Range, the Yukon-Tanana Upland, and the Northway-Tanana Lowland. The high, rugged, glaciated landscape of the eastern Alaska Range dominates the southwestern map area. The highest peak, an unnamed summit at the head of Cathedral Rapids Creek No. 2, rises to 2166 m. The gently rolling hills of the Yukon-Tanana Upland, in the northern map area, rise to about 1000 m. The Northway-Tanana Lowland contains the valley of the westerly flowing Tanana River. Elevations along the floor of the lowland generally range between 470 and 520 m. The dominant feature within the map is the Tok fan, which occupies about 20 percent of the map area. This large (450 km2), nearly featureless fan contains a high percentage of volcanic clasts derived from outside the present-day drainage of the Tok River. Because the map area is dominated by various surficial deposits, the map depicts 26 different surficial units consisting of man-made, alluvial, colluvial, eolian, lacustrine, organic, glaciofluvial, glacial, and periglacial deposits. The accompanying table provides information concerning the various units including their properties, characteristics, resource potential, and associated hazards in this area of the upper Tanana valley.

  20. Mapping surficial geology and assessment of permafrost conditions under the Iqaluit airport, Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathon-Dufour, V.; Allard, M.; Leblanc, A.; L'Hérault, E.; Oldenborger, G. A.; Sladen, W. E.

    2012-12-01

    Formerly, characterization of permafrost conditions was minimal before the construction of infrastructures. It was assumed that the permafrost would forever remain a solid substrate. Before global warming, transportation infrastructures were not designed, especially in terms of materials and dimensions, to withstand without damage an increased input of heat in the soil. Iqaluit airport, the hub of the eastern Canadian Arctic, is currently affected by thawing permafrost. In fact, the runway, taxiways and apron are affected by differential settlements resulting from the presence of localized ice-rich soils. This study uses a GIS approach that makes up for the absence of appropriate characterization before the construction of the airport during WWII and in the 1950s. Mapping of surficial geology, hydrography and landforms indicative of the presence of ground ice (e.g. tundra polygons) was produced by interpreting aerial photographs dating back from the initial phases of construction (1948) and photographs taken at intervals since then, to the most recent high-resolution satellite images. Subsequent map analysis shows that the original terrain conditions prevailing before the construction of the airport have a significant impact on the current stability of the infrastructure. Data integration allowed us to summarize the main problems affecting the Iqaluit airport which are: 1) Differential settlements associated with pre-construction drainage network 2) Cracking due to thermal contraction, 3) Linear depressions associated with ice wedge degradation and 4) Sink holes. Most of the sectors affected by differential settlements and instabilities are perfectly coincident with the original streams and lakes network that has been filled to increase the size of the runway, taxiways and the apron. In addition, the runway is affected by intense frost cracking. Similarities with nearby natural terrain suggest that the network pattern of the cracks follows pre-existing ice wedges

  1. Surficial Geologic Map of Mesa Verde National Park, Montezuma County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado was established in 1906 to preserve and protect the artifacts and dwelling sites, including the famous cliff dwellings, of the Ancestral Puebloan people who lived in the area from about A.D. 550 to A.D. 1300. In 1978, the United Nations designated the park as a World Heritage Site. The geology of the park played a key role in the lives of these ancient people. For example, the numerous (approximately 600) cliff dwellings are closely associated with the Cliff House Sandstone of Late Cretaceous age, which weathers to form deep alcoves. In addition, the ancient people farmed the thick, red loess (wind-blown dust) deposits on the mesa tops, which because of its particle size distribution has good moisture retention properties. The soil in this loess cover and the seasonal rains allowed these people to grow their crops (corn, beans, and squash) on the broad mesa tops. Today, geology is still an important concern in the Mesa Verde area because the landscape is susceptible to various forms of mass movement (landslides, debris flows, rockfalls), swelling soils, and flash floods that affect the park's archeological sites and its infrastructure (roads, septic systems, utilities, and building sites). The map, which encompasses an area of about 100 mi2 (260 km2), includes all of Mesa Verde National Park, a small part of the Ute Mountain Indian Reservation that borders the park on its southern and western sides, and some Bureau of Land Management and privately owned land to the north and east. Surficial deposits depicted on the map include: artificial fills, alluvium of small ephemeral streams, alluvium deposited by the Mancos River, residual gravel on high mesas, a combination of alluvial and colluvial deposits, fan deposits, colluvial deposits derived from the Menefee Formation, colluvial deposits derived from the Mancos Shale, rockfall deposits, debris flow deposits, earthflow deposits, translational and rotational landslide

  2. Surficial geologic map of the Red Rock Lakes area, southwest Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Sojda, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    The Centennial Valley and Centennial Range continue to be formed by ongoing displacement on the Centennial fault. The dominant fault movement is downward, creating space in the valley for lakes and the deposition of sediment. The Centennial Valley originally drained to the northeast through a canyon now represented by a chain of lakes starting with Elk Lake. Subsequently, large landslides blocked and dammed the drainage, which created Lake Centennial, in the Centennial Valley. Sediments deposited in this late Pleistocene lake underlie much of the valley floor and rest on permeable sand and gravel deposited when the valley drained to the northeast. Cold Pleistocene climates enhanced colluvial supply of gravelly sediment to mountain streams and high peak flows carried gravelly sediment into the valley. There, the lower gradient of the streams resulted in deposition of alluvial fans peripheral to Lake Centennial as the lake lowered through time to the level of the two present lakes. Pleistocene glaciers formed in the high Centennial Range, built glacial moraines, and also supplied glacial outwash to the alluvial fans. Winds from the west and south blew sand to the northeast side of the valley building up high dunes. The central part of the map area is flat, sloping to the west by only 0.6 meters in 13 kilometers (2 feet in 8 miles) to form a watery lowland. This lowland contains Upper and Lower Red Rock Lakes, many ponds, and peat lands inside the “water plane,” above which are somewhat steeper slopes. The permeable sands and gravels beneath Lake Centennial sediments provide a path for groundwater recharged from the adjacent uplands. This groundwater leaks upward through Lake Centennial sediments and sustains wetland vegetation into late summer. Upper and Lower Red Rock Lakes are formed by alluvial-fan dams. Alluvial fans converge from both the south and the north to form outlet thresholds that dam the two shallow lakes upstream. The surficial geology aids in

  3. Geologic-SURFICIAL62K-Sand and gravel pits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The GeologicSurficial_SURFICIAL data consists of surficial geologic features as digitized from the 1:62,500 15 minute series USGS quadrangle map sheets, compiled by...

  4. Reconnaissance surficial geologic map of the Taylor Mountains quadrangle, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.

    2015-09-28

    This map and accompanying digital files are the result of the interpretation of aerial photographs from the 1950s as well as more modern imagery. The area, long considered a part of Alaska that was largely not glaciated (see Karlstrom, 1964; Coulter and others, 1965; or Péwé, 1975), actually has a long history reflecting local and more distant glaciations. An unpublished photogeologic map of the Taylor Mountains quadrangle from the 1950s by J.N. Platt Jr. was useful in the construction of this map. Limited new field mapping in the area was conducted as part of a mapping project in the Dillingham quadrangle to the south (Wilson and others, 2003); however, extensive aerial photograph interpretation represents the bulk of the mapping effort. The accompanying digital files show the sources for each line and geologic unit shown on the map.

  5. Surficial Geologic Map of the Roanoke Rapids 30' x 60' Quadrangle, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Robert E.; Lewis, William C.; Aleman-Gonzalez, Wilma

    2009-01-01

    The Roanoke Rapids 1:100,000 map sheet is located in northeastern North Carolina. Most of the area is flat to gently rolling, though steep slopes occur occasionally along some of the larger streams. Total relief in the area is slightly less than 400 feet (ft), with elevations ranging from sea level east of Murfreesboro in the far northeastern corner of the map to 384 ft near the northwestern map border near Littleton. The principal streams are the Roanoke River and Fishing Creek, which on average flow from northwest to southeast in the map area. The principal north-south roads are Interstate Route 95, U.S. Route 258, and U.S. Route 301. Two lines of the CSX railroad also cross the area in a north-south and northeast-southwest direction. This part of North Carolina is primarily rural and agricultural. The only large community in the area is Roanoke Rapids. The map lies astride the Tidewater Fall Line, a prominent physiographic feature marked by rapids and waterfalls that separate the rocky streams of the eastern Piedmont physiographic province from the sandy and alluviated streams of the western Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province. The energy from the Roanoke River descending the Tidewater Fall Line has been harnessed by dams to produce hydroelectric power, and this source of energy was a major factor in the growth and development of Roanoke Rapids. The Piedmont in the western part of the map area is underlain by Neoproterozoic to Cambrian metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks that are intruded by granite in some areas. In the central and eastern part of the map area, the folded and faulted igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont, as well as tilted sedimentary rocks in a buried Triassic basin, are all overlain with profound unconformity by generally unlithified and only slightly eastward-tilted Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The Coastal Plain sediments lap westward onto the eastern Piedmont along the high

  6. Surficial geologic map of the Elizabethtown 30' x 60' quadrangle, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Robert E.; Lewis, William C.; Crider, E. Allen

    2011-01-01

    The Elizabethtown 30' x 60' quadrangle is located in southeastern North Carolina between Fayetteville and Wilmington. Most of the area is flat to gently rolling, although steep slopes occur locally along some of the larger streams. Total relief in the area is slightly over 210 feet (ft), with elevations ranging from slightly less than 10 ft above sea level along the Black River (east of Rowan in the southeastern corner of the map) to slightly over 220 ft in the northwestern corner northeast of Hope Mills. The principal streams in the area are the Cape Fear, Black, South, and Lumber Rivers, which on average flow from northwest to southeast across the map area. The principal north-south roads are Interstate Route 95, Interstate Route 40, U.S. Route 117, U.S. Route 301, U.S. Route 421, and U.S. Route 701, and the principal east-west roads are N.C. State Route 241 and N.C. State Route 41. This part of North Carolina is primarily rural and agricultural. The largest communities in and adjacent to the area are Elizabethtown, Hope Mills, Clinton, Warsaw, and Lumberton. The map lies entirely within the Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province. Outstanding features of this area are the large number of sand-rimmed Carolina bays, five of which contain enough water to constitute natural lakes: Bay Tree Lake, Salter Lake, Little Singletary Lake, Singletary Lake, and White Lake. These are associated with widespread windblown sand deposits on which are grown abundant crops of blueberries. The extent and distribution of these deposits have been estimated based on a combination of augerhole, outcrop, and light-detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The geology of the Elizabethtown 30' x 60' quadrangle was originally mapped on 32 7.5-minute quadrangles at 1:24,000 scale and then compiled on this 1:100,000-scale base. The base-map topographic contours on this compilation are shown in meters; the cross sections, structure contours, and well and corehole basement elevations have been

  7. Surficial geologic map of the Framingham quadrangle, Middlesex and Worcester Counties, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Arthur E.

    1974-01-01

    The Framingham quadrangle covers about 55 square miles and is centered approximately 18 miles west of Boston.  Even though the major topographic features are controlled by the lithology and structure of the bedrock, glacial features, such as drumlins, kames and kettles, kame terraces, eskers, gently sloping deltas, and flat-lying lake-bottom deposits, have modified the preglacial topography.  Some bedrock plucking occurred, especially on the south or southeast sides of some hills, and some valleys probably were deepened.  A thin veneer of till overlies much of the bedrock and is most extensive in the hills in the western half of the map area.  These deposits, which are mostly gently sloping kame deltas or flat-lying lake-bottom deposits, were laid down in or graded to glacial Lakes Charles (Clapp, 1904, p. 198) and Sudbury (Goldthwait, 1905, p. 274), which formed during deglaciation when melt waters were temporarily impounded.  Some glacial-lake deposits were laid down in three smaller higher level lakes in the western part of the quadrangle.

  8. Geology, Surficial, Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Core Locations �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, and shallow aquifers and confining units; Excel spread sheet with core names, coordinates, and data co, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2006. Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Core Locations �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize...

  9. Generalized surficial geologic map of the Fort Irwin area, San Bernadino: Chapter B in Geology and geophysics applied to groundwater hydrology at Fort Irwin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David M.; Menges, Christopher M.; Lidke, David J.; Buesch, David C.

    2014-01-01

    The geology and landscape of the Fort Irwin area, typical of many parts of the Mojave Desert, consist of rugged mountains separated by broad alluviated valleys that form the main coarse-resolution features of the geologic map. Crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic and older in age, form most of the mountains with lesser accumulations of Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. In detail, the area exhibits a fairly complex distribution of surficial deposits resulting from diverse rock sources and geomorphology that has been driven by topographic changes caused by recent and active faulting. Depositional environments span those typical of the Mojave Desert: alluvial fans on broad piedmonts, major intermittent streams along valley floors, eolian sand dunes and sheets, and playas in closed valleys that lack through-going washes. Erosional environments include rocky mountains, smooth gently sloping pediments, and badlands in readily eroded sediment. All parts of the landscape, from regional distribution of mountains, valleys, and faults to details of degree of soil development in surface materials, are portrayed by the surficial geologic map. Many of these attributes govern infiltration and recharge, and the surface distribution of permeable rock units such as Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks provides a basis for evaluating potential groundwater storage. Quaternary faults are widespread in the Fort Irwin area and include sinistral, east-striking faults that characterize the central swath of the area and the contrasting dextral, northwest-striking faults that border the east and west margins. Bedrock distribution and thickness of valley-fill deposits are controlled by modern and past faulting, and faults on the map help to identify targets for groundwater exploration.

  10. Surficial geology and land classification, Mackenzie Valley Transportation Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, O L; Pilon, J; Veilette, J

    1974-01-01

    The objective of this project, continued from 1971 and 1972 is to provide an inventory of surficial geology and permafrost distribution data pertinent to pipeline construction, road building, and other land use activities that might take place in the Mackenzie Valley Transportation Corridor. Hughes together with N.W. Rutter devoted one month to reconnaissance examination of the area encompassed by this project and Project 710047 (see this report). A primary objective was to insure uniform usage of map-units throughout the 2 areas. Construction on the Mackenzie Highway was examined in order to evaluate terrain performance of various map-units crossed by the highway. Limited geological studies, including shallow borings and measurement of sections, were conducted to supplement field work of 1971 and 1972. J. Veillette conducted diamond drilling in permanently frozen surficial deposits during the period mid-March to mid-April.

  11. The Great Acceleration and the disappearing surficial geologic record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Jason A.; Springer, Kathleen; Pigati, Jeffrey S.

    2017-01-01

    The surficial geologic record is the relatively thin veneer of young (Earth’s terrestrial surface (Fig. 1). Once largely ignored as “overburden” by geologists, surficial deposits are now studied to address a wide range of issues related to the sustainability of human societies. Geologists use surficial deposits to determine the frequency and severity of past climatic changes, quantify natural and anthropogenic erosion rates, identify hazards, and calculate recurrence intervals associated with earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. Increasingly, however, humans are eradicating the surficial geologic record in many key areas through progressive modification of Earth’s surface.

  12. Surficial geology of Panther Lake Quadrangle, Oswego County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.

    1981-01-01

    The location and extent of eight kinds of surficial deposits in Panther Lake quadrangle, Oswego County, N.Y., are mapped on a 7.5-minute U.S. Geological Survey topographic map. The map was compiled to indicate the lithology and potential for groundwater development at any specific location. (USGS)

  13. Surficial geology of Hannibal Quadrangle, Oswego County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.

    1981-01-01

    The location and extent of 10 kinds of surficial deposits in part of Hannibal quadrangle, Oswego County, N.Y., are mapped on a 7.5-minute U.S. Geological Survey topographic map. The map was compiled to indicate the lithology and potential for ground-water development at any specific location. (USGS)

  14. Uraniferous surficial deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.; Hambleton-Jones, B.B.

    1980-10-01

    As a result of the discovery of uranium in surficial deposits of Tertiary to Recent age, in Australia and Southern Africa, increasing attention is being paid to the location and understanding of the genesis of these deposits. The paper discusses the definitions and terminology currently in use and a classification of these deposits is presented. It is concluded that in order to obtain a measure of clarity, the terms calcrete, gypcrete and dolocrete should not be used to describe the uraniferous valley-fill deposits of Southern Africa and Australia [af

  15. Preliminary Surficial Geology of the Dove Spring Off-Highway Vehicle Open Area, Mojave Desert, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David M.; Amoroso, Lee

    2007-01-01

    vegetation, biological soil crusts, compaction, and other information may be correlated with land use to identify possible ecological thresholds in OHV use that require monitoring. Surficial geology is relevant for several other studies of OHV impact, such as soil compaction, dust emissions, and acceleration of erosion. Compaction, reduced infiltration, and accelerated erosion have been documented in Dove Spring Canyon because of OHV use (Snyder and others, 1976) and elsewhere in the Mojave Desert (e.g., Webb, 1983; Langdon, 2000). A surficial geologic map enables the use of geomorphic process models, which when combined with measured soil properties, such as texture, nutrient chemistry, and bulk density, allows spatial extrapolation of the properties. Maps can be produced that predict compaction susceptibility, moisture conditions, dust emissions, flood hazards, and erodibility, among other applications.

  16. Surficial Geology of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, Dwight Raymond

    1969-01-01

    Much of the ground surface around Mount Rainier volcano is directly underlain by loose geologic deposits that veneer the hard rock formations. Examples of these deposits are sand and gravel bars along the rivers, ridges of loose rock debris beside the glaciers, and sloping aprons of rock fragments beneath almost every cliff. Even though they are generally thin and inconspicuous when compared with the rock formations, these surficial deposits are clues to geologic events that have profoundly influenced the shape of the park's landscape. Thus, from the character and extent of glacial deposits one can judge the age and size of former glaciers that carved the cirques and deep canyons of the park; from the mudflows which streamed down nearly every valley one can infer the age and size of huge landslides of the past that helped determine Mount Rainier's present shape; and from the pumice deposits some of the volcano's recent eruptive activity can be reconstructed. The map (plate 1, in pocket) that accompanies this description of the surficial deposits of Mount Rainier National Park shows the location of the various geologic formations, and the explanation shows the formations arranged in order of their relative age, with the oldest at the bottom. The text describes the surficial deposits in sequence from older to younger. A discussion of the pumice deposits of the park, which were not mapped, is followed by a description of the formations shown on the geologic map. Inspection of the geologic map may lead the viewer to question why the surficial deposits are shown in more detail in a zone several miles wide around the base of the volcano than elsewhere. This is partly because the zone is largely near or above timberline, relatively accessible, and the surficial deposits there can be readily recognized, differentiated, and mapped. In contrast, access is more difficult in the heavily timbered parts of the park, and surficial deposits there are generally blanketed by a dense

  17. Developing Methods For Linking Surficial Aquifers With Localized Rainfall Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrenz, W. B.; van Gaalen, J. F.

    2008-12-01

    Water level hydrographs of the surficial aquifer can be evaluated to identify both the cause and consequence of water supply development. Rainfall, as a source of direct recharge and as a source of delayed or compounded recharge, is often the largest influence on surficial aquifer water level responses. It is clear that proximity of the rain gauge to the observation well is a factor in the degree of correlation, but in central Florida, USA, rainfall patterns change seasonally, with latitude, and with distance from the coast . Thus, for a location in central Florida, correlation of rain events with observed hydrograph responses depends on both distance and direction from an observation well to a rain gauge. In this study, we examine the use of extreme value analysis as a method of selecting the best rainfall data set for describing a given surficial aquifer monitor well. A surficial aquifer monitor well with a substantial suite of data is compared to a series of rainfall data sets from gauges ranging from meters to tens of kilometers in distance from the monitor well. The gauges vary in a wide range of directions from the monitor well in an attempt to identify both a method for rainfall gauge selection to be associated with the monitor well. Each rainfall gauge is described by a correlation coefficient with respect to the surficial aquifer water level data.

  18. Time-of-day-dependent global distribution of lunar surficial water/hydroxyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhler, Christian; Grumpe, Arne; Berezhnoy, Alexey A; Shevchenko, Vladislav V

    2017-09-01

    A new set of time-of-day-dependent global maps of the lunar near-infrared water/hydroxyl (H 2 O/OH) absorption band strength near 2.8 to 3.0 μm constructed on the basis of Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M 3 ) data is presented. The analyzed absorption band near 2.8 to 3.0 μm indicates the presence of surficial H 2 O/OH. To remove the thermal emission component from the M 3 reflectance spectra, a reliable and physically realistic mapping method has been developed. Our maps show that lunar highlands at high latitudes show a stronger H 2 O/OH absorption band in the lunar morning and evening than at midday. The amplitude of these time-of-day-dependent variations decreases with decreasing latitude of the highland regions, where below about 30°, absorption strength becomes nearly constant during the lunar day at a similar level as in the high-latitude highlands at midday. The lunar maria exhibit weaker H 2 O/OH absorption than the highlands at all, but showing a smaller difference from highlands absorption levels in the morning and evening than at midday. The level around midday is generally higher for low-Ti than for high-Ti mare surfaces, where it reaches near-zero values. Our observations contrast with previous studies that indicate a significant concentration of surficial H 2 O/OH at high latitudes only. Furthermore, although our results generally support the commonly accepted mechanism of H 2 O/OH formation by adsorption of solar wind protons, they suggest the presence of a more strongly bounded surficial H 2 O/OH component in the lunar highlands and parts of the mare regions, which is not removed by processes such as diffusion/thermal evaporation and photolysis in the course of the lunar day.

  19. Relativistic theory of surficial Love numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Philippe; Poisson, Eric

    2014-06-01

    A relativistic theory of surficial Love numbers, which characterize the surface deformation of a body subjected to tidal forces, was initiated by Damour and Nagar. We revisit this effort in order to extend it, clarify some of its aspects, and simplify its computational implementation. First, we refine the definition of surficial Love numbers proposed by Damour and Nagar and formulate it directly in terms of the deformed curvature of the body's surface, a meaningful geometrical quantity. Second, we develop a unified theory of surficial Love numbers that applies equally well to material bodies and black holes. Third, we derive a compactness-dependent relation between the surficial and (electric-type) gravitational Love numbers of a perfect-fluid body and show that it reduces to the familiar Newtonian relation when the compactness is small. And fourth, we simplify the tasks associated with the practical computation of the surficial and gravitational Love numbers for a material body.

  20. Surficial uranium deposits in Somalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briot, P.

    1984-01-01

    Surficial uranium deposits in Somalia are of the valley-fill calcrete type and occur in the arid Mudugh Province of the Dusa Mareb-El Bur region. They are located in a belt about 240 km in length which is orientated parallel to the north-south regional tectonic framework. The uranium resources of the region amount to about 5,000 t U 3 O 8 at an average grade of 0.1% U 3 O 8 . Basement rocks constitute a 7,000 m thick succession of Jurassic to Quaternary sediments of the Somalian Basin. Uranium mineralization in the form of carnotite occurs in the uppermost Mercia Series. The origin of the uranium and vanadium is unclear due to a shortage of the favourable source rocks. (author)

  1. Geology, Surficial, Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Geomorphology - DRG �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, shallow aquifers and confining units; shape file with geomorphic map units interpreted from, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2006. Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Geomorphology - DRG �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain...

  2. Lithology and surficial sediment distribution: northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, S.M.; Laine, E.P.; Friedrich, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    Surficial sediments of the LLWODP study area E-N3 have several common characteristics and a few anomalous features. All of the 26 surficial samples examined are Holocene in age. In E-N3, the Holocene sequence ranges from 12-90 cm. The sequence is composed primarily of brown foraminiferal lutite. The lutites show evidence of burrowing by benthic animals in the form of burrows infilled with sediment of a different color. Below the bioturbated lutites is a dark brown, iron-enriched horizon stratigraphically near (within a few centimeters of) the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary. The vertical extent of this unit, which ranges from 2-22 cm, varies systematically within the study area. The maximum thickness is found in a region most removed from the terrigenous sediment entry points. Fine-grained turbidity currents, an abyssal current, and a debris flow created the uncommon features of the surficial sediments. The areal extent of these deposits is estimated as 10% of the E-N3 region below 5300 m. The largest turbidite is probably greater than 2000 km 2 in extent. However, evidence of coarse-grained turbidity current activity in the Holocene is absent. Hemipelagic deposition during the Holocene has resulted in a texturally uniform sequence of surficial sediments. 22 references, 10 figures, 6 tables

  3. Deck41 Surficial Seafloor Sediment Description Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deck41 is a digital summary of surficial sediment composition for 36,401 seafloor samples worldwide. Data include collecting source, ship, cruise, sample id,...

  4. The global thermospheric mapping study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, W.L.; Salah, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Global Thermospheric Mapping Study (GTMS) is a multitechnique experimental pilot study of the Earth's thermosphere designed to map simultaneously its spatial and temporal morphology. This paper provides the background for the study and presents the analysis techniques employed at Millstone Hill and results to date on thermospheric structure and dynamics. The first latitudinal-temporal maps of exospheric temperature obtained from the incoherent scatter radar chain at 70W meridian are presented for the two solstice periods, revealing substantial seasonal differences between them. The observed structure shows a relatively depressed temperature at high latitude in summer in contrast to the mass spectrometer/incoherent scatter 1983 [MSIS-83] empirical model, which shows a maximum temperature at polar latitudes. The MSIS-83 model predictions are in good agreement with the observed latitudinal-temporal structure in winter. Comparison with the numerical predictions made for the June 26-28, 1984 period with the National Center for Atmospheric Research thermospheric general circulation model shows reasonable agreement in the latitudinal gradient but the observations indicate a cooler thermosphere by several hundred degrees. Neutral winds at mid-latitudes are presented showing the expected strong southward winds at night, which are found to be consistent with the temperature gradients observed in the latitudinal maps. There is good agreement in the June winds between the available numerical model calculations and the observations. Work performed elsewhere on the GTMS data base is summarized for completeness

  5. Geochemical investigation of Sasa tailings dam material and its influence on the Lake Kalimanci surficial sediments (Republic of Macedonia – preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vrhovnik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at investigating the mineralogical characteristics of the tailings material and heavy metal contents of the tailings material deposited close to the Sasa Pb-Zn Mine in the Osogovo Mountains (eastern Macedonia and on its possible impact on Lake Kalimanci. The mineral composition of Sasa Mine tailings materialis dominated by quartz, pyrite, galena, sphalerite, magnetite and others. Geochemical analysis was performed in a certified commercial laboratory for the following elements: Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, As, Cd, Sb, Bi, Ag, Al, Fe, Mn, S.Analysis revealed very high concentrations of toxic metals in the tailing material – with average values [ mg kg-1]:Mo 2.9, Cu 279, Pb 3975, Zn 5320, Ni 30, As 69, Cd 84, Sb 4.2, Bi 9.4 and Ag 4.1. The multi-element contamination of Sasa Mine tailings material was assigned a pollution index greater of 15, indicating that the tailings material from Sasa Mine contains very high amounts of toxic metals and represents a high environmental risk for surrounding ecosystems. For this reason the influence of discharged tailings dam material into Lake Kalimanci which liesapproximately 12 km lower than Sasa Mine, was also established. Calculated pollution index values for Lake Kalimancisediments vary from 21 to 65 and for Sasa mine surficial tailings dam material from 15 to 60.

  6. A comparative study of map use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Brodersen, Ann Christina; Bødker, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    We present a study comparing the handling of three kinds of maps, each on a physical device: a paper map, a tablet-PC based map, and a cellular phone based one. Six groups of users were asked to locate eight landmarks, looking out a window, and using a particular map. We have begun analyzing video...

  7. Uraniferous surficial deposits in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambleton-Jones, B.B.; Levin, M.; Wagener, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    Surficial uranium deposits are located in the north-western Cape Province of South Africa, in the Namib Desert east of Walvis Bay in South West Africa/Namibia and in the Serule Block of Botswana. They have been classified into the valley-fill, lacustrine, and pedogenic types. Carnotite is the main uranium-bearing mineral in the larger surficial deposits, with other minerals such as soddyite and phosphuranylite occurring locally. Uraninite or urano-organic complexes occur in the reducing environments of the diatomaceous earth, peat-rich deposits. Economically, the valley-fill type is the most important, with the largest deposits occurring in South West Africa/Namibia. In South West Africa/Namibia the valley-fill surficial uranium deposits occur in the Tumas and Langer Heinrich formations of the Teriary to Recent Namib Group. The Tubas, Langer Heinrich, and Welwitchia deposits are discussed: in them, carnotite occurs in calcareous and gypsiferous fluvial gravels. The pedogenic deposit at Mile 72 occurs in weathered granite and overlying gypcrete and has little economic potential. The economic potential of the surficial deposits in the north-western Cape Province is very limited in comparison with their South West African/Namibian counterparts, but the most important deposits are the lacustrine type, in particular those containing peat and diatomaceous earth. The mechanisms for the precipitation and preservation of the uranium are discussed

  8. International Journal of Humanistic Studies: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Humanistic Studies: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > International Journal of Humanistic Studies: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Mapping for Acute Transvenous Phrenic Nerve Stimulation Study (MAPS Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Lukas R C; Gerritse, Bart; Scheiner, Avram; Kornet, Lilian

    2017-03-01

    Central sleep apnea syndrome, correlated with the occurrence of heart failure, is characterized by periods of insufficient ventilation during sleep. This acute study in 15 patients aims to map the venous system and determine if diaphragmatic movement can be achieved by phrenic nerve stimulation at various locations within the venous system. Subjects underwent a scheduled catheter ablation procedure. During the procedural waiting time, one multielectrode electrophysiology catheter was subsequently placed at the superior and inferior vena cava and the junctions of the left jugular and left brachiocephalic vein and right jugular and right brachiocephalic vein, for phrenic nerve stimulation (1-2 seconds ON/2-3 seconds OFF, 40 Hz, pulse width 210 μs). Diaphragmatic movement was assessed manually and by a breathing mask. During a follow-up assessment between 2 and 4 weeks postprocedure, occurrence of adverse events was assessed. In all patients diaphragmatic movement was induced at one or more locations using a median threshold of at least 2 V and maximally 7.5 V (i.e., e 3.3 mA, 14.2 mA). The lowest median current to obtain diaphragmatic stimulation without discomfort was found for the right brachiocephalic vein (4.7 mA). In 12/15 patients diaphragmatic movement could be induced without any discomfort, but in three patients hiccups occurred. Diaphragmatic stimulation from the brachiocephalic and caval veins is feasible. Potential side effects should be eliminated by adapting the stimulation pattern. This information could be used to design a catheter, combining cardiac pacing with enhancing diaphragm movement during a sleep apnea episode. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effect of competing cations on strontium sorption to surficial sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunde, R.L.; Rosentreter, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The following study was conducted to determine strontium distribution coefficients (K d 'S) of a surficial sediment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine K d 's which describe the partitioning of a solute between the solution and solid phase. A surficial sediment was mixed with synthesized aqueous solutions designed to chemically simulate wastewater disposed to infiltrations ponds near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the INEL with respect to major ionic character and pH. The effects of variable concentrations of competing cations (sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium) on strontium sorption were investigated at a fixed pH of 8.00. The pH of the natural system shows no appreciable variation, whereas a marked variability in cation concentration has been noted. Strontium sorption was impacted to a greater degree by the concentration of calcium and magnesium in solution than by the presence of sodium or potassium. However, extreme sodium solution concentrations of 1.0 to 5.0 g/L dramatically reduced strontium sorption. In all cases, strontium K d 's decreased as the concentration of calcium and magnesium in solution increased. Linear isotherm model K d 's ranged from 12.0 to 84.7 mL/g. Analysis of data from these experiments indicated that moderate concentrations of calcium and magnesium (less than 40 mg/L) and high concentrations of sodium (1.0 to 5.0 g/L) in wastewater increase strontium mobility by decreasing the sorption of strontium on surficial sediments beneath infiltration ponds at the INEL

  11. Assessing Sea Level Rise Impacts on the Surficial Aquifer in the Kennedy Space Center Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, H.; Wang, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Medeiros, S. C.; Warnock, A. M.; Hall, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    Global sea level rise in the past century due to climate change has been seen at an average rate of approximately 1.7-2.2 mm per year, with an increasing rate over the next century. The increasing SLR rate poses a severe threat to the low-lying land surface and the shallow groundwater system in the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, resulting in saltwater intrusion and groundwater induced flooding. A three-dimensional groundwater flow and salinity transport model is implemented to investigate and evaluate the extent of floods due to rising water table as well as saltwater intrusion. The SEAWAT model is chosen to solve the variable-density groundwater flow and salinity transport governing equations and simulate the regional-scale spatial and temporal evolution of groundwater level and chloride concentration. The horizontal resolution of the model is 50 m, and the vertical domain includes both the Surficial Aquifer and the Floridan Aquifer. The numerical model is calibrated based on the observed hydraulic head and chloride concentration. The potential impacts of sea level rise on saltwater intrusion and groundwater induced flooding are assessed under various sea level rise scenarios. Based on the simulation results, the potential landward movement of saltwater and freshwater fringe is projected. The existing water supply wells are examined overlaid with the projected salinity distribution map. The projected Surficial Aquifer water tables are overlaid with data of high resolution land surface elevation, land use and land cover, and infrastructure to assess the potential impacts of sea level rise. This study provides useful tools for decision making on ecosystem management, water supply planning, and facility management.

  12. Thickness of surficial sediment at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.R.; Liszewski, M.J.; Ackerman, D.J.

    1996-06-01

    Thickness of surficial sediment was determined from natural-gamma logs in 333 wells at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in eastern Idaho to provide reconnaissance data for future site-characterization studies. Surficial sediment, which is defined as the unconsolidated clay, silt, sand, and gravel that overlie the uppermost basalt flow at each well, ranges in thickness from 0 feet in seven wells drilled through basalt outcrops east of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to 313 feet in well Site 14 southeast of the Big Lost River sinks. Surficial sediment includes alluvial, lacustrine, eolian, and colluvial deposits that generally accumulated during the past 200 thousand years. Additional thickness data, not included in this report, are available from numerous auger holes and foundation borings at and near most facilities

  13. Definition and classification of surficial uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.; Hambleton-Jones, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    Uraniferous surficial deposits may be broadly defined as uraniferous sediments or soils, usually of Tertiary to Recent age, that have not been subjected to deep burial and may or may not have been cemented to some degree. Evaluation of the available literature shows that confusion has arisen as to the use of the term ''calcrete'' when describing fluviatile sediments that have been calcified to a greater or lesser degree. It is felt that a useful purpose would be served by proposing a classification system which may go some way towards a redefinition of the applicable terminology. Unfortunately the terms ''calcrete'' or ''valley calcrete'' have been used to define Tertiary to Recent sediments ranging from boulder beds to silts which, in some Namibian examples, contain between 5 and 50% CaCO 3 and as much as 90% total carbonate in some Australian surficial uranium deposits. It is proposed that the detrital material constituting the sediments be prefixed with the terms calcareous, dolomitic, gypsiferous, halitiferous or ferruginous (e.g. calcareous grit) rather than the terms calcrete, dolocrete, gypcrete, and ferricrete, all of which have genetic connotations. The latter group of terms are preferably used for the pedogenic uranium deposits only. This will have the effect of placing these deposits in categories of their own and not confusing the issue with the overprint of pedogenic calcrete or duricrustal deposits which may or may not be present. This view is not shared by some authorities notably Butt and Carlisle (see this volume). (author)

  14. Surficial uranium deposits: summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otton, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Uranium occurs in a variety of surficial environments in calcretes, gypcretes, silcretes, dolocretes and in organic sediments. Groundwater moving on low gradients generates these formations and, under favourable circumstances, uranium deposits. A variety of geomorphic settings can be involved. Most surficial deposits are formed in desert, temperate wetland, tropical, or transitional environments. The largest deposits known are in sedimentary environments in arid lands. The deposits form largely by the interaction of ground or surface waters on the geomorphic surface in favourable geologic terrains and climates. The deposits are commonly in the condition of being formed or reconstituted, or being destroyed. Carnotite is common in desert deposits while in wetland deposits no uranium minerals may be seen. Radioactive disequilibrium is common, particularly in wetland deposits. Granites and related rocks are major source rocks and most large deposits are in regions with enriched uranium contents, i.e. significantly greater than 5 ppm uranium. Uranium dissolution and transport is usually under oxidizing conditions. Transport in desert conditions is usually as a bicarbonate. A variety of fixation mechanisms operate to extract the uranium and form the deposits. Physical barriers to groundwater flow may initiate ore deposition. Mining costs are likely to be low because of the near surface occurrence, but there may be processing difficulties as clay may be present and the saline or carbonate content may be high. (author)

  15. The genesis of surficial uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    Surficial uranium deposits can form in such diverse environments as calcareous-dolomitic-gypsiferous fluvial and aeolian valley sediments in hot arid and semi-arid regions, oxidizing and reducing alkaline and saline playas, highly organic and/or clay-rich wetland areas, calcareous regoliths in arid terranes, laterites, lake sediments, and highly fractured zones in igneous and metamorphic basement complexes. Formation of ore is governed by the interrelationships between source of ore-forming elements, mechanisms of migration, environment of deposition, climate, preservation, tectonic history and structural framework. The principal factors controlling mobilization of ore-forming elements from source to site of deposition are the availability of elements in source rocks, presence of complexing agents, climate, nature of source rock regolith and structure of source rock terrane. The major processes governing precipitation of uranium in the surficial environment are reduction mechanisms, sorption processes, dissociation of uranyl complexes, change in redox states of ore-forming constituents, evaporation of surface and groundwaters, change in partial pressure of dissolved carbon dioxide, changes in pH, colloidal precipitation, and mixing of two or more surface and groundwaters. One or a number of these processes may be actively involved in ore formation. (author)

  16. A 'more-than-representational' mapping study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    2018-01-01

    through a concrete mapping study of a suburban site of lived mobilities and mundane architectures. From this standpoint the paper elaborates three central attentions of mapping as a creative and reflected more-than-representational tool in urban design: the evocations of eventfulness of sites, intricate...

  17. PAH Baselines for Amazonic Surficial Sediments: A Case of Study in Guajará Bay and Guamá River (Northern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Camila Carneiro Dos Santos; Santos, Ewerton; Ramos, Brunalisa Silva; Damasceno, Flaviana Cardoso; Correa, José Augusto Martins

    2018-06-01

    The 16 priority PAH were determined in sediment samples from the insular zone of Guajará Bay and Guamá River (Southern Amazon River mouth). Low hydrocarbon levels were observed and naphthalene was the most representative PAH. The low molecular weight PAH represented 51% of the total PAH. Statistical analysis showed that the sampling sites are not significantly different. Source analysis by PAH ratios and principal component analysis revealed that PAH are primary from a few rate of fossil fuel combustion, mainly related to the local small community activity. All samples presented no biological stress or damage potencial according to the sediment quality guidelines. This study discuss baselines for PAH in surface sediments from Amazonic aquatic systems based on source determination by PAH ratios and principal component analysis, sediment quality guidelines and through comparison with previous studies data.

  18. Elevation of surficial sediment/basalt contact in the Subsurface Disposal Area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The elevation of the surficial sediment/basalt contact at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is presented to provide a data base for future remedial actions at this site. About 1,300 elevation data from published and unpublished reports, maps, and surveyors notes were compiled to generate maps and cross-sections of the surficial sediment/basalt contact. In general, an east to west trending depression exists in the south central portion of the SDA with basalt closer to land surface on the northern and southern boundaries of the SDA. The lowest elevation of the surficial sediment/basalt contact is 4,979 ft and the greatest is land surface at 5,012 ft. The median elevation of the sediment/basalt interface is 4,994 ft. The median depth to basalt in the SDA is 16 ft if land surface elevation is assumed to be 5,010 ft. The depth from land surface to the sediment/basalt interface ranges from 24 ft in the southeast corner of the SDA to less than 3 ft at the north-central boundary of the SDA

  19. Pentachlorophenol dechlorination with zero valent iron: a Raman and GCMS study of the complex role of surficial iron oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, Buddhika; Swedlund, Peter J; Singhal, Naresh; Nieuwoudt, Michel K

    2018-04-20

    The dechlorination of chlorinated organic pollutants by zero valent iron (ZVI) is an important water treatment process with a complex dependence on many variables. This complexity means that there are reported inconsistencies in terms of dechlorination with ZVI and the effect of ZVI acid treatment, which are significant and are as yet unexplained. This study aims to decipher some of this complexity by combining Raman spectroscopy with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the influence of the mineralogy of the iron oxide phases on the surface of ZVI on the reductive dechlorination of pentachlorophenol (PCP). Two electrolytic iron samples (ZVI-T and ZVI-H) were found to have quite different PCP dechlorination reactivity in batch reactors under anoxic conditions. Raman analysis of the "as-received" ZVI-T indicated the iron was mainly covered with the ferrous oxide (FeO) wustite, which is non-conducting and led to a low rate of PCP dechlorination. In contrast, the dominant oxide on the "as-received" ZVI-H was magnetite which is conducting and, compared to ZVI-T, the ZVI-H rate of PCP dechlorination was four times faster. Treating the ZVI-H sample with 1 N H 2 SO 4 made small change to the composition of the oxide layers and also minute change to the rate of PCP dechlorination. However, treating the ZVI-T sample with H 2 SO 4 led to the loss of wustite so that magnetite became the dominant oxide and the rate of PCP dechlorination increased to that of the ZVI-H material. In conclusion, this study clearly shows that iron oxide mineralogy can be a contributing factor to apparent inconsistencies in the literature related to ZVI performance towards dechlorination and the effect of acid treatment on ZVI reactivity.

  20. Acoustic structure and echo character of surficial sediments of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreery, C.J.; Laine, E.P.

    1986-05-01

    A study has been made of the high frequency acoustic response of abyssal plain depositional facies. Piston cores have been obtained at six stations and deep hydrophone recordings at three stations on the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain. 3.5 kHz seismic profiles indicate acoustically transparent lobes of surficial sediment which thicken towards the Hatteral Transverse Canyon and Sohm Gap/Wilmington Fan. Physical property data from piston cores indicate a higher percentage of coarse sediment in the areas of transparent acoustic response. Many of the characteristics normally used in mapping of conventional 3.5 kHz profiler acoustic response varied only slightly in the study area. Regions of diffuse 3.5 kHz surface echoes, similar to prolonged echoes attributed to high percent sand beds, have been identified in the study area. High trace to trace variation in deep hydrophone/pinger recordings in these areas suggests that the diffuse echo returns are due to unresolved microtopography and are not necessarily associated with a sandy seafloor

  1. Surficial geology map of the Great Heath, Washington County, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Cornelia Clermont; Mullen, Michael K.

    1983-01-01

    The major portion of the Great Heath, comprising 2,645 acres in the Cherryfield quadrangle, Washington County, Maine, generally averaging 13 feet in thickness, but with as great an average as 15 feet, contain an estimated 6,953 ,000 short tons air-dried peat. The peat #s chiefly sphagnum moss with some reed-sedge of high quality according to ASTM standards for agricultural and horticultural use. This same volume of peat may be considered for use as fuel because BTO per pound ranges from 8,600 to 10,500 with low sulfur and high hydrogen contents.

  2. Surficial geology and stratigraphy of Pleistocene Lake Manix, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, Marith C.; Redwine, Joanna R.; Wan, Elmira; McGeehin, John P.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2014-01-01

    Pluvial Lake Manix and its surrounding drainage basin, in the central Mojave Desert of California, has been a focus of paleoclimate, surficial processes, and neotectonic studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since about 2004. The USGS initiated studies of Lake Manix deposits to improve understanding of the paleoclimatic record and the shifts in atmospheric circulation that controlled precipitation in the Mojave Desert. Until approximately 25,000 years ago, Lake Manix was the terminus of the Mojave River, which drains northeasterly from the San Bernardino Mountains; the river currently terminates in the Soda Lake and Silver Lake playas. Pleistocene Lake Manix occupied several subbasins at its maximum extent. This map focuses on the extensive exposures created by incision of the Mojave River and its tributaries into the interbedded lacustrine and alluvial deposits within the central (Cady) and northeastern (Afton) subbasins of Lake Manix, and extends from the head of Afton Canyon to Manix Wash. The map illuminates the geomorphic development and depositional history of the lake and alluvial fans within the active tectonic setting of the eastern California shear zone, especially interactions with the left-lateral Manix fault. Lake Manix left an extraordinarily detailed but complex record of numerous transgressive-regressive sequences separated by desiccation and deposition of fan, eolian, and fluvial deposits, and punctuated by tectonic movements and a catastrophic flood that reconfigured the lake basin. Through careful observation of the intercalated lacustrine and fan sequences and by determining the precise elevations of unit contacts, this record was decoded to understand the response of the lake and river system to the interplay of climatic, geomorphic, and tectonic forces. These deposits are exposed in steep badland topography. Mapping was carried out mostly at scales of 1:12,000, although the map is presented at 1:24,000 scale, and employs custom unit

  3. Surficial geology and geomorphology of Potter County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, C.S.

    1956-01-01

    Potter County is located in the Appalachian Plateaus of north-central Pennsylvania and contains the headwaters of the Genesee River, the Allegheny River, and the Susquehanna River. Drift of Wisconsin age covers the northeastern part of the county. This study includes a detailed survev of the surficial deposits of the Genesee quadrangle in north-central Potter County and a reconnaissance of the remainder of the county; a soil survey and a botanical survey were carried on concurrently. The region is a deeply dissected plateau having extensive areas of steeply sloping land separated by narrow ridges and valleys; there is very little level land. Near the junction of the three watersheds the uplands rise to altitudes of more than 2,500 feet. The maximum relief in the Susquehanna drainage is more than 1,500 feet; in the Genesee and Allegheny drainage it. is about 800 feet. Valley walls are steep (15° to 30°), and the uplands have gentle slopes (0.5° to 10°). The drainage pattern is trellised. The climate is continental. Temperatures range from about -30° F. to more than 100° F. The average annual precipitation ranges approximately from 34 to 42 inches. Floods may occur at any season of the year. The large volumes of water from rain or melting snow carried by small streams come from springs. There is little precise data on frost in the ground, but it is probable that the ground seldom freezes in forested areas. The soils of Potter County have relatively immature profiles with poorly developed horizons that commonly have many characteristics inherited from their parent materials. At the great soil group level, the zonal soils are divided into Podzol soils and Brown Podzolic soils. Many soils have a high silt content in the upper part of the profile, apparently derived (at least partly) from a mantle of eolian silt. Mos~ of Potter County is covered by second-growth forests consisting of 40- to 60-year-old hardwood stands. The present forests growing on slopes and

  4. Surficial geology and hydrogeology of the Town Londonderry, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG08-2 De Simone, D., and Gale, M., 2008,�Surficial geology and hydrogeology of the Town Londonderry, Vermont: Vermont Geological Survey Open-File...

  5. Comparative study of fixation density maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelke, U.; Liu, H.; Wang, Junle; Callet, Le P.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.; Zepernick, H.-J.; Maeder, A.

    2013-01-01

    Fixation density maps (FDM) created from eye tracking experiments are widely used in image processing applications. The FDM are assumed to be reliable ground truths of human visual attention and as such, one expects a high similarity between FDM created in different laboratories. So far, no studies

  6. Investigation into the Origin and Character of Surficial Sedimentary Deposits at the Midshore Regional Solid Waste Facility near Easton, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, Joseph P.; Newell, Wayne L.; DeJong, Benjamin D.

    2009-01-01

    A temporary exposure at the Midshore Regional Solid Waste Facility near Easton, MD, provided an opportunity to document the characteristics of the complex assemblage of surficial facies in that area. This unusually large cross section allowed interpretation of the changing processes that shaped the landscape in response to climate change through the late Pleistocene. Eight stratigraphic units were recognized: (1) gray, fossiliferous, muddy silt of the marine Miocene Choptank Formation; (2) coarse, crossbedded conglomerate of the late Miocene to Pliocene fluvial Pensauken Formation; (3) bioturbated muddy conglomerate interpreted as deposits of small colluvial fans; (4) pebbly, quartzose sand overlying a planar erosional surface reflecting a marine transgression; (5) irregular pods and lenses of sand and gravel deformed into bowl-shaped folds and faulted, which are interpreted as wind deposits over a semipermanent snow cover (niveo-aeolian deposits); (6) crossbedded sand and conglomerate with abundant mud partings indicating tidal influences on sinuous stream channels; (7) heavily bioturbated silt and sand with abundant root casts and flattened vesicles interpreted as aeolian loess deposits in marshy fens; and (8) pebbly sand and mud with scattered boulders and cobbles that reflect modern infill of the excavation by the operators. Soils formed on units 3, 4, and 7. Superimposed on units 4, 5, and 7 is evidence of deep freezing and permafrost development and subsequent thermokarst development after thawing, which includes large, complexly filled wedge-shaped cracks, deformed bedding and faults, fluid-injection structures, and spherical blobs of sand and mud. Each of the stratigraphic units has irregular distributions and lateral changes. The results of this study provide a unique insight into the geometry of surficial deposits that will help facilitate mapping of units, interpretation of cored intervals, and understanding of ground-penetrating radar profiles. The

  7. Rapid coastal survey of anthropogenic radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds in surficial marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.; Noakes, S.E.; Dvoracek, D.K.; Culp, R.A.; Bush, P.B.

    1999-01-01

    A towed survey system, the GIMS/CS 3 , has been developed to enable the rapid measurement and mapping of a variety of physical and geochemical parameters in the surficial sediments of aquatic environments while the survey vessel is underway. With its capability for measuring radiometric, elemental and organic compound constituents of sediments, as well as bathymetry and water quality parameters, the GIMS/CS 3 provides a cost-effective means of performing reconnaissance determinations of contaminant distributions and environmental monitoring tasks over broad geographic regions

  8. Uranium in surficial deposits and waters at Palmottu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, L.; Blomqvist, R.; Ervanne, H.; Suksi, J.; Jaakkola, T.

    1994-01-01

    Occurrence of uranium in surficial formations in the vicinity of an underground U deposit was studied. Several water samples from the Lake Palmottu and nearby springs, three lake sediment cores and three peat cores were collected for the study. Uranium concentrations in the water samples varied from 1.4 to 6.9 mBq/l, reflecting the average concentration of near-surface waters in Finland. In some samples, however, the 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio and water chemistry suggest a partial mixing with deeper groundwaters. In the lake sediments, uranium concentrations increases from 53 Bq/kg in surface layer to five fold in the bottom layers deposited 9000 years ago. In peat cores large variations in uranium concentrations can be observed: from tens of Bq/kg to over 20 kBq/kg of peat ash. The large variation also in the 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio, from 0.79 to l.91, tends to indicate uranium migration to the peat from more than one uranium source. (orig.) (19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.)

  9. Ground-water availability from surficial aquifers in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppe, Thomas H.C.

    2005-01-01

    Population growth and commercial and industrial development in the Red River of the North Basin in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota have prompted the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior, to evaluate sources of water to sustain this growth. Nine surficial-glacial (surficial) aquifers (Buffalo, Middle River, Two Rivers, Beach Ridges, Pelican River, Otter Tail, Wadena, Pineland Sands, and Bemidji-Bagley) within the Minnesota part of the basin were identified and evaluated for their ground-water resources. Information was compiled and summarized from published studies to evaluate the availability of ground water. Published information reviewed for each of the aquifers included location and extent, physical characteristics, hydraulic properties, ground-water and surface-water interactions, estimates of water budgets (sources of recharge and discharge) and aquifer storage, theoretical well yields and actual ground-water pumping data, recent (2003) ground-water use data, and baseline ground-water-quality data.

  10. Geologic Interpretation of Data Sets Collected by Planetary Analog Geology Traverses and by Standard Geologic Field Mapping. Part 1; A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Bleacher, Jacob F.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Feng, Wanda; Gruener, John; Hurwitz, Debra M.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Whitson, Peggy; Janoiko, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Geologic maps integrate the distributions, contacts, and compositions of rock and sediment bodies as a means to interpret local to regional formative histories. Applying terrestrial mapping techniques to other planets is challenging because data is collected primarily by orbiting instruments, with infrequent, spatiallylimited in situ human and robotic exploration. Although geologic maps developed using remote data sets and limited "Apollo-style" field access likely contain inaccuracies, the magnitude, type, and occurrence of these are only marginally understood. This project evaluates the interpretative and cartographic accuracy of both field- and remote-based mapping approaches by comparing two 1:24,000 scale geologic maps of the San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF), north-central Arizona. The first map is based on traditional field mapping techniques, while the second is based on remote data sets, augmented with limited field observations collected during NASA Desert Research & Technology Studies (RATS) 2010 exercises. The RATS mission used Apollo-style methods not only for pre-mission traverse planning but also to conduct geologic sampling as part of science operation tests. Cross-comparison demonstrates that the Apollo-style map identifies many of the same rock units and determines a similar broad history as the field-based map. However, field mapping techniques allow markedly improved discrimination of map units, particularly unconsolidated surficial deposits, and recognize a more complex eruptive history than was possible using Apollo-style data. Further, the distribution of unconsolidated surface units was more obvious in the remote sensing data to the field team after conducting the fieldwork. The study raises questions about the most effective approach to balancing mission costs with the rate of knowledge capture, suggesting that there is an inflection point in the "knowledge capture curve" beyond which additional resource investment yields progressively

  11. Petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of surficial uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, M.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the petrology, mineralogy, and geochemistry of surficial uranium ore deposits is important for developing prospecting and evaluation strategies. Carnotite is the main uranium mineral and is found in those deposits that have the greatest potential uranium resources. The following uranium-bearing minerals have been reported to occur in surficial deposits: carnotite, tyuyamunite, soddyite, weeksite, haiweeite, uranophane, betauranophane, metaankoleite, torbernite, autunite, phosphuranylite, schroeckingerite, Pb-V-U hydroxide (unnamed mineral), uraninite and organourano complexes. The interrelationships between some of the minerals of the host rocks (especially the clays) are not well understood. (author)

  12. Latest Pleistocene and Holocene surficial deposits and landforms of Yosemite Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, E. K.; Stock, G. M.; Booth, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    Field studies on the surficial geology and geomorphology of Yosemite Valley since the 1870's formed an early basis for our understanding of Quaternary landscape evolution in the central Sierra Nevada. These landmark studies described the erosional origin of Yosemite's iconic scenery, but left details of the latest Pleistocene and Holocene sedimentary record for later investigation. We combined mapping of deposits and landforms with geochronology to reconstruct the geomorphic evolution of Yosemite Valley since the 15 ka retreat of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) valley glacier. We document a sustained period of relative landscape stability, characterized by valley-bottom aggradation of glacial till, fluvial sediments, and lacustrine silts, as well as valley-margin accumulation of talus and fan alluvium. Recessional moraines, episodically emplaced rock avalanches, and alluvial fans impeded surface flow and controlled the local base level. This predominantly aggradational regime then shifted to incision in the earliest Holocene, likely due to a diminishing supply of glacial sediment, and created a flight of fluvial terraces inset by up to 9 m. The volume of fringing talus and fan alluvium in comparison with fluvial terrace sequences emphasizes the importance of valley-wall erosion as a sediment source. Cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages from rock avalanche boulders and 14C charcoal ages from deltaic sequences and inset fluvial gravels suggest variable rates of Holocene river incision. Although some incision events likely record local base level changes at the El Capitan LGM recessional moraine, the presence of perched, well-developed outwash terraces downstream indicates a more regional climatic forcing. These findings, including the depositional record of land-use disturbances over the past two centuries, help illuminate the geologic evolution of this celebrated landscape and inform ongoing river-restoration work.

  13. a Model Study of Small-Scale World Map Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Yin, Y.; Li, C. M.; Wu, W.; Guo, P. P.; Ma, X. L.; Hu, F. M.

    2018-04-01

    With the globalization and rapid development every filed is taking an increasing interest in physical geography and human economics. There is a surging demand for small scale world map in large formats all over the world. Further study of automated mapping technology, especially the realization of small scale production on a large scale global map, is the key of the cartographic field need to solve. In light of this, this paper adopts the improved model (with the map and data separated) in the field of the mapmaking generalization, which can separate geographic data from mapping data from maps, mainly including cross-platform symbols and automatic map-making knowledge engine. With respect to the cross-platform symbol library, the symbol and the physical symbol in the geographic information are configured at all scale levels. With respect to automatic map-making knowledge engine consists 97 types, 1086 subtypes, 21845 basic algorithm and over 2500 relevant functional modules.In order to evaluate the accuracy and visual effect of our model towards topographic maps and thematic maps, we take the world map generalization in small scale as an example. After mapping generalization process, combining and simplifying the scattered islands make the map more explicit at 1 : 2.1 billion scale, and the map features more complete and accurate. Not only it enhance the map generalization of various scales significantly, but achieve the integration among map-makings of various scales, suggesting that this model provide a reference in cartographic generalization for various scales.

  14. Seismicity map tools for earthquake studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucouvalas, Anthony; Kaskebes, Athanasios; Tselikas, Nikos

    2014-05-01

    We report on the development of new and online set of tools for use within Google Maps, for earthquake research. We demonstrate this server based and online platform (developped with PHP, Javascript, MySQL) with the new tools using a database system with earthquake data. The platform allows us to carry out statistical and deterministic analysis on earthquake data use of Google Maps and plot various seismicity graphs. The tool box has been extended to draw on the map line segments, multiple straight lines horizontally and vertically as well as multiple circles, including geodesic lines. The application is demonstrated using localized seismic data from the geographic region of Greece as well as other global earthquake data. The application also offers regional segmentation (NxN) which allows the studying earthquake clustering, and earthquake cluster shift within the segments in space. The platform offers many filters such for plotting selected magnitude ranges or time periods. The plotting facility allows statistically based plots such as cumulative earthquake magnitude plots and earthquake magnitude histograms, calculation of 'b' etc. What is novel for the platform is the additional deterministic tools. Using the newly developed horizontal and vertical line and circle tools we have studied the spatial distribution trends of many earthquakes and we here show for the first time the link between Fibonacci Numbers and spatiotemporal location of some earthquakes. The new tools are valuable for examining visualizing trends in earthquake research as it allows calculation of statistics as well as deterministic precursors. We plan to show many new results based on our newly developed platform.

  15. Surficial geology and shaded seafloor relief of Georges Bank, Fundian Channel and Northeast Channel, Gulf of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, B.J.; Valentine, Page C.

    2015-01-01

    Georges Bank is a shallow submarine bank that lies south of Nova Scotia and east of Cape Cod and bounds the seaward side of the Gulf of Maine. The international boundary between Canada and the United States transects the bank, and the eastern part of the bank (~7500 square kilometres) lies in Canadian territory. This map shows the surficial geology of a part of Georges Bank at a scale of 1:50 000. This map has companion topographic and backscatter strength maps. These companion maps provide a basis for interpreting the origin of seafloor features and the nature of materials that form the seafloor. The maps are based on multibeam-sonar surveys conducted in 1999 and 2000 to map 11,965 square kilometres of the seafloor.

  16. Smoky River coal flood risk mapping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    The Canada-Alberta Flood Damage Reduction Program (FDRP) is designed to reduce flood damage by identifying areas susceptible to flooding and by encouraging application of suitable land use planning, zoning, and flood preparedness and proofing. The purpose of this study is to define flood risk and floodway limits along the Smoky River near the former Smoky River Coal (SRC) plant. Alberta Energy has been responsible for the site since the mine and plant closed in 2000. The study describes flooding history, available data, features of the river and valley, calculation of flood levels, and floodway determination, and includes flood risk maps. The HEC-RAS program is used for the calculations. The flood risk area was calculated using the 1:100 year return period flood as the hydrological event. 7 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs., 3 apps.

  17. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    /Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...... section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation...... technology research as a subdiscipline of TS, and we define and discuss some basic concepts and models of the field that we use in the rest of the paper. Based on a small-scale study of papers published in TS journals between 2006 and 2016, Section 3 attempts to map relevant developments of translation...

  18. Strategy Maps in University Management: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuangmiao; Zhong, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the conceptual use of the strategy map approach and the strategy map which it produces have been adapted from the business sector and introduced as tools for achieving more effective strategic planning and management in higher education institutions (HEIs). This study discusses the development of strategy maps as transformational…

  19. Shaded seafloor relief, backscatter strength, and surficial geology; German Bank, Scotian Shelf, offshore Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, B.J.; Valentine, Page C.

    2010-01-01

    This map is part of a three-map series of German Bank, located on the Scotian Shelf off southern Nova Scotia.  This map is the product of a number of surveys (1997-2003) that used a multibeam sonar system to map 5321 km2 of the seafloor.  Other surveys collected geological data for scientific interpretation.  This map sheet shows the seafloor topography of German Bank in shaded-relief view and seafloor depth (coded by colour) at a scale of 1:1000,000.  Topographic contours generated from the multibeam data are shown (in white) on the colour-coded multibeam topography at a depth interval of 20 m.  Bathymetic contours (in blue) outside the multibeam survey area, presented at a depth interval of 10 m, are from the Natural Resource Map series (Canadian Hydrographic Service, 1967, 1971a, 1971b, 1972). Sheet 2 shows coloured backscatter strength in shaded-relief view.  Sheet 3 shows seafloor topography in shaded-relief view with colour-coded surficial geological units.

  20. Case studies: Soil mapping using multiple methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hauke; Wunderlich, Tina; Hagrey, Said A. Al; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Stümpel, Harald

    2010-05-01

    Soil is a non-renewable resource with fundamental functions like filtering (e.g. water), storing (e.g. carbon), transforming (e.g. nutrients) and buffering (e.g. contamination). Degradation of soils is meanwhile not only to scientists a well known fact, also decision makers in politics have accepted this as a serious problem for several environmental aspects. National and international authorities have already worked out preservation and restoration strategies for soil degradation, though it is still work of active research how to put these strategies into real practice. But common to all strategies the description of soil state and dynamics is required as a base step. This includes collecting information from soils with methods ranging from direct soil sampling to remote applications. In an intermediate scale mobile geophysical methods are applied with the advantage of fast working progress but disadvantage of site specific calibration and interpretation issues. In the framework of the iSOIL project we present here some case studies for soil mapping performed using multiple geophysical methods. We will present examples of combined field measurements with EMI-, GPR-, magnetic and gammaspectrometric techniques carried out with the mobile multi-sensor-system of Kiel University (GER). Depending on soil type and actual environmental conditions, different methods show a different quality of information. With application of diverse methods we want to figure out, which methods or combination of methods will give the most reliable information concerning soil state and properties. To investigate the influence of varying material we performed mapping campaigns on field sites with sandy, loamy and loessy soils. Classification of measured or derived attributes show not only the lateral variability but also gives hints to a variation in the vertical distribution of soil material. For all soils of course soil water content can be a critical factor concerning a succesful

  1. Self-Mapping in Treating Suicide Ideation: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lloyd Hawkeye

    2011-01-01

    This case study traces the development and use of a self-mapping exercise in the treatment of a youth who had been at risk for re-attempting suicide. A life skills exercise was modified to identify units of culture called "memes" from which a map of the youth's self was prepared. A successful treatment plan followed the mapping exercise. The…

  2. Analyzing the Use of Concept Maps in Computer Science: A Systematic Mapping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Vinicius; de Souza, Érica F.; Felizardo, Katia R; Vijaykumar, Nandamudi L.

    2017-01-01

    Context: concept Maps (CMs) enable the creation of a schematic representation of a domain knowledge. For this reason, CMs have been applied in different research areas, including Computer Science. Objective: the objective of this paper is to present the results of a systematic mapping study conducted to collect and evaluate existing research on…

  3. Potential effects of deepening the St. Johns River navigation channel on saltwater intrusion in the surficial aquifer system, Jacksonville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellino, Jason C.; Spechler, Rick M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has proposed dredging a 13-mile reach of the St. Johns River navigation channel in Jacksonville, Florida, deepening it to depths between 50 and 54 feet below North American Vertical Datum of 1988. The dredging operation will remove about 10 feet of sediments from the surficial aquifer system, including limestone in some locations. The limestone unit, which is in the lowermost part of the surficial aquifer system, supplies water to domestic wells in the Jacksonville area. Because of density-driven hydrodynamics of the St. Johns River, saline water from the Atlantic Ocean travels upstream as a saltwater “wedge” along the bottom of the channel, where the limestone is most likely to be exposed by the proposed dredging. A study was conducted to determine the potential effects of navigation channel deepening in the St. Johns River on salinity in the adjacent surficial aquifer system. Simulations were performed with each of four cross-sectional, variable-density groundwater-flow models, developed using SEAWAT, to simulate hypothetical changes in salinity in the surficial aquifer system as a result of dredging. The cross-sectional models were designed to incorporate a range of hydrogeologic conceptualizations to estimate the effect of uncertainty in hydrogeologic properties. The cross-sectional models developed in this study do not necessarily simulate actual projected conditions; instead, the models were used to examine the potential effects of deepening the navigation channel on saltwater intrusion in the surficial aquifer system under a range of plausible hypothetical conditions. Simulated results for modeled conditions indicate that dredging will have little to no effect on salinity variations in areas upstream of currently proposed dredging activities. Results also indicate little to no effect in any part of the surficial aquifer system along the cross section near River Mile 11 or in the water-table unit along the cross

  4. Uranium occurrences in the surficial deposits of Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambleton-Jones, B.B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper outlines the geology of the Tertiary to Recent(10 to 0,1 Ma) surficial uranium deposits in South West Africa/Namibia and South Africa. They occur mainly in the Namib Desert to the east of Walvis Bay in South West Africa/Namibia and in the north-western Cape Province of South Africa. All the deposits can be classified as fluviatile, lacustrine/pan, or pedogenic types. The economic potential of the surficial uranium deposits in the north-western Cape is insignificant compared with their South West African/Namibian counterparts. Most of the deposits occur in gypsiferous fluviatile gravels and lacustrine/pan sediments. The largest of the deposits is a lacustrinal, peat-rich, diatomaceous earth type. The mechanisms for the precipitation of the uranium are discussed

  5. Surficial geology and benthic habitat of the German Bank seabed, Scotian Shelf, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brian J.; Kostylev, Vladimir E.

    2011-01-01

    To provide the scientific context for management of a newly opened scallop fishing ground, surficial geology and benthic habitats were mapped on German Bank on the southern Scotian Shelf off Atlantic Canada. To provide a seamless regional dataset, multibeam sonar surveys covered 5320 sqaure kilometres of the bank in water depths of 30–250 m and provided 5 m horizontal resolution bathymetry and backscatter strength. Geoscience data included high-resolution geophysical profiles (seismic reflection and sidescan sonar) and seabed sediment samples. Geological interpretation and is overlain in places by glacial and postglacial sediment. Biological data included seafloor video transects and photographs from which 127 taxa of visible megabenthos were identified. Trawl bycatch data were obtained from government annual research surveys. Statistical analysis of revealed that bedrock is exposed at the seafloor on much of German Bankthese two datasets and a suite of oceanographic environmental variables demonstrated that significantly different fauna exist on bedrock, glacial sediment and postglacial sediment.

  6. Multiple-scale hydraulic characterization of a surficial clayey aquitard overlying a regional aquifer in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Steven W.; Cherry, John A.; Parker, Beth L.

    2018-03-01

    The vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) of a 30-m thick surficial clayey aquitard overlying a regional aquifer at an industrial site in the Mississippi River Valley in Louisiana was investigated via intensive hydraulic characterization using high resolution vertical hydraulic head profiles with temporal monitoring and laboratory tests. A study area was instrumented with a semi-circular array of piezometers at many depths in the aquitard at equal distance from a large capacity pumping well including replicate piezometers. Profiles showed negligible head differential to 20 m bgs, below which there was an abrupt change in vertical gradients over the lower 8-10 m of the aquitard. Hydraulic characteristics are strongly associated with depositional environment; the upper zone of minimal head differentials with depth and minimal variation over time correlates with Paleo-Mississippi River backswamp deposits, while the lower zone with large head differentials and slow but moderate head changes correlates with lacustrine deposits. The lower zone restricts groundwater flow between the surface and underlying regional aquifer, which is hydraulically connected to the Mississippi River. Lab tests on lacustrine samples show low Kv (8 × 10-11-4 × 10-9 m/s) bracketing field estimates (6 × 10-10 m/s) from 1-D model fits to piezometric data in response to large aquifer head changes. The slow response indicates absence of through-going open fractures in the lacustrine unit, consistent with geotechnical properties (high plasticity, normal consolidation), suggesting high integrity that protects the underlying aquifer from surficial contamination. The lack of vertical gradients in the overlying backswamp unit indicates abundant secondary permeability features (e.g. fractures, rootholes) consistent with depositional and weathering conditions. 2-D stylized transient flow simulations including both units supports this interpretation. Other published reports on surficial aquitards in the

  7. The efficacy of the 'mind map' study technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, Paul; Hussain, Fearzana; Hennessy, Enid

    2002-05-01

    To examine the effectiveness of using the 'mind map' study technique to improve factual recall from written information. To obtain baseline data, subjects completed a short test based on a 600-word passage of text prior to being randomly allocated to form two groups: 'self-selected study technique' and 'mind map'. After a 30-minute interval the self-selected study technique group were exposed to the same passage of text previously seen and told to apply existing study techniques. Subjects in the mind map group were trained in the mind map technique and told to apply it to the passage of text. Recall was measured after an interfering task and a week later. Measures of motivation were taken. Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London. 50 second- and third-year medical students. Recall of factual material improved for both the mind map and self-selected study technique groups at immediate test compared with baseline. However this improvement was only robust after a week for those in the mind map group. At 1 week, the factual knowledge in the mind map group was greater by 10% (adjusting for baseline) (95% CI -1% to 22%). However motivation for the technique used was lower in the mind map group; if motivation could have been made equal in the groups, the improvement with mind mapping would have been 15% (95% CI 3% to 27%). Mind maps provide an effective study technique when applied to written material. However before mind maps are generally adopted as a study technique, consideration has to be given towards ways of improving motivation amongst users.

  8. Geochemical mapping study of Panjang island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutisna; Sumardjo

    2010-01-01

    Impact of industrial and regional development are not only related to an improvement of socio-economic, but also to an environmental conservation and sustainable. This impact could be observed on a change of geochemical mapping before and after an operational of the industry. In the relation with a regional development and resources utilization, the geochemical mapping have been done in the aim to know a resources and an elemental distribution at Panjang island. In this research, ko-Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (k_0-INAA) have been applied in an elemental quantification on the geochemical mapping. Pencuplikan of geochemical sample have been carried out by using a grid systematic method with a sample density of about 10 sample per square kilometre involved 85 pencuplikan point. The geochemical sample of sediment and soil have been provided as a dry weight of 100 mesh. Internal quality control have done by using a number of Standard Reference Materials obtained from US. Geological Survey. Fifteen elements of Sc, Co, In, Rb, Mo, Ba, Ce, Nd, Eu, La, Yb, Th, U, lr and Hf contained in standard materials have been evaluated. The analysis result show that a relative standard deviation less than 11 %, except for Mo (13 %) and lr (26 %). Fourteen elements of Al, Br, Ca, Co, Eu, Fe, La, U, Na, Ce, Mn, As, Sc and Th have been mapped and presented in this paper. The major elements of Ca, Al and Fe, and minor elements of Mn, U and Sc are distributed at all region. The lanthanide elements of La, Ce and Eu have vary concentration and could be found at the middle to the north of the island. (author)

  9. Experimental study of steam condensation regime map for simplified spargers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Yoon, Y. J.; Song, C. H.; Park, C. K.; Kang, H. S.; Jun, H. K.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to produce a condensation regime map for single-hole and 4-hole steam spargers using GIRLS facility. The regime map for a single-hole sparger was derived using parameters such as the frequency and magnitude of the dynamic pressure. For 4-hole sparager, the regime map was derived using the trends of sound and dynamic pressure. Using the single-hole and 4-hole data, a steam jet condensation regime map was suggested with respect to pool temperature and steam mass flux

  10. A study of the usability of CGDI in health mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Sheng; Mioc, Darka; Xialoun, Yi

    , the development of CGDI has shown great potential in many fields like emergency management, public health, disaster relief, transportation, land information system. Our study is to use CGDI to support online mapping of infectious disease across New Brunswick and Maine and to identify the usability of CGDI...... disease information available to officials and public for better support of disease surveillance, we developed a data model for mapping, seamlessly integrating the spatial and health data across the New Brunswick and Maine border. Many factors such as map representation level, mapping variables, data...

  11. Experimental Simulations to Understand the Lunar and Martian Surficial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. Y. S.; Li, X.; Tang, H.; Li, Y.; Zeng, X.; Chang, R.; Li, S.; Zhang, S.; Jin, H.; Mo, B.; Li, R.; Yu, W.; Wang, S.

    2016-12-01

    In support with China's Lunar and Mars exploration programs and beyond, our center is dedicated to understand the surficial processes and environments of planetary bodies. Over the latest several years, we design, build and optimize experimental simulation facilities and utilize them to test hypotheses and evaluate affecting mechanisms under controlled conditions particularly relevant to the Moon and Mars. Among the fundamental questions to address, we emphasize on five major areas: (1) Micrometeorites bombardment simulation to evaluate the formation mechanisms of np-Fe0 which was found in lunar samples and the possible sources of Fe. (2) Solar wind implantation simulation to evaluate the alteration/amorphization/OH or H2O formation on the surface of target minerals or rocks. (3) Dusts mobility characteristics on the Moon and other planetary bodies by excitation different types of dust particles and measuring their movements. (4) Mars basaltic soil simulant development (e.g., Jining Martian Soil Simulant (JMSS-1)) and applications for scientific/engineering experiments. (5) Halogens (Cl and Br) and life essential elements (C, H, O, N, P, and S) distribution and speciation on Mars during surficial processes such as sedimentary- and photochemical- related processes. Depending on the variables of interest, the simulation systems provide flexibility to vary source of energy, temperature, pressure, and ambient gas composition in the reaction chambers. Also, simulation products can be observed or analyzed in-situ by various analyzer components inside the chamber, without interrupting the experimental conditions. In addition, behavior of elements and isotopes during certain surficial processes (e.g., evaporation, dissolution, etc.) can be theoretically predicted by our theoretical geochemistry group with thermodynamics-kinetics calculation and modeling, which supports experiment design and result interpretation.

  12. Distribution of surficial sediment in Long Island Sound and adjacent waters: Texture and total organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; Knebel, H.J.; Mlodzinska, Z.J.; Hastings, M.E.; Seekins, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    The surficial sediment distribution within Long Island Sound has been mapped and described using bottom samples, photography, and sidescan sonar, combined with information from the geologic literature. The distributions of sediment type and total organic carbon (TOC) reveal several broad trends that are largely related to the sea-floor geology, the bathymetry, and the effects of modern tidal- and wind-driven currents. Sediment types are most heterogeneous in bathymetrically complex and shallow nearshore areas; the heterogeneity diminishes and the texture fines with decreasing bottom-current energy. Lag deposits of gravel and gravelly sand dominate the surficial sediment texture in areas where bottom currents are the strongest (such as where tidal flow is constricted) and where glacial till crops out at the sea floor. Sand is the dominant sediment type in areas characterized by active sediment transport and in shallow areas affected by fine-grained winnowing. Silty sand and sand-silt-clay mark transitions within the basin from higher- to lower-energy environments, suggesting a diminished hydraulic ability to sort and transport sediment. Clayey silt and silty clay are the dominant sediment types accumulating in the central and western basins and in other areas characterized by long-term depositional environments. The amount of TOC in the sediments of Long Island Sound varies inversely with sediment grain size. Concentrations average more than 1.9% (dry weight) in clayey silt, but are less than 0.4% in sand. Generally, values for TOC increase both toward the west in the Sound and from the shallow margins to the deeper parts of the basin floor. Our data also suggest that TOC concentrations can vary seasonally.

  13. Hydrogeologic and Hydraulic Characterization of the Surficial Aquifer System, and Origin of High Salinity Groundwater, Palm Beach County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronald S.; Wacker, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of the hydrogeology of the surficial aquifer system in Palm Beach County, Florida, have focused mostly on the eastern one-half to one-third of the county in the more densely populated coastal areas. These studies have not placed the hydrogeology in a framework in which stratigraphic units in this complex aquifer system are defined and correlated between wells. Interest in the surficial aquifer system has increased because of population growth, westward expansion of urbanized areas, and increased utilization of surface-water resources in the central and western areas of the county. In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District, initiated an investigation to delineate the hydrogeologic framework of the surficial aquifer system in Palm Beach County, based on a lithostratigraphic framework, and to evaluate hydraulic properties and characteristics of units and permeable zones within this framework. A lithostratigraphic framework was delineated by correlating markers between all wells with data available based primarily on borehole natural gamma-ray geophysical log signatures and secondarily, lithologic characteristics. These correlation markers approximately correspond to important lithostratigraphic unit boundaries. Using the markers as guides to their boundaries, the surficial aquifer system was divided into three main permeable zones or subaquifers, which are designated, from shallowest to deepest, zones 1, 2, and 3. Zone 1 is above the Tamiami Formation in the Anastasia and Fort Thompson Formations. Zone 2 primarily is in the upper part or Pinecrest Sand Member of the Tamiami Formation, and zone 3 is in the Ochopee Limestone Member of the Tamiami Formation or its correlative equivalent. Differences in the lithologic character exist between these three zones, and these differences commonly include differences in the nature of the pore space. Zone 1 attains its greatest thickness (50 feet or more

  14. Aerial inventory of surficial geological effects induced by the recent Emilia earthquake (Italy: preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bertolini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the two main shocks that recently struck the central alluvial Po Plain (May 20, 2012, Ml 5.9, and May 29, 2012, Ml 5.8, a great number of surficial geologic disturbances appeared over a wide area (ca. 500 km2, which extended up to 20 km from the epicenters. The affected area includes Mirabello, San Carlo, Sant'Agostino (Province of Ferrara, San Felice, Cavezzo, Concordia (Modena, Moglia and Quistello (Mantova. Most of the surficial effects that were observed during this study were clearly induced (directly or indirectly by sand liquefaction phenomena, such as sand volcanoes, burst of water and sand from domestic wells, tension cracks, lateral spreading and associated deformation, graben-like fracturing, and sink-holes. Other effects can probably be ascribed simply to the shaking of the ground (e.g., small collapses of irrigation canal walls. Lastly, there were also some features of dubious origin, such as two 'yellow crop spots' that are cited here with reservations. All of these data were surveyed by means of a small airplane that was especially adapted for this purpose. The aim of this study was to furnish a wide-ranging image of the surface deformation over the whole area impacted by these recent earthquakes, as an instrument towards more exhaustive research, both at the scientific and technical levels (e.g., seismic microzonation. […

  15. Cyber-Physical Systems Security: a Systematic Mapping Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lun, Yuriy Zacchia; D'Innocenzo, Alessandro; Malavolta, Ivano; Di Benedetto, Maria Domenica

    2016-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems are integrations of computation, networking, and physical processes. Due to the tight cyber-physical coupling and to the potentially disrupting consequences of failures, security here is one of the primary concerns. Our systematic mapping study sheds some light on how security is actually addressed when dealing with cyber-physical systems. The provided systematic map of 118 selected studies is based on, for instance, application fields, various system components, relate...

  16. Preliminary geologic map of the late Cenozoic sediments of the western half of the Pasco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillie, J.T.; Tallman, A.M.; Caggiano, J.A.

    1978-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, through the Basalt Waste Isolation Program within the Rockwell Hanford Operations, is investigating the feasibility of terminal storage of radioactive waste in deep caverns constructed in Columbia River Basalt. This report represents a portion of the geological work conducted during fiscal year 1978 to assess the geological conditions in the Pasco Basin. The surficial geology of the western half of the Pasco Basin was studied and mapped in a reconnaissance fashion at a scale of 1:62,500. The map was produced through a compilation of existing geologic mapping publications and additional field data collected during the spring of 1978. The map was produced primarily to: (1) complement other mapping work currently being conducted in the Pasco Basin and in the region by Rockwell Hanford Operations and its subcontractors; and, (2) to provide a framework for more detailed late Cenozoic studies within the Pasco Basin. A description of procedures used to produce the surficial geologic map and geologic map units is summarized in this report

  17. Mineralogical correlation of surficial sediment from area drainages with selected sedimentary interbeds at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomay, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    Ongoing research by the US Geological Survey at the INEL involves investigation of the migration of radioactive elements contained in low-level radioactive waste, hydrologic and geologic factors affecting waste movement, and geochemical factors that influence the chemical composition of the waste. Identification of the mineralogy of the Snake River Plain is needed to aid in the study of the hydrology and geochemistry of subsurface waste disposal. The US Geological Surveys project office at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, used mineralogical data to correlate surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Greek drainages with selected sedimentary interbed core samples taken from test holes at the RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex), TRA (Test Reactors Area), ICPP (Idaho Chemical Processing Plant), and TAN (Test Area North). Correlating the mineralogy of a particular present-day drainage area with a particular sedimentary interbed provides information on historical source of sediment for interbeds in and near the INEL. Mineralogical data indicate that surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River drainage contained a larger amount of feldspar and pyroxene and a smaller amount of calcite and dolomite than samples from the Little Lost River and Birch Creek drainages. Mineralogical data from sedimentary interbeds at the RWMC, TRA, and ICPP correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day big Lost River drainage. Mineralogical data from a sedimentary interbed at TAN correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day Birch Creek drainage. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Mineralogical correlation of surficial sediment from area drainages with selected sedimentary interbeds at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    Ongoing research by the US Geological Survey at the INEL involves investigation of the migration of radioactive elements contained in low-level radioactive waste, hydrologic and geologic factors affecting waste movement, and geochemical factors that influence the chemical composition of the waste. Identification of the mineralogy of the Snake River Plain is needed to aid in the study of the hydrology and geochemistry of subsurface waste disposal. The US Geological Surveys project office at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, used mineralogical data to correlate surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Greek drainages with selected sedimentary interbed core samples taken from test holes at the RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex), TRA (Test Reactors Area), ICPP (Idaho Chemical Processing Plant), and TAN (Test Area North). Correlating the mineralogy of a particular present-day drainage area with a particular sedimentary interbed provides information on historical source of sediment for interbeds in and near the INEL. Mineralogical data indicate that surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River drainage contained a larger amount of feldspar and pyroxene and a smaller amount of calcite and dolomite than samples from the Little Lost River and Birch Creek drainages. Mineralogical data from sedimentary interbeds at the RWMC, TRA, and ICPP correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day big Lost River drainage. Mineralogical data from a sedimentary interbed at TAN correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day Birch Creek drainage. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Islands of biogeodiversity in arid lands on a polygons map study: Detecting scale invariance patterns from natural resources maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, J J; Pérez-Gómez, R; Brevik, Eric C; Cerdà, A

    2016-12-15

    Many maps (geology, hydrology, soil, vegetation, etc.) are created to inventory natural resources. Each of these resources is mapped using a unique set of criteria, including scales and taxonomies. Past research indicates that comparing results of related maps (e.g., soil and geology maps) may aid in identifying mapping deficiencies. Therefore, this study was undertaken in Almeria Province, Spain to (i) compare the underlying map structures of soil and vegetation maps and (ii) investigate if a vegetation map can provide useful soil information that was not shown on a soil map. Soil and vegetation maps were imported into ArcGIS 10.1 for spatial analysis, and results then exported to Microsoft Excel worksheets for statistical analyses to evaluate fits to linear and power law regression models. Vegetative units were grouped according to the driving forces that determined their presence or absence: (i) climatophilous (ii) lithologic-climate; and (iii) edaphophylous. The rank abundance plots for both the soil and vegetation maps conformed to Willis or Hollow Curves, meaning the underlying structures of both maps were the same. Edaphophylous map units, which represent 58.5% of the vegetation units in the study area, did not show a good correlation with the soil map. Further investigation revealed that 87% of the edaphohygrophilous units were found in ramblas, ephemeral riverbeds that are not typically classified and mapped as soils in modern systems, even though they meet the definition of soil given by the most commonly used and most modern soil taxonomic systems. Furthermore, these edaphophylous map units tend to be islands of biodiversity that are threatened by anthropogenic activity in the region. Therefore, this study revealed areas that need to be revisited and studied pedologically. The vegetation mapped in these areas and the soils that support it are key components of the earth's critical zone that must be studied, understood, and preserved. Copyright © 2016

  20. Presurgical mapping with functional MRI. Comparative study with transcranial magnetic stimulation and intraoperative mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminogo, Makio; Morikawa, Minoru; Ishimaru, Hideki; Ochi, Makoto; Onizuka, Masanori; Shirakawa, Yasushi; Takahashi, Haruki; Shibata, Shobu [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-05-01

    The thumb movement was evoked by transcranical magnetic stimulation (TCS) for the mapping of the motor cortex. After the placement of the marker determined by TCS on the scalp, fMRI under motor tasks consisting of repetitive grasping was performed. For motor cortex activation, an axial oblique plane to maximize gray matter sampling in the rolandic cortex was employed in order to compare these different mapping techniques more precisely. Sixteen patients with brain tumors were included in this study. In nine patients, fMRI disclosed activation in one restricted gyrus or in the localized area around one restricted sulcus. Of these nine patients, preoperative TCS mapping corresponded closely with fMRI in six, while in the remaining three, the TCS marker fell between 1 and 2 cm apart from the fMRI-activated area. However, in these three patients, intraoperative electrocortical stimulation corresponded with the preoperative mapping with fMRI. In six patients, contiguous two gyri were activated by motor tasks. The TCS marker was disclosed on one of the two activated gyri. Of these six patients, the position of the TCS marker and fMRI-activated site corresponded with each other in four cases. They were found on the same gyrus but there was 1.0-2.0 cm distance between them in two cases. Intraoperative somatosensory evoked potential was monitored in two of these six cases. They corresponded well with the mapping by fMRI and TCS together. In only one patient, no significant activation area was obtained by fMRI because of excessive head motion during motor tasks. The TCS maker in this patients was identical with intraoperative electro-cortical stimulation mapping. (K.H.)

  1. Presurgical mapping with functional MRI. Comparative study with transcranial magnetic stimulation and intraoperative mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminogo, Makio; Morikawa, Minoru; Ishimaru, Hideki; Ochi, Makoto; Onizuka, Masanori; Shirakawa, Yasushi; Takahashi, Haruki; Shibata, Shobu

    1999-01-01

    The thumb movement was evoked by transcranical magnetic stimulation (TCS) for the mapping of the motor cortex. After the placement of the marker determined by TCS on the scalp, fMRI under motor tasks consisting of repetitive grasping was performed. For motor cortex activation, an axial oblique plane to maximize gray matter sampling in the rolandic cortex was employed in order to compare these different mapping techniques more precisely. Sixteen patients with brain tumors were included in this study. In nine patients, fMRI disclosed activation in one restricted gyrus or in the localized area around one restricted sulcus. Of these nine patients, preoperative TCS mapping corresponded closely with fMRI in six, while in the remaining three, the TCS marker fell between 1 and 2 cm apart from the fMRI-activated area. However, in these three patients, intraoperative electrocortical stimulation corresponded with the preoperative mapping with fMRI. In six patients, contiguous two gyri were activated by motor tasks. The TCS marker was disclosed on one of the two activated gyri. Of these six patients, the position of the TCS marker and fMRI-activated site corresponded with each other in four cases. They were found on the same gyrus but there was 1.0-2.0 cm distance between them in two cases. Intraoperative somatosensory evoked potential was monitored in two of these six cases. They corresponded well with the mapping by fMRI and TCS together. In only one patient, no significant activation area was obtained by fMRI because of excessive head motion during motor tasks. The TCS maker in this patients was identical with intraoperative electro-cortical stimulation mapping. (K.H.)

  2. Mapping the Interdisciplinarity in Scientometric Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Khosrowjerdi

    2013-03-01

    The data was extracted from Web of Science (WoS. The results showed that scientometric studies were a part of interdisciplinary studies. Furthermore, the library and information science and computer science had major contribution to this field.

  3. Gamification in Education: A Systematic Mapping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicheva, Darina; Dichev, Christo; Agre, Gennady; Angelova, Galia

    2015-01-01

    While gamification is gaining ground in business, marketing, corporate management, and wellness initiatives, its application in education is still an emerging trend. This article presents a study of the published empirical research on the application of gamification to education. The study is limited to papers that discuss explicitly the effects…

  4. Geologic map of the Cochiti Dam quadrangle, Sandoval County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethier, David P.; Thompson, Ren A.; Hudson, Mark R.; Minor, Scott A.; Sawyer, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The Cochiti Dam quadrangle is located in the southern part of the Española Basin and contains sedimentary and volcanic deposits that record alluvial, colluvial, eolian, tectonic and volcanic processes over the past seventeen million years. The geology was mapped from 1997 to 1999 and modified in 2004 to 2008. The primary mapping responsibilities were as follows: Dethier mapped the surficial deposits, basin-fill sedimentary deposits, Miocene to Quaternary volcanic deposits of the Jemez volcanic field, and a preliminary version of fault distribution. Thompson and Hudson mapped the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic deposits of the Cerros del Rio volcanic field. Thompson, Minor, and Hudson mapped surface exposures of faults and Hudson conducted paleomagnetic studies for stratigraphic correlations. Thompson prepared the digital compilation of the geologic map.

  5. Study of the OCS6 Lattice Using Frequency Maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichel, Ina

    2007-01-01

    Frequency maps are employed to study the baseline damping ring lattice. The study is aimed at understanding the reduced dynamic aperture in the lattice with four short straight sections compared to the one with eight short straight sections. Measures to increase the dynamic aperture based on results of this study are suggested

  6. Surficial sediment character of the New York-New Jersey offshore continental shelf region: a GIS compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Arsenault, Matthew A.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Reid, Jane A.; Reid, Jamey M.; Jenkins, Chris J.

    2007-01-01

    ,500 stations within the U.S. EEZ. has been developed and populated with data as part of the USGS Marine Aggregate Resources and Processes and the National Benthic Habitats projects in order to provide the base-line data needed to update the current maps of offshore surficial geologic character and sediment distribution. The maps are also used to characterize benthic sea floor environments important for marine ecosystems. U.S. Geological Survey, Data Series 118 (Reid and others, 2005), of the usSEABED data release series, represents the combined efforts of the USGS and several other government agencies to provide a unified resource for accessing and preserving records of U.S. east coast sea floor geologic information and sediment texture data. For this present report, we have chosen to focus on the New York-New Jersey region, an area that has been intensely studied by the USGS for many years to address many complex issues. This report illustrates the uses of the usSEABED database for GIS applications, while offering additional insight into the resources and data available from the USGS and its collaborative institutions. This report is based on data contained in U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 118 (Reid and others, 2005) and shows an assortment of example GIS products that are possible using usSEABED. All data are intended to be GIS-ready and should not require any additional cleanup, formatting, or renaming of fields in order to use the data in a Geographic Information System. This project employs the Environmental Systems Research Institute's (ESRI) ArcView™ software. Many of these maps were made as part of the ongoing USGS study to assess marine aggregate resources offshore New York and New Jersey, but these maps can serve many other purposes. The marine science community, educators, students and others are encouraged to use these data to generate GIS products for their own purposes. The objectives of the Marine Aggregate Resources and Processes project are to produce a

  7. Geophysical techniques for reconnaissance investigations of soils and surficial deposits in mountainous terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, C.G.; Doolittle, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two techniques were assessed for their capabilities in reconnaissance studies of soil characteristics: depth to the water table and depth to bedrock beneath surficial deposits in mountainous terrain. Ground-penetrating radar had the best near-surface resolution in the upper 2 m of the profile and provided continuous interpretable imagery of soil profiles and bedrock surfaces. Where thick colluvium blankets side slopes, the GPR could not consistently define the bedrock interface. In areas with clayey or shaley sediments, the GPR is also more limited in defining depth and is less reliable. Seismic refraction proved useful in determining the elevation of the water table and depth to bedrock, regardless of thickness of overlying material, but could not distinguish soil-profile characteristics.-from Authors

  8. A systematic mapping study of process mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maita, Ana Rocío Cárdenas; Martins, Lucas Corrêa; López Paz, Carlos Ramón; Rafferty, Laura; Hung, Patrick C. K.; Peres, Sarajane Marques; Fantinato, Marcelo

    2018-05-01

    This study systematically assesses the process mining scenario from 2005 to 2014. The analysis of 705 papers evidenced 'discovery' (71%) as the main type of process mining addressed and 'categorical prediction' (25%) as the main mining task solved. The most applied traditional technique is the 'graph structure-based' ones (38%). Specifically concerning computational intelligence and machine learning techniques, we concluded that little relevance has been given to them. The most applied are 'evolutionary computation' (9%) and 'decision tree' (6%), respectively. Process mining challenges, such as balancing among robustness, simplicity, accuracy and generalization, could benefit from a larger use of such techniques.

  9. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation......Due to the growing uptake of translation technology in the language industry and its documented impact on the translation profession, translation students and scholars need in-depth and empirically founded knowledge of the nature and influences of translation technology (e.g. Christensen....../Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...

  10. Use of Technology-Assisted Techniques of Mind Mapping and Concept Mapping in Science Education: A Constructivist Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balim, Ali Günay

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the effects of using mind maps and concept maps on students' learning of concepts in science courses. A total of 51 students participated in this study which used a quasi-experimental research design with pre-test/post-test control groups. The constructivist-inspired study was carried out in the sixth-grade science…

  11. Ground-water quality of the surficial aquifer system and the upper Floridan Aquifer, Ocala National Forest and Lake County, Florida, 1990-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, J.C.; Knowles, Leel

    2001-01-01

    Data from 217 ground-water samples were statistically analyzed to assess the water quality of the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer in the Ocala National Forest and Lake County, Florida. Samples were collected from 49 wells tapping the surficial aquifer system, 141 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer, and from 27 springs that discharge water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. A total of 136 samples was collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1995 through 1999. These data were supplemented with 81 samples collected by the St. Johns River Water Management District and Lake County Water Resources Management from 1990 through 1998. In general, the surficial aquifer system has low concentrations of total dissolved solids (median was 41 milligrams per liter) and major ions. Water quality of the surficial aquifer system, however, is not homogeneous throughout the study area. Concentrations of total dissolved solids, many major ions, and nutrients are greater in samples from Lake County outside the Ocala National Forest than in samples from within the Forest. These results indicate that the surficial aquifer system in Lake County outside the Ocala National Forest probably is being affected by agricultural and (or) urban land-use practices. High concentrations of dissolved oxygen (less than 0.1 to 8.2 milligrams per liter) in the surficial aquifer system underlying the Ocala National Forest indicate that the aquifer is readily recharged by precipitation and is susceptible to surface contamination. Concentrations of total dissolved solids were significantly greater in the Upper Floridan aquifer (median was 182 milligrams per liter) than in the surficial aquifer system. In general, water quality of the Upper Floridan aquifer was homogeneous, primarily being a calcium or calciummagnesium- bicarbonate water type. Near the St. Johns River, the water type of the Upper Floridan aquifer is sodium-chloride, corresponding to an increase in total dissolved

  12. Surficial origin of North American pitchblende and related uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langford, F.F.

    1977-01-01

    The ubiquitous association of pitchblende uranium deposits with terrestrial sediments is believed to be the natural result of formation of the orebodies by surficial processes operating under continental conditions. The major uranium deposits of North America illustrate this. The quartz-pebble conglomerate uranium deposits of Elliot Lake, Ontario, have thorium-rich uranium minerals that indicate a detrital origin. With the development of an oxygenic atmosphere before 1,700 m.y. ago, uranium was transported in solution in meteoric surface and near-surface ground water, and produced pitchblende veins in fractures in the basement and in lava flows in terrestrial environments. This accounts for the closee association of fluvial sediments with the pitchblende deposits at Beaverlodge, Rabbit Lake, Baker Lake, and Great Bear Lake, Canada. The development of land plants about 300 m.y. ago produced favorable environments within the terrestrial sandstones themselves, and resulted in the tabular uranium orebodies of the Colorado Plateau. The close relation of tabular orebodies to sedimentation is apparent when compared to recent fluvial sedimentation. In Wyoming, the stratigraphic restriction of the boundary-roll deposits to a few zones in Eocene rocks results from their being remobilized tabular deposits

  13. Surficial uranium occurrences in relation to climate and physical setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlisle, D.

    1984-01-01

    Important surficial chemogenic uranium deposits develop within 1) calcretes, 2) simple evaporative environments and 3) bogs or similar organic environments (''young'' uranium). Calcrete occurrences are the largest, most novel and most dependent upon extreme aridity and geomorphic stability. Economic calcrete deposits are nonpedogenic, resulting from near-surface groundwater transport and lateral concentration of uranium, vanadium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium rather than from ordinary soil-forming processes. Their genesis is essentially observable in Western Australia where carnotite-bearing nonpedogenic calcrete is currently forming under a unique aridic soil moisture regime and where major deposits have formed under similar climates during the last few thousand years. Rainfall is less than 250mm annually, only 1/12 to 1/20 of potential evaporation and concentrated almost entirely in episodic late summer storms. Outside this region, under less arid conditions, only pedogenic calcretes form and they do not contain economic uranium. In southern Africa, calcrete and gypcrete uranium deposits, although Late Tertiary to Quaternary in age, are also nonpedogenic and appear to have formed under similar climatic constraints with local variations in geomorphology and calcrete morphology. (author)

  14. Porcine NAMPT gene: search for polymorphism, mapping and association studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čepica, Stanislav; Bartenschlager, H.; Óvilo, C.; Zrůstová, J.; Masopust, Martin; Fernández, A.; López, A.; Knoll, Aleš; Rohrer, G. A.; Snelling, W. M.; Geldermann, H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 6 (2010), s. 646-651 ISSN 0268-9146 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/07/0353 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : association study * carcass compositio * genetic mapping Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.203, year: 2010

  15. THE MAP OF ROMAN DACIA IN THE RECENT STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabo Csaba

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents the evolution of the cartographic representation of Roman Dacia in the recent studies of archaeology and ancient history, focusing especially on the lacunas and main problems of foreign (non – Romanian maps, appeared in the last decade in the international scholarship.

  16. Surficial geology of the Cabot 7 1/2 minute quadrangle, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG2016-3 Springston, G., 2016, Surficial geology of the Cabot 7 1/2 minute quadrangle, Vermont:�Vermont Geological Survey Open File Report...

  17. Modeling the Effects of Storm Surge from Hurricane Jeanne on Saltwater Intrusion into the Surficial Aquifer, East-Central Florida (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, H.; Wang, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Medeiros, S. C.; Hall, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    Saltwater intrusion (SWI) that has been widely recognized as a detrimental issue causing the deterioration of coastal aquifer water quality and degradation of coastal ecosystems. While it is widely recognized that SWI is exacerbated worldwide due to global sea-level rise, we show that increased SWI from tropical cyclones under climate change is also a concern. In the Cape Canaveral Barrier Island Complex (CCBIC) located in east-central Florida, the salinity level of the surficial aquifer is of great importance to maintain a bio-diverse ecosystem and to support the survival of various vegetation species. Climate change induced SWI into the surficial aquifer can lead to reduction of freshwater storage and alteration of the distribution and productivity of vegetation communities. In this study, a three-dimensional variable-density SEAWAT model is developed and calibrated to investigate the spatial and temporal variation of salinity level in the surficial aquifer of CCBIC. We link the SEAWAT model to surge model data to examine the effects of storm surge from Hurricane Jeanne. Simulation results indicate that the surficial aquifer salinity level increases significantly right after the occurrence of storm surge because of high aquifer permeability and rapid infiltration and diffusion of the overtopping saltwater, while the surficial aquifer salinity level begins to decrease after the fresh groundwater recharge from the storm's rainfall. The tropical storm precipitation generates an effective hydraulic barrier further impeding SWI and providing seaward freshwater discharge for saltwater dilution and flushing. To counteract the catastrophic effects of storm surge, this natural remediation process may take at least 15-20 years or even several decades. These simulation results contribute to ongoing research focusing on forecasting regional vegetation community responses to climate change, and are expected to provide a useful reference for climate change adaptation planning

  18. GIS-study and new Geomorphologic Mapping of Phobos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokhanov, Alexander; Lorenz, Cyrill; Karachevtseva, Irina

    2016-04-01

    Using raw images and processed orthoimages, obtained from "Mars Express", we have created a new GIS-catalog of grooves. During analysis, new grooves, not identified in earlier mapping attempts, were detected. For craters study the previously created catalog of craters with D >200 m [1] was used. The spatial orientation of individual grooves was estimated, which allows us to group them into several sets. All grooves in the catalog were divided into three morphological types: gutters (simple line depressions), chains of contiguous funnels, chains of noncontigual funnels. Studying craters we paid attention to its inner and outer morphology. The shape of some craters is different from the isometric. Among them were identified elliptical and polygonal craters. The study of inner morphology showed, that there prevails simple bowl-shaped craters. Also we identified a small population of craters with complex internal morphology [2], which, by analogy with similar lunar craters [3], divided into flat-bottomed, with a central mound and concentric craters. Moreover, based on elevation data, obtained from global digital elevation model [4] and calculation of relative depth, craters with D >2 km by the stage of degradation were classified. Focusing on a combination of grooves and craters, we have identified 15 morphological regions. A morphological unit was defined as a region with a certain type of relief, which differs from surrounding areas by the presence, orientation and spatial relations of groove systems and large craters (over 200 m). Each region may have its own geological history and consequently, specific history of regolith exposure. Finally, two geomorphologic maps of Phobos were created. One map represents the spatial distributions of grooves including their classifications by morphological types. The identified morphological regions are shown, and relief characteristics of these regions are briefly described. Geomorphologic map of craters shows the spatial

  19. A Study of Sasin-Animal Sky Map on Chonmunryucho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Jin Yang

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Chon-Mun-Ryu-Cho, written (edited by Lee Sun-Ji during the period of King Se-Jong, is a representative astronomy book of Cho-Sun (A.D. 1392 -1910 Dynasty. We find and study in the first page of the book; the description of 28 oriental constellations as a Sasin (four mythical oriental animals-animal sky map which is not widely known yet. The map consists of four groups of constellations, each of which represents the Sasin: Chang-Ryong (dragon, Baek-Ho (tigers with Ki-Rin [Oriental giraffe], Ju-Jak (Chinese phoenix, Hyun-Mu (a tortoise interwined with a snake. Each group (animals spans 2˜7 of 28 oriental constellations As we know from the illustration of the Chon-Sang-Yol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do a representative sky map of Cho-Sun Dynasty, astronomy in Cho-Sun Dynasty is closely related to that in Go-Gu-Ryer (B.C. 37 -A.D. 668 Dynasty. Since these Sasin-animals appear in most mural paintings of Go-Gu-Ryer tombs, visualization of sky with these animal constellations could have been established as early as in Go-Gu-Ryer Dynasty. We also reconstruct this ''A Sasin-animal Korean sky map'' based on the shapes of the Sasin and Ki-Rin from Go-Gu-Ryer paintings and 28 oriental constellations in Chon-Sang-Yol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do.

  20. Fracture mapping for radionuclide migration studies in the Climax granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, R.; Springer, J.

    1981-05-01

    As part of LLNL's program on radionuclide migration through fractured rock, major geologic discontinuities have been mapped and characterized at the 420 m level in the Climax Stock, adjacent to LLNL's Spent Fuel Test. Persistence or continuity of features was the principal sampling criterion, and ninety major fractures and faults were mapped in the main access and tail drifts. Although the purpose and nature of this study was different from previous fracture surveys in the Climax Stock, the results are generally consistent in that three predominant fracture sets are identified: NW strike/vertical, NE strike/vertical, NW strike/subhorizontal. The frequency of major features in the main access drift is somewhat higher than in the tail drift. Those mapped in the main access drift are generally braided, stepped, or en echelon, while those in the tail drift appear to be more distinct and planar. Several of the fractures in the tail drift lie in the NE/vertical set, while most form an entirely different set oriented N5E/55NW. Subhorizontal fractures were common to both drifts. An area of seepage associated with some of these low-angle features was mapped in the main access drift

  1. Map Sensitivity vs. Map Dependency: A Case Study of Subway Maps’ Impact on Passenger Route Choices in Washington DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the key assumption in behavioral and transportation planning literature that, when people use a transit system more frequently, they become less dependent on and less sensitive to transit maps in their decision-making. Therefore, according to this assumption, map changes are much less impactful to travel decisions of frequent riders than to that of first-time or new passengers. This assumption—though never empirically validated—has been the major hurdle for transit maps to becoming a planning tool to change passengers’ behavior. This paper examines this assumption using the Washington DC metro map as a case study by conducting a route choice experiment between 30 Origin-Destination (O-D pairs on seven metro map designs. The experiment targets two types of passengers: frequent metro riders through advertisements on a free daily newspaper available at DC metro stations, and general residents in the Washington metropolitan area through Amazon Mechanical Turk, an online crowdsourcing platform. A total of 255 and 371 participants made 2024 and 2960 route choices in the respective experiments. The results show that frequent passengers are in fact more sensitive to subtle changes in map design than general residents who are less likely to be familiar with the metro map and therefore unaffected by map changes presented in the alternative designs. The work disproves the aforementioned assumption and further validates metro maps as an effective planning tool in transit systems.

  2. Blockchain-based Smart Contracts: A Systematic Mapping Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alharby, Maher; van Moorsel, Aad

    2017-01-01

    An appealing feature of blockchain technology is smart contracts. A smart contract is executable code that runs on top of the blockchain to facilitate, execute and enforce an agreement between untrusted parties without the involvement of a trusted third party. In this paper, we conduct a systematic mapping study to collect all research that is relevant to smart contracts from a technical perspective. The aim of doing so is to identify current research topics and open challenges for future stu...

  3. Online user tracking and usability tools - a mapping study

    OpenAIRE

    Nyström, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    Tracking user activities online can be done in order to improve systems usability, understand user behaviour or to increase monetary prot, to mention a few things. The software tools for this purpose can vary, for example in terms of usability of the tool itself, features, security, price, accessibility and support options. In this study I have developed a methodology to evaluate a selection of modern tools and map them depending on various properties. I have also analysed learning theories t...

  4. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Installation Restoration Program, Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, is considering remedialaction alternatives to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites that may discharge to the surface. This requires a quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system and how the system will respond to any future stresses. The geologic units of interest in the study area consist of sediments of Holocene to Miocene age that extend from land surface to the base of the Hawthorn Group. The hydrogeology within the study area was determined from gamma-ray and geologists? logs. Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system was simulated with a seven-layer, finite-difference model that extended vertically from the water table to the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Results from the calibrated model were based on a long-term recharge rate of 6 inches per year, which fell in the range of 4 to 10 inches per year, estimated using stream hydrograph separation methods. More than 80 percent of ground-water flow circulates within the surficial-sand aquifer, which indicates that most contaminant movement also can be expected to move through the surficial-sand aquifer alone. The surficial-sand aquifer is the uppermost unit of the surficial aquifer system. Particle-tracking results showed that the distances of most flow paths were 1,500 feet or less from a given site to its discharge point. For an assumed effective porosity of 20 percent, typical traveltimes are 40 years or less. At all of the sites investigated, particles released 10 feet below the water table had shorter traveltimes than those released 40 feet below the water table. Traveltimes from contaminated sites to their point of discharge ranged from 2 to 300 years. The contributing areas of the domestic supply wells are not very extensive. The shortest traveltimes for particles to reach the domestic supply wells from their respective

  5. Water- and air-quality and surficial bed-sediment monitoring of the Sweetwater Reservoir watershed, San Diego County, California, 2003-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Gregory O.; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.; Morita, Andrew Y.

    2015-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sweetwater Authority, began a study to assess the overall health of the Sweetwater watershed in San Diego County, California. This study was designed to provide a data set that could be used to evaluate potential effects from the construction and operation of State Route 125 within the broader context of the water quality and air quality in the watershed. The study included regular sampling of water, air, and surficial bed sediment at Sweetwater Reservoir (SWR) for chemical constituents, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), base-neutral and acid- extractable organic compounds (BNAs) that include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, and metals. Additionally, water samples were collected for anthropogenic organic indicator compounds in and around SWR. Background water samples were collected at Loveland Reservoir for VOCs, BNAs, pesticides, and metals. Surficial bed-sediment samples were collected for PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, and metals at Sweetwater and Loveland Reservoirs.

  6. Electricity Consumption Risk Map - The use of Urban Climate Mapping for smarter analysis: Case study for Birmingham, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes Azevedo, Juliana; Burghardt, René; Chapman, Lee; Katzchner, Lutz; Muller, Catherine L.

    2015-04-01

    Climate is a key driving factor in energy consumption. However, income, vegetation, building mass structure, topography also impact on the amount of energy consumption. In a changing climate, increased temperatures are likely to lead to increased electricity consumption, affecting demand, distribution and generation. Furthermore, as the world population becomes more urbanized, increasing numbers of people will need to deal with not only increased temperatures from climate change, but also from the unintentional modification of the urban climate in the form of urban heat islands. Hence, climate and climate change needs to be taken into account for future urban planning aspects to increase the climate and energy resilience of the community and decrease the future social and economic costs. Geographical Information Systems provide a means to create urban climate maps as part of the urban planning process. Geostatistical analyses linking these maps with demographic and social data, enables a geo-statistical analysis to identify linkages to high-risk groups of the community and vulnerable areas of town and cities. Presently, the climatope classification is oriented towards thermal aspects and the ventilation quality (roughness) of the urban areas but can also be adapted to take into account other structural "environmental factors". This study aims to use the climatope approach to predict areas of potential high electricity consumption in Birmingham, UK. Several datasets were used to produce an average surface temperature map, vegetation map, land use map, topography map, building height map, built-up area roughness calculations, an average air temperature map and a domestic electricity consumption map. From the correlations obtained between the layers it is possible to average the importance of each factor and create a map for domestic electricity consumption to understand the influence of environmental aspects on spatial energy consumption. Based on these results city

  7. Surficial weathering of iron sulfide mine tailings under semi-arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sarah M; Root, Robert A; Perdrial, Nicolas; Maier, Raina; Chorover, Jon

    2014-09-15

    Mine wastes introduce anthropogenic weathering profiles to the critical zone that often remain unvegetated for decades after mining cessation. As such, they are vulnerable to wind and water dispersion of particulate matter to adjacent ecosystems and residential communities. In sulfide-rich ore tailings, propagation to depth of the oxidative weathering front controls the depth-variation in speciation of major and trace elements. Despite the prevalence of surficial mine waste deposits in arid regions of the globe, few prior studies have been conducted to resolve the near-surface profile of sulfide ore tailings weathered under semi-arid climate. We investigated relations between gossan oxidative reaction-front propagation and the molecular speciation of iron and sulfur in tailings subjected to weathering under semi-arid climate at an EPA Superfund Site in semi-arid central Arizona (USA). Here we report a multi-method data set combining wet chemical and synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) methods to resolve the tight coupling of iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) geochemical changes in the top 2 m of tailings. Despite nearly invariant Fe and S concentration with depth (130-140 and 100-120 g kg -1 , respectively), a sharp redox gradient and distinct morphological change was observed within the top 0.5 m, associated with a progressive oxidative alteration of ferrous sulfides to (oxyhydr)oxides and (hydroxy)sulfates. Transformation is nearly complete in surficial samples. Trends in molecular-scale alteration were co-located with a decrease in pH from 7.3 to 2.3, and shifts in Fe and S lability as measured via chemical extraction. Initial weathering products, ferrihydrite and gypsum, transform to schwertmannite, then jarosite-group minerals with an accompanying decrease in pH. Interestingly, thermodynamically stable phases such as goethite and hematite were not detected in any samples, but ferrihydrite was observed even in

  8. Surficial weathering of iron sulfide mine tailings under semi-arid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sarah M.; Root, Robert A.; Perdrial, Nicolas; Maier, Raina M.; Chorover, Jon

    2014-09-01

    Mine wastes introduce anthropogenic weathering profiles to the critical zone that often remain unvegetated for decades after mining cessation. As such, they are vulnerable to wind and water dispersion of particulate matter to adjacent ecosystems and residential communities. In sulfide-rich ore tailings, propagation to depth of the oxidative weathering front controls the depth-variation in speciation of major and trace elements. Despite the prevalence of surficial mine waste deposits in arid regions of the globe, few prior studies have been conducted to resolve the near-surface profile of sulfide ore tailings weathered under semi-arid climate. We investigated relations between gossan oxidative reaction-front propagation and the molecular speciation of iron and sulfur in tailings subjected to weathering in a semi-arid climate at an EPA Superfund Site in central Arizona (USA). Here we report a multi-method data set combining wet chemical and synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) methods to resolve the tight coupling of iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) geochemical changes in the top 2 m of tailings. Despite nearly invariant Fe and S concentration with depth (130-140 and 100-120 g kg-1, respectively), a sharp redox gradient and distinct morphological change was observed within the top 0.5 m, associated with a progressive oxidative alteration of ferrous sulfides to (oxyhydr)oxides and (hydroxy)sulfates. Transformation is nearly complete in surficial samples. Trends in molecular-scale alteration were co-located with a decrease in pH from 7.3 to 2.3, and shifts in Fe and S lability as measured via chemical extraction. Initial weathering products, ferrihydrite and gypsum, transform to schwertmannite, then jarosite-group minerals with an accompanying decrease in pH. Interestingly, thermodynamically stable phases such as goethite and hematite were not detected in any samples, but ferrihydrite was observed even in samples with

  9. Urban ergonomics: an ongoing study of city signs and maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Patricia; Arezes, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether the existing signals in three European cities were developed according usability principles and ergonomic aspects for the citizen. City maps and signals will be tested using efficiency, effectiveness and user's satisfaction criteria. Among the urban areas are the center of Paris-FR, assumed to be well signalized, the historical center of Guimarães-PT and Chorweiler, Cologne-DE, a residential neighborhood of modern urbanism characterized by the extensive use of vegetation, the landscape homogeneity, and, consequently, by the difficult navigation.

  10. A Probabilistic Approach for Improved Sequence Mapping in Metatranscriptomic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapping millions of short DNA sequences a reference genome is a necessary step in many experiments designed to investigate the expression of genes involved in disease resistance. This is a difficult task in which several challenges often arise resulting in a suboptimal mapping. This mapping process ...

  11. Water quality in the surficial aquifer near agricultural areas in the Delaware Coastal Plain, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brandon J.; Mensch, Laura L.; Denver, Judith M.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-07-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Agriculture, developed a network of wells to monitor groundwater quality in the surficial aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain. Well-drained soils, a flat landscape, and accessible water in the Delaware Coastal Plain make for a productive agricultural setting. As such, agriculture is one of the largest industries in the State of Delaware. This setting enables the transport of chemicals from agriculture and other land uses to shallow groundwater. Efforts to mitigate nutrient transport to groundwater by the implementation of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been ongoing for several decades. To measure the effectiveness of BMPs on a regional scale, a network of 48 wells was designed to measure shallow groundwater quality (particularly nitrate) over time near agricultural land in the Delaware Coastal Plain. Water characteristics, major ions, nutrients, and dissolved gases were measured in groundwater samples collected from network wells during fall 2014. Wells were organized into three groups based on their geochemical similarity and these groups were used to describe nitrate and chloride concentrations and factors that affect the variability among the groups. The results from this study are intended to establish waterquality conditions in 2014 to enable comparison of future conditions and evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural BMPs on a regional scale.

  12. Surficial geology of the sea floor in Long Island Sound offshore of Plum Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Ostapenko, A.J.; Glomb, K.A.; Doran, E.F.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been working cooperatively to interpret surficial sea-floor geology along the coast of the Northeastern United States. NOAA survey H11445 in eastern Long Island Sound, offshore of Plum Island, New York, covers an area of about 12 square kilometers. Multibeam bathymetry and sidescan-sonar imagery from the survey, as well as sediment and photographic data from 13 stations occupied during a USGS verification cruise are used to delineate sea-floor features and characterize the environment. Bathymetry gradually deepens offshore to over 100 meters in a depression in the northwest part of the study area and reaches 60 meters in Plum Gut, a channel between Plum Island and Orient Point. Sand waves are present on a shoal north of Plum Island and in several smaller areas around the basin. Sand-wave asymmetry indicates that counter-clockwise net sediment transport maintains the shoal. Sand is prevalent where there is low backscatter in the sidescan-sonar imagery. Gravel and boulder areas are submerged lag deposits produced from the Harbor Hill-Orient Point-Fishers Island moraine segment and are found adjacent to the shorelines and just north of Plum Island, where high backscatter is present in the sidescan-sonar imagery.

  13. Assessing the transport of PAH in the surficial sediment layer by passive sampler approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belles, Angel; Alary, Claire; Criquet, Justine; Ivanovsky, Anastasia; Billon, Gabriel

    2017-02-01

    A new method based on passive samplers has been developed to assess the diffusive flux of fluorene, fluoranthene and pyrene in the sediment bed and across the sediment-water interface. The dissolved compound concentration gradient in the sediment in the vertical direction was measured at the outlet of a storm water pond by using polyethylene strips as passive samplers. Simultaneously, the dissipation of a set of tracer compounds preloaded in the passive samplers was measured to estimate the effective diffusion coefficients of the pollutants in the sediment. Both measurements were used to evaluate the diffusive flux of the compounds according to Fick's first law. The diffusive fluxes of the 3 studied compounds have been estimated with a centimetre-scale resolution in the upper 44cm of the sediment. According to the higher compound diffusion coefficient and the steeper concentration gradient in the surficial sediment layer, the results show that the net flux of compounds near the sediment interface (1cm depth) is on average 500 times higher than in the deep sediment, with average fluxes at 1cm depth on the order of 5, 0.1 and 0.1ng/m 2 /y for fluorene, fluoranthene and pyrene, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mapping out Map Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjan Ormeling

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the requirements for map data quality, map users and their library/archives environment, the paper focuses on the metadata the user would need for a correct and efficient interpretation of the map data. For such a correct interpretation, knowledge of the rules and guidelines according to which the topographers/cartographers work (such as the kind of data categories to be collected, and the degree to which these rules and guidelines were indeed followed are essential. This is not only valid for the old maps stored in our libraries and archives, but perhaps even more so for the new digital files as the format in which we now have to access our geospatial data. As this would be too much to ask from map librarians/curators, some sort of web 2.0 environment is sought where comments about data quality, completeness and up-to-dateness from knowledgeable map users regarding the specific maps or map series studied can be collected and tagged to scanned versions of these maps on the web. In order not to be subject to the same disadvantages as Wikipedia, where the ‘communis opinio’ rather than scholarship, seems to be decisive, some checking by map curators of this tagged map use information would still be needed. Cooperation between map curators and the International Cartographic Association ( ICA map and spatial data use commission to this end is suggested.

  15. A CASE STUDY ON POINT PROCESS MODELLING IN DISEASE MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Beneš

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider a data set of locations where people in Central Bohemia have been infected by tick-borne encephalitis (TBE, and where population census data and covariates concerning vegetation and altitude are available. The aims are to estimate the risk map of the disease and to study the dependence of the risk on the covariates. Instead of using the common area level approaches we base the analysis on a Bayesian approach for a log Gaussian Cox point process with covariates. Posterior characteristics for a discretized version of the log Gaussian Cox process are computed using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. A particular problem which is thoroughly discussed is to determine a model for the background population density. The risk map shows a clear dependency with the population intensity models and the basic model which is adopted for the population intensity determines what covariates influence the risk of TBE. Model validation is based on the posterior predictive distribution of various summary statistics.

  16. Geomorphometric analysis of cave ceiling channels mapped with 3-D terrestrial laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, Michal; Hochmuth, Zdenko; Kaňuk, Ján; Hofierka, Jaroslav

    2016-05-01

    The change of hydrological conditions during the evolution of caves in carbonate rocks often results in a complex subterranean geomorphology, which comprises specific landforms such as ceiling channels, anastomosing half tubes, or speleothems organized vertically in different levels. Studying such complex environments traditionally requires tedious mapping; however, this is being replaced with terrestrial laser scanning technology. Laser scanning overcomes the problem of reaching high ceilings, providing new options to map underground landscapes with unprecedented level of detail and accuracy. The acquired point cloud can be handled conveniently with dedicated software, but applying traditional geomorphometry to analyse the cave surface is limited. This is because geomorphometry has been focused on parameterization and analysis of surficial terrain. The theoretical and methodological concept has been based on two-dimensional (2-D) scalar fields, which are sufficient for most cases of the surficial terrain. The terrain surface is modelled with a bivariate function of altitude (elevation) and represented by a raster digital elevation model. However, the cave is a 3-D entity; therefore, a different approach is required for geomorphometric analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate the benefits of high-resolution cave mapping and 3-D modelling to better understand the palaeohydrography of the Domica cave in Slovakia. This methodological approach adopted traditional geomorphometric methods in a unique manner and also new methods used in 3-D computer graphics, which can be applied to study other 3-D geomorphological forms.

  17. Sup(10)Be variation in surficial sediments of the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.; Selvaraj, K.; Mascarenhas-Pereira, M.B.L.; Chen, C.T.A.

    Distribution of 10Be in systematically collected (degree + degree interval at 10 to 16 degrees S; 73.5 to 76.5 degrees E) surficial siliceous ooze, siliceous clay and pelagic clay sediments (top 2 cm) from the abyssal Central Indian Basin...

  18. Surficial sediments of the wave-dominated Orange River Delta and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The textural and compositional characteristics of the surficial shelf sediments north and south of the Orange River Delta are reviewed and compared. Sediments are fractionated and dispersed both north- and southwards of the Orange River mouth by wave action, longshore drift and subsurface currents. The mean grain ...

  19. Photoinduced surface voltage mapping study for large perovskite single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaojing; Liu, Yucheng; Gao, Fei; Yang, Zhou [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, National Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Liu, Shengzhong, E-mail: liusz@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, National Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, iChEM, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2016-05-02

    Using a series of illumination sources, including white light (tungsten-halogen lamp), 445-nm, 532-nm, 635-nm, and 730-nm lasers, the surface photovoltage (SPV) images were mapped for centimeter-sized CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbX{sub 3} (X = Cl, Br, I) perovskite single crystals using Kelvin probe force microscopy. The significant SPV signals were observed to be wavelength-dependent. We attribute the appreciable SPV to the built-in electric field in the space charge region. This study shines light into the understanding of photoinduced charge generation and separation processes at nanoscale to help advance the development of perovskite solar cells, optoelectronics, laser, photodetector, and light-emitting diode (LED).

  20. A study of variational inequalities for set-valued mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Tarafdar Enayet; Yuan George Xian-Zhi; Tan Kok-Keong

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, Ky Fan's KKM mapping principle is used to establish the existence of solutions for simultaneous variational inequalities. By applying our earlier results together with Fan–Glicksberg fixed point theorem, we prove some existence results for implicit variational inequalities and implicit quasi-variational inequalities for set-valued mappings which are either monotone or upper semi-continuous.

  1. Naturkraft integration at Kaarstoe. Mapping study report 6 march 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odland, Oeystein; Hoeie, Hans; Aanestad, Per; Hauge, Bjoern I.; Solvang, Svein; Boee, Stein Espen; Lervik, Steinar; Kristiansen, Arild

    2007-07-01

    Gassco is engaged in three different studies and projects related to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions at Kaarstoe; 1. Gassnova's CO{sub 2} capture, transport and storage projects at Kaarstoe and Mongstad (the CO{sub 2} Transportation Network), where Gassco role is to mature the transportation facilities of the project. An investment decision is planned for second half of 2009. 2. The Kaarstoe Flue Gas Capture pre-feasibility study initiated by the MPE to Gassco as operator of Gassled in connection with approval of the Kaarstoe Expansion Project 2010, to evaluate the potential of capturing the CO{sub 2} emissions at the Kaarstoe gas processing plant, and reported to the MPE 3 March 2009, and 3. This Naturkraft Integration Mapping Study initiated by MPE to meet the requirements set out by the letter to Gassco dated 3 December 2008 to evaluate possibilities to integrate existing Naturkraft's power plant with the Kaarstoe gas processing plant. In this Naturkraft Integration Study report Gassco has identified potential degrees of integration and resulting impact with respect to performance of both the Naturkraft power plant and the Kaarstoe gas processing plant. A major concern related to operations of the Kaarstoe gas processing plant is the regularity and availability issues related to natural gas and NGL export. The value of the petroleum transported over Kaarstoe on any day exceeds 200 million NOK. In addition also significant oil production will be shut down if the Kaarstoe gas processing plant is not operating. Hence the regularity of energy supply including steam is of utmost importance. The integration between Naturkraft and the gas processing plant is based on supplying energy (i.e. fuel gas, steam, heat and electricity) from Naturkraft's existing power plant, and therefore must be based on predictable and steady operations of the Naturkraft power plant. Naturkraft has only been in operation for a few weeks from the start-up of the power plant 1

  2. Modeling the source contribution of heavy metals in surficial sediment and analysis of their historical changes in the vertical sediments of a drinking water reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqiang; A, Yinglan; Jiang, Hong; Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui

    2015-01-01

    Increasing water pollution in developing countries poses a significant threat to environmental health and human welfare. Understanding the spatial distribution and apportioning the sources of pollution are important for the efficient management of water resources. In this study, ten types of heavy metals were detected during 2010-2013 for all ambient samples and point sources samples. A pollution assessment based on the surficial sediment dataset by Enrichment Factor (EF) showed the surficial sediment was moderately contaminated. A comparison of the multivariate approach (principle components analysis/absolute principle component score, PCA/APCS) and the chemical mass balance model (CMB) shows that the identification of sources and calculation of source contribution based on the CMB were more objective and acceptable when source profiles were known and source composition was complex. The results of source apportionment for surficial heavy metals, both from PCA/APCS and CMB model, showed that the natural background (30%) was the most dominant contributor to the surficial heavy metals, followed by mining activities (29%). The contribution percentage of the natural background was negatively related to the degree of contamination. The peak concentrations of many heavy metals (Cu, Ba, Fe, As and Hg) were found in the middle layer of sediment, which is most likely due to the result of development of industry beginning in the 1970s. However, the highest concentration of Pb appeared in the surficial sediment layer, which was most likely due to the sharp increase in the traffic volume. The historical analysis of the sources based on the CMB showed that mining and the chemical industry are stable sources for all of the sections. The comparing of change rates of source contribution versus years indicated that the composition of the materials in estuary site (HF1) is sensitive to the input from the land, whereas center site (HF4) has a buffering effect on the materials from

  3. Mind map learning for advanced engineering study: case study in system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woradechjumroen, Denchai

    2018-01-01

    System Dynamics (SD) is one of the subjects that were use in learning Automatic Control Systems in dynamic and control field. Mathematical modelling and solving skills of students for engineering systems are expecting outcomes of the course which can be further used to efficiently study control systems and mechanical vibration; however, the fundamental of the SD includes strong backgrounds in Dynamics and Differential Equations, which are appropriate to the students in governmental universities that have strong skills in Mathematics and Scientifics. For private universities, students are weak in the above subjects since they obtained high vocational certificate from Technical College or Polytechnic School, which emphasize the learning contents in practice. To enhance their learning for improving their backgrounds, this paper applies mind maps based problem based learning to relate the essential relations of mathematical and physical equations. With the advantages of mind maps, each student is assigned to design individual mind maps for self-leaning development after they attend the class and learn overall picture of each chapter from the class instructor. Four problems based mind maps learning are assigned to each student. Each assignment is evaluated via mid-term and final examinations, which are issued in terms of learning concepts and applications. In the method testing, thirty students are tested and evaluated via student learning backgrounds in the past. The result shows that well-design mind maps can improve learning performance based on outcome evaluation. Especially, mind maps can reduce time-consuming and reviewing for Mathematics and Physics in SD significantly.

  4. Hydrologic conditions, recharge, and baseline water quality of the surficial aquifer system at Jekyll Island, Georgia, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Torak, Lynn J.

    2016-03-08

    An increase of groundwater withdrawals from the surficial aquifer system on Jekyll Island, Georgia, prompted an investigation of hydrologic conditions and water quality by the U.S. Geological Survey during October 2012 through December 2013. The study demonstrated the importance of rainfall as the island’s main source of recharge to maintain freshwater resources by replenishing the water table from the effects of hydrologic stresses, primarily evapotranspiration and pumping. Groundwater-flow directions, recharge, and water quality of the water-table zone on the island were investigated by installing 26 shallow wells and three pond staff gages to monitor groundwater levels and water quality in the water-table zone. Climatic data from Brunswick, Georgia, were used to calculate potential maximum recharge to the water-table zone on Jekyll Island. A weather station located on the island provided only precipitation data. Additional meteorological data from the island would enhance potential evapotranspiration estimates for recharge calculations.

  5. A comparative study on the landslide susceptibility mapping using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from faults, lithology, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), sediment transport index (STI), stream power ... economic losses and creating high maintenance costs, are ..... evidence method to landslide susceptibility map- ping using ...

  6. Road Map for Gender Equality in the FCC Study

    CERN Document Server

    Genevieve Guinot

    2015-01-01

    Plan towards defining well scoped deliverables on gender specific communication for discussion, mapping of country context and organisational practices and the establishment of a focused task-force on gender equality in participating institutes.

  7. Contextualizing Cave Maps as Geospatial Information: Case Study of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, H.

    2017-12-01

    Caves are the result of solution processes. Because they are happened from geochemical and tectonic activity, they can be considered as geosphere phenomena. As one of the geosphere phenomena, especially at karst landform, caves have spatial dimensions and aspects. Cave’s utilizations and developments are increasing in many sectors such as hydrology, earth science, and tourism industry. However, spatial aspects of caves are poorly concerned dues to the lack of recognition toward cave maps. Many stakeholders have not known significances and importance of cave maps in determining development of a cave. Less information can be considered as the cause. Therefore, it is strongly necessary to put cave maps into the right context in order to make stakeholders realize the significance of it. Also, cave maps will be officially regarded as tools related to policy, development, and conservation act of caves hence they will have regulation in the usages and applications. This paper aims to make the contextualization of cave maps toward legal act. The act which is used is Act Number 4 Year 2011 About Geospatial Information. The contextualization is done by scrutinizing every articles and clauses related to cave maps and seek the contextual elements from both of them. The results are that cave maps can be regarded as geospatial information and classified as thematic geospatial information. The usages of them can be regulated through the Act Number 4 Year 2011. The regulations comprised by data acquisition, database, authorities, surveyor, and the obligation of providing cave maps in planning cave’s development and the environment surrounding.

  8. A study of variational inequalities for set-valued mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarafdar Enayet

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Ky Fan's KKM mapping principle is used to establish the existence of solutions for simultaneous variational inequalities. By applying our earlier results together with Fan–Glicksberg fixed point theorem, we prove some existence results for implicit variational inequalities and implicit quasi-variational inequalities for set-valued mappings which are either monotone or upper semi-continuous.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides in surficial coastal sediments of the Ligurian Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolotto, R.M.; Cuneo, C.; Albanese, S. [ARPAL, Direzione Scientifica, Genova (Italy); Magherini, A. [ARPAL, Dipartimento di Genova, Genova (Italy); Frignani, M.; Bellucci, L.G.; Alvarado-Aguilar, D. [ISMAR, Sezione di Geologia Marina, Bologna (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides, such as DDT and its analogues, are organic contaminants widespread throughout the terrestrial and oceanic environments due to their common use and their resistance to degradation. Since harmful effects have been associated to these chemicals and well documented, they are classified as priority pollutants by both the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union. Because of the very low solubility in water and the tendency to adsorb onto sediment particles, the ultimate fate of both PCBs and DDTs in the marine environment is the incorporation into sediments. Hence, the concentrations of these chlorinate chemicals in bottom sediments can provide an insight on the quality of the environment and the potential threat to marine organisms and human beings. The Ligurian Sea belongs to the north part of the western Mediterranean. The coastal morphology of the Liguria Region is rather variable, and frequently cliffs drop sheer to the sea. The limited width of the coastal zone, comprised between the sea and the mountains, determined a gathering of the urban areas with a consequent concentration of both civil and industrial presence in a narrow but highly populated territory. In particular Genova, but also other cities have a long history of industrial and harbour activities, whereas long tracts of the coast are dedicated to tourism. The circulation of the Ligurian Sea is rather well known. In particular, surface and intermediate currents follow a cyclonic circulation. However local circulation is the true responsible of the dispersion of sediment material along the coast, and these alongshore currents often cause an eastward oriented transport. The Ligurian coastal zone is very developed, and hosts all sort of industrial, agricultural and tourist activities that can be sources of persistent organochlorine chemicals. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess concentrations, distributions

  10. Remote Sensing of Surficial Process Responses to Extreme Meteorological Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenridge, G. Robert

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the frequency and magnitude of extreme meteorological events are associated with changing environmental means. Such events are important in human affairs, and can also be investigated by orbital remote sensing. During the course of this project, we applied ERS-1, ERS-2, Radarsat, and an airborne sensor (AIRSAR-TOPSAR) to measure flood extents, flood water surface profiles, and flood depths. We established a World Wide Web site (the Dartmouth Flood Observatory) for publishing remote sensing-based maps of contemporary floods worldwide; this is also an online "active archive" that presently constitutes the only global compilation of extreme flood events. We prepared an article for EOS concerning SAR imaging of the Mississippi Valley flood; an article for the International Journal of Remote Sensing on measurement of a river flood wave using ERS-2, began work on an article (since completed and published) on the Flood Observatory for a Geoscience Information Society Proceedings volume, and presented lectures at several Geol. Soc. of America Natl. Meetings, an Assoc. of Amer. Geographers Natl. Meeting, and a Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium (all on SAR remote sensing of the Mississippi Valley flood). We expanded in-house modeling capabilities by installing the latest version of the Army Corps of Engineers RMA two-dimensional hydraulics software and BYU Engineering Graphics Lab's Surface Water Modeling System (finite elements based pre- and post-processors for RMA work) and also added watershed modeling software. We are presently comparing the results of the 2-d flow models with SAR image data. The grant also supported several important upgrades of pc-based remote sensing infrastructure at Dartmouth. During work on this grant, we collaborated with several workers at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Remote Sensing/GIS laboratory (for flood inundation mapping and modeling; particularly of the Illinois River using the AIRSAR/TOPSAR/ERS-2 combined data), with Dr

  11. A new experimental approach to study the stability of logistic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, Mamta; Agarwal, Rashi

    2009-01-01

    Remarkably benign looking logistic transformations x n+1 = rx n (1 - x n ) for choosing x 0 between 0 and 1 and 0 < r ≤ 4 have found a celebrated place in chaos, fractals and discrete dynamics. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the capabilities of logistic map via superior iterations. Stability of logistic map has been studied by running computer programs. Logistic map is stable for 0 < r ≤ 3.2 in Picard orbit. In superior orbit, we see that the range of stability of logistic map increases drastically. Also, chaotic behavior of logistic map disappears in certain cases.

  12. Study maps as a tool for the adaptive tests construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Dlabolová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of students’ knowledge is an essential part of the educational process. Teachers on universities often use computer-based tests to testing a large number of students in a short time. The question is, what kind of information these tests provide, and if it is possible to classify students on this basis. Praxis shows that the scalar test results in the form of simple numbers cannot be plainly interpreted as the level of knowledge; moreover it is not easy to build such tests, which detect the necessary information. In the first part of the article we present the results of pedagogical experiment focused on the difference between information obtained through the computer-based test and a teacher’s interview with the same students. Possible starting point to improve information from computer-based tests in non-scalar form is a construction of an adaptive test, adapting test items to identify knowledge similar to a conversation with a teacher. As a tool for the design of the adaptive tests we use so called study maps, which are described in the second part of the article.

  13. Assessing the impacts of sea-level rise and precipitation change on the surficial aquifer in the low-lying coastal alluvial plains and barrier islands, east-central Florida (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Wang, Dingbao; Hagen, Scott C.; Medeiros, Stephen C.; Hall, Carlton R.

    2016-11-01

    A three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow and salinity transport model is implemented using the SEAWAT code to quantify the spatial variation of water-table depth and salinity of the surficial aquifer in Merritt Island and Cape Canaveral Island in east-central Florida (USA) under steady-state 2010 hydrologic and hydrogeologic conditions. The developed model is referred to as the `reference' model and calibrated against field-measured groundwater levels and a map of land use and land cover. Then, five prediction/projection models are developed based on modification of the boundary conditions of the calibrated `reference' model to quantify climate change impacts under various scenarios of sea-level rise and precipitation change projected to 2050. Model results indicate that west Merritt Island will encounter lowland inundation and saltwater intrusion due to its low elevation and flat topography, while climate change impacts on Cape Canaveral Island and east Merritt Island are not significant. The SEAWAT models developed for this study are useful and effective tools for water resources management, land use planning, and climate-change adaptation decision-making in these and other low-lying coastal alluvial plains and barrier island systems.

  14. Fostering clinical reasoning in physiotherapy: comparing the effects of concept map study and concept map completion after example study in novice and advanced learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montpetit-Tourangeau, Katherine; Dyer, Joseph-Omer; Hudon, Anne; Windsor, Monica; Charlin, Bernard; Mamede, Sílvia; van Gog, Tamara

    2017-12-01

    Health profession learners can foster clinical reasoning by studying worked examples presenting fully worked out solutions to a clinical problem. It is possible to improve the learning effect of these worked examples by combining them with other learning activities based on concept maps. This study investigated which combinaison of activities, worked examples study with concept map completion or worked examples study with concept map study, fosters more meaningful learning of intervention knowledge in physiotherapy students. Moreover, this study compared the learning effects of these learning activity combinations between novice and advanced learners. Sixty-one second-year physiotherapy students participated in the study which included a pre-test phase, a 130-min guided-learning phase and a four-week self-study phase. During the guided and self-study learning sessions, participants had to study three written worked examples presenting the clinical reasoning for selecting electrotherapeutic currents to treat patients with motor deficits. After each example, participants engaged in either concept map completion or concept map study depending on which learning condition they were randomly allocated to. Students participated in an immediate post-test at the end of the guided-learning phase and a delayed post-test at the end of the self-study phase. Post-tests assessed the understanding of principles governing the domain of knowledge to be learned (conceptual knowledge) and the ability to solve new problems that have similar (i.e., near transfer) or different (i.e., far transfer) solution rationales as problems previously studied in the examples. Learners engaged in concept map completion outperformed those engaged in concept map study on near transfer (p = .010) and far transfer (p concept map completion led to greater transfer performance than worked examples study combined with concept map study for both novice and advanced learners. Concept map completion

  15. A phenomenographic case study: Concept maps from the perspectives of middle school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Yilmaz

    The objective of this study was to investigate the experiences of middle school students when concept maps were used as a learning tool. Twenty-nine students' written responses, concept maps and videotapes were analyzed. Out of 29 students, thirteen students were interviewed using a semi-structured and open-ended interview protocol. The students' initial written responses provided us with the students' initial reactions to concept maps. The videotapes captured the students' behavior, and interpersonal interactions. The interviews probed students': (1) knowledge about drawing concept maps, (2) perception of the meaning and usefulness of concept maps, and (3) attitudes towards concept maps. The results indicated that the students viewed concept maps as useful tools in learning science. They believed that concept maps organized and summarized the information, which thereby helped them understand the topic easily. They also believed that concept maps had some cognitive benefits. However, the students viewed concept maps as hard to construct because it was difficult for the students to think of related concepts. The students' initial written responses, interviews and videotapes indicated that the students seemed to see both positive and negative aspects of concept maps. Some students' had more positive and some had more negative attitudes.

  16. Detections of MTBE in surficial and bedrock aquifers in New England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    The gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was detected in 24% of water samples collected from surficial and bedrock aquifers in areas of New England. MTBE was the most frequently detected volatile organic compound among the 60 volatile chemicals analyzed and was present in 33 of 133 wells sampled from July 1993 through September 1995. The median MTBE concentration measured in ground-water samples was 0.45 microgram per liter and concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 5.8 microgram per liter. The network of wells sampled for MTBE consisted of 103 monitoring wells screened in surficial sand-and-gravel aquifers and 30 domestic-supply wells in fractured crystalline bedrock aquifers. Seventy-seven percent of all MTBE detections were from 26 shallow monitoring wells screened in surficial aquifers. MTBE was detected in42% of monitoring wells in urban areas. In agricultural areas, MTBE was detected i 8% (2 of 24) of wells and was not detected in undeveloped areas. Sixty-two percent of the MTBE detections in surficial aquifers were from wells within 0.25 mile of gasoline stations or underground gasoline storage tanks; all but one of these wells were in Connecticut and Massachusetts, where reformulated gasoline is used. MTBE was detected in 23% of deep domestic-supply wells that tapped fractured bedrock aquifers. MTBE was detected in bedrock wells only in Connecticut and Massachusetts; land use near the wells was suburban to rural, and none of the sampled bedrock wells were within 0.25 mile of a gasoline station

  17. Research Map of Research Priorities in HE Studies in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSumih, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a research map for the key research priorities of higher education (HE) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study diagnoses and analyzes the research reality in HE studies in KSA in terms of strength points and improvement opportunities. It also explores the research map fields of current and prospective research priorities in…

  18. A Study on Remote Probing Method for Drawing Ecology/Nature Map and the Application (III) - Drawing the Swamp Classification Map around River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong Woo; Cho, Jeong Keon; Jeong, Hwi Chol [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The map of ecology/nature in the amended Natural Environment Conservation Act is the necessary data, which is drawn through assessing the national land with ecological factors, to execute the Korea's environmental policy. Such important ecology/nature map should be continuously revised and improved the reliability with adding several new factors. In this point of view, this study has the significance in presenting the improvement scheme of ecology/nature map. 'A Study on Remote Probing Method for Drawing Ecology/Nature Map and the Application' that has been performed for 3 years since 1998 has researched the drawing method of subject maps that could be built in a short time - a land-covering classification map, a vegetation classification map, and a swamp classification map around river - and the promoting principles hereafter. This study also presented the possibility and limit of classification by several satellite image data, so it would be a big help to build the subject map in the Government level. The land-covering classification map, a result of the first year, has been already being built by Ministry of Environment as a national project, and the improvement scheme of the vegetation map that was presented as a result of second year has been used in building the basic ecology/nature map. We hope that the results from this study will be applied as basic data to draw an ecology/nature map and contribute to expanding the understanding on the usefulness of the several ecosystem analysis methods with applying an ecology/nature map and a remote probe. 55 refs., 38 figs., 24 tabs.

  19. Age-related weakness of proximal muscle studied with motor cortical mapping: a TMS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ela B Plow

    Full Text Available Aging-related weakness is due in part to degeneration within the central nervous system. However, it is unknown how changes to the representation of corticospinal output in the primary motor cortex (M1 relate to such weakness. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a noninvasive method of cortical stimulation that can map representation of corticospinal output devoted to a muscle. Using TMS, we examined age-related alterations in maps devoted to biceps brachii muscle to determine whether they predicted its age-induced weakness. Forty-seven right-handed subjects participated: 20 young (22.6 ± 0.90 years and 27 old (74.96 ± 1.35 years. We measured strength as force of elbow flexion and electromyographic activation of biceps brachii during maximum voluntary contraction. Mapping variables included: 1 center of gravity or weighted mean location of corticospinal output, 2 size of map, 3 volume or excitation of corticospinal output, and 4 response density or corticospinal excitation per unit area. Center of gravity was more anterior in old than in young (p<0.001, though there was no significant difference in strength between the age groups. Map size, volume, and response density showed no significant difference between groups. Regardless of age, center of gravity significantly predicted strength (β = -0.34, p = 0.005, while volume adjacent to the core of map predicted voluntary activation of biceps (β = 0.32, p = 0.008. Overall, the anterior shift of the map in older adults may reflect an adaptive change that allowed for the maintenance of strength. Laterally located center of gravity and higher excitation in the region adjacent to the core in weaker individuals could reflect compensatory recruitment of synergistic muscles. Thus, our study substantiates the role of M1 in adapting to aging-related weakness and subtending strength and muscle activation across age groups. Mapping from M1 may offer foundation for an examination of mechanisms that

  20. Study of Tools for Network Discovery and Network Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    connected to the switch. iv. Accessibility of historical data and event data In general, network discovery tools keep a history of the collected...has the following software dependencies: - Java Virtual machine 76 - Perl modules - RRD Tool - TomCat - PostgreSQL STRENGTHS AND...systems - provide a simple view of the current network status - generate alarms on status change - generate history of status change VISUAL MAP

  1. Studies on reduction of dosimeter used in the product dose mapping process at Sinagama Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofian Ibrahim; Syuhada Ramli; Cosmos George; Zarina Mohd Nor; Kamarudin Buyong; Shahidan Yob; Nor Ishadi Ismail; Mohd Sidek Othman; Ahsanulkhaliqin Abdul Wahab; Mohd Khairul Azfar Ramli

    2012-01-01

    Product dose mapping is the determination of the best product loading configuration which will be used during routine sterilization. In product dose mapping, dosimeters are placed throughout products at strategic locations to determine the zones of minimum and maximum dose. On previous Sinagama's product dose mapping method, a total of 240 unit's ceric-cerous dosimeter been used for a tote. Based on the data obtained from Irradiator Dose Mapping Report in 2004 and data from recent studies, the number of dosimeter to be used in product dose mapping can be reduced to 28 units without sacrificing precision and accuracy of the dose mapping results. This also led changes of the placing dosimeter method from Plane system to Coordinate system. Reduction of 88 % on dosimeters usage will directly reduce the cost of expenses on dosimeter, time and labor. (author)

  2. Mapping research activity on mental health disorders in Europe: study protocol for the Mapping_NCD project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg Brigham, Karen; Darlington, Meryl; Wright, John S F; Lewison, Grant; Kanavos, Panos; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle

    2016-05-26

    Mental health disorders (MHDs) constitute a large and growing disease burden in Europe, although they typically receive less attention and research funding than other non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study protocol describes a methodology for the mapping of MHD research in Europe as part of Mapping_NCD, a 2-year project funded by the European Commission which seeks to map European research funding and impact for five NCDs in order to identify potential gaps, overlaps, synergies and opportunities, and to develop evidence-based policies for future research. The project aims to develop a multi-focal view of the MHD research landscape across the 28 European Union Member States, plus Iceland, Norway and Switzerland, through a survey of European funding entities, analysis of research initiatives undertaken in the public, voluntary/not-for-profit and commercial sectors, and expert interviews to contextualize the gathered data. The impact of MHD research will be explored using bibliometric analyses of scientific publications, clinical guidelines and newspaper stories reporting on research initiatives. Finally, these research inputs and outputs will be considered in light of various metrics that have been proposed to inform priorities for the allocation of research funds, including burden of disease, treatment gaps and cost of illness. Given the growing burden of MHDs, a clear and broad view of the current state of MHD research is needed to ensure that limited resources are directed to evidence-based priority areas. MHDs pose a particular challenge in mapping the research landscape due to their complex nature, high co-morbidity and varying diagnostic criteria. Undertaking such an effort across 31 countries is further challenged by differences in data collection, healthcare systems, reimbursement rates and clinical practices, as well as cultural and socioeconomic diversity. Using multiple methods to explore the spectrum of MHD research funding activity across Europe

  3. A Study on remote sensing method for drawing up and utilizing ecological and natural map - concentrated on drawing up of Land Cover Classification Map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Sung Woo; Chung, Sung Moon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The drawing up of ecological and natural map, which is highly efficient using remote exploration method, was promoted in this study. As the first step of drawing up of ecological and natural map, this study is working on the drawing up of Land Cover using as a base map. Through the detailed and sufficient consideration on GAP analysis of USA, CORINE project of EU, and examples in Korea, it studied and proposed the Land Cover Classification system and method suitable for Korea. It will be helpful to draw up ecological and natural map by providing two strategies and principles for land cover classification. 26 refs., 33 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Interannual changes in seafloor surficial geology at an artificial reef site on the inner continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineault, Nicole A.; Trembanis, Arthur C.; Miller, Douglas C.; Capone, Vince

    2013-04-01

    The influence of reef structures on seafloor surface sediments has implications for marine spatial planning and coastal development, including use of the coastal zone for offshore wind energy. We present results of interannual changes in seafloor surficial geology at the Redbird artificial reef site, located on the continental shelf offshore of Delaware Bay. The Redbird reef is composed of NYC subway cars, barges, tugboats, and other sunken objects. Since objects were added sporadically between 1996 and 2009, the survey area acts as a natural laboratory to study the evolution of the surrounding seafloor at a structural reef habitat through time. Annual side-scan surveys from 2008 through 2011, and one bathymetric survey in 2010 provide information about surface geology and morphology. Local wave and current data for this time period were analyzed to determine the main morphological agents. Automated backscatter segmentation show that three bottom types dominate and that these large-scale (>10 m) surface sediment patterns persist from year to year. Grab samples reveal that the bottom types are silty sand with clay and sandy gravel. Clear sediment and biological patterns emerged revealing the influence of the objects on the seafloor. Comet-shaped moats of sandy gravel surround single objects and grow to form large-scale coalesced patches around groups of objects. Alignment of sediment patches suggests the periodic hydrodynamic influence of seasonal storms. The abundance and diversity of organisms increases with decreasing clay/silt content. Evidence of scour includes the removal of fine sediments, the formation of moats 1-30 m in diameter and 0.5-1 m deep around the reef objects, and the >1 m settling of objects into the seafloor. Data suggest subway cars reached equilibrium with the environment in 6-7 years, but that larger objects or clusters of objects take a longer time to equilibrate and have farther-reaching effects. Knowledge of local wave and current climate

  5. Mapping Civic Engagement: A Case Study of Service-Learning in Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Jessica; Casebeer, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This study uses social cartography to map student perceptions of a co-curricular service-learning project in an impoverished rural community. As a complement to narrative discourse, mapping provides an opportunity to visualize not only the spatial nature of the educational experience but also, in this case, the benefits of civic engagement. The…

  6. Using Concept Maps to Elicit and Study Student Teachers' Perceptions about Inclusive Education: A Tanzanian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormnaes, Siri; Mkumbo, Kitila; Skaar, Bjørn; Refseth, Yngve

    2015-01-01

    In this study, concept map activities were used to trigger group discussions about inclusive education, with a focus on learners with disabilities. The participants were 226 Tanzanian student teachers. This article reports and discusses how the maps were analysed and what they indicate about the students' thinking about certain aspects of…

  7. iMindMap as an Innovative Tool in Teaching and Learning Accounting: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Jusoh, Wan Noor Hazlina; Ahmad, Suraya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the use of iMindMap software as an interactive tool in the teaching and learning method and also to be able to consider iMindMap as an alternative instrument in achieving the ultimate learning outcome. Design/Methodology/Approach: Out of 268 students of the management accounting at the University of…

  8. Preservice Teachers Map Compassion: Connecting Social Studies and Literacy through Nonfictional Animal Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Montgomery, Sarah E.; Vander Zanden, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Nonfiction stories of animal compassion were used in this literacy-social studies integrated lesson to address both efferent and aesthetic stances in transmediation of text from picture books to maps. Preservice early childhood and elementary teachers chose places from the nine recent children's stories, symbolizing them on a map while…

  9. Quantitative susceptibility mapping of human brain at 3T: a multisite reproducibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, P-Y; Chao, T-C; Wu, M-L

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping of the human brain has demonstrated strong potential in examining iron deposition, which may help in investigating possible brain pathology. This study assesses the reproducibility of quantitative susceptibility mapping across different imaging sites. In this study, the susceptibility values of 5 regions of interest in the human brain were measured on 9 healthy subjects following calibration by using phantom experiments. Each of the subjects was imaged 5 times on 1 scanner with the same procedure repeated on 3 different 3T systems so that both within-site and cross-site quantitative susceptibility mapping precision levels could be assessed. Two quantitative susceptibility mapping algorithms, similar in principle, one by using iterative regularization (iterative quantitative susceptibility mapping) and the other with analytic optimal solutions (deterministic quantitative susceptibility mapping), were implemented, and their performances were compared. Results show that while deterministic quantitative susceptibility mapping had nearly 700 times faster computation speed, residual streaking artifacts seem to be more prominent compared with iterative quantitative susceptibility mapping. With quantitative susceptibility mapping, the putamen, globus pallidus, and caudate nucleus showed smaller imprecision on the order of 0.005 ppm, whereas the red nucleus and substantia nigra, closer to the skull base, had a somewhat larger imprecision of approximately 0.01 ppm. Cross-site errors were not significantly larger than within-site errors. Possible sources of estimation errors are discussed. The reproducibility of quantitative susceptibility mapping in the human brain in vivo is regionally dependent, and the precision levels achieved with quantitative susceptibility mapping should allow longitudinal and multisite studies such as aging-related changes in brain tissue magnetic susceptibility. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  10. A case study on point process modelling in disease mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge; Benes, Viktor

    2005-01-01

    of the risk on the covariates. Instead of using the common areal level approaches we base the analysis on a Bayesian approach for a log Gaussian Cox point process with covariates. Posterior characteristics for a discretized version of the log Gaussian Cox process are computed using Markov chain Monte Carlo...... methods. A particular problem which is thoroughly discussed is to determine a model for the background population density. The risk map shows a clear dependency with the population intensity models and the basic model which is adopted for the population intensity determines what covariates influence...... the risk of TBE. Model validation is based on the posterior predictive distribution of various summary statistics....

  11. Computer mapping as an aid in air-pollution studies: Montreal region study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granger, J M

    1972-01-01

    Through the use of computer-mapping programs, an operational technique has been designed which allows an almost-instant appraisal of the intensity of atmospheric pollution in an urban region on the basis of epiphytic sensitivity. The epiphytes considered are essentially lichens and mosses growing on trees. This study was applied to the Montreal region, with 349 samplings statiions distributed nearly uniformly. Computer graphics of the findings are included in the appendix.

  12. Boreal Inundation Mapping with SMAP Radiometer Data for Methane Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungbum; Brisco, Brian; Poncos, Valentin

    2017-04-01

    Inundation and consequent anoxic condition induce methane release, which is one of the most potent greenhouse gases. Boreal regions contain large amounts of organic carbon, which is a potentially major methane emission source under climatic warming conditions. Boreal wetlands in particular are one of the largest sources of uncertainties in global methane budget. Wetland spatial extent together with the gas release rate remains highly unknown. Characterization of the existing inundation database is poor, because of the inundation under clouds and dense vegetation. In this work, the inundation extent is derived using brightness temperature data acquired by the L-band Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite, which offers the L-band capabilities to penetrate clouds and vegetation at 3-day revisit. The fidelity of the SMAP watermask is assessed as a first step in this investigation by comparing with the following data sets: 3-m resolution maps derived using Radarsat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data in northern Canada and multi-sensor climatology over Siberia. Because Radarsat coverages are limited despite its high spatial resolution, at the time and location where Radarsats are not available, we also compare with 3-km resolution SMAP SAR data that are concurrent with the SMAP radiometer data globally until July 2015. Inundation extents were derived with Radarsat, SMAP SAR, and SMAP radiometer over the 60 km x 60km area at Peace Athabasca Delta (PAD), Canada on 6 days in spring and summer 2015. The SMAP SAR results match the locations of Radarsat waterbodies. However, the SMAP SAR underestimates the water extent, mainly over mixed pixels that have subpixel land presence. The threshold value (-3 dB) applied to the SMAP SAR was determined previously over the global domain. The threshold is dependent on the type of local landcover within a mixed pixel. Further analysis is needed to locally optimize the threshold. The SMAP radiometer water fraction over Peace

  13. Advances in Shallow-Water, High-Resolution Seafloor Mapping: Integrating an Autonomous Surface Vessel (ASV) Into Nearshore Geophysical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, J. F.; O'Brien, T. F.; Bergeron, E.; Twichell, D.; Worley, C. R.; Danforth, W. W.; Andrews, B. A.; Irwin, B.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been heavily involved in geological mapping of the seafloor since the 1970s. Early mapping efforts such as GLORIA provided broad-scale imagery of deep waters (depths > 400 meters) within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). In the early 1990's, the USGS research emphasis shifted from deep- to shallow-water environments (inner continental shelf, nearshore, estuaries) to address pertinent coastal issues such as erosion, sediment availability, sediment transport, vulnerability of coastal areas to natural and anthropogenic hazards, and resource management. Geologic framework mapping in these shallow- water environments has provided valuable data used to 1) define modern sediment distribution and thickness, 2) determine underlying stratigraphic and structural controls on shoreline behavior, and 3) enable onshore-to- offshore geologic mapping within the coastal zone when coupled with subaerial techniques such as GPR and topographic LIDAR. Research in nearshore areas presents technological challenges due to the dynamics of the environment, high volume of data collected, and the geophysical limitations of operating in very shallow water. In 2004, the USGS, in collaboration with NOAA's Coastal Services Center, began a multi-year seafloor mapping effort to better define oyster habitats within Apalachicola Bay, Florida, a shallow water estuary along the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bay poses a technological challenge due to its shallow depths (turbidity that prohibits the use of bathymetric LIDAR. To address this extreme shallow water setting, the USGS incorporated an Autonomous Surface Vessel (ASV) into seafloor mapping operations, in June 2006. The ASV is configured with a chirp sub-bottom profiler (4 24 kHz), dual-frequency chirp sidescan-sonar (100/500 kHz), single-beam echosounder (235 kHz), and forward-looking digital camera, and will be used to delineate the distribution and thickness of surficial sediment, presence of oyster beds

  14. Mapping Suitable Sites for Setting up Wind Farms: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping Suitable Sites for Setting up Wind Farms: A Case Study of Nyanga District. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... sources and continuous power shortages make wind energy a very attractive alternative to ...

  15. Use of the concept mapping in teaching during a medical rotation of interns: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwas, Hamida; Ghédira, Habib

    2017-12-01

    Concept mapping is an excellent learning toolallowing to stimulate active learning.For this reason, the concept mapping is currently used increasingly in the medical and paramedical field. The aim of our study is to determine the contribution of teaching of medical interns by the concept mapping. Fourteen students enrolled at the same time in a medical rotation in Pulmonology were recruited for this exploratory study. Interns are divided into two groups (A and B).Both groups are taught by the clinical case method, illustrated by a concept mapping for group A interns. The evolution of the knowledge accuracy at post-testing has been greater in the group taught by the method of concept mapping: the number of correct responses increased in all participants of group A versus only 4 of group B. All students taught by concept mapping had at the post-test a note higher than or equal to 10/20 versus only three of the group taught by the method without concept map. The average score was 13 (11-15) in group A versus 10.28 (6-14) in group B. We emphasize the use of concept mapping in teaching especially in the faculty of medicine and we encourage clinicians to use this method in teaching interns in the hospital.

  16. Comparing orbiter and rover image-based mapping of an ancient sedimentary environment, Aeolis Palus, Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Kathryn M.; Edwards, Christopher; Grotzinger, J. P.; Gupta, S.; Sumner, D.; Edgar, Lauren; Fraeman, A.; Jacob, S.; LeDeit, L.; Lewis, K.W.; Rice, M.S.; Rubin, D.; Calef, F.; Edgett, K.; Williams, R.M.E.; Williford, K.H.

    2016-01-01

    This study provides the first systematic comparison of orbital facies maps with detailed ground-based geology observations from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover to examine the validity of geologic interpretations derived from orbital image data. Orbital facies maps were constructed for the Darwin, Cooperstown, and Kimberley waypoints visited by the Curiosity rover using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images. These maps, which represent the most detailed orbital analysis of these areas to date, were compared with rover image-based geologic maps and stratigraphic columns derived from Curiosity’s Mast Camera (Mastcam) and Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI). Results show that bedrock outcrops can generally be distinguished from unconsolidated surficial deposits in high-resolution orbital images and that orbital facies mapping can be used to recognize geologic contacts between well-exposed bedrock units. However, process-based interpretations derived from orbital image mapping are difficult to infer without known regional context or observable paleogeomorphic indicators, and layer-cake models of stratigraphy derived from orbital maps oversimplify depositional relationships as revealed from a rover perspective. This study also shows that fine-scale orbital image-based mapping of current and future Mars landing sites is essential for optimizing the efficiency and science return of rover surface operations.

  17. Areal distribution and concentration of contaminants of concern in surficial streambed and lakebed sediments, Lake St. Clair and tributaries, Michigan, 1990-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachol, Cynthia M.; Button, Daniel T.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated data collected from surficial streambed and lakebed sediments in the Lake Erie-Lake St. Clair drainages. This study incorporates data collected from 1990 through 2003 and focuses primarily on the U.S. part of the Lake St. Clair Basin, including Lake St. Clair, the St. Clair River, and tributaries to Lake St. Clair. Comparable data from the Canadian part of the study area are included where available. The data are compiled into 4 chemical classes and consist of 21 compounds. The data are compared to effects-based sediment-quality guidelines, where the Threshold Effect Level and Lowest Effect Level represent concentrations below which adverse effects on biota are not expected and the Probable Effect Level and Severe Effect Level represent concentrations above which adverse effects on biota are expected to be frequent.Maps in the report show the spatial distribution of the sampling locations and illustrate the concentrations relative to the selected sediment-quality guidelines. These maps indicate that sediment samples from certain areas routinely had contaminant concentrations greater than the Threshold Effect Concentration or Lowest Effect Level. These locations are the upper reach of the St. Clair River, the main stem and mouth of the Clinton River, Big Beaver Creek, Red Run, and Paint Creek. Maps also indicated areas that routinely contained sediment contaminant concentrations that were greater than the Probable Effect Concentration or Severe Effect Level. These locations include the upper reach of the St. Clair River, the main stem and mouth of the Clinton River, Red Run, within direct tributaries along Lake St. Clair and in marinas within the lake, and within the Clinton River headwaters in Oakland County.Although most samples collected within Lake St. Clair were from sites adjacent to the mouths of its tributaries, samples analyzed for trace-element concentrations

  18. Pilot study of the application of Tellus airborne radiometric and soil geochemical data for radon mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleton, J.D. [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jda@bgs.ac.uk; Miles, J.C.H.; Green, B.M.R. [Health Protection Agency (HPA) - Radiation Protection Division, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom); Larmour, R. [Environment and Heritage Service, Department of the Environment, Belfast BT7 2JA (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-15

    The scope for using Tellus Project airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and soil geochemical data to predict the probability of houses in Northern Ireland having high indoor radon concentrations is evaluated, in a pilot study in the southeast of the province, by comparing these data statistically with in-house radon measurements. There is generally good agreement between radon maps modelled from the airborne radiometric and soil geochemical data using multivariate linear regression analysis and conventional radon maps which depend solely on geological and indoor radon data. The radon maps based on the Tellus Project data identify some additional areas where the radon risk appears to be relatively high compared with the conventional radon maps. One of the ways of validating radon maps modelled on the Tellus Project data will be to carry out additional indoor measurements in these areas.

  19. Physical properties and radiometric age estimates of surficial and fracture-fill deposits along a portion of the Carpetbag fault system, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shroba, R.R.; Muhs, D.R.; Rosholt, J.N.

    1988-07-01

    Surficial deposits and fracture-fill deposits (fracture fillings that consist chiefly of calcium carbonate-cemented, pebbly sand) were studied along a 2.5-km-long portion of the Carpetbag fault system in an area characterized by prominent, explosion-produced scarps and a shallow graben that formed during and subsequent to the 1970 Carpetbag nuclear event in the northwestern part of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site. The surficial deposits are fluvial and slopewash deposits and mixed eolian sediment that range in grain size from pebble gravel to silty sand. These deposits have been modified by the accumulation of varying amounts of pedogenic silt, clay, calcium carbonate, and probably opaline silica. Despite the occurrence of ancient fractures and linear features on aerial photographs, that are near and parallel to subsurface faults of the Carpetbag system, no other evidence for prehistoric surface faulting was observed in the study area. The lack of prehistoric fault scarps and the lack of offset of stratigraphic contacts exposed in trench excavations suggest that no significant vertical surface displacement has occurred on the Carpetbag system during the past 125,000 years and possible during the past 350,000 years. 39 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs

  20. Comparison of Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform to study echo-planar imaging flow maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez G, A.; Bowtell, R.; Mansfield, P. [Area de Procesamiento Digital de Senales e Imagenes Biomedicas. Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa. Mexico D.F. 09340 Mexico (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Velocity maps were studied combining Doyle and Mansfield method (1986) with each of the following transforms: Fourier, window Fourier and wavelet (Mexican hat). Continuous wavelet transform was compared against the two Fourier transform to determine which technique is best suited to study blood maps generated by Half Fourier Echo-Planar Imaging. Coefficient images were calculated and plots of the pixel intensity variation are presented. Finally, contour maps are shown to visualize the behavior of the blood flow in the cardiac chambers for the wavelet technique. (Author)

  1. Comparison of Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform to study echo-planar imaging flow maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez G, A.; Bowtell, R.; Mansfield, P.

    1998-01-01

    Velocity maps were studied combining Doyle and Mansfield method (1986) with each of the following transforms: Fourier, window Fourier and wavelet (Mexican hat). Continuous wavelet transform was compared against the two Fourier transform to determine which technique is best suited to study blood maps generated by Half Fourier Echo-Planar Imaging. Coefficient images were calculated and plots of the pixel intensity variation are presented. Finally, contour maps are shown to visualize the behavior of the blood flow in the cardiac chambers for the wavelet technique. (Author)

  2. History and future of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Amy; Ponté, Linnae; Jerome, Lisa; Doblin, Rick

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the teenage vision of the founder of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) that humanity's future would be aided by the therapeutic and spiritual potential of psychedelic substances. The article traces the trajectory of MAPS from inception in 1986 to its present, noting future goals with respect to research, outreach, and harm reduction. MAPS was created as a non-profit psychedelic pharmaceutical company in response to the 1985 scheduling of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Overcoming many hurdles, MAPS developed the first double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and plans for FDA prescription approval in 2021. MAPS' program of research expanded to include a trial of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety when facing life-threatening illness, observational studies of ibogaine in the treatment of addiction, and studies of MDMA for social anxiety in people with autism spectrum disorders. MAPS meets the challenges of drug development through a clinical research team led by a former Novartis drug development professional experienced in the conduct, monitoring, and analysis of clinical trials. MAPS' harm-reduction efforts are intended to avoid backlash and build a post-prohibition world by assisting non-medical users to transform difficult psychedelic experiences into opportunities for growth.

  3. Fostering clinical reasoning in physiotherapy : Comparing the effects of concept map study and concept map completion after example study in novice and advanced learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montpetit-tourangeau, Katherine; Dyer, Joseph-omer; Hudon, Anne; Windsor, Monica; Charlin, Bernard; Mamede, Sílvia; Van Gog, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    Background: Health profession learners can foster clinical reasoning by studying worked examples presenting fully worked out solutions to a clinical problem. It is possible to improve the learning effect of these worked examples by combining them with other learning activities based on concept maps.

  4. Estimations of the extent of migration of surficially applied water for various surface conditions near the potential repository perimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolik, S.R.; Fewell, M.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Site characterization includes surface-based and underground testing. Analyses have been performed to support the design of site characterization activities so to have minimal impact on the ability of the site to isolate waste, and on tests performed as part of the characterization process. Two examples of site characterization activities are the construction of an Exploratory Studies Facility, which may include underground shafts, drifts, and ramps, and surface-based testing activities, which may require borehole drilling, excavation of test pits, and road watering for dust control. The information in this report pertains to two-dimensional numerical calculations modeling the movement of surficially applied water and the potential effects of that water on repository performance and underground experiments. This document contains information that has been used in preparing recommendations for two Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project documents: Appendix I of the Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements document, and the Surface-Based Testing Field Requirements Document

  5. Composition And Characteristic Of The Surficial Sediments In The Southern Corniche Of Jeddah, Red Sea Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talha A Al-Dubai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the composition and characteristic of the surficial sediments in the southern corniche of Jeddah, Saudi Red Sea coast, in an attempt to infer the surficial distribution pattern of minerals and provenance of sediments. Twenty-six superficial sediments samples were collected from backreef and forereef areas and were analyzed for grain size, CaCO3 content, and mineralogy. The textural of grain size range from gravel to mud fraction. The mud-dominated substrates (<63 µm occur generally in the back-reef area near the shoreline (sheltered area and in the lagoon. Gravel rich-sediments are mostly found in forereef regions. The highest content of aragonite and Mg-calcite occur in the forereef area, probably because to suitability the forereef region for chemical and biochemical precipitation of these minerals. High Mg-calcite and Dolomite are low in both the regions. The pyrite occurs in lagoon; this indicates the reductive conditions in this part. However, on the contrary the percentage of carbonate minerals were low in the backreef-flat area, which could be attributed to the supply of non-carbonate terrigenous materials. The terrigenous material contains quartz, k-feldspar, plagioclase and amphibole minerals and are dominant in backreef-flat area with averages of 12.7%, 7.13%, 2.93% and 0.65%, respectively. Their abundance could be attributed to the supply of terrigenous materials by Aeolian deposits and intermittent Wadis.

  6. Airborne Electromagnetic Mapping of Peatlands: a Case Study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, S.; Viezzoli, A.; Pfaffhuber, A. A.; Vettore, A.

    2017-12-01

    Peatlands are extraordinary reservoirs of organic carbon that can be found over a wide range of latitudes, in tropical, to temperate, to (sub)polar climates. According to some estimates, the carbon stored in peatlands almost match the atmospheric carbon pool. Peatlands degradation due to natural and anthropogenic factors releases every year large amount of CO2 and other green house gasses into the atmosphere. The conservation of peatlands is therefore a key measure to reduce emissions and to mitigate climate change. An effective plan to prevent peatlands degradation must move from a precise estimate of the volume of peat stored across vast territories around the world. One example are the several bogs that characterize large surfaces in Norway. Our research combines the use of high spatial resolution satellite optical data with Airborne Electromagnetic (AEM) and field measurements in order to map the extension and thickness of peat in Brøttum, Ringsaker province, Norway. The methodology allows us to quantify the volume of peat as well as the organic carbon stock. The variable thickness typical of Norwegian bogs allows us to test the limits of the AEM methodology in resolving near surface peat layers. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 747809. Start date: 1 June 2017. Duration: 24 months

  7. Evaluation of landslide susceptibility mapping techniques using lidar-derived conditioning factors (Oregon case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubini Mahalingam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are a significant geohazard, which frequently result in significant human, infrastructure, and economic losses. Landslide susceptibility mapping using GIS and remote sensing can help communities prepare for these damaging events. Current mapping efforts utilize a wide variety of techniques and consider multiple factors. Unfortunately, each study is relatively independent of others in the applied technique and factors considered, resulting in inconsistencies. Further, input data quality often varies in terms of source, data collection, and generation, leading to uncertainty. This paper investigates if lidar-derived data-sets (slope, slope roughness, terrain roughness, stream power index, and compound topographic index can be used for predictive mapping without other landslide conditioning factors. This paper also assesses the differences in landslide susceptibility mapping using several, widely used statistical techniques. Landslide susceptibility maps were produced from the aforementioned lidar-derived data-sets for a small study area in Oregon using six representative statistical techniques. Most notably, results show that only a few factors were necessary to produce satisfactory maps with high predictive capability (area under the curve >0.7. The sole use of lidar digital elevation models and their derivatives can be used for landslide mapping using most statistical techniques without requiring additional detailed data-sets that are often difficult to obtain or of lower quality.

  8. A Study on Problems of Hijras in West Bengal Based on Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Mondal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems faced by Hijras in West Bengal in order to find its solutions using neutrosophic cognitive maps. Florentin Smarandache and Vasantha Kandasamy studied neutrosophic cognitive map which is an extension of fuzzy cognitive map by incorporating indeterminacy. Hijras is considered as neither man nor woman in biological point of view. They are in special gender identity (third gender in Indian society. In their daily life, they have to face many of problems in social aspects. Some of the problems namely, absence of social security, education problem, bad habits, health problem, stigma and discrimination, access to information and service problem, violence, Hijra community issues, and sexual behavior problem are considered in this study. Based on the expert’s opinion and the notion of indeterminacy, we formulate neutrosophic cognitive map. Then we studied the effect of two instantaneous state vectors separately on connection matrix E and neutrosophic adjacency matrix N(E.

  9. Surficial and vertical distribution of heavy metals in different estuary wetlands in the Pearl river, South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Honggang; Cui, Baoshan [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Zhang, Kejiang [Xinjiang Research Center of Water and Wastewater Treatment, Xinjiang Deland Co., LTD., Urumqi (China)

    2012-10-15

    A total of 87 soil profiles sampled from five types of wetlands in the Pearl River estuary were analyzed to investigate the surficial and vertical distributions of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). The results show that wetlands directly connected with rivers (e.g., riparian wetlands, estuarine wetlands, and mangrove wetlands) has much higher metal concentrations than those indirectly connected with rivers (e.g., pond wetlands and reclaimed wetlands). The river water is the major pollution source for all investigated heavy metals. The vertical distribution of heavy metals can be classified into three patterns: (i) linear distribution pattern. The concentration of heavy metals gradually decreases with an increase in soil depth (for riparian and estuarine wetlands); (ii) irregular and stable pattern (for pond and reclaimed wetlands); and (iii) middle enrichment pattern (for mangrove wetlands). In addition to river-borne inputs, a variety of vegetation composition, hydraulic conditions, and human activities also contribute to the variation in distribution of heavy metals in different wetlands. Soil properties (e.g., particle size, pH, salinity, and SOM) also affect the distribution of trace metals in each soil layer. The major pollution source of heavy metals is industrial wastewater. Other sources include agriculture and domestic premises, and atmospheric deposition. This study provides a sound basis for the risk assessment of heavy metals in the studied wetlands and for wetland conservation in general. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Physical, Chemical, Ecological, and Age Data and Trench Logs from Surficial Deposits at Hatch Point, Southeastern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harland L.; Miller, Mark E.; Yount, James C.; Reheis, Marith C.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Belnap, Jayne; Lamothe, Paul J.; McGeehan, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents data and describes the methodology for physical, chemical and ecological measurements of sediment, soil, and vegetation, as well as age determinations of surficial deposits at Hatch Point, Canyon Rims area, Colorado Plateau, southeastern Utah. The results presented in this report support a study that examines geomorphic and soil factors that may influence boundaries between shrubland and grassland ecosystems in the study area. Shrubland ecosystems dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) and grassland ecosystems dominated by native perennial grasses (for example, Hilaria jamesii and Sporabolis sp.) are high-priority conservation targets for the Federal Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and other resource managers because of their diversity, productivity, and vital importance as wildlife habitat. These ecosystems have been recognized as imperiled on a regional scale since at least the mid-1990s due to habitat loss (type conversions), land-use practices, and invasive exotic plants. In the Intermountain West, the exotic annual cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is recognized as one of the most pervasive and serious threats to the health of native sagebrush and grassland ecosystems through effects on fire regimes and resource conditions experienced by native species.

  11. Regional setting, distribution and genesis of surficial uranium deposits in calcretes and associated sediments in Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, C.R.M.; Mann, A.W.; Horwitz, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Surficial uranium deposits in Western Australia are largely in the Yilgarn Block in areas of Archean granitoids and greenstones, and in the Gascoyne Province in Proterozoic granites and gneisses. The region has had a long weathering history marked by continuous planation developing a regolith up to 100 metres thick. The distribution of calcrete type uranium deposits is controlled by geologic as well as weathering, erosion and climatic factors. Valley, playa and terrace deposits are recognized. The principal known surficial uranium deposit, Yeelirrie, occurs in the Yilgarn block as a valley deposit. (author)

  12. Characterizing semantic mappings adaptation via biomedical KOS evolution: a case study investigating SNOMED CT and ICD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Julio Cesar; Pruski, Cédric; Da Silveira, Marcos; Reynaud-Delaître, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Mappings established between Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) increase semantic interoperability between biomedical information systems. However, biomedical knowledge is highly dynamic and changes affecting KOS entities can potentially invalidate part or the totality of existing mappings. Understanding how mappings evolve and what the impacts of KOS evolution on mappings are is therefore crucial for the definition of an automatic approach to maintain mappings valid and up-to-date over time. In this article, we study variations of a specific KOS complex change (split) for two biomedical KOS (SNOMED CT and ICD-9-CM) through a rigorous method of investigation for identifying and refining complex changes, and for selecting representative cases. We empirically analyze and explain their influence on the evolution of associated mappings. Results point out the importance of considering various dimensions of the information described in KOS, like the semantic structure of concepts, the set of relevant information used to define the mappings and the change operations interfering with this set of information.

  13. Soil-geographical regionalization as a basis for digital soil mapping: Karelia case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikov, P.; Sidorova, V.; Dubrovina, I.

    2010-12-01

    Recent development of digital soil mapping (DSM) allowed improving significantly the quality of soil maps. We tried to make a set of empirical models for the territory of Karelia, a republic at the North-East of the European territory of Russian Federation. This territory was selected for the pilot study for DSM for two reasons. First, the soils of the region are mainly monogenetic; thus, the effect of paleogeographic environment on recent soils is reduced. Second, the territory was poorly mapped because of low agricultural development: only 1.8% of the total area of the republic is used for agriculture and has large-scale soil maps. The rest of the territory has only small-scale soil maps, compiled basing on the general geographic concepts rather than on field surveys. Thus, the only solution for soil inventory was the predictive digital mapping. The absence of large-scaled soil maps did not allow data mining from previous soil surveys, and only empirical models could be applied. For regionalization purposes, we accepted the division into Northern and Southern Karelia, proposed in the general scheme of soil regionalization of Russia; boundaries between the regions were somewhat modified. Within each region, we specified from 15 (Northern Karelia) to 32 (Southern Karelia) individual soilscapes and proposed soil-topographic and soil-lithological relationships for every soilscape. Further field verification is needed to adjust the models.

  14. Patterns and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in surficial sediments of Lakes Erie and Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Li; Gewurtz, Sarah B.; Reiner, Eric J.; MacPherson, Karen A.; Kolic, Terry M.; Helm, Paul A.; Brindle, Ian D.; Marvin, Chris H.

    2008-01-01

    This study determines spatial trends and congener patterns of 2378-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in surficial sediments of Lakes Erie and Ontario. Sediments are enriched in 2378-PCDFs in Lake Ontario, and the PCDD/F concentrations increased from shallow near-shore sediments towards deep-water depositional zone sediments. In Lake Erie, sediments were dominated by octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and the highest PCDD/F concentrations were observed in the western basin and the southern shoreline of the central basin with a decrease towards the eastern basin and the northern shoreline of the central basin. Principal components analysis revealed that chemical manufacture and disposal of chemical waste along the Niagara River has been a major PCDD/F source to Lake Ontario; while PCDD/Fs in Lake Erie are from multiple sources including industrial sources along the Detroit River, major tributaries along the southern shoreline of the lake, and atmospherically-derived material from the upper lakes and connecting channels. - Lake-wide 2378-PCDD/F congener patterns are first reported in L. Erie and L. Ontario sediments

  15. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Tomales Point, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 200 m) subsurface geology.

  16. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Endris, Charles A.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Ross, Stephanie L.; Bruns, Terry R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  17. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Conrad, James E.; Greene, H. Gary; Seitz, Gordon G.; Endris, Charles A.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; East, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  18. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Pacifica, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brian D.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Bretz, Carrie K.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Chinn, John L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Cochran, Susan A.; Edwards, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. 

  19. Optimization of friction stir welding using space mapping and manifold mapping-an initial study of thermal aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Astrup; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to optimize a thermal model of a friction stir welding process by finding optimal welding parameters. The optimization is performed using space mapping and manifold mapping techniques in which a coarse model is used along with the fine model to be optimized. Different...

  20. Creating a literature database of low-calorie sweeteners and health studies: evidence mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ding Ding; Shams-White, Marissa; Bright, Oliver John M; Parrott, J Scott; Chung, Mei

    2016-01-05

    Evidence mapping is an emerging tool used to systematically identify, organize and summarize the quantity and focus of scientific evidence on a broad topic, but there are currently no methodological standards. Using the topic of low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) and selected health outcomes, we describe the process of creating an evidence-map database and demonstrate several example descriptive analyses using this database. The process of creating an evidence-map database is described in detail. The steps include: developing a comprehensive literature search strategy, establishing study eligibility criteria and a systematic study selection process, extracting data, developing outcome groups with input from expert stakeholders and tabulating data using descriptive analyses. The database was uploaded onto SRDR™ (Systematic Review Data Repository), an open public data repository. Our final LCS evidence-map database included 225 studies, of which 208 were interventional studies and 17 were cohort studies. An example bubble plot was produced to display the evidence-map data and visualize research gaps according to four parameters: comparison types, population baseline health status, outcome groups, and study sample size. This plot indicated a lack of studies assessing appetite and dietary intake related outcomes using LCS with a sugar intake comparison in people with diabetes. Evidence mapping is an important tool for the contextualization of in-depth systematic reviews within broader literature and identifies gaps in the evidence base, which can be used to inform future research. An open evidence-map database has the potential to promote knowledge translation from nutrition science to policy.

  1. Creating a literature database of low-calorie sweeteners and health studies: evidence mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Ding Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence mapping is an emerging tool used to systematically identify, organize and summarize the quantity and focus of scientific evidence on a broad topic, but there are currently no methodological standards. Using the topic of low-calorie sweeteners (LCS and selected health outcomes, we describe the process of creating an evidence-map database and demonstrate several example descriptive analyses using this database. Methods The process of creating an evidence-map database is described in detail. The steps include: developing a comprehensive literature search strategy, establishing study eligibility criteria and a systematic study selection process, extracting data, developing outcome groups with input from expert stakeholders and tabulating data using descriptive analyses. The database was uploaded onto SRDR™ (Systematic Review Data Repository, an open public data repository. Results Our final LCS evidence-map database included 225 studies, of which 208 were interventional studies and 17 were cohort studies. An example bubble plot was produced to display the evidence-map data and visualize research gaps according to four parameters: comparison types, population baseline health status, outcome groups, and study sample size. This plot indicated a lack of studies assessing appetite and dietary intake related outcomes using LCS with a sugar intake comparison in people with diabetes. Conclusion Evidence mapping is an important tool for the contextualization of in-depth systematic reviews within broader literature and identifies gaps in the evidence base, which can be used to inform future research. An open evidence-map database has the potential to promote knowledge translation from nutrition science to policy.

  2. A Contribution to the Study of Ensemble of Self-Organizing Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Antonio Pasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a factorial experiment to investigate the ensemble of Kohonen Self-Organizing Maps. Clusters Validity Indexes and the Mean Square Quantization Error were used as a criterion for fusing Kohonen Maps, through three different equations and four approaches. Computational simulations were performed with traditional dataset, including those with high dimensionality, not linearly separable classes, Gaussian mixtures, almost touching clusters, and unbalanced classes, from the UCI Machine Learning Repository and from Fundamental Clustering Problems Suite, with variations in map size, number of ensemble components, and the percentage of dataset bagging. The proposed method achieves a better classification than a single Kohonen Map and we applied the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test to evidence its effectiveness.

  3. Mapping biomass with remote sensing: a comparison of methods for the case study of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Matieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing biomass is gaining increasing interest mainly for bioenergy, climate change research and mitigation activities, such as reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+. In response to these needs, a number of biomass/carbon maps have been recently produced using different approaches but the lack of comparable reference data limits their proper validation. The objectives of this study are to compare the available maps for Uganda and to understand the sources of variability in the estimation. Uganda was chosen as a case-study because it presents a reliable national biomass reference dataset. Results The comparison of the biomass/carbon maps show strong disagreement between the products, with estimates of total aboveground biomass of Uganda ranging from 343 to 2201 Tg and different spatial distribution patterns. Compared to the reference map based on country-specific field data and a national Land Cover (LC dataset (estimating 468 Tg, maps based on biome-average biomass values, such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC default values, and global LC datasets tend to strongly overestimate biomass availability of Uganda (ranging from 578 to 2201 Tg, while maps based on satellite data and regression models provide conservative estimates (ranging from 343 to 443 Tg. The comparison of the maps predictions with field data, upscaled to map resolution using LC data, is in accordance with the above findings. This study also demonstrates that the biomass estimates are primarily driven by the biomass reference data while the type of spatial maps used for their stratification has a smaller, but not negligible, impact. The differences in format, resolution and biomass definition used by the maps, as well as the fact that some datasets are not independent from the

  4. The Case Study as Research Heuristic: Lessons from the R&D Value Mapping Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Barry; Klein, Hans K.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the role of prototype case studies as the foundation for later evaluation through two studies from the "R&D Value Mapping Project," a study that will involve more than 30 cases. Explores the usefulness of case studies in defining and assessing subsequent research efforts. (SLD)

  5. Ecosystem Services Mapping Uncertainty Assessment: A Case Study in the Fitzroy Basin Mining Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services mapping is becoming increasingly popular through the use of various readily available mapping tools, however, uncertainties in assessment outputs are commonly ignored. Uncertainties from different sources have the potential to lower the accuracy of mapping outputs and reduce their reliability for decision-making. Using a case study in an Australian mining region, this paper assessed the impact of uncertainties on the modelling of the hydrological ecosystem service, water provision. Three types of uncertainty were modelled using multiple uncertainty scenarios: (1 spatial data sources; (2 modelling scales (temporal and spatial and (3 parameterization and model selection. We found that the mapping scales can induce significant changes to the spatial pattern of outputs and annual totals of water provision. In addition, differences in parameterization using differing sources from the literature also led to obvious differences in base flow. However, the impact of each uncertainty associated with differences in spatial data sources were not so great. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of uncertainty assessment and highlight that any conclusions drawn from ecosystem services mapping, such as the impacts of mining, are likely to also be a property of the uncertainty in ecosystem services mapping methods.

  6. User-Centered Design for Interactive Maps: A Case Study in Crime Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Roth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the topic of user-centered design (UCD for cartography, GIScience, and visual analytics. Interactive maps are ubiquitous in modern society, yet they often fail to “work” as they could or should. UCD describes the process of ensuring interface success—map-based or otherwise—by gathering input and feedback from target users throughout the design and development of the interface. We contribute to the expanding literature on UCD for interactive maps in two ways. First, we synthesize core concepts on UCD from cartography and related fields, as well as offer new ideas, in order to organize existing frameworks and recommendations regarding the UCD of interactive maps. Second, we report on a case study UCD process for GeoVISTA CrimeViz, an interactive and web-based mapping application supporting visual analytics of criminal activity in space and time. The GeoVISTA CrimeViz concept and interface were improved iteratively by working through a series of user→utility→usability loops in which target users provided input and feedback on needs and designs (user, prompting revisions to the conceptualization and functional requirements of the interface (utility, and ultimately leading to new mockups and prototypes of the interface (usability for additional evaluation by target users (user… and so on. Together, the background review and case study offer guidance for applying UCD to interactive mapping projects, and demonstrate the benefit of including target users throughout design and development.

  7. [Exploratory study of clinical reasoning in nursing students with concept mapping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paucard-Dupont, Sylvie; Marchand, Claire

    2014-06-01

    The training reference leading to the state nursing diploma places the learning of clinical reasoning at the center of the training. We have been wondering about the possibilities of making visible the student nurse's mental processes when they provide nursing care in order to identify their strategies and reasoning difficulties. It turns out that concept mapping is a research tool capable of showing these two aspects. The aim of this study is to verify a concept mapping made during an interview and built from the speech of a nursing student when analyzing a simulated clinical situation, is able to make visible its strategies clinical reasoning and reasoning difficulties. In a second phase of it, is to explore how the concept map once elaborated allows students to identify their own intellectual reasoning. 12 nursing second year students have participated in the study. Concept maps were constructed by the trainer/researcher as the students analyzed aloud a simulated clinical situation written. Concept maps were analyzed from a reference grid. Interviews were conducted following the elaboration of concept maps and student's comments were analyzed. Students reasoning strategies were either mixed inductive dominant (5/12) or hypothetical-deductive dominant (5/12). Reasoning difficulties identified are related to the lack of identification of important information, the lack of analysis of data, lack of connection or the existence of faulty links. Analysis of the comments highlights that concept mapping contributed to the development of metacognitive skills. The concept mapping has shown benefits in contributing to a diagnostic assessment of clinical reasoning learning. It is an additional resource tool to facilitate the development of metacognitive skills for students. This tool can be useful to implement support learning strategies in clinical reasoning.

  8. Application of Remote Sensing in Geological Mapping, Case Study al Maghrabah Area - Hajjah Region, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahmi, F.; Saddiqi, O.; Hilali, A.; Rhinane, H.; Baidder, L.; El arabi, H.; Khanbari, K.

    2017-11-01

    Remote sensing technology plays an important role today in the geological survey, mapping, analysis and interpretation, which provides a unique opportunity to investigate the geological characteristics of the remote areas of the earth's surface without the need to gain access to an area on the ground. The aim of this study is achievement a geological map of the study area. The data utilizes is Sentinel-2 imagery, the processes used in this study, the OIF Optimum Index Factor is a statistic value that can be used to select the optimum combination of three bands in a satellite image. It's based on the total variance within bands and correlation coefficient between bands, ICA Independent component analysis (3, 4, 6) is a statistical and computational technique for revealing hidden factors that underlie sets of random variables, measurements, or signals, MNF Minimum Noise Fraction (1, 2, 3) is used to determine the inherent dimensionality of image data to segregate noise in the data and to reduce the computational requirements for subsequent processing, Optimum Index Factor is a good method for choosing the best band for lithological mapping. ICA, MNF, also a practical way to extract the structural geology maps. The results in this paper indicate that, the studied area can be divided into four main geological units: Basement rocks (Meta volcanic, Meta sediments), Sedimentary rocks, Intrusive rocks, volcanic rocks. The method used in this study offers great potential for lithological mapping, by using Sentinel-2 imagery, the results were compared with existing geologic maps and were superior and could be used to update the existing maps.

  9. Empirical Studies on the Use of Social Software in Global Software Development - a Systematic Mapping Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuffrida, Rosalba; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    of empirical studies on the usage of SoSo are available in related fields, there exists no comprehensive overview of what has been investigated to date across them. Objective: The aim of this review is to map empirical studies on the usage of SoSo in Software Engineering projects and in distributed teams...... for collaborative work, fostering awareness, knowledge management and coordination among team members. Contrary to the evident high importance of the social aspects offered by SoSo, socialization is not the most important usage reported. Conclusions: This review reports how SoSo is used in GSD and how it is capable...... of supporting GSD teams. Four emerging themes in global software engineering were identified: the appropriation and development of usage structures; understanding how an ecology of communication channels and tools are used by teams; the role played by SoSo either as a subtext or as an explicit goal; and finally...

  10. Intrinsic alterations in the partial molar volume on the protein denaturation: surficial Kirkwood-Buff approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Isseki; Takayanagi, Masayoshi; Nagaoka, Masataka

    2009-03-19

    The partial molar volume (PMV) of the protein chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 (CI2) was calculated by all-atom MD simulation. Denatured CI2 showed almost the same average PMV value as that of native CI2. This is consistent with the phenomenological question of the protein volume paradox. Furthermore, using the surficial Kirkwood-Buff approach, spatial distributions of PMV were analyzed as a function of the distance from the CI2 surface. The profiles of the new R-dependent PMV indicate that, in denatured CI2, the reduction in the solvent electrostatic interaction volume is canceled out mainly by an increment in thermal volume in the vicinity of its surface. In addition, the PMV of the denatured CI2 was found to increase in the region in which the number density of water atoms is minimum. These results provide a direct and detailed picture of the mechanism of the protein volume paradox suggested by Chalikian et al.

  11. Data on nearshore wave process and surficial beach deposits, central Tamil Nadu coast, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joevivek, V; Chandrasekar, N

    2017-08-01

    The chronicles of nearshore morphology and surficial beach deposits provide valuable information about the nature of the beach condition and the depositional environment. It imparts an understanding about the spatial and temporal relationship of nearshore waves and its influence over the distribution of beach sediments. This article contains data about wave and sediment dynamics of the ten sandy beaches along the central Tamil Nadu coast, India. This present dataset comprises nearshore wave parameters, breaker wave type, beach morphodynamic state, grain size distribution and weight percentage of heavy and light mineral distribution. The dataset will figure out the beach morphology and hydrodynamic condition with respect to the different monsoonal season. This will act as a field reference to realize the coastal dynamics in an open sea condition. The nearshore entities were obtained from the intensive field survey between January 2011 and December 2011, while characteristics of beach sediments are examined by the chemical process in the laboratory environment.

  12. Applying Clustering Methods in Drawing Maps of Science: Case Study of the Map For Urban Management Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abuei Ardakan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper offers a basic introduction to data clustering and demonstrates the application of clustering methods in drawing maps of science. All approaches towards classification and clustering of information are briefly discussed. Their application to the process of visualization of conceptual information and drawing of science maps are illustrated by reviewing similar researches in this field. By implementing aggregated hierarchical clustering algorithm, which is an algorithm based on complete-link method, the map for urban management science as an emerging, interdisciplinary scientific field is analyzed and reviewed.

  13. Poverty Mapping Project: Poverty and Food Security Case Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Poverty and Food Security Case Studies dataset consists of small area estimates of poverty, inequality, food security and related measures for subnational...

  14. A double-mutant collection targeting MAP kinase related genes in Arabidopsis for studying genetic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shih-Heng; Krysan, Patrick J

    2016-12-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades are conserved in all eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana there are approximately 80 genes encoding MAP kinase kinase kinases (MAP3K), 10 genes encoding MAP kinase kinases (MAP2K), and 20 genes encoding MAP kinases (MAPK). Reverse genetic analysis has failed to reveal abnormal phenotypes for a majority of these genes. One strategy for uncovering gene function when single-mutant lines do not produce an informative phenotype is to perform a systematic genetic interaction screen whereby double-mutants are created from a large library of single-mutant lines. Here we describe a new collection of 275 double-mutant lines derived from a library of single-mutants targeting genes related to MAP kinase signaling. To facilitate this study, we developed a high-throughput double-mutant generating pipeline using a system for growing Arabidopsis seedlings in 96-well plates. A quantitative root growth assay was used to screen for evidence of genetic interactions in this double-mutant collection. Our screen revealed four genetic interactions, all of which caused synthetic enhancement of the root growth defects observed in a MAP kinase 4 (MPK4) single-mutant line. Seeds for this double-mutant collection are publicly available through the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center. Scientists interested in diverse biological processes can now screen this double-mutant collection under a wide range of growth conditions in order to search for additional genetic interactions that may provide new insights into MAP kinase signaling. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Method for mapping population-based case-control studies: an application using generalized additive models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschengrau Ann

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mapping spatial distributions of disease occurrence and risk can serve as a useful tool for identifying exposures of public health concern. Disease registry data are often mapped by town or county of diagnosis and contain limited data on covariates. These maps often possess poor spatial resolution, the potential for spatial confounding, and the inability to consider latency. Population-based case-control studies can provide detailed information on residential history and covariates. Results Generalized additive models (GAMs provide a useful framework for mapping point-based epidemiologic data. Smoothing on location while controlling for covariates produces adjusted maps. We generate maps of odds ratios using the entire study area as a reference. We smooth using a locally weighted regression smoother (loess, a method that combines the advantages of nearest neighbor and kernel methods. We choose an optimal degree of smoothing by minimizing Akaike's Information Criterion. We use a deviance-based test to assess the overall importance of location in the model and pointwise permutation tests to locate regions of significantly increased or decreased risk. The method is illustrated with synthetic data and data from a population-based case-control study, using S-Plus and ArcView software. Conclusion Our goal is to develop practical methods for mapping population-based case-control and cohort studies. The method described here performs well for our synthetic data, reproducing important features of the data and adequately controlling the covariate. When applied to the population-based case-control data set, the method suggests spatial confounding and identifies statistically significant areas of increased and decreased odds ratios.

  16. Study on magnetic field mapping within cylindrical center volume of general magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li; Lee, Sang Jin [Uiduk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    For the magnetic field analysis or design, it is important to know the behavior of the magnetic field in an interesting space. Magnetic field mapping becomes a useful tool for the study of magnetic field. In this paper, a numerical way for mapping the magnetic field within the cylindrical center volume of magnet is presented, based on the solution of the Laplace's equation in the cylindrical coordinate system. The expression of the magnetic field can be obtained by the magnetic flux density, which measured in the mapped volume. According to the form of the expression, the measurement points are arranged with the parallel cylindrical line (PCL) method. As example, the magnetic flux density generated by an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) magnet and a quadrupole magnet were mapped using the PCL method, respectively. The mapping results show the PCL arrangement method is feasible and convenience to map the magnetic field within a cylindrical center volume generated by the general magnet.

  17. Meeting the Demands of Professional Education: A Study of Mind Mapping in a Professional Doctoral Physical Therapy Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Elicia L.

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to investigate whether the quiz scores of physical therapy students who integrated mind mapping in their learning strategies are significantly different than the quiz scores of students who did not use mind mapping to learn in a lecture-based research course and examine the students' perceptions of mind mapping as a…

  18. IMMUNOCAT—A Data Management System for Epitope Mapping Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo L. Chung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To enable rationale vaccine design, studies of molecular and cellular mechanisms of immune recognition need to be linked with clinical studies in humans. A major challenge in conducting such translational research studies lies in the management and integration of large amounts and various types of data collected from multiple sources. For this purpose, we have established “IMMUNOCAT”, an interactive data management system for the epitope discovery research projects conducted by our group. The system provides functions to store, query, and analyze clinical and experimental data, enabling efficient, systematic, and integrative data management. We demonstrate how IMMUNOCAT is utilized in a large-scale research contract that aims to identify epitopes in common allergens recognized by T cells from human donors, in order to facilitate the rational design of allergy vaccines. At clinical sites, demographic information and disease history of each enrolled donor are captured, followed by results of an allergen skin test and blood draw. At the laboratory site, T cells derived from blood samples are tested for reactivity against a panel of peptides derived from common human allergens. IMMUNOCAT stores results from these T cell assays along with MHC:peptide binding data, results from RAST tests for antibody titers in donor serum, and the respective donor HLA typing results. Through this system, we are able to perform queries and integrated analyses of the various types of data. This provides a case study for the use of bioinformatics and information management techniques to track and analyze data produced in a translational research study aimed at epitope identification.

  19. IMMUNOCAT-a data management system for epitope mapping studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jo L; Sun, Jian; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern

    2010-01-01

    To enable rationale vaccine design, studies of molecular and cellular mechanisms of immune recognition need to be linked with clinical studies in humans. A major challenge in conducting such translational research studies lies in the management and integration of large amounts and various types of data collected from multiple sources. For this purpose, we have established "IMMUNOCAT", an interactive data management system for the epitope discovery research projects conducted by our group. The system provides functions to store, query, and analyze clinical and experimental data, enabling efficient, systematic, and integrative data management. We demonstrate how IMMUNOCAT is utilized in a large-scale research contract that aims to identify epitopes in common allergens recognized by T cells from human donors, in order to facilitate the rational design of allergy vaccines. At clinical sites, demographic information and disease history of each enrolled donor are captured, followed by results of an allergen skin test and blood draw. At the laboratory site, T cells derived from blood samples are tested for reactivity against a panel of peptides derived from common human allergens. IMMUNOCAT stores results from these T cell assays along with MHC:peptide binding data, results from RAST tests for antibody titers in donor serum, and the respective donor HLA typing results. Through this system, we are able to perform queries and integrated analyses of the various types of data. This provides a case study for the use of bioinformatics and information management techniques to track and analyze data produced in a translational research study aimed at epitope identification.

  20. Geomorphic Surface Maps of Northern Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, Southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale (1:6000) surficial geology maps of northern Frenchman Flat were developed in 1995 as part of comprehensive site characterization required to operate a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in that area. Seven surficial geology maps provide fundamental data on natural processes and are the platform needed to reconstruct the Quaternary history of northern Frenchman Flat. Reconstruction of the Quaternary history provides an understanding of the natural processes that act to develop the landscape, and the time-frames involved in landscape development. The mapping was conducted using color and color-infrared aerial photographs and field verification of map unit composition and boundaries. Criteria for defining the map unit composition of geomorphic surface units are based on relative geomorphic position, landform morphology, and degree of preservation of surface morphology. Seven geomorphic surfaces (Units 1 through 7) are recognized, spanning from the early Quaternary to present time

  1. Spatial memory extinction: a c-Fos protein mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Couz, M; Conejo, N M; Vallejo, G; Arias, J L

    2014-03-01

    While the neuronal basis of spatial memory consolidation has been thoroughly studied, the substrates mediating the process of extinction remain largely unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the functional contribution of selected brain regions during the extinction of a previously acquired spatial memory task in the Morris water maze. For that purpose, we used adult male Wistar rats trained in a spatial reference memory task. Learning-related changes in c-Fos inmunoreactive cells after training were evaluated in cortical and subcortical regions. Results show that removal of the hidden platform in the water maze induced extinction of the previously reinforced escape behavior after 16 trials, without spontaneous recovery 24h later. Extinction was related with significantly higher numbers of c-Fos positive nuclei in amygdala nuclei and prefrontal cortex. On the other hand, the lateral mammillary bodies showed higher number of c-Fos positive cells than the control group. Therefore, in contrast with the results obtained in studies of classical conditioning, we show the involvement of diencephalic structures mediating this kind of learning. In summary, our findings suggest that medial prefrontal cortex, the amygdala complex and diencephalic structures like the lateral mammillary nuclei are relevant for the extinction of spatial memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. DIGITAL GEOLOGIC MAP OF SHERMAN QUADRANGLE, NORTH CENTRAL TEXAS (CD-ROM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This compact disc contains digital data sets of the surficial geology and geologic faults for the 1:250,000-scale Sherman quadrangle, North Central Texas, and can be used to make geologic maps, and determine approximate areas and locations of various geologic units. The source d...

  3. Development of a competency mapping tool for undergraduate professional degree programmes, using mechanical engineering as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, David W.; Sheehan, Madoc; Birks, Melanie; Smithson, John

    2018-01-01

    Mapping the curriculum of a professional degree to the associated competency standard ensures graduates have the competence to perform as professionals. Existing approaches to competence mapping vary greatly in depth, complexity, and effectiveness, and a standardised approach remains elusive. This paper describes a new mapping software tool that streamlines and standardises the competency mapping process. The available analytics facilitate ongoing programme review, management, and accreditation. The complete mapping and analysis of an Australian mechanical engineering degree programme is described as a case study. Each subject is mapped by evaluating the amount and depth of competence development present. Combining subject results then enables highly detailed programme level analysis. The mapping process is designed to be administratively light, with aspects of professional development embedded in the software. The effective competence mapping described in this paper enables quantification of learning within a professional degree programme, and provides a mechanism for holistic programme improvement.

  4. Applying Value Stream Mapping Technique for Production Improvement in a Manufacturing Company: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaraj, K. L.; Muralidharan, C.; Mahalingam, R.; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain how value stream mapping (VSM) is helpful in lean implementation and to develop the road map to tackle improvement areas to bridge the gap between the existing state and the proposed state of a manufacturing firm. Through this case study, the existing stage of manufacturing is mapped with the help of VSM process symbols and the biggest improvement areas like excessive TAKT time, production, and lead time are identified. Some modifications in current state map are suggested and with these modifications future state map is prepared. Further TAKT time is calculated to set the pace of production processes. This paper compares the current state and future state of a manufacturing firm and witnessed 20 % reduction in TAKT time, 22.5 % reduction in processing time, 4.8 % reduction in lead time, 20 % improvement in production, 9 % improvement in machine utilization, 7 % improvement in man power utilization, objective improvement in workers skill level, and no change in the product and semi finished product inventory level. The findings are limited due to the focused nature of the case study. This case study shows that VSM is a powerful tool for lean implementation and allows the industry to understand and continuously improve towards lean manufacturing.

  5. Geochemical and Radiological Characteristics of Harvested Rainwater and Surficial Soil in El-Alamein-Alam El-Rum area, Western Mediterranean Coastal Zone, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, S.A.; Ramadan, A.A.; Salama, M.H.; Diab, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with investigating the geochemical and radiological properties of surficial soil and harvested rainwater in Al-Alamein-Alam El-Rum area located in the western Mediterranean coastal zone of Egypt. Forty five water and soil samples were investigated. The surficial soil has heterogeneous physical, chemical and radiological properties and the texture was dominated by sand clayey loam and sandy loam. The salinities were varied from non-saline (EC=1.25 dS/m) to strongly saline (EC=38 dS/m) and the pH ranged from slightly alkaline (7.6) to strongly alkaline (8.95). The major part of soil samples has chemical composition dominated by Na + and Cl - ions and occasionally Mg2 + and SO 4 2 - ions indicating the existence of different chemical facies. The radioactivity level indicated the dominance of 40 K followed by 226 Ra and 232 Th radionuclides and the average radioactivities in the surficial soil samples were 16.59, 11.75, 290.80 and 1.79 Bq/kg for 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs, respectively. The heterogeneity in major ion and radioactivity concentrations were attributed to the variation in chemical and radionuclide compositions of the exposed rocks in the area where the soils are originated. The harvested rainwater is fresh (EC ranged from 0.24 to 0.83 dS/m) and has alkalinity nature varied between slightly alkaline (pH=7.27) and alkaline (pH=8.69). Its chemical composition was prevailed by Na + and HCO 3 - ions and sometimes Ca 2+ and/or Mg 2+ and SO 4 2 - ions reflecting the presence of various hydrochemical facies. It shows the same trend of radionuclide dominance of soils ( 40 K > 226 Ra > 232 Th). The radioactivity concentrations in harvested water samples were 19, 1.01 and 14.0 Bq/l for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively, while the water samples have 137 Cs concentrations under the detection limit and the water rocks interaction is the main reason causing the variation in major ions and radionuclide concentrations. The obtained chemical and

  6. IClinfMRI Software for Integrating Functional MRI Techniques in Presurgical Mapping and Clinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ai-Ling; Hou, Ping; Johnson, Jason M; Wu, Changwei W; Noll, Kyle R; Prabhu, Sujit S; Ferguson, Sherise D; Kumar, Vinodh A; Schomer, Donald F; Hazle, John D; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Liu, Ho-Ling

    2018-01-01

    Task-evoked and resting-state (rs) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques have been applied to the clinical management of neurological diseases, exemplified by presurgical localization of eloquent cortex, to assist neurosurgeons in maximizing resection while preserving brain functions. In addition, recent studies have recommended incorporating cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) imaging into clinical fMRI to evaluate the risk of lesion-induced neurovascular uncoupling (NVU). Although each of these imaging techniques possesses its own advantage for presurgical mapping, a specialized clinical software that integrates the three complementary techniques and promptly outputs the analyzed results to radiology and surgical navigation systems in a clinical format is still lacking. We developed the Integrated fMRI for Clinical Research (IClinfMRI) software to facilitate these needs. Beyond the independent processing of task-fMRI, rs-fMRI, and CVR mapping, IClinfMRI encompasses three unique functions: (1) supporting the interactive rs-fMRI mapping while visualizing task-fMRI results (or results from published meta-analysis) as a guidance map, (2) indicating/visualizing the NVU potential on analyzed fMRI maps, and (3) exporting these advanced mapping results in a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format that are ready to export to a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and a surgical navigation system. In summary, IClinfMRI has the merits of efficiently translating and integrating state-of-the-art imaging techniques for presurgical functional mapping and clinical fMRI studies.

  7. A model for fine mapping in family based association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Stefan; Pfeiffer, Ruth M

    2009-01-01

    Genome wide association studies for complex diseases are typically followed by more focused characterization of the identified genetic region. We propose a latent class model to evaluate a candidate region with several measured markers using observations on families. The main goal is to estimate linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the observed markers and the putative true but unobserved disease locus in the region. Based on this model, we estimate the joint distribution of alleles at the observed markers and the unobserved true disease locus, and a penetrance parameter measuring the impact of the disease allele on disease risk. A family specific random effect allows for varying baseline disease prevalences for different families. We present a likelihood framework for our model and assess its properties in simulations. We apply the model to an Alzheimer data set and confirm previous findings in the ApoE region.

  8. Studies on nitrogen mapping by various CR-39 track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, G.; Varga, Zs.; Hunyadi, I.; Freyer, K.; Treutler, H.Ch.

    1986-01-01

    The use of CR-39 track detectors for nitrogen distribution measurements via the /sup 14/N(n,p)/sup 14/C reaction is studied. The proton detection properties of different CR-39 products have been analyzed. The variation of background track density induced in the bulk of detectors is examined under different conditions of neutron irradiation. Analysis of our experimental data has led to the conclusion that the sources of proton background tracks are the fast neutron component of the neutron source, chlorine impurities in the detector and nitrogen diffused from the air into the upper layer of the detector. Efforts have been made to decrease the nitrogen content of diffusion origin by removing the upper detector layer and by outgassing the CR-39 sheet in vacuum before irradiation. Finally the ''signal/noise'' ratio for a steel specimen and the sensitivity of nitrogen determination are given.

  9. A landscape-scale approach to examining the fate of atmospherically derived industrial metals in the surficial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromsoe, Nicola; Marx, Samuel K; McGowan, Hamish A; Callow, Nikolaus; Heijnis, Henk; Zawadzki, Atun

    2015-02-01

    Industrial metals are now ubiquitous within the atmosphere and their deposition represents a potential source of contamination to surficial environments. Few studies, however, have examined the environmental fate of atmospheric industrial metals within different surface environments. In this study, patterns of accumulation of atmospherically transported industrial metals were investigated within the surface environments of the Snowy Mountains, Australia. Metals, including Pb, Sb, Cr and Mo, were enriched in aerosols collected in the Snowy Mountains by 3.5-50 times pre-industrial concentrations. In sedimentary environments (soils, lakes and reservoirs) metals showed varying degrees of enrichment. Differences were attributed to the relative degree of atmospheric input, metal sensitivity to enrichment, catchment area and metal behaviour following deposition. In settings where atmospheric deposition dominated (ombrotrophic peat mires in the upper parts of catchments), metal enrichment patterns most closely resembled those in collected aerosols. However, even in these environments significant dilution (by 5-7 times) occurred. The most sensitive industrial metals (those with the lowest natural concentration; Cd, Ag, Sb and Mo) were enriched throughout the studied environments. However, in alpine tarn-lakes no other metals were enriched, due to the dilution of pollutant-metals by catchment derived sediment. In reservoirs, which were located lower within catchments, industrial metals exhibited more complex patterns. Particle reactive metals (e.g. Pb) displayed little enrichment, implying that they were retained up catchment, whereas more soluble metals (e.g., Cu and Zn) showed evidence of concentration. These same metals (Cu and Zn) were depleted in soils, implying that they are preferentially transported through catchments. Enrichment of other metals (e.g. Cd) varied between reservoirs as a function of contributing catchment area. Overall this study showed that the fate

  10. Mapping Women's and Gender Studies in the Academic Field in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Milica Antic

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to map the development of women's and gender studies (WGS) in the academic field in Slovenia. Slovenia is the first of the former Yugoslav state republics in which WGS have succeeded in entering the academic field and becoming part of institutionalised university study. In this paper we will ask the following…

  11. A Mapping Study on Cooperation between Information System Development and Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erich, Floris; Amrit, Chintan Amrit; Daneva, Maia; Jedlitschka, Andreas; Kuvaja, Pasi; Kuhrmann, Marco; Männistö, Tomi; Münch, Jürgen; Raatikainen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    DevOps is a conceptual framework for reintegrating development and operations of Information Systems.We performed a Systematic Mapping Study to explore DevOps. 26 articles out of 139 were selected, studied and summarized. Based on this a concept table was constructed. We discovered that DevOps has

  12. Feasibility study of geospatial mapping of chronic disease risk to inform public health commissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Douglas; Smith, Dianna; Mathur, Rohini; Robson, John; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2012-01-01

    small-area geospatial maps of diabetes risk calculated from general practice electronic record data across a district-wide population was feasible but not straightforward. Geovisualisation of epidemiological and environmental data, made possible by interdisciplinary links between public health clinicians and human geographers, allows presentation of findings in a way that is both accessible and engaging, hence potentially of value to commissioners and policymakers. Impact studies are needed of how maps of chronic disease risk might be used in public health and urban planning.

  13. Geological characterization in urban areas based on geophysical mapping: A case study from Horsens, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Thomsen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Geophysical mapping in urban areas. Detailed 3D geological model of the area. Mapping contaminant plume......Geophysical mapping in urban areas. Detailed 3D geological model of the area. Mapping contaminant plume...

  14. Assessment of Three Flood Hazard Mapping Methods: A Case Study of Perlis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizat, Nazirah; Omar, Wan Mohd Sabki Wan

    2018-03-01

    Flood is a common natural disaster and also affect the all state in Malaysia. Regarding to Drainage and Irrigation Department (DID) in 2007, about 29, 270 km2 or 9 percent of region of the country is prone to flooding. Flood can be such devastating catastrophic which can effected to people, economy and environment. Flood hazard mapping can be used is an important part in flood assessment to define those high risk area prone to flooding. The purposes of this study are to prepare a flood hazard mapping in Perlis and to evaluate flood hazard using frequency ratio, statistical index and Poisson method. The six factors affecting the occurrence of flood including elevation, distance from the drainage network, rainfall, soil texture, geology and erosion were created using ArcGIS 10.1 software. Flood location map in this study has been generated based on flooded area in year 2010 from DID. These parameters and flood location map were analysed to prepare flood hazard mapping in representing the probability of flood area. The results of the analysis were verified using flood location data in year 2013, 2014, 2015. The comparison result showed statistical index method is better in prediction of flood area rather than frequency ratio and Poisson method.

  15. Entrances skin dose distribution maps for interventional neuroradiological procedures: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rampado, O.; Ropolo, R.

    2005-01-01

    Does estimation in interventional neuroradiology can be useful to limit skin radiation injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of entrance skin dose (ESD) maps in planning exposure condition optimisation. Thirteen cerebral angiography and five embolisation procedures were monitored, measuring ESD, dose-area product (DAP) and other operational parameters. A transmission ionisation chamber, simultaneously measuring air kerma and DAP, measured dose-related quantities. Data acquisition software collected dosimetric and geometrical data during the interventional procedure and provided a distribution map of ESD on a standard phantom digital image, with maximum value estimation. Values of 88-1710 mGy for maximum skin dose and 16.7-343 Gy cm 2 for DAP were found. These data confirm the possibility of deterministic effects during therapeutic interventional neuroradiological procedures like cerebral embolisation. ESD maps are useful to retrospectively study the exposure characteristics of a procedure and plan patient exposure optimisation. (authors)

  16. Geologic Map of the Shenandoah National Park Region, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, Scott; Aleinikoff, John N.; Bailey, Christopher M.; Burton, William C.; Crider, E.A.; Hackley, Paul C.; Smoot, Joseph P.; Tollo, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    The geology of the Shenandoah National Park region of Virginia was studied from 1995 to 2008. The focus of the study was the park and surrounding areas to provide the National Park Service with modern geologic data for resource management. Additional geologic data of the adjacent areas are included to provide regional context. The geologic map can be used to support activities such as ecosystem delineation, land-use planning, soil mapping, groundwater availability and quality studies, aggregate resources assessment, and engineering and environmental studies. The study area is centered on the Shenandoah National Park, which is mostly situated in the western part of the Blue Ridge province. The map covers the central section and western limb of the Blue Ridge-South Mountain anticlinorium. The Skyline Drive and Appalachian National Scenic Trail straddle the drainage divide of the Blue Ridge highlands. Water drains northwestward to the South Fork of the Shenandoah River and southeastward to the James and Rappahannock Rivers. East of the park, the Blue Ridge is an area of low relief similar to the physiography of the Piedmont province. The Great Valley section of the Valley and Ridge province is west of Blue Ridge and consists of Page Valley and Massanutten Mountain. The distribution and types of surficial deposits and landforms closely correspond to the different physiographic provinces and their respective bedrock. The Shenandoah National Park is underlain by three general groups of rock units: (1) Mesoproterozoic granitic gneisses and granitoids, (2) Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Swift Run Formation and metabasalt of the Catoctin Formation, and (3) siliciclastic rocks of the Lower Cambrian Chilhowee Group. The gneisses and granitoids mostly underlie the lowlands east of Blue Ridge but also rugged peaks like Old Rag Mountain (996 meter). Metabasalt underlies much of the highlands, like Stony Man (1,200 meters). The siliciclastic rocks underlie linear

  17. Including non-public data and studies in systematic reviews and systematic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddaway, Neal R; Collins, Alexandra M; Coughlin, Deborah; Kohl, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Systematic reviews and maps should be based on the best available evidence, and reviewers should make all reasonable efforts to source and include potentially relevant studies. However, reviewers may not be able to consider all existing evidence, since some data and studies may not be publicly available. Including non-public studies in reviews provides a valuable opportunity to increase systematic review/map comprehensiveness, potentially mitigating negative impacts of publication bias. Studies may be non-public for many reasons: some may still be in the process of being published (publication can take a long time); some may not be published due to author/publisher restrictions; publication bias may make it difficult to publish non-significant or negative results. Here, we consider what forms these non-public studies may take and the implications of including them in systematic reviews and maps. Reviewers should carefully consider the advantages and disadvantages of including non-public studies, weighing risks of bias against benefits of increased comprehensiveness. As with all systematic reviews and maps, reviewers must be transparent about methods used to obtain data and avoid risks of bias in their synthesis. We make tentative suggestions for reviewers in situations where non-public data may be present in an evidence base. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Creating real estate maps by using GIS: A case study of Atakum-Samsun/Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik Ahmet Sesli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining the real estate evaluations and reflecting them on taxations are among the most important economic resources of the developed countries. In Turkey, the system is not able to ground the real estate evaluations on scientific criteria yet, which causes various problems in applications regarding real estate evaluations (such as estate tax, expropriation, court surveillances and an important economic loss.Thus, it is required to generate tax-base real estate evaluation maps within the scope of the legal legislation in Turkey. This study aimed to generate a fast, up-to-date and dynamic evaluation map that would form a base for the real estate taxation. The closeness of real estates to the technical infrastructure and social equipment areas and their variety affect the real estate evaluations either positively or negatively and form the local benefit for real estates. This study determined the areas (such as main roads, green spaces, trading areas and urban attraction centers affecting the evaluations of real estates depending on their positions. In order to make position-based decisions about the data being stored in the Geographical Information System, the geographical data were questioned and monitored with analyses. The acquired data were exposed to necessary analyses in the relevant modules of the GIS programs, which enabled us to grade the factors affecting the evaluation for each parcel and try to generate real estate evaluation maps depending on the evaluation-effect factors to be selected as dynamics. Parcel-based real estate evaluations were determined by imposing vector-based cadastral maps on these maps being generated. In this study, a raster real estate evaluation map was generated in unstructured parcels of a sample neighborhood via the scoring method and with the help of the Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Analysis and both environmental and social factors. This system could enable us to question and analyze the features of

  19. Flood mapping from Sentinel-1 and Landsat-8 data: a case study from river Evros, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriou, Aggeliki; Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos

    2015-10-01

    Floods are suddenly and temporary natural events, affecting areas which are not normally covered by water. The influence of floods plays a significant role both in society and the natural environment, therefore flood mapping is crucial. Remote sensing data can be used to develop flood map in an efficient and effective way. This work is focused on expansion of water bodies overtopping natural levees of the river Evros, invading the surroundings areas and converting them in flooded. Different techniques of flood mapping were used using data from active and passive remote sensing sensors like Sentinlel-1 and Landsat-8 respectively. Space borne pairs obtained from Sentinel-1 were processed in this study. Each pair included an image during the flood, which is called "crisis image" and another one before the event, which is called "archived image". Both images covering the same area were processed producing a map, which shows the spread of the flood. Multispectral data From Landsat-8 were also processed in order to detect and map the flooded areas. Different image processing techniques were applied and the results were compared to the respective results of the radar data processing.

  20. Mapping perception to action in piano practice: a longitudinal DC-EEG study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangert Marc

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Performing music requires fast auditory and motor processing. Regarding professional musicians, recent brain imaging studies have demonstrated that auditory stimulation produces a co-activation of motor areas, whereas silent tapping of musical phrases evokes a co-activation in auditory regions. Whether this is obtained via a specific cerebral relay station is unclear. Furthermore, the time course of plasticity has not yet been addressed. Results Changes in cortical activation patterns (DC-EEG potentials induced by short (20 minute and long term (5 week piano learning were investigated during auditory and motoric tasks. Two beginner groups were trained. The 'map' group was allowed to learn the standard piano key-to-pitch map. For the 'no-map' group, random assignment of keys to tones prevented such a map. Auditory-sensorimotor EEG co-activity occurred within only 20 minutes. The effect was enhanced after 5-week training, contributing elements of both perception and action to the mental representation of the instrument. The 'map' group demonstrated significant additional activity of right anterior regions. Conclusion We conclude that musical training triggers instant plasticity in the cortex, and that right-hemispheric anterior areas provide an audio-motor interface for the mental representation of the keyboard.

  1. A case study for the integration of predictive mineral potential maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Saro; Oh, Hyun-Joo; Heo, Chul-Ho; Park, Inhye

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to elaborate on the mineral potential maps using various models and verify the accuracy for the epithermal gold (Au) — silver (Ag) deposits in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment assuming that all deposits shared a common genesis. The maps of potential Au and Ag deposits were produced by geological data in Taebaeksan mineralized area, Korea. The methodological framework consists of three main steps: 1) identification of spatial relationships 2) quantification of such relationships and 3) combination of multiple quantified relationships. A spatial database containing 46 Au-Ag deposits was constructed using GIS. The spatial association between training deposits and 26 related factors were identified and quantified by probabilistic and statistical modelling. The mineral potential maps were generated by integrating all factors using the overlay method and recombined afterwards using the likelihood ratio model. They were verified by comparison with test mineral deposit locations. The verification revealed that the combined mineral potential map had the greatest accuracy (83.97%), whereas it was 72.24%, 65.85%, 72.23% and 71.02% for the likelihood ratio, weight of evidence, logistic regression and artificial neural network models, respectively. The mineral potential map can provide useful information for the mineral resource development.

  2. Physical, chemical, and mineralogical data from surficial deposits, groundwater levels, and water composition in the area of Franklin Lake playa and Ash Meadows, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harland L.; Breit, George N.; Yount, James C.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Reheis, Marith C.; Skipp, Gary L.; Fisher, Eric M.; Lamothe, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents data and describes the methods used to determine the physical attributes, as well as the chemical and mineralogical composition of surficial deposits; groundwater levels; and water composition in the area of Franklin Lake playa and Ash Meadows, California and Nevada. The results support studies that examine (1) the interaction between groundwater and the ground surface, and the transport of solutes through the unsaturated zone; (2) the potential for the accumulation of metals and metalloids in surface crusts; (3) emission of dust from metal-rich salt crust; and (4) the effects of metal-rich dusts on human and ecosystem health. The evaporation of shallow (travel as atmospheric dust and affect human and ecosystem health at local to regional scales.

  3. Evidence for natural molecular hydrogen seepage associated with Carolina bays (surficial, ovoid depressions on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Province of the USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgonnik, Viacheslav; Beaumont, Valérie; Deville, Eric; Larin, Nikolay; Pillot, Daniel; Farrell, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-01

    A study of soil gases was made in North Carolina (USA) in and around morphological depressions called "Carolina bays." This type of depression is observed over the Atlantic coastal plains of the USA, but their origin remains debated. Significant concentrations of molecular hydrogen (H2) were detected, notably around the bays. These measurements suggest that Carolina bays are the surficial expression of fluid flow pathways for hydrogen gas moving from depth to the surface. The potential mechanisms of H2 production and transport and the geological controls on the fluid migration pathways are discussed, with reference to the hypothesis that Carolina bays are the result of local collapses caused by the alteration of rock along the deep pathways of H2 migrating towards the surface. The present H2 seepages are comparable to those in similar structures previously observed in the East European craton.

  4. Value Stream Mapping as a tool for the optimization of production – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krolczyk Jolanta B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the possibility of introducing improvements in processes concerning production logistics basing on the use of value stream mapping. An analysis of the current situation in order to identify waste and problems in the stream flow has been carried out. Subsequently, a future shape map has been drafted with a proposal concerning the manner in which future state ought to be achieved. The thesis is concluded with a general summary as well as conclusions regarding the studied subject and the proposals for further work.

  5. Studies of phase return map and symbolic dynamics in a periodically driven Hodgkin—Huxley neuron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Jiong; Zhang Hong; Tong Qin-Ye; Chen Zhuo

    2014-01-01

    How neuronal spike trains encode external information is a hot topic in neurodynamics studies. In this paper, we investigate the dynamical states of the Hodgkin—Huxley neuron under periodic forcing. Depending on the parameters of the stimulus, the neuron exhibits periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic spike trains. In order to analyze these spike trains quantitatively, we use the phase return map to describe the dynamical behavior on a one-dimensional (1D) map. According to the monotonicity or discontinuous point of the 1D map, the spike trains are transformed into symbolic sequences by implementing a coarse-grained algorithm — symbolic dynamics. Based on the ordering rules of symbolic dynamics, the parameters of the external stimulus can be measured in high resolution with finite length symbolic sequences. A reasonable explanation for why the nervous system can discriminate or cognize the small change of the external signals in a short time is also presented. (general)

  6. CIMOSA process classification for business process mapping in non-manufacturing firms: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latiffianti, Effi; Siswanto, Nurhadi; Wiratno, Stefanus Eko; Saputra, Yudha Andrian

    2017-11-01

    A business process mapping is one important means to enable an enterprise to effectively manage the value chain. One of widely used approaches to classify business process for mapping purpose is Computer Integrated Manufacturing System Open Architecture (CIMOSA). CIMOSA was initially designed for Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) system based enterprises. This paper aims to analyze the use of CIMOSA process classification for business process mapping in the firms that do not fall within the area of CIM. Three firms of different business area that have used CIMOSA process classification were observed: an airline firm, a marketing and trading firm for oil and gas products, and an industrial estate management firm. The result of the research has shown that CIMOSA can be used in non-manufacturing firms with some adjustment. The adjustment includes addition, reduction, or modification of some processes suggested by CIMOSA process classification as evidenced by the case studies.

  7. Groundwater discharge to the Mississippi River and groundwater balances for the Interstate 94 Corridor surficial aquifer, Clearwater to Elk River, Minnesota, 2012–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Lorenz, David L.; Kessler, Erich W.; Berg, Andrew M.; Sanocki, Chris A.

    2017-12-13

    The Interstate 94 Corridor has been identified as 1 of 16 Minnesota groundwater areas of concern because of its limited available groundwater resources. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, completed six seasonal and annual groundwater balances for parts of the Interstate 94 Corridor surficial aquifer to better understand its long-term (next several decades) sustainability. A high-precision Mississippi River groundwater discharge measurement of 5.23 cubic feet per second per mile was completed at low-flow conditions to better inform these groundwater balances. The recharge calculation methods RISE program and Soil-Water-Balance model were used to inform the groundwater balances. For the RISE-derived recharge estimates, the range was from 3.30 to 11.91 inches per year; for the SWB-derived recharge estimates, the range was from 5.23 to 17.06 inches per year.Calculated groundwater discharges ranged from 1.45 to 5.06 cubic feet per second per mile, a ratio of 27.7 to 96.4 percent of the measured groundwater discharge. Ratios of groundwater pumping to total recharge ranged from 8.6 to 97.2 percent, with the longer-term groundwater balances ranging from 12.9 to 19 percent. Overall, this study focused on the surficial aquifer system and its interactions with the Mississippi River. During the study period (October 1, 2012, through November 30, 2014), six synoptic measurements, along with continuous groundwater hydrographs, rainfall records, and a compilation of the pertinent irrigation data, establishes the framework for future groundwater modeling efforts.

  8. A concept mapping study on perpetuating factors of functional somatic symptoms from clinicians' perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Karin A. M.; Houtveen, Jan H.; Tak, Lineke M.; Bonvanie, Irma J.; Scholtalbers, Anna; van Gils, Anne; Geenenc, Rinie; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this concept mapping study was to identify the structure and alleged importance of perpetuating factors of functional somatic symptoms (FSS) from the perspective of professionals. Further, we examined to which extent these factors have been addressed in scientific literature.

  9. Magnetic surveying as an aid to geological mapping: a case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A magnetic map of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU) Campus, in Ile-Ife, was produced from ground magnetic measurements on all the roads and footpaths. The study was aimed at improving our knowledge of the structural disposition of the lithologies within the area. The magnetic data obtained were subjected to ...

  10. Inundation mapping – a study based on December 2004 Tsunami Hazard along Chennai coast, Southeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Satheesh Kumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Tsunami impact study has been undertaken along Chennai coast starting from Pulicat to Kovalam. The study area Chennai coast is mainly devoted to prepare large scale action plan maps on tsunami inundation incorporating land use details derived from satellite data along with cadastral data using a GIS tool. Under tsunami inundation mapping along Chennai coast an integrated approach was adopted to prepare thematic maps on land use/land cover and coastal geomorphology using multispectral remote sensing data. The RTK dGPS instruments are used to collect elevation contour data at 0.5 m intervals for the Chennai coast. The GIS tool has been used to incorporate the elevation data, tsunami inundation markings obtained immediately after tsunami and thematic maps derived from remote sensing data. The outcome of this study provides an important clue on variations in tsunami inundation along Chennai coast, which is mainly controlled by local geomorphologic set-up, coastal zone elevation including coastal erosion protection measures and near shore bathymetry. This study highlights the information regarding most vulnerable areas of tsunami and also provides indication to demarcate suitable sites for rehabilitation.

  11. Mapping GPS Multipath: a Case Study for the Lunar Laser Ranger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cilence Munghemezulu

    Mapping GPS Multipath: a Case Study for the Lunar Laser .... assess the level of multipath in the vicinity of the GNSS antenna by making use of ..... navigation in urban environment', Indian Journal of Radio and Space Physics, vol. ... Torrence C & Compo GP 1998, 'A practical guide to wavelet Analysis', Bulletin of the ...

  12. Mineralogy and origin of surficial uranium deposits hosted in travertine and calcrete from central Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, H.N.; Salameh, E.M.; Clark, I.D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Surficial uranium deposits are hosted in thick travertine and calcrete. • Tyuyamunite–strelkinite are the major components in central Jordan. • The leached water was enriched in redox sensitive U and V. • Deposition is related to unusual highly alkaline circulating water. - Abstract: Secondary uranium encrustations are hosted in thick travertine and calcrete deposits of Pleistocene–Recent age in central Jordan. The central Jordan varicolored marble and travertine are equivalent to the active metamorphic area in Maqarin, north Jordan. More than 100 samples were collected from the outcrops of the varicolored marble, travertine, calcrete, and the yellow uranium encrustations. The secondary yellow encrustations are mainly composed of uranyl vanadate complexes. Tyuyamunite Ca(UO 2 ) 2 V 2 5+ O 8 ·3(H 2 O)–strelkinite Na 2 (UO 2 ) 2 V 2 O 8 ·6(H 2 O) solid solution series are the major components and their composition reflects changes in the Ca/Na ratio in solution. Potentially, new vanadium free calcium uranate phases (restricted to the varicolored marble) were identified with CaO:UO 3 ratios different from the known mineral vorlanite (CaU 6+ )O 4 . Carbon and oxygen isotope data from calcite in the varicolored marble are characterized by Rayleigh-type enrichment in light isotopes associated with release of 13 C and 18 O enriched CO 2 by high temperature decarbonation during combustion of the bituminous marl. Stable isotope results from uranium hosted travertine and calcrete varieties exhibit a wide range in isotopic values, between decarbonated and normal sedimentary carbonate rocks. The depleted δ 13 C and δ 18 O values in the travertine are related to the kinetic reaction of atmospheric CO 2 with hyperalkaline Ca(OH) 2 water. The gradual enrichment of δ 13 C and δ 18 O values in the calcrete towards equilibrium with the surrounding environment is related to continuous evaporation during seasonal dry periods. Uranium mineralization in

  13. Seasonal mercury transformation and surficial sediment detoxification by bacteria of Marano and Grado lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Franco; Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide; Fani, Renato; Maida, Isabel; Horvat, Milena; Fajon, Vesna; Zizek, Suzana; Hines, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Marano and Grado lagoons are polluted by mercury from the Isonzo River and a chlor-alkali plant, yet despite this contamination, clam cultivation is one of the main activities in the region. Four stations (MA, MB, MC and GD) were chosen for clam seeding and surficial sediments were monitored in autumn, winter and summer to determine the Hg detoxifying role of bacteria. Biotransformation of Hg species in surficial sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons was investigated while taking into consideration the speciation of organic matter in the biochemical classes of PRT (proteins), CHO (carbohydrates) and LIP (lipids), water-washed cations and anions, bacterial biomass, Hg-resistant bacteria, some specific microbial activities such as sulfate reduction rates, Hg methylation rates, Hg-demethylation rates, and enzymatic ionic Hg reduction. MeHg in sediments was well correlated with PRT content, whereas total Hg in sediments correlated with numbers of Hg-resistant bacteria. Correlations of the latter with Hg-demethylation rates in autumn and winter suggested a direct role Hg-resistant bacteria in Hg detoxification by producing elemental Hg (Hg0) from ionic Hg and probably also from MeHg. MeHg-demethylation rates were ˜10 times higher than Hg methylation rates, were highest in summer and correlated with high sulfate reduction rates indicating that MeHg was probably degraded in summer by sulfate-reducing bacteria via an oxidative pathway. During the summer period, aerobic heterotrophic Hg-resistant bacteria decreased to <2% compared to 53% in winter. Four Hg-resistant bacterial strains were isolated, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus and Bacillus) and two Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas). Two were able to produce Hg0, but just one contained a merA gene; while other two strains did not produce Hg0 even though they were able to grow at 5 μg ml of HgCl2. Lagoon sediments support a strong sulfur cycle in summer that controls Hg methylation and demethylation

  14. Metamorphic brines and no surficial fluids trapped in the detachment footwall of a Metamorphic Core Complex (Nevado-Filábride units, Betics, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyja-Person, Vanessa; Tarantola, Alexandre; Richard, Antonin; Hibsch, Christian; Siebenaller, Luc; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cathelineau, Michel; Boulvais, Philippe

    2018-03-01

    The ductile-brittle transition zone in extensional regimes can play the role of a hydrogeological barrier. Quartz veins developed within an orthogneiss body located in the detachment footwall of a Metamorphic Core Complex (MCC) in the Nevado-Filábride units (Betics, Spain). The detachment footwall is composed mainly of gneisses, schists and metacarbonates from the Bédar-Macael sub-unit. Schist and metacarbonate bodies show evidence of ductile deformation at the time the gneiss was already undergoing brittle deformation and vein opening during exhumation. The vein system provides the opportunity to investigate the origin, composition and PVTX conditions of the fluids that circulated in the detachment footwall while the footwall units were crossing the ductile-brittle transition. The analysis of fluid inclusions reveals the presence of a single type of fluid: 30-40 mass% NaCl > KCl > CaCl2 > MgCl2 brines, with trace amounts of CO2 and N2 and tens to thousands of ppm of metals such as Fe, Sr, Li, Zn, Ba, Pb and Cu. δDfluid values between -39.8 and -16.7‰ and δ18Ofluid values between 4.4 and 11.7 ± 0.5‰ show that the brines have undergone protracted interaction with the host orthogneissic body. Coupled salinity and Cl/Br ratios (200 to 4400) indicate that the brines originate from dissolution of Triassic metaevaporites by metamorphic fluids variably enriched in Br by interaction with graphitic schists. This study highlights the absence of any record of surficial fluids within the veins, despite the brittle deformation conditions prevailing in this orthogneiss body. The fact that fluids from the detachment footwall were isolated from surficial fluid reservoirs may result from the presence of overlying schists and metacarbonates that continued to be affected by ductile deformation during vein formation in the gneiss, preventing downward circulation of surface-derived fluids.

  15. Utilization of Historical Maps in the Land Use Change Impact Studies: A Case Study from Myjava River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valent P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The way land is used has a significant impact on many hydrological processes that determine the generation of flood runoff or soil erosion. Advancements in remote sensing which took place in the second half of the 20th century have led to the rise of a new research area focused on analyses of land use changes and their impact on hydrological processes. This study deals with an analysis of the changes in land use over a period of almost three centuries in the Myjava River catchment, which has an outlet at Šaštín-Stráže. In order to obtain information about the way the land was used in the past, three historical mappings representing various periods were used: the first (1st military mapping (1764-1787, second (2nd military mapping (1807-1869, and a military topographic mapping (1953-1957. The historical mappings have been manually vectorised in an ArcGIS environment to identify various land use categories. The historical evolution of land use was further compared with a concurrent land use mapping, which was undertaken in 2010 and exploited remote sensing techniques. The study also quantifies the impact of these changes on the long-term catchment runoff as well as their impact on flows induced by extreme precipitation events. This analysis was performed using the WetSpa distributed hydrological model, which enables the simulation of catchment runoff in a daily time step. The analysis showed that the selected catchment has undergone significant changes in land use, mainly characterized by massive deforestation at the end of the 18th century and land consolidation in the middle of the 20th century induced by communist collectivisation. The hydrological simulations demonstrated that the highest and lowest mean annual runoffs were simulated in the first (1st military mapping and the last (concurrent land use monitoring time intervals respectively with the smallest and largest percentages of forested areas.

  16. Utilization of Historical Maps in the Land Use Change Impact Studies: A Case Study from Myjava River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, P.; Rončák, P.; Maliariková, M.; Behan, Š.

    2016-12-01

    The way land is used has a significant impact on many hydrological processes that determine the generation of flood runoff or soil erosion. Advancements in remote sensing which took place in the second half of the 20th century have led to the rise of a new research area focused on analyses of land use changes and their impact on hydrological processes. This study deals with an analysis of the changes in land use over a period of almost three centuries in the Myjava River catchment, which has an outlet at Šaštín-Stráže. In order to obtain information about the way the land was used in the past, three historical mappings representing various periods were used: the first (1st) military mapping (1764-1787), second (2nd) military mapping (1807-1869), and a military topographic mapping (1953-1957). The historical mappings have been manually vectorised in an ArcGIS environment to identify various land use categories. The historical evolution of land use was further compared with a concurrent land use mapping, which was undertaken in 2010 and exploited remote sensing techniques. The study also quantifies the impact of these changes on the long-term catchment runoff as well as their impact on flows induced by extreme precipitation events. This analysis was performed using the WetSpa distributed hydrological model, which enables the simulation of catchment runoff in a daily time step. The analysis showed that the selected catchment has undergone significant changes in land use, mainly characterized by massive deforestation at the end of the 18th century and land consolidation in the middle of the 20th century induced by communist collectivisation. The hydrological simulations demonstrated that the highest and lowest mean annual runoffs were simulated in the first (1st military mapping) and the last (concurrent land use monitoring) time intervals respectively with the smallest and largest percentages of forested areas.

  17. Important considerations in lesion-symptom mapping: Illustrations from studies of word comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Hinna; Sebastian, Rajani; Schnur, Tatiana T; Hanayik, Taylor; Wright, Amy; Tippett, Donna C; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris; Hillis, Argye E

    2017-06-01

    Lesion-symptom mapping is an important method of identifying networks of brain regions critical for functions. However, results might be influenced substantially by the imaging modality and timing of assessment. We tested the hypothesis that brain regions found to be associated with acute language deficits depend on (1) timing of behavioral measurement, (2) imaging sequences utilized to define the "lesion" (structural abnormality only or structural plus perfusion abnormality), and (3) power of the study. We studied 191 individuals with acute left hemisphere stroke with MRI and language testing to identify areas critical for spoken word comprehension. We use the data from this study to examine the potential impact of these three variables on lesion-symptom mapping. We found that only the combination of structural and perfusion imaging within 48 h of onset identified areas where more abnormal voxels was associated with more severe acute deficits, after controlling for lesion volume and multiple comparisons. The critical area identified with this methodology was the left posterior superior temporal gyrus, consistent with other methods that have identified an important role of this area in spoken word comprehension. Results have implications for interpretation of other lesion-symptom mapping studies, as well as for understanding areas critical for auditory word comprehension in the healthy brain. We propose that lesion-symptom mapping at the acute stage of stroke addresses a different sort of question about brain-behavior relationships than lesion-symptom mapping at the chronic stage, but that timing of behavioral measurement and imaging modalities should be considered in either case. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2990-3000, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Evaluation of phenoxybenzamine in the CFA model of pain following gene expression studies and connectivity mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Meiping; Smith, Sarah; Thorpe, Andrew; Barratt, Michael J; Karim, Farzana

    2010-09-16

    We have previously used the rat 4 day Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) model to screen compounds with potential to reduce osteoarthritic pain. The aim of this study was to identify genes altered in this model of osteoarthritic pain and use this information to infer analgesic potential of compounds based on their own gene expression profiles using the Connectivity Map approach. Using microarrays, we identified differentially expressed genes in L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from rats that had received intraplantar CFA for 4 days compared to matched, untreated control animals. Analysis of these data indicated that the two groups were distinguishable by differences in genes important in immune responses, nerve growth and regeneration. This list of differentially expressed genes defined a "CFA signature". We used the Connectivity Map approach to identify pharmacologic agents in the Broad Institute Build02 database that had gene expression signatures that were inversely related ('negatively connected') with our CFA signature. To test the predictive nature of the Connectivity Map methodology, we tested phenoxybenzamine (an alpha adrenergic receptor antagonist) - one of the most negatively connected compounds identified in this database - for analgesic activity in the CFA model. Our results indicate that at 10 mg/kg, phenoxybenzamine demonstrated analgesia comparable to that of Naproxen in this model. Evaluation of phenoxybenzamine-induced analgesia in the current study lends support to the utility of the Connectivity Map approach for identifying compounds with analgesic properties in the CFA model.

  19. Handbook on surficial uranium deposits. Chapter 3. World distribution relative to climate and physical setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlisle, D.

    This chapter discusses regional controls which affect the world distribution of surficial chemogenic uranium deposits. The most important of these are (1) climate, (2) geomorphology, including physiographic and climatic stability, and (3) provenance, i.e., the weathering terrain from which uranium and associated substances are derived. The three economically important environments are the calcrete environment, simple evaporative environments and paludal environments. Of these three categories, the calcrete uranium environment is probably the most uniquely constrained in terms of regional climate, geomorphic setting, provenance (vanadium as well as uranium) and especially the need for long term stability of both climate and physiography. Purely evaporative deposits, though subject to some of the same kinds of constraints, can also reflect local circumstances and a wider range of climates, physiographic settings, and source terrains. The third category encompassing bogs, marshes and organic-rich playas can form under an even wider range of climates and settings provided only that organic materials accumulate in abundance and are contacted by uranium-bearing waters. For all of these reasons and also because of the great economic importance of the calcrete environment as well as its relative novelty and complexity the discussion in this chapter is focused on calcrete, dolocrete and gypcrete uranium deposits. Objective data are reviewed first follwed by inferences and suggestions. 13 figures

  20. Heavy metal pollutants in surficial sediments from different coastal sites in Aden Governorate, Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Anis Ahmed; Baharoon Aqil Abdulrahman

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of Gd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Mn and Fe in surficial sediments (<63μm) from the shores in Aden Governorate were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. The obtained concentration data show significant regional variations concerning both the total and leachable metals in sediments. Total metal concentrations of Cd and Pb were greatest in sediments from labor Island; Cu, Cr, and Fe occurred in the highest levels in Bandar Fuqum sediments, while maximum levels of Mn, Co, and Ni were observed in sediments from Sahel Abyan and Fuqum. Labile, easily extractable species of metals such as Cd and Pb, are similar to their total concentrations, and additionally Cu, Zn, Cr, and Fe were found in the highest concentrations in sediments from labor Island. Sediments from Sahel Abyan and Khawr Bir Ahmed were characterized by a maximum accumulation of bioavailable species of Co and Mn, respectively. The linear regression slopes for metals correlated were <1, this explains the slow enrichment of these metals in the sediments, and attributes their geological nature. (author)

  1. St. Louis area earthquake hazards mapping project; seismic and liquefaction hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Chris H.; Bauer, Robert A.; Chung, Jae-won; Rogers, David; Pierce, Larry; Voigt, Vicki; Mitchell, Brad; Gaunt, David; Williams, Robert; Hoffman, David; Hempen, Gregory L.; Steckel, Phyllis; Boyd, Oliver; Watkins, Connor M.; Tucker, Kathleen; McCallister, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    We present probabilistic and deterministic seismic and liquefaction hazard maps for the densely populated St. Louis metropolitan area that account for the expected effects of surficial geology on earthquake ground shaking. Hazard calculations were based on a map grid of 0.005°, or about every 500 m, and are thus higher in resolution than any earlier studies. To estimate ground motions at the surface of the model (e.g., site amplification), we used a new detailed near‐surface shear‐wave velocity model in a 1D equivalent‐linear response analysis. When compared with the 2014 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Model, which uses a uniform firm‐rock‐site condition, the new probabilistic seismic‐hazard estimates document much more variability. Hazard levels for upland sites (consisting of bedrock and weathered bedrock overlain by loess‐covered till and drift deposits), show up to twice the ground‐motion values for peak ground acceleration (PGA), and similar ground‐motion values for 1.0 s spectral acceleration (SA). Probabilistic ground‐motion levels for lowland alluvial floodplain sites (generally the 20–40‐m‐thick modern Mississippi and Missouri River floodplain deposits overlying bedrock) exhibit up to twice the ground‐motion levels for PGA, and up to three times the ground‐motion levels for 1.0 s SA. Liquefaction probability curves were developed from available standard penetration test data assuming typical lowland and upland water table levels. A simplified liquefaction hazard map was created from the 5%‐in‐50‐year probabilistic ground‐shaking model. The liquefaction hazard ranges from low (60% of area expected to liquefy) in the lowlands. Because many transportation routes, power and gas transmission lines, and population centers exist in or on the highly susceptible lowland alluvium, these areas in the St. Louis region are at significant potential risk from seismically induced liquefaction and associated

  2. A Systematic Mapping Study of Software Architectures for Cloud Based Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chauhan, Muhammad Aufeef; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Context: Cloud computing has gained significant attention of researchers and practitioners. This emerging paradigm is being used to provide solutions in multiple domains without huge upfront investment because of its on demand recourse-provisioning model. However, the information about how software...... of this study is to systematically identify and analyze the currently published research on the topics related to software architectures for cloud-based systems in order to identify architecture solutions for achieving quality requirements. Method: We decided to carry out a systematic mapping study to find...... as much peer-reviewed literature on the topics related to software architectures for cloud-based systems as possible. This study has been carried out by following the guidelines for conducting systematic literature reviews and systematic mapping studies as reported in the literature. Based on our paper...

  3. Functional Topography of Human Corpus Callosum: An fMRI Mapping Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fabri, Mara; Polonara, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a topographical map of the corpus callosum (CC) has emerged from human lesion studies and from electrophysiological and anatomical tracing investigations in other mammals. Over the last few years a rising number of researchers have been reporting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in white matter, particularly the CC. In this study the scope for describing CC topography with fMRI was explored by evoking activation through simple sensory stimulation and moto...

  4. Elemental distributions in surficial sediments and potential offshore mineral resources from the western continental margin of India. Part 2. Potential offshore mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.; Mascarenhas, A.; Rao, Ch.M.; PrakashBabu, C.; Murty, P.S.N.

    patterns of ten selected elements is surficial sediments. Part 2 projects the potential offshore mineral resources. Target areas for future exploration and indicated and exploration strategies are recommended. Appendix 1 is a compilation of the bibliography...

  5. Instance selection in digital soil mapping: a study case in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio Giasson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A critical issue in digital soil mapping (DSM is the selection of data sampling method for model training. One emerging approach applies instance selection to reduce the size of the dataset by drawing only relevant samples in order to obtain a representative subset that is still large enough to preserve relevant information, but small enough to be easily handled by learning algorithms. Although there are suggestions to distribute data sampling as a function of the soil map unit (MU boundaries location, there are still contradictions among research recommendations for locating samples either closer or more distant from soil MU boundaries. A study was conducted to evaluate instance selection methods based on spatially-explicit data collection using location in relation to soil MU boundaries as the main criterion. Decision tree analysis was performed for modeling digital soil class mapping using two different sampling schemes: a selecting sampling points located outside buffers near soil MU boundaries, and b selecting sampling points located within buffers near soil MU boundaries. Data was prepared for generating classification trees to include only data points located within or outside buffers with widths of 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600m near MU boundaries. Instance selection methods using both spatial selection of methods was effective for reduced size of the dataset used for calibrating classification tree models, but failed to provide advantages to digital soil mapping because of potential reduction in the accuracy of classification tree models.

  6. Flood Hazard Mapping using Hydraulic Model and GIS: A Case Study in Mandalay City, Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Kyu Sein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of flood frequency analysis integrating with 1D Hydraulic model (HECRAS and Geographic Information System (GIS to prepare flood hazard maps of different return periods in Ayeyarwady River at Mandalay City in Myanmar. Gumbel’s distribution was used to calculate the flood peak of different return periods, namely, 10 years, 20 years, 50 years, and 100 years. The flood peak from frequency analysis were input into HEC-RAS model to find the corresponding flood level and extents in the study area. The model results were used in integrating with ArcGIS to generate flood plain maps. Flood depths and extents have been identified through flood plain maps. Analysis of 100 years return period flood plain map indicated that 157.88 km2 with the percentage of 17.54% is likely to be inundated. The predicted flood depth ranges varies from greater than 0 to 24 m in the flood plains and on the river. The range between 3 to 5 m were identified in the urban area of Chanayetharzan, Patheingyi, and Amarapua Townships. The highest inundated area was 85 km2 in the Amarapura Township.

  7. Distributing Images and Information over the Web - a Case Study of the Pont Manuscript Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Fleet

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Technological changes in recent years have encouraged many libraries to deliver digital images of their materials over the Internet. For larger items, including maps, high resolution images of research quality can now be obtained from steadily cheaper equipment, computers can process larger images more comfortably, and newer compression formats have allowed these images to be viewed interactively online. The exponential growth of the Internet has also created a large body of users who wish to access these images from their homes or desktops. Within this context, this paper describes the scanning of the Pont manuscript maps of Scotland, the technology used to make these maps available over the Internet, and the initial stages of the construction of a website of associated information. This case study is not presented as a prescriptive example of best practice, but rather as an illustration of some of the main practical issues involved, using these to present arguments for and against current map digitisation and Web delivery work.

  8. Mapping Crop Planting Quality in Sugarcane from UAV Imagery: A Pilot Study in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inti Luna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important economic resource for many tropical countries and optimizing plantations is a serious concern with economic and environmental benefits. One of the best ways to optimize the use of resources in those plantations is to minimize the occurrence of gaps. Typically, gaps open in the crop canopy because of damaged rhizomes, unsuccessful sprouting or death young stalks. In order to avoid severe yield decrease, farmers need to fill the gaps with new plants. Mapping gap density is therefore critical to evaluate crop planting quality and guide replanting. Current field practices of linear gap evaluation are very labor intensive and cannot be performed with sufficient intensity as to provide detailed spatial information for mapping, which makes replanting difficult to perform. Others have used sensors carried by land vehicles to detect gaps, but these are complex and require circulating over the entire area. We present a method based on processing digital mosaics of conventional images acquired from a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  (UAV that produced a map of gaps at 23.5 cm resolution in a study area of 8.7 ha with 92.9% overall accuracy. Linear Gap percentage estimated from this map for a grid with cells of 10 m × 10 m linearly correlates with photo-interpreted linear gap percentage with a coefficient of determination (R2= 0.9; a root mean square error (RMSE = 5.04; and probability (p << 0.01. Crop Planting Quality levels calculated from image-derived gaps agree with those calculated from a photo-interpreted version of currently used field methods (Spearman coefficient = 0.92. These results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of processing mosaics of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS images for mapping gap density and, together with previous studies using satellite and hand-held spectroradiometry, suggests the extension towards multi-spectral imagery to add insight on plant condition.

  9. Socio economic community mapping around Dumai Timur (case study: Tanjung Palas Village)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilham, Ami; Putra, M. Umar Maya

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to analyze the socio economic community mapping around Dumai Timur Sub District with a case study: Tanjung Palas Village. The problem in this research is to analyze community needs and potential contained there. The data used are primary data that have been obtained to do data entry based on the guidance from the actors concerned, there is a transfer in the form of qualitative data into quantitative measurement techniques reference instrument of socio economic mapping activities. From the results of this study indicate that the necessary empowerment of social management in which short-term policy for the addition of water discharge, training on the concept of raising entrepreneurial innovation. For the long term necessary to make a business innovation and sustainability development pattern with operational assistance in the form of seeds, the manufacture of cages and chicken feed.

  10. Shallow Water Habitat Mapping in Cape Cod National Seashore: A Post-Hurricane Sandy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, M.; Smith, T.; Legare, B.; Mittermayr, A.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Sandy had a dramatic impact along coastal areas in proximity to landfall in late October 2012, and those impacts have been well-documented in terrestrial coastal settings. However, due to the lack of data on submerged marine habitats, similar subtidal impact studies have been limited. This study, one of four contemporaneous studies commissioned by the US National Park Service, developed maps of submerged shallow water marine habitats in and around Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts. All four studies used similar methods of data collection, processing and analysis for the production of habitat maps. One of the motivations for the larger study conducted in the four coastal parks was to provide park managers with a baseline inventory of submerged marine habitats, against which to measure change after future storm events and other natural and anthropogenic phenomena. In this study data from a phase-measuring sidescan sonar, bottom grab samples, seismic reflection profiling, and sediment coring were all used to develop submerged marine habitat maps using the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS). Vessel-based acoustic surveys (n = 76) were conducted in extreme shallow water across four embayments from 2014-2016. Sidescan sonar imagery covering 83.37 km2 was collected, and within that area, 49.53 km2 of co-located bathymetric data were collected with a mean depth of 4.00 m. Bottom grab samples (n = 476) to sample macroinvertebrates and sediments (along with other water column and habitat data) were collected, and these data were used along with the geophysical and coring data to develop final habitat maps using the CMECS framework.

  11. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PANORAMIC MAPS DESIGN: A PRELIMINARY STUDY BASED ON MOBILE EYE-TRACKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balzarini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results from an ongoing research based on the study of visual attention through mobile eye-tracking techniques. The visual-cognitive approach investigates the reading-comprehension of a particular territorial representation: ski trails maps. The general issue of the study is to provide insights about the effectiveness of panoramic ski maps and more broadly, to suggest innovative efficient representation of the geographic information in mountain. According to some mountain operators, the information provided by paper ski maps no longer meets the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to new digital practices (iPhone, tablets. In a computerized process perspective, this study particularly focuses on the representations, and the inferred information, which are really helpful to the users-skiers to apprehend the territory and make decisions, and which could be effectively replicated into a digital system. The most interesting output relies on the relevance of the panorama view: panorama still fascinates, but contrary to conventional wisdom, the information it provides does not seem to be useful to the skier. From a socio-historical perspective this study shows how empirical evidence-based approach can support the change: our results enhance the discussion on the effectiveness of the message that mountain operators want to convey to the tourist and therefore, on the renewal of (geographical information in ski resorts.

  12. The Effectiveness of Panoramic Maps Design: a Preliminary Study Based on Mobile Eye-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzarini, R.; Murat, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from an ongoing research based on the study of visual attention through mobile eye-tracking techniques. The visual-cognitive approach investigates the reading-comprehension of a particular territorial representation: ski trails maps. The general issue of the study is to provide insights about the effectiveness of panoramic ski maps and more broadly, to suggest innovative efficient representation of the geographic information in mountain. According to some mountain operators, the information provided by paper ski maps no longer meets the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to new digital practices (iPhone, tablets). In a computerized process perspective, this study particularly focuses on the representations, and the inferred information, which are really helpful to the users-skiers to apprehend the territory and make decisions, and which could be effectively replicated into a digital system. The most interesting output relies on the relevance of the panorama view: panorama still fascinates, but contrary to conventional wisdom, the information it provides does not seem to be useful to the skier. From a socio-historical perspective this study shows how empirical evidence-based approach can support the change: our results enhance the discussion on the effectiveness of the message that mountain operators want to convey to the tourist and therefore, on the renewal of (geographical) information in ski resorts.

  13. Systematic mapping study of information communication technology research for agriculture (in case of developing Countries)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zewge, Amanuel; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Context: A rural community in a developing country is a socially complex and infrastructural weak environment that demands clear understanding of the social, economical, cultural, and political precondition before implementing information commutation technology (ICT) innovations. Objective: This ...... for an ongoing discourse to fill identified gaps from software engineering, computer science or information system research perspective. Keywords: design method, information system, development, agriculture.......: This work aims to conduct a Systematic Mapping Study (SMS) to get an in-depth understanding about ICT based researches for agriculture in developing countries. Method: A systematic mapping study was carried out to investigate and distill the state-of-the-art from ranked journals and conference publications....... In doing so, data extraction task was carried out using fifteen variables. Eg. What kinds of research challenges and contributions were reported to design ICTs based solutions? Which disciplines (knowledge areas) were most explored? Result: ICT in agriculture has gained attention over the past few years...

  14. A detailed study of the generation of optically detectable watermarks using the logistic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooney, Aidan; Keating, John G.; Heffernan, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    A digital watermark is a visible, or preferably invisible, identification code that is permanently embedded in digital media, to prove owner authentication and provide protection for documents. Given the interest in watermark generation using chaotic functions a detailed study of one chaotic function for this purpose is performed. In this paper, we present an approach for the generation of watermarks using the logistic map. Using this function, in conjunction with seed management, it is possible to generate chaotic sequences that may be used to create highpass or lowpass digital watermarks. In this paper we provide a detailed study on the generation of optically detectable watermarks and we provide some guidelines on successful chaotic watermark generation using the logistic map, and show using a recently published scheme, how care must be taken in the selection of the function seed

  15. Structural mapping from MSS-LANDSAT imagery: A proposed methodology for international geological correlation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Crepani, E.; Martini, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology is proposed for international geological correlation studies based on LANDSAT-MSS imagery, Bullard's model of continental fit and compatible structural trends between Northeast Brazil and the West African counterpart. Six extensive lineaments in the Brazilian study area are mapped and discussed according to their regional behavior and in relation to the adjacent continental margin. Among the first conclusions, correlations were found between the Sobral Pedro II Lineament and the megafaults that surround the West African craton; and the Pernambuco Lineament with the Ngaurandere Linemanet in Cameroon. Ongoing research to complete the methodological stages includes the mapping of the West African structural framework, reconstruction of the pre-drift puzzle, and an analysis of the counterpart correlations.

  16. Influence of contact force on voltage mapping: A combined magnetic resonance imaging and electroanatomic mapping study in patients with tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teijeira-Fernandez, Elvis; Cochet, Hubert; Bourier, Felix; Takigawa, Masateru; Cheniti, Ghassen; Thompson, Nathaniel; Frontera, Antonio; Camaioni, Claudia; Massouille, Gregoire; Jalal, Zakaria; Derval, Nicolas; Iriart, Xavier; Denis, Arnaud; Hocini, Meleze; Haissaguerre, Michel; Jais, Pierre; Thambo, Jean-Benoit; Sacher, Frederic

    2018-03-20

    Voltage criteria for ventricular mapping have been obtained from small series of patients and prioritizing high specificity. The purpose of this study was to analyse the potential influence of contact force (CF) on voltage mapping and to define voltage cutoff values for right ventricular (RV) scar using the tetralogy of Fallot as a model of transmural RV scar and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as reference. Fourteen patients (age 32.6 ± 14.3 years; 5 female) with repaired tetralogy of Fallot underwent high-resolution cardiac MRI (1.25 × 1.25 × 2.5 mm). Scar, defined as pixels with intensity >50% maximum, was mapped over the RV geometry and merged within the CARTO system to RV endocardial voltage maps acquired using a 3.5-mm ablation catheter with CF technology (SmartTouch, Biosense Webster). In total, 2446 points were analyzed, 915 within scars and 1531 in healthy tissue according to MRI. CF correlated to unipolar (ρ = 0.186; P voltage in healthy tissue (ρ = 0.245; P voltage cutoffs of 5.19 mV for unipolar voltage and 1.76 mV for bipolar voltage, yielding sensitivity/specificity of 0.89/0.85 and 0.9/0.9, respectively. CF is an important factor to be taken into account for voltage mapping. If good CF is applied, unipolar and bipolar voltage cutoffs of 5.19 mV and 1.76 mV are optimal for identifying RV scar on endocardial mapping with the SmartTouch catheter. Data on the diagnostic accuracy of different voltage cutoff values are provided. Copyright © 2018 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. What makes segmentation good? A case study in boreal forest habitat mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Räsänen, Aleksi; Rusanen, Antti; Kuitunen, Markku; Lensu, Anssi

    2013-01-01

    Segmentation goodness evaluation is a set of approaches meant for deciding which segmentation is good. In this study, we tested different supervised segmentation evaluation measures and visual interpretation in the case of boreal forest habitat mapping in Southern Finland. The data used were WorldView-2 satellite imagery, a lidar digital elevation model (DEM), and a canopy height model (CHM) in 2 m resolution. The segmentation methods tested were the fractal net evolution approach (FNEA) and ...

  18. Liquefaction Hazard Maps for Three Earthquake Scenarios for the Communities of San Jose, Campbell, Cupertino, Los Altos, Los Gatos, Milpitas, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Santa Clara, Saratoga, and Sunnyvale, Northern Santa Clara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Noce, Thomas E.; Bennett, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Maps showing the probability of surface manifestations of liquefaction in the northern Santa Clara Valley were prepared with liquefaction probability curves. The area includes the communities of San Jose, Campbell, Cupertino, Los Altos, Los Gatos Milpitas, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Santa Clara, Saratoga, and Sunnyvale. The probability curves were based on complementary cumulative frequency distributions of the liquefaction potential index (LPI) for surficial geologic units in the study area. LPI values were computed with extensive cone penetration test soundings. Maps were developed for three earthquake scenarios, an M7.8 on the San Andreas Fault comparable to the 1906 event, an M6.7 on the Hayward Fault comparable to the 1868 event, and an M6.9 on the Calaveras Fault. Ground motions were estimated with the Boore and Atkinson (2008) attenuation relation. Liquefaction is predicted for all three events in young Holocene levee deposits along the major creeks. Liquefaction probabilities are highest for the M7.8 earthquake, ranging from 0.33 to 0.37 if a 1.5-m deep water table is assumed, and 0.10 to 0.14 if a 5-m deep water table is assumed. Liquefaction probabilities of the other surficial geologic units are less than 0.05. Probabilities for the scenario earthquakes are generally consistent with observations during historical earthquakes.

  19. Holocene fluctuations of Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru based on lacustrine and surficial geologic archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, J. S.; Kelly, M. A.; Lowell, T. V.; Beal, S. A.; Smith, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Peru's Quelccaya Ice Cap (QIC; 13.9°S, 70.8°W, ~5200-5670 m asl) is an important site for understanding tropical paleoclimate, mainly because of annually layered ice cores that provide an ~1800 year long record of tropical paleoclimatic conditions (e.g., Thompson et al., 2013). Here, we present a detailed record of QIC fluctuations using surficial deposits and lake sediments that extend back to late glacial time. We compare the late Holocene records of QIC 10Be-dated moraines and ice core data with lake sediments from a nearby glacially fed lake to establish the framework we use to interpret a Holocene long sediment record from a glacially fed lake. We also examine sediments from a nearby non-glacial lake to constrain non-glacial clastic input. We collected two ~5 m-long sediment cores, one from Laguna Challpacocha, which is currently fed by QIC meltwater, and one from the Laguna Yanacocha, which has not received QIC meltwater since ~12.3 ka. Changes in magnetic susceptibility, loss on ignition, bulk density and X-ray fluorescence chemistry combined with 14C and 210Pb chronologies provide information about sediment transported to the lakes. Retreat from the late Holocene extent defined by the 10Be-dated moraine record (~0.52 ka) is contemporaneous with a sharp transition from organic to clastic sedimentation in the Challpacocha core at ~ 0.52 ka. This implies that glacially-sourced clastic sedimentation, as tracked by loss on ignition, Ti counts and bulk density, increased during ice cap recession. Based on these same proxy data, we suggest the following Holocene history of QIC: QIC receded from the Challpacocha basin by ~10.6 ka. Increased clastic sedimentation at 8.2 - 4.1, 3.6 - 2.7 ka and from 0.55 ka - present are interpreted as times of ice cap recession. The increased clastic sedimentation at ~8.2 - 4.1 ka is consistent with surficial deposits near the present-day ice margin that indicate that at ~7.0 - 4.6 ka QIC was smaller than at present (Buffen et al

  20. Application of the Frequency Map Analysis to the Study of the Beam Dynamics of Light Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadolski, Laurent

    2001-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the study of beam dynamics in storage rings with a restriction to single particle transverse dynamics. In a first part, tools (Frequency Map Analysis, Hamiltonian, Integrator) are presented for studying and exploring the dynamics. Numerical simulations of four synchrotron radiation sources (the ALS, the ESRF, SOLEIL and Super-ACO) are performed. We construct a tracking code based on a new class of symplectic integrators (Laskar and Robutel, 2000). These integrators with only positive steps are more precise by an order of magnitude than the standard Forest and Ruth's scheme. Comparisons with the BETA, DESPOT and MAD codes are carried out. Frequency Map Analysis (Laskar, 1990) is our main analysis tool. This is a numerical method for analysing a conservative dynamical system. Based on a refined Fourier technique, it enables us to compute frequency maps which are real footprints of the beam dynamics of an accelerator. We stress the high sensitivity of the dynamics to magnetics errors and sextipolar strengths. The second part of this work is dedicated to the analysis of experimental results from two light sources. Together with the ALS accelerator team (Berkeley), we succeeded in obtaining the first experimental frequency map of an accelerator. The agreement with the machine model is very impressive. At the Super-ACO ring, the study of the tune shift with amplitude enabled us to highlight a strong octupolar-like component related to the quadrupole fringe field. The aftermaths for the beam dynamics are important and give us a better understanding the measured ring performance. All these results are based on turn by turn measurements. Many closely related phenomena are treated such as response matrix analysis or beam decoherence. (author) [fr

  1. Statistical pattern analysis of surficial karst in the Pleistocene Miami oolite of South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul (Mitch); Purkis, Sam; Reyes, Bella

    2018-05-01

    A robust airborne light detection and ranging digital terrain model (LiDAR DTM) and select outcrops are used to examine the extent and characteristics of the surficial karst overprint of the late Pleistocene Miami oolite in South Florida. Subaerial exposure of the Miami oolite barrier bar and shoals to a meteoric diagenetic environment, lasting ca. 120 kyr from the end of the last interglacial highstand MIS 5e until today, has resulted in diagenetic alteration including surface and shallow subsurface dissolution producing extensive dolines and a few small stratiform caves. Analysis of the LiDAR DTM suggests that >50% of the dolines in the Miami oolite have been obscured/lost to urbanization, though a large number of depressions remain apparent and can be examined for trends and spatial patterns. The verified dolines are analyzed for their size and depth, their lateral distribution and relation to depositional topography, and the separation distance between them. Statistical pattern analysis shows that the average separation distance and average density of dolines on the strike-oriented barrier bar versus dip-oriented shoals is statistically inseparable. Doline distribution on the barrier bar is clustered because of the control exerted on dissolution by the depositional topography of the shoal system, whereas patterning of dolines in the more platform-ward lower-relief shoals is statistically indistinguishable from random. The areal extent and depth of dissolution of the dolines are well described by simple mathematical functions, and the depth of the dolines increases as a function of their size. The separation and density results from the Miami oolite are compared to results from other carbonate terrains. Near-surface, stratiform caves in the Miami oolite occur in sites where the largest and deepest dolines are present, and sit at, or near, the top of the present water table.

  2. Hydrophobic organic contaminants in surficial sediments of Baltimore Harbor: Inventories and sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, J.T.F.; Baker, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    The heavily urbanized and industrialized Baltimore Harbor/Patapsco River/Back River system is one of the most highly contaminated regions of the Chesapeake Bay. In June 1996, surficial sediments were collected at 80 sites throughout the subestuarine system, including historically undersampled creek sand embayments. The samples were analyzed for a suite of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) consisting of 32 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 113 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. Total PAH and total PCB concentrations ranged from 90 to 46,200 and 8 to 2,150 ng/g dry weight, respectively. There was enormous spatial variability in the concentrations of HOCs, which was not well correlated to grain size or organic carbon content, suggesting nonequilibrium partitioning and/or proximity to sources as important factors explaining the observed spatial variability. High concentrations of both classes of HOCs were localized around major urban stormwater runoff discharges. Elevated PAH concentrations were also centered around the Sparrow's Point Industrial Complex, most likely a result of the pyrolysis of coal during the production of steel. All but 1 of the 80 sites exceeded the effects range-low (ERL) for total PCBs and, of those sites, 40% exceeded the effects range-medium (ERM), suggesting toxicity to marine benthic organisms would frequently occur. Using principal component analysis, differences in PAH signatures were discerned. Higher molecular weight PAHs were enriched in signatures from sediments close to suspected sources (i.e., urban stormwater runoff and steel production complexes) compared to those patterns observed at sites further from outfalls or runoff. Due to varying solubilities and affinities for organic matter of the individual PAHs, partitioning of the heavier weight PAHs may enrich settling particles with high molecular weight PAHs. Lower molecular weight PAHs, having lower affinity for particles, may travel from the source to a

  3. Sedimentology of a surficial uranium deposit on North Flodelle Creek, Stevens County, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macke, D.L.; Johnson, S.Y.; Otton, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Surficial accumulations of uranium (up to 0.2 wt. % U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, dry basis) are currently forming in organic-rich, poorly drained sediments deposited in fluvial-lacustrine environments. Known occurrences are in northeastern Washington, northern Idaho, the Sierra Nevada, the Colorado Front Range, New Hampshire, and several areas in Canada. The first accumulation of this type to be mined is in postglacial sediments of a 10-acre boggy meadow along North Flodelle Creek in Stevens County, Washington. The meadow is flanked by hills of fine- to medium-grained two-mica quartz monzonite that are mantled by glacial drift of late Wisconsin age (about 18,000 to 11,500 yr B.P.). Relatively thick, hummocky deposits of this same glacial drift impede drainage at the lower end of the meadow. Following ice retreat, glacial sediments on the meadow floor were reworked by fluvial processes, and patches of organic-rich sediment may have formed in ice-melt depressions. About 6700 yr B.P., a blanket of Mazama ash from the Crater Lake eruption was deposited in the meadow. Shortly thereafter, a beaver dam across the lower end of the meadow further restricted drainage, and peat and organic mud accumulated in the pond behind the dam. The dam is preserved in the stratigraphic record as a sheet-like body of woody peat (with beaver-gnawed sticks) about 100m wide and 60 cm thick. After the gradual influx of sand and coarse silt had filled the pond, and the beavers had abandoned the site, fluvial deposition was reestablished

  4. Left Ventricular Electromechanical Mapping: A Case Study of Functional Assessment in Coronary Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Perin, Emerson C.; Silva, Guilherme V.; Sarmento-Leite, Rogerio

    2000-01-01

    Electromechanical mapping is a new diagnostic tool that can be used to identify viable myocardium. In the case reported here, the technique was used before intervention to map areas of viable myocardium; post-intervention mapping showed improved mechanical function of the revascularized areas. Electromechanical mapping offers the potential of assessing left ventricular function in the cardiac catheterization laboratory before and after interventional procedures.

  5. Doserate mapping studies of the Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility after hoist cable replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banini, G.K.; Emi-Reynolds, G.

    1998-01-01

    Irradiation of ethanol chlorobenzene dosimeters (ECB) in air have been carried out in an attempt to map out and confirm the gamma dose field for the inner and outer chambers of the Gamma Irradiation Facility at the Radiation Technology Centre after the replacement of the 5mm diameter stainless weak hoist cables by a 6mm one. The results obtained were compared with expected dose rate values (regressed from the suppliers readings) for the various positions within the irradiation chamber. Our study reveal that the replacement of the hoist cables have been done correctly within specifications and that the dose rate map has not been affected. The significance of the work to routine radiation processing are discussed. (author). 6 refs.; 8 figs

  6. Epidemiological study of brucellosis in eight Greek villages using a Computerised Mapping Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjichristodoulou, Ch.; Papatheodorou, Ch.; Soteriades, E.; Panagakos, G.; Kastritis, I.; Goutziana, G.; Charvalos, E.; Tselentis, Y.

    1999-01-01

    A Computerised Mapping Programme (CMP) was created step by step to cover all the needs of a cross sectional population survey conducted in eight villages of Fokida, a rural area of central Greece. The maps of Greece (boundary) and the topographical maps of the eight villages were created using the CMP. A volunteer sample of 1121 out of 2607 inhabitants of the study area participated in the population survey. The participants were tested for brucellosis using serological tests (ELISA and Rose Bengal) and the intradermal reaction test. A questionnaire was used to obtain information concerning the risk factors for brucellosis. The risk factors found through statistical analysis were occupation (RR: 5.81, p < 0.00001), consumption of raw milk (RR: 1.98, p < 0.001) and unpasteurized fresh cheese (RR: 2.13, p < 0.01). The same factors were indicated by the CMP. The CMP also indicated manure-contaminated playgrounds in residential yards as a potential risk factor for children. The origin and dissemination were delineated using time-space association display. The CMP proved to be a useful tool in this epidemiological study

  7. Mapping the basic reproduction number (Ro) for vector-borne diseases: A case study on bluetongue virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, N.; Purse, B.V.; Meiswinkel, R.; Brown, H.E.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Boender, G.J.; Rogers, D.J.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Geographical maps indicating the value of the basic reproduction number, R0, can be used to identify areas of higher risk for an outbreak after an introduction. We develop a methodology to create R0 maps for vector-borne diseases, using bluetongue virus as a case study. This method provides a tool

  8. A Study to Determine the Contribution Made by Concept Maps to a Computer Architecture and Organization Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Tuncay; Ergun, Serap

    2016-01-01

    Concept mapping is a method of graphical learning that can be beneficial as a study method for concept linking and organization. Concept maps, which provide an elegant, easily understood representation of an expert's domain knowledge, are tools for organizing and representing knowledge. These tools have been used in educational environments to…

  9. Study of the correlation of IVIM parameter maps with FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delso, Gaspar, E-mail: gaspar.delso@usz.ch [GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI (United States); Lee, Sangwoo [GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI (United States); Porto, Miguel; Hüllner, Martin; Veit-Haibach, Patrick [Department of Medical Imaging, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-01-11

    Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) is a magnetic resonance technique to quantify the influence of microscopic perfusion-related motion and differentiate it from pure molecular diffusion. IVIM has the potential to provide valuable clinical information about microcirculation in the capillary network of healthy tissues as well as malignant tumors. Our goal was to study the correlation of IVIM parameter maps with concurrent FDG-PET data, in view of their potential use in clinical PET/MR protocols. Methods: Data were acquired from ten oncology patients using a tri-modality setup and fitted with a bi-exponential model. The fitting was first solved in the least squares sense and then again using iteratively reweighted least squares. The resulting parameter maps were compared with PET FDG data by an experienced radiologist. Results: Among the pathologies encountered in our patient population were lesions of the liver, spleen, kidney, abdominal wall, prostate and cervix. The qualitative comparison with PET confirmed that IVIM maps provide complementary information about functional inhomogeneity within the tumor. Visual inspection by experienced radiologists showed improved reading of tumor heterogeneity in six of our ten patients when considering FDG uptake together with perfusion fraction maps. The use of a large set of b values was instrumental for data validation and outlier rejection. Robust fitting was shown to increase the accuracy of the fit in 70% of the voxels, leading to average changes of IVIM parametric maps: perfusion fraction f∈[3.9×10{sup –3}, 4.7×10{sup −2}], diffusion coefficient D ∈[−1.2×10{sup −4}, −3.0×10{sup −6}] and pseudo-diffusion coefficient D{sup *}∈[−1.6×10{sup −1}, −9.2×10{sup −3}]. Conclusions: The results suggest that IVIM imaging could be successfully integrated in clinical PET/MR protocols. Clinical validation shows the complementarity of obtained parameter maps with concurrent FDG PET data. Ongoing work is

  10. Quaternary Geologic Map of the Regina 4 Degrees x 6 Degrees Quadrangle, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, David S.; Christiansen, Earl A.; Schreiner, Bryan T.; Colton, Roger B.; Clayton, Lee; Bush, Charles A.; Fullerton, David S.

    2007-01-01

    For scientific purposes, the map differentiates Quaternary surficial deposits and materials on the basis of clast lithology or composition, matrix texture or particle size, structure, genesis, stratigraphic relations, engineering geologic properties, and relative age, as shown on the correlation diagram and indicated in the 'Description of Map Units'. Deposits of some constructional landforms, such as end moraines, are distinguished as map units. Deposits of erosional landforms, such as outwash terraces, are not distinguished, although glaciofluvial, ice-contact, fluvial, and lacustrine deposits that are mapped may be terraced. Differentiation of sequences of fluvial and glaciofluvial deposits at this scale is not possible. For practical purposes, the map is a surficial materials map. Materials are distinguished on the basis of lithology or composition, texture or particle size, and other physical, chemical, and engineering characteristics. It is not a map of soils that are recognized and classified in pedology or agronomy. Rather, it is a generalized map of soils as recognized in engineering geology, or of substrata or parent materials in which pedologic or agronomic soils are formed. As a materials map, it serves as a base from which a variety of maps for use in planning engineering, land-use planning, or land-management projects can be derived and from which a variety of maps relating to earth surface processes and Quaternary geologic history can be derived.

  11. D Mapping of Cultural Heritage: Special Problems and best Practices in Extreme Case-Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patias, P.; Kaimaris, D.; Georgiadis, Ch.; Stamnas, A.; Antoniadis, D.; Papadimitrakis, D.

    2013-07-01

    Photogrammetrey has a long successful history in the area of 3D modelling and documentation of cultural heritage monuments. In some cases an extensive study, preparation and the application of novel solutions is required for the successful documentation and 3D modelling of monuments. In most of the cases the problem that we have to face is difficulties regarding accessing, photographing, and measuring the monument from the optimal distance, in combination with the need for a high spatial resolution mapping. This paper is highlighting the special problems and the novel solutions, performed during mapping of two significant cultural heritage monuments in Greece. The Roussanou monastery (1527-1529 A.C., Meteora, Center Greece) and its underlying rock, had to be photographed and measured from a far distance and measured with various spatial resolutions. In the lakeside Neolithic settlement of Dispilio (6.000 B.C., western Greece) the enclosure which is covered with vegetation above a height of 3 m, had to be measured with high spatial resolution. The combined use of a laser scanner, a digital camera equipped with a telephoto lens and UAV allowed the successful mapping and the production of orthophotomaps in each case.

  12. [Studies of marker screening efficiency and corresponding influencing factors in QTL composite interval mapping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong-Ming; Wan, Ping

    2002-06-01

    Screening markers efficiently is the foundation of mapping QTLs by composite interval mapping. Main and interaction markers distinguished, besides using background control for genetic variation, could also be used to construct intervals of two-way searching for mapping QTLs with epistasis, which can save a lot of calculation time. Therefore, the efficiency of marker screening would affect power and precision of QTL mapping. A doubled haploid population with 200 individuals and 5 chromosomes was constructed, with 50 markers evenly distributed at 10 cM space. Among a total of 6 QTLs, one was placed on chromosome I, two linked on chromosome II, and the other three linked on chromosome IV. QTL setting included additive effects and epistatic effects of additive x additive, the corresponding QTL interaction effects were set if data were collected under multiple environments. The heritability was assumed to be 0.5 if no special declaration. The power of marker screening by stepwise regression, forward regression, and three methods for random effect prediction, e.g. best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP), linear unbiased prediction (LUP) and adjusted unbiased prediction (AUP), was studied and compared through 100 Monte Carlo simulations. The results indicated that the marker screening power by stepwise regression at 0.1, 0.05 and 0.01 significant level changed from 2% to 68%, the power changed from 2% to 72% by forward regression. The larger the QTL effects, the higher the marker screening power. While the power of marker screening by three random effect prediction was very low, the maximum was only 13%. That suggested that regression methods were much better than those by using the approaches of random effect prediction to identify efficient markers flanking QTLs, and forward selection method was more simple and efficient. The results of simulation study on heritability showed that heightening of both general heritability and interaction heritability of genotype x

  13. Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: jean-philippe.drolet@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre (ETE-INRS), 490 de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec (Canada); Martel, Richard [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre (ETE-INRS), 490 de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec (Canada); Poulin, Patrick [Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ), 945 avenue Wolfe, G1V 5B3 Quebec (Canada); Dessau, Jean-Claude [Agence de la santé et des services sociaux des Laurentides, 1000 rue Labelle, J7Z 5 N6 Saint-Jérome (Canada)

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal–Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal–Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists. - Highlights: • 5 radiogeochemical datasets were used to map the geogenic indoor radon potential. • An indoor radon potential was determined for

  14. Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe; Martel, Richard; Poulin, Patrick; Dessau, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal–Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal–Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m 3 in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists. - Highlights: • 5 radiogeochemical datasets were used to map the geogenic indoor radon potential. • An indoor radon potential was determined for each

  15. Regional mapping of forest canopy water content and biomass using AIRSAR images over BOREAS study area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, Sasan; Rignot, Eric; Vanzyl, Jakob

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, monitoring vegetation biomass over various climate zones has become the primary focus of several studies interested in assessing the role of the ecosystem responses to climate change and human activities. Airborne and spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems provide a useful tool to directly estimate biomass due to its sensitivity to structural and moisture characteristics of vegetation canopies. Even though the sensitivity of SAR data to total aboveground biomass has been successfully demonstrated in many controlled experiments over boreal forests and forest plantations, so far, no biomass estimation algorithm has been developed. This is mainly due to the fact that the SAR data, even at lowest frequency (P-band) saturates at biomass levels of about 200 tons/ha, and the structure and moisture information in the SAR signal forces the estimation algorithm to be forest type dependent. In this paper, we discuss the development of a hybrid forest biomass algorithm which uses a SAR derived land cover map in conjunction with a forest backscatter model and an inversion algorithm to estimate forest canopy water content. It is shown that unlike the direct biomass estimation from SAR data, the estimation of water content does not depend on the seasonal and/or environmental conditions. The total aboveground biomass can then be derived from canopy water content for each type of forest by incorporating other ecological information. Preliminary results from this technique over several boreal forest stands indicate that (1) the forest biomass can be estimated with reasonable accuracy, and (2) the saturation level of the SAR signal can be enhanced by separating the crown and trunk biomass in the inversion algorithm. We have used the JPL AIRSAR data over BOREAS southern study area to test the algorithm and to generate regional scale water content and biomass maps. The results are compared with ground data and the sources of errors are discussed. Several SAR

  16. Comprehensive personal RF-EMF exposure map and its potential use in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rubio, Jesus; Najera, Alberto; Arribas, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, numerous epidemiological studies, which deal with the potential effects of mobile phone antennas on health, have almost exclusively focused on their distance to mobile phone base stations. Although it is known that this is not the best approach to the problem, this situation occurs due to the numerous difficulties when determining the personal exposure to the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). However, due to the rise of personal exposimeters, the evolution of spatial statistics, the development of geographical information systems and the use of powerful software, new alternatives are available to deal with these epidemiological studies and thus overcome the aforementioned difficulties. Using these tools, this paper presents a lattice map of personal RF-EMF exposure from exterior mobile phone base stations, covering the entire 110 administrative regions in the city of Albacete (Spain). For this purpose, we used a personal exposimeter, Satimo EME Spy 140 model, performing measurements every 4s The exposimeter was located inside the plastic basket of a bicycle, whose versatility permitted the access to all the zones of the city. Once the exposure map was prepared, its relation with the known antenna locations was studied. The 64 mobile telephone antennas of the city were also georeferenced; the randomness of both variables (exposure and antennas) were studied by means of the Moran's I test. Results showed that the distribution of the antennas follows a grouped pattern (pbased on the mean exposure values to RF-EMF in these sections. The displayed map would permit the execution of more accurate epidemiological studies, since it would be possible to compare the exposure measurements with the incidence data of a disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluating meaningful learning using concept mapping in dental hygiene education: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canasi, Dina M; Amyot, Cynthia; Tira, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Concept mapping, as a teaching strategy, has been shown to promote critical thinking and problem solving in educational settings. Dental clinicians must distinguish between critical and irrelevant characteristics in the delivery of care, thus necessitating reasoning skills to do so. One of the aims of the American Dental Education Association Commission on Change and Innovation (ADEA-CCI) is to identify deficiencies in curriculum which were meant to improve critical thinking and problem solving skills necessary in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to compare 2 teaching strategies, traditional lecture and lecture supported by concept mapping exercises within collaborative working groups, to determine if there is a beneficial effect on meaningful learning. For this pilot study, the study population consisted of students from 2 geographically separated associate level dental hygiene programs in the southeastern U.S. A quasi-experimental control group pre- and post-test design was used. The degree of meaningful learning achieved by both programs was assessed by comparing pre- and post-test results. Both programs experienced a significant degree of meaningful learning from pre- to post-test. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the programs on the post-test. These results were in direct contrast to research in other disciplines on concept mapping and its effect on promoting meaningful learning. Further investigation into the study's outcome was obtained through a follow-up focus group. In spite of careful attention to methodology in the development of this research project, the focus group illuminated methodological failings that potentially impacted the outcome of the study. Recommendations are underscored for future conduct of educational research of this kind.

  18. Rare earth element studies of surficial sediments from the southwestern Carlsberg Ridge, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Higgs, N.C.

    content. REEs show a strong positive correlation with Al+Fe+K+Mg+Na (r sup(2)=0.98) and Mn+Fe+Cu+Ni (r sup(2)=0.86) suggesting that the REE is associated with a combined phase of clays (mainly illite) and Mn-Fe oxyhydroxides. The aeolian input...

  19. Geologic map and map database of northeastern San Francisco Bay region, California, [including] most of Solano County and parts of Napa, Marin, Contra Costa, San Joaquin, Sacramento, Yolo, and Sonoma Counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graymer, Russell Walter; Jones, David Lawrence; Brabb, Earl E.

    2002-01-01

    This digital map database, compiled from previously published and unpublished data, and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying text file (nesfmf.ps, nesfmf.pdf, nesfmf.txt), it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:62,500 or smaller.

  20. Landslide hazard mapping with selected dominant factors: A study case of Penang Island, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Lea Tien; Alkhasawneh, Mutasem Sh.; Ngah, Umi Kalthum; Lateh, Habibah

    2015-01-01

    Landslide is one of the destructive natural geohazards in Malaysia. In addition to rainfall as triggering factos for landslide in Malaysia, topographical and geological factors play important role in the landslide susceptibility analysis. Conventional topographic factors such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, plan curvature and profile curvature have been considered as landslide causative factors in many research works. However, other topographic factors such as diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity have not been considered, especially for the research work in landslide hazard analysis in Malaysia. This paper presents landslide hazard mapping using Frequency Ratio (FR) and the study area is Penang Island of Malaysia. Frequency ratio approach is a variant of probabilistic method that is based on the observed relationships between the distribution of landslides and each landslide-causative factor. Landslide hazard map of Penang Island is produced by considering twenty-two (22) landslide causative factors. Among these twenty-two (22) factors, fourteen (14) factors are topographic factors. They are elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, general curvature, tangential curvature, longitudinal curvature, cross section curvature, total curvature, diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity. These topographic factors are extracted from the digital elevation model of Penang Island. The other eight (8) non-topographic factors considered are land cover, vegetation cover, distance from road, distance from stream, distance from fault line, geology, soil texture and rainfall precipitation. After considering all twenty-two factors for landslide hazard mapping, the analysis is repeated with fourteen dominant factors which are selected from the twenty-two factors. Landslide hazard map was segregated into four categories of risks, i.e. Highly hazardous area, Hazardous area, Moderately hazardous area

  1. Landslide hazard mapping with selected dominant factors: A study case of Penang Island, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, Lea Tien; Alkhasawneh, Mutasem Sh.; Ngah, Umi Kalthum [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Lateh, Habibah [School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11600 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Landslide is one of the destructive natural geohazards in Malaysia. In addition to rainfall as triggering factos for landslide in Malaysia, topographical and geological factors play important role in the landslide susceptibility analysis. Conventional topographic factors such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, plan curvature and profile curvature have been considered as landslide causative factors in many research works. However, other topographic factors such as diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity have not been considered, especially for the research work in landslide hazard analysis in Malaysia. This paper presents landslide hazard mapping using Frequency Ratio (FR) and the study area is Penang Island of Malaysia. Frequency ratio approach is a variant of probabilistic method that is based on the observed relationships between the distribution of landslides and each landslide-causative factor. Landslide hazard map of Penang Island is produced by considering twenty-two (22) landslide causative factors. Among these twenty-two (22) factors, fourteen (14) factors are topographic factors. They are elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, general curvature, tangential curvature, longitudinal curvature, cross section curvature, total curvature, diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity. These topographic factors are extracted from the digital elevation model of Penang Island. The other eight (8) non-topographic factors considered are land cover, vegetation cover, distance from road, distance from stream, distance from fault line, geology, soil texture and rainfall precipitation. After considering all twenty-two factors for landslide hazard mapping, the analysis is repeated with fourteen dominant factors which are selected from the twenty-two factors. Landslide hazard map was segregated into four categories of risks, i.e. Highly hazardous area, Hazardous area, Moderately hazardous area

  2. Mapping Intraplate Volcanic Fields: A Case Study from Harrat Rahat, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, D. T.; Stelten, M. E.; Champion, D. E.; Dietterich, H. R.

    2017-12-01

    Continental intraplate mafic volcanoes are typically small-volume (200 volcanic fields proposed to be active worldwide during the Holocene. Their small individual eruption volumes make any hazards low, however their high prevalence offsets this by raising the risk to populations and infrastructure. The western Arabian Plate hosts at least 15 continental, intra-plate volcanic fields that stretch >3,000 km south to north from Yemen to Turkey. In total, these volcanic fields comprise one of the largest alkali basalt volcanic provinces on Earth, covering an area of 180,000 km2. With a total volume of 20,000 km3, Harrat Rahat in western Saudi Arabia is one of the largest of these volcanic fields. Our study focused on mapping the northern third of the Harrat Rahat volcanic field using a multidisciplinary approach. We have discriminated >200 individual eruptive units, mainly basaltic lava flows throughout Harrat Rahat that are distinguished through a combination of field observations, petrography, geochemistry, paleomagnetism, and 40Ar/39Ar radiometric and 36Cl cosmogenic surface-exposure dating. We have compiled these results into a high-resolution geologic map, which provides new information about the timing, compositions, and eruptive processes of Quaternary volcanism in Harrat Rahat. For example, prior mapping and geochronology undertaken during the 1980s suggested that the majority of mafic and silicic volcanics erupted during the Miocene and Pliocene, whereas several of the youngest-appearing lava flows were interpreted to be Neolithic ( 7,000 to 4,500 years BP) to post-Neolithic. New mapping and age-constrained stratigraphic relations indicate that all exposed volcanic units within the northern third of Harrat Rahat erupted during the Pleistocene, with the exception of a single Holocene eruption in 1256 AD. This new multidisciplinary mapping is critical for understanding the overall spatial, temporal, and compositional evolution of Harrat Rahat, timescales of

  3. Distinct bacterial communities in surficial seafloor sediments following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A major fraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons discharged during the 2010 Macondo oil spill became associated with and sank to the seafloor as marine snow flocs. This sedimentation pulse induced the development of distinct bacterial communities. Between May 2010 and July 2011, full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries demonstrated bacterial community succession in oil-polluted sediment samples near the wellhead area. Libraries from early May 2010, before the sedimentation event, served as the baseline control. Freshly deposited oil-derived marine snow was collected on the surface of sediment cores in September 2010, and was characterized by abundantly detected members of the marine Roseobacter cluster within the Alphaproteobacteria. Samples collected in mid-October 2010 closest to the wellhead contained members of the sulfate-reducing, anaerobic bacterial families Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae within the Deltaproteobacteria, suggesting that the oil-derived sedimentation pulse triggered bacterial oxygen consumption and created patchy anaerobic microniches that favored sulfate-reducing bacteria. Phylotypes of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading genus Cycloclasticus, previously found both in surface oil slicks and the deep hydrocarbon plume, were also found in oil-derived marine snow flocs sedimenting on the seafloor in September 2010, and in surficial sediments collected in October and November 2010, but not in any of the control samples. Due to the relative recalcitrance and stability of polycyclic aromatic compounds, Cycloclasticus represents the most persistent microbial marker of seafloor hydrocarbon deposition that we could identify in this dataset. The bacterial imprint of the DWH oil spill had diminished in late November 2010, when the bacterial communities in oil-impacted sediment samples collected near the Macondo wellhead began to resemble their pre-spill counterparts and spatial controls. Samples collected in summer

  4. Distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in surficial sediments of Jakarta bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali Arman Lubis

    2006-01-01

    he concentration and distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclide in surficial sediments of Jakarta Bay were investigated with the aim of evaluating its level and environmental radioactivity. Sediments were sampled in 30 locations using Smith-McIntyre Grab sampler. Sediments were dried, homogenized and sealed for 1 month for equilibration and for the detection, analysis and data acquisition, a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector coupled with a high resolution multichannel analyzer (MCA) was used. Additionally, the grain sizes were analyzed by means of hydrometer. The result shows that the specific activity of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs range from 6.71±1.01 Bq/kg to 28.63±4.29 Bq/kg, 6.46±0.97 Bq/kg to 28.21±4.23 Bq/kg, 16.62±2.49 Bq/kg to 40.46±6.07 Bq/kg, 115.80±12.16 Bq/kg to 358.69±30.49 Bq/kg, and 0.03±0.01 Bq/kg to 1.99±0.34 Bq/kg with the average value are 12.83±2.11 Bq/kg, 12.03±1.98 Bq/kg, 26.55±4.36 Bq/kg, 235.55±19.37 Bq/kg, and 0.77±0.13 Bq/kg, respectively. It shows that the activity of radionuclides in the research area are in natural level and the variation may be influenced by the grain size distribution in the sample. The absorbed dose rate and radium equivalent of gamma radiation was estimated to be 32.06±7.72 nano Grey/h and 68.14±11.20 Bq/kg, respectively. (author)

  5. Benthic Habitats and Surficial Geology of Apalachicola Bay, Florida 2006 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected under a cooperative mapping program between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office...

  6. Benthic Habitats and Surficial Geology of Apalachicola Bay, Florida 2006 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected under a cooperative mapping program between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office...

  7. Benthic Habitats and Surficial Geology of Apalachicola Bay, Florida 2006 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected under a cooperative mapping program between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office...

  8. Benthic Habitats and Surficial Geology of Apalachicola Bay, Florida 2006 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected under a cooperative mapping program between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office...

  9. The status of soil mapping for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, G.L.; Lee, R.D.; Jeppesen, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report discusses the production of a revised version of the general soil map of the 2304-km 2 (890-mi 2 ) Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site in southeastern Idaho and the production of a geographic information system (GIS) soil map and supporting database. The revised general soil map replaces an INEL soil map produced in 1978 and incorporates the most current information on INEL soils. The general soil map delineates large soil associations based on National Resources Conservation Services [formerly the Soil Conservation Service (SCS)] principles of soil mapping. The GIS map incorporates detailed information that could not be presented on the general soil map and is linked to a database that contains the soil map unit descriptions, surficial geology codes, and other pertinent information

  10. Groundwater flow and water budget in the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Nicasio; Tiedeman, Claire; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Burger, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    A numerical transient model of the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida was developed to (1) increase the understanding of water exchanges between the surficial and the Floridan aquifer systems, (2) assess the recharge rates to the surficial aquifer system from infiltration through the unsaturated zone and (3) obtain a simulation tool that could be used by water-resource managers to assess the impact of changes in groundwater withdrawals on spring flows and on the potentiometric surfaces of the hydrogeologic units composing the Floridan aquifer system. The hydrogeology of east-central Florida was evaluated and used to develop and calibrate the groundwater flow model, which simulates the regional fresh groundwater flow system. The U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional groundwater flow model, MODFLOW-2005, was used to simulate transient groundwater flow in the surficial, intermediate, and Floridan aquifer systems from 1995 to 2006. The East-Central Florida Transient model encompasses an actively simulated area of about 9,000 square miles. Although the model includes surficial processes-rainfall, irrigation, evapotranspiration (ET), runoff, infiltration, lake water levels, and stream water levels and flows-its primary purpose is to characterize and refine the understanding of groundwater flow in the Floridan aquifer system. Model-independent estimates of the partitioning of rainfall into ET, streamflow, and aquifer recharge are provided from a water-budget analysis of the surficial aquifer system. The interaction of the groundwater flow system with the surface environment was simulated using the Green-Ampt infiltration method and the MODFLOW-2005 Unsaturated-Zone Flow, Lake, and Streamflow-Routing Packages. The model is intended to simulate the part of the groundwater system that contains freshwater. The bottom and lateral boundaries of the model were established at the estimated depths where the chloride concentration is 5,000 milligrams

  11. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Indicates a Disturbed Brain Iron Homeostasis in Neuromyelitis Optica ? A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Doring, Thomas Martin; Granado, Vanessa; Rueda, Fernanda; Deistung, Andreas; Reichenbach, Juergen R.; Tukamoto, Gustavo; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Schweser, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases and can be associated with oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate brain iron in patients with Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), a quantitative iron-sensitive MRI technique. 12 clinically confirmed NMO patients (6 female and 6 male; age 35.4y±14.2y) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (7 female and 5 male; age 33.9±11.3y) underwen...

  12. Increasing the utility of regional water table maps: a new method for estimating groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, T. E.; Zlotnik, V. A.; Johnson, M.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater table elevations are one of the most fundamental measurements used to characterize unconfined aquifers, groundwater flow patterns, and aquifer sustainability over time. In this study, we developed an analytical model that relies on analysis of groundwater elevation contour (equipotential) shape, aquifer transmissivity, and streambed gradient between two parallel, perennial streams. Using two existing regional water table maps, created at different times using different methods, our analysis of groundwater elevation contours, transmissivity and streambed gradient produced groundwater recharge rates (42-218 mm yr-1) that were consistent with previous independent recharge estimates from different methods. The three regions we investigated overly the High Plains Aquifer in Nebraska and included some areas where groundwater is used for irrigation. The three regions ranged from 1,500 to 3,300 km2, with either Sand Hills surficial geology, or Sand Hills transitioning to loess. Based on our results, the approach may be used to increase the value of existing water table maps, and may be useful as a diagnostic tool to evaluate the quality of groundwater table maps, identify areas in need of detailed aquifer characterization and expansion of groundwater monitoring networks, and/or as a first approximation before investing in more complex approaches to groundwater recharge estimation.

  13. Fund Finder: A case study of database-to-ontology mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Barrasa Rodríguez, Jesús; Corcho, Oscar; Gómez-Pérez, A.

    2003-01-01

    The mapping between databases and ontologies is a basic problem when trying to "upgrade" deep web content to the semantic web. Our approach suggests the declarative definition of mappings as a way to achieve domain independency and reusability. A specific language (expressive enough to cover some real world mapping situations like lightly structured databases or not 1st normal form ones) is defined for this purpose. Along with this mapping description language, the ODEMapster processor is in ...

  14. View of an intact oceanic arc, from surficial to mesozonal levels: Cretaceous Alisitos arc, Baja California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Cathy; Fackler Adams, Benjamin; Mattinson, James; Deoreo, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The Alisitos arc is an approximately 300 × 30 km oceanic arc terrane that lies in the western wall of the Peninsular Ranges batholith south of the modern Agua Blanca fault zone in Baja California. We have completed detailed mapping and dating of a 50 × 30 km segment of this terrane in the El Rosario to Mission San Fernando areas, as well as reconnaissance mapping and dating in the next 50 × 30 km segment to the north, in the San Quintin area. We recognize two evolutionary phases in this part of the arc terrane: (I) extensional oceanic arc, characterized by intermediate to silicic explosive and effusive volcanism, culminating in caldera-forming silicic ignimbrite eruptions at the onset of arc rifting, and (II) rifted oceanic arc, characterized by mafic effusive and hydroclastic rocks and abundant dike swarms. Two types of units are widespread enough to permit tentative stratigraphic correlation across much of this 100-km-long segment of the arc: a welded dacite ignimbrite (tuff of Aguajito), and a deepwater debris-avalanche deposit. New U-Pb zircon data from the volcanic and plutonic rocks of both phases indicate that the entire 4000-m-thick section accumulated in about 1.5 MY, at 111-110 MY. Southwestern North American sources for two zircon grains with Proterozoic 206Pb / 207Pb ages support the interpretation that the oceanic arc fringed North America rather than representing an exotic terrane. The excellent preservation and exposure of the Alistos arc terrane makes it ideal for three-dimensional study of the structural, stratigraphic and intrusive history of an oceanic arc terrane. The segment mapped and dated in detail has a central major subaerial edifice, flanked by a down-faulted deepwater marine basin to the north, and a volcano-bounded shallow-water marine basin to the south. The rugged down-faulted flank of the edifice produced mass wasting, plumbed large-volume eruptions to the surface, and caused pyroclastic flows to disintegrate into turbulent

  15. Study of the variation of the nuclear transcriptional map during de initial development of Drosophyla melanogaster embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, C.E.V.

    1987-01-01

    The variation of nuclear transcriptional map during the initial development of Drosophyla melanogaster embryos were studied. Thermic treatment, chromatographic techniques and liquid scintilation in embryos inoculated with radioactive uridine were used. (L.J.C.)

  16. A concept mapping study on organic food consumers in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasimu, Huliyeti; Marchesini, Sergio; Canavari, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Despite some similarities with developed countries, the growth of organic market in China seems to follow a different path. Thus, important questions are how Chinese urban consumers perceive organic food, and what are the main concepts associated to the organic attribute. We aimed at representing in graphic form the network of mental associations with the organic concept. We used an adapted version of the "Brand concept mapping" method to acquire, process, and draw individual concept networks perceived by 50 organic food consumers in Shanghai. We then analyzed the data using network and cluster analysis to create aggregated maps for two distinct groups of consumers. Similarly to their peers in developed countries, Chinese consumers perceive organic food as healthy, safe and expensive. However, organic is not necessarily synonymous with natural produce in China, also due to a translation of the term that conveys the idea of a "technology advanced" product. Organic overlaps with the green food label in terms of image and positioning in the market, since they are easily associated and often confused. The two groups we identified show clear differences in the way the organic concept is associated to other concepts and features. The study provides useful information for practitioners: marketers of organic products in China should invest in communication to emphasize the differences with Green Food products and they should consider the possibility of segmenting organic consumers; Chinese policy makers should consider implementing information campaigns aimed at achieving a better understanding of the features of these quality labels among consumers. For researchers, the study confirms that the BCM method is effective and its integration with network and cluster analysis improves the interpretation of individual and aggregated maps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Occurrence and Distribution of Mercury in the SurficialAquifer, Long Neck Peninsula, Sussex County, Delaware, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koterba, Michael T.; Andres, A. Scott; Vrabel, Joseph; Crilley, Dianna M.; Szabo, Zoltan; DeWild, John F.; Aiken, George R.; Reyes-Padro, Betzaida

    2006-01-01

    In January 2001, mercury (Hg) was detected (500 nanograms per liter, ng/L, or greater) in the distribution system of the Long Neck Water Company (LNWC), Pot Nets, Delaware. By April 2001, two LNWC production wells had been taken off-line because discharge concentrations of total mercury (HgT) either had exceeded or approached the Federal limit of 2,000 ng/L. From October 2003 through January 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, Delaware Geological Survey, and Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control conducted a cooperative study to (a) determine if the Hg contamination was widespread, (b) identify possible forms of Hg in ground water, and (c) examine Hg occurrence in relation to (geo)chemical conditions and characteristics of ground water and sediment in the surficial aquifer on the Long Neck Peninsula, Sussex County, Delaware. An initial water-quality survey conducted with samples from 22 production wells revealed that concentrations of HgT in ground water in the surficial aquifer ranged from 0.11 to 1,820 ng/L. Shallow ground water (less than 120 feet below land surface) throughout most of the peninsula, including that which contained elevated concentrations of HgT (exceeding 100 ng/L), appeared to be affected by human activities. All samples contained volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and elevated nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N, exceeding 0.4 milligrams per liter, mg/L). Most (16 of 22) samples had elevated specific conductance (SC, in excess of 100 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius). Elevated concentrations of HgT, however, only occurred in five production wells in the Pot Nets Bayside and Lakeside communities. The vertical distribution of HgT in shallow ground water (less than 80 feet below land surface) was determined with samples collected at 5 to 6 vertical-nest short-screened (2 - 5-foot length) monitoring wells installed near Bayside and Lakeside production wells with the highest HgT concentrations (exceeding 1,000 ng

  18. Forgotten forests - issues and prospects in biome mapping using Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background South America is one of the most species diverse continents in the world. Within South America diversity is not distributed evenly at both local and continental scales and this has led to the recognition of various areas with unique species assemblages. Several schemes currently exist which divide the continental-level diversity into large species assemblages referred to as biomes. Here we review five currently available biome maps for South America, including the WWF Ecoregions, the Americas basemap, the Land Cover Map of South America, Morrone's Biogeographic regions of Latin America, and the Ecological Systems Map. The comparison is performed through a case study on the Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest (SDTF) biome using herbarium data of habitat specialist species. Results Current biome maps of South America perform poorly in depicting SDTF distribution. The poor performance of the maps can be attributed to two main factors: (1) poor spatial resolution, and (2) poor biome delimitation. Poor spatial resolution strongly limits the use of some of the maps in GIS applications, especially for areas with heterogeneous landscape such as the Andes. Whilst the Land Cover Map did not suffer from poor spatial resolution, it showed poor delimitation of biomes. The results highlight that delimiting structurally heterogeneous vegetation is difficult based on remote sensed data alone. A new refined working map of South American SDTF biome is proposed, derived using the Biome Distribution Modelling (BDM) approach where georeferenced herbarium data is used in conjunction with bioclimatic data. Conclusions Georeferenced specimen data play potentially an important role in biome mapping. Our study shows that herbarium data could be used as a way of ground-truthing biome maps in silico. The results also illustrate that herbarium data can be used to model vegetation maps through predictive modelling. The BDM approach is a promising new method in biome mapping, and could be

  19. Forgotten forests--issues and prospects in biome mapping using Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkinen, Tiina; Iganci, João R V; Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo; Simon, Marcelo F; Prado, Darién E

    2011-11-24

    South America is one of the most species diverse continents in the world. Within South America diversity is not distributed evenly at both local and continental scales and this has led to the recognition of various areas with unique species assemblages. Several schemes currently exist which divide the continental-level diversity into large species assemblages referred to as biomes. Here we review five currently available biome maps for South America, including the WWF Ecoregions, the Americas basemap, the Land Cover Map of South America, Morrone's Biogeographic regions of Latin America, and the Ecological Systems Map. The comparison is performed through a case study on the Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest (SDTF) biome using herbarium data of habitat specialist species. Current biome maps of South America perform poorly in depicting SDTF distribution. The poor performance of the maps can be attributed to two main factors: (1) poor spatial resolution, and (2) poor biome delimitation. Poor spatial resolution strongly limits the use of some of the maps in GIS applications, especially for areas with heterogeneous landscape such as the Andes. Whilst the Land Cover Map did not suffer from poor spatial resolution, it showed poor delimitation of biomes. The results highlight that delimiting structurally heterogeneous vegetation is difficult based on remote sensed data alone. A new refined working map of South American SDTF biome is proposed, derived using the Biome Distribution Modelling (BDM) approach where georeferenced herbarium data is used in conjunction with bioclimatic data. Georeferenced specimen data play potentially an important role in biome mapping. Our study shows that herbarium data could be used as a way of ground-truthing biome maps in silico. The results also illustrate that herbarium data can be used to model vegetation maps through predictive modelling. The BDM approach is a promising new method in biome mapping, and could be particularly useful for mapping

  20. Forgotten forests - issues and prospects in biome mapping using Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Särkinen Tiina

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South America is one of the most species diverse continents in the world. Within South America diversity is not distributed evenly at both local and continental scales and this has led to the recognition of various areas with unique species assemblages. Several schemes currently exist which divide the continental-level diversity into large species assemblages referred to as biomes. Here we review five currently available biome maps for South America, including the WWF Ecoregions, the Americas basemap, the Land Cover Map of South America, Morrone's Biogeographic regions of Latin America, and the Ecological Systems Map. The comparison is performed through a case study on the Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest (SDTF biome using herbarium data of habitat specialist species. Results Current biome maps of South America perform poorly in depicting SDTF distribution. The poor performance of the maps can be attributed to two main factors: (1 poor spatial resolution, and (2 poor biome delimitation. Poor spatial resolution strongly limits the use of some of the maps in GIS applications, especially for areas with heterogeneous landscape such as the Andes. Whilst the Land Cover Map did not suffer from poor spatial resolution, it showed poor delimitation of biomes. The results highlight that delimiting structurally heterogeneous vegetation is difficult based on remote sensed data alone. A new refined working map of South American SDTF biome is proposed, derived using the Biome Distribution Modelling (BDM approach where georeferenced herbarium data is used in conjunction with bioclimatic data. Conclusions Georeferenced specimen data play potentially an important role in biome mapping. Our study shows that herbarium data could be used as a way of ground-truthing biome maps in silico. The results also illustrate that herbarium data can be used to model vegetation maps through predictive modelling. The BDM approach is a promising new method in

  1. Studies on variations in phytoplankton community structure at three locations near MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Gouri; Satpathy, K.K.; Patnaik, Shilpa; Selvanaygam, M.

    2008-01-01

    Studies on the spatial and seasonal variation in phytoplankton community structure was carried out in the coastal waters of Kalpakkam in the vicinity of Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS). Seawater samples were collected from intake, forebay and outfall of MAPS cooling water system for phytoplankton enumeration. A decrease in population density was noticed from coastal water to outfall water (coastal water, 1.5 x 10 6 cells l -1 ; forebay, 9.5 x 10 5 cells l -1 and outfall, 8.6 x 10 5 cells l -1 ). A total of 235 phytoplankton species were recorded during the study period. Asterionellopsis glacialis emerged as the most dominant species throughout the study period contributing 2.9 - 49.3 %, 1.6 - 44% and 2.7 - 46 % of the total cell counts of coastal water, forebay and outfall respectively. A visible dominance of pennate diatoms over the centric population was observed. The increase in pennate to centric ratio in the order of coastal water < forebay < outfall with respect to species composition indicated an increase in the benthic forms of phytoplankton from intake to outfall. Furthermore, as compared to the earlier findings, the present results showed a distinct reduction in numerical abundance of phytoplankton with an elevation of species composition. (author)

  2. A Preliminary Study on the Multiple Mapping Structure of Classification Systems for Heterogeneous Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hyoung Lee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available While science and technology information service portals and heterogeneous databases produced in Korea and other countries are integrated, methods of connecting the unique classification systems applied to each database have been studied. Results of technologists' research, such as, journal articles, patent specifications, and research reports, are organically related to each other. In this case, if the most basic and meaningful classification systems are not connected, it is difficult to achieve interoperability of the information and thus not easy to implement meaningful science technology information services through information convergence. This study aims to address the aforementioned issue by analyzing mapping systems between classification systems in order to design a structure to connect a variety of classification systems used in the academic information database of the Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, which provides science and technology information portal service. This study also aims to design a mapping system for the classification systems to be applied to actual science and technology information services and information management systems.

  3. Preliminary Map of Landslide Deposits in the Mesa Verde National Park Area, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary map of landslide deposits in the Mesa Verde National Park area (see map sheet) at a compilation scale of 1:50,000. Landslide is a general term for landforms produced by a wide variety of gravity-driven mass movements, including various types of flows, slides, topples and falls, and combinations thereof produced by the slow to rapid downslope transport of surficial materials or bedrock. The map depicts more than 200 landslides ranging in size from small (0.01 square miles) earthflows and rock slumps to large (greater than 0.50 square miles) translational slides and complex landslides (Varnes, 1978). This map has been prepared to provide a regional overview of the distribution of landslide deposits in the Mesa Verde area, and as such constitutes an inventory of landslides in the area. The map is suitable for regional planning to identify broad areas where landslide deposits and processes are concentrated. It should not be used as a substitute for detailed site investigations. Specific areas thought to be subject to landslide hazards should be carefully studied before development. Many of the landslides depicted on this map are probably stable as they date to the Pleistocene (approximately 1.8-0.011 Ma) and hence formed under a different climate regime. However, the recognition of these landslides is important because natural and human-induced factors can alter stability. Reduction of lateral support (by excavations or roadcuts), removal of vegetation (by fire or development), or an increase in pore pressure (by heavy rains) may result in the reactivation of landslides or parts of landslides.

  4. A fast and cost-effective approach to develop and map EST-SSR markers: oak as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherubini Marcello

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs are a source of simple sequence repeats (SSRs that can be used to develop molecular markers for genetic studies. The availability of ESTs for Quercus robur and Quercus petraea provided a unique opportunity to develop microsatellite markers to accelerate research aimed at studying adaptation of these long-lived species to their environment. As a first step toward the construction of a SSR-based linkage map of oak for quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping, we describe the mining and survey of EST-SSRs as well as a fast and cost-effective approach (bin mapping to assign these markers to an approximate map position. We also compared the level of polymorphism between genomic and EST-derived SSRs and address the transferability of EST-SSRs in Castanea sativa (chestnut. Results A catalogue of 103,000 Sanger ESTs was assembled into 28,024 unigenes from which 18.6% presented one or more SSR motifs. More than 42% of these SSRs corresponded to trinucleotides. Primer pairs were designed for 748 putative unigenes. Overall 37.7% (283 were found to amplify a single polymorphic locus in a reference full-sib pedigree of Quercus robur. The usefulness of these loci for establishing a genetic map was assessed using a bin mapping approach. Bin maps were constructed for the male and female parental tree for which framework linkage maps based on AFLP markers were available. The bin set consisting of 14 highly informative offspring selected based on the number and position of crossover sites. The female and male maps comprised 44 and 37 bins, with an average bin length of 16.5 cM and 20.99 cM, respectively. A total of 256 EST-SSRs were assigned to bins and their map position was further validated by linkage mapping. EST-SSRs were found to be less polymorphic than genomic SSRs, but their transferability rate to chestnut, a phylogenetically related species to oak, was higher. Conclusion We have generated a bin map for oak

  5. GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAPPING AND GEODIVERSITY: STUDY AT THE MINAS DO CAMAQUÃ GEOSITE PROTECTION AREA (BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Mendes Von Ahn

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphological mapping allows the evaluation of geoheritage and subsidizes geoconservation efforts. This work aimed at identifying and analyzing the landforms at the Minas do Camaquã Geosite Protection Area (MCGPA – Rio Grande do Sul state – Brazil, emphasizing the anthropogenic morphologies to subsidize the conservation of the studied area’s geomorphological heritage. A geomorphological map (2015 of the MCGPA was made (1:25.000 to recognize and identify the natural and anthropogenic landforms. Based on this map, four sectors were identified according to the representativeness of the landforms: (1 Mineral extraction sector; (2 Tailings deposition sector; (3 Structural features sector; and (4 Boundary sector. The mining activities were the main reason for the geomorphological alterations and the creation of anthropogenic morphologies in the site. Despite the significant disturbance caused by the mining activity, there are still features of geologic-geomorphological interest fairly preserved. The identified and analyzed anthropogenic morphologies can describe the history of the mining activities that took place in the area and which formed a set of landforms currently present in the MCGPA. Although the surface features are not originated from natural morphogenesis, they belong to the area’s geodiversity. Furthermore, considering these features as geoheritage would create the need for management aiming at avoiding the collapse and degradation of these forms. Nowadays, the mining activities have remained inactive, and this set of anthropogenic morphologies need to be understood under a geomorphological point of view which will allow future exploitation of its potential touristic, scientific, pedagogical and cultural uses. The best way to promote and develop strategies of geoconservation for this place is to create and foment geotourism in this area.

  6. Particulate matter concentration mapping from MODIS satellite data: a Vietnamese case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thanh T N; Bui, Hung Q; Pham, Ha V; Luu, Hung V; Man, Chuc D; Pham, Hai N; Le, Ha T; Nguyen, Thuy T

    2015-01-01

    Particulate Matter (PM) pollution is one of the most important air quality concerns in Vietnam. In this study, we integrate ground-based measurements, meteorological and satellite data to map temporal PM concentrations at a 10 × 10 km grid for the entire of Vietnam. We specifically used MODIS Aqua and Terra data and developed statistically-significant regression models to map and extend the ground-based PM concentrations. We validated our models over diverse geographic provinces i.e., North East, Red River Delta, North Central Coast and South Central Coast in Vietnam. Validation suggested good results for satellite-derived PM 2.5 data compared to ground-based PM 2.5 (n = 285, r 2  = 0.411, RMSE = 20.299 μg m −3 and RE = 39.789%). Further, validation of satellite-derived PM 2.5 on two independent datasets for North East and South Central Coast suggested similar results (n = 40, r 2  = 0.455, RMSE = 21.512 μg m −3 , RE = 45.236% and n = 45, r 2  = 0.444, RMSE = 8.551 μg m −3 , RE = 46.446% respectively). Also, our satellite-derived PM 2.5 maps were able to replicate seasonal and spatial trends of ground-based measurements in four different regions. Our results highlight the potential use of MODIS datasets for PM estimation at a regional scale in Vietnam. However, model limitation in capturing maximal or minimal PM 2.5 peaks needs further investigations on ground data, atmospheric conditions and physical aspects. (letter)

  7. Particulate matter concentration mapping from MODIS satellite data: a Vietnamese case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh T. N.; Bui, Hung Q.; Pham, Ha V.; Luu, Hung V.; Man, Chuc D.; Pham, Hai N.; Le, Ha T.; Nguyen, Thuy T.

    2015-09-01

    Particulate Matter (PM) pollution is one of the most important air quality concerns in Vietnam. In this study, we integrate ground-based measurements, meteorological and satellite data to map temporal PM concentrations at a 10 × 10 km grid for the entire of Vietnam. We specifically used MODIS Aqua and Terra data and developed statistically-significant regression models to map and extend the ground-based PM concentrations. We validated our models over diverse geographic provinces i.e., North East, Red River Delta, North Central Coast and South Central Coast in Vietnam. Validation suggested good results for satellite-derived PM2.5 data compared to ground-based PM2.5 (n = 285, r2 = 0.411, RMSE = 20.299 μg m-3 and RE = 39.789%). Further, validation of satellite-derived PM2.5 on two independent datasets for North East and South Central Coast suggested similar results (n = 40, r2 = 0.455, RMSE = 21.512 μg m-3, RE = 45.236% and n = 45, r2 = 0.444, RMSE = 8.551 μg m-3, RE = 46.446% respectively). Also, our satellite-derived PM2.5 maps were able to replicate seasonal and spatial trends of ground-based measurements in four different regions. Our results highlight the potential use of MODIS datasets for PM estimation at a regional scale in Vietnam. However, model limitation in capturing maximal or minimal PM2.5 peaks needs further investigations on ground data, atmospheric conditions and physical aspects.

  8. Body-centred map in parietal eye fields - functional MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotchie, P.; Chen, D.Y.; Bradley, W.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In order for us to interact with our environment we need to know where objects are around us, relative to our body. In monkeys, a body-centred map of visual space is known to exist within the parietal eye fields. This map is formed by the modulation of neuronal activity by eye and head position (Brotchie et al, Nature 1995; Synder et al, Nature 1998). In humans no map of body centred space has been demonstrated. By using functional MRI we have localised a region along the intraparietal sulcus which has properties similar to the parietal eye fields of monkeys (Brotchie et al, ISMRM, 2000). The aim of this study was to determine if activity in this region is modulated by head position, consistent with a body centered representation of visual space. Functional MRI was performed on 6 subjects performing simple visually guided saccades using a 1.5 Tesla GE Echospeed scanner. 10 scans were performed on the 6 subjects at left and right body orientations. Regions of interest were selected around the intraparietal sulcus proper (IPSP) of both hemispheres and voxels with BOLD signal which correlated with the paradigm (r>0.35) were selected for further analysis. Comparisons of percentage signal change were made between the left and right IPSP using Student t test. Of the 10 MRI examinations, 6 demonstrated statistically significant differences in the amount of signal change between left and right IPSP. In each of these 6 cases, the signal change was greater within the IPSP contralateral to the direction of head position relative to the body. This indicates a modulation of activity within the IPSP related to head position, most likely reflecting modulation of the underlying neuronal activity and suggests the existence of a body-centred encoding of space within the parietal eye fields of humans. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  9. Geospatial modelling for groundwater quality mapping: a case study of Rupnagar district, Punjab, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S.; Kaur, A.; Litoria, P.; Pateriya, B.

    2014-11-01

    Over period of time, the water usage and management is under stress for various reasons including pollution in both surface and subsurface. The groundwater quality decreases due to the solid waste from urban and industrial nodes, rapid use of insecticides and pesticides in agricultural practices. In this study, ground water quality maps for Rupnagar district of Punjab has been prepared using geospatial interpolation technique through Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) approach. IDW technique has been used for major ground water quality parameters observed from the field samples like Arsenic, Hardness, pH, Iron, Fluoride, TDS, and Sulphate. To assess the ground water quality of the Rupnagar district, total 280 numbers of samples from various sources of tubewells for both pre and post monsoon have collected. Out of which, 80 to 113 samples found Iron with non potable limits ranging 0.3-1.1mg/l and 0.3-1.02mg/l according to BIS standard for both the seasons respectively. Chamkaur Sahib, Rupnagar, Morinda blocks have been found non potable limit of iron in both pre & post-monsoon. 11 to 52 samples in this region have sulphate with permissible limits in both the season ranging 200-400mg/l and 201-400mg/l. But arsenic had acceptable limit in both the season. Various parameters-wise ground water quality map is generated using the range values of drinking water quality to know the distribution of different parameters and diversification in the concentration of different elements. These maps are very much needful for human being to expand awareness among the people to maintain the Cleanness of water at their highest quality and purity levels to achieve a healthy life.

  10. Raman mapping study of the pigments in the dancheong of Korean traditional buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jeong-Eun; Han, Kiok; Nam, Jiyeon; Kim, Seung; Kang, Dai-Ill; Park, Min-Jung; Lee, Han-Hyoung; Yang, In-Sang

    2017-04-01

    Korea experienced a tragic loss of most of the Sungnyemun building in an arson attack in 2008. Few scientific records of the pigments originally used in the Korean national treasure exist, thus, the restoration of Sungnyemun was a serious failure. Because the Raman spectroscopic method has the advantage of analyzing the pigment phases in a simple, nondestructive, and noncontact way, it is becoming more important in scientific research on the colors present in cultural assets. In this study, Raman mapping measurements of the pigments in several "dancheong" - color decorations of the surfaces of the wood structure of Korean buildings - samples from Bongjeongsa Geukrakjeon and Sunglimsa Bogwangjeon are presented. The distribution of the pigments, which is difficult to observe with the naked eye, can be found in detail through a high-resolution Raman mapping image. A change of Raman spectrum due to the powderization of some pigments in the colored layer is also observed. The powderization of the pigments is considered to be due to weathering. Our Raman study will be helpful for the preservation and restoration of cultural heritage in general.

  11. Reasons for using flavored liquids among electronic cigarette users: A concept mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Eric K; Lopez, Alexa A; Guy, Mignonne C; Cobb, Caroline O

    2016-09-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) aerosolize liquids often containing flavorants for inhalation. Few studies have examined the role of flavors in ECIG use. This study's purpose was to examine reasons for flavored ECIG use using a mixed-method approach, concept mapping (CM). Forty-six past 30-day adult ECIG users recruited from vape forums/conferences completed three online CM tasks. Participants brainstormed responses to a prompt: "A specific reason I use flavored e-liquid in my electronic cigarette product is…". The final 107 brainstormed statements were sorted by participants into groups of similar content. Participants rated each statement on a 7-point scale (1-Definitely NOT a reason to 7-Definitely a reason) based on a prompt: "This is a specific reason why I used flavored e-liquid in my electronic cigarette product in the past month." A cluster map was generated from participants' sorting and ratings using CM statistical software. Cluster mean ratings were compared. Analysis revealed five clusters of reasons for flavored ECIG use including Increased Satisfaction/Enjoyment, Better Feel/Taste than Cigarettes, Variety/Customization, Food Craving Suppression, and Social Impacts. Statements in the Increased Satisfaction/Enjoyment and Better Feel/Taste than Cigarettes clusters were rated significantly higher than statements from other clusters (psincrease the rewarding and possible addictive effects of ECIGs. These results support continued examination of the role of flavors and ECIG use behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mapping Women’s and Gender Studies in the Academic Field in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Antić Gaber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to map the development of women’s and gender studies (WGS in the academic field in Slovenia. Slovenia is the first of the former Yugoslav state republics in which WGS have succeeded in entering the academic field and becoming part of institutionalised university study. In this paper we will ask the following questions: How, when and why did this happen? How was this connected to women’s and feminist movements and politics regarding women’s issues and demands? What were the obstacles in this process? Who were the agents and what were the factors that supported demands for the incorporation of WGS in academia? How has the field evolved in the last few decades? What were the phases of this development? Which fields were the forerunners, which were the late-comers and which are still left aside? What are the thematic scopes taught in WGS courses? In which degrees are the courses offered and what are their modules? Who teaches them? The mapping in this paper is mainly based on primary sources of university programmes and their curricula at faculties of the University of Ljubljana, as well as on interviews with important agents in the field.

  13. Preliminary study of using imaging plates to map skin dose of patients in interventional radiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohuchi, H.; Satoh, T.; Eguchi, Y.; Mori, K.

    2005-01-01

    A method using europium-doped BaFBr imaging plates (IPs) has been studied for mapping entrance skin doses during interventional radiology (IR); the mapping is useful for detecting overlap between irradiation fields and determining the most exposed skin areas. IPs, which are two-dimensional radiation sensors made of photostimulated luminescence materials, have a linear dose response up to ∼100 Gy, can accurately measure doses from 1 μGy to 10 Gy and can be used repeatedly. Because the energy dependence of IPs is rather high, the IPs were characterised in this study and a sensitivity variation of ∼13% was observed for effective energies of 32.7 to 44.7 keV, which are used in IR procedures. Simulation of actual interventional cardiology procedures showed that the variation of sensitivity was within 5%, meaning that IPs are practical for measuring skin doses during IR. Moreover, the patient data can be stored online and easily called up when IR procedures must be repeated, helping to prevent radiation injuries. (authors)

  14. Thermal mapping studies at Kadra reservoir near Kaiga generating station site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi, P.M.; Nayak, P.D.; Sudhakar, J.; Mishra, D.G.; Hegde, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    An inherent problem in nuclear and thermal power plants are the release of heat energy into the environment through cooling system to water bodies such as lakes, rivers, estuaries and oceans. Two NPPs of Kaiga Generating Station, discharge the thermal effluent to the nearby Kadra reservoir. This paper presents the results of three year long comprehensive thermal mapping studies conducted by ESL, KGS as part of the Thermal Ecological Studies sponsored by Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS), Department of Atomic Energy. Present studies clearly demonstrate that the thermally influenced zone in the reservoir is limited to a small volume of the reservoir and is not likely to lead any irreversible adverse impact on the ecosystem of the reservoir. (author)

  15. Neural signatures of Trail Making Test performance: Evidence from lesion-mapping and neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjacic, Andreja; Mantini, Dante; Demeyere, Nele; Gillebert, Celine R

    2018-03-27

    The Trail Making Test (TMT) is an extensively used neuropsychological instrument for the assessment of set-switching ability across a wide range of neurological conditions. However, the exact nature of the cognitive processes and associated brain regions contributing to the performance on the TMT remains unclear. In this review, we first introduce the TMT by discussing its administration and scoring approaches. We then examine converging evidence and divergent findings concerning the brain regions related to TMT performance, as identified by lesion-symptom mapping studies conducted in brain-injured patients and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies conducted in healthy participants. After addressing factors that may account for the heterogeneity in the brain regions reported by these studies, we identify future research endeavours that may permit disentangling the different processes contributing to TMT performance and relating them to specific brain circuits. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Field studies of Pan troglodytes reviewed and comprehensively mapped, focussing on Japan's contribution to cultural primatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, William C

    2017-01-01

    Field studies done over decades of wild chimpanzees in East, Central and West Africa have yielded impressive, cumulative findings in cultural primatology. Japanese primatologists have been involved in this advance from the outset, over a wide variety of topics. Here I review the origins and development of field studies of Pan troglodytes, then assess their progress based on analogy between cultural primatology and cultural anthropology, through four stages: natural history, ethnography, ethnology, and intuition. Then, I focus on six topics that continue to yield informative debate: technology, universals, nuanced variation, archaeology, applied primatology, and ecology. Finally, I offer a map of sites of field study of wild chimpanzees. It is clear that Japanese primatologists have made a significant contribution to East-West scientific exchange, especially at the field sites of Bossou and Mahale.

  17. Integration between ground based and satellite SAR data in landslide mapping: The San Fratello case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, Federica; Frodella, William; Ciampalini, Andrea; Bianchini, Silvia; Del Ventisette, Chiara; Gigli, Giovanni; Fanti, Riccardo; Moretti, Sandro; Basile, Giuseppe; Casagli, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The potential use of the integration of PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry) and GB-InSAR (Ground-based Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) for landslide hazard mitigation was evaluated for mapping and monitoring activities of the San Fratello landslide (Sicily, Italy). Intense and exceptional rainfall events are the main factors that triggered several slope movements in the study area, which is susceptible to landslides, because of its steep slopes and silty-clayey sedimentary cover. In the last three centuries, the town of San Fratello was affected by three large landslides, developed in different periods: the oldest one occurred in 1754, damaging the northeastern sector of the town; in 1922 a large landslide completely destroyed a wide area in the western hillside of the town. In this paper, the attention is focussed on the most recent landslide that occurred on 14 February 2010: in this case, the phenomenon produced the failure of a large sector of the eastern hillside, causing severe damages to buildings and infrastructures. In particular, several slow-moving rotational and translational slides occurred in the area, making it suitable to monitor ground instability through different InSAR techniques. PS-InSAR™ (permanent scatterers SAR interferometry) techniques, using ERS-1/ERS-2, ENVISAT, RADARSAT-1, and COSMO-SkyMed SAR images, were applied to analyze ground displacements during pre- and post-event phases. Moreover, during the post-event phase in March 2010, a GB-InSAR system, able to acquire data continuously every 14 min, was installed collecting ground displacement maps for a period of about three years, until March 2013. Through the integration of space-borne and ground-based data sets, ground deformation velocity maps were obtained, providing a more accurate delimitation of the February 2010 landslide boundary, with respect to the carried out traditional geomorphological field survey. The integration of GB-InSAR and PSI techniques proved to

  18. Lithostratigraphy, petrography, biostratigraphy, and strontium-isotope stratigraphy of the surficial aquifer system of western Collier County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L.E.; Weedman, S.D.; Simmons, R.; Scott, T.M.; Brewster-Wingard, G. L.; Ishman, S.E.; Carlin, N.M.

    1998-01-01

    overlie the Pliocene limestones in two cores in the southern part of the study area. Artificial fill occurs at the top of most of the cores. The hydrologic confining units penetrated by these cores are different in different parts of the study area. To the west, a hard tightly cemented dolostone forms the first major confining unit below the water table. In the eastern part of the study area, confinement is more difficult to determine. A tightly cemented sandstone, much younger than the dolostones to the west and probably not laterally connected to them, forms a slight confining unit in one core. Thick zones of poorly sorted muddy unconsolidated sands form a slight confining unit in other cores; these probably are not correlative to either the sandstone or the dolostones to the west. The age and sedimentologic observations suggest a complex compartmentalization of the surficial aquifer system in southwestern Florida. The calibrations of dinocyst and molluscan occurrences with strontium-isotope stratigraphy allows us to expand and document the reported ranges of many taxa. This report is preliminary and has not been reviewed for conformity with U.S. Geological Survey editorial standards or with the North American Stratigraphic Code. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

  19. The integration of GPS, vegetation mapping and GIS in ecological and behavioural studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Mark Rutter

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS satellite navigation receivers are increasingly being used in ecological and behavioural studies to track the movements of animals in relation to the environments in which they live and forage. Concurrent recording of the animal's foraging behaviour (e.g. from jaw movement recording allows foraging locations to be determined. By combining the animal GPS movement and foraging data with habitat and vegetation maps using a Geographical Information System (GIS it is possible to relate animal movement and foraging location to landscape and habitat features and vegetation types. This powerful approach is opening up new opportunities to study the spatial aspects of animal behaviour, especially foraging behaviour, with far greater precision and objectivity than before. Advances in GPS technology now mean that sub-metre precision systems can be used to track animals, extending the range of application of this technology from landscape and habitat scale to paddock and patch scale studies. As well as allowing ecological hypotheses to be empirically tested at the patch scale, the improvements in precision are also leading to the approach being increasing extended from large scale ecological studies to smaller (paddock scale agricultural studies. The use of sub-metre systems brings both new scientific opportunities and new technological challenges. For example, fitting all of the animals in a group with sub-metre precision GPS receivers allows their relative inter-individual distances to be precisely calculated, and their relative orientations can be derived from data from a digital compass fitted to each receiver. These data, analyzed using GIS, could give new insights into the social behaviour of animals. However, the improvements in precision with which the animals are being tracked also needs equivalent improvements in the precision with which habitat and vegetation are mapped. This needs some degree of automation, as

  20. Geography Map Knowledge Acquisition by Solving a Jigsaw Map Compared to Self-Study: Investigating Game Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Srishti; Ved, Arunima; Vemuri, Kavita

    2018-01-01

    Efficacy of games as learning medium is of interest to researchers and the gaming industry. A critical metric for learning is knowledge retention and very few studies have conducted in-depth comparisons of: a) game versus no-game learning, b) collaborative versus individual learning. Towards this, the study reported in this article will present…

  1. Interactive map communication: pilot study of the visual perceptions and preferences of public health practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, A; Samarasundera, E; Cheng, T

    2011-08-01

    To conduct a pilot study into the comprehension and visualisation preferences of geographic information by public health practitioners (PHPs), particularly in the context of interactive, Internet-based atlases. Structured human-computer interaction interviews. Seven academia-based PHPs were interviewed as information service users based on a structured questionnaire to assess their understanding of geographic representations of morbidity data, and identify their visualisation preferences in a geographic information systems environment. Awareness of area-based deprivation indices and the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2007 health and disability domain was near-universal. However, novice users of disease maps had difficulties in interpreting data classifications, in understanding supplementary information in the form of box plots and histograms, and in making use of links between interactive tabular and cartographic information. Choices for colour plans when viewing maps showed little agreement between users, although pre-viewing comments showed preferences for red-blue diverging schema. PHPs new to geographic information would benefit from enhanced interpretive support documentation to meet their needs when using Internet-based, interactive public health atlases, which are rarely provided at such sites. Technical, software-related support alone is insufficient. Increased interaction between PHPs and mapmakers would be beneficial to maximise the potential of the current growth in interactive, electronic atlases, and improve geographic information support for public health decision-making and informing the wider public. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mapping the sensory perception of apple using descriptive sensory evaluation in a genome wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyotte, Beatrice; Bowen, Amy J; Banks, Travis; Rajcan, Istvan; Somers, Daryl J

    2017-01-01

    Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel. The trained sensory panel scored randomized sliced samples of each apple cultivar for seventeen taste, flavour and texture attributes using controlled sensory evaluation practices. In addition, the apple collection was subjected to genotyping by sequencing for marker discovery. A genome wide association analysis suggested significant genomic associations for several sensory traits including juiciness, crispness, mealiness and fresh green apple flavour. The findings include previously unreported genomic regions that could be used in apple breeding and suggest that similar sensory association mapping methods could be applied in other plants.

  3. Mapping the sensory perception of apple using descriptive sensory evaluation in a genome wide association study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyotte, Beatrice; Bowen, Amy J.; Banks, Travis; Rajcan, Istvan; Somers, Daryl J.

    2017-01-01

    Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel. The trained sensory panel scored randomized sliced samples of each apple cultivar for seventeen taste, flavour and texture attributes using controlled sensory evaluation practices. In addition, the apple collection was subjected to genotyping by sequencing for marker discovery. A genome wide association analysis suggested significant genomic associations for several sensory traits including juiciness, crispness, mealiness and fresh green apple flavour. The findings include previously unreported genomic regions that could be used in apple breeding and suggest that similar sensory association mapping methods could be applied in other plants. PMID:28231290

  4. Brain and Music: An Intraoperative Stimulation Mapping Study of a Professional Opera Singer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Marco; Casarotti, Alessandra; Comi, Alessandro; Pessina, Federico; Bello, Lorenzo

    2016-09-01

    Music is one of the most sophisticated and fascinating functions of the brain. Yet, how music is instantiated within the brain is not fully characterized. Singing is a peculiar aspect of music, in which both musical and linguistic skills are required to provide a merged vocal output. Identifying the neural correlates of this process is relevant for both clinical and research purposes. An adult white man with a presumed left temporal glioma was studied. He is a professional opera singer. A tailored music evaluation, the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia, was performed preoperatively and postoperatively, with long-term follow-up. Intraoperative stimulation mapping (ISM) with awake surgery with a specific music evaluation battery was used to identify and preserve the cortical and subcortical structures subserving music, along with standard motor-sensory and language mapping. A total resection of a grade I glioma was achieved. The Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia reported an improvement in musical scores after the surgery. ISM consistently elicited several types of errors in the superior temporal gyrus and, to a lesser extent, in the inferior frontal operculum. Most errors occurred during score reading; fewer errors were elicited during the assessment of rhythm. No spontaneous errors were recorded. These areas did not overlap with eloquent sites for counting or naming. ISM and a tailored music battery enabled better characterization of a specific network within the brain subserving score reading independently from speech with long-term clinical impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reliability of different sampling densities for estimating and mapping lichen diversity in biomonitoring studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferretti, M.; Brambilla, E.; Brunialti, G.; Fornasier, F.; Mazzali, C.; Giordani, P.; Nimis, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    Sampling requirements related to lichen biomonitoring include optimal sampling density for obtaining precise and unbiased estimates of population parameters and maps of known reliability. Two available datasets on a sub-national scale in Italy were used to determine a cost-effective sampling density to be adopted in medium-to-large-scale biomonitoring studies. As expected, the relative error in the mean Lichen Biodiversity (Italian acronym: BL) values and the error associated with the interpolation of BL values for (unmeasured) grid cells increased as the sampling density decreased. However, the increase in size of the error was not linear and even a considerable reduction (up to 50%) in the original sampling effort led to a far smaller increase in errors in the mean estimates (<6%) and in mapping (<18%) as compared with the original sampling densities. A reduction in the sampling effort can result in considerable savings of resources, which can then be used for a more detailed investigation of potentially problematic areas. It is, however, necessary to decide the acceptable level of precision at the design stage of the investigation, so as to select the proper sampling density. - An acceptable level of precision must be decided before determining a sampling design

  6. Expert Opinions on Improving Femicide Data Collection across Europe: A Concept Mapping Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Vives-Cases

    Full Text Available Femicide, defined as the killings of females by males because they are females, is becoming recognized worldwide as an important ongoing manifestation of gender inequality. Despite its high prevalence or widespread prevalence, only a few countries have specific registries about this issue. This study aims to assemble expert opinion regarding the strategies which might feasibly be employed to promote, develop and implement an integrated and differentiated femicide data collection system in Europe at both the national and international levels. Concept mapping methodology was followed, involving 28 experts from 16 countries in generating strategies, sorting and rating them with respect to relevance and feasibility. The experts involved were all members of the EU-Cost-Action on femicide, which is a scientific network of experts on femicide and violence against women across Europe. As a result, a conceptual map emerged, consisting of 69 strategies organized in 10 clusters, which fit into two domains: "Political action" and "Technical steps". There was consensus among participants regarding the high relevance of strategies to institutionalize national databases and raise public awareness through different stakeholders, while strategies to promote media involvement were identified as the most feasible. Differences in perceived priorities according to the level of human development index of the experts' countries were also observed.

  7. Initial study on in vivo conductivity mapping of breast cancer using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaewook; Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Joonsung; Nam, Yoonho; Kim, Min-Oh; Choi, Narae; Kim, Sooyeon; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2015-08-01

    To develop and apply a method to measure in vivo electrical conductivity values using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in subjects with breast cancer. A recently developed technique named MREPT (MR electrical properties tomography) together with a novel coil combination process was used to quantify the conductivity values. The overall technique was validated using a phantom study. In addition, 90 subjects were imaged (50 subjects with previously biopsy-confirmed breast tumor and 40 normal subjects), which was approved by our institutional review board (IRB). A routine clinical protocol, specifically a T2 -weighted FSE (fast spin echo) imaging data, was used for reconstruction of conductivity. By employing the coil combination, the relative error in the conductivity map was reduced from ~70% to 10%. The average conductivity values in breast cancers regions (0.89 ± 0.33S/m) was higher compared to parenchymal tissue (0.43 S/m, P conductivity compared to benign cases (0.56 S/m, n = 5) (P conductivity compared to in situ cancers (0.57 S/m) (P conductivity mapping of breast cancers is feasible using a noninvasive in vivo MREPT technique combined with a coil combination process. The method may provide a tool in the MR diagnosis of breast cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Migration and fixation of Uranium in the surficial environment. Case histories and applications to geochemical exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradier, B.

    Uranium geochemistry is studied in three different test areas: surface waters, sediments, and isohumic soils. Using data from the WATEQ-type thermodynamic model the state of uranium in sampled waters is examined. Uranium is present in the oxidized state U 6 , as uranyl ion UO 2 ++ , complexed by the HPO 4 -- ion and CO 3 ion. Estimated residual uranium values, have shown the very probable existence of a non mineral support for uranium in solution, probably uranyl-fulvates. Uranium in stream-sediments is preferentially located in the fine-grained fractions. The bearing phases of the geochemical uranium, identified in the fine-grained fractions, are mainly composed by amorphous or cryptocrystallized iron oxi-hydroxide, and accessorily by fulvic (and humic) acids. Ferric phases support 60 to 75% of the total uranium. In the isohumic soils, the uranium mobility depends on the existence of highly reactive and poorly evoluted organic compounds, and amorphous or cryptocristallised ferric phases located in the first centimeters of the upper horizon. The recognition of the factors governing uranium behavior in the superficial media requires the preliminary definition of the uranium expression in waters, and that of its bearing phases in soils and stream-sediments. High uranium content in waters are not significant if related to high HCO 3 - and/or PO 4 3- content, and doubtlessly to high dissolved organic carbon content. The interest of residual uranium mapping in stream-sediment geochemistry is underlined. Data are computed by difference between natural value and the corresponding estimated value, calculated by regression taking in account the adsorbant phases content of each sample [fr

  9. Comparison of HapMap and 1000 Genomes Reference Panels in a Large-Scale Genome-Wide Association Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S de Vries

    Full Text Available An increasing number of genome-wide association (GWA studies are now using the higher resolution 1000 Genomes Project reference panel (1000G for imputation, with the expectation that 1000G imputation will lead to the discovery of additional associated loci when compared to HapMap imputation. In order to assess the improvement of 1000G over HapMap imputation in identifying associated loci, we compared the results of GWA studies of circulating fibrinogen based on the two reference panels. Using both HapMap and 1000G imputation we performed a meta-analysis of 22 studies comprising the same 91,953 individuals. We identified six additional signals using 1000G imputation, while 29 loci were associated using both HapMap and 1000G imputation. One locus identified using HapMap imputation was not significant using 1000G imputation. The genome-wide significance threshold of 5×10-8 is based on the number of independent statistical tests using HapMap imputation, and 1000G imputation may lead to further independent tests that should be corrected for. When using a stricter Bonferroni correction for the 1000G GWA study (P-value < 2.5×10-8, the number of loci significant only using HapMap imputation increased to 4 while the number of loci significant only using 1000G decreased to 5. In conclusion, 1000G imputation enabled the identification of 20% more loci than HapMap imputation, although the advantage of 1000G imputation became less clear when a stricter Bonferroni correction was used. More generally, our results provide insights that are applicable to the implementation of other dense reference panels that are under development.

  10. A Prospective Study of Ripple Mapping the Post-Infarct Ventricular Scar to Guide Substrate Ablation for Ventricular Tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Vishal; Linton, Nick W F; Jamil-Copley, Shahnaz; Koa-Wing, Michael; Lim, Phang Boon; Qureshi, Norman; Ng, Fu Siong; Hayat, Sajad; Whinnett, Zachary; Davies, D Wyn; Peters, Nicholas S; Kanagaratnam, Prapa

    2016-06-01

    Post-infarct ventricular tachycardia is associated with channels of surviving myocardium within scar characterized by fractionated and low-amplitude signals usually occurring late during sinus rhythm. Conventional automated algorithms for 3-dimensional electro-anatomic mapping cannot differentiate the delayed local signal of conduction within the scar from the initial far-field signal generated by surrounding healthy tissue. Ripple mapping displays every deflection of an electrogram, thereby providing fully informative activation sequences. We prospectively used CARTO-based ripple maps to identify conducting channels as a target for ablation. High-density bipolar left ventricular endocardial electrograms were collected using CARTO3v4 in sinus rhythm or ventricular pacing and reviewed for ripple mapping conducting channel identification. Fifteen consecutive patients (median age 68 years, left ventricular ejection fraction 30%) were studied (6 month preprocedural implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapies: median 19 ATP events [Q1-Q3=4-93] and 1 shock [Q1-Q3=0-3]). Scar (ripple mapping conducting channels were seen within each scar (length 60 mm; initial component 0.44 mV; delayed component 0.20 mV; conduction 55 cm/s). Ablation was performed along all identified ripple mapping conducting channels (median 18 lesions) and any presumed interconnected late-activating sites (median 6 lesions; Q1-Q3=2-12). The diastolic isthmus in ventricular tachycardia was mapped in 3 patients and colocated within the ripple mapping conducting channels identified. Ventricular tachycardia was noninducible in 85% of patients post ablation, and 71% remain free of ventricular tachycardia recurrence at 6-month median follow-up. Ripple mapping can be used to identify conduction channels within scar to guide functional substrate ablation. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Expert knowledge maps for knowledge management: a case study in Traditional Chinese Medicine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Meng; Yang, Shuo; Yu, Tong; Yang, Ce; Gao, Yonghong; Zhu, Haiyan

    2013-10-01

    To design a model to capture information on the state and trends of knowledge creation, at both an individual and an organizational level, in order to enhance knowledge management. We designed a graph-theoretic knowledge model, the expert knowledge map (EKM), based on literature-based annotation. A case study in the domain of Traditional Chinese Medicine research was used to illustrate the usefulness of the model. The EKM successfully captured various aspects of knowledge and enhanced knowledge management within the case-study organization through the provision of knowledge graphs, expert graphs, and expert-knowledge biography. Our model could help to reveal the hot topics, trends, and products of the research done by an organization. It can potentially be used to facilitate knowledge learning, sharing and decision-making among researchers, academicians, students, and administrators of organizations.

  12. Theoretical model simulations for the global Thermospheric Mapping Study (TMS) periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, D.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.

    Theoretical and semiempirical models of the solar UV/EUV and of the geomagnetic driving forces affecting the terrestrial mesosphere and thermosphere have been used to generate a series of representative numerical time-dependent and global models of the thermosphere, for the range of solar and geoamgnetic activity levels which occurred during the three Thermospheric Mapping Study periods. The simulations obtained from these numerical models are compared with observations, and with the results of semiempirical models of the thermosphere. The theoretical models provide a record of the magnitude of the major driving forces which affected the thermosphere during the study periods, and a baseline against which the actual observed structure and dynamics can be compared.

  13. Mapping discussion of canine obesity between veterinary surgeons and dog owners: a provisional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns-Haylor, Theodora; Fordyce, Peter

    2017-02-11

    This study maps communication between veterinary surgeons and dog owners on obesity management in four first-opinion practices in the UK. A total of 74 dog owners who met the study's inclusion criteria and 24 veterinary surgeons were interviewed using oral questionnaires between November 2013 and May 2014. The dog owner questionnaire was based on potential discussion areas that could influence an owner's intention to act (initiate a weight loss regime) based on Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. The veterinary surgeons' questionnaires assessed perception of canine obesity, their personal communication strategies and current practice-level interventions. The findings identify opportunities for more proactive approaches to obesity management by veterinary surgeons and their practices. British Veterinary Association.

  14. A Systematic Mapping Study of Tools for Distributed Software Development Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Paolo; Ali Babar, Muhammad

    schemas for providing a framework that can help identify the categories that have attracted significant amount of research and commercial efforts, and the research areas where there are gaps to be filled. Conclusions: The findings show that whilst commercial and open source solutions are predominantly...... gaps. Objective: The objective of this research is to systematically identify and classify a comprehensive list of the technologies that have been developed and/or used for supporting GSD teams. Method: This study has been undertaken as a Systematic Mapping Study (SMS). Our searches identified 1958......Context: A wide variety of technologies have been developed to support Global Software Development (GSD). However, the information about the dozens of available solutions is quite diverse and scattered making it quite difficult to have an overview able to identify common trends and unveil research...

  15. Development and distribution of radon risk maps in New York State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitto, M.E.; Kunz, C.O.; New York State Univ., Albany, NY; Green, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Radon maps for each county in New York State have been developed on the township level indicating the percent of homes with ≥ 148 Bq/m 3 (4 pCi/l) in the indoor air of the basement and living area. Estimates are based on a combination of nearly 45,000 basement-screening measurements and correlations to surficial geology. Many of the towns and cities in the State with the highest average indoor radon concentrations are located on highly-permeable gravelly soils formed during the retreat of the Wisconsinan Glaciation. As many towns (32% of total) had ≤ 5 measurements, a project to obtain additional measurements in high-risk towns produced results comparable to estimates based on correlations to surficial geology. Radon risk maps for each county have been distributed to municipal governments, schools, and professionals in activities related to homes, buildings, and indoor air quality. (author)

  16. Background levels of heavy metals in surficial sediments of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean): An approach based on 133Cs normalization and lead isotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussiez, Vincent; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Probst, Jean-Luc; Monaco, Andre

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an attempt to reach natural background levels of heavy metals in surficial sediments of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean). To correct for the grain-size effect, normalization procedures based on a clay mineral indicator element are commonly used, after a first grain size separation by sieving. In our study, we tested the applicability of this method with respect to commonly used normalizer elements, and found that stable Cs shows the best ability to reflect the fine sediment fraction. Background levels were successfully reached for Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb, compared to various literature references. Nevertheless, in the case of lead, the normalized data depicted a general enrichment in all samples, and the natural levels could only be reached when concentrations were corrected for the atmospheric contribution by analysing lead isotope ratios. Also for Zn, a general enrichment was found in our samples, although less important. - Among several potential normalizers, stable Cs ( 133 Cs) depicted the best ability to correct for the grain-size effect of shelf sediments and was used to estimate regional background levels of heavy metals

  17. Methods for the correction of vascular artifacts in PET O-15 water brain-mapping studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kewei; Reiman, E. M.; Lawson, M.; Yun, Lang-sheng; Bandy, D.; Palant, A.

    1996-12-01

    While positron emission tomographic (PET) measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) can be used to map brain regions that are involved in normal and pathological human behaviors, measurements in the anteromedial temporal lobe can be confounded by the combined effects of radiotracer activity in neighboring arteries and partial-volume averaging. The authors now describe two simple methods to address this vascular artifact. One method utilizes the early frames of a dynamic PET study, while the other method utilizes a coregistered magnetic resonance image (MRI) to characterize the vascular region of interest (VROI). Both methods subsequently assign a common value to each pixel in the VROI for the control (baseline) scan and the activation scan. To study the vascular artifact and to demonstrate the ability of the proposed methods correcting the vascular artifact, four dynamic PET scans were performed in a single subject during the same behavioral state. For each of the four scans, a vascular scan containing vascular activity was computed as the summation of the images acquired 0-60 s after radiotracer administration, and a control scan containing minimal vascular activity was computed as the summation of the images acquired 20-80 s after radiotracer administration. t-score maps calculated from the four pairs of vascular and control scans were used to characterize regional blood flow differences related to vascular activity before and after the application of each vascular artifact correction method. Both methods eliminated the observed differences in vascular activity, as well as the vascular artifact observed in the anteromedial temporal lobes. Using PET data from a study of normal human emotion, these methods permitted the authors to identify rCBF increases in the anteromedial temporal lobe free from the potentially confounding, combined effects of vascular activity and partial-volume averaging.

  18. Methods for the correction of vascular artifacts in PET O-15 water brain-mapping studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.; Reiman, E.M.; Good Samaritan Regional Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ; Lawson, M.; Yun, L.S.; Bandy, D.

    1996-01-01

    While positron emission tomographic (PET) measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) can be used to map brain regions that are involved in normal and pathological human behaviors, measurements in the anteromedial temporal lobe can be confounded by the combined effects of radiotracer activity in neighboring arteries and partial-volume averaging. The authors now describe two simple methods to address this vascular artifact. One method utilizes the early frames of a dynamic PET study, while the other method utilizes a coregistered magnetic resonance image (MRI) to characterize the vascular region of interest (VROI). Both methods subsequently assign a common value to each pixel in the VROI for the control scan and the activation scan. To study the vascular artifact and to demonstrate the ability of the proposed methods correcting the vascular artifact, four dynamic PET scans were performed in a single subject during the same behavioral state. For each of the four scans, a vascular scan containing vascular activity was computed as the summation of the images acquired 0--60 s after radiotracer administrations, and a control scan containing minimal vascular activity was computed as the summation of the images acquired 20--80 s after radiotracer administration. t-score maps calculated from the four pairs of vascular and control scans were used to characterize regional blood flow differences related to vascular activity before and after the applications of each vascular artifact correction method. Both methods eliminated the observed differences in vascular activity, as well as the vascular artifact observed in the anteromedial temporal lobes. Using PET data from a study of normal human emotion, these methods permitted us to identify rCBF increases in the anteromedial temporal lobe free from the potentially confounding, combined effects of vascular activity and partial-volume averaging

  19. Using Environmental Variables for Studying of the Quality of Sampling in Soil Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jafari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methods of soil survey are generally empirical and based on the mental development of the surveyor, correlating soil with underlying geology, landforms, vegetation and air-photo interpretation. Since there are no statistical criteria for traditional soil sampling; this may lead to bias in the areas being sampled. In digital soil mapping, soil samples may be used to elaborate quantitative relationships or models between soil attributes and soil covariates. Because the relationships are based on the soil observations, the quality of the resulting soil map depends also on the soil observation quality. An appropriate sampling design for digital soil mapping depends on how much data is available and where the data is located. Some statistical methods have been developed for optimizing data sampling for soil surveys. Some of these methods deal with the use of ancillary information. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of sampling of existing data. Materials and Methods: The study area is located in the central basin of the Iranian plateau (Figure 1. The geologic infrastructure of the area is mainly Cretaceous limestone, Mesozoic shale and sandstone. Air photo interpretation (API was used to differentiate geomorphic patterns based on their formation processes, general structure and morphometry. The patterns were differentiated through a nested geomorphic hierarchy (Fig. 2. A four-level geomorphic hierarchy is used to breakdown the complexity of different landscapes of the study area. In the lower level of the hierarchy, the geomorphic surfaces, which were formed by a unique process during a specific geologic time, were defined. A stratified sampling scheme was designed based on geomorphic mapping. In the stratified simple random sampling, the area was divided into sub-areas referred to as strata based on geomorphic surfaces, and within each stratum, sampling locations were randomly selected (Figure 2. This resulted in 191

  20. Assessment and application of national environmental databases and mapping tools at the local level to two community case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Davyda; Conlon, Kathryn; Barzyk, Timothy; Chahine, Teresa; Zartarian, Valerie; Schultz, Brad

    2011-03-01

    Communities are concerned over pollution levels and seek methods to systematically identify and prioritize the environmental stressors in their communities. Geographic information system (GIS) maps of environmental information can be useful tools for communities in their assessment of environmental-pollution-related risks. Databases and mapping tools that supply community-level estimates of ambient concentrations of hazardous pollutants, risk, and potential health impacts can provide relevant information for communities to understand, identify, and prioritize potential exposures and risk from multiple sources. An assessment of existing databases and mapping tools was conducted as part of this study to explore the utility of publicly available databases, and three of these databases were selected for use in a community-level GIS mapping application. Queried data from the U.S. EPA's National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment, Air Quality System, and National Emissions Inventory were mapped at the appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions for identifying risks of exposure to air pollutants in two communities. The maps combine monitored and model-simulated pollutant and health risk estimates, along with local survey results, to assist communities with the identification of potential exposure sources and pollution hot spots. Findings from this case study analysis will provide information to advance the development of new tools to assist communities with environmental risk assessments and hazard prioritization. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Engaging national organizations for knowledge translation: comparative case studies in knowledge value mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Joseph P; Rogers, Juan D

    2011-09-12

    Government sponsors of research and development, along with their funded investigators, are increasingly tasked with demonstrating evidence of knowledge use by nontraditional audiences. This requires efforts to translate their findings for effective communication. For technology-related knowledge, these audiences include clinicians, consumers, manufacturers, public policy agencies, and knowledge brokers. One potentially efficient approach is to communicate research findings through relevant national organizations. However, this requires an understanding of how such organizations view and treat research knowledge, which can be determined through knowledge-value mapping. Do knowledge values differ between national organizations representing different audiences? Can a deeper understanding of knowledge values help sponsors, investigators, and organizations better communicate research findings to stakeholders? A series of comparative case studies on knowledge-value mapping were derived through interviews with spokespersons for six national organizations. The semi-structured interviews followed a 10-item questionnaire to characterize different ways in which each organization engages with research-based knowledge. Each participating organization represents a particular stakeholder group, while all share a common interest in the research subject matter. Each national organization considers the value of the research knowledge in the context of their organization's mission and the interests of their members. All are interested in collaborating with researchers to share relevant findings, while they vary along the following dimensions of knowledge engagement: create, identify, translate, adapt, communicate, use, promote, absorptive capacity, and recommendations for facilitation. The principles of knowledge translation suggest that investigators can increase use by tailoring the format and context of their findings to the absorptive capacity of nonscholars. Greater absorption

  2. Engaging national organizations for knowledge translation: Comparative case studies in knowledge value mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers Juan D

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Government sponsors of research and development, along with their funded investigators, are increasingly tasked with demonstrating evidence of knowledge use by nontraditional audiences. This requires efforts to translate their findings for effective communication. For technology-related knowledge, these audiences include clinicians, consumers, manufacturers, public policy agencies, and knowledge brokers. One potentially efficient approach is to communicate research findings through relevant national organizations. However, this requires an understanding of how such organizations view and treat research knowledge, which can be determined through knowledge-value mapping. Do knowledge values differ between national organizations representing different audiences? Can a deeper understanding of knowledge values help sponsors, investigators, and organizations better communicate research findings to stakeholders? Methods A series of comparative case studies on knowledge-value mapping were derived through interviews with spokespersons for six national organizations. The semi-structured interviews followed a 10-item questionnaire to characterize different ways in which each organization engages with research-based knowledge. Each participating organization represents a particular stakeholder group, while all share a common interest in the research subject matter. Results Each national organization considers the value of the research knowledge in the context of their organization's mission and the interests of their members. All are interested in collaborating with researchers to share relevant findings, while they vary along the following dimensions of knowledge engagement: create, identify, translate, adapt, communicate, use, promote, absorptive capacity, and recommendations for facilitation. Conclusions The principles of knowledge translation suggest that investigators can increase use by tailoring the format and context of their

  3. Modifiers of Neighbors' Bystander Intervention in Intimate Partner Violence: A Concept Mapping Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Sara; Todd, Mary-Justine; Oshiro, Michael; Greene, Emily; Frye, Victoria

    2016-03-01

    Encouraging bystander intervention in intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is potentially an important method of reducing the prevalence of such violence in urban communities. Most existing research has been conducted on campuses and in relation to sexual violence among teens or young adults. Our understanding of which bystander behaviors are feasible is nascent, and our knowledge of which situational factors influence neighbors' self-reported willingness to intervene is underdeveloped. We conducted a concept mapping study to identify potential bystander intervention behaviors in IPV among neighbors in urban settings; we also assessed whether perceived feasibility and effectiveness of those behaviors varied by situational characteristics. Using data collected from 41 residents of a low-income New York City neighborhood in late 2011, concept mapping was used to create a conceptual map of the 74 behaviors identified by participants. We examined participant differences in mean feasibility (i.e., that the participants "could" or "would" enact a behavior), feasibility given two situational characteristics (if the couple was perceived to have a history of IPV, and if children were believed to be involved or present), and perceived effectiveness of bystander behaviors. Differences across select sociodemographic factors of participants were also analyzed. A 13-cluster solution emerged, with clusters of bystander behaviors grouped into four larger cluster areas: victim focused, parenting/education focused, perpetrator focused, and community involvement focused. Bivariate analyses revealed that participants rated the four cluster areas as more feasible when a child was believed to be involved. Male participants rated intervention as less feasible when the couple was believed to have a history of IPV. Participants who reported a history of IPV victimization rated all four cluster areas as less effective on average, as compared with participants without a history of

  4. The Study of Enhancing Plans on Korean Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map (ECVAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, M.; Choi, Y.; Hwang, J.; Jeon, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    With the limitation of land area in the Republic of Korea, land use and excessive development in Korea is one of the huge socio-environmental problems. Plethora of land owners, government, and enterprises to develop land cover are still struggling for maintaining balance between efficient land utilization and sufficient land conservation. For the feasible management and land use in the future, ECVAM(as known as Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map) was created, accompanied with objective environmental grading of land in South Korea as well as integrated environmental information. ECVAM is the mapping system expressed by five-graded quality whether to develop or conserve in given land area with different colours. This map was primarily produced as the version 1.0 to ultimately use land eco-friendly and thoroughly which contains legally considered grade factors, environmental and ecological factors since 2001. From 2013, this project has planned to renovate the version 2.0 in more precise methods - strengthening legal support for user expansion, more amplified scale to 1:5,000, and the wide-spread supply such as education for those who demands ECVAM to adjust other fields like Environmental Impact Assessment to cope with land developers. For this year, we framed the official guideline to facilitate governments to design their newly-upgraded ECVAM but also to encourage local governors to utilize this figure for given land assessments. This assessment system also include the theoretical concept called natural asset valuation and the base study plan analyzing Vertical Vegetation Profile in the grading element of Stability of Community Structure. For the further study, it needs to reorganize the assessment factors to make the linkage between the ministry of environment and the ministry of land, infrastructure and transport in Korea for sustainable land use as well as to satisfy the grading ones in other nations' environmental conservation assessments such as

  5. Energetic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report explains the energetic map of Uruguay as well as the different systems that delimits political frontiers in the region. The electrical system importance is due to the electricity, oil and derived , natural gas, potential study, biofuels, wind and solar energy

  6. Air Pollutant Mapping with a Mobile Laboratory during the BEE-TEX Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara I. Yacovitch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory was deployed to the Houston Ship Channel and surrounding areas during the Benzene and Other Toxics Exposure field study in February 2015. We evaluated atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic hydrocarbons and other hazardous air pollutants of importance to human health, including benzene, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzenes, styrene, and NO 2 . Ambient concentration measurements were focused on the neighborhoods of Manchester, Harrisburg, and Galena Park. The most likely measured concentration of 1,3-butadiene in the Manchester neighborhood (0.17 ppb exceeds the Environmental Protection Agency's E-5 lifetime cancer risk level of 0.14 ppb. In all the three neighborhoods, the measured benzene concentration falls below or within the E-5 lifetime cancer risk levels of 0.4–1.4 ppb for benzene. Pollution maps as a function of wind direction show the impact of nearby sources.

  7. The expression of depression among Javanese patients with major depressive disorder: a concept mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brintnell, E Sharon; Sommer, Ryan W; Kuncoro, Bambang; Setiawan, G Pandu; Bailey, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we explored the presentation of clinical depression in Java, Indonesia. Interviews were conducted with 20 Javanese patients (male and female) with major depressive disorder from both lower and higher socioeconomic levels. The recruited participants came from provincial and private mental health hospitals in the cities of Solo, Yogykarta (Jogja), Jakarta, and Malang on the island of Java, Indonesia. Concept mapping methodology using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify underlying themes in the expression of depressive phenomena in this Indonesian population. The results identified themes that grouped into six clusters: interpersonal relationships, hopelessness, physical/somatic, poverty of thought, discourage, and defeat. Findings give support to the view that culture influences the expression of Indonesian depressive phenomenology, which nevertheless has some common roots with Western clinical pictures of the disorder. Cultural influences may mask symptoms of the disorder to clinicians. Diagnostic and assessment tools must be carefully selected to ensure they address culturally specific expressions of depression.

  8. ONTOLOGY MAPPING IN THE RESILIENCE STUDY: THE ORGANIZATIONAL PERSPECTIVE FOR EUROPEAN UNION CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu-Tudor SALANŢIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ontology mapping in resilience surveillance on organization level can found utilization in analysis of association between idiosyncrasies and structure adaptability. Starting from the data regarding the economic trends for European Union members from 2014 to 2016 the aim of the research is to analyse the European Union resilience through interpretation of the link between members behaviour and structure convergence. The members positioned in European Union was analysed after organization clusterization of the twenty-eight state members. Two different structures are included into analysis for the studied periods: a structure which incorporates just the state members, and other which also take into account the eurozone blue-chips. In order to analyse the members’ relation in structure a gravity model has been developed, the obtained results for each state members pair are contained in a skew matrix. The values are interpreted through a knowledge-base to highlight the European Union resilience degree.

  9. Climate change induced lanslide hazard mapping over Greece- A case study in Pelion Mountain (SE Thessaly, Central Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelitsa, Varvara; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Anagnwstopoulou, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Landslides, as a major type of geological hazard, represent one of the natural events that occur most frequently worldwide after hydro-meteorological events. Landslides occur when the stability of a slope changes due to a number of factors, such as the steep terrain and prolonged precipitation. Identification of landslides and compilation of landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk maps are very important issues for the public authorities providing substantial information regarding, the strategic planning and management of the land-use. Although landslides cannot be predicted accurately, many attempts have been made to compile these maps. Important factors for the the compilation of reliable maps are the quality and the amount of available data and the selection of the best method for the analysis. Numerous studies and publications providing landslide susceptibility,hazard and risk maps, for different regions of Greece, have completed up to now. Their common characteristic is that they are static, taking into account parameters like geology, mean annual precipitaion, slope, aspect, distance from roads, faults and drainage network, soil capability, land use etc., without introducing the dimension of time. The current study focuses on the Pelion Mountain, which is located at the southeastern part of Thessaly in Central Greece; aiming to compile "dynamic" susceptibility and hazard maps depending on climate changes. For this purpose, past and future precipipation data from regional climate models (RCMs) datasets are introduced as input parameters for the compilation of "dynamic" landslide hazard maps. Moreover, land motion mapping data produced by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) are used for the validation of the landslide occurrence during the period from June 1992 to December 2003 and as a result for the calibration of the mapping procedure. The PSI data can be applied at a regional scale as support for land motion mapping and at local scale for the

  10. My Family-Study, Early-Onset Substance use Prevention Program: An Application of Intervention Mapping Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Based on different studies, substance use is one of the health problems in the Iranian society. The prevalence of substance use is on a growing trend; moreover, the age of the onset of substance use has declined to early adolescence and even lower. Regarding this, the present study aimed to develop a family-based early-onset substance use prevention program in children (My Family-Study by using intervention mapping approach. Materials and Methods: This study descirbes the research protocol during which the intervention mapping approach was used as a framework to develop My Family-Study. In this study, six steps of intervention mapping were completed. Interviews with experts and literature review fulfilled the need assessment. In the second step, the change objectivs were rewritten based on the intersection of the performance objectives and the determinants associated in the matrices. After designing the program and planning the implementation of the intervention, the evaluation plan of the program was accomplished. Results: The use of intervention mapping approach facilitated the develop-pment of a systematic as well as theory- and evidence-based program. Moreover, this approach was helful in the determination of outcomes, performance and change objectives, determinants, theoretical methods, practical application, intervention, dissemination, and evaluation program. Conclusions: The intervention mapping provided a systematic as well as theory- and evidence-based approach to develop a quality continuing health promotion program.

  11. Mapping invasive alien Acacia dealbata Link using ASTER multispectral imagery: a case study in central-eastern of Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, F.; Alegria, C.; Artur, G.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Acacia dealbata is an alien invasive species that is widely spread in Portugal. The main goal of this study was to produce an accurate and detailed map for this invasive species using ASTER multispectral imagery. Area of study: The central-eastern zone of Portugal was used as study area. This whole area is represented in an ASTER scene covering about 321.1 x 103 ha. Material and methods: ASTER imagery of two dates (flowering season and dry season) were classified by applying three supervised classifiers (Maximum Likelihood, Support Vector Machine and Artificial Neural Networks) to five different land cover classifications (from most generic to most detailed land cover categories). The spectral separability of the land cover categories was analyzed and the accuracy of the 30 produced maps compared. Main results: The highest classification accuracy for acacia mapping was obtained using the flowering season imagery, the Maximum Likelihood classifier and the most detailed land cover classification (overall accuracy of 86%; Kappa statistics of 85%; acacia class Kappa statistics of 100%). As a result, the area occupied by acacia was estimated to be approximated 24,770 ha (i.e. 8% of the study area). Research highlights: The methodology explored proved to be a cost-effective solution for acacia mapping in central-eastern of Portugal. The obtained map enables a more accurate and detailed identification of this species’ invaded areas due to its spatial resolution (minimum mapping unit of 0.02 ha) providing a substantial improvement comparably to the existent national land cover maps to support monitoring and control activities. (Author)

  12. An integrated study for mapping the moisture distribution in an ancient damaged wall painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitani, Donatella; Proietti, Noemi; Gobbino, Marco; Soroldoni, Luigi; Casellato, Umberto; Valentini, Massimo; Rosina, Elisabetta

    2009-12-01

    An integrated study of microclimate monitoring, IR thermography (IRT), gravimetric tests and portable unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was applied in the framework of planning emergency intervention on a very deteriorated wall painting in San Rocco church, Cornaredo (Milan, Italy). The IRT investigation supported by gravimetric tests showed that the worst damage, due to water infiltration, was localized on the wall painting of the northern wall. Unilateral NMR, a new non-destructive technique which measures the hydrogen signal of the moisture and that was applied directly to the wall, allowed a detailed map of the distribution of the moisture in the plaster underlying the wall panting to be obtained. With a proper calibration of the integral of the recorded signal with suitable specimens, each area of the map corresponded to an accurate amount of moisture. IRT, gravimetric tests and unilateral NMR applied to investigate the northern wall painting showed the presence of two wet areas separated by a dry area. The moisture found in the lower area was ascribed to the occurrence of rising damp at the bottom of the wall due to the slope of the garden soil towards the northern exterior. The moisture found in the upper area was ascribed to condensation phenomena associated with the presence of a considerable amount of soluble, hygroscopic salts. In the framework of this integrated study, IRT investigation and gravimetric methods validated portable unilateral NMR as a new analytical tool for measuring in situ and without any sampling of the distribution and amount of moisture in wall paintings.

  13. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Indicates a Disturbed Brain Iron Homeostasis in Neuromyelitis Optica - A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Martin Doring

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases and can be associated with oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate brain iron in patients with Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM, a quantitative iron-sensitive MRI technique. 12 clinically confirmed NMO patients (6 female and 6 male; age 35.4y±14.2y and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (7 female and 5 male; age 33.9±11.3y underwent MRI of the brain at 3 Tesla. Quantitative maps of the effective transverse relaxation rate (R2* and magnetic susceptibility were calculated and a blinded ROI-based group comparison analysis was performed. Normality of the data and differences between patients and controls were tested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and t-test, respectively. Correlation with age was studied using Spearman's rank correlation and an ANCOVA-like analysis. Magnetic susceptibility values were decreased in the red nucleus (p0.95; between -15 and -22 ppb depending on reference region with a trend toward increasing differences with age. R2* revealed significantly decreased relaxation in the optic radiations of five of the 12 patients (p<0.0001; -3.136±0.567 s-1. Decreased relaxation in the optic radiation is indicative for demyelination, which is in line with previous findings. Decreased magnetic susceptibility in the red nucleus is indicative for a lower brain iron concentration, a chemical redistribution of iron into less magnetic forms, or both. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the pathological cause or consequence of this finding.

  14. How to include the variability of TMS responses in simulations: a speech mapping case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geeter, N.; Lioumis, P.; Laakso, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.

    2016-11-01

    When delivered over a specific cortical site, TMS can temporarily disrupt the ongoing process in that area. This allows mapping of speech-related areas for preoperative evaluation purposes. We numerically explore the observed variability of TMS responses during a speech mapping experiment performed with a neuronavigation system. We selected four cases with very small perturbations in coil position and orientation. In one case (E) a naming error occurred, while in the other cases (NEA, B, C) the subject appointed the images as smoothly as without TMS. A realistic anisotropic head model was constructed of the subject from T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI. The induced electric field distributions were computed, associated to the coil parameters retrieved from the neuronavigation system. Finally, the membrane potentials along relevant white matter fibre tracts, extracted from DTI-based tractography, were computed using a compartmental cable equation. While only minor differences could be noticed between the induced electric field distributions of the four cases, computing the corresponding membrane potentials revealed different subsets of tracts were activated. A single tract was activated for all coil positions. Another tract was only triggered for case E. NEA induced action potentials in 13 tracts, while NEB stimulated 11 tracts and NEC one. The calculated results are certainly sensitive to the coil specifications, demonstrating the observed variability in this study. However, even though a tract connecting Broca’s with Wernicke’s area is only triggered for the error case, further research is needed on other study cases and on refining the neural model with synapses and network connections. Case- and subject-specific modelling that includes both electromagnetic fields and neuronal activity enables demonstration of the variability in TMS experiments and can capture the interaction with complex neural networks.

  15. A Study on the Evolution of Carbon Capture and Storage Technology Based on Knowledge Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Hua Qiu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As a useful technical measure to deal with the problem of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions, carbon capture and storage (CCS technology has been highly regarded in both theory and practice under the promotion of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC. Knowledge mapping is helpful for understanding the evolution in terms of research topics and emerging trends in a specific domain. In this work knowledge mapping of CCS technology was investigated using CiteSpace. Several aspects of the outputs of publications in the CCS research area were analyzed, such as annual trends, countries, and institutions. The research topics in this particular technology area were analyzed based on their co-occurring keyword networks and co-citation literature networks, while, the emerging trends and research frontiers were studied through the analysis of burst keywords and citation bursts. The results indicated that the annual number of publications in the research field of CCS technology increased rapidly after 2005. There are more CCS studies published in countries from Asia, North America, and Europe, especially in the United States and China. The Chinese Academy of Sciences not only has the largest number of publications, but also has a greater impact on the research area of CCS technology, however, there are more productive institutions located in developed countries. In the research area of CCS technology, the main research topics include carbon emissions and environmental protection, research and development activities, and social practical issues, meanwhile, the main emerging trends include emerging techniques and processes, emerging materials, evaluation of technological performance, and socioeconomic analysis.

  16. Perfusion SPECT studies with mapping of Brodmann areas in differentiating Alzheimer's disease from frontotemporal degeneration syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotassiou, Varvara; Papatriantafyllou, John; Sifakis, Nikolaos; Tzavara, Chara; Tsougos, Ioannis; Kapsalaki, Eftychia; Hadjigeorgiou, George; Georgoulias, Panagiotis

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies with mapping of Brodmann areas (BAs) in the differential diagnosis between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal degeneration (FTLD) syndromes. Thirty-nine patients with AD and 73 patients with FTLD syndromes [behavioural variant FTLD (bvFTLD); language variant FTLD (lvFTLD), including semantic dementia (SD) and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA); and corticobasal degeneration (CBD)/progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) syndromes] underwent brain perfusion SPECT. The NeuroGam software was used for the semiquantitative evaluation of perfusion in BAs of the left (L) and right (R) hemispheres. Compared with those in AD patients, BAs with statistically significant hypoperfusion were found in the prefrontal, orbitofrontal and cingulated cortices and Broca's areas of FTLD and bvFTLD patients; in the temporal and prefrontal cortices and Broca's areas of lvFTLD patients; in the left temporal gyrus of SD patients; in premotor and supplementary motor, prefrontal, orbitofrontal, temporal and anterior cingulated cortices and Broca's areas of PNFA patients; and in the prefrontal, temporal, posterior cingulated and primary and secondary visual cortices of CBD/PSP patients. BA 46R could differentiate AD patients from FTLD and bvFTLD patients; 21L and 25L were found to be independent predictors for lvFTLD in comparison with AD, and 25R, 21L and 23R could differentiate AD patients from PNFA, SD and CBD/PSP patients, respectively. Brain perfusion SPECT with BA mapping in AD and FTLD patients could improve the definition of brain areas that are specifically implicated in these disorders, resulting in a more accurate differential diagnosis.

  17. Construction of Polarimetric Radar-Based Reference Rain Maps for the Iowa Flood Studies Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walt; Krajewski, Witek; Wolff, David; Gatlin, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) campaign was conducted in central and northeastern Iowa during the months of April-June, 2013. Specific science objectives for IFloodS included quantification of uncertainties in satellite and ground-based estimates of precipitation, 4-D characterization of precipitation physical processes and associated parameters (e.g., size distributions, water contents, types, structure etc.), assessment of the impact of precipitation estimation uncertainty and physical processes on hydrologic predictive skill, and refinement of field observations and data analysis approaches as they pertain to future GPM integrated hydrologic validation and related field studies. In addition to field campaign archival of raw and processed satellite data (including precipitation products), key ground-based platforms such as the NASA NPOL S-band and D3R Ka/Ku-band dual-polarimetric radars, University of Iowa X-band dual-polarimetric radars, a large network of paired rain gauge platforms, and a large network of 2D Video and Parsivel disdrometers were deployed. In something of a canonical approach, the radar (NPOL in particular), gauge and disdrometer observational assets were deployed to create a consistent high-quality distributed (time and space sampling) radar-based ground "reference" rainfall dataset, with known uncertainties, that could be used for assessing the satellite-based precipitation products at a range of space/time scales. Subsequently, the impact of uncertainties in the satellite products could be evaluated relative to the ground-benchmark in coupled weather, land-surface and distributed hydrologic modeling frameworks as related to flood prediction. Relative to establishing the ground-based "benchmark", numerous avenues were pursued in the making and verification of IFloodS "reference" dual-polarimetric radar-based rain maps, and this study documents the process and results as they pertain specifically

  18. Construction of Polarimetric Radar-Based Reference Rain Maps for the Iowa Flood Studies Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walter; Wolff, David; Krajewski, Witek; Gatlin, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) campaign was conducted in central and northeastern Iowa during the months of April-June, 2013. Specific science objectives for IFloodS included quantification of uncertainties in satellite and ground-based estimates of precipitation, 4-D characterization of precipitation physical processes and associated parameters (e.g., size distributions, water contents, types, structure etc.), assessment of the impact of precipitation estimation uncertainty and physical processes on hydrologic predictive skill, and refinement of field observations and data analysis approaches as they pertain to future GPM integrated hydrologic validation and related field studies. In addition to field campaign archival of raw and processed satellite data (including precipitation products), key ground-based platforms such as the NASA NPOL S-band and D3R Ka/Ku-band dual-polarimetric radars, University of Iowa X-band dual-polarimetric radars, a large network of paired rain gauge platforms, and a large network of 2D Video and Parsivel disdrometers were deployed. In something of a canonical approach, the radar (NPOL in particular), gauge and disdrometer observational assets were deployed to create a consistent high-quality distributed (time and space sampling) radar-based ground "reference" rainfall dataset, with known uncertainties, that could be used for assessing the satellite-based precipitation products at a range of space/time scales. Subsequently, the impact of uncertainties in the satellite products could be evaluated relative to the ground-benchmark in coupled weather, land-surface and distributed hydrologic modeling frameworks as related to flood prediction. Relative to establishing the ground-based "benchmark", numerous avenues were pursued in the making and verification of IFloodS "reference" dual-polarimetric radar-based rain maps, and this study documents the process and results as they pertain specifically

  19. Environmental propagation of noise in mines and nearby villages: A study through noise mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena D Manwar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noise mapping being an established practice in Europe is hardly practiced for noise management in India although it is mandatory in Indian mines as per guidelines of the Directorate General of Mines Safety (DGMS. As a pilot study, noise mapping was conducted in an opencast mine with three different models; one based on the baseline operating conditions in two shifts (Situation A, and two other virtual situations where either production targets were enhanced by extending working hours to three shifts (Situation B or only by increased mechanization and not changing the duration of work (Situation C. Methods: Noise sources were categorized as point, line, area, and moving sources. Considering measured power of the sources, specific meteorological and geographical parameters, noise maps were generated using Predictor LimA software. Results: In all three situations, Lden values were 95 dB(A and 70–80 dB(A near drill machine and haul roads, respectively. Noise contours were wider in Situation C due to increase in frequency of dumpers. Lden values near Shovel 1 and Shovel 2 under Situation B increased by 5 dB and 3 dB, respectively due to expansion of working hours. In Situation C, noise levels were >82 dB(A around shovels. Noise levels on both sides of conveyor belts were in the range of 80–85 dB(A in Situations A and C whereas it was 85–90 dB(A in Situation B. Near crusher plants, it ranged from 80 to 90 dB(A in Situations A and C and between 85 and 95 dB(A in Situation B. In all situations, noise levels near residential areas exceeded the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB limits, i.e., 55 dB(A. Conclusions: For all situations, predicted noise levels exceeded CPCB limits within the mine and nearby residential area. Residential areas near the crusher plants are vulnerable to increased noise propagation. It is recommended to put an acoustic barrier near the crusher plant to attenuate the noise propagation.

  20. Variable-Weighted Linear Combination Model for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: Case Study in the Shennongjia Forestry District, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A landslide susceptibility map plays an essential role in urban and rural planning. The main purpose of this study is to establish a variable-weighted linear combination model (VWLC and assess its potential for landslide susceptibility mapping. Firstly, different objective methods are employed for data processing rather than the frequently-used subjective judgments: K-means clustering is used for classification; binarization is introduced to determine buffer length thresholds for locational elements (road, river, and fault; landslide area density is adopted as the contribution index; and a correlation analysis is conducted for suitable factor selection. Secondly, considering the dimension changes of the preference matrix varying with the different locations of the mapping cells, the variable weights of each optimal factor are determined based on the improved analytic hierarchy process (AHP. On this basis, the VWLC model is established and applied to regional landslide susceptibility mapping for the Shennongjia Forestry District, China, where shallow landslides frequently occur. The obtained map is then compared with a map using the traditional WLC, and the results of the comparison show that VWLC is more reasonable, with a higher accuracy, and can be used anywhere that has the same or similar geological and topographical conditions.

  1. Surficial geology and performance assessment for a Radioactive Waste Management Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, K.E.; Gustafson, D.L.; Huckins-Gang, H.E.; Miller, J.J.; Rawlinson, S.E.

    1995-02-01

    At the Nevada Test Site, one potentially disruptive scenario being evaluated for the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) Facility Performance Assessment is deep post-closure erosion that would expose buried radioactive waste to the accessible environment. The GCD Facility located at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) lies at the juncture of three alluvial fan systems. Geomorphic surface mapping in northern Frenchman Flat indicates that reaches of these fans where the RWMS is now located have been constructional since at least the middle Quaternary. Mapping indicates a regular sequence of prograding fans with entrenchment of the older fan surfaces near the mountain fronts and construction of progressively younger inset fans farther from the mountain fronts. At the facility, the oldest fan surfaces are of late Pleistocene and Holocene age. More recent geomorphic activity has been limited to erosion and deposition along small channels. Trench and pit wall mapping found maximum incision in the vicinity of the RWMS to be less than 1.5 m. Based on collected data, natural geomorphic processes are unlikely to result in erosion to a depth of more than approximately 2 m at the facility within the 10,000-year regulatory period

  2. The Effectiveness of Interactive Computer Assisted Modeling in Teaching Study Strategies and Concept Mapping of College Textbook Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulecky, Larry

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of a series of print materials and interactive computer-guided study programs designed to lead undergraduate students to apply basic textbook reading and concept mapping strategies to the study of science and social science textbooks. Following field testing with 25 learning skills students, 50 freshman biology…

  3. Mapping GPS multipath: a case study for the lunar laser ranger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigate and attempt to map multipath as part of the site investigation for the installation of the timing antenna for lunar laser ranging applications at the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO). A high-resolution wavelet power spectrum and a standard deviation parameter are used to map multipath ...

  4. A NUMERICAL STUDY OF UNIVERSALITY AND SELF-SIMILARITY IN SOME FAMILIES OF FORCED LOGISTIC MAPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabassa, Pau; Jorba, Angel; Carles Tatjer, Joan

    We explore different two-parametric families of quasi-periodically Forced Logistic Maps looking for universality and self-similarity properties. In the bifurcation diagram of the one-dimensional Logistic Map, it is well known that there exist parameter values s(n) where the 2(n)-periodic orbit is

  5. Improving learning with science and social studies text using computer-based concept maps for students with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciullo, Stephen; Falcomata, Terry S; Pfannenstiel, Kathleen; Billingsley, Glenna

    2015-01-01

    Concept maps have been used to help students with learning disabilities (LD) improve literacy skills and content learning, predominantly in secondary school. However, despite increased access to classroom technology, no previous studies have examined the efficacy of computer-based concept maps to improve learning from informational text for students with LD in elementary school. In this study, we used a concurrent delayed multiple probe design to evaluate the interactive use of computer-based concept maps on content acquisition with science and social studies texts for Hispanic students with LD in Grades 4 and 5. Findings from this study suggest that students improved content knowledge during intervention relative to a traditional instruction baseline condition. Learning outcomes and social validity information are considered to inform recommendations for future research and the feasibility of classroom implementation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Cartographic Production for the FLaSH Map Study: Generation of Rugosity Grids, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Knorr, Paul O.; Hansen, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Project Summary This series of raster data is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Data Series release from the Florida Shelf Habitat Project (FLaSH). This disc contains two raster images in Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) raster grid format, jpeg image format, and Geo-referenced Tagged Image File Format (GeoTIFF). Data is also provided in non-image ASCII format. Rugosity grids at two resolutions (250 m and 1000 m) were generated for West Florida shelf waters to 250 m using a custom algorithm that follows the methods of Valentine and others (2004). The Methods portion of this document describes the specific steps used to generate the raster images. Rugosity, also referred to as roughness, ruggedness, or the surface-area ratio (Riley and others, 1999; Wilson and others, 2007), is a visual and quantitative measurement of terrain complexity, a common variable in ecological habitat studies. The rugosity of an area can affect biota by influencing habitat, providing shelter from elements, determining the quantity and type of living space, influencing the type and quantity of flora, affecting predator-prey relationships by providing cover and concealment, and, as an expression of vertical relief, can influence local environmental conditions such as temperature and moisture. In the marine environment rugosity can furthermore influence current flow rate and direction, increase the residence time of water in an area through eddying and current deflection, influence local water conditions such as chemistry, turbidity, and temperature, and influence the rate and nature of sedimentary deposition. State-of-the-art computer-mapping techniques and data-processing tools were used to develop shelf-wide raster and vector data layers. Florida Shelf Habitat (FLaSH) Mapping Project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/flash) endeavors to locate available data, identify data gaps, synthesize existing information, and expand our understanding of geologic processes in our dynamic

  7. Double dissociation between syntactic gender and picture naming processing: a brain stimulation mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidorreta, Jose Garbizu; Garcia, Roser; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Duffau, Hugues

    2011-03-01

    Neural foundations of syntactic gender processing remain poorly understood. We used electrostimulation mapping in nine right-handed awake patients during surgery for a glioma within the left hemisphere, to study whether the cortico-subcortical structures involved in naming versus syntactic gender processing are common or distinct. In French, the article determines the grammatical gender. Thus, the patient was asked to perform a picture naming task and to give the appropriate article for each picture, with and without stimulation. Cortical stimulation elicited reproducible syntactic gender disturbances in six patients, in the inferior frontal gyrus (three cases), and in the posterior middle temporal gyrus (three cases). Interestingly, no naming disorders were generated during stimulation of the syntactic sites, while cortical areas inducing naming disturbances never elicited grammatical gender errors when stimulated. Moreover, at the subcortical level, stimulation of the white matter lateral to the caudate nucleus induced gender errors in three patients, with no naming disorders. Using cortico-subcortical electrical mapping in awake patients, we demonstrate for the first time (1) a double dissociation between syntactic gender and naming processing, supporting independent network model rather than serial theory, (2) the involvement of the left inferior frontal gyrus, especially the pars triangularis, and the posterior left middle temporal gyrus in grammatical gender processing, (3) the existence of white matter pathways, likely a sub-part of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, underlying a large-scale distributed cortico-subcortical circuit which might selectively sub-serve syntactic gender processing, even if interconnected with parallel sub-networks involved in naming (semantic and phonological) processing. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Integrating functional data to prioritize causal variants in statistical fine-mapping studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleb Kichaev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Standard statistical approaches for prioritization of variants for functional testing in fine-mapping studies either use marginal association statistics or estimate posterior probabilities for variants to be causal under simplifying assumptions. Here, we present a probabilistic framework that integrates association strength with functional genomic annotation data to improve accuracy in selecting plausible causal variants for functional validation. A key feature of our approach is that it empirically estimates the contribution of each functional annotation to the trait of interest directly from summary association statistics while allowing for multiple causal variants at any risk locus. We devise efficient algorithms that estimate the parameters of our model across all risk loci to further increase performance. Using simulations starting from the 1000 Genomes data, we find that our framework consistently outperforms the current state-of-the-art fine-mapping methods, reducing the number of variants that need to be selected to capture 90% of the causal variants from an average of 13.3 to 10.4 SNPs per locus (as compared to the next-best performing strategy. Furthermore, we introduce a cost-to-benefit optimization framework for determining the number of variants to be followed up in functional assays and assess its performance using real and simulation data. We validate our findings using a large scale meta-analysis of four blood lipids traits and find that the relative probability for causality is increased for variants in exons and transcription start sites and decreased in repressed genomic regions at the risk loci of these traits. Using these highly predictive, trait-specific functional annotations, we estimate causality probabilities across all traits and variants, reducing the size of the 90% confidence set from an average of 17.5 to 13.5 variants per locus in this data.

  9. Software Development Initiatives to Identify and Mitigate Security Threats - Two Systematic Mapping Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Software Security and development experts have addressed the problem of building secure software systems. There are several processes and initiatives to achieve secure software systems. However, most of these lack empirical evidence of its application and impact in building secure software systems. Two systematic mapping studies (SM have been conducted to cover the existent initiatives for identification and mitigation of security threats. The SMs created were executed in two steps, first in 2015 July, and complemented through a backward snowballing in 2016 July. Integrated results of these two SM studies show a total of 30 relevant sources were identified; 17 different initiatives covering threats identification and 14 covering the mitigation of threats were found. All the initiatives were associated to at least one activity of the Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC; while 6 showed signs of being applied in industrial settings, only 3 initiatives presented experimental evidence of its results through controlled experiments, some of the other selected studies presented case studies or proposals.

  10. Sustainable-value stream mapping to evaluate sustainability performance: case study in an Indonesian furniture company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartini Sri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing tools do not consider environmental and societal benefits. The conventional value stream mapping (VSM methodology examines the economics of a manufacturing line, most of which are in regards to time (cycle time, lead time, change-out time, etc.. Incorporating the capability to capture environmental and societal performance visually through VSMs will increase its usefulness as a tool that can be used to assess manufacturing operations from a sustainability perspective. A number of studies have addressed the extension of VSM to incorporate additional criteria. A vast majority of these efforts have focused on adding energy-related metrics to VSMs, while several other studies refer to ‘sustainable’ VSM by including environmental performance in conventional VSMs. This research has developed a method for VSM integrated with environment metric and social metric for ensuring sustainable manufacture. The proposed technique is capable of visualizing and evaluating manufacturing process performance from sustainability view point. The capability of proposed technique has been tested by an application study on furniture company. The study provides insights to practitioners to visualize process performance in economic, environment and social metric.

  11. Concentration and chiral signature of chlordane in soils and sediments of the Central Tibetan Plateau, China: Transformation in the surficial process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Guo-Li; Wu, Ming-Zhe; Sun, Yong; Li, Jun; Han, Peng; Wang, Gen-Hou

    2015-01-01

    The fraction of trans-chlordane (TC) in chlordane was used to indicate racemic degradation while the enantiomer fractions (EFs) indicated enantioselective depletion. In 44 soils of the Central Tibetan Plateau, the fractions of TC ranged from 0.368 to 0.411. The EFs ranged from 0.174 to 0.696 for TC and from 0.483 to 0.672 for cis-chlordane (CC). (−) enantiomer excess (ee) was found to be 80.0% in the soils for TC and (+) ee was 86.5% for CC. The fraction of TC changed with the clay content while the EFs changed with the soil organic carbon. Meanwhile, the fractions of TC and the EFs were determined for the surficial sediments in Yamzhog Yumco Lake, which were compared with those in the soils at its catchment area. The composition and chiral signature of chlordane did not vary between soils and sediments. Our results will help to elucidate the transformation of chlordane in soils and in surficial transport. - Highlights: • F TC and EFs were determined for TC and CC in soil and sediment of CTP. • F TC of racemic degradation changed with the content of clays in soils. • EFs of enantioselective depletion changed with SOC in soils. • F TC and EFs were maintained during the surficial transport process. - The racemic and enantioselective transformation of chlordane were investigated in soils and sediments to characterize the surficial soil-to-sediment transport in the CTP.

  12. C:N:P Molar Ratios, Sources and 14C Dating of Surficial Sediments from the NW Slope of Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe de la Lanza Espino

    Full Text Available The surficial sediments recovered from 12 sites located near the channel axis of the Florida Straits and the lower slope off NW Cuba were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC, nitrogen (TN, phosphorus (TP, elemental C:N:P ratios, C and N isotopic values, and 14C dating. The depth profiles of TOC, TN, and TP (0-18 cm displayed a downcore trend and a significant variation. The TOC values were low (0.15 to 0.62%; 66 to 516 µmol g(-1. Sites near the island's lower slope had lower TOC average concentrations (158-333 µmol g(-1 than those closer to the channel axis (averaging 341-516 µmol g(-1; p <0.05. The TN concentrations near the lower slope attained 0.11% (80 µmol g(-1, whereas, towards the channel axis, they decreased to 0.07% (55 µmol g(-1; p<0.05. The C:N ratios ranged from 1.9 to 10.2. The mean molar C:N ratio (5.4 indicated a marine hemipelagic deposition. The TP was lower at sites near the lower slope (38.4 to 50.0 µmol gv; 0.12% to 0.16% than those near the channel axis (50.0 to 66 µmol g(-1; 0.15 to 0.21%. C:P fluctuated from 7.7 to 14.1 in the surficial sediment layer. The bulk organic δ13Corg and δ15N values confirmed pelagic organic sources, and the 14C dating revealed that the sediments were deposited during the Holocene (1000-5000 yr BP. We suggest that the hydrodynamic conditions in the Straits influence vertical and advective fluxes of particulate organic material trapped in the mixed-layer, which reduces the particulate matter flux to the seabed.

  13. A procedure used for a ground truth study of a land use map of North Alabama generated from LANDSAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, S. W., Jr.; Sharma, G. C.; Bagwell, C.

    1977-01-01

    A land use map of a five county area in North Alabama was generated from LANDSAT data using a supervised classification algorithm. There was good overall agreement between the land use designated and known conditions, but there were also obvious discrepancies. In ground checking the map, two types of errors were encountered - shift and misclassification - and a method was developed to eliminate or greatly reduce the errors. Randomly selected study areas containing 2,525 pixels were analyzed. Overall, 76.3 percent of the pixels were correctly classified. A contingency coefficient of correlation was calculated to be 0.7 which is significant at the alpha = 0.01 level. The land use maps generated by computers from LANDSAT data are useful for overall land use by regional agencies. However, care must be used when making detailed analysis of small areas. The procedure used for conducting the ground truth study together with data from representative study areas is presented.

  14. Expanding Thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bonk, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the study of the dynamics of expanding Thurston maps under iteration. A Thurston map is a branched covering map on a two-dimensional topological sphere such that each critical point of the map has a finite orbit under iteration. It is called expanding if, roughly speaking, preimages of a fine open cover of the underlying sphere under iterates of the map become finer and finer as the order of the iterate increases. Every expanding Thurston map gives rise to a fractal space, called its visual sphere. Many dynamical properties of the map are encoded in the geometry of this visual sphere. For example, an expanding Thurston map is topologically conjugate to a rational map if and only if its visual sphere is quasisymmetrically equivalent to the Riemann sphere. This relation between dynamics and fractal geometry is the main focus for the investigations in this work.

  15. Numerical model for mapping of complex hydrogeological conditions: the Chmielnik area (South Poland) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszta, Kamila; Szklarczyk, Tadeusz; Malina, Grzegorz

    2017-04-01

    Detailed analysis of hydrogeological conditions at a study area is the basis for characterising adjacent groundwater circulation systems. It is also an essential element during executing hydrogeological documentations. The goal of this work was to reconstruct on a numerical model natural groundwater circulation systems of the studied area located within the municipality of Chmielnik in the region of Kielce (South Poland). The area is characterized by a complex geological structure, which along with the existing hydrographic network, makes the scheme of groundwater circulation complicated and difficult to map on a numerical model. The studied area is situated at the border of three geological units: on the North - the extended portion of the Palaeozoic Swietokrzyskie Mountains (mainly Devonian and Permian), in the center - the S-W part of the Mesozoic Margin of the Swietokrzyskie Mountains, and on the South - a marginal zone of the Carpathian Foredeep. The whole area belongs to the Vistula river basin, and it includes catchments of its left tributaries: the Nida and Czarna Staszowska rivers. Based on the collected field and archival hydrogeological, hydrological and sozological data a conceptual model was built, under which a numerical model of groundwater flow was developed using the specialized software - Visual MODFLOW. The numerical model maps the five-layer groundwater circulation system in conjunction with surface watercourses. Such division reflects appropriately the variability of hydrogeological parameters within the geological structures. Two principal and exploited aquifers comprise: a fractured-porous Neogene and fractured Upper Jurassic formations. The external model borders are based primarily on surface watercourses and locally on watersheds. The modelled area of 130 km2 was divided into square grids of 50 m. The model consists of 275 rows and 277 columns. Each of five layers was simulated with the same number of active blocks. In the construction of

  16. Estimation of risk map for cohort study of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. 1970-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Sato, Yuya; Maruyama, Hirofomi; Kawakami, Hideshi; Tashiro, Satoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ohtaki, Megu

    2012-01-01

    A risk map (map I) involving the effects of direct A-bomb exposure and of other confounding factors was estimated to analyze the death risk in the geographic distribution, and another risk map (map II) was also made by subtracting the direct exposure effect to see the confounder effect. The cohort was 37,382/157,327 survivors at Jan. 1, 1970, whose positional coordinates at the exposure were known, and was followed up until Dec. 31, 2009. For survival analysis, the endpoint was defined to be death (total 19,119) by regarding other 18,263 as censoring. Confounding factors were sex, age at the exposure, exposed dose and shielded condition. Maps I and II were depicted using the hazard ratio at the exposed position relative to the hypocenter, which was estimated by previously reported hazard model functions. Map I was found to be rather similar to concentric circle of the hypocenter, but to be tended a bit distorted toward northwest area. The distortion was clearer in the map II, indicating that death causes other than direct exposure existed. The confounder was thought to be the indirect exposure through the black rain, residual radiation and/or internal exposure, which awaiting future investigation. (T.T.)

  17. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  18. A high-resolution map of the Nile tilapia genome: a resource for studying cichlids and other percomorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is the second most farmed fish species worldwide. It is also an important model for studies of fish physiology, particularly because of its broad tolerance to an array of environments. It is a good model to study evolutionary mechanisms in vertebrates, because of its close relationship to haplochromine cichlids, which have undergone rapid speciation in East Africa. The existing genomic resources for Nile tilapia include a genetic map, BAC end sequences and ESTs, but comparative genome analysis and maps of quantitative trait loci (QTL) are still limited. Results We have constructed a high-resolution radiation hybrid (RH) panel for the Nile tilapia and genotyped 1358 markers consisting of 850 genes, 82 markers corresponding to BAC end sequences, 154 microsatellites and 272 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). From these, 1296 markers could be associated in 81 RH groups, while 62 were not linked. The total size of the RH map is 34,084 cR3500 and 937,310 kb. It covers 88% of the entire genome with an estimated inter-marker distance of 742 Kb. Mapping of microsatellites enabled integration to the genetic map. We have merged LG8 and LG24 into a single linkage group, and confirmed that LG16-LG21 are also merged. The orientation and association of RH groups to each chromosome and LG was confirmed by chromosomal in situ hybridizations (FISH) of 55 BACs. Fifty RH groups were localized on the 22 chromosomes while 31 remained small orphan groups. Synteny relationships were determined between Nile tilapia, stickleback, medaka and pufferfish. Conclusion The RH map and associated FISH map provide a valuable gene-ordered resource for gene mapping and QTL studies. All genetic linkage groups with their corresponding RH groups now have a corresponding chromosome which can be identified in the karyotype. Placement of conserved segments indicated that multiple inter-chromosomal rearrangements have occurred between Nile tilapia

  19. Mapping Social Vulnerability to Air Pollution: A Case Study of the Yangtze River Delta Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many frequent and severe air pollution incidents have emerged across the vast parts of China recently. The identification of factors and mapping social vulnerability has become extremely necessary for environmental management and sustainable development. However, studies associating social vulnerability with air pollution remain sparse. With reference to research achievements of social vulnerability, this study made a new trial regarding social vulnerability assessment to air pollution. With the projection pursuit cluster (PPC model, the top three factors contributing to social vulnerability index (SVI were discovered and SVI and SVI dimensions (susceptibility, exposure, and adaptability were evaluated. Results revealed that adaptability values are higher than susceptibility and exposure values. SVI is in a poor condition as, for the whole region, most values belong to the high-medium level. High SVI values mainly appear in the northern and the southern ends of study area. SVI in Shanghai is lower than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. On the scale of prefecture-level city, it can be found that the low-value centers of SVI always occurred in urban core areas. The spatial variation and inequality in social vulnerability provide policy-makers a scientific basis for air pollution prevention and sustainable management.

  20. Mining unstructured data to support requirements elicitation by using controlled vocabularies: A systematic mapping study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Barros-Justo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a work-in- progress that deals with the asse ssment of the use of controlled vocabularies during the process es of requirements engineering, as a m eans to mine data from differen t sources (interviews, contracts, schemas and diagrams. By doi ng this the requirements description, analy sis and comprehension is facilit ated for both developers and end users. As a research methodolo gy, we decided to use a systematic mapping study covering the last fou rteen years (2000 - 2014. As far as we know, such studies have not yet been done; however, the cost incurred from errors in the requir ements elicitation phase is one of the problems that is most co mmonly reported by the practitioners. Our study includes data on the p rocesses of building the controlled vocabulary and assesses the productivity and quality. We are also interes ted in tools and techniques to classify and retrieve information. Our first findings suggest t hat this is an under-research area.

  1. A Comparison of Mental Health Care Systems in Northern and Southern Europe: A Service Mapping Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Sadeniemi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mental health services (MHS have gone through vast changes during the last decades, shifting from hospital to community-based care. Developing the optimal balance and use of resources requires standard comparisons of mental health care systems across countries. This study aimed to compare the structure, personnel resource allocation, and the productivity of the MHS in two benchmark health districts in a Nordic welfare state and a southern European, family-centered country. The study is part of the REFINEMENT (Research on Financing Systems’ Effect on the Quality of Mental Health Care project. The study areas were the Helsinki and Uusimaa region in Finland and the Girona region in Spain. The MHS were mapped by using the DESDE-LTC (Description and Evaluation of Services and Directories for Long Term Care tool. There were 6.7 times more personnel resources in the MHS in Helsinki and Uusimaa than in Girona. The resource allocation was more residential-service-oriented in Helsinki and Uusimaa. The difference in mental health personnel resources is not explained by the respective differences in the need for MHS among the population. It is important to make a standard comparison of the MHS for supporting policymaking and to ensure equal access to care across European countries.

  2. Fiscal mapping autism spectrum disorder funds: a case study of Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Hilary D; Hoffman, Jill; Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Moodie-Dyer, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have complex needs requiring regular service utilization. Policymakers, administrators, and community leaders are looking for ways to finance ASD services and systems. Understanding the fiscal resources that support ASD services is essential. This article uses fiscal mapping to explore ASD funding streams in Ohio. Fiscal mapping steps are overviewed to assist ASD stakeholders in identifying and examining ASD-related funding. Implications are drawn related to how fiscal mapping could be used to identify and leverage funding for ASD services. The resulting information is critical to utilizing existing resources, advocating for resources, and leveraging available funds.

  3. Software process improvement: a systematic mapping study on the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Kuhrmann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Software process improvement (SPI has been around for decades: frameworks are proposed, success factors are studied, and experiences have been reported. However, the sheer mass of concepts, approaches, and standards published over the years overwhelms practitioners as well as researchers. What is out there? Are there new trends and emerging approaches? What are open issues? Still, we struggle to answer these questions about the current state of SPI and related research. In this article, we present results from an updated systematic mapping study to shed light on the field of SPI, to develop a big picture of the state of the art, and to draw conclusions for future research directions. An analysis of 769 publications draws a big picture of SPI-related research of the past quarter-century. Our study shows a high number of solution proposals, experience reports, and secondary studies, but only few theories and models on SPI in general. In particular, standard SPI models like CMMI and ISO/IEC 15,504 are analyzed, enhanced, and evaluated for applicability in practice, but these standards are also critically discussed, e.g., from the perspective of SPI in small-to-medium-sized companies, which leads to new specialized frameworks. New and specialized frameworks account for the majority of the contributions found (approx. 38%. Furthermore, we find a growing interest in success factors (approx. 16% to aid companies in conducting SPI and in adapting agile principles and practices for SPI (approx. 10%. Beyond these specific topics, the study results also show an increasing interest into secondary studies with the purpose of aggregating and structuring SPI-related knowledge. Finally, the present study helps directing future research by identifying under-researched topics awaiting further investigation.

  4. An Exploratory Study of Civil Servants Spatial Thinking, Awareness and Use of Maps in Africa-Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiyanbola, R. A.

    2018-04-01

    The paper is an exploratory study of spatial thinking, awareness and use of maps among civil servants in Nigeria with a view towards enhancing capacity building in the development and use of global mapping and geospatial information technologies products and services. The data used in the paper was from administration of 152 questionnaires to civil servants in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria between February and August, 2017. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. The study shows among others that majority of the civil servants had situations in their daily lives or specialty that require spatial thinking; the three top situations in their daily lives or specialty that require spatial thinking were identification of places, wayfinding and walking; majority of them asked from people information about location, direction, distances and other needed information about places they do not know; majority of them were aware of maps; majority of them could read maps; majority of them had interest to learn more how to read maps and were willing to pay for the training.

  5. Study of Noise Map and its Features in an Indoor Work Environment through GIS-Based Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Majidi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noise mapping in industry can be useful to assess the risks of harmful noise, or to monitor noise in machine rooms. Using GIS -based software for plotting noise maps in an indoor noisy work environment can be helpful for occupational hygienists to monitor noise pollution. Methods: This study was carried out in a noisy packaging unit of a food industry in Ghazvin industrial zone, to evaluate noise levels by GIS technique. For this reason the floor of packaging unit was divided into squares of 2×2 meters and the center of each square was marked as a measurement station based on NIOSH method. The sound pressure level in each station was measured and then the measurement values were imported into Arc GIS software to plot noise map. Results: Unlike the current method, the noise maps generated by GIS technique are consistent with the nature of sound propagation. Conclusion: This study showed that for an indoor work environment, the application of GIS technology rendering the assessment of noise levels in the form of noise maps, is more realistic and more accurate than the routine method which is now being used by the occupational hygienists.

  6. Artificial groundwater recharge zones mapping using remote sensing and GIS: a case study in Indian Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amanpreet; Panda, S N; Kumar, K S; Sharma, Chandra Shekhar

    2013-07-01

    Artificial groundwater recharge plays a vital role in sustainable management of groundwater resources. The present study was carried out to identify the artificial groundwater recharge zones in Bist Doab basin of Indian Punjab using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) for augmenting groundwater resources. The study area has been facing severe water scarcity due to intensive agriculture for the past few years. The thematic layers considered in the present study are: geomorphology (2004), geology (2004), land use/land cover (2008), drainage density, slope, soil texture (2000), aquifer transmissivity, and specific yield. Different themes and related features were assigned proper weights based on their relative contribution to groundwater recharge. Normalized weights were computed using the Saaty's analytic hierarchy process. Thematic layers were integrated in ArcGIS for delineation of artificial groundwater recharge zones. The recharge map thus obtained was divided into four zones (poor, moderate, good, and very good) based on their influence to groundwater recharge. Results indicate that 15, 18, 37, and 30 % of the study area falls under "poor," "moderate," "good," and "very good" groundwater recharge zones, respectively. The highest recharge potential area is located towards western and parts of middle region because of high infiltration rates caused due to the distribution of flood plains, alluvial plain, and agricultural land. The least effective recharge potential is in the eastern and middle parts of the study area due to low infiltration rate. The results of the study can be used to formulate an efficient groundwater management plan for sustainable utilization of limited groundwater resources.

  7. The brain and the subjective experience of time. A voxel based symptom-lesion mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojano, Luigi; Caccavale, Michelina; De Bellis, Francesco; Crisci, Claudio

    2017-06-30

    The aim of the study was to identify the anatomical bases involved in the subjective experience of time, by means of a voxel based symptom-lesion mapping (VLSM) study on patients with focal brain damage. Thirty-three patients (nineteen with right-hemisphere lesions -RBD, and fourteen with left lesion- LBD) and twenty-eight non-neurological controls (NNC) underwent the semi-structured QUEstionnaire for the Subjective experience of Time (QUEST) requiring retrospective and prospective judgements on self-relevant time intervals. All participants also completed tests to assess general cognitive functioning and two questionnaires to evaluate their emotional state. Both groups of brain-damaged patients achieved significantly different scores from NNC on the time performance, without differences between RBD and LBD. VLSM showed a cluster of voxels located in the right inferior parietal lobule significantly related to errors in the prospective items. The lesion subtraction analysis revealed two different patterns possibly associated with errors in the prospective items (the right inferior parietal cortex, rolandic operculum and posterior middle temporal gyrus) and in the retrospective items (superior middle temporal gyrus, white matter posterior to the insula). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of Airport Noise Mapping using Matlab Software (Case Study: Adi Soemarmo Airport - Boyolali, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andarani, Pertiwi; Setiyo Huboyo, Haryono; Setyanti, Diny; Budiawan, Wiwik

    2018-02-01

    Noise is considered as one of the main environmental impact of Adi Soemarmo International Airport (ASIA), the second largest airport in Central Java Province, Indonesia. In order to manage the noise of airport, airport noise mapping is necessary. However, a model that requires simple input but still reliable was not available in ASIA. Therefore, the objective of this study are to develop model using Matlab software, to verify its reliability by measuring actual noise exposure, and to analyze the area of noise levels‥ The model was developed based on interpolation or extrapolation of identified Noise-Power-Distance (NPD) data. In accordance with Indonesian Government Ordinance No.40/2012, the noise metric used is WECPNL (Weighted Equivalent Continuous Perceived Noise Level). Based on this model simulation, there are residence area in the region of noise level II (1.912 km2) and III (1.16 km2) and 18 school buildings in the area of noise levels I, II, and III. These land-uses are actually prohibited unless noise insulation is equipped. The model using Matlab in the case of Adi Soemarmo International Airport is valid based on comparison of the field measurement (6 sampling points). However, it is important to validate the model again once the case study (the airport) is changed.

  9. Software project management tools in global software development: a systematic mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadli, Saad Yasser; Idri, Ali; Ros, Joaquín Nicolás; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; de Gea, Juan M Carrillo; Toval, Ambrosio

    2016-01-01

    Global software development (GSD) which is a growing trend in the software industry is characterized by a highly distributed environment. Performing software project management (SPM) in such conditions implies the need to overcome new limitations resulting from cultural, temporal and geographic separation. The aim of this research is to discover and classify the various tools mentioned in literature that provide GSD project managers with support and to identify in what way they support group interaction. A systematic mapping study has been performed by means of automatic searches in five sources. We have then synthesized the data extracted and presented the results of this study. A total of 102 tools were identified as being used in SPM activities in GSD. We have classified these tools, according to the software life cycle process on which they focus and how they support the 3C collaboration model (communication, coordination and cooperation). The majority of the tools found are standalone tools (77%). A small number of platforms (8%) also offer a set of interacting tools that cover the software development lifecycle. Results also indicate that SPM areas in GSD are not adequately supported by corresponding tools and deserve more attention from tool builders.

  10. Hydrograph sensitivity to estimates of map impervious cover: a WinHSPF BASINS case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endreny, Theodore A.; Somerlot, Christopher; Hassett, James M.

    2003-04-01

    The BASINS geographic information system hydrologic toolkit was designed to compute total maximum daily loads, which are often derived by combining water quantity estimates with pollutant concentration estimates. In this paper the BASINS toolkit PLOAD and WinHSPF sub-models are briefly described, and then a 0·45 km2 headwater watershed in the New York Croton River area is used for a case study illustrating a full WinHSPF implementation. The goal of the Croton study was to determine the sensitivity of WinHSPF hydrographs to changes in land cover map inputs. This scenario occurs when scaling the WinHSPF model from the smaller 0·45 km2 watershed to the larger 1000 km2 management basin of the entire Croton area. Methods used to test model sensitivity include first calibrating the WinHSPF hydrograph using research-monitored precipitation and discharge data together with high spatial resolution and accuracy land cover data of impervious and pervious areas, and then swapping three separate land cover files, known as GIRAS, MRLC, and DOQQ data, into the calibrated model. Research results indicated that the WinHSPF land cover swapping had peak flow sensitivity in December 2001 hydrographs between 35% underestimation and 20% overestimation, and that errors in land-cover-derived runoff ratios for storm totals and peak flows tracked with the land cover data estimates of impervious area.

  11. Technical issues relating to the statistical parametric mapping of brain SPECT studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, R.L.; Cordato, N.; Hutton, B.F.; Lau, Y.H.; Evans, S.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) is a software tool designed for the statistical analysis of functional neuro images, specifically Positron Emission Tomography and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and more recently SPECT. This review examines some problems associated with the analysis of SPECT. A comparison of a patient group with normal studies revealed factors that could influence results, some that commonly occur, others that require further exploration. To optimise the differences between two groups of subjects, both spatial variability and differences in global activity must be minimised. The choice and effectiveness of co registration method and approach to normalisation of activity concentration can affect the optimisation. A small number of subject scans were identified as possessing truncated data resulting in edge effects that could adversely influence the analysis. Other problems included unusual areas of significance possibly related to reconstruction methods and the geometry associated with nonparallel collimators. Areas of extra cerebral significance are a point of concern - and may result from scatter effects, or mis registration. Difficulties in patient positioning, due to postural limitations, can lead to resolution differences. SPM has been used to assess areas of statistical significance arising from these technical factors, as opposed to areas of true clinical significance when comparing subject groups. This contributes to a better understanding of the effects of technical factors so that these may be eliminated, minimised, or incorporated in the study design. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  12. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and connectivity mapping: tools for studying the neural bases of brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, M; Hoffman, R E

    2010-01-01

    There has been an increasing emphasis on characterizing pathophysiology underlying psychiatric and neurological disorders in terms of altered neural connectivity and network dynamics. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) provides a unique opportunity for investigating connectivity in the human brain. TMS allows researchers and clinicians to directly stimulate cortical regions accessible to electromagnetic coils positioned on the scalp. The induced activation can then propagate through long-range connections to other brain areas. Thus, by identifying distal regions activated during TMS, researchers can infer connectivity patterns in the healthy human brain and can examine how those patterns may be disrupted in patients with different brain disorders. Conversely, connectivity maps derived using neuroimaging methods can identify components of a dysfunctional network. Nodes in this dysfunctional network accessible as targets for TMS by virtue of their proximity to the scalp may then permit TMS-induced alterations of components of the network not directly accessible to TMS via propagated effects. Thus TMS can provide a portal for accessing and altering neural dynamics in networks that are widely distributed anatomically. Finally, when long-term modulation of network dynamics is induced by trains of repetitive TMS, changes in functional connectivity patterns can be studied in parallel with changes in patient symptoms. These correlational data can elucidate neural mechanisms underlying illness and recovery. In this review, we focus on the application of these approaches to the study of psychiatric and neurological illnesses.

  13. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and connectivity mapping: tools for studying the neural bases of brain disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Hampson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing emphasis on characterizing pathophysiology underlying psychiatric and neurological disorders in terms of altered neural connectivity and network dynamics. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS provides a unique opportunity for investigating connectivity in the human brain. TMS allows researchers and clinicians to directly stimulate cortical regions accessible to electromagnetic coils positioned on the scalp. The induced activation can then propagate through long-range connections to other brain areas. Thus, by identifying distal regions activated during TMS, researchers can infer connectivity patterns in the healthy human brain and can examine how those patterns may be disrupted in patients with different brain disorders. Conversely, connectivity maps derived using neuroimaging methods can identify components of a dysfunctional network. Nodes in this dysfunctional network accessible as targets for TMS by virtue of their proximity to the scalp may then permit TMS-induced alterations of components of the network not directly accessible to TMS via propagated effects. Thus TMS can provide a portal for accessing and altering neural dynamics in networks that are widely distributed anatomically. Finally, when long-term modulation of network dynamics is induced by trains of repetitive TMS, changes in functional connectivity patterns can be studied in parallel with changes in patient symptoms. These correlational data can elucidate neural mechanisms underlying illness and recovery. In this review, we focus on the application of these approaches to the study of psychiatric and neurological illnesses.

  14. School dropout susceptibility mapping with fuzzy logic – a study in the District of Purulia, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukunda Mishra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-input prediction models are gradually finding their places in the arena of social and economic sciences to assess, locate and address the complicated socio-economic issues arising around the globe. These models treat the problems as the output aroused from a complex interaction between a range of variables linked with physical, socio-cultural, economic as well as ambient political systems. The discussion on dropout from the education system belongs to the core of the educational researchers. The researchers within this domain are attempting to develop the ‘tools and techniques’ for efficiently demarcating the space with a given degree of susceptibility. The scope is to drop out and examine the internal functions of the interactive variables associated with the process. In the present study, we try to apply the fuzzy logic in mapping the spatial variation of the susceptibility of school dropout in the district of Purulia, a backwards district in India regarding achieved level of human development. The training datasets for building the fuzzy model based on the available secondary data from different reports published by the Government and a range of primary data collected through a socio-economic survey. The model output is an index, namely the Index of Susceptibility of School Drop Out (ISDO which reflects the levels of susceptibility to school dropout at different parts of the study area. The proposed model should allow the success within the larger social and economic system.

  15. Study of Research Trend in Knowledge Management Field(2001-2010 and Mapping its Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Sedighi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Using scientometric and bibliometric methods, the present study will answer this question: What approach had paid the scientific output in the field of knowledge management at international level in the last decade? For this purpose the first, keywords and subdirectories in this field were identified and selected. Then advanced search of these words were performed in the Web of Science database. All the extracted data from WoS database were entered to the "Histcite" software in the form of 500 record files. After performing the necessary analysis on them, scientific map in this field in 2001-2010 periods was drawn by the software. The study showed average annual growth rate of WoS publications in the field of knowledge management in the last decade, was 10.9 percent. Scientific products of Iranian scientists were included 221 records, and were formed 0.4 percent of the total scientific outputs in this field, and the rank of it, was 35. The most frequent thematic trends were: support information technology like 'data mining' and also organizational, social and managerial elements of knowledge management.

  16. An extended systematic mapping study about the scalability of i* Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available i* models have been used for requirements specification in many domains, such as healthcare, telecommunication, and air traffic control. Managing the scalability and the complexity of such models is an important challenge in Requirements Engineering (RE. Scalability is also one of the most intractable issues in the design of visual notations in general: a well-known problem with visual representations is that they do not scale well. This issue has led us to investigate scalability in i* models and its variants by means of a systematic mapping study. This paper is an extended version of a previous paper on the scalability of i* including papers indicated by specialists. Moreover, we also discuss the challenges and open issues regarding scalability of i* models and its variants. A total of 126 papers were analyzed in order to understand: how the RE community perceives scalability; and which proposals have considered this topic. We found that scalability issues are indeed perceived as relevant and that further work is still required, even though many potential solutions have already been proposed. This study can be a starting point for researchers aiming to further advance the treatment of scalability in i* models.

  17. Generating samples for association studies based on HapMap data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yixuan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the completion of the HapMap project, a variety of computational algorithms and tools have been proposed for haplotype inference, tag SNP selection and genome-wide association studies. Simulated data are commonly used in evaluating these new developed approaches. In addition to simulations based on population models, empirical data generated by perturbing real data, has also been used because it may inherit specific properties from real data. However, there is no tool that is publicly available to generate large scale simulated variation data by taking into account knowledge from the HapMap project. Results A computer program (gs was developed to quickly generate a large number of samples based on real data that are useful for a variety of purposes, including evaluating methods for haplotype inference, tag SNP selection and association studies. Two approaches have been implemented to generate dense SNP haplotype/genotype data that share similar local linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns as those in human populations. The first approach takes haplotype pairs from samples as inputs, and the second approach takes patterns of haplotype block structures as inputs. Both quantitative and qualitative traits have been incorporated in the program. Phenotypes are generated based on a disease model, or based on the effect of a quantitative trait nucleotide, both of which can be specified by users. In addition to single-locus disease models, two-locus disease models have also been implemented that can incorporate any degree of epistasis. Users are allowed to specify all nine parameters in a 3 × 3 penetrance table. For several commonly used two-locus disease models, the program can automatically calculate penetrances based on the population prevalence and marginal effects of a disease that users can conveniently specify. Conclusion The program gs can effectively generate large scale genetic and phenotypic variation data that can be

  18. Classification of fMRI resting-state maps using machine learning techniques: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallos, Ioannis; Siettos, Constantinos

    2017-11-01

    We compare the efficiency of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and nonlinear learning manifold algorithms (ISOMAP and Diffusion maps) for classifying brain maps between groups of schizophrenia patients and healthy from fMRI scans during a resting-state experiment. After a standard pre-processing pipeline, we applied spatial Independent component analysis (ICA) to reduce (a) noise and (b) spatial-temporal dimensionality of fMRI maps. On the cross-correlation matrix of the ICA components, we applied PCA, ISOMAP and Diffusion Maps to find an embedded low-dimensional space. Finally, support-vector-machines (SVM) and k-NN algorithms were used to evaluate the performance of the algorithms in classifying between the two groups.

  19. The importance of magnetic methods for soil mapping and process modelling. Case study in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshov, Oleksandr; Pereira, Paulo; Kruglov, Oleksandr; Sukhorada, Anatoliy

    2016-04-01

    The correct planning of agriculture areas is fundamental for a sustainable future in Ukraine. After the recent political problems in Ukraine, new challenges emerged regarding sustainability questions. At the same time the soil mapping and modelling are intensively developing all over the world (Pereira et al., 2015; Brevik et al., in press). Magnetic susceptibility (MS) methods are low cost and accurate for the developing maps of agricultural areas, fundamental for Ukrain's economy.This allow to colleact a great amount of soil data, usefull for a better understading of the spatial distribution of soil properties. Recently, this method have been applied in other works in Ukraine and elsewhere (Jordanova et al., 2011; Menshov et al., 2015). The objective of this work is to study the spatial distribution of MS and humus content on the topsoils (0-5 cm) in two different areas. The first is located in Poltava region and the second in Kharkiv region. The results showed that MS depends of soil type, topography and anthropogenic influence. For the interpretation of MS spatial distribution in top soil we consider the frequency and time after the last tillage, tilth depth, fertilizing, and the puddling regarding the vehicle model. On average the soil MS of the top soil of these two cases is about 30-70×10-8 m3/kg. In Poltava region not disturbed soil has on average MS values of 40-50×10-8 m3/kg, for Kharkiv region 50-60×10-8 m3/kg. The tilled soil of Poltava region has on average an MS of 60×10-8 m3/kg, and 70×10-8 m3/kg in Kharkiv region. MS is higher in non-tilled soils than in the tilled ones. The correlation between MS and soil humus content is very high ( up to 0.90) in both cases. Breivik, E., Baumgarten, A., Calzolari, C., Miller, B., Pereira, P., Kabala, C., Jordán, A. Soil mapping, classification, and modelling: history and future directions. Geoderma (in press), doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.05.017 Jordanova D., Jordanova N., Atanasova A., Tsacheva T., Petrov P

  20. Value Stream Mapping as a tool for the optimization of production – case study

    OpenAIRE

    Krolczyk Jolanta B.; Legutko Stanislaw; Szczepańska Anna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the possibility of introducing improvements in processes concerning production logistics basing on the use of value stream mapping. An analysis of the current situation in order to identify waste and problems in the stream flow has been carried out. Subsequently, a future shape map has been drafted with a proposal concerning the manner in which future state ought to be achieved. The thesis is concluded with a general summary as well as conclusions regarding ...

  1. STUDI KEMAMPUAN MEMBUAT MIND MAP BERBASIS PEMAHAMAN ARTIKEL THE JAKARTA POST PADA MATA KULIAH EXTENSIVE READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudiyono Pudiyono

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the research were to find out (a the level of the students’ ability in making mind map based on the article of The Jakarta Post in Extensive Reading, (b the problems the students have in comprehending the article of The Jakarta Post in Extensive Reading in making mind map. The data collecting technique used was a test of reading based on comprehension. The population of the research was all students of semester 6 totaling to 161 students. While the sample was taken from all 4 classes by which each class was taken at about 25%. Therefore the total sample was 48 students. The result of data analysis showed that the average ability of the students reached only 59.02. In detail, research result showed that none of the samples (0 % could do the mind map correctly or get an A. The participants who got good achievement (B amounted to only 4 people (2.48%. The majority of the participants belonged to the level of good enough to be able to make main idea analysis in order to make the mind map. The not good enough level became the majority achievement among all amounting to 89.43%. The students’ ability which got the perfect inability level in making the mind map rose to 8.09%. The problems the students had in making the mind map was the fact that they had no idea in identifying main ideas of the content of the text. Besides that students also failed in comprehending the new vocabulary they found while they were reading the articles. Failure in comprehending the new difficult words led the to get the failure in identifying main ideas by which in turns they found themselves to have no clear map of their understanding of the articles they had read. Key word: comprehension, mind mapping, new vocabulary, authentic text, natural

  2. Rapid Topographic Mapping Using TLS and UAV in a Beach-dune-wetland Environment: Case Study in Freeport, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, J.; Wang, G.; Xiong, L.; Zhou, X.; England, E.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal regions are naturally vulnerable to impact from long-term coastal erosion and episodic coastal hazards caused by extreme weather events. Major geomorphic changes can occur within a few hours during storms. Prediction of storm impact, costal planning and resilience observation after natural events all require accurate and up-to-date topographic maps of coastal morphology. Thus, the ability to conduct rapid and high-resolution-high-accuracy topographic mapping is of critical importance for long-term coastal management and rapid response after natural hazard events. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) techniques have been frequently applied to beach and dune erosion studies and post hazard responses. However, TLS surveying is relatively slow and costly for rapid surveying. Furthermore, TLS surveying unavoidably retains gray areas that cannot be reached by laser pulses, particularly in wetland areas where lack of direct access in most cases. Aerial mapping using photogrammetry from images taken by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has become a new technique for rapid topographic mapping. UAV photogrammetry mapping techniques provide the ability to map coastal features quickly, safely, inexpensively, on short notice and with minimal impact. The primary products from photogrammetry are point clouds similar to the LiDAR point clouds. However, a large number of ground control points (ground truth) are essential for obtaining high-accuracy UAV maps. The ground control points are often obtained by GPS survey simultaneously with the TLS survey in the field. The GPS survey could be a slow and arduous process in the field. This study aims to develop methods for acquiring a huge number of ground control points from TLS survey and validating point clouds obtained from photogrammetry with the TLS point clouds. A Rigel VZ-2000 TLS scanner was used for developing laser point clouds and a DJI Phantom 4 Pro UAV was used for acquiring images. The aerial images were processed with the

  3. Altered glucose metabolism in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: a PET study with statistical parametric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, G. C.; Kim, J. H.; Kang, J. G.; Kim, J. S.; Yeo, J. S.; Lee, S. A.; Moon, D. H

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a hereditary, age-dependent epilepsy syndrome, characterized by myoclonic jerks on awakening and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Although there have been considerable studies on the mechanism to elucidate pathogenesis of JME, the accurate pathogenesis of JME remains obscure. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations of cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with JME. We studied 16 JME patients (Mean age: 22 yrs, M/F: 9/7) with brain FDG-PET and simultaneous EEG recording. On the basis of the number of generalized spike-and-wave (GSW) discharges on the 30 min EEG recording after the injection of FDG (370MBq), we classified patients into two groups (patients in group A had 10 or more GSW and group B. 9 or less). We applied the automated and objective technique of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) to the analysis of FDG-PET to determine the significant hyper- and hypometabolic regions compared with those of 19 age matched normal control subjects. We found significant hypermetabolic regions in bilateral thalamus and central portion of upper brainstem in 16 patients with JME at a statistical threshold of uncorrected P < 0.05. These changes were also shown in group A (n=8), but not in group B (n=8). Additionally, we found significant hypometabolism in bilateral, widespread cortical regions in 16 patients with JME at a threshold of uncorrected P < 0.01. Similar hypometabolic patterns were also observed in both group A and group B, being more prominent in group A. This study provides evidence for the key role of the thalamus and brainstem reticular activating system in generating spontaneous GSW discharge, which is considered as a fundamental pathogenesis underlying JME. This study also suggests that patients with JME might suffer from subtle abnormalities of cognitive and executive cortical functions

  4. Altered glucose metabolism in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: a PET study with statistical parametric mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, G. C.; Kim, J. H.; Kang, J. G.; Kim, J. S.; Yeo, J. S.; Lee, S. A.; Moon, D. H [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a hereditary, age-dependent epilepsy syndrome, characterized by myoclonic jerks on awakening and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Although there have been considerable studies on the mechanism to elucidate pathogenesis of JME, the accurate pathogenesis of JME remains obscure. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations of cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with JME. We studied 16 JME patients (Mean age: 22 yrs, M/F: 9/7) with brain FDG-PET and simultaneous EEG recording. On the basis of the number of generalized spike-and-wave (GSW) discharges on the 30 min EEG recording after the injection of FDG (370MBq), we classified patients into two groups (patients in group A had 10 or more GSW and group B. 9 or less). We applied the automated and objective technique of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) to the analysis of FDG-PET to determine the significant hyper- and hypometabolic regions compared with those of 19 age matched normal control subjects. We found significant hypermetabolic regions in bilateral thalamus and central portion of upper brainstem in 16 patients with JME at a statistical threshold of uncorrected P < 0.05. These changes were also shown in group A (n=8), but not in group B (n=8). Additionally, we found significant hypometabolism in bilateral, widespread cortical regions in 16 patients with JME at a threshold of uncorrected P < 0.01. Similar hypometabolic patterns were also observed in both group A and group B, being more prominent in group A. This study provides evidence for the key role of the thalamus and brainstem reticular activating system in generating spontaneous GSW discharge, which is considered as a fundamental pathogenesis underlying JME. This study also suggests that patients with JME might suffer from subtle abnormalities of cognitive and executive cortical functions.

  5. a Study on Mental Representations for Realistic Visualization the Particular Case of Ski Trail Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzarini, R.; Dalmasso, A.; Murat, M.

    2015-08-01

    This article presents preliminary results from a research project in progress that brings together geographers, cognitive scientists, historians and computer scientists. The project investigates the evolution of a particular territorial model: ski trails maps. Ski resorts, tourist and sporting innovations for mountain economies since the 1930s, have needed cartographic representations corresponding to new practices of the space.Painter artists have been involved in producing ski maps with painting techniques and panoramic views, which are by far the most common type of map, because they allow the resorts to look impressive to potential visitors. These techniques have evolved throughout the mutations of the ski resorts. Paper ski maps no longer meet the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to digital media. In a computerized process perspective, the early stage of the project aims to identify the artist-representations, based on conceptual and technical rules, which are handled by users-skiers to perform a task (location, wayfinding, decision-making) and can be transferred to a computer system. This article presents the experimental phase that analyzes artist and user mental representations that are at stake during the making and the reading of a paper ski map. It particularly focuses on how the invention of the artist influences map reading.

  6. A STUDY ON MENTAL REPRESENTATIONS FOR REALISTIC VISUALIZATION THE PARTICULAR CASE OF SKI TRAIL MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balzarini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents preliminary results from a research project in progress that brings together geographers, cognitive scientists, historians and computer scientists. The project investigates the evolution of a particular territorial model: ski trails maps. Ski resorts, tourist and sporting innovations for mountain economies since the 1930s, have needed cartographic representations corresponding to new practices of the space.Painter artists have been involved in producing ski maps with painting techniques and panoramic views, which are by far the most common type of map, because they allow the resorts to look impressive to potential visitors. These techniques have evolved throughout the mutations of the ski resorts. Paper ski maps no longer meet the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to digital media. In a computerized process perspective, the early stage of the project aims to identify the artist-representations, based on conceptual and technical rules, which are handled by users-skiers to perform a task (location, wayfinding, decision-making and can be transferred to a computer system. This article presents the experimental phase that analyzes artist and user mental representations that are at stake during the making and the reading of a paper ski map. It particularly focuses on how the invention of the artist influences map reading.

  7. A case study of desertification hazard mapping using the MEDALUS (ESAs methodology in southwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabeddin Taghipour-Javi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding environmentally sensitive areas (ESAs prone to desertification can lead to substantial gains in the efficiency of land use planning and partly avoid negative outcomes. The main objectives of this research were the monitoring and mapping of ESAs to desertification in the agro-ecosystem of the Khanmirza plain, Iran, during two time series (2000 and 2013. In the current study, an adjusted “Mediterranean desertification and land use (MEDALUS” approach was applied to identify the most ESAs to desertification in the study area and monitorchanges inthe environmental sensitivity area indicator (ESAIbetween 2000 and 2013 over the studied area.Fivemain thematic indicators have been evaluated including, Soil quality indicator (SQI, Management quality indicator (MQI, Climate quality indicator (CQI, Vegetation quality indicator (VQI, and Irrigation water quality indicator (IWQI. Results show that the areas affected by the critical desertification status covered approximately 7% of the farmlands and the meadowlands in this agro-ecosystem region in the year 2000. Likewise, in 2013, almost 24% of the study area was sensitive to and affected by desertification, giving a rate of increase of approximately 1.3% per year.More than half of the land used for agriculture has been moderately to severely degraded. The results also show that the central places intheregionwere affected by farmlands and meadowlands degradingto barrenlands due to mismanagement and a lack ofeffective planning withland and water resources. However, rehabilitation of irreversibly degraded land requires serious measures that aim torestore the capability of those areas and increase resistance to degradation through effective planning in water and land in the region.

  8. Comparison study on in-core neutron detector for online neutron flux mapping of research and power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Mohd Idris Taib; Izhar Abu Husin; Nurfarhana Ayuni

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the comparison study on In-Core neutron detector using for online flux mapping of Research and Power reactor. Technical description of in-core neutron also taken into consideration to identify the different characterization of neutron detector and describe on Self Power neutron detector (SPND) for online neutron flux mapping. Able to provide information on the neutron flux distribution and understand how in-core neutron detector are being used in nuclear power plant including to enable to state the principles of neutron detector. (author)

  9. Geological mapping by geobotanical and geophysical means: a case study from the Bükk Mountains (NE Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Norbert; Petho, Gabor

    2009-03-01

    Geological mapping of an unexposed area can be supported by indirect methods. Among these, the use of mushrooms as geobotanical indicators and the shallow-penetration electromagnetic VLF method proved to be useful in the Bükk Mountains. Mushrooms have not been applied to geological mapping before. Common species like Boletus edulis and Leccinum aurantiacum are correlated with siliciclastic and magmatic formations while Calocybe gambosa is correlated with limestone. The validity of this correlation observed in the eastern part of the Bükk Mts. was controlled on a site where there was an indicated (by the mushrooms only) but unexposed occurrence of siliciclastic rocks not mapped before. The extent and structure of this occurrence were explored with the VLF survey and a trial-and-error method was applied for the interpretation. This case study presented here demonstrates the effectiveness of the combination of these relatively simple and inexpensive methods.

  10. Mapping ICT access and disability in the workplace: An empirical study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldi, Luca; Ghezzi, Antonio; Mangiaracina, Riccardo; Rangone, Andrea; Cortimiglia, Marcelo N; Zanatta, Mateus; Amaral, Fernando G

    2015-06-05

    It is well known that the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are important to assist people with disability in the workplace. In this context, this paper sheds light on the state of ICT accessibility for Italian employees with disabilities in private sector companies by mapping and critically analyzing the assistive role of ICT. To do this, empirical evidence was drawn from a multi-methods research with middle and top managers from 97 medium and large Italian companies. Quantitative data was collected using a survey was directed at personnel identified as Human Resource (HR) and Information System (IS) managers, followed by a qualitative study with selected firms whose aim was to understand the inner workings of assistive technology and the decision making process related to assistive technology acquisition and use. The main results show the role and the integration level of people with disabilities, and the presence and effectiveness of specific assistive technologies. Ways to improve the inclusion of people with disability in the workplace, as well as the use of assistive technologies are discussed. ICT could be more disseminated within companies and best used with modifications to improve usability.

  11. Temperature Mapping of 3D Printed Polymer Plates: Experimental and Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charoula Kousiatza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM, which is a common thermoplastic Additive Manufacturing (AM method, the polymer model material that is in the form of a flexible filament is heated above its glass transition temperature (Tg to a semi-molten state in the head’s liquefier. The heated material is extruded in a rastering configuration onto the building platform where it rapidly cools and solidifies with the adjoining material. The heating and rapid cooling cycles of the work materials exhibited during the FDM process provoke non-uniform thermal gradients and cause stress build-up that consequently result in part distortions, dimensional inaccuracy and even possible part fabrication failure. Within the purpose of optimizing the FDM technique by eliminating the presence of such undesirable effects, real-time monitoring is essential for the evaluation and control of the final parts’ quality. The present work investigates the temperature distributions developed during the FDM building process of multilayered thin plates and on this basis a numerical study is also presented. The recordings of temperature changes were achieved by embedding temperature measuring sensors at various locations into the middle-plane of the printed structures. The experimental results, mapping the temperature variations within the samples, were compared to the corresponding ones obtained by finite element modeling, exhibiting good correlation.

  12. When places change their names on maps. Cases study from the Arab world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhieb, Mohsen

    2018-05-01

    The transcription of geographical names on maps in one given language is a very complex process. Depending on the used language, toponyms are mostly deformed from their natural language. In the Arab world, this deformation is treated in various ways. In many cases, Arabic place names suffer a double distortion when first transcribed from Arabic or another original language into French or English, and second when taking the same way back. Through a review of examples from some Arab place names, a few cases are analyzed to reveal the mechanisms of such anomaly and a strategy is recommended to avoid it. Departing from Arabic atlases, we will realize three steps. First, we examine this anomaly through case studies taken from the English and French toponymic transcriptions. Second, the produced names area compared to those of other countries, considering the processes and mechanisms involved. Third, we propose a global strategy to overcome this anomaly in transcribing names in the Arab world by prioritizing produced transformations. The proposed strategy witnesses the concept of standardized "exendonyms" presented and discussed in a previous research for foreign languages such as French or English. When Arabic is used, the phonetic local transcription is recommended but should also fit transcription rules of the used language as much as possible. In doing so, transcripts should not shift or deviate so far from original name places and much ambiguity can be avoided. This strategy must obey standardized international rules and may repose on modern techniques or media.

  13. MAPPING ECOSYSTEM SERVICES SUPPLY IN MOUNTAIN REGIONS: A CASE STUDY FROM SOUTH TYROL (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Schirpke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mountain regions provide many ecosystem services and spatially explicit assessments have to account for their specific topographic and climatic conditions. Moreover, it is fundamental to understand synergies and trade-offs of multiple ecosystem services. In this study, ecosystem services supply, including forage production, timber production, water supply, carbon sequestration, soil stability, soil quality, and the aesthetic value, was quantified in bio-physical terms on the landscape scale for South Tyrol. Mean ecosystem services values of the 116 municipalities were grouped in 5 clusters. The results indicate that carbon stock is the prevailing ecosystem service of valley municipalities. On contrast, they suffer from water deficit and depend on water supply from high mountain municipalities. Trade-offs can be also found between the aesthetic value on one hand and timber production, carbon sequestration and soil stability on the other hand. The latter are characteristic for municipalities dominated by forest. The resulting maps can support landscape planning, ecosystem management and conservation of biodiversity.

  14. Children's active free play in local neighborhoods: a behavioral mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, J; Salmon, J; Ball, K

    2008-10-01

    Many Australian children are more sedentary than they should be, and almost one in five are currently overweight or obese. Some children may face difficulties finding opportunities to be active, having poor access to safe public open spaces or having low independent mobility limiting their access to places to play. This study aimed to examine children's access to places in their neighborhood for active free play and how these vary by age, sex and socioeconomic status (SES). Behavioral maps of the local neighborhood were completed by children (8-12 years) from five primary schools across different areas of Melbourne. Children living in low SES outer-urban neighborhoods had to travel greater distances to access local parks compared with those in inner-urban mid and high SES areas. One-third (32%) of children reported an independent mobility range of <100 m from home. In conclusion, for some children opportunities to engage in active free play in the local neighborhood may be limited due to lack of parks in close proximity to home and restricted independent mobility. It is important to collaborate with local governments, urban planners and community groups to improve access to neighborhood parks and to promote a sense of neighborhood safety.

  15. Caesarean Section--A Density-Equalizing Mapping Study to Depict Its Global Research Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggmann, Dörthe; Löhlein, Lena-Katharina; Louwen, Frank; Quarcoo, David; Jaque, Jenny; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Groneberg, David A

    2015-11-17

    Caesarean section (CS) is a common surgical procedure. Although it has been performed in a modern context for about 100 years, there is no concise analysis of the international architecture of caesarean section research output available so far. Therefore, the present study characterizes the global pattern of the related publications by using the NewQIS (New Quality and Quantity Indices in Science) platform, which combines scientometric methods with density equalizing mapping algorithms. The Web of Science was used as a database. 12,608 publications were identified that originated from 131 countries. The leading nations concerning research activity, overall citations and country-specific h-Index were the USA and the United Kingdom. Relation of the research activity to epidemiologic data indicated that Scandinavian countries including Sweden and Finland were leading the field, whereas, in relation to economic data, countries such as Israel and Ireland led. Semi-qualitative indices such as country-specific citation rates ranked Sweden, Norway and Finland in the top positions. International caesarean section research output continues to grow annually in an era where caesarean section rates increased dramatically over the past decades. With regard to increasing employment of scientometric indicators in performance assessment, these findings should provide useful information for those tasked with the improvement of scientific achievements.

  16. World-wide architecture of osteoporosis research: density-equalizing mapping studies and gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggmann, D; Mäule, L-S; Klingelhöfer, D; Schöffel, N; Gerber, A; Jaque, J M; Groneberg, D A

    2016-10-01

    While research activities on osteoporosis grow constantly, no concise description of the global research architecture exists. Hence, we aim to analyze and depict the world-wide scientific output on osteoporosis combining bibliometric tools, density-equalizing mapping projections and gender analysis. Using the NewQIS platform, we analyzed all osteoporosis-related publications authored from 1900 to 2012 and indexed by the Web of Science. Bibliometric details were analyzed related to quantitative and semi-qualitative aspects. The majority of 57 453 identified publications were original research articles. The USA and Western Europe dominated the field regarding cooperation activity, publication and citation performance. Asia, Africa and South America played a minimal role. Gender analysis revealed a dominance of male scientists in almost all countries except Brazil. Although the scientific performance on osteoporosis is increasing world-wide, a significant disparity in terms of research output was visible between developed and low-income countries. This finding is particularly concerning since epidemiologic evaluations of future osteoporosis prevalences predict enormous challenges for the health-care systems in low-resource countries. Hence, our study underscores the need to address these disparities by fostering future research endeavors in these nations with the aim to successfully prevent a growing global burden related to osteoporosis.

  17. Mapping and expression studies of the mir17-92 cluster on pig chromosome 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawera, Milena; Gorodkin, Jan; Cirera, Susanna

    2005-01-01

    We have identified the first porcine microRNA (miRNA) cluster (the mir17-92 cluster) and localized it to the q-arm of pig Chromosome 11. The miRNA cluster was found by sequence similarity search with human miRNA sequences against the pig genomic data generated within the Sino-Danish pig genome...... from the human data. The expression profiles of seven studied miRNAs were analyzed by hybridization to Northern blots containing five porcine tissues: cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus, kidney, and liver. In order to determine the localization of the mir17-92 cluster in the pig genome, we mapped...... project. The resulting data contained three complete and two incomplete miRNA precursors of seven miRNAs from the human mir17-92 cluster. Because there is a 100% sequence identity between the four pig miRNAs and the corresponding human miRNAs, the sequences of three unavailable pig miRNAs were derived...

  18. Mapping with MAV: Experimental Study on the Contribution of Absolute and Relative Aerial Position Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Skaloud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the benefit of precise aerial position control in the context of mapping using frame-based imagery taken by small UAVs. We execute several flights with a custom Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV octocopter over a small calibration field equipped with 90 signalized targets and 25 ground control points. The octocopter carries a consumer grade RGB camera, modified to insure precise GPS time stamping of each exposure, as well as a multi-frequency/constellation GNSS receiver. The GNSS antenna and camera are rigidly mounted together on a one-axis gimbal that allows control of the obliquity of the captured imagery. The presented experiments focus on including absolute and relative aerial control. We confirm practically that both approaches are very effective: the absolute control allows omission of ground control points while the relative requires only a minimum number of control points. Indeed, the latter method represents an attractive alternative in the context of MAVs for two reasons. First, the procedure is somewhat simplified (e.g. the lever-arm between the camera perspective and antenna phase centers does not need to be determined and, second, its principle allows employing a single-frequency antenna and carrier-phase GNSS receiver. This reduces the cost of the system as well as the payload, which in turn increases the flying time.

  19. Effectiveness of Mind Mapping Technique in Information Retrieval Among Medical College Students in Puducherry-A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanasundaram, Madhanraj; Abraham, Sherin Billy; Ramachandran, Divija; Jayaseelan, Venkatachalam; Bazroy, Joy; Singh, Zile; Purty, Anil Jacob

    2017-01-01

    The traditional teaching learning methods involve a one way process of transmission of knowledge leaving the students lacking behind in creative abilities. Medical schools need to change their teaching strategies to keep the interest of students and empower them for future self- learning and critical thinking. To assess the impact of mind mapping technique in information retrieval among medical college students in Puducherry. A pilot study was conducted using experimental study design among sixth semester MBBS students ( n = 64) at a medical college in Puducherry, India. One group ( n = 32) followed the text reading method and another group ( n = 32) followed the mind mapping technique to learn the same passage given to them. The knowledge about the topic was assessed using a pre designed questionnaire at baseline, day 0 and day 7. The knowledge gain is the primary outcome variable and is compared between two groups. The feedback regarding the teaching methods was obtained from the participants. Mean knowledge score in the text group was lesser than the mind map group at baseline (2.6 Vs 3.5; p = 0.08). On Day 0, the mean score in text group was slightly lesser than the mind map group (8.7 Vs 9.0; p = 0.26). On Day 7, the mean score in mind map group is significantly more than the text group (8.9 Vs 8.5; p = 0.03). The mind mapping technique is an innovative and effective method in remembering things better than the routine way of reading texts.

  20. Effectiveness of mind mapping technique in information retrieval among medical college students in Puducherry-A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhanraj Kalyanasundaram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The traditional teaching learning methods involve a one way process of transmission of knowledge leaving the students lacking behind in creative abilities. Medical schools need to change their teaching strategies to keep the interest of students and empower them for future self- learning and critical thinking. Objective: To assess the impact of mind mapping technique in information retrieval among medical college students in Puducherry. Methods: A pilot study was conducted using experimental study design among sixth semester MBBS students (n = 64 at a medical college in Puducherry, India. One group (n = 32 followed the text reading method and another group (n = 32 followed the mind mapping technique to learn the same passage given to them. The knowledge about the topic was assessed using a pre designed questionnaire at baseline, day 0 and day 7. The knowledge gain is the primary outcome variable and is compared between two groups. The feedback regarding the teaching methods was obtained from the participants. Results: Mean knowledge score in the text group was lesser than the mind map group at baseline (2.6 Vs 3.5; p = 0.08. On Day 0, the mean score in text group was slightly lesser than the mind map group (8.7 Vs 9.0; p = 0.26. On Day 7, the mean score in mind map group is significantly more than the text group (8.9 Vs 8.5; p = 0.03. Conclusion: The mind mapping technique is an innovative and effective method in remembering things better than the routine way of reading texts.

  1. Historical travel times according to Specht’s map. Case study: Săcuieni county - Wallachia (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Ionuț Cruceru

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Being the first large-scale map of the province of Wallachia (approx. 1:57,600, and also among the first that were constructed using modern topographic survey means, the Specht Map (1790-91 has been used, sometimes quite extensively, in many historical-geographical researches. A fact less known is that the map was accompanied by three tomes, providing additional information, such as: location of the elements, number and type of constructions, type of plant formations and others. Despite the novelty, the manuscripts kept as copy at the Library of the Romanian Academy were seldom used for scientific purposes. The purpose of this article is to explore the veracity of the data that expresses the distances between the settlements on the Specht map in time units. The analysis consisted in interpolation of the data organized into a historical-geographic database, and reflect two hypostases of the population movement: the trip in the local horizon (in the vicinity of the village and the intra-county trip, having as a pole the county seat. In order to delimit the study area on relevant criteria, we have chosen as a case study Sacuieni County, one of the administrative-territorial units of transit between Muntenia and Transylvania. For validation, the maps obtained were compared with travel descriptions from the 18th-19th centuries. Taking into account the existing variables (means of travel, season, road condition, etc., the results of the analysis correspond to the historical testimonies and the real situation. In conclusion, the Specht map together with the three complementary manuscripts is a true source of data in terms of estimated time between settlements.

  2. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of the spatial distribution of uranium, thorium and rare earth elements of surficial sediments from Black sea coast nearby Istanbul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyuz, T; Bolcal, C.; Akyuz, S.; Mukhamedshina, N.M.; Mirsagatova, A.A

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The Black Sea is an inland sea between south-eastern Europe and Asia minor. It is the largest anoxic marine basin in the word and connected to the Mediterranean Sea by the Bosporus and the Sea of Marmara, to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch. One of the most useful approaches to long-term monitoring of aquatic systems is the analysis of marine sediments. In this study the abundance of uranium, thorium and some rare earth elements was analysed in surface sediments of the Southern part of the Black Sea using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The spatial distribution patterns of the elements studied were investigated. The surficial sediment samples (0-4 cm) were collected during 1999-2005, from 18 sampling stations of the Turkish Coast of the Black Sea, by using a Lenz Bottom Sampler and were deposited into plastic bags. The samples were dried at 40 degrees Celcius for 24 hours, crushed and homogenised prior to the analysis and were irradiated simultaneously with reference materials at a fission spectra neutron flux of the density of 5.10 1 3 cm - 2.s - 1 (WWR-SM) nuclear reactor of Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The gamma-spectra were measured in a gamma-spectrometer. A linear regression correlation test was performed to investigate the correlation between the elemental concentrations of our sediment samples. Correlation analysis revealed close relationships between Th and U (r=0.82), Th and La (r=0.87), Th and Ce (r=0.89). In nature, rare earth elements are often associated to thorium, thus the results indicate that Th and Lanthanides have a natural origin. The mean values of thorium (8.38) to uranium (3.80) is found to be Th/U= 2.20

  3. Photolysis of NO2 at multiple wavelengths in the spectral region 200-205 nm - A velocity map imaging study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coroiu, A.M.; Parker, D.H.; Groenenboom, G.C.; Barr, J.; Novalbos, I.T.; Whitaker, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    A study of the photodissociation dynamics of NO2 in the 200-205 nm region using resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) in conjunction with the velocity map imaging technique is presented. We chose this region because it allowed the use of a single laser to photodissociate the NO2 molecule

  4. Comparison of HapMap and 1000 Genomes Reference Panels in a Large-Scale Genome-Wide Association Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Paul S; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Chasman, Daniel I

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of genome-wide association (GWA) studies are now using the higher resolution 1000 Genomes Project reference panel (1000G) for imputation, with the expectation that 1000G imputation will lead to the discovery of additional associated loci when compared to HapMap imputation. In...

  5. Dementia care mapping to support staff in the care of people with intellectual disability and dementia: a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Feija; Dijkstra, Geke; Fokkens, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen; Finnema, Evelyn

    2018-01-01

    Background: The number of people with intellectual disability and dementia in-creases; this combination causes behavioural changes. Dementia Care Mapping (DCM) supports staff in dementia care in nursing homes and may be useful in intel-lectual disability-care. This qualitative study examines the

  6. Day Service Provision for People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Case Study Mapping 15-Year Trends in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Padraic; McGilloway, Sinead; Barry, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Day services for people with intellectual disabilities are experiencing a global paradigm shift towards innovative person-centred models of care. This study maps changing trends in day service utilization to highlight how policy, emergent patterns and demographic trends influence service delivery. Methods: National intellectual…

  7. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) as a means to measure brain iron? A post mortem validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkammer, Christian; Schweser, Ferdinand; Krebs, Nikolaus; Deistung, Andreas; Goessler, Walter; Scheurer, Eva; Sommer, Karsten; Reishofer, Gernot; Yen, Kathrin; Fazekas, Franz; Ropele, Stefan; Reichenbach, Jürgen R.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a novel technique which allows determining the bulk magnetic susceptibility distribution of tissue in vivo from gradient echo magnetic resonance phase images. It is commonly assumed that paramagnetic iron is the predominant source of susceptibility variations in gray matter as many studies have reported a reasonable correlation of magnetic susceptibility with brain iron concentrations in vivo. Instead of performing direct comparisons, however, all these studies used the putative iron concentrations reported in the hallmark study by Hallgren and Sourander (1958) for their analysis. Consequently, the extent to which QSM can serve to reliably assess brain iron levels is not yet fully clear. To provide such information we investigated the relation between bulk tissue magnetic susceptibility and brain iron concentration in unfixed (in situ) post mortem brains of 13 subjects using MRI and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A strong linear correlation between chemically determined iron concentration and bulk magnetic susceptibility was found in gray matter structures (r = 0.84, p < 0.001), whereas the correlation coefficient was much lower in white matter (r = 0.27, p < 0.001). The slope of the overall linear correlation was consistent with theoretical considerations of the magnetism of ferritin supporting that most of the iron in the brain is bound to ferritin proteins. In conclusion, iron is the dominant source of magnetic susceptibility in deep gray matter and can be assessed with QSM. In white matter regions the estimation of iron concentrations by QSM is less accurate and more complex because the counteracting contribution from diamagnetic myelinated neuronal fibers confounds the interpretation. PMID:22634862

  8. ONTOLOGICAL STANDARDIZATION FOR HISTORICAL MAP COLLECTIONS: STUDYING THE GREEK BORDERLINES OF 1881

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gkadolou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Historical maps deliver valuable historical information which is applicable in several domains while they document the spatiotemporal evolution of the geographical entities that are depicted therein. In order to use the historical cartographic information effectively, the maps' semantic documentation becomes a necessity for restoring any semantic ambiguities and structuring the relationship between historical and current geographical space. This paper examines cartographic ontologies as a proposed methodology and presents the first outcomes of the methodology applied for the historical map series «Carte de la nouvelle frontière Turco-Grecque» that sets the borderlines between Greece and Ottoman Empire in 1881. The map entities were modelled and compared to the current ones so as to record the changes in their spatial and thematic attributes and an ontology was developed in Protégé OWL Editor 3.4.4 for the attributes that thoroughly define a historical map and the digitised spatial entities. Special focus was given on the Greek borderline and the changes that it caused to other geographic entities.

  9. Elaboration of climatic maps using GIS. Case study: Olãnesti drainage basin, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tîrlã, Laura

    2012-04-01

    Creating precise climatic maps (temperature and precipitation map especially) on small areas such as drainage basins or landform units is always very useful for ecology of plants, distribution of vegetation and also different types of agricultural land. The geographic information system (GIS) analysis of several key-factors (aspect and slope of terrain, insolation degree, thermal gradient, geology and structure of landforms) offers the necessary tools to operate with in order to create an accurate climatic map. This method was applied in order to create a map showing the distribution of temperatures in the Olanesti drainages basin, a 235 km2 area located at middle latitude, in Romania. After creating the DEM, aspect and slope of the terrain, reclassifying categories and calculating the thermal gradient, a map showing the distribution of the annual mean temperature is obtained. Other climatic parameters could be calculated for small areas too, with precise results. These demonstrate that not only elevation and mathematical location of an area are important factors in the distribution of temperature, but also the aspect, the gradient, the insolation, the type of rock and the structure.

  10. Methodology for Evaluating the Quality of Ecosystem Maps: A Case Study in the Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolors Armenteras

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty in thematic maps has been tested mainly in maps with discrete or fuzzy classifications based on spectral data. However, many ecosystem maps in tropical countries consist of discrete polygons containing information on various ecosystem properties such as vegetation cover, soil, climate, geomorphology and biodiversity. The combination of these properties into one class leads to error. We propose a probability-based sampling design with two domains, multiple stages, and stratification with selection of primary sampling units (PSUs proportional to the richness of strata present. Validation is undertaken through field visits and fine resolution remote sensing data. A pilot site in the center of the Colombian Andes was chosen to validate a government official ecosystem map. Twenty primary sampling units (PSUs of 10 × 15 km were selected, and the final numbers of final sampling units (FSUs were 76 for the terrestrial domain and 46 for the aquatic domain. Our results showed a confidence level of 95%, with the accuracy in the terrestrial domain varying between 51.8% and 64.3% and in the aquatic domain varying between 75% and 92%. Governments need to account for uncertainty since they rely on the quality of these maps to make decisions and guide policies.

  11. Ontological Standardization for Historical Map Collections: Studying the Greek Borderlines of 1881

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkadolou, E.; Tomai, E.; Stefanakis, E.; Kritikos, G.

    2012-07-01

    Historical maps deliver valuable historical information which is applicable in several domains while they document the spatiotemporal evolution of the geographical entities that are depicted therein. In order to use the historical cartographic information effectively, the maps' semantic documentation becomes a necessity for restoring any semantic ambiguities and structuring the relationship between historical and current geographical space. This paper examines cartographic ontologies as a proposed methodology and presents the first outcomes of the methodology applied for the historical map series «Carte de la nouvelle frontière Turco-Grecque» that sets the borderlines between Greece and Ottoman Empire in 1881. The map entities were modelled and compared to the current ones so as to record the changes in their spatial and thematic attributes and an ontology was developed in Protégé OWL Editor 3.4.4 for the attributes that thoroughly define a historical map and the digitised spatial entities. Special focus was given on the Greek borderline and the changes that it caused to other geographic entities.

  12. Comparison of a Fixed-Wing and Multi-Rotor Uav for Environmental Mapping Applications: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, M. A.; Drijfhout, A. P.; Tesfamichael, S.

    2017-08-01

    The advent and evolution of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and photogrammetric techniques has provided the possibility for on-demand high-resolution environmental mapping. Orthoimages and three dimensional products such as Digital Surface Models (DSMs) are derived from the UAV imagery which is amongst the most important spatial information tools for environmental planning. The two main types of UAVs in the commercial market are fixed-wing and multi-rotor. Both have their advantages and disadvantages including their suitability for certain applications. Fixed-wing UAVs normally have longer flight endurance capabilities while multi-rotors can provide for stable image capturing and easy vertical take-off and landing. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess the performance of a fixed-wing versus a multi-rotor UAV for environmental mapping applications by conducting a specific case study. The aerial mapping of the Cors-Air model aircraft field which includes a wetland ecosystem was undertaken on the same day with a Skywalker fixed-wing UAV and a Raven X8 multi-rotor UAV equipped with similar sensor specifications (digital RGB camera) under the same weather conditions. We compared the derived datasets by applying the DTMs for basic environmental mapping purposes such as slope and contour mapping including utilising the orthoimages for identification of anthropogenic disturbances. The ground spatial resolution obtained was slightly higher for the multi-rotor probably due to a slower flight speed and more images. The results in terms of the overall precision of the data was noticeably less accurate for the fixed-wing. In contrast, orthoimages derived from the two systems showed small variations. The multi-rotor imagery provided better representation of vegetation although the fixed-wing data was sufficient for the identification of environmental factors such as anthropogenic disturbances. Differences were observed utilising the respective DTMs for the mapping

  13. COMPARISON OF A FIXED-WING AND MULTI-ROTOR UAV FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MAPPING APPLICATIONS: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Boon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The advent and evolution of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs and photogrammetric techniques has provided the possibility for on-demand high-resolution environmental mapping. Orthoimages and three dimensional products such as Digital Surface Models (DSMs are derived from the UAV imagery which is amongst the most important spatial information tools for environmental planning. The two main types of UAVs in the commercial market are fixed-wing and multi-rotor. Both have their advantages and disadvantages including their suitability for certain applications. Fixed-wing UAVs normally have longer flight endurance capabilities while multi-rotors can provide for stable image capturing and easy vertical take-off and landing. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess the performance of a fixed-wing versus a multi-rotor UAV for environmental mapping applications by conducting a specific case study. The aerial mapping of the Cors-Air model aircraft field which includes a wetland ecosystem was undertaken on the same day with a Skywalker fixed-wing UAV and a Raven X8 multi-rotor UAV equipped with similar sensor specifications (digital RGB camera under the same weather conditions. We compared the derived datasets by applying the DTMs for basic environmental mapping purposes such as slope and contour mapping including utilising the orthoimages for identification of anthropogenic disturbances. The ground spatial resolution obtained was slightly higher for the multi-rotor probably due to a slower flight speed and more images. The results in terms of the overall precision of the data was noticeably less accurate for the fixed-wing. In contrast, orthoimages derived from the two systems showed small variations. The multi-rotor imagery provided better representation of vegetation although the fixed-wing data was sufficient for the identification of environmental factors such as anthropogenic disturbances. Differences were observed utilising the respective DTMs

  14. DEVELOPING AN INDEX FOR FOREST PRODUCTIVITY MAPPING - A CASE STUDY FOR MARITIME PINE PRODUCTION REGULATION IN PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Mestre

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Productivity is very dependent on the environmental and biotic factors present at the site where the forest species of interest is present. Forest site productivity is usually assessed using empirical models applied to inventory data providing discrete predictions. While the use of GIS-based models enables building a site productivity distribution map. Therefore, the aim of this study was to derive a productivity index using multivariate statistics and coupled GIS-geostatistics to obtain a forest productivity map. To that end, a study area vastly covered by naturally regenerated forests of maritime pine in central Portugal was used. First, a productivity index (PI was built based on Factorial Correspondence Analysis (FCA by incorporating a classical site index for the species and region (Sh25 - height index model and GIS-derived environmental variables (slope and aspect. After, the PI map was obtained by multi-Gaussian kriging and used as a GIS layer to evaluate maritime pine areas by productivity class (e.g., low, intermediate and high. In the end, the area control method was applied to assess the size and the number of compartments to establish by productivity class. The management compartments of equal productivity were digitized as GIS layer and organized in a temporal progression of stands’ age regularly available for cutting each year during a 50-year schedule. The methodological approach developed in this study proved that can be used to build forest productivity maps which are crucial tools to support forest production regulation.

  15. Summarising climate and air quality (ozone) data on self-organising maps: a Sydney case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ningbo; Betts, Alan; Riley, Matt

    2016-02-01

    This paper explores the classification and visualisation utility of the self-organising map (SOM) method in the context of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, using gridded NCEP/NCAR geopotential height reanalysis for east Australia, together with multi-site meteorological and air quality data for Sydney from the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage Air Quality Monitoring Network. A twice-daily synoptic classification has been derived for east Australia for the period of 1958-2012. The classification has not only reproduced the typical synoptic patterns previously identified in the literature but also provided an opportunity to visualise the subtle, non-linear change in the eastward-migrating synoptic systems influencing NSW (including Sydney). The summarisation of long-term, multi-site air quality/meteorological data from the Sydney basin on the SOM plane has identified a set of typical air pollution/meteorological spatial patterns in the region. Importantly, the examination of these patterns in relation to synoptic weather types has provided important visual insights into how local and synoptic meteorological conditions interact with each other and affect the variability of air quality in tandem. The study illustrates that while synoptic circulation types are influential, the within-type variability in mesoscale flows plays a critical role in determining local ozone levels in Sydney. These results indicate that the SOM can be a useful tool for assessing the impact of weather and climatic conditions on air quality in the regional airshed. This study further promotes the use of the SOM method in environmental research.

  16. Genetic determinism of bone and mineral metabolism in meat-type chickens: A QTL mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Sellier, Nadine; Chabault-Dhuit, Marie; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Narcy, Agnès

    2016-12-01

    Skeletal integrity in meat-type chickens is affected by many factors including rapid growth rate, nutrition and genetics. To investigate the genetic basis of bone and mineral metabolism, a QTL detection study was conducted in an intercross between two lines of meat-type chickens divergently selected for their high (D +) or low (D -) digestive efficiency. Tibia size (length, diameter, volume) and ash content were determined at 3 weeks of age as well as phosphorus (P) retention and plasma concentration. Heritability of these traits and their genetic correlations with digestive efficiency were estimated. A QTL mapping study was performed using 3379 SNP markers. Tibia size, weight, ash content and breaking strength were highly heritable (0.42 to 0.61). Relative tibia diameter and volume as well as P retention were strongly and positively genetically correlated with digestive efficiency (0.57 to 0.80). A total of 35 QTL were identified (9 for tibia weight, 13 for tibia size, 5 for bone strength, 5 for bone mineralization, 2 for plasma P concentration and 1 for P retention). Six QTL were genome-wide significant, and 3 QTL for tibia relative volume, weight and ash weight on chromosome 6 were fixed, the positive allele coming from the D-line. For two QTL for ash content on chromosome 18 and relative tibia length on chromosome 26, the confidence intervals were small enough to identify potential candidate genes. These findings support the evidence of multiple genetic loci controlling bone and mineral metabolism. The identification of candidate genes may provide new perspectives in the understanding of bone regulation, even beyond avian species.

  17. Preparation of earthquake-triggered landslide inventory maps using remote sensing and GIS technologies: Principles and case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Inventory maps of earthquake-triggered landslides can be constructed using several methods, which are often subject to obvious differences due to lack of commonly accepted criteria or principles. To solve this problem, the author describes the principles for preparing inventory maps of earthquake-triggered landslides, focusing on varied methods and their criteria. The principles include the following key points: all landslides should be mapped as long as they can be recognized from images; both the boundary and source area position of landslides should be mapped; spatial distribution pattern of earthquake-triggered landslides should be continuous; complex landslides should be divided into distinct groups; three types of errors such as precision of the location and boundary of landslides, false positive errors, and false negative errors of earthquake-triggered landslide inventories should be controlled and reduced; and inventories of co-seismic landslides should be constructed by the visual interpretation method rather than automatic extraction of satellite images or/and aerial photographs. In addition, selection of remote sensing images and creation of landslides attribute database are also discussed in this paper. Then the author applies these principles to produce inventory maps of four events: the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan, China Mw 7.9, 14 April 2010 Yushu, China Mw 6.9, 12 January 2010 Haiti Mw 7.0, and 2007 Aysén Fjord, Chile Mw 6.2. The results show obvious differences in comparison with previous studies by other researchers, which again attest to the necessity of establishment of unified principles for preparation of inventory maps of earthquake-triggered landslides.

  18. Farm-scale testing of soybean peroxidase and calcium peroxide for surficial swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Devin L.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Bruning, Kelsey; Parker, David B.

    2017-10-01

    The swine industry, regulatory agencies, and the public are interested in farm-tested methods for controlling gaseous emissions from swine barns. In earlier lab- and pilot-scale studies, a renewable catalyst consisting of soybean peroxidase (SBP) mixed with calcium peroxide (CaO2) was found to be effective in mitigating gaseous emissions from swine manure. Thus, a farm-scale experiment was conducted at the university's 178-pig, shallow-pit, mechanically-ventilated swine barn to evaluate SBP/CaO2 as a surficial manure pit additive under field conditions. The SBP was applied once at the beginning of the 42-day experiment at an application rate of 2.28 kg m-2 with 4.2% CaO2 added by weight. Gas samples were collected from the primary barn exhaust fans. As compared to the control, significant reductions in gaseous emissions were observed for ammonia (NH3, 21.7%), hydrogen sulfide (H2S, 79.7%), n-butyric acid (37.2%), valeric acid (47.7%), isovaleric acid (39.3%), indole (31.2%), and skatole (43.5%). Emissions of dimethyl disulfide/methanethiol (DMDS/MT) increased by 30.6%. Emissions of p-cresol were reduced by 14.4% but were not statistically significant. There were no significant changes to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The total (material + labor) treatment cost was 2.62 per marketed pig, equivalent to 1.5% of the pig market price. The cost of CaO2 catalyst was ∼60% of materials cost. The cost of soybean hulls (SBP source) was 0.60 per marketed pig, i.e., only 40% of materials cost.

  19. Quaternary geologic map of the Austin 4° x 6° quadrangle, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    State compilations by Moore, David W.; Wermund, E.G.; edited and integrated by Moore, David W.; Richmond, Gerald Martin; Christiansen, Ann Coe; Bush, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    This map is part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States (I-1420). It was first published as a printed edition in 1993. The geologic data have now been captured digitally and are presented here along with images of the printed map sheet and component parts as PDF files. The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Austin 4° x 6° Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the Earth. They make up the ground on which we walk, the dirt in which we dig foundations, and the soil in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. In recent years, surficial deposits and materials have become the focus of much interest by scientists, environmentalists, governmental agencies, and the general public. They are the foundations of ecosystems, the materials that support plant growth and animal habitat, and the materials through which travels much of the water required for our agriculture, our industry, and our general well being. They also are materials that easily can become contaminated by pesticides, fertilizers, and toxic wastes. In this context, the value of the surficial geologic map is evident.

  20. Hydrogeology, hydraulic characteristics, and water-quality conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers of the greater New Hanover County area, North Carolina, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Gurley, Laura N.; Antolino, Dominick J.

    2014-01-01

    A major issue facing the greater New Hanover County, North Carolina, area is the increased demand for drinking water resources as a result of rapid growth. The principal sources of freshwater supply in the greater New Hanover County area are withdrawals of surface water from the Cape Fear River and groundwater from the underlying Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers. Industrial, mining, irrigation, and aquaculture groundwater withdrawals increasingly compete with public-supply utilities for freshwater resources. Future population growth and economic expansion will require increased dependence on high-quality sources of fresh groundwater. An evaluation of the hydrogeology and water-quality conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne, and Peedee aquifers was conducted in New Hanover, eastern Brunswick, and southern Pender Counties, North Carolina. A hydrogeologic framework was delineated by using a description of the geologic and hydrogeologic units that compose aquifers and their confining units. Current and historic water-level, water-quality, and water-isotope data were used to approximate the present boundary between freshwater and brackish water in the study area. Water-level data collected during August–September 2012 and March 2013 in the Castle Hayne aquifer show that recharge areas with the highest groundwater altitudes are located in central New Hanover County, and the lowest are located in a discharge area along the Atlantic Ocean. Between 1964 and 2012, groundwater levels in the Castle Hayne aquifer in central New Hanover County have rebounded by about 10 feet, but in the Pages Creek area groundwater levels declined in excess of 20 feet. In the Peedee aquifer, the August–September 2012 groundwater levels were affected by industrial withdrawals in north-central New Hanover County. Groundwater levels in the Peedee aquifer declined more than 20 feet between 1964 and 2012 in northeastern New Hanover County because of increased withdrawals. Vertical gradients

  1. What Google Maps can do for biomedical data dissemination: examples and a design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianu, Radu; Laidlaw, David H

    2013-05-04

    Biologists often need to assess whether unfamiliar datasets warrant the time investment required for more detailed exploration. Basing such assessments on brief descriptions provided by data publishers is unwieldy for large datasets that contain insights dependent on specific scientific questions. Alternatively, using complex software systems for a preliminary analysis may be deemed as too time consuming in itself, especially for unfamiliar data types and formats. This may lead to wasted analysis time and discarding of potentially useful data. We present an exploration of design opportunities that the Google Maps interface offers to biomedical data visualization. In particular, we focus on synergies between visualization techniques and Google Maps that facilitate the development of biological visualizations which have both low-overhead and sufficient expressivity to support the exploration of data at multiple scales. The methods we explore rely on displaying pre-rendered visualizations of biological data in browsers, with sparse yet powerful interactions, by using the Google Maps API. We structure our discussion around five visualizations: a gene co-regulation visualization, a heatmap viewer, a genome browser, a protein interaction network, and a planar visualization of white matter in the brain. Feedback from collaborative work with domain experts suggests that our Google Maps visualizations offer multiple, scale-dependent perspectives and can be particularly helpful for unfamiliar datasets due to their accessibility. We also find that users, particularly those less experienced with computer use, are attracted by the familiarity of the Google Maps API. Our five implementations introduce design elements that can benefit visualization developers. We describe a low-overhead approach that lets biologists access readily analyzed views of unfamiliar scientific datasets. We rely on pre-computed visualizations prepared by data experts, accompanied by sparse and intuitive

  2. Rapid Offline-Online Post-Disaster Landslide Mapping Tool: A case study from Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olyazadeh, Roya; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Derron, Marc-Henri; Devkota, Sanjaya

    2016-04-01

    One of the crucial components of post disaster management is the efficient mapping of impacted areas. Here we present a tool designed to map landslides and affected objects after the earthquakes of 2015 in Nepal as well as for intense rainfall impact. Because internet is not available in many rural areas of Nepal, we developed an offline-online prototype based on Open-Source WebGIS technologies to make data on hazard impacts, including damaged infrastructure, landslides or flooding events available to authorities and the general public. This mobile application was designed as a low-cost, rapid and participatory method for recording impacts from hazard events. It is possible to record such events offline and upload them through a server, where internet connection is available. This application allows user authentication, image capturing, and information collation such as geolocation, event description, interactive mapping and finally storing all the data in the server for further analysis and visualisation. This application can be accessed by a mobile phone (Android) or a tablet as a hybrid version for both offline and online versions. The offline version has an interactive-offline map function which allows users to upload satellites image in order to improve ground truthing interpretation. After geolocation, the user can start mapping and then save recorded data into Geojson-TXT files that can be easily uploaded to the server whenever internet is available. This prototype was tested specifically for a rapid assessment of landslides and relevant land use characteristics such as roads, forest area, rivers in the Phewa Lake watershed near Pokhara, Nepal where a large number landslides were activated or reactivated after the 2015 monsoon season. More than 60 landslides were recorded during two days of field trip. Besides, it is possible to use this application for any other kind of hazard event like flood, avalanche, etc. Keywords: Offline, Online, Open source, Web

  3. Mapping the productive sands of Lower Goru Formation by using seismic stratigraphy and rock physical studies in Sawan area, southern Pakistan: A case study

    KAUST Repository

    Munir, K.

    2011-02-24

    This study has been conducted in the Sawan gas field located in southern Pakistan. The aim of the study is to map the productive sands of the Lower Goru Formation of the study area. Rock physics parameters (bulk modulus, Poisson\\'s ratio) are analysed after a detailed sequence stratigraphic study. Sequence stratigraphy helps to comprehend the depositional model of sand and shale. Conformity has been established between seismic stratigraphy and the pattern achieved from rock physics investigations, which further helped in the identification of gas saturation zones for the reservoir. Rheological studies have been done to map the shear strain occurring in the area. This involves the contouring of shear strain values throughout the area under consideration. Contour maps give a picture of shear strain over the Lower Goru Formation. The identified and the productive zones are described by sands, high reflection strengths, rock physical anomalous areas and low shear strain.

  4. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch ...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  5. A stable downward continuation of airborne magnetic data: A case study for mineral prospectivity mapping in Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Maysam; Gholami, Ali; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that a well-known multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) technique called Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE II) to explore porphyry copper deposits can prioritize the ground-based exploratory evidential layers effectively. In this paper, the PROMETHEE II method is applied to airborne geophysical (potassium radiometry and magnetometry) data, geological layers (fault and host rock zones), and various extracted alteration layers from remote sensing images. The central Iranian volcanic-sedimentary belt is chosen for this study. A stable downward continuation method as an inverse problem in the Fourier domain using Tikhonov and edge-preserving regularizations is proposed to enhance magnetic data. Numerical analysis of synthetic models show that the reconstructed magnetic data at the ground surface exhibits significant enhancement compared to the airborne data. The reduced-to-pole (RTP) and the analytic signal filters are applied to the magnetic data to show better maps of the magnetic anomalies. Four remote sensing evidential layers including argillic, phyllic, propylitic and hydroxyl alterations are extracted from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images in order to map the altered areas associated with porphyry copper deposits. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on six Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images is implemented to map iron oxide layer. The final mineral prospectivity map based on desired geo-data set indicates adequately matching of high potential zones with previous working mines and copper deposits.

  6. Presenting a practical model for governmental political mapping on road traffic injuries in Iran in 2008: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainy, E; Soori, Hamid; Mahfozphoor, S; Movahedinejad, Aa

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to assess political mapping in relation to road traffic injuries (RTIs) management and prevention to present a practical model for RTIs. A phenomenological qualitative study was developed to identify stakeholders on RTI in Iran in 2008. The designed questions were discussed by systematic discussion with the relevant specialists. After receiving written consent from the main responsible stakeholders, the questionnaire was filled in by trained experts. Themes were determined and content was analysed in each part. Main responsible stakeholders. By comparing other countries' political mappings which were found in the library and by Internet searching, political mapping of RTI in Iran was suggested. Subjects were 26 experts from governmental and non-governmental organizations. The main proposed leading agencies were traffic police and presidency (13% each). Findings showed that only 31% of our political mapping was formed according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In 94% of cases, the involved organizations had unspecified roles; the reason was poor monitoring for RTI in 39% of organizations. Lack of adequate authority and suitable legislation, appropriate laws and tasks definition were 94% and 18%, respectively. The most essential policy to overcome problems was defined as appropriate legislation (21%), and the most frequent type of support needed was mentioned as adequate budgeting (25%). Traffic police can play the leading agency role by government support, with strong leadership, appropriate legislation, defined tasks and adequate budget.

  7. Diffuse myocardial fibrosis following tetralogy of Fallot repair: a T1 mapping cardiac magnetic resonance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, Marcelo F.; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Seed, Mike; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Redington, Andrew; Greiser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Adverse ventricular remodeling after tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair is associated with diffuse myocardial fibrosis. The goal of this study was to measure post-contrast myocardial T1 in pediatric patients after TOF repair as surrogates of myocardial fibrosis. Children after TOF repair who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with T1 mapping using the modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence were included. In addition to routine volumetric and flow data, we measured post-contrast T1 values of the basal interventricular septum, the left ventricular (LV) lateral wall, and the inferior and anterior walls of the right ventricle (RV). Results were compared to data from age-matched healthy controls. The scans of 18 children who had undergone TOF repair and 12 healthy children were included. Post-contrast T1 values of the left ventricular lateral wall (443 ± 54 vs. 510 ± 77 ms, P = 0.0168) and of the right ventricular anterior wall (333 ± 62 vs. 392 ± 72 ms, P = 0.0423) were significantly shorter in children with TOF repair than in controls, suggesting a higher degree of fibrosis. In children with TOF repair, but not in controls, post-contrast T1 values were shorter in the right ventricle than the left ventricle and shorter in the anterior wall of the right ventricle than in the inferior segments. In the TOF group, post-contrast T1 values of the RV anterior wall correlated with the RV end-systolic volume indexed to body surface area (r = 0.54; r 2 = 0.30; P = 0.0238). In children who underwent tetralogy of Fallot repair the myocardium of both ventricles appears to bear an abnormally high fibrosis burden. (orig.)

  8. Feasibility study of axillary reverse mapping lymphoscintigraphy in carcinoma breast: A concept toward preventing lymphedema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, Sunny J.; Satish, C.; Sundaram, Palaniswamy Shanmuga; Subramanyam, Padma; Vijaykumar, D. K.

    2016-01-01

    In the surgery of breast cancer, axillary reverse mapping (ARM) is the identification and preservation of arm draining lymph node (ARM node) during an axillary dissection. The assumption is that the ARM node is different from node draining breast and is unlikely to be involved even in the patients with axillary nodal metastases. If we can identify and preserve ARM node using lymphoscintigraphy; morbidity of lymphedema, as seen with axillary dissection, may be avoided. Pathologically proven 50 breast cancer patients undergoing initial surgery (cTx-4, cN0-2, and Mx-0) were included in this study. Less than 37 MBq, 0.5 ml in equally divided doses of filtered 99mTc sulfur colloid was injected intradermally into the second and third web spaces. ARM nodes in the axilla were identified with the help of Gamma Probe intraoperatively; however, their location was noted with the reference to specific anatomical landmarks and sent for histopathological examination after excision. The ARM node was successfully identified in 47/50 cases (sensitivity - 94%). In 40 out of 47 cases (85%), the location of the ARM node was found to lateral to the subscapular pedicle, above the second intercostobrachial nerve and just below the axillary vein. Of the 47 patients in whom ARM node/s were identified, metastasis was noted in 5 of them (10%). Four out of these 5 patients had the pN3 disease. ARM node exists, and it is feasible to identify ARM node using radio isotope technique with an excellent sensitivity. ARM node seems to have a fairly constant location in more than 80% cases. It is involved with metastasis (10% cases) only when there are multiple lymph nodal metastases in the axilla

  9. Diffuse myocardial fibrosis following tetralogy of Fallot repair: a T1 mapping cardiac magnetic resonance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozak, Marcelo F.; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Seed, Mike; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars [The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Labatt Family Heart Centre in the Department of Paediatrics and Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Redington, Andrew [The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Labatt Family Heart Centre in the Department of Paediatrics, Toronto (Canada); Greiser, Andreas [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Adverse ventricular remodeling after tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair is associated with diffuse myocardial fibrosis. The goal of this study was to measure post-contrast myocardial T1 in pediatric patients after TOF repair as surrogates of myocardial fibrosis. Children after TOF repair who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with T1 mapping using the modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence were included. In addition to routine volumetric and flow data, we measured post-contrast T1 values of the basal interventricular septum, the left ventricular (LV) lateral wall, and the inferior and anterior walls of the right ventricle (RV). Results were compared to data from age-matched healthy controls. The scans of 18 children who had undergone TOF repair and 12 healthy children were included. Post-contrast T1 values of the left ventricular lateral wall (443 ± 54 vs. 510 ± 77 ms, P = 0.0168) and of the right ventricular anterior wall (333 ± 62 vs. 392 ± 72 ms, P = 0.0423) were significantly shorter in children with TOF repair than in controls, suggesting a higher degree of fibrosis. In children with TOF repair, but not in controls, post-contrast T1 values were shorter in the right ventricle than the left ventricle and shorter in the anterior wall of the right ventricle than in the inferior segments. In the TOF group, post-contrast T1 values of the RV anterior wall correlated with the RV end-systolic volume indexed to body surface area (r = 0.54; r{sup 2} = 0.30; P = 0.0238). In children who underwent tetralogy of Fallot repair the myocardium of both ventricles appears to bear an abnormally high fibrosis burden. (orig.)

  10. Probabilistic tephra hazard maps for the Neapolitan area: Quantitative volcanological study of Campi Flegrei eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrolorenzo, G.; Pappalardo, L.; Troise, C.; Panizza, A.; de Natale, G.

    2008-07-01

    Tephra fall is a relevant hazard of Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy), due to the high vulnerability of Naples metropolitan area to such an event. Here, tephra derive from magmatic as well as phreatomagmatic activity. On the basis of both new and literature data on known, past eruptions (Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI), grain size parameters, velocity at the vent, column heights and erupted mass), and factors controlling tephra dispersion (wind velocity and direction), 2D numerical simulations of fallout dispersion and deposition have been performed for a large number of case events. A bayesian inversion has been applied to retrieve the best values of critical parameters (e.g., vertical mass distribution, diffusion coefficients, velocity at the vent), not directly inferable by volcanological study. Simulations are run in parallel on multiple processors to allow a fully probabilistic analysis, on a very large catalogue preserving the statistical proprieties of past eruptive history. Using simulation results, hazard maps have been computed for different scenarios: upper limit scenario (worst-expected scenario), eruption-range scenario, and whole-eruption scenario. Results indicate that although high hazard characterizes the Campi Flegrei caldera, the territory to the east of the caldera center, including the whole district of Naples, is exposed to high hazard values due to the dominant westerly winds. Consistently with the stratigraphic evidence of nature of past eruptions, our numerical simulations reveal that even in the case of a subplinian eruption (VEI = 3), Naples is exposed to tephra fall thicknesses of some decimeters, thereby exceeding the critical limit for roof collapse. Because of the total number of people living in Campi Flegrei and the city of Naples (ca. two million of inhabitants), the tephra fallout risk related to a plinian eruption of Campi Flegrei largely matches or exceeds the risk related to a similar eruption at Vesuvius.

  11. The Goal Triad in Games. A Conceptual Map and Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Kobiela

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the very existence and need for an exact definition of sport is still debatable, there is common agreement that competitive sport events on elite level are, among others, goal directed, rule-governed and institutionalized activities. These three facts will guide us in an analysis of the complex issue concerning the idea of goal in games. The first of these facts - that games are goal-oriented activities – is reflected in the very basic notion of prelusory goal. The fact that achieving the prelusory goal in games is rule-governed is reflected in the notion of a lusory goal. Finally, the institutionalized aspect of games is reflected in the notion of, nomen omen, an institutional goal.            The paper is thus devoted to detailed analysis of the notion of goal in games. It is argued that Suits' analysis which provides a distinction between prelusory goal and lusory goal is insufficient, and thus introduction of a third kind of goal is necessary. I suggest to call this third kind of goal institutional goal.The paper discusses the definition of this kind of goal as well as its relations to other kinds of goals in games and other elements of game-playing. These three goals create the goal triad, a conceptual map of all possible goal-related situations. Both Venn diagrams and Euler diagrams are used to represent this triad.            Various fields of these diagrams, which represent a spectrum of specific situations that occur in games, are illustrated by case-studies, taken mainly (although not exclusively from the history of association football (soccer. These examples are meant to test the usefulness of distinctions provided in the analytical part of the paper.

  12. Mapping the productive sands of Lower Goru Formation by using seismic stratigraphy and rock physical studies in Sawan area, southern Pakistan: A case study

    KAUST Repository

    Munir, K.; Iqbal, M.A.; Farid, A.; Shabih, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study has been conducted in the Sawan gas field located in southern Pakistan. The aim of the study is to map the productive sands of the Lower Goru Formation of the study area. Rock physics parameters (bulk modulus, Poisson's ratio

  13. T1 mapping for detection of left ventricular myocardial fibrosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Minjie; Zhao, Shihua; Yin, Gang; Jiang, Shiliang; Zhao, Tao; Chen, Xiuyu; Tian, Liangxin; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Yunqing; Liu, Qiong; He, Zuoxiang; Xue, Hui; An, Jing; Shah, Saurabh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the diagnostic value of T1 mapping imaging of evaluating fibrosis in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Materials and methods: 21 subjects with HCM and 18 healthy volunteers underwent conventional late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging and T1 mapping imaging. The region of myocardium in HCM is divided into remote area of LGE, peri-LGE, LGE (halo-like LGE and typical patchy LGE). These regions combined with normal volunteers’ myocardium were calculated by the reduced percent of T1 value (RPTV). Results: The RPTV in healthy volunteers was no significant comparing with that in the remote area of LGE in HCM subjects (3.98 ± 3.19 vs. 3.34 ± 2.75, P > 0.05). There were significant statistical differences in pairwise among the remote area of LGE, peri-LGE, halo-like LGE and typical patchy LGE in the RPTV (P < 0.0001). ROC curves indicated that the T1 mapping imaging has a greater area under the curve comparing with that of traditional LGE imaging (0.975 ± 0.07 vs. 0.753 ± 0.26, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: HCM has a high prevalence of fibrosis and with varying severity. T1 mapping imaging can be a useful method to evaluate the severity of the fibrosis in HCM

  14. 3-D electromagnetic induction studies using the Swarm constellation: Mapping conductivity anomalies in the Earth's mantle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvshinov, A.; Sabaka, T.; Olsen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    the geometry of the mantle heterogeneities used in the forward approach. numerical experiments have been undertaken using various satellite combinations, sampling periods of the resulting time series, and numbers of internal coefficients. The possibility of the approach to map anomalies in the mantle using...

  15. Route planning with transportation network maps: an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Elise; Gyselinck, Valérie; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Wiener, Jan Malte

    2017-09-01

    Planning routes using transportation network maps is a common task that has received little attention in the literature. Here, we present a novel eye-tracking paradigm to investigate psychological processes and mechanisms involved in such a route planning. In the experiment, participants were first presented with an origin and destination pair before we presented them with fictitious public transportation maps. Their task was to find the connecting route that required the minimum number of transfers. Based on participants' gaze behaviour, each trial was split into two phases: (1) the search for origin and destination phase, i.e., the initial phase of the trial until participants gazed at both origin and destination at least once and (2) the route planning and selection phase. Comparisons of other eye-tracking measures between these phases and the time to complete them, which depended on the complexity of the planning task, suggest that these two phases are indeed distinct and supported by different cognitive processes. For example, participants spent more time attending the centre of the map during the initial search phase, before directing their attention to connecting stations, where transitions between lines were possible. Our results provide novel insights into the psychological processes involved in route planning from maps. The findings are discussed in relation to the current theories of route planning.

  16. Geologic Mapping and Studies of Diverse Deposits at Noctis Labyrinthus, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, C. M.; Berman, D. C.; Rodriguez, A. P.; Bishop, J. L.

    2018-06-01

    We are mapping the western portion of Noctis Labyrinthus (–6 to –14°N, –99.5 to –95.0°W) at 1:500,000 scale, which includes some of the most diverse mineralogies identified on Mars using CRISM data.

  17. Sensitivity study of a semiautomatic supervised classifier applied to minerals from x-ray mapping images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Flesche, Harald

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of assessing the robustness with respect to change in parameters of an integrated training and classification routine for minerals commonly encountered in siliciclastic or carbonate rocks. Twelve chemical elements are mapped from thin sections by energy dispersive...

  18. Mapping queries to the Linking Open Data cloud: a case study using DBpedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Bron, M.; Hollink, L.; Huurnink, B.; de Rijke, M.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the task of mapping search engine queries to DBpedia, a major linking hub in the Linking Open Data cloud. We propose and compare various methods for addressing this task, using a mixture of information retrieval and machine learning techniques. Specifically, we present a supervised

  19. A Road Map to Canadian Chemical Recovery Handbook for Inhabited Areas: Scoping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    A Road Map to Canadian Chemical Recovery Handbook for I © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of National...Australia (EMA) Office of Attorney General, Canberra. b) Australian Emergency Management Institute Mount Macedon, Victoria

  20. INVESTIGATION OF HYDROGEOLOGIC MAPPING TO DELINEATE PROTECTION ZONES AROUND SPRINGS: REPORT OF TWO CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods commonly used to delineate protection zones for water-supply wells are often not directly applicable for springs. This investigation focuses on the use of hydrogeologic mapping methods to identify physical and hydrologic features that control ground-water flow to springs...

  1. Outcome mapping as methodology to monitor and evaluate community informatics projects: A case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to indicate how Outcome Mapping (OM) can be used as a methodology to monitor and evaluate a