WorldWideScience

Sample records for surficial mapping study

  1. Surficial Geologic Map and Groundwater Resources of Woodstock, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG06-5 DeSimone, D., 2006,�Surficial Geologic Map and Groundwater Resources of Woodstock, Vermont: Vermont Geological Survey Open-File Report...

  2. Surficial Geologic Map of the Bristol Quadrangle, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG13-2 Springston, G, and Kim, J, 2013, Surficial Geologic Map of the Bristol Quadrangle, Vermont: Vermont Geological Survey Open File Report...

  3. Improving Antarctic Surficial Geology Maps through Spectroscopic Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebuhr, S.

    2013-12-01

    Spectral identification of lithologic units can be effectively used to improve legacy and outdated geologic maps for exposed rock outcrops in Antarctica. High resolution, multispectral satellite imagery provides a comprehensive view of surface geology in Antarctica and unique lithologic spectral signatures are used to identify geologic unit extent and distribution. Although lack of ancillary data and low solar illumination angles at high latitudes introduce difficulties such as terrain and nadir shadows in polar regions, this study utilizes 8-band WorldView-2 imagery to (1) separate spectrally distinguishable geologic units and map contacts in remote regions and (2) map and identify individual units in areas with detailed supporting information from previous in-situ observations and field campaigns (e.g., the McMurdo Dry Valleys) using textural and spectral image analysis. This ability to remotely identify surficial lithology at sub-meter scale enables detailed geologic interpretations for highly inaccessible areas and may potentially decrease the need for costly logistics, field work and reconnaissance.

  4. Surficial geologic map of the Norton-Manomet-Westport-Sconticut Neck 23-quadrangle area in southeast Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Byron D.; Stone, Janet R.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.; Kincare, Kevin A.

    2012-01-01

    The surficial geologic map shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 23 7.5-minute quadrangles (919 mi2 total) in southeastern Massachusetts. Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and as resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, and organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for assessing water resources, construction aggregate resources, and earth-surface hazards, and for making land-use decisions. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text (PDF), quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  5. Surficial geologic map of the Walden 30' x 60' quadrangle, Jackson, Larimer, and Routt counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madole, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    This map is one of a series of four 30' x 60' surficial geologic maps (1:100,000 scale) intended to provide basic geologic information for planning for energy resource development and growth in northwestern Colorado. An effort is made to characterize all surficial materials, regardless of origin. Hence, residuum is given much more emphasis than is customary, and this results in several departures from conventional geologic maps: bedrock geology is deemphasized; the part of the map symbol denoting geologic age is omitted for surficial units because all surficial units shown are believed to be of Quaternary age; and faults are not shown because none in this map area was observed to displace surficial materials.

  6. Pilot Study Using the Augmented Reality Sandbox to Teach Topographic Maps and Surficial Processes in Introductory Geology Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Terri L.; Reed, Sarah; Hsi, Sherry; Woods, John A.; Woods, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial thinking is often challenging for introductory geology students. A pilot study using the Augmented Reality sandbox (AR sandbox) suggests it can be a powerful tool for bridging the gap between two-dimensional (2D) representations and real landscapes, as well as enhancing the spatial thinking and modeling abilities of students. The AR…

  7. Pilot Study Using the Augmented Reality Sandbox to Teach Topographic Maps and Surficial Processes in Introductory Geology Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Terri L.; Reed, Sarah; Hsi, Sherry; Woods, John A.; Woods, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial thinking is often challenging for introductory geology students. A pilot study using the Augmented Reality sandbox (AR sandbox) suggests it can be a powerful tool for bridging the gap between two-dimensional (2D) representations and real landscapes, as well as enhancing the spatial thinking and modeling abilities of students. The AR…

  8. Surficial Geologic Map of the Clinton-Concord-Grafton-Medfield 12-Quadrangle Area in East Central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Janet R.; Stone, Byron D.

    2006-01-01

    The surficial geologic map shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of twelve 7.5-minute quadrangles (total 660 square miles) in east-central Massachusetts. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (grain size, sedimentary structures, mineral and rock-particle composition), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for water resources, construction aggregate resources, earth-surface hazards assessments, and land-use decisions. This compilation of surficial geologic materials is an interim product that defines the areas of exposed bedrock, and the boundaries between glacial till, glacial stratified deposits, and overlying postglacial deposits. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text (PDF), a regional map at 1:50,000 scale (PDF), quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (12 PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), scanned topographic base maps (TIF), metadata for the GIS layers, and a readme.txt file.

  9. Surficial Geologic Map of the Salem Depot-Newburyport East-Wilmington-Rockport 16-Quadrangle Area in Northeast Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Byron D.; Stone, Janet Radway; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2006-01-01

    The surficial geologic map shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 16 7.5-minute quadrangles (total 658 mi2) in northeast Massachusetts. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (grain size, sedimentary structures, mineral and rock-particle composition), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for water resources, construction aggregate resources, earth-surface hazards assessments, and land-use decisions. This compilation of surficial geologic materials is an interim product that defines the areas of exposed bedrock, and the boundaries between glacial till, glacial stratified deposits, and overlying postglacial deposits. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text (PDF), a regional map at 1:50,000 scale (PDF), quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  10. Surficial Geologic Map of the Ashby-Lowell-Sterling-Billerica 11-Quadrangle Area in Northeast-Central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Byron D.; Stone, Janet R.

    2007-01-01

    The surficial geologic map shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of eleven 7.5-minute quadrangles (total 505 mi2) in northeast-central Massachusetts. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for water resources, construction aggregate resources, earth-surface hazards assessments, and land-use decisions. This compilation of surficial geologic materials is an interim product that defines the areas of exposed bedrock, and the boundaries between glacial till, glacial stratified deposits, and overlying postglacial deposits. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text (PDF), a regional map at 1:50,000 scale (PDF), quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  11. Surficial Geologic Map of the Pico Peak, Vermont 7.5 Minute Quadrangle

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — "Digital data from VG12-1 Wright, S., 2012, Surficial Geologic Map of the Pico Peak, Vermont 7.5 Minute Quadrangle: Vermont Geological Survey Open File Report...

  12. Surficial geologic map of the Knox Mountain area, Marshfield and Peacham, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG08-4 Springston, G. and Kim, J., 2008, Surficial geologic map of the Knox Mountain area, Marshfield and Peacham, Vermont: VGS Open-File Report...

  13. Surficial Geologic Map of the Worcester North-Oxford- Wrentham-Attleboro Nine-Quadrangle Area in South- Central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Byron D.; Stone, Janet R.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    studies discuss the ages of multiple glaciations, the nature of glaciofluvial, glaciolacustrine, and glaciomarine deposits, and the processes of ice advance and retreat across Massachusetts (Koteff and Pessl, 1981; papers in Larson and Stone, 1982; Oldale and Barlow, 1986; Stone and Borns, 1986; Warren and Stone, 1986). This compilation of surficial geologic materials is an interim product that defines the areas of exposed bedrock and the boundaries between glacial till, glacial stratified deposits, and overlying postglacial deposits. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This surficial geologic map layer covering nine quadrangles revises previous digital surficial geologic maps (Stone and others, 1993; MassGIS, 1999) that were compiled on base maps at regional scales of 1:125,000 and 1:250,000. The purpose of this study is to provide fundamental geologic data for the evaluation of natural resources, hazards, and land information within the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

  14. Surficial Geologic Map of the Pocasset-Provincetown-Cuttyhunk-Nantucket 24-Quadrangle Area of Cape Cod and Islands, Southeast Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Byron D.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2006-01-01

    The surficial geologic map layer shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 24 7.5-minute quadrangles (555 mi2 total) in southeast Massachusetts. Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and as resistant ledges in valley areas. On Cape Cod and adjacent islands, these materials completely cover the bedrock surface. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relations, and age. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for assessing water resources, construction aggregate resources, and earth-surface hazards, and for making land-use decisions. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text (PDF), quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  15. Surficial geologic map of the Heath-Northfield-Southwick-Hampden 24-quadrangle area in the Connecticut Valley region, west-central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Janet R.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    The surficial geologic map layer shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 24 7.5-minute quadrangles (1,238 mi2 total) in west-central Massachusetts. Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and as resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, and organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for assessing water resources, construction aggregate resources, and earth-surface hazards, and for making land-use decisions. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text, quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  16. Preliminary mapping of surficial geology of Midway Valley Yucca Mountain Project, Nye County, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesling, J.R.; Bullard, T.F.; Swan, F.H.; Perman, R.C.; Angell, M.M. [Geomatrix Consultants, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Gibson, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The tectonics program for the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada must evaluate the potential for surface faulting beneath the prospective surface facilities. To help meet this goal, Quaternary surficial mapping studies and photolineament analyses were conducted to provide data for evaluating the location, recency, and style of faulting with Midway Valley at the eastern base of Yucca Mountain, the preferred location of these surface facilities. This interim report presents the preliminary results of this work.

  17. Project plan-Surficial geologic mapping and hydrogeologic framework studies in the Greater Platte River Basins (Central Great Plains) in support of ecosystem and climate change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Margaret E.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Slate, Janet L.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Sawyer, David A.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Platte River Basin area spans a central part of the Midcontinent and Great Plains from the Rocky Mountains on the west to the Missouri River on the east, and is defined to include drainage areas of the Platte, Niobrara, and Republican Rivers, the Rainwater Basin, and other adjoining areas overlying the northern High Plains aquifer. The Greater Platte River Basin contains abundant surficial deposits that were sensitive to, or are reflective of, the climate under which they formed: deposits from multiple glaciations in the mountain headwaters of the North and South Platte Rivers and from continental ice sheets in eastern Nebraska; fluvial terraces (ranging from Tertiary to Holocene in age) along the rivers and streams; vast areas of eolian sand in the Nebraska Sand Hills and other dune fields (recording multiple episodes of dune activity); thick sequences of windblown silt (loess); and sediment deposited in numerous lakes and wetlands. In addition, the Greater Platte River Basin overlies and contributes surface water to the High Plains aquifer, a nationally important groundwater system that underlies parts of eight states and sustains one of the major agricultural areas of the United States. The area also provides critical nesting habitat for birds such as plovers and terns, and roosting habitat for cranes and other migratory birds that travel through the Central Flyway of North America. This broad area, containing fragile ecosystems that could be further threatened by changes in climate and land use, has been identified by the USGS and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln as a region where intensive collaborative research could lead to a better understanding of climate change and what might be done to adapt to or mitigate its adverse effects to ecosystems and to humans. The need for robust data on the geologic framework of ecosystems in the Greater Platte River Basin has been acknowledged in proceedings from the 2008 Climate Change Workshop and in draft

  18. Surficial Geologic Map of the Southern Two-Thirds of the Woodbury Quadrangle, Vermont, Washington County, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG2015-3 Springston, G, Thomas, E, and Kim, J, 2015,�Surficial Geologic Map of the Southern Two-Thirds of the Woodbury Quadrangle, Vermont,...

  19. Surficial geologic map of the Ivanpah 30' x 60' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California, and Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David M.

    2012-01-01

    This map was prepared as part of a suite of surficial geologic maps covering the northern Mojave Desert to investigate neotectonic features and map soils of relevance for ecological properties. The map covers an area of the eastern Mojave Desert that includes the Cinder Cones, Cima Dome, Ivanpah Valley, and Lanfair Valley and includes major mountain chains of the Providence, New York, and Ivanpah Mountains, all within the Mojave National Preserve. Surficial geology includes expansive pediments, broad valley-bottom sediment tracts, and dune fields of the Devils Playground. Two Quaternary fault zones are identified, as well as several others that probably are Quaternary.

  20. Surficial Geologic Map of the Evansville, Indiana, and Henderson, Kentucky, Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David W.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Counts, Ronald C.; Martin, Steven L.; Andrews, William M.; Newell, Wayne L.; Murphy, Michael L.; Thompson, Mark F.; Taylor, Emily M.; Kvale, Erik P.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2009-01-01

    The geologic map of the Evansville, Indiana, and Henderson, Kentucky, area depicts and describes surficial deposits according to their origin and age. Unconsolidated alluvium and outwash fill the Ohio River bedrock valley and attain maximum thickness of 33-39 m under Diamond Island, Kentucky, and Griffith Slough, south of Newburgh, Indiana. The fill is chiefly unconsolidated, fine- to medium-grained, lithic quartz sand, interbedded with clay, clayey silt, silt, coarse sand, granules, and gravel. Generally, the valley fill fines upward from the buried bedrock surface: a lower part being gravelly sand to sandy gravel, a middle part mostly of sand, and a surficial veneer of silt and clay interspersed with sandy, natural levee deposits at river's edge. Beneath the unconsolidated fill are buried and discontinuous, lesser amounts of consolidated fill unconformably overlying the buried bedrock surface. Most of the glaciofluvial valley fill accumulated during the Wisconsin Episode (late Pleistocene). Other units depicted on the map include creek alluvium, slackwater lake (lacustrine) deposits, colluvium, dune sand, loess, and sparse bedrock outcrops. Creek alluvium underlies creek floodplains and consists of silt, clayey silt, and subordinate interbedded fine sand, granules, and pebbles. Lenses and beds of clay are present locally. Silty and clayey slackwater lake (lacustrine) deposits extensively underlie broad flats northeast of Evansville and around Henderson and are as thick as 28 m. Fossil wood collected from an auger hole in the lake and alluvial deposits of Little Creek, at depths of 10.6 m and 6.4 m, are dated 16,650+-50 and 11,120+-40 radiocarbon years, respectively. Fossil wood collected from lake sediment 16 m below the surface in lake sediment was dated 33,100+-590 radiocarbon years. Covering the hilly bedrock upland is loess (Qel), 3-7.5 m thick in Indiana and 9-15 m thick in Kentucky, deposited about 22,000-12,000 years before present. Most mapped surficial

  1. Comparing surficial sediments maps interpreted by experts with dual-frequency acoustic backscatter on the Scotian Shelf, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuff, Andrew; Anderson, John T.; Devillers, Rodolphe

    2015-11-01

    Understanding seabed properties is increasingly important to support policy in the marine environment. Such knowledge can be gained from diverse methods, ranging from more traditional expert-interpretations of acoustic and ground-truth data, to maps resulting from fully quantitative analyses of acoustic data. This study directly compares surficial geology maps created through expert-interpretations to near-nadir acoustic backscatter data from two frequencies (38 kHz and 120 kHz) collected using single beam echosounders (SBES) for two 5×1 km study areas on the Scotian Shelf, Canada. Statistical methods were used to analyze and classify both single and dual-frequency acoustic backscatter for comparisons. In particular, spatial scaling of acoustic backscatter responses and acoustic classes created using acoustic seabed classification (ASC) is compared between frequencies and to interpreted sediment units (ISUs) which make up surficial geology maps produced by experts. Seabed morphology layers were included in an ASC approach to reflect the morphological components included in the interpreted geological maps. Results confirmed that higher frequencies and coarser grain sizes generally produced higher backscatter, while more heterogeneous and rougher seabeds produced variable backscatter. Differing acoustic responses within similar substrate units suggest fundamental seabed variations not reflected in the geological interpretations. Spatial scaling of sand and gravel substrates from 38 kHz frequency were closer than the 120 kHz frequency to the spatial scaling of the interpreted geological map. Variable grain size in the sediment volume and surface morphology are both presented as possible reasons for frequency differences. While both frequencies had similar general responses, differences in frequency responses of backscatter occurred at scales of tens to hundreds of meters. Results presented here emphasize the importance of multi-scale seabed mapping and additional

  2. Preliminary surficial geologic map of the Newberry Springs 30' x 60' quadrangle, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, G.A.; Bedford, D.R.; Lidke, D.J.; Miller, D.M.; Schmidt, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Newberry Springs 30' x 60' quadrangle is located in the central Mojave Desert of southern California. It is split approximately into northern and southern halves by I-40, with the city of Barstow at its western edge and the town of Ludlow near its eastern edge. The map area spans lat 34°30 to 35° N. to long -116 °to -117° W. and covers over 1,000 km2. We integrate the results of surficial geologic mapping conducted during 2002-2005 with compilations of previous surficial mapping and bedrock geologic mapping. Quaternary units are subdivided in detail on the map to distinguish variations in age, process of formation, pedogenesis, lithology, and spatial interdependency, whereas pre-Quaternary bedrock units are grouped into generalized assemblages that emphasize their attributes as hillslope-forming materials and sources of parent material for the Quaternary units. The spatial information in this publication is presented in two forms: a spatial database and a geologic map. The geologic map is a view (the display of an extracted subset of the database at a given time) of the spatial database; it highlights key aspects of the database and necessarily does not show all of the data contained therein. The database contains detailed information about Quaternary geologic unit composition, authorship, and notes regarding geologic units, faults, contacts, and local vegetation. The amount of information contained in the database is too large to show on a single map, so a restricted subset of the information was chosen to summarize the overall nature of the geology. Refer to the database for additional information. Accompanying the spatial data are the map documentation and spatial metadata. The map documentation (this document) describes the geologic setting and history of the Newberry Springs map sheet, summarizes the age and physical character of each map unit, and describes principal faults and folds. The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata

  3. Geologic-SURFICIAL62K-poly

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The GeologicSurficial_SURFICIAL data consists of surficial geologic features as digitized from the 1:62,500 15 minute series USGS quadrangle map sheets, compiled by...

  4. Unpublished Digital Surficial Geologic Map of Mesa Verde National Park and Vicinity, Colorado (NPS, GRD, GRI, MEVE, MVSR digital map) adapted from a U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations map by Carrara (2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Digital Surficial Geologic Map of Mesa Verde National Park and Vicinity, Colorado is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.3 layer...

  5. Unpublished Digital Glacial and Surficial Geologic Map of Summit County and parts of Cuyahoga County, Ohio (NPS, GRD, GRI, CUVA, SUCU digital map) adapted from Ohio Division of Geological Survey maps by Ford (1987), and White (1984)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Digital Glacial and Surficial Geologic Map of Summit County and parts of Cuyahoga County, Ohio is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap...

  6. Surficial geology of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a 100-meter cell resolution raster dataset consisting of 1:750,000-scale surficial geology for California and 1:500,000-scale for Nevada, and parts of Utah,...

  7. Surficial Geologic Map of Mesa Verde National Park, Montezuma County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado was established in 1906 to preserve and protect the artifacts and dwelling sites, including the famous cliff dwellings, of the Ancestral Puebloan people who lived in the area from about A.D. 550 to A.D. 1300. In 1978, the United Nations designated the park as a World Heritage Site. The geology of the park played a key role in the lives of these ancient people. For example, the numerous (approximately 600) cliff dwellings are closely associated with the Cliff House Sandstone of Late Cretaceous age, which weathers to form deep alcoves. In addition, the ancient people farmed the thick, red loess (wind-blown dust) deposits on the mesa tops, which because of its particle size distribution has good moisture retention properties. The soil in this loess cover and the seasonal rains allowed these people to grow their crops (corn, beans, and squash) on the broad mesa tops. Today, geology is still an important concern in the Mesa Verde area because the landscape is susceptible to various forms of mass movement (landslides, debris flows, rockfalls), swelling soils, and flash floods that affect the park's archeological sites and its infrastructure (roads, septic systems, utilities, and building sites). The map, which encompasses an area of about 100 mi2 (260 km2), includes all of Mesa Verde National Park, a small part of the Ute Mountain Indian Reservation that borders the park on its southern and western sides, and some Bureau of Land Management and privately owned land to the north and east. Surficial deposits depicted on the map include: artificial fills, alluvium of small ephemeral streams, alluvium deposited by the Mancos River, residual gravel on high mesas, a combination of alluvial and colluvial deposits, fan deposits, colluvial deposits derived from the Menefee Formation, colluvial deposits derived from the Mancos Shale, rockfall deposits, debris flow deposits, earthflow deposits, translational and rotational landslide

  8. Geology, Surficial, Geology of Kent County, Delaware: DGS Geologic Map No. 14, Published in 2006, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Delaware Geological Survey.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Geology, Surficial dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2006. It is described as...

  9. Surficial geologic map of the Red Rock Lakes area, southwest Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Sojda, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    The Centennial Valley and Centennial Range continue to be formed by ongoing displacement on the Centennial fault. The dominant fault movement is downward, creating space in the valley for lakes and the deposition of sediment. The Centennial Valley originally drained to the northeast through a canyon now represented by a chain of lakes starting with Elk Lake. Subsequently, large landslides blocked and dammed the drainage, which created Lake Centennial, in the Centennial Valley. Sediments deposited in this late Pleistocene lake underlie much of the valley floor and rest on permeable sand and gravel deposited when the valley drained to the northeast. Cold Pleistocene climates enhanced colluvial supply of gravelly sediment to mountain streams and high peak flows carried gravelly sediment into the valley. There, the lower gradient of the streams resulted in deposition of alluvial fans peripheral to Lake Centennial as the lake lowered through time to the level of the two present lakes. Pleistocene glaciers formed in the high Centennial Range, built glacial moraines, and also supplied glacial outwash to the alluvial fans. Winds from the west and south blew sand to the northeast side of the valley building up high dunes. The central part of the map area is flat, sloping to the west by only 0.6 meters in 13 kilometers (2 feet in 8 miles) to form a watery lowland. This lowland contains Upper and Lower Red Rock Lakes, many ponds, and peat lands inside the “water plane,” above which are somewhat steeper slopes. The permeable sands and gravels beneath Lake Centennial sediments provide a path for groundwater recharged from the adjacent uplands. This groundwater leaks upward through Lake Centennial sediments and sustains wetland vegetation into late summer. Upper and Lower Red Rock Lakes are formed by alluvial-fan dams. Alluvial fans converge from both the south and the north to form outlet thresholds that dam the two shallow lakes upstream. The surficial geology aids in

  10. Surficial geologic maps along the riparian zone of the Animas River and its headwater tributaries, Silverton to Durango, Colorado, with upper Animas River watershed gradient profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, R.W.; Yager, D.B.; Church, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    This product consists of Adobe Acrobat .PDF format documents for 10 surficial geologic strip maps along the Animas River watershed from its major headwater tributaries, south to Durango, Colorado. The Animas River originates in the San Juan Mountains north of the historic mining town of Silverton, Colorado. The surficial geologic maps identify surficial deposits, such as flood-plain and terrace gravels, alluvial fans, glacial till, talus, colluvium, landslides, and bogs. Sixteen primary units were mapped that included human-related deposits and structures, eight alluvial, four colluvial, one glacial, travertine deposits, and undifferentiated bedrock. Each of the surficial geologic strip maps has .PDF links to surficial geology photographs, which enable the user to take a virtual tour of these deposits. Geochemical data collected from mapped surficial deposits that pre- and postdate mining activity have aided in determining the geochemical baseline in the watershed. Several photographs with their corresponding geochemical baseline profiles are accessible through .PDF links from several of the maps. A single coverage for all surficial deposits mapped is included as an ArcInfo shape file as an Arc Export format .e00 file. A gradient map for major headwater tributary streams to the Animas River is also included. The gradient map has stream segments that are color-coded based on relative variations in slope and .PDF format links to each stream gradient profile. Stream gradients were derived from U.S. Geological Survey 10-m digital elevation model data. This project was accomplished in support of the U.S. Geological Survey's Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado.

  11. Geologic-SURFICIAL62K-Sand and gravel pits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The GeologicSurficial_SURFICIAL data consists of surficial geologic features as digitized from the 1:62,500 15 minute series USGS quadrangle map sheets, compiled by...

  12. Geologic-SURFICIAL62K-Rocklines-Striations-Till-Fabric

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The GeologicSurficial_SURFICIAL data consists of surficial geologic features as digitized from the 1:62,500 15 minute series USGS quadrangle map sheets, compiled by...

  13. Reconnaissance surficial geologic map of the Taylor Mountains quadrangle, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.

    2015-09-28

    This map and accompanying digital files are the result of the interpretation of aerial photographs from the 1950s as well as more modern imagery. The area, long considered a part of Alaska that was largely not glaciated (see Karlstrom, 1964; Coulter and others, 1965; or Péwé, 1975), actually has a long history reflecting local and more distant glaciations. An unpublished photogeologic map of the Taylor Mountains quadrangle from the 1950s by J.N. Platt Jr. was useful in the construction of this map. Limited new field mapping in the area was conducted as part of a mapping project in the Dillingham quadrangle to the south (Wilson and others, 2003); however, extensive aerial photograph interpretation represents the bulk of the mapping effort. The accompanying digital files show the sources for each line and geologic unit shown on the map.

  14. Surficial geologic map of the greater Omaha area, Nebraska and Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroba, R.R.; Brandt, T.R.; Blossom, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Geologic mapping, in support of the USGS Omaha-Kansas City Geologic Mapping Project, shows the spatial distribution of artificial-fill, alluvial, eolian, and glacial deposits and bedrock in and near Omaha, Nebraska. Artificial fill deposits are mapped chiefly beneath commercial structures, segments of interstate highways and other major highways, railroad tracks, airport runways, and military facilities, and in landfills and earth fills. Alluvial deposits are mapped beneath flood plains, in stream terraces, and on hill slopes. They include flood-plain and stream-channel alluvium, sheetwash alluvium, and undivided sheetwash alluvium and stream alluvium. Wind-deposited loess forms sheets that mantle inter-stream areas and late Wisconsin terrace alluvium. Peoria Loess is younger of the two loess sheets and covers much of the inter-stream area in the map area. Loveland Loess is older and is exposed in a few small areas in the eastern part of the map area. Glacial deposits are chiefly heterogeneous, ice-deposited, clayey material (till) and minor interstratified stream-deposited sand and gravel. Except for small outcrops, glacial deposits are covered by eolian and alluvial deposits throughout most of the map area. Bedrock is locally exposed in natural exposures along the major streams and in quarries. It consists of Dakota Sandstone and chiefly limestone and shale of the Lansing and Kansas City Groups. Sand and gravel in flood plain and stream-channel alluvium in the Platte River valley are used mainly for concrete aggregate. Limestone of the Lansing and Kansas City Groups is used for road-surfacing material, rip rap, and fill material.

  15. Surficial Geologic Map of the Roanoke Rapids 30' x 60' Quadrangle, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Robert E.; Lewis, William C.; Aleman-Gonzalez, Wilma

    2009-01-01

    The Roanoke Rapids 1:100,000 map sheet is located in northeastern North Carolina. Most of the area is flat to gently rolling, though steep slopes occur occasionally along some of the larger streams. Total relief in the area is slightly less than 400 feet (ft), with elevations ranging from sea level east of Murfreesboro in the far northeastern corner of the map to 384 ft near the northwestern map border near Littleton. The principal streams are the Roanoke River and Fishing Creek, which on average flow from northwest to southeast in the map area. The principal north-south roads are Interstate Route 95, U.S. Route 258, and U.S. Route 301. Two lines of the CSX railroad also cross the area in a north-south and northeast-southwest direction. This part of North Carolina is primarily rural and agricultural. The only large community in the area is Roanoke Rapids. The map lies astride the Tidewater Fall Line, a prominent physiographic feature marked by rapids and waterfalls that separate the rocky streams of the eastern Piedmont physiographic province from the sandy and alluviated streams of the western Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province. The energy from the Roanoke River descending the Tidewater Fall Line has been harnessed by dams to produce hydroelectric power, and this source of energy was a major factor in the growth and development of Roanoke Rapids. The Piedmont in the western part of the map area is underlain by Neoproterozoic to Cambrian metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks that are intruded by granite in some areas. In the central and eastern part of the map area, the folded and faulted igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont, as well as tilted sedimentary rocks in a buried Triassic basin, are all overlain with profound unconformity by generally unlithified and only slightly eastward-tilted Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The Coastal Plain sediments lap westward onto the eastern Piedmont along the high

  16. Unpublished Digital Surficial Geology Map of Herbert Hoover National Historic Site and Vicinity, Iowa (NPS, GRD, GRI, HEHO, HEHO digital map) adapted from Iowa Geological Survey Open-File Report Maps by Quade et. al. (2008), Krieg et. al. (2004) and Tassier-Surine et. al. (2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Digital Surficial Geology Map of Herbert Hoover National Historic Site and Vicinity, Iowa is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.3...

  17. Geology, Surficial, Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Surficial Geology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, shallow aquifers and confining units; shape file with surficial geology interpreted from LI, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, NC DENR / Div. of Land Resources / Geological Survey Section.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Geology, Surficial dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from LIDAR information as of 2007. It is described as 'Neuse...

  18. Surficial geologic map of the Charleston region, Berkeley, Charleston, Colleton, Dorchester, and Georgetown Counties, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Robert E.; Lewis, William C.; Lemon, Earl M.

    2014-01-01

    This map portrays the surface and shallow subsurface geology of the greater Charleston, S.C. region east of 80°30′ west and south of 33°15′ north. The region covers the entirety of Charleston County and portions of Berkeley, Colleton, Dorchester, and Georgetown Counties. Units locally exposed at the surface range in age from middle Eocene to Holocene, but most of the area is covered by Quaternary interglacial deposits. These are, from oldest to youngest, the Okefenokee, Waccamaw(?), Penholoway, Ladson, Ten Mile Hill, and Wando Formations and the Silver Bluff beds. Two cross sections, one running southeast from Harleyville to the coastline on James Island and the other running along the coastal barrier islands from the town of Edisto Beach to the northeast end of Bull Island at the southwest edge of Bull Bay, portray the complex geometry of the Paleogene and Neogene marine units that directly lie beneath the Quaternary units. These older units include the Santee Limestone, Tupelo Bay, Parkers Ferry, Ashley, Chandler Bridge, Edisto, Parachucla, and Marks Head Formations, the Goose Creek Limestone, and the Raysor Formation. The estimated locations of deeply buried active basement faults are shown which are responsible for ongoing modern seismicity in the Charleston, S.C. area.

  19. Preliminary bedrock and surficial geologic map of the west half of the Sanders 30' x 60' quadrangle, Navajo and Apache Counties, northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Lee; Priest, Susan S.; Hiza-Redsteer, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The bedrock and surficial geologic map of the west half of the Sanders 30' x 60' quadrangle was completed in a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Navajo Nation to provide regional geologic information for management and planning officials. This report provides baseline geologic information that will be useful in future studies of groundwater and surface water resources, geologic hazards, and the distribution of soils and plants. The west half of the Sanders quadrangle encompasses approximately 2,509 km2 (980 mi2) within Navajo and Apache Counties of northern Arizona and is bounded by lat 35°30' to 35° N., long 109°30' to 110° W. The majority of the land within the map area lies within the Navajo Nation. South of the Navajo Nation, private and State lands form a checkerboard pattern east and west of Petrified Forest National Park. In the west half of the Sanders quadrangle, Mesozoic bedrock is nearly flat lying except near folds. A shallow Cenozoic erosional basin that developed about 20 Ma in the western part of the map area cut across late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that were subsequently filled with flat-lying Miocene and Pliocene mudstone and argillaceous sandstone and fluvial sediments of the Bidahochi Formation and associated volcanic rocks of the Hopi Buttes volcanic field. The Bidahochi rocks are capped by Pliocene(?) and Pleistocene fluvial sediments and Quaternary eolian and alluvial deposits. Erosion along northeast-southwest-oriented drainages have exposed elongated ridges of Bidahochi Formation and basin-fill deposits that are exposed through shallow eolian cover of similarly oriented longitudinal dunes. Stokes (1964) concluded that the accumulation of longitudinal sand bodies and the development of confined parallel drainages are simultaneous processes resulting in parallel sets of drainages and ridges oriented along the prevailing southwest wind direction on the southern Colorado Plateau.

  20. Surficial Geology of the Mosier Creek Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A surficial and structural geologic map (SIR-2012-5002, fig. 2) was compiled to aid in the building of the three-dimensional geologic model. The map covers 327...

  1. Thickness of the surficial aquifer, Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Judith; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    A digital map of the thickness of the surficial unconfined aquifer, including from the land surface and unsaturated zone to the bottom of sediments of geologic units identified as part of the surficial aquifer, was produced to improve understanding of the hydrologic system in the Maryland and Delaware portions of the Delmarva Peninsula. The map is intended to be used in conjunction with other environmental coverages (such land use, wetlands, and soil characteristics) to provide a subsurface hydrogeologic component to studies of nitrate transport that have historically relied on maps of surficial features. It could also be used to study the transport of other water soluble chemicals. The map was made using the best currently available data, which was of varying scales. It was created by overlaying a high resolution land surface and bathymetry digital elevation model (DEM) on a digital representation of the base of the surficial aquifer, part of hydrogeologic framework, as defined by Andreasen and others (2013). Thickness was calculated as the difference between the top of land surface and the bottom of the surficial aquifer sediments, which include sediments from geologic formations of late-Miocene through Quaternary age. Geologic formations with predominantly sandy surficial sediments that comprise the surficial aquifer on the Delmarva Peninsula include the Parsonsburg Sand, Sinepuxent Formation (Fm.), and parts of the Omar Fm. north of Indian River Bay in Delaware, the Columbia Fm., Beaverdam Fm., and Pennsauken Fm. (Ator and others 2005; Owens and Denney, 1986; Mixon, 1985; Bachman and Wilson, 1984). Formations with mixed texture and sandy stratigraphy including the Scotts Corner Fm. and Lynch Heights Fm. in Delaware are also considered part of the surficial aquifer (Ramsey, 1997). Subcropping aquifers and confining beds underlie the surficial aquifer throughout the Peninsula and may increase or limit its thickness, respectively (Andreasen and others, 2013

  2. Generalized surficial geologic map of the Fort Irwin area, San Bernadino: Chapter B in Geology and geophysics applied to groundwater hydrology at Fort Irwin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David M.; Menges, Christopher M.; Lidke, David J.; Buesch, David C.

    2014-01-01

    The geology and landscape of the Fort Irwin area, typical of many parts of the Mojave Desert, consist of rugged mountains separated by broad alluviated valleys that form the main coarse-resolution features of the geologic map. Crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic and older in age, form most of the mountains with lesser accumulations of Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. In detail, the area exhibits a fairly complex distribution of surficial deposits resulting from diverse rock sources and geomorphology that has been driven by topographic changes caused by recent and active faulting. Depositional environments span those typical of the Mojave Desert: alluvial fans on broad piedmonts, major intermittent streams along valley floors, eolian sand dunes and sheets, and playas in closed valleys that lack through-going washes. Erosional environments include rocky mountains, smooth gently sloping pediments, and badlands in readily eroded sediment. All parts of the landscape, from regional distribution of mountains, valleys, and faults to details of degree of soil development in surface materials, are portrayed by the surficial geologic map. Many of these attributes govern infiltration and recharge, and the surface distribution of permeable rock units such as Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks provides a basis for evaluating potential groundwater storage. Quaternary faults are widespread in the Fort Irwin area and include sinistral, east-striking faults that characterize the central swath of the area and the contrasting dextral, northwest-striking faults that border the east and west margins. Bedrock distribution and thickness of valley-fill deposits are controlled by modern and past faulting, and faults on the map help to identify targets for groundwater exploration.

  3. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Surficial Lithology of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated a new classification and map of the lithology of surficial materials for the contiguous United States. This was...

  4. Geology, Surficial, Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Geomorphology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, and shallow aquifers and confining units; shape file with geomorphic map units interpreted from, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, NC DENR / Div. of Land Resources / Geological Survey Section.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Geology, Surficial dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from LIDAR information as of 2007. It is described as 'Neuse...

  5. Surficial geology of Hannibal Quadrangle, Oswego County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.

    1981-01-01

    The location and extent of 10 kinds of surficial deposits in part of Hannibal quadrangle, Oswego County, N.Y., are mapped on a 7.5-minute U.S. Geological Survey topographic map. The map was compiled to indicate the lithology and potential for ground-water development at any specific location. (USGS)

  6. Bedrock and surficial geologic map of the Satan Butte and Greasewood 7.5’ quadrangles, Navajo and Apache Counties, northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Lee; Priest, Susan S.; Hiza-Redsteer, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The geologic map of the Satan Butte and Greasewood 7.5’ quadrangles is the result of a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Navajo Nation to provide regional geologic information for management and planning officials. This map provides geologic information useful for range management, plant and animal studies, flood control, water resource investigations, and natural hazards associated with sand-dune mobility. The map provides connectivity to the regional geologic framework of the Grand Canyon area of northern Arizona. The map area encompasses approximately 314 km2 (123 mi2) within Navajo and Apache Counties of northern Arizona and is bounded by lat 35°37'30" to 35°30' N., long 109°45' to 110° W. The quadrangles lie within the southern Colorado Plateau geologic province and within the northeastern portion of the Hopi Buttes (Tsézhin Bií). Large ephemeral drainages, Pueblo Colorado Wash and Steamboat Wash, originate north of the map area on the Defiance Plateau and Balakai Mesa respectively. Elevations range from 1,930 m (6,330 ft) at the top of Satan Butte to about 1,787 m (5,860 ft) at Pueblo Colorado Wash where it exits the southwest corner of the Greasewood quadrangle. The only settlement within the map area is Greasewood, Arizona, on the north side of Pueblo Colorado Wash. Navajo Highway 15 crosses both quadrangles and joins State Highway 264 northwest of Ganado. Unimproved dirt roads provide access to remote parts of the Navajo Reservation.

  7. Stability studies of surficial sediments in the Wilmington-Lindenkohl Canyons area, eastern U.S. margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagor, G.; Bennett, R.H.; Mc Gregor, B.A.; Shephard, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Stability analysis, based on infinite slope analysis and geotechnical data from a suite of 34 cores collected from the continental slope between Wilmington and Lindenkohl Canyons, indicates that the Quaternary surficial silty clay sediments on gentle slopes are stable; that sediment stability on steeper slopes (14??-19??) is marginal; and that on precipitous slopes (>50??) only a thin veneer of unconsolidated sediments can exist. Small earthquake-induced accelerations or the effects of internal waves can result in slope sediment instabilities. ?? 1982 A. M. Dowden, Inc.

  8. Surficial geology of the Cornell Dam 7.5 Minute Quadrangle, Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following is a surficial geology map of the Cornell Dam on the Niobrara River and surrounding area, near Valentine, Nebraska. This map shows the sediments and...

  9. Seafloor Surficial Sediments (Deck 41)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) "Deck41" database contains surficial sediment descriptions for over 36,000 seafloor samples worldwide. The file was begun...

  10. Digital data set describing surficial geology in the conterminous US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set describes surficial geology of the conterminous United States. The data set was generated from a U.S. Geological Survey 1:7,500,000-scale map...

  11. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - SAND_GRAVEL_RESOURCES_IN: Sand and Gravel Resource Potential in Mapped Surficial Material in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:500,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — SAND_GRAVEL_RESOURCES_IN is a polygon shapefile that identifies sand and gravel permissive tracts in the surficial unconsolidated deposits of Indiana. Permissive...

  12. Surficial Geology of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, Dwight Raymond

    1969-01-01

    Much of the ground surface around Mount Rainier volcano is directly underlain by loose geologic deposits that veneer the hard rock formations. Examples of these deposits are sand and gravel bars along the rivers, ridges of loose rock debris beside the glaciers, and sloping aprons of rock fragments beneath almost every cliff. Even though they are generally thin and inconspicuous when compared with the rock formations, these surficial deposits are clues to geologic events that have profoundly influenced the shape of the park's landscape. Thus, from the character and extent of glacial deposits one can judge the age and size of former glaciers that carved the cirques and deep canyons of the park; from the mudflows which streamed down nearly every valley one can infer the age and size of huge landslides of the past that helped determine Mount Rainier's present shape; and from the pumice deposits some of the volcano's recent eruptive activity can be reconstructed. The map (plate 1, in pocket) that accompanies this description of the surficial deposits of Mount Rainier National Park shows the location of the various geologic formations, and the explanation shows the formations arranged in order of their relative age, with the oldest at the bottom. The text describes the surficial deposits in sequence from older to younger. A discussion of the pumice deposits of the park, which were not mapped, is followed by a description of the formations shown on the geologic map. Inspection of the geologic map may lead the viewer to question why the surficial deposits are shown in more detail in a zone several miles wide around the base of the volcano than elsewhere. This is partly because the zone is largely near or above timberline, relatively accessible, and the surficial deposits there can be readily recognized, differentiated, and mapped. In contrast, access is more difficult in the heavily timbered parts of the park, and surficial deposits there are generally blanketed by a dense

  13. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surficial sediments from a tropical river-estuary-shelf system: A case study of Kelantan River, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Jun; Bong, Chui Wei; Xu, Yong-Hang; Hassan, Meor Hakif Amir; Ye, Xiang; Bakar, Ahmad Farid Abu; Li, Yun-Hai; Lai, Zhi-Kun; Xu, Jiang; Loh, Kar Hoe

    2017-08-11

    To understand the source-to-sink of pollutants in the Kelantan River estuary and the adjacent shelf area in Malaysia, a total of 42 surface sediment samples were collected in the Kelantan River-estuary-shelf system to analyze for grain size, total organic carbon (TOC) content, Al and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb). The surficial sediments were mainly composed of clayey silt and the TOC content in sediments decreased from the river to the shelf. The surficial sediments experienced Pb pollution; Cr only showed a certain level of pollution in the coastal area of the estuary but not in other areas, and Ni, Cu, Zn, and Cd showed no pollution. The heavy metals mainly originated from natural weathering and erosion of rocks and soils in the catchment and enriched near the river mouth. Total organic carbon can promote the enrichment of heavy metals in sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Surficial phase-identification and structural profiles from weathered natural pyrites: A grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Yuanfeng [State Key Laboratory of Mineral Deposits Research, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Earth Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)], E-mail: caiyf@nju.edu.cn; Pan, Yuguan [State Key Laboratory of Mineral Deposits Research, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xue Jiyue; Su Guizhen [Department of Earth Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2009-01-15

    Five pyrites with original crystal face (1 0 0) with different tarnish colours were selected from one pyrite-bearing ore sample from Tongling multi-metal deposit, Anhui, China. They are henna mottled with dark violet, yellow mottled with red, yellow, blue mottled with violet and reddish brown in surface colour. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffractometry (GIXRD) was used to study the phases formed or precipitated on the surface of pyrite (1 0 0) face during chemical weathering. By changing the incident angle, GIXRD can provide information on the changes in the mineral phases from the surface as a function of depth. Products formed or precipitated on the surface of pyrite (1 0 0) face are one or several sulfur or iron-bearing hydrated oxides and include gypsum, jalpaite, goethite, goldichite. The sulfur-bearing minerals present on the surface imply the oxidation of sulfur to sulfate, or the reduction of sulfur to sulfide. By analyzing a series of GIXRD patterns obtained at different angles of incidence for a single pyrite, the mineral assemblage differs from the surface into the body of the crystal. Taking the reddish brown sample as an example, four diffraction profiles at 2.575, 2.2105, 1.9118 and 1.613 A are present in the pattern of a 2{sup o} incident angle experiment whereas they cannot be found at a GIXRD angle smaller than 0.6{sup o}.

  15. Mapping Future Education and Training: Group Concept Mapping Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Hoogveld, Bert; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Stoyanov, S., Hoogveld, A. W. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Mapping Future Education and Training: Group Concept Mapping Study. Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands; EU Forlic project.

  16. Mapping Future Education and Training: Group Concept Mapping Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Hoogveld, Bert; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Stoyanov, S., Hoogveld, A. W. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Mapping Future Education and Training: Group Concept Mapping Study. Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands; EU Forlic project.

  17. Surficial geological tools in fluvial geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; O'connor, James; Oguchi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    sources. The surficial geological record can present information that predates historical observations or is highly complementary to historical records. Although river deposits are rarely complete enough to form precise predictive models, they provide contextual information that can constrain predictions and help guide choices of appropriate processes to study more closely and hypotheses to test (Baker 1996). Floodplain chronicles of Earth history also provide data sets for calibration and verification of predictive geomorphic models. The purpose of this chapter is to introduce and discuss surficial geological tools that can be used to improve the understanding of fluvial geomorphology. We present general descriptions of geological tools, provide selected field-based examples and discuss the expectations and limitations of geological approaches. We do not attempt to discuss techniques in detail or to review the entire literature on techniques or applications. Instead, our emphasis is on the conceptual basis of how geological tools are used in geomorphological reasoning. The chapter begins with some general descriptions of stratigraphic, sedimentological and pedological tools, followed by examples of how these tools can be applied to geomorphological analysis of fluvial systems.

  18. Deck41 Surficial Seafloor Sediment Description Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deck41 is a digital summary of surficial sediment composition for 36,401 seafloor samples worldwide. Data include collecting source, ship, cruise, sample id,...

  19. Preliminary photointerpretation map of landslide and other surficial deposits of the Mount Hamilton quadrangle and parts of the Mount Boardman and San Jose quadrangles, Alameda and Santa Clara Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Tor H.

    1972-01-01

    The nine San Francisco Bay region counties lie within a geologically active, young, and dynamic part of the central and northern Coast Ranges of California. Significant movements of the earth's crust are occurring here at the present time, posing numerous problems to urbanization, including some of special concern. Geological processes such as fault movements, earthquakes, land subsidence, landsliding, slow downslope movement of bedrock and surficial materials, coastal and stream erosion, flooding, and sedimentation are all potentially hazardous. Because of these factors, an understanding of the operation of physical processes in the bay region is desirable for harmonious, efficient, and safe land-use planning, particularly now, with greatly expanded pressures for urban growth. 

  20. Hydrostratigraphic Framework and Selection and Correlation of Geophysical Log Markers in the Surficial Aquifer System, Palm Beach County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronald S.; Wacker, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    The surficial aquifer system is the major source of freshwater for public water supply in Palm Beach County, Florida, yet many previous studies of the hydrogeology of this aquifer system have focused only on the eastern one-half to one-third of the county in the more densely populated coastal area (Land and others, 1973; Swayze and others, 1980; Swayze and Miller, 1984; Shine and others, 1989). Population growth in the county has resulted in the westward expansion of urbanized areas into agricultural areas and has created new demands on the water resources of the county. Additionally, interest in surface-water resources of central and western areas of the county has increased. In these areas, plans for additional surface-water storage reservoirs are being made under the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan originally proposed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the South Florida Water Management District (1999), and stormwater treatment areas have been constructed by the South Florida Water Management District. Surface-water and ground-water interactions in the Everglades are thought to be important to water budgets, water quality, and ecology (Harvey and others, 2002). Most of the previous hydrogeologic and ground-water flow simulation studies of the surficial aquifer system have not utilized a hydrostratigraphic framework, in which stratigraphic or sequence stratigraphic units, such as those proposed in Cunningham and others (2001), are delineated in this stratigraphically complex aquifer system. A thick zone of secondary permeability mapped by Swayze and Miller (1984) was not subdivided and was identified as only being within the Anastasia Formation of Pleistocene age. Miller (1987) published 11 geologic sections of the surficial aquifer system, but did not delineate any named stratigraphic units in these sections. This limited interpretation has resulted, in part, from the complex facies changes within rocks and sediments of the surficial aquifer

  1. Geochemical investigation of Sasa tailings dam material and its influence on the Lake Kalimanci surficial sediments (Republic of Macedonia – preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vrhovnik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at investigating the mineralogical characteristics of the tailings material and heavy metal contents of the tailings material deposited close to the Sasa Pb-Zn Mine in the Osogovo Mountains (eastern Macedonia and on its possible impact on Lake Kalimanci. The mineral composition of Sasa Mine tailings materialis dominated by quartz, pyrite, galena, sphalerite, magnetite and others. Geochemical analysis was performed in a certified commercial laboratory for the following elements: Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, As, Cd, Sb, Bi, Ag, Al, Fe, Mn, S.Analysis revealed very high concentrations of toxic metals in the tailing material – with average values [ mg kg-1]:Mo 2.9, Cu 279, Pb 3975, Zn 5320, Ni 30, As 69, Cd 84, Sb 4.2, Bi 9.4 and Ag 4.1. The multi-element contamination of Sasa Mine tailings material was assigned a pollution index greater of 15, indicating that the tailings material from Sasa Mine contains very high amounts of toxic metals and represents a high environmental risk for surrounding ecosystems. For this reason the influence of discharged tailings dam material into Lake Kalimanci which liesapproximately 12 km lower than Sasa Mine, was also established. Calculated pollution index values for Lake Kalimancisediments vary from 21 to 65 and for Sasa mine surficial tailings dam material from 15 to 60.

  2. A comparative study of map use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Brodersen, Ann Christina; Bødker, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    We present a study comparing the handling of three kinds of maps, each on a physical device: a paper map, a tablet-PC based map, and a cellular phone based one. Six groups of users were asked to locate eight landmarks, looking out a window, and using a particular map. We have begun analyzing video...

  3. Comparison of Pb and Cd adsorption to the surface coatings and surficial sediments collected in Xianghai Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu; WANG Xiao-li; WANG Yue; DONG De-ming; ZHANG Hua-peng; LI Qing-shan; LI Xing-chun

    2005-01-01

    Surface coatings and surficial sediments ware obtained in four natural waters in Xianghai Wetland in China to study the role of surface coatings and surficial sediments in controlling the transporting and cycling of heavy metals in aquatic environments. Pb and Cd adsorption to the surface coatings and surficial sediments were measured under controlled laboratory conditions(mineral salts solution with defined speciation, ionic strength 0.05 mol/L, 25℃ and pH 6.0 for surface coatings; and 0.005 mol/L CaCl2 solution, 25℃ and pH 6.0 for surficial sediments). The Langmuir adsorption isotherm was applied to estimate equilibrium coefficients of Pb and Cd adsorption to the surface coatings and surficial sediments, and the component analyses of surface coatings and surficial sediments were also carried out.Correlation analyses between the maximum adsorption of Pb and Cd ( Гmax ) and the components in the surface coatings and surficial sediments suggested that there was a statistically significant trend for Pb and Cd adsorption(Гmax ) to the surface coatings to increase with increasing in contents of Fe and Mn oxides in the surface coatings and surficial sediments. And the metal adsorption abilities of surface coatings were much stronger than those of surficial sediments, highlighting that in the same water, i.e. at the same pH and initial metal concentrations, the metals (such as lead and cadmium) in supernatant were feasible to be adsorbed by surface coatings than surficial sediments. The more importance of surface coatings than surficial sediments for adsorbing and cycling of heavy metals in aquatic environments was evidenced.

  4. Determination of grain-size characteristics from electromagnetic seabed mapping data: A NW Iberian shelf study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baasch, Benjamin; Müller, Hendrik; von Dobeneck, Tilo; Oberle, Ferdinand K. J.

    2017-05-01

    The electric conductivity and magnetic susceptibility of sediments are fundamental parameters in environmental geophysics. Both can be derived from marine electromagnetic profiling, a novel, fast and non-invasive seafloor mapping technique. Here we present statistical evidence that electric conductivity and magnetic susceptibility can help to determine physical grain-size characteristics (size, sorting and mud content) of marine surficial sediments. Electromagnetic data acquired with the bottom-towed electromagnetic profiler MARUM NERIDIS III were analysed and compared with grain size data from 33 samples across the NW Iberian continental shelf. A negative correlation between mean grain size and conductivity (R=-0.79) as well as mean grain size and susceptibility (R=-0.78) was found. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were carried out to predict mean grain size, mud content and the standard deviation of the grain-size distribution from conductivity and susceptibility. The comparison of both methods showed that multiple linear regression models predict the grain-size distribution characteristics better than the simple models. This exemplary study demonstrates that electromagnetic benthic profiling is capable to estimate mean grain size, sorting and mud content of marine surficial sediments at a very high significance level. Transfer functions can be calibrated using grains-size data from a few reference samples and extrapolated along shelf-wide survey lines. This study suggests that electromagnetic benthic profiling should play a larger role for coastal zone management, seafloor contamination and sediment provenance studies in worldwide continental shelf systems.

  5. Assessing Sea Level Rise Impacts on the Surficial Aquifer in the Kennedy Space Center Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, H.; Wang, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Medeiros, S. C.; Warnock, A. M.; Hall, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    Global sea level rise in the past century due to climate change has been seen at an average rate of approximately 1.7-2.2 mm per year, with an increasing rate over the next century. The increasing SLR rate poses a severe threat to the low-lying land surface and the shallow groundwater system in the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, resulting in saltwater intrusion and groundwater induced flooding. A three-dimensional groundwater flow and salinity transport model is implemented to investigate and evaluate the extent of floods due to rising water table as well as saltwater intrusion. The SEAWAT model is chosen to solve the variable-density groundwater flow and salinity transport governing equations and simulate the regional-scale spatial and temporal evolution of groundwater level and chloride concentration. The horizontal resolution of the model is 50 m, and the vertical domain includes both the Surficial Aquifer and the Floridan Aquifer. The numerical model is calibrated based on the observed hydraulic head and chloride concentration. The potential impacts of sea level rise on saltwater intrusion and groundwater induced flooding are assessed under various sea level rise scenarios. Based on the simulation results, the potential landward movement of saltwater and freshwater fringe is projected. The existing water supply wells are examined overlaid with the projected salinity distribution map. The projected Surficial Aquifer water tables are overlaid with data of high resolution land surface elevation, land use and land cover, and infrastructure to assess the potential impacts of sea level rise. This study provides useful tools for decision making on ecosystem management, water supply planning, and facility management.

  6. Levelling and merging of two discrete national-scale geochemical databases: A case study showing the surficial expression of metalliferous black shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven M.; Neilson, Ryan T.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Government-sponsored, national-scale, soil and sediment geochemical databases are used to estimate regional and local background concentrations for environmental issues, identify possible anthropogenic contamination, estimate mineral endowment, explore for new mineral deposits, evaluate nutrient levels for agriculture, and establish concentration relationships with human or animal health. Because of these different uses, it is difficult for any single database to accommodate all the needs of each client. Smith et al. (2013, p. 168) reviewed six national-scale soil and sediment geochemical databases for the United States (U.S.) and, for each, evaluated “its appropriateness as a national-scale geochemical database and its usefulness for national-scale geochemical mapping.” Each of the evaluated databases has strengths and weaknesses that were listed in that review.Two of these U.S. national-scale geochemical databases are similar in their sample media and collection protocols but have different strengths—primarily sampling density and analytical consistency. This project was implemented to determine whether those databases could be merged to produce a combined dataset that could be used for mineral resource assessments. The utility of the merged database was tested to see whether mapped distributions could identify metalliferous black shales at a national scale.

  7. Processing RoxAnn sonar data to improve its categorization of lake bed surficial sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholwek, Gary; Bonde, John; Li, Xing; Richards, Carl; Yin, Karen

    2000-01-01

    To categorize spawning and nursery habitat for lake trout in Minnesota's near shore waters of Lake Superior, data was collected with a single beam echo sounder coupled with a RoxAnn bottom classification sensor. Test areas representative of different bottom surficial substrates were sampled. The collected data consisted of acoustic signals which showed both depth and substrate type. The location of the signals was tagged in real-time with a DGPS. All data was imported into a GIS database. To better interpret the output signal from the RoxAnn, several pattern classifiers were developed by multivariate statistical method. From the data a detailed and accurate map of lake bed bathymetry and surficial substrate types was produced. This map will be of great value to fishery and other natural resource managers.

  8. The surficial aquifer in Pinellas County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causseaux, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    The surficial aquifer in Pinellas County, Florida, contains potable water throughout most of the county and is a potential source of water to augment the public supply that is presently imported from adjacent counties. The county accounts for 38 percent of the public supply consumption of ground water in the 11-county area of west-central Florida and 68 percent of this water is imported from two adjacent counties. The surficial aquifer has a saturated thickness of more than 30 feet throughout most of the county. Specific capacity per foot of screen for wells is less than 0.1 gallon per minute per foot of drawdown in some parts of the county, but yield is sufficient in most of the county for many small uses with shallow-well pumps. Minimum potential yield varies from 5 gallons per minute in the northern part of the county to more than 30 gallons per minute in the south. Concentrations of iron are high enough in parts of the county to cause staining. Chloride concentrations are less than 100 milligrams per liter in most of the county and do not pose a problem for many uses. (USGS)

  9. Geology, Surficial, Geology of South-Central Kent County Area, Delaware: R.N. Benson and T.E. Pickett, Published in 1986, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Delaware Geological Survey.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Geology, Surficial dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 1986. It is described as...

  10. Geology, Surficial, Geology of the Smyrna-Clayton Area, Delaware: T.E. Pickett and R.N. Benson, Published in 1977, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Delaware Geological Survey.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Geology, Surficial dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 1977. It is described as...

  11. Geology, Surficial, Geology of the Dover Area, Delaware: T.E. Pickett and R.N. Benson, Published in 1983, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Delaware Geological Survey.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Geology, Surficial dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 1983. It is described as...

  12. Geology, Surficial, Ground-Water Recharge Potential, Sussex County, Delaware: Side 2, A. S. Andres, Published in 2003, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Delaware Geological Survey.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Geology, Surficial dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2003. It is described as...

  13. Geology, Surficial, Geology of the Middletown-Odessa Area, Delaware: T.E. Pickett and N. Spoljaric, Published in 1971, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Delaware Geological Survey.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Geology, Surficial dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 1971. It is described as...

  14. Effects of Surfactant Adsorption on Surficial Wettability of Nonwoven Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Bing; TANG Bing; LI Rui-xia; WU Da-cheng

    2002-01-01

    All types of surfactants (cationic, anionic and nonionic)reported in this paper could enhance the surficiai wettability of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nonwoven fabrics. However, the effects of cationic and nonionic surfactants were better.The longer the treatment time of surfactants on the nonwoven fabrics, the better the surficial wettability.The surficial rewetting time would no longer change above a certain treatment time. The rewettability of nonwoven fabrics could be evidently improved just when the concentration of surfactants was just above the CMC,except for sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). The finer the fibers and the looser the structures, the better the surficial rewettability of nonwoven fabrics.

  15. Sidescan-Sonar Imagery and Surficial Geologic Interpretations of the Sea Floor in Central Rhode Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Denny, J.F.; Haupt, T.A.; Crocker, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been working with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to interpret the surficial geology of areas along the northeastern coast of the United States. During 2004, the NOAA Ship RUDE conducted Hydrographic Survey H11321 in Rhode Island Sound. This sidescan-sonar and bathymetry survey covers an area of 93 km? located 12 km southeast of Brenton Point, RI in water depths of 28-39 m (fig. 1). The purpose of this report is to delineate sea floor features and sedimentary environments of this area in central Rhode Island Sound using sidescan-sonar and bathymetric data from NOAA Survey H11321 and seismic-reflection data from a previous USGS field study (Needell and others, 1983a). This is important for the study of benthic habitats and provides a framework for future research. Prior work in this area includes the mapping of surface sediments and surficial geology. McMaster (1960) collected sediment samples from Rhode Island Sound and Narragansett Bay and mapped our study area as having a sandy sea floor. In addition, one sample of sand from the National Ocean Service (NOS) Hydrographic Database came from a location in the northeast part of our study area in 1939 (fig. 2; Poppe and others, 2003). McMaster and others (1968) used seismic-reflection profiles to map the locations of a cuesta of Cretaceous sediments crossing Rhode Island Sound and post-Cretaceous drainage channels. Knebel and others (1982) identified sedimentary environments in Rhode Island Sound using sidescan sonographs. Needell and others (1983b) studied the Quaternary geology and mapped the structure, sedimentary environments, and geologic hazards in Rhode Island Sound using sidescan-sonar and seismic-reflection data. Sidescan-sonar and bathymetric data from NOAA Survey H11320, which overlaps the far eastern edge of our study area, was interpreted to consist of basins surrounded by a moraine and bathymetric highs composed of till with areas of rocks

  16. Investigation into the Origin and Character of Surficial Sedimentary Deposits at the Midshore Regional Solid Waste Facility near Easton, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, Joseph P.; Newell, Wayne L.; DeJong, Benjamin D.

    2009-01-01

    A temporary exposure at the Midshore Regional Solid Waste Facility near Easton, MD, provided an opportunity to document the characteristics of the complex assemblage of surficial facies in that area. This unusually large cross section allowed interpretation of the changing processes that shaped the landscape in response to climate change through the late Pleistocene. Eight stratigraphic units were recognized: (1) gray, fossiliferous, muddy silt of the marine Miocene Choptank Formation; (2) coarse, crossbedded conglomerate of the late Miocene to Pliocene fluvial Pensauken Formation; (3) bioturbated muddy conglomerate interpreted as deposits of small colluvial fans; (4) pebbly, quartzose sand overlying a planar erosional surface reflecting a marine transgression; (5) irregular pods and lenses of sand and gravel deformed into bowl-shaped folds and faulted, which are interpreted as wind deposits over a semipermanent snow cover (niveo-aeolian deposits); (6) crossbedded sand and conglomerate with abundant mud partings indicating tidal influences on sinuous stream channels; (7) heavily bioturbated silt and sand with abundant root casts and flattened vesicles interpreted as aeolian loess deposits in marshy fens; and (8) pebbly sand and mud with scattered boulders and cobbles that reflect modern infill of the excavation by the operators. Soils formed on units 3, 4, and 7. Superimposed on units 4, 5, and 7 is evidence of deep freezing and permafrost development and subsequent thermokarst development after thawing, which includes large, complexly filled wedge-shaped cracks, deformed bedding and faults, fluid-injection structures, and spherical blobs of sand and mud. Each of the stratigraphic units has irregular distributions and lateral changes. The results of this study provide a unique insight into the geometry of surficial deposits that will help facilitate mapping of units, interpretation of cored intervals, and understanding of ground-penetrating radar profiles. The

  17. Surficial geology of Iran (geo2cg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The geology data set for this map includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and type of bedrock of Iran. The geologic...

  18. Geologic Interpretation of Data Sets Collected by Planetary Analog Geology Traverses and by Standard Geologic Field Mapping. Part 1; A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Bleacher, Jacob F.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Feng, Wanda; Gruener, John; Hurwitz, Debra M.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Whitson, Peggy; Janoiko, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Geologic maps integrate the distributions, contacts, and compositions of rock and sediment bodies as a means to interpret local to regional formative histories. Applying terrestrial mapping techniques to other planets is challenging because data is collected primarily by orbiting instruments, with infrequent, spatiallylimited in situ human and robotic exploration. Although geologic maps developed using remote data sets and limited "Apollo-style" field access likely contain inaccuracies, the magnitude, type, and occurrence of these are only marginally understood. This project evaluates the interpretative and cartographic accuracy of both field- and remote-based mapping approaches by comparing two 1:24,000 scale geologic maps of the San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF), north-central Arizona. The first map is based on traditional field mapping techniques, while the second is based on remote data sets, augmented with limited field observations collected during NASA Desert Research & Technology Studies (RATS) 2010 exercises. The RATS mission used Apollo-style methods not only for pre-mission traverse planning but also to conduct geologic sampling as part of science operation tests. Cross-comparison demonstrates that the Apollo-style map identifies many of the same rock units and determines a similar broad history as the field-based map. However, field mapping techniques allow markedly improved discrimination of map units, particularly unconsolidated surficial deposits, and recognize a more complex eruptive history than was possible using Apollo-style data. Further, the distribution of unconsolidated surface units was more obvious in the remote sensing data to the field team after conducting the fieldwork. The study raises questions about the most effective approach to balancing mission costs with the rate of knowledge capture, suggesting that there is an inflection point in the "knowledge capture curve" beyond which additional resource investment yields progressively

  19. Preferred reporting items for studies mapping onto preference-based outcome measures: The MAPS statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Stavros; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Dakin, Helen; Longworth, Louise; Oppe, Mark; Froud, Robert; Gray, Alastair

    2015-08-01

    'Mapping' onto generic preference-based outcome measures is increasingly being used as a means of generating health utilities for use within health economic evaluations. Despite publication of technical guides for the conduct of mapping research, guidance for the reporting of mapping studies is currently lacking. The MAPS (MApping onto Preference-based measures reporting Standards) statement is a new checklist, which aims to promote complete and transparent reporting of mapping studies. The primary audiences for the MAPS statement are researchers reporting mapping studies, the funders of the research, and peer reviewers and editors involved in assessing mapping studies for publication.A de novo list of 29 candidate reporting items and accompanying explanations was created by a working group comprised of six health economists and one Delphi methodologist. Following a two-round, modified Delphi survey with representatives from academia, consultancy, health technology assessment agencies and the biomedical journal editorial community, a final set of 23 items deemed essential for transparent reporting, and accompanying explanations, was developed. The items are contained in a user friendly 23 item checklist. They are presented numerically and categorised within six sections, namely: (i) title and abstract; (ii) introduction; (iii) methods; (iv) results; (v) discussion; and (vi) other. The MAPS statement is best applied in conjunction with the accompanying MAPS explanation and elaboration document.It is anticipated that the MAPS statement will improve the clarity, transparency and completeness of reporting of mapping studies. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the MAPS statement is being co-published by eight health economics and quality of life journals, and broader endorsement is encouraged. The MAPS working group plans to assess the need for an update of the reporting checklist in five years' time.This statement was published jointly in Applied Health Economics

  20. Mapping Regional Drought Vulnerability: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouz, M.; Zeynolabedin, A.; Olyaei, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is among the natural disaster that causes damages and affects many people's life in many part of the world including in Iran. Recently, some factors such as climate variability and the impact of climate change have influenced drought frequency and intensity in many parts of the world. Drought can be divided into four categories of meteorological, hydrological, agricultural and social-economic. In meteorological the important feature is lack of rainfall. In hydrological drought river flows and dam storage are considered. Lack of soil moisture is the key factor in agricultural droughts while in social-economic type of drought the relation between supply and demand and social-economic damages due to water deficiency is studied. While the first three types relates to the lack of some hydrological characteristics, social-economic type of drought is actually the consequence of other types expressed in monetary values. Many indices are used in assessing drought; each has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used for specific types of drought. Therefore knowing the types of drought can provide a better understanding of shortages and their characteristics. Drought vulnerability is a concept which shows the likelihood of damages from hazard in a particular place by focusing on the system status prior to the disaster. Drought vulnerability has been viewed as a potential for losses in the region due to water deficiency at the time of drought. In this study the application of vulnerability concept in drought management in East Azarbaijan province in Iran is investigated by providing vulnerability maps which demonstrates spatial characteristics of drought vulnerability. In the first step, certain governing parameters in drought analysis such as precipitation, temperature, land use, topography, solar radiation and ground water elevation have been investigated in the region. They are described in details and calculated in suitable time series. Vulnerabilities

  1. MAPPING REGIONAL DROUGHT VULNERABILITY: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karamouz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought is among the natural disaster that causes damages and affects many people’s life in many part of the world including in Iran. Recently, some factors such as climate variability and the impact of climate change have influenced drought frequency and intensity in many parts of the world. Drought can be divided into four categories of meteorological, hydrological, agricultural and social-economic. In meteorological the important feature is lack of rainfall. In hydrological drought river flows and dam storage are considered. Lack of soil moisture is the key factor in agricultural droughts while in social-economic type of drought the relation between supply and demand and social-economic damages due to water deficiency is studied. While the first three types relates to the lack of some hydrological characteristics, social-economic type of drought is actually the consequence of other types expressed in monetary values. Many indices are used in assessing drought; each has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used for specific types of drought. Therefore knowing the types of drought can provide a better understanding of shortages and their characteristics. Drought vulnerability is a concept which shows the likelihood of damages from hazard in a particular place by focusing on the system status prior to the disaster. Drought vulnerability has been viewed as a potential for losses in the region due to water deficiency at the time of drought. In this study the application of vulnerability concept in drought management in East Azarbaijan province in Iran is investigated by providing vulnerability maps which demonstrates spatial characteristics of drought vulnerability. In the first step, certain governing parameters in drought analysis such as precipitation, temperature, land use, topography, solar radiation and ground water elevation have been investigated in the region. They are described in details and calculated in suitable time

  2. A Moderate D/H Ratio for a Surficial Water Reservoir on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Tomohiro; Alexander, C. M. O. D.; Wang, J.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Martian surface morphology implies that Mars was once warm enough to maintain persistent liquid water on its surface and that water played a significant role in the formation of weathered/altered terrains [e.g., 1, 2, 3]. Volatiles exhaled by volcanic activity would have been the dominant greenhouse gases and would have significantly affected the Martian climate. The enrichment of some volatile elements in the atmosphere, which would have dissolved in surface water, could also have influenced water chemistry (e.g., acidity) and played a significant role in weathering and aqueous alteration processes. While much of this picture is qualitative, Martian meteorites contain records of major Martian volatile reservoirs. This study characterizes Martian surficial volatile reservoirs based on in situ ion microprobe analyses of volatile abundances and H-isotopes of glassy phases (groundmass glass [GG] and impact melt [IM]) in Martian basalts (shergottites). Although these meteorites are of igneous origin, some glassy phases underwent impact-induced modification that trapped surficial and atmospheric volatile components [4, 5]; e.g., inert gases contained in IMs from EETA79001 (EETA79) match the relative abundances of modern Martian atmosphere [6]. Analyses of these glassy phases demonstrate that surficial volatile reservoirs have distinct D/H ratios from their magmatic volatiles.

  3. Smoky River coal flood risk mapping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    The Canada-Alberta Flood Damage Reduction Program (FDRP) is designed to reduce flood damage by identifying areas susceptible to flooding and by encouraging application of suitable land use planning, zoning, and flood preparedness and proofing. The purpose of this study is to define flood risk and floodway limits along the Smoky River near the former Smoky River Coal (SRC) plant. Alberta Energy has been responsible for the site since the mine and plant closed in 2000. The study describes flooding history, available data, features of the river and valley, calculation of flood levels, and floodway determination, and includes flood risk maps. The HEC-RAS program is used for the calculations. The flood risk area was calculated using the 1:100 year return period flood as the hydrological event. 7 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs., 3 apps.

  4. Strategy Maps in University Management: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuangmiao; Zhong, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the conceptual use of the strategy map approach and the strategy map which it produces have been adapted from the business sector and introduced as tools for achieving more effective strategic planning and management in higher education institutions (HEIs). This study discusses the development of strategy maps as transformational…

  5. Strategy Maps in University Management: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuangmiao; Zhong, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the conceptual use of the strategy map approach and the strategy map which it produces have been adapted from the business sector and introduced as tools for achieving more effective strategic planning and management in higher education institutions (HEIs). This study discusses the development of strategy maps as transformational…

  6. Ground-based Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Mapping Rock Alterations and Lithologies: Case Studies from Semail Ophiolite, Oman and Rush Springs Sandstone, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Khan, S.; Hauser, D. L.; Glennie, C. L.; Snyder, C.; Okyay, U.

    2014-12-01

    This study used ground-based hyperspectral remote sensing data to map rock alterations and lithologies at Semail Ophiolite, Oman, as well as hydrocarbon-induced rock alterations at Cement, Oklahoma. The Samail Ophiolite exposed the largest, least-deformed, and the most-studied ophiolite in the world. Hydrocarbon seepages at Cement, Oklahoma brought hydrocarbons to the Rush Springs sandstones at surface, and generated rock alterations including bleaching of red beds, and carbonate cementation. Surficial expressions of rock alterations and different lithofacies are distinct from adjacent rocks, and can be detected by remote sensing techniques. Hyperspectral remote sensing acquires light intensity for hundreds of bands in a continuous electromagnetic spectrum from visible light to short-wave infrared radiation, and holds potential to characterize rocks with great precision. Ground-based hyperspectral study could scan the objects at close ranges thus provide very fine spatial resolutions (millimeters to centimeters). This study mapped all the major iconic outcrops of Semail ophiolite including pillow lava, sheeted dykes, layered gabbros, and peridotites. This study also identified surficial rock alterations induced by hydrocarbons at Cement, Oklahoma. Reddish-brown Rush Spring sandstones are bleached to pink, yellow, and gray colors; pore spaces in the sandstones have been filled with carbonate cementation. Laboratory spectroscopy was used to assist with mineral identification and classification in hyperspectral data. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) was used to provide high-accuracy spatial references. Principal component analysis, minimum noise fraction, spectral angle mapper, and band ratios are used in image processing. Combining lithological, remote sensing and geochemical data, this study built a model for petroleum seepage and related rock alterations, and provided a workflow for employing ground-based hyperspectral remote sensing techniques in petrological

  7. Surficial sediment distribution and the associated net sediment transport pattern in the Pearl River Estuary, South China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Zheng, J.H.; Ji, X.M.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; van der Vegt, M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variations in grain-size parameters contain information on sediment transport patterns. Therefore, in this study, 106 surficial sediment samples taken from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), South China, were analyzed, to better understand the net sediment transport pattern in this region. The P

  8. A 'more-than-representational' mapping study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    2017-01-01

    Corner’s essay as its starting point. It couples his considerations with non-representational research to elaborate mapping as a ‘more-than-representational’ tool with which to think and work when we seek to understand and evoke design sites in conjunction with the lived world. This coupling is done......In urban design mapping is a generative tool that can evoke site conditions and animate design potentials. James Corner has stated that a “map is already a project in the making” (1999b, p.216), and thereby points to the evocative ‘agency’ of mapping in composing a design project. This paper takes...

  9. The macular mapping test: a reliability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Leon N

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD is the leading cause of visual disability in people over 60 years of age in the developed world. The success of treatment deteriorates with increased latency of diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the macular mapping test (MMT, and to investigate its potential as a screening tool. Methods The study population comprised of 31 healthy eyes of 31 participants. To assess reliability, four macular mapping test (MMT measurements were taken in two sessions separated by one hour by two practitioners, with reversal of order in the second session. MMT readings were also taken from 17 age-related maculopathy (ARM, and 12 AMD affected eyes. Results For the normal cohort, average MMT scores ranged from 85.5 to 100.0 MMT points. Scores ranged from 79.0 to 99.0 for the ARM group and from 9.0 to 92.0 for the AMD group. MMT scores were reliable to within ± 7.0 points. The difference between AMD affected eyes and controls (z = 3.761, p = Conclusion The reliability data shows that a change of 14 points or more is required to indicate a clinically significant change. This value is required for use of the MMT as an outcome measure in clinical trials. Although there was no difference between MMT scores from ARM affected eyes and controls, the MMT has the advantage over the Amsler grid in that it uses a letter target, has a peripheral fixation aid, and it provides a numerical score. This score could be beneficial in office and home monitoring of AMD progression, as well as an outcome measure in clinical research.

  10. Case studies: Soil mapping using multiple methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hauke; Wunderlich, Tina; Hagrey, Said A. Al; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Stümpel, Harald

    2010-05-01

    Soil is a non-renewable resource with fundamental functions like filtering (e.g. water), storing (e.g. carbon), transforming (e.g. nutrients) and buffering (e.g. contamination). Degradation of soils is meanwhile not only to scientists a well known fact, also decision makers in politics have accepted this as a serious problem for several environmental aspects. National and international authorities have already worked out preservation and restoration strategies for soil degradation, though it is still work of active research how to put these strategies into real practice. But common to all strategies the description of soil state and dynamics is required as a base step. This includes collecting information from soils with methods ranging from direct soil sampling to remote applications. In an intermediate scale mobile geophysical methods are applied with the advantage of fast working progress but disadvantage of site specific calibration and interpretation issues. In the framework of the iSOIL project we present here some case studies for soil mapping performed using multiple geophysical methods. We will present examples of combined field measurements with EMI-, GPR-, magnetic and gammaspectrometric techniques carried out with the mobile multi-sensor-system of Kiel University (GER). Depending on soil type and actual environmental conditions, different methods show a different quality of information. With application of diverse methods we want to figure out, which methods or combination of methods will give the most reliable information concerning soil state and properties. To investigate the influence of varying material we performed mapping campaigns on field sites with sandy, loamy and loessy soils. Classification of measured or derived attributes show not only the lateral variability but also gives hints to a variation in the vertical distribution of soil material. For all soils of course soil water content can be a critical factor concerning a succesful

  11. Self-Mapping in Treating Suicide Ideation: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lloyd Hawkeye

    2011-01-01

    This case study traces the development and use of a self-mapping exercise in the treatment of a youth who had been at risk for re-attempting suicide. A life skills exercise was modified to identify units of culture called "memes" from which a map of the youth's self was prepared. A successful treatment plan followed the mapping exercise. The…

  12. Self-Mapping in Treating Suicide Ideation: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lloyd Hawkeye

    2011-01-01

    This case study traces the development and use of a self-mapping exercise in the treatment of a youth who had been at risk for re-attempting suicide. A life skills exercise was modified to identify units of culture called "memes" from which a map of the youth's self was prepared. A successful treatment plan followed the mapping exercise. The…

  13. Learning from Concept Mapping and Hypertext: An Eye Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadieu, Franck; Salmerón, Ladislao; Cegarra, Julien; Paubel, Pierre-Vincent; Lemarié, Julie; Chevalier, Aline

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prior domain knowledge and learning sequences on learning with concept mapping and hypertext. Participants either made a concept map in a first step and then read the hypertext's contents combined with concept mapping (high activating condition), or they read the hypertext's contents first and then made a concept…

  14. Surficial Geology and Landscape Development in Northern Frenchman Flat, Interim Summary and Soil Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raytheon Services Nevada Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes geologic studies by Raytheon Services Nevada near the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site. These studies are part of a program to satisfy data needs of (1) the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) Program Performance Assessment (PA), (2) the low-level waste (LLW) PA, and (3) the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit application. The geologic studies were integrated into a single program that worked toward a landscape evolution model of northern Frenchman Flat, with more detailed geologic studies of particular topics as needed. Only the Holocene tectonism and surficial geology components of the landscape model are presented in this report.

  15. Potential effects of deepening the St. Johns River navigation channel on saltwater intrusion in the surficial aquifer system, Jacksonville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellino, Jason C.; Spechler, Rick M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has proposed dredging a 13-mile reach of the St. Johns River navigation channel in Jacksonville, Florida, deepening it to depths between 50 and 54 feet below North American Vertical Datum of 1988. The dredging operation will remove about 10 feet of sediments from the surficial aquifer system, including limestone in some locations. The limestone unit, which is in the lowermost part of the surficial aquifer system, supplies water to domestic wells in the Jacksonville area. Because of density-driven hydrodynamics of the St. Johns River, saline water from the Atlantic Ocean travels upstream as a saltwater “wedge” along the bottom of the channel, where the limestone is most likely to be exposed by the proposed dredging. A study was conducted to determine the potential effects of navigation channel deepening in the St. Johns River on salinity in the adjacent surficial aquifer system. Simulations were performed with each of four cross-sectional, variable-density groundwater-flow models, developed using SEAWAT, to simulate hypothetical changes in salinity in the surficial aquifer system as a result of dredging. The cross-sectional models were designed to incorporate a range of hydrogeologic conceptualizations to estimate the effect of uncertainty in hydrogeologic properties. The cross-sectional models developed in this study do not necessarily simulate actual projected conditions; instead, the models were used to examine the potential effects of deepening the navigation channel on saltwater intrusion in the surficial aquifer system under a range of plausible hypothetical conditions. Simulated results for modeled conditions indicate that dredging will have little to no effect on salinity variations in areas upstream of currently proposed dredging activities. Results also indicate little to no effect in any part of the surficial aquifer system along the cross section near River Mile 11 or in the water-table unit along the cross

  16. Semantic Mapping: A Study Skills Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewel, Rosel

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of semantic mapping, a strategy to enhance comprehension and memory based on schema theory, describes the origins of the technique, research in the past decade, and procedures used to teach it. (MSE)

  17. Surficial Sediment Data Collected During U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Cruise R/V RAFAEL 2012-002-FA in H12296 Study Area in Block Island Sound (2012-002_296SEDDATA.SHP, Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  18. Surficial Sediment Data Collected During U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Cruise R/V RAFAEL 2012-002-FA in H12023 Study Area in Block Island Sound (2012-002_023SEDDATA.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  19. Surficial Stability Analysis for Landslide Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Eun

    2017-04-01

    In Korea where rainfall of strong intensities is frequent, the depth of weathered residual soil is shallow in mountainous region. Therefore, full saturation of soil layer caused by the reaching of rainwater from the slope surface to impermeable bedrock is one of important causes of landslide. In this study, a shallow slope failure analysis method for slopes with shallow bedrock was developed to predict landslide based on one-dimensional Green-Ampt model. Constant intensities of rainfall were considered and shallow impermeable boundary condition was imposed on the Green-Ampt model to simulate the impermeable bedrock underlying the shallow weathered residual soil. The prediction results showed that the proposed method can be used to predict the landslide due to rainfall infiltration by efficiently considering the movement of the saturated region in the hillslope with shallow impermeable bedrock. Acknowledgements This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (2012M3A2A1050981).

  20. Mapping Climate Change: Six U.S. Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Marjorie O.

    2010-01-01

    This research focuses on the current role of mapping practices in communicating climate change in the United States. This includes maps used in monitoring climate change, projecting its potential impacts, and identifying potential adaptation strategies at particular scales. Since few, if any, studies have been done specifically on mapping…

  1. Mapping Urban Form: Morphology studies in the contemporary urban landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinzon Cortes, C.E.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation discusses the importance to study the form of the contemporary urban landscape. It shows how mapping is the tool by which the formal logic of the contemporary city can be uncovered. Through mapping, the urban landscape can be understood as systems of overlapping layers. This observ

  2. Data management for genomic mapping applications: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowitz, V.M.; Lewis, S.; McCarthy, J.; Olken, F.; Zorn, M.

    1992-05-01

    In this paper we describe a new approach to the construction of data management systems for genomic mapping applications in molecular biology, genetics, and plant breeding. We discuss the architecture of such systems and propose an incremental approach to the development of such systems. We illustrate the proposed approach and architecture with a case study of a prototype data management system for genomic maps.

  3. Hydrogeologic and Hydraulic Characterization of the Surficial Aquifer System, and Origin of High Salinity Groundwater, Palm Beach County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronald S.; Wacker, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of the hydrogeology of the surficial aquifer system in Palm Beach County, Florida, have focused mostly on the eastern one-half to one-third of the county in the more densely populated coastal areas. These studies have not placed the hydrogeology in a framework in which stratigraphic units in this complex aquifer system are defined and correlated between wells. Interest in the surficial aquifer system has increased because of population growth, westward expansion of urbanized areas, and increased utilization of surface-water resources in the central and western areas of the county. In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District, initiated an investigation to delineate the hydrogeologic framework of the surficial aquifer system in Palm Beach County, based on a lithostratigraphic framework, and to evaluate hydraulic properties and characteristics of units and permeable zones within this framework. A lithostratigraphic framework was delineated by correlating markers between all wells with data available based primarily on borehole natural gamma-ray geophysical log signatures and secondarily, lithologic characteristics. These correlation markers approximately correspond to important lithostratigraphic unit boundaries. Using the markers as guides to their boundaries, the surficial aquifer system was divided into three main permeable zones or subaquifers, which are designated, from shallowest to deepest, zones 1, 2, and 3. Zone 1 is above the Tamiami Formation in the Anastasia and Fort Thompson Formations. Zone 2 primarily is in the upper part or Pinecrest Sand Member of the Tamiami Formation, and zone 3 is in the Ochopee Limestone Member of the Tamiami Formation or its correlative equivalent. Differences in the lithologic character exist between these three zones, and these differences commonly include differences in the nature of the pore space. Zone 1 attains its greatest thickness (50 feet or more

  4. Aerial inventory of surficial geological effects induced by the recent Emilia earthquake (Italy: preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bertolini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the two main shocks that recently struck the central alluvial Po Plain (May 20, 2012, Ml 5.9, and May 29, 2012, Ml 5.8, a great number of surficial geologic disturbances appeared over a wide area (ca. 500 km2, which extended up to 20 km from the epicenters. The affected area includes Mirabello, San Carlo, Sant'Agostino (Province of Ferrara, San Felice, Cavezzo, Concordia (Modena, Moglia and Quistello (Mantova. Most of the surficial effects that were observed during this study were clearly induced (directly or indirectly by sand liquefaction phenomena, such as sand volcanoes, burst of water and sand from domestic wells, tension cracks, lateral spreading and associated deformation, graben-like fracturing, and sink-holes. Other effects can probably be ascribed simply to the shaking of the ground (e.g., small collapses of irrigation canal walls. Lastly, there were also some features of dubious origin, such as two 'yellow crop spots' that are cited here with reservations. All of these data were surveyed by means of a small airplane that was especially adapted for this purpose. The aim of this study was to furnish a wide-ranging image of the surface deformation over the whole area impacted by these recent earthquakes, as an instrument towards more exhaustive research, both at the scientific and technical levels (e.g., seismic microzonation. […

  5. Depth shapes α- and β-diversities of microbial eukaryotes in surficial sediments of coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jun; Shi, Fei; Ma, Bin; Dong, Jun; Pachiadaki, Maria; Zhang, Xiaoli; Edgcomb, Virginia P

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the relative influence of historic processes and environmental gradients on shaping the diversity of single-celled eukaryotes in marine benthos. By combining pyrosequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA genes with data on multiple environmental factors, we investigated the diversity of microeukaryotes in surficial sediments of three basins of the Yellow Sea Large Marine Ecosystem. A considerable proportion (about 20%) of reads was affiliated with known parasitoid protists. Dinophyta and Ciliophora appeared dominant in terms of relative proportion of reads and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness. Overall, OTU richness of benthic microeukaryotes decreased with increasing water depth and decreasing pH. While community composition was significantly different among basins, partial Mantel tests indicated a depth-decay pattern of community similarity, whereby water depth, rather than geographic distance or environment, shaped β-diversity of benthic microeukaryotes (including both the abundant and the rare biosphere) on a regional scale. Similar hydrographic and mineralogical factors contributed to the biogeography of both the abundant and the rare OTUs. The trace metal vanadium had a significant effect on the biogeography of the rare biosphere. Our study sheds new light on the composition, diversity patterns and underlying mechanisms of single-celled eukaryote distribution in surficial sediments of coastal oceans.

  6. Distribution of surficial sediments in the Southern Evoikos and Petalioi Gulfs, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. KARAGEORGIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of 123 surficial sediment samples from the Southern Evoikos and Petalioi Gulfs was studied for grain-size properties, carbonate content and mineralogical composition. Distribution of the sediments revealed two sedimentary provinces. The first concerns the Southern Evoikos Gulf, characterised by silty sediments with relatively low carbonate content. Quartz, feldspars, micas, clay and carbonate minerals are the major mineralogical components of the sediments. These sediments are the result of the Asopos River supply during Holocene and they contribute to the formation of smooth bottom morphology. The second province concerns the Petalioi Gulf (Northern and Southern, where the surficial sediments are mainly sandy and characterised by very high carbonate content. Their mineralogical composition reflects the lithology of the drainage basin. Since the modern terrigenous solid supply is limited, these sediments are not considered as products of recent sedimentation, but older deposits (relict sands. Their presence at such depths is justified by sea-level fluctuations and their preservation is due to the low sedimentation rate in the Petalioi Gulf, in combination with the strong hydrodynamic status of the area.

  7. Climatic change and permafrost. Record from surficial deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, L. David

    1990-01-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics of surficial deposits and the floral and faunal remains they contain provide information that is useful for interpreting both paleoclimatic and past permafrost conditions. Surficial deposits thus provide a record of climatic change and permafrost history. This record suggests that initiation of permafrost in lowland areas of the Southern Arctic Archipelago and continents of the northern hemisphere may have occurred about 2,400,000 years ago during the pronounced cooling that led to the first major glaciation of late Cenozoic time. Since then, climate has been relatively cold but cyclically variable, characterized by the growth and shrinkage of large, continental ice sheets. Permafrost has expanded and contracted in response to these climatic changes, and we can expect the present permafrost conditions to change in response to future climatic changes. To predict the response of permafrost and the landscape to future climatic change we should: (1) Define relations between climate and the modern landscape; (2) establish long-term records of past climatic change and landscape response; and (3) determine the paleoenvironments of past warm periods as possible analogs for future global warming.

  8. USGS Geologic Map of Pipe Spring National Monument and the Western Kaibab-Paiute Indian Reservation, Mohave County, Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The digital map publication, compiled from previously published and unpublished data and new mapping by the author, represents the general distribution of surficial...

  9. USGS Geologic Map of Pipe Spring National Monument and the Western Kaibab-Paiute Indian Reservation, Mohave County, Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The digital map publication, compiled from previously published and unpublished data and new mapping by the author, represents the general distribution of surficial...

  10. Emergency Management Operations Process Mapping: Public Safety Technical Program Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    DRDC CSS CR 2011-09 i Emergency Management Operations Process Mapping : Public Security Technical Program Study Anet Greenley ...processus/outils). DRDC CSS CR 2011-09 iii Executive summary Emergency Management Operations Process Mapping PSTP Study [ Greenley , A...technique de sécurité publique – Etude DSTP [ Greenley , A.; Poursina, S.]; DRDC CSS CR 2011-09 L’objectif principal du Programme technique de sécurité

  11. Hydrogeology of a zone of secondary permeability in the surficial aquifer of eastern Palm Beach County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayze, L.J.; Miller, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    The surficial aquifer is the primary source of freshwater for the heavily developed coastal area in eastern Palm Beach County, Florida. Well fields are generally located in a discontinuous zone of higher secondary permeability, the northernmost extension of the Biscayne aquifer in the surficial aquifer, that extends from the Juno Beach area south to Broward County and varies in width from about 4 to 15 miles. The zone was formed by varying dissolution of aquifer limestone materials during Pleistocene age changes in sea level, and ranges in depth from about sea level to 220 feet below sea level. Because of proximity to the Atlantic Ocean and saltwater estuaries, the aquifer is susceptible to saltwater intrusion. Ground water to the west of the zone of higher secondary permeability is of poor quality. The ground water is calcium bicarbonate dominant. Dissolved solids, calcium carbonate hardness, and chloride are greatest along the saltwater intruded coastline and in the western part of the study area where diluted residual seawater exists. Total organic carbon increases inland due to infiltration of rainwater through thicker layers of organic soils. Ground-water levels in the surficial aquifer in eastern Palm Beach County are strongly influenced by controlled levels in canals. In March 1981, after 12 months of below average rainfall, ground-water levels ranged from about 2 feet above sea level along the coast to nearly 21 feet above sea level 15 miles inland in the northwest section of the study area. (USGS)

  12. Mineralogical correlation of surficial sediment from area drainages with selected sedimentary interbeds at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomay, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    Ongoing research by the US Geological Survey at the INEL involves investigation of the migration of radioactive elements contained in low-level radioactive waste, hydrologic and geologic factors affecting waste movement, and geochemical factors that influence the chemical composition of the waste. Identification of the mineralogy of the Snake River Plain is needed to aid in the study of the hydrology and geochemistry of subsurface waste disposal. The US Geological Surveys project office at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, used mineralogical data to correlate surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Greek drainages with selected sedimentary interbed core samples taken from test holes at the RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex), TRA (Test Reactors Area), ICPP (Idaho Chemical Processing Plant), and TAN (Test Area North). Correlating the mineralogy of a particular present-day drainage area with a particular sedimentary interbed provides information on historical source of sediment for interbeds in and near the INEL. Mineralogical data indicate that surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River drainage contained a larger amount of feldspar and pyroxene and a smaller amount of calcite and dolomite than samples from the Little Lost River and Birch Creek drainages. Mineralogical data from sedimentary interbeds at the RWMC, TRA, and ICPP correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day big Lost River drainage. Mineralogical data from a sedimentary interbed at TAN correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day Birch Creek drainage. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Geologic Map of Oasis Valley Spring-Discharge Area and Vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridrich, Christopher J.; Minor, Scott A.; Slate, Janet L.; Ryder, Phil L.

    2007-01-01

    This map report presents the geologic framework of an area in southern Nye County, Nevada, that extends from the southern limit of the Oasis Valley spring-discharge site, northeastward to the southwest margin of the Pahute Mesa testing area, on the Nevada Test Site. This map adds new surficial mapping and revises bedrock mapping previously published as USGS Open-File Report 99-533-B. The locations of major concealed structures were based on a combination of gravity and magnetic data. This report includes a geologic discussion explaining many of the interpretations that are presented graphically on the map and sections. Additional discussion of the geologic framework of the Oasis Valley area can be found in an interpretive geophysical report and in a geologic report (USGS Open-File Report 99-533-A that was a companion product to the previously published version of this map. The map presented here covers nine 7.5-minute quadrangles centered on the Thirsty Canyon SW quadrangle. It is a compilation of one previously published quadrangle map and eight new quadrangle maps, two of which were published separately during the course of the study. The new bedrock mapping was completed by S.A. Minor from 1991 to 1995, by C.J. Fridrich from 1992 to 1998, and by P.L. Ryder from 1997 to 1998. New surficial-deposits mapping was completed by J.L. Slate and M.E. Berry in 1998 and 1999. The new bedrock and surficial mapping is partly a revision of several unpublished reconnaissance maps completed by Orkild and Swadley in the 1960's, and of previously published maps by Maldonado and Hausback (1990), Lipman and others (1966); and Sargent and Orkild (1976). Additionally, mapping of the pre-Tertiary rocks of northern Bare Mountain was compiled from Monsen and others (1992) with only minor modification. The cross sections were drawn to a depth of about 5 km below land surface at the request of hydrologists studying the Death Valley ground-water system. Below a depth of about 1 kilometer

  14. Presurgical mapping with functional MRI. Comparative study with transcranial magnetic stimulation and intraoperative mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminogo, Makio; Morikawa, Minoru; Ishimaru, Hideki; Ochi, Makoto; Onizuka, Masanori; Shirakawa, Yasushi; Takahashi, Haruki; Shibata, Shobu [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-05-01

    The thumb movement was evoked by transcranical magnetic stimulation (TCS) for the mapping of the motor cortex. After the placement of the marker determined by TCS on the scalp, fMRI under motor tasks consisting of repetitive grasping was performed. For motor cortex activation, an axial oblique plane to maximize gray matter sampling in the rolandic cortex was employed in order to compare these different mapping techniques more precisely. Sixteen patients with brain tumors were included in this study. In nine patients, fMRI disclosed activation in one restricted gyrus or in the localized area around one restricted sulcus. Of these nine patients, preoperative TCS mapping corresponded closely with fMRI in six, while in the remaining three, the TCS marker fell between 1 and 2 cm apart from the fMRI-activated area. However, in these three patients, intraoperative electrocortical stimulation corresponded with the preoperative mapping with fMRI. In six patients, contiguous two gyri were activated by motor tasks. The TCS marker was disclosed on one of the two activated gyri. Of these six patients, the position of the TCS marker and fMRI-activated site corresponded with each other in four cases. They were found on the same gyrus but there was 1.0-2.0 cm distance between them in two cases. Intraoperative somatosensory evoked potential was monitored in two of these six cases. They corresponded well with the mapping by fMRI and TCS together. In only one patient, no significant activation area was obtained by fMRI because of excessive head motion during motor tasks. The TCS maker in this patients was identical with intraoperative electro-cortical stimulation mapping. (K.H.)

  15. Bathymetry of the Levant basin: interaction of salt-tectonics and surficial mass movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvirtzman, Zohar; Reshef, Moshe; Buch-Leviatan, Orna; Groves-Gidney, Gavrielle; Karcz, Zvi; Makovsky, Yizhaq; Ben-Avraham, Zvi

    2015-04-01

    A new high resolution bathymetric map of the Levant Basin between Israel and the Eratosthenes Seamount reveals previously undetected folds, faults and channels. The map facilitates a regional map-view analysis of structures that were previously examined only in cross section. The systematic mapping of morpho-structural elements in the entire basin is followed by a kinematic interpretation that distinguished between two main processes sculpting the seabed from bottom and top: salt tectonics and sediment transport. We show that the contractional domain related to salt tectonics is far more complex than previously thought. Ridges, previously interpreted as contractional folds are, in fact, surficial undulations of the seabed reminiscent of sediment waves. Moreover, other folds previously interpreted as downdip contraction of the westward gliding Plio-Quaternary section are, in some parts of the basin, caused by updip climbing of this section eastwards as a result of the regional pattern of salt flow away from the Nile Cone. In the context of sediment transport, we show that the northern Sinai continental slope is covered by a dense net of turbidite channels, whereas the Levant slope has no channels at all. Particularly interesting is the Levant Turbidite Channel, described and named here for the first time. This feature begins at the southeastern corner of the Mediterranean at water depths of ~1100 m, continues along the valley between the Sinai and Levant slopes, and reaches the deepest part of the basin, in water depths of ~2500 m, northeast of the Eratosthenes seamount. However, this prominent feature cannot be explained by the current drainage, consisting of two minor rivers that enter the basin at that point, and thus most likely reflects periods of wetter climate and/or lower sea-level, when these rivers were more active and possibly connected to the submarine channel system.

  16. Mapping the Interdisciplinarity in Scientometric Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Khosrowjerdi

    2013-03-01

    The data was extracted from Web of Science (WoS. The results showed that scientometric studies were a part of interdisciplinary studies. Furthermore, the library and information science and computer science had major contribution to this field.

  17. Suggestions for teacher education from concept mapping studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Reiska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance primary and secondary education, teaching and learning methods need to be continuously developed as well as, of course, promote teaching quality dependent on teacher personality, teacher professional development, teacher self-development, etc. Teacher professional development gives the novice teacher access to a wide set of teaching methods and assessment opportunities, especially geared to flexible learning and assessment methods, which can be considered for adoption. One such flexible method is the use of concept mapping. This article describes the results of several studies, where concept mapping method was used, giving many didactical suggestions for using concept mapping for learning and especially for assessment. Additionally, considerations are introduced on using concept maps as a research instrument.

  18. Geologic map of the Cochiti Dam quadrangle, Sandoval County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethier, David P.; Thompson, Ren A.; Hudson, Mark R.; Minor, Scott A.; Sawyer, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The Cochiti Dam quadrangle is located in the southern part of the Española Basin and contains sedimentary and volcanic deposits that record alluvial, colluvial, eolian, tectonic and volcanic processes over the past seventeen million years. The geology was mapped from 1997 to 1999 and modified in 2004 to 2008. The primary mapping responsibilities were as follows: Dethier mapped the surficial deposits, basin-fill sedimentary deposits, Miocene to Quaternary volcanic deposits of the Jemez volcanic field, and a preliminary version of fault distribution. Thompson and Hudson mapped the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic deposits of the Cerros del Rio volcanic field. Thompson, Minor, and Hudson mapped surface exposures of faults and Hudson conducted paleomagnetic studies for stratigraphic correlations. Thompson prepared the digital compilation of the geologic map.

  19. Multiscale site-response mapping: A case study of Parkfield, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, E.M.; Baise, L.G.; Kayen, R.E.; Morgan, E.C.; Kaklamanos, J.

    2011-01-01

    The scale of previously proposed methods for mapping site-response ranges from global coverage down to individual urban regions. Typically, spatial coverage and accuracy are inversely related.We use the densely spaced strong-motion stations in Parkfield, California, to estimate the accuracy of different site-response mapping methods and demonstrate a method for integrating multiple site-response estimates from the site to the global scale. This method is simply a weighted mean of a suite of different estimates, where the weights are the inverse of the variance of the individual estimates. Thus, the dominant site-response model varies in space as a function of the accuracy of the different models. For mapping applications, site-response models should be judged in terms of both spatial coverage and the degree of correlation with observed amplifications. Performance varies with period, but in general the Parkfield data show that: (1) where a velocity profile is available, the square-rootof- impedance (SRI) method outperforms the measured VS30 (30 m divided by the S-wave travel time to 30 m depth) and (2) where velocity profiles are unavailable, the topographic slope method outperforms surficial geology for short periods, but geology outperforms slope at longer periods. We develop new equations to estimate site response from topographic slope, derived from the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) database.

  20. Gamification in Education: A Systematic Mapping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicheva, Darina; Dichev, Christo; Agre, Gennady; Angelova, Galia

    2015-01-01

    While gamification is gaining ground in business, marketing, corporate management, and wellness initiatives, its application in education is still an emerging trend. This article presents a study of the published empirical research on the application of gamification to education. The study is limited to papers that discuss explicitly the effects…

  1. Gamification in Education: A Systematic Mapping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicheva, Darina; Dichev, Christo; Agre, Gennady; Angelova, Galia

    2015-01-01

    While gamification is gaining ground in business, marketing, corporate management, and wellness initiatives, its application in education is still an emerging trend. This article presents a study of the published empirical research on the application of gamification to education. The study is limited to papers that discuss explicitly the effects…

  2. Mapping 'Chinese media studies': A diagnostic survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Jeesoon

    2011-01-01

    This article views Chinese media as a complex web of diverse academic disciplines and political perspectives, and provides a diagnostic survey of the various disciplines that deal with Chinese media. By clarifying and comparing the methodological characteristics of these academic disciplines, it attempts to prepare for interdisciplinary dialogue. It will pose questions such as what kinds of disciplines have become involved in the studies of Chinese media; what are the main focuses and the met...

  3. Surficial sediment character of the New York-New Jersey offshore continental shelf region: a GIS compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Arsenault, Matthew A.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Reid, Jane A.; Reid, Jamey M.; Jenkins, Chris J.

    2007-01-01

    ,500 stations within the U.S. EEZ. has been developed and populated with data as part of the USGS Marine Aggregate Resources and Processes and the National Benthic Habitats projects in order to provide the base-line data needed to update the current maps of offshore surficial geologic character and sediment distribution. The maps are also used to characterize benthic sea floor environments important for marine ecosystems. U.S. Geological Survey, Data Series 118 (Reid and others, 2005), of the usSEABED data release series, represents the combined efforts of the USGS and several other government agencies to provide a unified resource for accessing and preserving records of U.S. east coast sea floor geologic information and sediment texture data. For this present report, we have chosen to focus on the New York-New Jersey region, an area that has been intensely studied by the USGS for many years to address many complex issues. This report illustrates the uses of the usSEABED database for GIS applications, while offering additional insight into the resources and data available from the USGS and its collaborative institutions. This report is based on data contained in U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 118 (Reid and others, 2005) and shows an assortment of example GIS products that are possible using usSEABED. All data are intended to be GIS-ready and should not require any additional cleanup, formatting, or renaming of fields in order to use the data in a Geographic Information System. This project employs the Environmental Systems Research Institute's (ESRI) ArcView™ software. Many of these maps were made as part of the ongoing USGS study to assess marine aggregate resources offshore New York and New Jersey, but these maps can serve many other purposes. The marine science community, educators, students and others are encouraged to use these data to generate GIS products for their own purposes. The objectives of the Marine Aggregate Resources and Processes project are to produce a

  4. Distribution and composition characteristics of heavy minerals in surficial sediment of Minjiang Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Maoquan; XU Wenbin; SUN Meiqin

    2005-01-01

    Heavy minerals with a size range of 0.125~0.250 mm in the surficial sediment of Minjiang Estuary are studied. Thirty-four heavy minerals have been identified, with an average content of 1.92%. Major minerals include magnetite, epidote, hematite, hornblende, ilmenite, and zircon mica. These types are the same as those in the 0.063~0.125 mm range; however, the average content is lower, which reveals that the heavy minerals in Minjiang Estuary are mainly enriched in the very-fine sand fraction. According to the content and distribution characteristics of the major heavy minerals, Minjiang Estuary can be divided into 4 mineral assemblage zones. In each zone the assemblage of heavy minerals is greatly affected by the hydrodynamic condition and the sedimentary environment. Heavy mineral types also show that detrital matters in Minjiang Estuary are originated from the weathering and erosion of the bedrock in the Minjiang River drainage area.

  5. Geogenic distribution and baseline concentrations of Cu and Zn in surficial soil of Guiyang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji; WANG Shijie; OUYANG Ziyuan; LI Ruiling

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the environmentally geochemical characteristics of heavy metal pollu tants such as Cu and Zn in the surficial soil of Guiyang, the capital city of Guizhou Province. The baseline concentrations of heavy metals in soil and the geochemical norms have been established to distinguish natural or artificial influence on the environment. Using the statistically analytical methods, we have established the baseline of Cu in Guiyang ( 18.8 mg/kg) and the soil ( over 68.4 mg/kg) may suffer Cu contamination. The data of Zn are 46.3 mg/kg and 112.0 mg/kg. Geoaccumulation index analysis indicated that the surficial soil that has suffered non-pollution to mid-pollution of Cu accounts for 38%, 38%, and 22% for mid-pollution, and only 2% between mid-pollution to severe pollution. Surficial soil that has suffered non-pollution to mid-pollution of Zn accounts for 41%, 50%, and 7% for mid-pollution, and only 2% between mid-pollution to severe pollution. The maximal degree of Cu contamination is 5.09 in the surficial soil of Guiyang. Surficial soil that has not suffered Cu pollution accounts for 53.2%. The total pollution degree of Cu is slightly over zero. So the surficial soil of Guiyang has suffered slight Cu pollution. The maximum value of Zn contamination degree is 2.85 in the surficial soil of Guiyang. 77.8% of the surficial soil has not yet suffered any Zn pollution. The total pollution degree of Zn is less than zero.So the surficial soil in Guiyang is free from pollution of Zn.

  6. Mitigation of the surficial hydrogeological impact induced by the construction of the Pajares Tunnels (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Pablo; Sáenz de Santa María, José Antonio; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María; López Fernández, Carlos; Meléndez-Asensio, Mónica; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat

    2016-04-01

    Pajares Tunnels are railway tunnels 24.5 km long and 700 m depth drilled in Paleozoic rocks of the Cantabrian Range (NW Spain). The construction of these tunnels is the cause of a very important surficial hydrogeological impact on the Alcedo Valley consisting on: i) the strong alteration of its natural hydrogeological regime; ii) the development of 25 sinkholes from 2007 to 2014 in calcareous rocks covered by alluvial deposits; iii) the transformation of the Alcedo stream into an influent, losing all the surficial water flow by infiltration trough 7 active ponors developed at the stream bed. The estimated mean water volume infiltration across these sinkholes was around 0.4 Hm3/year (10 ls-1). Previous studies proved the infiltration of this runoff towards the new base level established by the tunnels, which would affect the operation and safety conditions required in a high-speed railway line. In order to minimize this situation, several geotechnical works have been performed from July 2014 to November 2015. These works consist on: (i) geological research, (ii) borehole drilling, (iii) geophysical prospecting, (iv) sealing of sinkholes and ponors, (v) construction of a concrete channel covered with geotextile and completely buried with original removed alluvial materials, and (vi) environmental restoration. After the completion of these actions, the first observations have allowed to note a total elimination of the infiltration from the Alcedo Valley to the tunnels. This involves an 8% reduction of total drainage in Pajares Tunnels (from average 350 l s-1 to 325 l s-1).

  7. Effect of water-table fluctuations on the degradation of Sphagnum phenols in surficial peats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Geoffrey D.; Swain, Eleanor Y.; Muhammad, Aminu B.; Allton, Kathryn; Belyea, Lisa R.; Laing, Christopher G.; Cowie, Greg L.

    2013-04-01

    A much improved understanding of how water-table fluctuations near the surface affect decomposition and preservation of peat-forming plant litter and surficial peats is needed in order to predict possible feedbacks between the peatland carbon cycle and the global climate system. In this study peatland plants (bryophytes and vascular plants), their litter and peat cores were collected from the Ryggmossen peatland in the boreonemoral zone of central Sweden. The extracted insoluble residues from whole plant tissues were depolymerized using thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM) in the presence of both unlabelled and 13C-labelled tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) which yielded both vascular plant- and Sphagnum-derived phenols. Methylated 4-isopropenylphenol (IUPAC: 1-methoxy-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)benzene), methylated cis- and trans-3-(4'-hydroxyphen-1-yl)but-2-enoic acid (IUPAC: (E/Z)-methyl 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)but-2-enoate), and methylated 3-(4'-hydroxyphen-1-yl)but-3-enoic acid (IUPAC: methyl 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)but-3-enoate) (van der Heijden et al., 1997) are confirmed as TMAH thermochemolysis products of "bound" sphagnum acid and also as being specific to Sphagnum mosses. These putative biomarkers were also significant components in the unlabelled TMAH thermochemolysis products from the depolymerization of ultrasonically extracted samples from eight peat cores, one from a hummock and one from a hollow at each of the four stages along the bog plateau-to-swamp forest gradient. We have proposed and measured two parameters namely (i) σ which is defined as the total amount of these four molecules normalised to 100 mg of OC; and (ii) an index (SR%) which is the ratio of σ to the Λ parameter giving a measure of the relative amounts of "bound" sphagnum acid to the "bound" vascular plant phenols in peat moss and the surficial peat layers. Changes in σ and SR% down the bog plateau (BP), bog margin (BM) and fen lagg (FL) cores in the Ryggmossen mire indicates

  8. Mapping of SOA and RUP: DOA as Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, Shahid; Ahmad, Bashir; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2010-01-01

    SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) is a new trend towards increasing the profit margins in an organization due to incorporating business services to business practices. Rational Unified Process (RUP) is a unified method planning form for large business applications that provides a language for describing method content and processes. The well defined mapping of SOA and RUP leads to successful completion of RUP software projects to provide services to their users. DOA (Digital Office Assistant) is a multi user SOA type application that provides appropriate viewer for each user to assist him through services. In this paper authors proposed the mapping strategy of SOA with RUP by considering DOA as case study.

  9. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Quasar Reverberation Mapping Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Catherine; SDSS-RM Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project (SDSS-RM) has completed its first three years of spectroscopic observations of a sample of ~850 quasars with the SDSS-III BOSS spectrograph. From January-July in 2014, 2015, and 2016, more than 55 epochs of spectroscopy were obtained for this quasar sample, and continued monitoring has been approved for 2017. Supporting photometric observations were also carried out at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and the Steward Observatory Bok telescope. In addition, the SDSS-RM field overlaps with the Pan-STARRS 1 Medium Deep Field MD07, so we have photometric data for three years prior to the SDSS-RM observations, which considerably extends the time delay sensitivity of the campaign. Preliminary reverberation mapping results were presented by Shen et al. (2015) and the program has also yielded ancillary science results in regimes such as broad absorption line variability, quasar ensemble variability characteristics, quasar emission line studies, SDSS quasar redshift measurements, and host galaxy properties. I will discuss the current status of the SDSS-RM program, including recent reverberation mapping results from the wider 850-quasar sample using the full set of first-year photometric and spectroscopic data.

  10. Regional surficial geochemistry of the northern Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, S.; Folger, H.; Kotlyar, B.; Mossotti, V.G.; Coombs, M.J.; Hildenbrand, T.G.

    2006-01-01

    The regional distribution of arsenic and 20 other elements in stream-sediment samples in northern Nevada and southeastern Oregon was studied in order to gain new insights about the geologic framework and patterns of hydrothermal mineralization in the area. Data were used from 10,261 samples that were originally collected during the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program in the 1970s. The data are available as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-0227. The data were analyzed using traditional dot maps and interpolation between data points to construct high-resolution raster images, which were correlated with geographic and geologic information using a geographic information system (GIS). Wavelength filters were also used to deconvolute the geochemical images into various textural components, in order to study features with dimensions of a few kilometers to dimensions of hundreds of kilometers. The distribution of arsenic, antimony, gold, and silver is different from distributions of the other elements in that they show a distinctive high background in the southeast part of the area, generally in areas underlain by the pre-Mesozoic craton. Arsenic is an extremely mobile element and can be used to delineate structures that served as conduits for the circulation of metal-bearing fluids. It was used to delineate large crustal structures and is particularly good for delineation of the Battle Mountain-Eureka mineral trend and the Steens lineament, which corresponds to a post-Miocene fault zone. Arsenic distribution patterns also delineated the Black Rock structural boundary, northwest of which the basement apparently consists entirely of Miocene and younger crust. Arsenic is also useful to locate district-sized hydrothermal systems an d clusters of systems. Most important types of hydrothermal mineral deposit in the northern Great Basin appear to be strongly associated with arsenic; this is less

  11. Surficial Sediment Facies features near Shorty's Island on the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The surficial bed-sediment facies, herein after referred to as the sediment facies, quantitatively describes the dominant sediment substrate on the surface of the...

  12. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Surficial Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the area of surficial geology types in square meters compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source...

  13. Surficial geology of the Cabot 7 1/2 minute quadrangle, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG2016-3 Springston, G., 2016, Surficial geology of the Cabot 7 1/2 minute quadrangle, Vermont: Vermont Geological Survey Open File Report...

  14. A Surficial Hydrogeologic Framework for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The hydrogeologic framework was developed from a combination of the physiography and the predominant texture of surficial geologic units in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal...

  15. Surficial Sediment Distributions off Eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts (CC_SEDDIST.SHP, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set shows the distribution of surficial sediments offshore of northern and eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. This interpretation is based on data collected...

  16. Overlying surficial deposits and absent areas for the Madison Limestone, Black Hills area, South Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set describes areas where the Madison Limestone is directly overlain by surficial deposits, as well as those areas where the Madison Limestone is absent...

  17. Overlying surficial deposits and absent areas for Minnekahta Limestone in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set describes areas where the Minnekahta Limestone is directly overlain by surficial deposits, as well as those areas where the Minnekahta Limestone is...

  18. Dissolved and Bubble Gas Concentrations in Sandy Surficial Sediments of the West Florida Sand Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    Dissolved and Bubble Gas Concentrations in Sandy Surficial Sediments of the West Florida Sand Sheet Christopher Martens Dept. of Marine Sciences CB...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dissolved and Bubble Gas Concentrations in Sandy Surficial Sediments of the West Florida Sand Sheet 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...was noted that there was substantially higher organic material in the shallow troughs of the sand ripples than on the crests. Most of this appears

  19. Rockfall susceptibility map for Athinios port, Santorini Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Andreas A.; Lekkas, Efthimios

    2010-05-01

    This article analyzes rockfall susceptibility in the steep caldera slopes upstream of Athinios port, Santorini Island, Greece. The study area is situated in the internal rim of a submarine caldera where the most important problem that is recorded is the frequent rockfalls that not only cause damages to roads and vehicles but also pose a threat to people that are transported or located on the port. As a result, a methodology which combines information relatively to surficial and engineering geology, geomorphological processes, and structural analysis was adopted. The methodology incorporates evenly a maximum runout map generated by means of reach probability of rock block analysis, using the empirical model of "reach angle". Additionally volumes of rockfall events categorized and presented through a map to assist the compilation of rockfall susceptibility map which allows us to identify areas and human activities exposed to these incidents and set up several protection meters.

  20. Surficial geology of the lower Comb Wash, San Juan County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longpré, Claire I.

    2001-01-01

    The surficial geologic map of lower Comb Wash was produced as part of a master’s thesis for Northern Arizona University Quaternary Sciences program. The map area includes the portion of the Comb Wash alluvial valley between Highway 163 and Highway 95 on the Colorado Plateau in southeastern Utah. The late Quaternary geology of this part of the Colorado Plateau had not previously been mapped in adequate detail. The geologic information in this report will be useful for biological studies, land management and range management for federal, state and private industries. Comb Wash is a south flowing ephemeral tributary of the San Juan River, flanked to the east by Comb Ridge and to the west by Cedar Mesa (Figure 1). The nearest settlement is Bluff, about 7 km to the east of the area. Elevations range from 1951 m where Highway 95 crosses Comb Wash to 1291 m at the confluence with the San Juan River. Primary vehicle access to lower Comb Wash is provided by a well-maintained dirt road that parallels the active channel of Comb Wash between Highway 163 and Highway 95. For much of the year this road can be traversed without the aid of four-wheel drive. However, during inclement weather such as rain or snow the road becomes treacherous even with four-wheel drive. The Comb Wash watershed is public land managed by the Bureau of Land management (BLM) office in Monticello, Utah. The semi-arid climate of Comb Wash and the surrounding area is typical of the Great Basin Desert. Temperature in Bluff, Utah ranges from a minimum of –8° C in January to a maximum of 35° C in July with a mean annual temperature of 9.8° C (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1999). The difference between day and nighttime temperatures is as great as 20° C. Between 1928 and 1998, annual rainfall in Bluff averaged 178 mm per year (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1999). Annual rainfall in Comb Wash averaged 240 mm per year from 1991 to 1999 while Bluff received an average of 193 mm for the same 8 year period

  1. Case study of an application of computer mapping in oil-shale resource mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, F.G.F. Jr.; Smith, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The Laramie Energy Technology Center, U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for evaluating the resources of potential oil and the deposit characteristics of oil shales of the Green River Formation in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. While the total oil shale resource represents perhaps 2 trillion barrels of oil, only parts of this total are suitable for any particular development process. To evaluate the resource according to deposit characteristics, a computer system for making resource calculations and geological maps has been established. The system generates resource tables where the calculations have been performed over user-defined geological intervals. The system also has the capability of making area calculations and generating resource maps of geological quality. The graphics package that generates the maps uses corehole assay data and digitized map data. The generated maps may include the following features: selected drainages, towns, political boundaries, township and section surveys, and corehole locations. The maps are then generated according to user-defined scales.

  2. Mapping the informal science education landscape: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, John H; Randol, Scott; Dierking, Lynn D

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the informal science education (ISE) field to determine whether it currently functions as an effective community of practice. Research questions included: How do professionals describe and self-identify their practice, including what missions, goals and motivating factors influence their professional work? What challenges do they face and how are these resolved? Is participation in ISE activities perceived as core or peripheral to their work? Open-ended interviews were conducted with high-level representatives of 17 different ISE sub-communities; results were analyzed qualitatively. Findings showed this broad assortment of ISE sub-communities as not currently functioning as a cohesive community of practice. Although examples of shared practice and ways of talking were found, evidence of widespread, active relationship-building over time and coalescence around issues of common concern were absent. A current "map" of the ISE community is proposed and thoughts about how this map could alter in the future are suggested.

  3. Review of radiation damage studies on DNW CMOS MAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversi, G.; Gaioni, L.; Manazza, A.; Manghisoni, M.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Zucca, S.; Bettarini, S.; Rizzo, G.; Morsani, F.; Bosisio, L.; Rashevskaya, I.; Cindro, V.

    2013-12-01

    Monolithic active pixel sensors fabricated in a bulk CMOS technology with no epitaxial layer and standard resistivity (10 Ω cm) substrate, featuring a deep N-well as the collecting electrode (DNW MAPS), have been exposed to γ-rays, up to a final dose of 10 Mrad (SiO2), and to neutrons from a nuclear reactor, up to a total 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of about 3.7 ·1013cm-2. The irradiation campaign was aimed at studying the effects of radiation on the most significant parameters of the front-end electronics and on the charge collection properties of the sensors. Device characterization has been carried out before and after irradiations. The DNW MAPS irradiated with 60Co γ-rays were also subjected to high temperature annealing (100 °C for 168 h). Measurements have been performed through a number of different techniques, including electrical characterization of the front-end electronics and of DNW diodes, laser stimulation of the sensors and tests with 55Fe and 90Sr radioactive sources. This paper reviews the measurement results, their relation with the damage mechanisms underlying performance degradation and provides a new comparison between DNW devices and MAPS fabricated in a CMOS process with high resistivity (1 kΩ cm) epitaxial layer.

  4. Water- and air-quality and surficial bed-sediment monitoring of the Sweetwater Reservoir watershed, San Diego County, California, 2003-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Gregory O.; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.; Morita, Andrew Y.

    2015-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sweetwater Authority, began a study to assess the overall health of the Sweetwater watershed in San Diego County, California. This study was designed to provide a data set that could be used to evaluate potential effects from the construction and operation of State Route 125 within the broader context of the water quality and air quality in the watershed. The study included regular sampling of water, air, and surficial bed sediment at Sweetwater Reservoir (SWR) for chemical constituents, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), base-neutral and acid- extractable organic compounds (BNAs) that include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, and metals. Additionally, water samples were collected for anthropogenic organic indicator compounds in and around SWR. Background water samples were collected at Loveland Reservoir for VOCs, BNAs, pesticides, and metals. Surficial bed-sediment samples were collected for PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, and metals at Sweetwater and Loveland Reservoirs.

  5. Open source projects in software engineering education: a mapping study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Debora M. C.; Almeida Bittencourt, Roberto; Chavez, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Context: It is common practice in academia to have students work with "toy" projects in software engineering (SE) courses. One way to make such courses more realistic and reduce the gap between academic courses and industry needs is getting students involved in open source projects (OSP) with faculty supervision. Objective: This study aims to summarize the literature on how OSP have been used to facilitate students' learning of SE. Method: A systematic mapping study was undertaken by identifying, filtering and classifying primary studies using a predefined strategy. Results: 72 papers were selected and classified. The main results were: (a) most studies focused on comprehensive SE courses, although some dealt with specific areas; (b) the most prevalent approach was the traditional project method; (c) studies' general goals were: learning SE concepts and principles by using OSP, learning open source software or both; (d) most studies tried out ideas in regular courses within the curriculum; (e) in general, students had to work with predefined projects; (f) there was a balance between approaches where instructors had either inside control or no control on the activities performed by students; (g) when learning was assessed, software artefacts, reports and presentations were the main instruments used by teachers, while surveys were widely used for students' self-assessment; (h) most studies were published in the last seven years. Conclusions: The resulting map gives an overview of the existing initiatives in this context and shows gaps where further research can be pursued.

  6. 3D Regression Heat Map Analysis of Population Study Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Paul; Lawonn, Kai; Glaßer, Sylvia; Niemann, Uli; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Völzke, Henry; Preim, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies comprise heterogeneous data about a subject group to define disease-specific risk factors. These data contain information (features) about a subject's lifestyle, medical status as well as medical image data. Statistical regression analysis is used to evaluate these features and to identify feature combinations indicating a disease (the target feature). We propose an analysis approach of epidemiological data sets by incorporating all features in an exhaustive regression-based analysis. This approach combines all independent features w.r.t. a target feature. It provides a visualization that reveals insights into the data by highlighting relationships. The 3D Regression Heat Map, a novel 3D visual encoding, acts as an overview of the whole data set. It shows all combinations of two to three independent features with a specific target disease. Slicing through the 3D Regression Heat Map allows for the detailed analysis of the underlying relationships. Expert knowledge about disease-specific hypotheses can be included into the analysis by adjusting the regression model formulas. Furthermore, the influences of features can be assessed using a difference view comparing different calculation results. We applied our 3D Regression Heat Map method to a hepatic steatosis data set to reproduce results from a data mining-driven analysis. A qualitative analysis was conducted on a breast density data set. We were able to derive new hypotheses about relations between breast density and breast lesions with breast cancer. With the 3D Regression Heat Map, we present a visual overview of epidemiological data that allows for the first time an interactive regression-based analysis of large feature sets with respect to a disease.

  7. HapMap filter 1.0: A tool to preprocess the HapMap genotypic data for association studies

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The International HapMap Project provides a resource of genotypic data on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which can be used in various association studies to identify the genetic determinants for phenotypic variations. Prior to the association studies, the HapMap dataset should be preprocessed in order to reduce the computation time and control the multiple testing problem. The less informative SNPs including those with very low genotyping rate and SNPs with rare minor allele frequenc...

  8. Heavy-metal enrichment in surficial sediments in the Oder River discharge area: source or sink for heavy metals?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimmield, G. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Rd., Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Leipe, T.; Neumann, T. [Institut fuer Ostseeforschung Warnemuende, Seestr. 15, 18119 Rostock (Germany)

    1998-05-01

    The Oder river drains a highly polluted industrial area and enters the Baltic Sea through a system of shallow lagoons. Surficial sediments in the discharge area of the Oder are highly enriched in heavy metals compared to their preindustrial background levels. Pore-water studies in short sediment cores reveal anoxic environments over the entire sediment column, except for a suboxic layer in the uppermost 5 to 20 mm of the sediment where Mn- and Fe-oxyhydroxides are reduced by organic matter. Heavy metals (such as Cu, Zn and Pb) are mobilized within the suboxic zones in the inner lagoon (represented by the Oder Lagoon) and in the open Baltic (represented by the Arkona Basin). The Achterwasser, located between the Oder Lagoon and the Arkona Basin, is directly affected by sea-level fluctuations in the Baltic. Pore-water studies indicate that, in contrast to the situation in the Oder Lagoon and Arkona Basin, surficial sediments of the Achterwasser represent a sink for heavy metals. This is associated with the high rate of Fe-sulphide formation occurring there, at least seasonally during salt-water inflow.(Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. Electricity Consumption Risk Map - The use of Urban Climate Mapping for smarter analysis: Case study for Birmingham, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes Azevedo, Juliana; Burghardt, René; Chapman, Lee; Katzchner, Lutz; Muller, Catherine L.

    2015-04-01

    Climate is a key driving factor in energy consumption. However, income, vegetation, building mass structure, topography also impact on the amount of energy consumption. In a changing climate, increased temperatures are likely to lead to increased electricity consumption, affecting demand, distribution and generation. Furthermore, as the world population becomes more urbanized, increasing numbers of people will need to deal with not only increased temperatures from climate change, but also from the unintentional modification of the urban climate in the form of urban heat islands. Hence, climate and climate change needs to be taken into account for future urban planning aspects to increase the climate and energy resilience of the community and decrease the future social and economic costs. Geographical Information Systems provide a means to create urban climate maps as part of the urban planning process. Geostatistical analyses linking these maps with demographic and social data, enables a geo-statistical analysis to identify linkages to high-risk groups of the community and vulnerable areas of town and cities. Presently, the climatope classification is oriented towards thermal aspects and the ventilation quality (roughness) of the urban areas but can also be adapted to take into account other structural "environmental factors". This study aims to use the climatope approach to predict areas of potential high electricity consumption in Birmingham, UK. Several datasets were used to produce an average surface temperature map, vegetation map, land use map, topography map, building height map, built-up area roughness calculations, an average air temperature map and a domestic electricity consumption map. From the correlations obtained between the layers it is possible to average the importance of each factor and create a map for domestic electricity consumption to understand the influence of environmental aspects on spatial energy consumption. Based on these results city

  10. Surficial weathering of iron sulfide mine tailings under semi-arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sarah M; Root, Robert A; Perdrial, Nicolas; Maier, Raina; Chorover, Jon

    2014-09-15

    Mine wastes introduce anthropogenic weathering profiles to the critical zone that often remain unvegetated for decades after mining cessation. As such, they are vulnerable to wind and water dispersion of particulate matter to adjacent ecosystems and residential communities. In sulfide-rich ore tailings, propagation to depth of the oxidative weathering front controls the depth-variation in speciation of major and trace elements. Despite the prevalence of surficial mine waste deposits in arid regions of the globe, few prior studies have been conducted to resolve the near-surface profile of sulfide ore tailings weathered under semi-arid climate. We investigated relations between gossan oxidative reaction-front propagation and the molecular speciation of iron and sulfur in tailings subjected to weathering under semi-arid climate at an EPA Superfund Site in semi-arid central Arizona (USA). Here we report a multi-method data set combining wet chemical and synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) methods to resolve the tight coupling of iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) geochemical changes in the top 2 m of tailings. Despite nearly invariant Fe and S concentration with depth (130-140 and 100-120 g kg(-1), respectively), a sharp redox gradient and distinct morphological change was observed within the top 0.5 m, associated with a progressive oxidative alteration of ferrous sulfides to (oxyhydr)oxides and (hydroxy)sulfates. Transformation is nearly complete in surficial samples. Trends in molecular-scale alteration were co-located with a decrease in pH from 7.3 to 2.3, and shifts in Fe and S lability as measured via chemical extraction. Initial weathering products, ferrihydrite and gypsum, transform to schwertmannite, then jarosite-group minerals with an accompanying decrease in pH. Interestingly, thermodynamically stable phases such as goethite and hematite were not detected in any samples, but ferrihydrite was observed even in

  11. Surficial weathering of iron sulfide mine tailings under semi-arid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sarah M.; Root, Robert A.; Perdrial, Nicolas; Maier, Raina M.; Chorover, Jon

    2014-09-01

    Mine wastes introduce anthropogenic weathering profiles to the critical zone that often remain unvegetated for decades after mining cessation. As such, they are vulnerable to wind and water dispersion of particulate matter to adjacent ecosystems and residential communities. In sulfide-rich ore tailings, propagation to depth of the oxidative weathering front controls the depth-variation in speciation of major and trace elements. Despite the prevalence of surficial mine waste deposits in arid regions of the globe, few prior studies have been conducted to resolve the near-surface profile of sulfide ore tailings weathered under semi-arid climate. We investigated relations between gossan oxidative reaction-front propagation and the molecular speciation of iron and sulfur in tailings subjected to weathering in a semi-arid climate at an EPA Superfund Site in central Arizona (USA). Here we report a multi-method data set combining wet chemical and synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) methods to resolve the tight coupling of iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) geochemical changes in the top 2 m of tailings. Despite nearly invariant Fe and S concentration with depth (130-140 and 100-120 g kg-1, respectively), a sharp redox gradient and distinct morphological change was observed within the top 0.5 m, associated with a progressive oxidative alteration of ferrous sulfides to (oxyhydr)oxides and (hydroxy)sulfates. Transformation is nearly complete in surficial samples. Trends in molecular-scale alteration were co-located with a decrease in pH from 7.3 to 2.3, and shifts in Fe and S lability as measured via chemical extraction. Initial weathering products, ferrihydrite and gypsum, transform to schwertmannite, then jarosite-group minerals with an accompanying decrease in pH. Interestingly, thermodynamically stable phases such as goethite and hematite were not detected in any samples, but ferrihydrite was observed even in samples with

  12. Urban ergonomics: an ongoing study of city signs and maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Patricia; Arezes, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether the existing signals in three European cities were developed according usability principles and ergonomic aspects for the citizen. City maps and signals will be tested using efficiency, effectiveness and user's satisfaction criteria. Among the urban areas are the center of Paris-FR, assumed to be well signalized, the historical center of Guimarães-PT and Chorweiler, Cologne-DE, a residential neighborhood of modern urbanism characterized by the extensive use of vegetation, the landscape homogeneity, and, consequently, by the difficult navigation.

  13. A case study on point process modelling in disease mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge; Benes, Viktor

    2005-01-01

    We consider a data set of locations where people in Central Bohemia have been infected by tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), and where population census data and covariates concerning vegetation and altitude are available. The aims are to estimate the risk map of the disease and to study the dependence...... of the risk on the covariates. Instead of using the common areal level approaches we base the analysis on a Bayesian approach for a log Gaussian Cox point process with covariates. Posterior characteristics for a discretized version of the log Gaussian Cox process are computed using Markov chain Monte Carlo...

  14. Femtosecond Studies Of Coulomb Explosion Utilizing Covariance Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Card, D A

    2000-01-01

    The studies presented herein elucidate details of the Coulomb explosion event initiated through the interaction of molecular clusters with an intense femtosecond laser beam (≥1 PW/cm2). Clusters studied include ammonia, titanium-hydrocarbon, pyridine, and 7-azaindole. Covariance analysis is presented as a general technique to study the dynamical processes in clusters and to discern whether the fragmentation channels are competitive. Positive covariance determinations identify concerted processes such as the concomitant explosion of protonated cluster ions of asymmetrical size. Anti- covariance mapping is exploited to distinguish competitive reaction channels such as the production of highly charged nitrogen atoms formed at the expense of the protonated members of a cluster ion ensemble. This technique is exemplified in each cluster system studied. Kinetic energy analyses, from experiment and simulation, are presented to fully understand the Coulomb explosion event. A cutoff study strongly suggests that...

  15. Map Design for Complex Architecture: A User Study of Maps & Wayfinding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karen Cheng; Sarah Pérez-Kriz

    2014-01-01

    .... Specifically, the authors report on the design and testing of two different paper maps intended to help patients find dental clinics and related offices within a large medical and health sciences center...

  16. 78 FR 76888 - MAP-21 Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... Federal Highway Administration MAP-21 Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study Materials AGENCY... for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21) Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study, which... public meetings on the MAP-21 Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study and to announce...

  17. Chromium Distribution and Spatial Variations in the Finer Sediment Grain Size Fraction and Unfractioned Surficial Sediments on Nyanza Gulf, of Lake Victoria (East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job Mwamburi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Surficial sediments collected from the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (East Africa were used to determine spatial concentrations of Cr and determine differences in contents of the unfractioned (whole sediment and the finer grain size sediments, establishing any changes in Cr enrichment and potential ecological risks using sediment quality guidelines. A single pollution index was also used to evaluate level of Cr contamination. The spatial mean Cr contents in the <63 µm (silt-clay fraction were found to be significantly lower than those in the unfractioned sediments, but with a strong linear positive correlation. The study results show decreasing spatial amounts of Cr in surficial sediments of the Nyanza Gulf, when compared to a study done 20 years earlier. However, the 95% confidence limits of the overall mean Cr in unfractioned sediments exceed the threshold effect concentration (TEC, indicating the potential for Cr remobilization from sediments. In general the sediment enrichment is evidence of possible dominance of lithogenous sources of Cr in the surface lake sediments, with potential anthropogenic sources from the drainage system and nearshore urban areas. The sediments are unpolluted with respect to geoaccumulation index, and sediment enrichment factors suggest a minor to moderate enrichment of Cr in surficial sediments of three sites around the Nyanza Gulf zones and around the river mouth in the main lake.

  18. Selective extraction and separation of Fe, Mn oxides and organic materials in river surficial sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Feng-mei; WANG Xiao-li; LI Yu; GUO Shu-hai; ZHONG Ai-ping

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the adsorption mechanism of trace metals to surficial sediments (SSs), a selective extraction procedure was improved in the present work. The selective extraction procedure has been proved to selectively remove and separate Fe, Mn oxides and organic materials (OMs) in the non-residual fraction from the SSs collected in Songhua River, China. After screening different kinds of conventional extractants of Fe and Mn oxides and OMs used for separation of heavy metals in the soils respectively applied to selectively extract Mn oxides, Fe/Mn oxides and OMs. After the extraction treatments, the target components were removed with extraction efficiencies between 86.09%-93.36% for the hydroxylamine hydrochloride treatment, 80.63%-101.09% for the oxalate solution extraction, and 94.76%-102.83% for the hydrogen peroxide digestion, respectively. The results indicate that this selective extraction technology was effective for the extraction and separation of Fe, Mn oxides and OMs in the SSs,and important for further mechanism study of trace metal adsorption onto SSs.

  19. Surficial geology of the sea floor in Long Island Sound offshore of Plum Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Ostapenko, A.J.; Glomb, K.A.; Doran, E.F.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been working cooperatively to interpret surficial sea-floor geology along the coast of the Northeastern United States. NOAA survey H11445 in eastern Long Island Sound, offshore of Plum Island, New York, covers an area of about 12 square kilometers. Multibeam bathymetry and sidescan-sonar imagery from the survey, as well as sediment and photographic data from 13 stations occupied during a USGS verification cruise are used to delineate sea-floor features and characterize the environment. Bathymetry gradually deepens offshore to over 100 meters in a depression in the northwest part of the study area and reaches 60 meters in Plum Gut, a channel between Plum Island and Orient Point. Sand waves are present on a shoal north of Plum Island and in several smaller areas around the basin. Sand-wave asymmetry indicates that counter-clockwise net sediment transport maintains the shoal. Sand is prevalent where there is low backscatter in the sidescan-sonar imagery. Gravel and boulder areas are submerged lag deposits produced from the Harbor Hill-Orient Point-Fishers Island moraine segment and are found adjacent to the shorelines and just north of Plum Island, where high backscatter is present in the sidescan-sonar imagery.

  20. Water quality in the surficial aquifer near agricultural areas in the Delaware Coastal Plain, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brandon J.; Mensch, Laura L.; Denver, Judith M.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-07-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Agriculture, developed a network of wells to monitor groundwater quality in the surficial aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain. Well-drained soils, a flat landscape, and accessible water in the Delaware Coastal Plain make for a productive agricultural setting. As such, agriculture is one of the largest industries in the State of Delaware. This setting enables the transport of chemicals from agriculture and other land uses to shallow groundwater. Efforts to mitigate nutrient transport to groundwater by the implementation of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been ongoing for several decades. To measure the effectiveness of BMPs on a regional scale, a network of 48 wells was designed to measure shallow groundwater quality (particularly nitrate) over time near agricultural land in the Delaware Coastal Plain. Water characteristics, major ions, nutrients, and dissolved gases were measured in groundwater samples collected from network wells during fall 2014. Wells were organized into three groups based on their geochemical similarity and these groups were used to describe nitrate and chloride concentrations and factors that affect the variability among the groups. The results from this study are intended to establish waterquality conditions in 2014 to enable comparison of future conditions and evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural BMPs on a regional scale.

  1. USGS Map service: usSEABED - US Coastal Offshore Surficial-Sediment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The usSEABED database contains a compilation of published and previously unpublished sediment texture and other geologic data about the sea floor from diverse...

  2. USGS Map service: usSEABED - US Coastal Offshore Surficial-Sediment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The usSEABED database contains a compilation of published and previously unpublished sediment texture and other geologic data about the sea floor from diverse...

  3. Photoinduced surface voltage mapping study for large perovskite single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaojing; Liu, Yucheng; Gao, Fei; Yang, Zhou [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, National Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Liu, Shengzhong, E-mail: liusz@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, National Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, iChEM, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2016-05-02

    Using a series of illumination sources, including white light (tungsten-halogen lamp), 445-nm, 532-nm, 635-nm, and 730-nm lasers, the surface photovoltage (SPV) images were mapped for centimeter-sized CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbX{sub 3} (X = Cl, Br, I) perovskite single crystals using Kelvin probe force microscopy. The significant SPV signals were observed to be wavelength-dependent. We attribute the appreciable SPV to the built-in electric field in the space charge region. This study shines light into the understanding of photoinduced charge generation and separation processes at nanoscale to help advance the development of perovskite solar cells, optoelectronics, laser, photodetector, and light-emitting diode (LED).

  4. Photoinduced surface voltage mapping study for large perovskite single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojing; Liu, Yucheng; Gao, Fei; Yang, Zhou; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2016-05-01

    Using a series of illumination sources, including white light (tungsten-halogen lamp), 445-nm, 532-nm, 635-nm, and 730-nm lasers, the surface photovoltage (SPV) images were mapped for centimeter-sized CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) perovskite single crystals using Kelvin probe force microscopy. The significant SPV signals were observed to be wavelength-dependent. We attribute the appreciable SPV to the built-in electric field in the space charge region. This study shines light into the understanding of photoinduced charge generation and separation processes at nanoscale to help advance the development of perovskite solar cells, optoelectronics, laser, photodetector, and light-emitting diode (LED).

  5. Land use mapping in Erie County, Pennsylvania: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); May, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A pilot study was conducted to determine the feasibility of mapping land use in the Great Lakes Basin area utilizing ERTS-1 data. Small streams were clearly defined by the presence of trees along their length in predominantly agricultural country. Field patterns were easily differentiated from forested areas; dairy and beef farms were differentiated from other farmlands, but no attempt was made to identify crops. Large railroad lines and major highway systems were identified. The city of Erie and several smaller towns were identified, as well as residential areas between these towns, and docks along the shoreline in Erie. Marshes, forests, and beaches within Presque Isle State Park were correctly identified, using the DCLUS program. Bay water was differentiated from lake water, with a small amount of misclassification.

  6. Surficial deposits on salt diapirs (Zagros Mountains and Persian Gulf Platform, Iran): Characterization, evolution, erosion and the influence on landscape morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruthans, Jiří; Filippi, Michal; Asadi, Naser; Zare, Mohammad; Šlechta, Stanislav; Churáčková, Zdenka

    2009-06-01

    The surfaces of salt diapirs in the Zagros Mountains are mostly covered by surficial deposits, which significantly affect erosion rates, salt karst evolution, land use and the density of the vegetation cover. Eleven salt diapirs were selected for the study of surficial deposits in order to cover variability in the geology, morphology and climate in a majority of the diapirs in the Zagros Mountains and Persian Gulf Platform. The chemical and mineralogical compositions of 80 selected samples were studied mainly by X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. Changes in salinity along selected vertical profiles were studied together with the halite and gypsum distribution. The subaerial residuum formed from minerals and rock detritus released from the dissolved rock salt is by far the most abundant material on the diapirs. Fluvial sediments derived from this type of residuum are the second most common deposits found, while submarine residuum and marine sediments have only local importance. The mineralogical/chemical composition of surficial deposits varies amongst the three end members: evaporite minerals (gypsum/anhydrite and minor halite), carbonates (dolomite and calcite) and silicates-oxides (mainly quartz, phyllosilicates, and hematite). Based on infiltration tests on different types of surficial deposits, most of the rainwater will infiltrate, while overland flow predominates on rock salt exposures. Recharge concentration and thick accumulations of fine sediment support relatively rich vegetation cover in some places and even enable local agricultural activity. The source material, diapir relief, climatic conditions and vegetation cover were found to be the main factors affecting the development and erosion of surficial deposits. A difference was found in residuum type and landscape morphology between the relatively humid NW part of the studied area and the arid Persian Gulf coast: In the NW, the medium and thick residuum seems to be stable under current

  7. Final Remedial Investigation Sampling Plan Addendum. Milan Army Ammunition Plant Remedial Investigation Southern Study Area (Operable Unit No. 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    planned to address these areas. Other field activities will consist of documenting (mapping) surficial extent of these areas via visual inspection...mapping) surficial extent of these areas via visual inspection & field measurements. All sampling activities will be performed with site clearance

  8. The JERS Amazon Multi-Season Mapping Study (JAMMS): Observation Strategies and Data Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, B.; Freeman, A.; Siqueira, P.

    2000-01-01

    The JERS-1 Amazon Multi-season Mapping Study (JAMMS), part of the Global Rain Forest Mapping (GRFM) project led by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), had an ambitious agenda to completely map the Amazon River floodpain (and surrounding areas) twice at high resolution.

  9. A genome-wide Asian genetic map and ethnic comparison: The GENDISCAN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Joohon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic maps provide specific positions of genetic markers, which are required for performing genetic studies. Linkage analyses of Asian families have been performed with Caucasian genetic maps, since appropriate genetic maps of Asians were not available. Different ethnic groups may have different recombination rates as a result of genomic variations, which would generate misspecification of the genetic map and reduce the power of linkage analyses. Results We constructed the genetic map of a Mongolian population in Asia with CRIMAP software. This new map, called the GENDISCAN map, is based on genotype data collected from 1026 individuals of 73 large Mongolian families, and includes 1790 total and 1500 observable meioses. The GENDISCAN map provides sex-averaged and sex-specific genetic positions of 1039 microsatellite markers in Kosambi centimorgans (cM with physical positions. We also determined 95% confidence intervals of genetic distances of the adjacent marker intervals. Genetic lengths of the whole genome, chromosomes and adjacent marker intervals are compared with those of Rutgers Map v.2, which was constructed based on Caucasian populations (Centre d'Etudes du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH and Icelandic families by mapping methods identical to those of the GENDISCAN map, CRIMAP software and the Kosambi map function. Mongolians showed approximately 1.9 fewer recombinations per meiosis than Caucasians. As a result, genetic lengths of the whole genome and chromosomes of the GENDISCAN map are shorter than those of Rutgers Map v.2. Thirty-eight marker intervals differed significantly between the Mongolian and Caucasian genetic maps. Conclusion The new GENDISCAN map is applicable to the genetic study of Asian populations. Differences in the genetic distances between the GENDISCAN and Caucasian maps could facilitate elucidation of genomic variations between different ethnic groups.

  10. Crises in a driven Josephson junction studied by cell mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter; Davidson, A.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig;

    1988-01-01

    We use the method of cell-to-cell mapping to locate attractors, basins, and saddle nodes in the phase plane of a driven Josephson junction. The cell-mapping method is discussed in some detail, emphasizing its ability to provide a global view of the phase plane. Our computations confirm the existe...

  11. Naturkraft integration at Kaarstoe. Mapping study report 6 march 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odland, Oeystein; Hoeie, Hans; Aanestad, Per; Hauge, Bjoern I.; Solvang, Svein; Boee, Stein Espen; Lervik, Steinar; Kristiansen, Arild

    2007-07-01

    Gassco is engaged in three different studies and projects related to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions at Kaarstoe; 1. Gassnova's CO{sub 2} capture, transport and storage projects at Kaarstoe and Mongstad (the CO{sub 2} Transportation Network), where Gassco role is to mature the transportation facilities of the project. An investment decision is planned for second half of 2009. 2. The Kaarstoe Flue Gas Capture pre-feasibility study initiated by the MPE to Gassco as operator of Gassled in connection with approval of the Kaarstoe Expansion Project 2010, to evaluate the potential of capturing the CO{sub 2} emissions at the Kaarstoe gas processing plant, and reported to the MPE 3 March 2009, and 3. This Naturkraft Integration Mapping Study initiated by MPE to meet the requirements set out by the letter to Gassco dated 3 December 2008 to evaluate possibilities to integrate existing Naturkraft's power plant with the Kaarstoe gas processing plant. In this Naturkraft Integration Study report Gassco has identified potential degrees of integration and resulting impact with respect to performance of both the Naturkraft power plant and the Kaarstoe gas processing plant. A major concern related to operations of the Kaarstoe gas processing plant is the regularity and availability issues related to natural gas and NGL export. The value of the petroleum transported over Kaarstoe on any day exceeds 200 million NOK. In addition also significant oil production will be shut down if the Kaarstoe gas processing plant is not operating. Hence the regularity of energy supply including steam is of utmost importance. The integration between Naturkraft and the gas processing plant is based on supplying energy (i.e. fuel gas, steam, heat and electricity) from Naturkraft's existing power plant, and therefore must be based on predictable and steady operations of the Naturkraft power plant. Naturkraft has only been in operation for a few weeks from the start-up of the power plant 1

  12. Empirical Studies on the Use of Social Software in Global Software Development - a Systematic Mapping Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuffrida, Rosalba; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    , and to highlight the findings of research works which could prove to be beneficial for GSD researchers and practitioners. Method: A Systematic Mapping Study is conducted using a broad search string that allows identifying a variety of studies which can be beneficial for GSD. Papers have been retrieved through...... a combination of automatic search and snowballing, hence a wide quantitative map of the research area is provided. Additionally, text extracts from the studies are qualitatively synthesised to investigate benefits and challenges of the use of SoSo. Results: SoSo is reported as being chiefly used as a support...... of empirical studies on the usage of SoSo are available in related fields, there exists no comprehensive overview of what has been investigated to date across them. Objective: The aim of this review is to map empirical studies on the usage of SoSo in Software Engineering projects and in distributed teams...

  13. Modeling the source contribution of heavy metals in surficial sediment and analysis of their historical changes in the vertical sediments of a drinking water reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqiang; A, Yinglan; Jiang, Hong; Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui

    2015-01-01

    Increasing water pollution in developing countries poses a significant threat to environmental health and human welfare. Understanding the spatial distribution and apportioning the sources of pollution are important for the efficient management of water resources. In this study, ten types of heavy metals were detected during 2010-2013 for all ambient samples and point sources samples. A pollution assessment based on the surficial sediment dataset by Enrichment Factor (EF) showed the surficial sediment was moderately contaminated. A comparison of the multivariate approach (principle components analysis/absolute principle component score, PCA/APCS) and the chemical mass balance model (CMB) shows that the identification of sources and calculation of source contribution based on the CMB were more objective and acceptable when source profiles were known and source composition was complex. The results of source apportionment for surficial heavy metals, both from PCA/APCS and CMB model, showed that the natural background (30%) was the most dominant contributor to the surficial heavy metals, followed by mining activities (29%). The contribution percentage of the natural background was negatively related to the degree of contamination. The peak concentrations of many heavy metals (Cu, Ba, Fe, As and Hg) were found in the middle layer of sediment, which is most likely due to the result of development of industry beginning in the 1970s. However, the highest concentration of Pb appeared in the surficial sediment layer, which was most likely due to the sharp increase in the traffic volume. The historical analysis of the sources based on the CMB showed that mining and the chemical industry are stable sources for all of the sections. The comparing of change rates of source contribution versus years indicated that the composition of the materials in estuary site (HF1) is sensitive to the input from the land, whereas center site (HF4) has a buffering effect on the materials from

  14. Hydrologic conditions, recharge, and baseline water quality of the surficial aquifer system at Jekyll Island, Georgia, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Torak, Lynn J.

    2016-03-08

    An increase of groundwater withdrawals from the surficial aquifer system on Jekyll Island, Georgia, prompted an investigation of hydrologic conditions and water quality by the U.S. Geological Survey during October 2012 through December 2013. The study demonstrated the importance of rainfall as the island’s main source of recharge to maintain freshwater resources by replenishing the water table from the effects of hydrologic stresses, primarily evapotranspiration and pumping. Groundwater-flow directions, recharge, and water quality of the water-table zone on the island were investigated by installing 26 shallow wells and three pond staff gages to monitor groundwater levels and water quality in the water-table zone. Climatic data from Brunswick, Georgia, were used to calculate potential maximum recharge to the water-table zone on Jekyll Island. A weather station located on the island provided only precipitation data. Additional meteorological data from the island would enhance potential evapotranspiration estimates for recharge calculations.

  15. Road Map for Gender Equality in the FCC Study

    CERN Document Server

    Genevieve Guinot

    2015-01-01

    Plan towards defining well scoped deliverables on gender specific communication for discussion, mapping of country context and organisational practices and the establishment of a focused task-force on gender equality in participating institutes.

  16. The Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, S. D.; Germain, M. E.; Greene, T. P.; Harris, F. H.; Johnson, M. S.; Johnston, K. J.; Monet, D. G.; Murison, M. A.; Phillips, J. D.; Reasenberg, R. D.; Seidelmann, P. K.; Talabac, S. J.; Urban, S. E.; van Buren, D.; Vassar, R. H.

    1999-05-01

    NASA has selected the Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME) to be one of five MIDEX missions to be funded for a concept study. This concept study will be submitted to NASA on 18 June, with final selection, scheduled for September, of two of these missions for flight in 2003 or 2004. FAME is designed to perform an all-sky, astrometric survey with unprecedented accuracy. It will create a rigid astrometric catalog of 40,000,000 stars with visual band magnitudes 5 DSS colors. During the concept study, the team has worked to optimize the scientific return from FAME while minimizing cost and risk. The optical design was modified for improved accuracy of individual observations and improved mechanical design. The optical, mechanical, and thermal design of the instrument have been improved. Tests using CCDs in TDI mode are being conducted to confirm the accuracy obtainable from individual observations as well as determine the optimal clocking scheme for astrometric devices operated in TDI mode. The use of solar radiation pressure for spacecraft precession has undergone further feasibility study, as have the mechanisms for deploying the solar shield. Numerous other trade studies have been conducted, including orbit/communications, on board processing, and the use of neutral density filters for astrometry of bright stars versus other options. A detailed error budget has been formulated and the mission requirements have been defined. We look forward to selection for launch and a successful FAME mission that will redefine the extragalactic distance scale and provide a large, rich database of information on stellar properties that will enable numerous science investigations into stellar structure and evolution, the dynamics of the Milky Way, and stellar companions including brown dwarfs and giant planets. FAME is a joint development effort of the US Naval Observatory, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Lockheed Martin

  17. A study of variational inequalities for set-valued mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarafdar Enayet

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Ky Fan's KKM mapping principle is used to establish the existence of solutions for simultaneous variational inequalities. By applying our earlier results together with Fan–Glicksberg fixed point theorem, we prove some existence results for implicit variational inequalities and implicit quasi-variational inequalities for set-valued mappings which are either monotone or upper semi-continuous.

  18. Identification of mineral resources in Afghanistan-Detecting and mapping resource anomalies in prioritized areas using geophysical and remote sensing (ASTER and HyMap) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    : King, Trude V. V.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) natural resources revitalization activities in Afghanistan (Peters and others, 2011), three new datasets have been collected, compiled, and analyzed. These data have been used to more fully evaluate the areas of interest (AOIs; fig. 1 ) where, on the basis of previous U.S.S.R. and Afghanistan studies, the opportunity for early economic development of a number of different mineral, commodity, and deposit types had been identified (Peters and others, 2007; Peters and others, 2011). The new data compilations include (1) regional magnetic and gravity data for use in the characterization of subsurface composition and structure (Sweeney and others, 2006a,b; Ashan and others, 2007; Sweeney and others, 2007; Ashan and others, 2008; Shenwary and others, 2011), (2) Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data to identify and evaluate surficial alteration patterns related to industrial minerals and other selected targets, and (3) HyMap imaging spectrometer data for characterization and mapping of surficial mineralogy (Cocks and others, 1998; Kokaly and others, 2008; Peters and others, 2011). These datasets have served as fundamental building blocks for the resource evaluation by Peters and others (2011).

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides in surficial coastal sediments of the Ligurian Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolotto, R.M.; Cuneo, C.; Albanese, S. [ARPAL, Direzione Scientifica, Genova (Italy); Magherini, A. [ARPAL, Dipartimento di Genova, Genova (Italy); Frignani, M.; Bellucci, L.G.; Alvarado-Aguilar, D. [ISMAR, Sezione di Geologia Marina, Bologna (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides, such as DDT and its analogues, are organic contaminants widespread throughout the terrestrial and oceanic environments due to their common use and their resistance to degradation. Since harmful effects have been associated to these chemicals and well documented, they are classified as priority pollutants by both the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union. Because of the very low solubility in water and the tendency to adsorb onto sediment particles, the ultimate fate of both PCBs and DDTs in the marine environment is the incorporation into sediments. Hence, the concentrations of these chlorinate chemicals in bottom sediments can provide an insight on the quality of the environment and the potential threat to marine organisms and human beings. The Ligurian Sea belongs to the north part of the western Mediterranean. The coastal morphology of the Liguria Region is rather variable, and frequently cliffs drop sheer to the sea. The limited width of the coastal zone, comprised between the sea and the mountains, determined a gathering of the urban areas with a consequent concentration of both civil and industrial presence in a narrow but highly populated territory. In particular Genova, but also other cities have a long history of industrial and harbour activities, whereas long tracts of the coast are dedicated to tourism. The circulation of the Ligurian Sea is rather well known. In particular, surface and intermediate currents follow a cyclonic circulation. However local circulation is the true responsible of the dispersion of sediment material along the coast, and these alongshore currents often cause an eastward oriented transport. The Ligurian coastal zone is very developed, and hosts all sort of industrial, agricultural and tourist activities that can be sources of persistent organochlorine chemicals. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess concentrations, distributions

  20. Empowering line intensity mapping to study early galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Comaschi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Line intensity mapping is a superb tool to study the collective radiation from early galaxies. However, the method is hampered by the presence of strong foregrounds, mostly produced by low-redshift interloping lines. We present here a general method to overcome this problem which is robust against foreground residual noise and based on the cross-correlation function $\\psi_{\\alpha L}(r)$ between diffuse line emission and Ly$\\alpha$ emitters (LAE). We compute the diffuse line (Ly$\\alpha$ is used as an example) emission from galaxies in a $(800{\\rm Mpc})^3$ box at $z = 5.7$ and $6.6$. We divide the box in slices and populate them with $14000(5500)$ LAEs at $z = 5.7(6.6)$, considering duty cycles from $10^{-3}$ to $1$. Both the LAE number density and slice volume are consistent with the expected outcome of the Subaru HSC survey. We add gaussian random noise with variance $\\sigma_{\\rm N}$ up to 100 times the variance of the Ly$\\alpha$ emission, $\\sigma_\\alpha$, to simulate foregrounds and compute $\\psi_{\\alpha L}(...

  1. Doppler ultrasound study and venous mapping in chronic venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Carriazo, M; Gómez de las Heras, C; Mármol Vázquez, P; Ramos Solís, M F

    2016-01-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency of the lower limbs is very prevalent. In recent decades, Doppler ultrasound has become the method of choice to study this condition, and it is considered essential when surgery is indicated. This article aims to establish a method for the examination, including venous mapping and preoperative marking. To this end, we review the venous anatomy of the lower limbs and the pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency and explain the basic hemodynamic concepts and the terminology required to elaborate a radiological report that will enable appropriate treatment planning and communication with other specialists. We briefly explain the CHIVA (the acronym for the French term "cure conservatrice et hémodynamique de l'insuffisance veineuse en ambulatoire"=conservative hemodynamic treatment for chronic venous insufficiency) strategy, a minimally invasive surgical strategy that aims to restore correct venous hemodynamics without resecting the saphenous vein. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing the impacts of sea-level rise and precipitation change on the surficial aquifer in the low-lying coastal alluvial plains and barrier islands, east-central Florida (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Wang, Dingbao; Hagen, Scott C.; Medeiros, Stephen C.; Hall, Carlton R.

    2016-11-01

    A three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow and salinity transport model is implemented using the SEAWAT code to quantify the spatial variation of water-table depth and salinity of the surficial aquifer in Merritt Island and Cape Canaveral Island in east-central Florida (USA) under steady-state 2010 hydrologic and hydrogeologic conditions. The developed model is referred to as the `reference' model and calibrated against field-measured groundwater levels and a map of land use and land cover. Then, five prediction/projection models are developed based on modification of the boundary conditions of the calibrated `reference' model to quantify climate change impacts under various scenarios of sea-level rise and precipitation change projected to 2050. Model results indicate that west Merritt Island will encounter lowland inundation and saltwater intrusion due to its low elevation and flat topography, while climate change impacts on Cape Canaveral Island and east Merritt Island are not significant. The SEAWAT models developed for this study are useful and effective tools for water resources management, land use planning, and climate-change adaptation decision-making in these and other low-lying coastal alluvial plains and barrier island systems.

  3. Assessing the impacts of sea-level rise and precipitation change on the surficial aquifer in the low-lying coastal alluvial plains and barrier islands, east-central Florida (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Wang, Dingbao; Hagen, Scott C.; Medeiros, Stephen C.; Hall, Carlton R.

    2016-07-01

    A three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow and salinity transport model is implemented using the SEAWAT code to quantify the spatial variation of water-table depth and salinity of the surficial aquifer in Merritt Island and Cape Canaveral Island in east-central Florida (USA) under steady-state 2010 hydrologic and hydrogeologic conditions. The developed model is referred to as the `reference' model and calibrated against field-measured groundwater levels and a map of land use and land cover. Then, five prediction/projection models are developed based on modification of the boundary conditions of the calibrated `reference' model to quantify climate change impacts under various scenarios of sea-level rise and precipitation change projected to 2050. Model results indicate that west Merritt Island will encounter lowland inundation and saltwater intrusion due to its low elevation and flat topography, while climate change impacts on Cape Canaveral Island and east Merritt Island are not significant. The SEAWAT models developed for this study are useful and effective tools for water resources management, land use planning, and climate-change adaptation decision-making in these and other low-lying coastal alluvial plains and barrier island systems.

  4. Geology, Surficial, Surficial Geology of the Powhatan 7.5-minute Quadrangle, Published in 1999, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, NC DENR / Div. of Land Resources / Geological Survey Section.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Geology, Surficial dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 1999. It is described...

  5. Surficial geology of the Chicxulub impact crater, Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin O.; Ocampo, Adriana C.; Duller, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    The Chicxulub impact crater in northwestern Yucatan, Mexico is the primary candidate for the proposed impact that caused mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous Period. The crater is buried by up to a kilometer of Tertiary sediment and the most prominent surface expression is a ring of sink holes, known locally as cenotes, mapped with Landsat imagery. This 165 +/- 5 km diameter Cenote Ring demarcates a boundary between unfractured limestones inside the ring, and fractured limestones outside. The boundary forms a barrier to lateral ground water migration, resulting in increased flows, dissolution, and collapse thus forming the cenotes. The subsurface geology indicates that the fracturing that created the Cenote Ring is related to slumping in the rim of the buried crater, differential thicknesses in the rocks overlying the crater, or solution collapse within porous impact deposits. The Cenote Ring provides the most accurate position of the Chicxulub crater's center, and the associated faults, fractures, and stratigraphy indicate that the crater may be approximately 240 km in diameter.

  6. Factors affecting the movement and persistence of nitrate and pesticides in the surficial and upper Floridan aquifers in two agricultural areas in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B.G.; Berndt, M.P.; Crandall, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Differences in the degree of confinement, redox conditions, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are the main factors that control the persistence of nitrate and pesticides in the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) and overlying surficial aquifer beneath two agricultural areas in the southeastern US. Groundwater samples were collected multiple times from 66 wells during 1993–2007 in a study area in southwestern Georgia (ACFB) and from 48 wells in 1997–98 and 2007–08 in a study area in South Carolina (SANT) as part of the US Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. In the ACFB study area, where karst features are prevalent, elevated nitrate-N concentrations in the oxic unconfined UFA (median 2.5 mg/L) were significantly (p = 0.03) higher than those in the overlying oxic surficial aquifer (median 1.5 mg/L). Concentrations of atrazine and deethylatrazine (DEA; the most frequently detected pesticide and degradate) were higher in more recent groundwater samples from the ACFB study area than in samples collected prior to 2000. Conversely, in the SANT study area, nitrate-N concentrations in the UFA were mostly <0.06 mg/L, resulting from anoxic conditions and elevated DOC concentrations that favored denitrification. Although most parts of the partially confined UFA in the SANT study area were anoxic or had mixed redox conditions, water from 28 % of the sampled wells was oxic and had low DOC concentrations. Based on the groundwater age information, nitrate concentrations reflect historic fertilizer N usage in both the study areas, but with a lag time of about 15–20 years. Simulated responses to future management scenarios of fertilizer N inputs indicated that elevated nitrate-N concentrations would likely persist in oxic parts of the surficial aquifer and UFA for decades even with substantial decreases in fertilizer N inputs over the next 40 years.

  7. Structural mapping: how to study the genetic architecture of a phenotypic trait through its formation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chunfa; Shen, Lianying; Lv, Yafei; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Xiaoling; Feng, Sisi; Li, Xin; Sui, Yihan; Pang, Xiaoming; Wu, Rongling

    2014-01-01

    Traditional approaches for genetic mapping are to simply associate the genotypes of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) with the phenotypic variation of a complex trait. A more mechanistic strategy has emerged to dissect the trait phenotype into its structural components and map specific QTLs that control the mechanistic and structural formation of a complex trait. We describe and assess such a strategy, called structural mapping, by integrating the internal structural basis of trait formation into a QTL mapping framework. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been instrumental for describing the structural components of a phenotypic trait and their interactions. By building robust mathematical models on circuit EIS data and embedding these models within a mixture model-based likelihood for QTL mapping, structural mapping implements the EM algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of QTL genotype-specific EIS parameters. The uniqueness of structural mapping is to make it possible to test a number of hypotheses about the pattern of the genetic control of structural components. We validated structural mapping by analyzing an EIS data collected for QTL mapping of frost hardiness in a controlled cross of jujube trees. The statistical properties of parameter estimates were examined by simulation studies. Structural mapping can be a powerful alternative for genetic mapping of complex traits by taking account into the biological and physical mechanisms underlying their formation.

  8. Surficial Sediment Facies features near the Myrtle Bend Confluence with the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The surficial bed-sediment facies, herein after referred to as the sediment facies, quantitatively describes the dominant sediment substrate on the surface of the...

  9. Heavy mineral distribution in the surficial sediments from the eastern continental margin of India and their implications on palaeoenvironment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mislankar, P.G.; Gujar, A.R.

    Heavy mineral distribution from the surficial sediments of the Eastern Continental Margin of India, between Machilipatnam and Gopalpur shows that their concentration ranges from 0.4 to 13.9%. Heavy minerals such as opaques, (ilmenite, magnetite...

  10. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Surficial Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the area of surficial geology types in square meters compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs,...

  11. Distribution of Surficial Sediments of NOAA H11310 Sidescan Sonar Mosaic in Central Narragansett Bay (H11310SEDS.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is working cooperatively with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA) to interpret the surficial geology...

  12. Surficial sediment data from Boston Harbor collected during USGS Field Activity 04019 (SEDGRABS, UTM 19, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes the locations, identifiers, grain-size data and(or) textural descriptions of surficial sediments collected at stations based on topographic...

  13. Surficial geology within the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Sioux County, North Dakota, and Corson County, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains information about the surficial geology for the area within the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Sioux County, North Dakota, and Corson...

  14. Voxel significance mapping in epilepsy studies using subtraction ictal SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Benjamin H.; O'Brien, Terence J.; Webster, Desmond B.; Robins, Peter D.; Mullan, Brian P.; Robb, Richard A.

    1999-05-01

    Subtraction ictal SPECT coregistered to MRI (SISCOM) has been shown to aid epileptogenic localization and improve surgical outcomes in partial epilepsy patients. This paper reports a new method of identifying significant areas of epileptogenic activation in the SISCOM subtraction image taking into account normal variation between sequential Tc-99m Ethyl Cysteinate Diethylester SPECT scans of single individuals. The method uses the AIR 3.0 nonlinear registration software to combine a group of subtraction images into a common anatomical framework. A map of the pixel intensity standard deviation values in the subtraction images is created, and this map is nonlinearly registered to a patient's SISCOM subtraction image. Pixels in the patient subtraction image may then be evaluated based upon the statistical characteristics of corresponding pixels in the atlas. Validation experiments were performed to verify that local image variances are not constant across the image and that nonlinear registration preserves local image variances. SISCOM images created with the voxel variance method were rated higher in quality than the conventional image variance method in images from fifteen patients. No difference in localization rate was observed between the voxel variance mapping and image variance methods. The voxel significance mapping method was shown to improve the quality of clinical SISCOM images without removing localizing information.

  15. A study of the usability of CGDI in health mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Sheng; Mioc, Darka; Xialoun, Yi

    for health mapping. New Brunswick and Maine are territorial neighbors which means there are significant volumes of goods and people traveling across our international border, thus infectious agents are likely to carry from one jurisdiction to the other. In this paper, with the purpose to make infectious...

  16. Enhanced genetic maps from family-based disease studies: population-specific comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buyske Steven

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate genetic maps are required for successful and efficient linkage mapping of disease genes. However, most available genome-wide genetic maps were built using only small collections of pedigrees, and therefore have large sampling errors. A large set of genetic studies genotyped by the NHLBI Mammalian Genotyping Service (MGS provide appropriate data for generating more accurate maps. Results We collected a large sample of uncleaned genotype data for 461 markers generated by the MGS using the Weber screening sets 9 and 10. This collection includes genotypes for over 4,400 pedigrees containing over 17,000 genotyped individuals from different populations. We identified and cleaned numerous relationship and genotyping errors, as well as verified the marker orders. We used this dataset to test for population-specific genetic maps, and to re-estimate the genetic map distances with greater precision; standard errors for all intervals are provided. The map-interval sizes from the European (or European descent, Chinese, and Hispanic samples are in quite good agreement with each other. We found one map interval on chromosome 8p with a statistically significant size difference between the European and Chinese samples, and several map intervals with significant size differences between the African American and Chinese samples. When comparing Palauan with European samples, a statistically significant difference was detected at the telomeric region of chromosome 11p. Several significant differences were also identified between populations in chromosomal and genome lengths. Conclusions Our new population-specific screening set maps can be used to improve the accuracy of disease-mapping studies. As a result of the large sample size, the average length of the 95% confidence interval (CI for a 10 cM map interval is only 2.4 cM, which is considerably smaller than on previously published maps.

  17. Quality and Rigor of the Concept Mapping Methodology: A Pooled Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Scott R.; Kane, Mary

    2012-01-01

    The use of concept mapping in research and evaluation has expanded dramatically over the past 20 years. Researchers in academic, organizational, and community-based settings have applied concept mapping successfully without the benefit of systematic analyses across studies to identify the features of a methodologically sound study. Quantitative…

  18. Using Digital Mapping Programs to Augment Student Learning in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Thomas; An, Heejung

    2007-01-01

    Thomas Chandler and Heejung An describe how digital mapping technology can be incorporated into community-based K-12 social studies projects. According to Chandler and An, digital mapping can add value to the social studies curriculum by enabling students to better understand the interdependence between the lives of individuals and their…

  19. A Study on Problems of Hijras in West Bengal Based on Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyan Mondal; Surapati Pramanik

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problems faced by Hijras in West Bengal in order to find its solutions using neutrosophic cognitive maps. Florentin Smarandache and Vasantha Kandasamy studied neutrosophic cognitive map which is an extension of fuzzy cognitive map by incorporating indeterminacy. Hijras is considered as neither man nor woman in biological point of view. They are in special gender identity (third gender) in Indian society. In their daily life, they have to fac...

  20. A Study on Remote Probing Method for Drawing Ecology/Nature Map and the Application (III) - Drawing the Swamp Classification Map around River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong Woo; Cho, Jeong Keon; Jeong, Hwi Chol [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The map of ecology/nature in the amended Natural Environment Conservation Act is the necessary data, which is drawn through assessing the national land with ecological factors, to execute the Korea's environmental policy. Such important ecology/nature map should be continuously revised and improved the reliability with adding several new factors. In this point of view, this study has the significance in presenting the improvement scheme of ecology/nature map. 'A Study on Remote Probing Method for Drawing Ecology/Nature Map and the Application' that has been performed for 3 years since 1998 has researched the drawing method of subject maps that could be built in a short time - a land-covering classification map, a vegetation classification map, and a swamp classification map around river - and the promoting principles hereafter. This study also presented the possibility and limit of classification by several satellite image data, so it would be a big help to build the subject map in the Government level. The land-covering classification map, a result of the first year, has been already being built by Ministry of Environment as a national project, and the improvement scheme of the vegetation map that was presented as a result of second year has been used in building the basic ecology/nature map. We hope that the results from this study will be applied as basic data to draw an ecology/nature map and contribute to expanding the understanding on the usefulness of the several ecosystem analysis methods with applying an ecology/nature map and a remote probe. 55 refs., 38 figs., 24 tabs.

  1. Unpublished Digital Geologic Hazards Map of the Zion National Park Study Area, Utah (NPS, GRD, GRI, ZION, ZION geohazards digital map) adapted from a Utah Geological Survey Special Study Map by Lund, Knudsen, and Sharrow (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Digital Geologic Hazards Map of the Zion National Park Study Area, Utah is composed of GIS data layers and GIS tables in a 10.0 file geodatabase...

  2. Use of Multi-Media Sampling as Integrated Approach to Surficial Geochemical Sampling for Gold in Regional Reconnaissance Surveys in Parts of the Ashanti Belt, Southwest Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosper M. Nude

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the conventional method used in surficial geochemical sampling to multimedia sampling method during reconnaissance surveys in gold exploration. The use of the conventional method in regional reconnaissance exploration surveys whereby surficial geochemical sampling is done step-wise, first by sampling stream sediments followed by rock chips then soils and other regolith materials in the search and defining of prospective targets of gold mineralization appears inefficient in geological environments characterized by complex regolith and landform modifications. However, multi-media geochemical sampling which involves the simultaneous sampling of different geochemical samples appears a better alternative and eliminates false and erratic anomalies often associated with the sampling of a single medium. Multi-media samples comprising rock chips, scree, termite mounds and lateritic lags, were collected simultaneously to support stream sediments in parts of the Ashanti belt in the Birimian of southwest Ghana, which is characterized by complex regolith and landform modifications. The most prospective targets among the three anomalous zones defined by the stream survey were better pronounced with the support of the other media, based on the consistency in significant gold contents in those samples. Gold assay values from the multi-media samples ranked the Manso East target as the most prospective and the Manso Northwest target being least prospective due to the inconsistent gold assay values in the different media. Thus the integration of the gold assay values from the various media defined real and prospective geochemical gold targets better than in the conventional method in which sampling of different media was done in stages. Unlike the conventional method, the multi-media survey provided gold results that showed regional, proximal and in-situ anomalies simultaneously. Multi-media geochemical survey therefore, appears to be a

  3. Sedimentological characteristics of the surficial deposits of the Jal Az-Zor area, Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bakri, D.; Kittaneh, W.; Shublaq, W.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the nature and characteristics of the surface geology of the Jal Az-Zor escarpment and the adjacent area, to better understand the sedimentology of desert landforms, and the main factors controlling depositional and diagenetic processes active in this environment. The oldest outcrops along the face of the escarpment are the sand and sandstone sequences of the Mutla and Jal Az-Zor Formations of the Kuwait Group (Neogene). Gravelly deposits of the upper member of the Kuwait Group, Dibdibba Formation (Pleistocene) are restricted to a few hillocks and ridges in the summit area of the escarpment. The Neogene deposits in most of the study area are overlain by a veneer of unconsolidated Holocene sediments. These were classified, according to their morphological setting and field occurrence, into: coastal deposits (intertidal mud, sabkha deposits, and sand dunes) and inland deposits (sand drifts, slope deposits, wadi fills, residual deposits and playa deposits). Wind-born quartzitic sand is the most common Holocene sediment in the study area indicating the dominance of the aeolian processes. Gypsum and carbonate present as cementing materials or in the form of gypcrete and calcrete, respectively, are characteristic sedimentological features of the pre-Holocene deposits. Gypcrete and gypsum cement are abundant in the upper section of the escarpment and decreases downward, whereas the carbonate (calcrete) shows a reverse pattern, i.e., it becomes more dominant in the lower section of the escarpment. The source of sulphate ions in the groundwater that is responsible for the development of gypcrete is believed to be the evaporites in the lower section of the Neogene sequence. The source of ions for the formation of calcrete and calcite cement is less understood due to the lack of significant primary carbonates in the near-surface deposits. It is believed that the nature and distribution of the chemically precipitated material (gypsum

  4. Preservice Teachers Map Compassion: Connecting Social Studies and Literacy through Nonfictional Animal Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Montgomery, Sarah E.; Vander Zanden, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Nonfiction stories of animal compassion were used in this literacy-social studies integrated lesson to address both efferent and aesthetic stances in transmediation of text from picture books to maps. Preservice early childhood and elementary teachers chose places from the nine recent children's stories, symbolizing them on a map while…

  5. Using Concept Maps to Elicit and Study Student Teachers' Perceptions about Inclusive Education: A Tanzanian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormnaes, Siri; Mkumbo, Kitila; Skaar, Bjørn; Refseth, Yngve

    2015-01-01

    In this study, concept map activities were used to trigger group discussions about inclusive education, with a focus on learners with disabilities. The participants were 226 Tanzanian student teachers. This article reports and discusses how the maps were analysed and what they indicate about the students' thinking about certain aspects of…

  6. Investigating Word Learning in Fragile X Syndrome: A Fast-Mapping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea; Kover, Sara T.; Hagerman, Randi; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Fast-mapping paradigms have not been used previously to examine the process of word learning in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), who are likely to have intellectual impairment, language delays, and symptoms of autism. In this study, a fast-mapping task was used to investigate associative word learning in 4- to 10-year-old boys with FXS relative…

  7. Using Concept Maps to Elicit and Study Student Teachers' Perceptions about Inclusive Education: A Tanzanian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormnaes, Siri; Mkumbo, Kitila; Skaar, Bjørn; Refseth, Yngve

    2015-01-01

    In this study, concept map activities were used to trigger group discussions about inclusive education, with a focus on learners with disabilities. The participants were 226 Tanzanian student teachers. This article reports and discusses how the maps were analysed and what they indicate about the students' thinking about certain aspects of…

  8. iMindMap as an Innovative Tool in Teaching and Learning Accounting: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Jusoh, Wan Noor Hazlina; Ahmad, Suraya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the use of iMindMap software as an interactive tool in the teaching and learning method and also to be able to consider iMindMap as an alternative instrument in achieving the ultimate learning outcome. Design/Methodology/Approach: Out of 268 students of the management accounting at the University of…

  9. iMindMap as an Innovative Tool in Teaching and Learning Accounting: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Jusoh, Wan Noor Hazlina; Ahmad, Suraya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the use of iMindMap software as an interactive tool in the teaching and learning method and also to be able to consider iMindMap as an alternative instrument in achieving the ultimate learning outcome. Design/Methodology/Approach: Out of 268 students of the management accounting at the University of…

  10. Environmental Controls on Nitrogen and Sulfur Cycles in Surficial Aquatic Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhui eGu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen (N and sulfur (S have disturbed their biogeochemical cycling in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The N and S cycles interact with one another through competition for labile forms of organic carbon between nitrate-reducing and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Furthermore, the N and S cycles could interact through nitrate (NO3- reduction coupled to S oxidation, consuming NO3- and producing sulfate (SO42-. The research questions of this study were: (1 what are the environmental factors explaining variability in N and S biogeochemical reaction rates in a wide range of surficial aquatic sediments, and (2 which biogeochemical processes are involved when NO3- and/or SO42- are present. The N and S biogeochemical reaction rates were measured on intact surface sediment slices using flow-through reactors. The two terminal electron acceptors (TEA NO3- and SO42- were added either separately or simultaneously and NO3- and SO42- reduction rates as well as NO3- reduction linked to S oxidation were determined. We used redundancy analysis, to assess how environmental variables are related to these rates. Our analysis showed that overlying water pH and salinity were two dominant environmental factors that explain 58% of the variance in the N and S biogeochemical reaction rates when NO3- and SO42- were both present. When NO3- and SO42- were added separately, however, sediment N content in addition to pH and salinity accounted for 62% of total variance of the biogeochemical reaction rates. The SO42- addition had little effect on NO3- reduction; neither did the NO3- addition inhibit SO42- reduction. The presence of NO3- led to SO42- production most likely due to the oxidation of sulfur. Our observations suggest that metal-bound S, instead of free sulfide produced by SO42- reduction, was responsible the S oxidation. The subsequent release of toxic metals from this coupling might have adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems.

  11. Interannual changes in seafloor surficial geology at an artificial reef site on the inner continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineault, Nicole A.; Trembanis, Arthur C.; Miller, Douglas C.; Capone, Vince

    2013-04-01

    The influence of reef structures on seafloor surface sediments has implications for marine spatial planning and coastal development, including use of the coastal zone for offshore wind energy. We present results of interannual changes in seafloor surficial geology at the Redbird artificial reef site, located on the continental shelf offshore of Delaware Bay. The Redbird reef is composed of NYC subway cars, barges, tugboats, and other sunken objects. Since objects were added sporadically between 1996 and 2009, the survey area acts as a natural laboratory to study the evolution of the surrounding seafloor at a structural reef habitat through time. Annual side-scan surveys from 2008 through 2011, and one bathymetric survey in 2010 provide information about surface geology and morphology. Local wave and current data for this time period were analyzed to determine the main morphological agents. Automated backscatter segmentation show that three bottom types dominate and that these large-scale (>10 m) surface sediment patterns persist from year to year. Grab samples reveal that the bottom types are silty sand with clay and sandy gravel. Clear sediment and biological patterns emerged revealing the influence of the objects on the seafloor. Comet-shaped moats of sandy gravel surround single objects and grow to form large-scale coalesced patches around groups of objects. Alignment of sediment patches suggests the periodic hydrodynamic influence of seasonal storms. The abundance and diversity of organisms increases with decreasing clay/silt content. Evidence of scour includes the removal of fine sediments, the formation of moats 1-30 m in diameter and 0.5-1 m deep around the reef objects, and the >1 m settling of objects into the seafloor. Data suggest subway cars reached equilibrium with the environment in 6-7 years, but that larger objects or clusters of objects take a longer time to equilibrate and have farther-reaching effects. Knowledge of local wave and current climate

  12. Boreal Inundation Mapping with SMAP Radiometer Data for Methane Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungbum; Brisco, Brian; Poncos, Valentin

    2017-04-01

    Inundation and consequent anoxic condition induce methane release, which is one of the most potent greenhouse gases. Boreal regions contain large amounts of organic carbon, which is a potentially major methane emission source under climatic warming conditions. Boreal wetlands in particular are one of the largest sources of uncertainties in global methane budget. Wetland spatial extent together with the gas release rate remains highly unknown. Characterization of the existing inundation database is poor, because of the inundation under clouds and dense vegetation. In this work, the inundation extent is derived using brightness temperature data acquired by the L-band Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite, which offers the L-band capabilities to penetrate clouds and vegetation at 3-day revisit. The fidelity of the SMAP watermask is assessed as a first step in this investigation by comparing with the following data sets: 3-m resolution maps derived using Radarsat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data in northern Canada and multi-sensor climatology over Siberia. Because Radarsat coverages are limited despite its high spatial resolution, at the time and location where Radarsats are not available, we also compare with 3-km resolution SMAP SAR data that are concurrent with the SMAP radiometer data globally until July 2015. Inundation extents were derived with Radarsat, SMAP SAR, and SMAP radiometer over the 60 km x 60km area at Peace Athabasca Delta (PAD), Canada on 6 days in spring and summer 2015. The SMAP SAR results match the locations of Radarsat waterbodies. However, the SMAP SAR underestimates the water extent, mainly over mixed pixels that have subpixel land presence. The threshold value (-3 dB) applied to the SMAP SAR was determined previously over the global domain. The threshold is dependent on the type of local landcover within a mixed pixel. Further analysis is needed to locally optimize the threshold. The SMAP radiometer water fraction over Peace

  13. Symbolic, Nonsymbolic and Conceptual: An Across-Notation Study on the Space Mapping of Numerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; You, Xuqun; Zhu, Rongjuan

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies suggested that there are interconnections between two numeral modalities of symbolic notation and nonsymbolic notation (array of dots), differences and similarities of the processing, and representation of the two modalities have both been found in previous research. However, whether there are differences between the spatial representation and numeral-space mapping of the two numeral modalities of symbolic notation and nonsymbolic notation is still uninvestigated. The present study aims to examine whether there are differences between the spatial representation and numeral-space mapping of the two numeral modalities of symbolic notation and nonsymbolic notation; especially how zero, as both a symbolic magnitude numeral and a nonsymbolic conceptual numeral, mapping onto space; and if the mapping happens automatically at an early stage of the numeral information processing. Results of the two experiments demonstrate that the low-level processing of symbolic numerals including zero and nonsymbolic numerals except zero can mapping onto space, whereas the low-level processing of nonsymbolic zero as a semantic conceptual numeral cannot mapping onto space, which indicating the specialty of zero in the numeral domain. The present study indicates that the processing of non-semantic numerals can mapping onto space, whereas semantic conceptual numerals cannot mapping onto space.

  14. A qualitative study on using concept maps in problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2017-05-01

    The visual arts, including concept maps, have been shown to be effective tools for facilitating student learning. However, the use of concept maps in nursing education has been under-explored. The aim of this study was to explore how students develop concept maps and what these concept maps consist of, and their views on the use of concept maps as a learning activity in a PBL class. A qualitative approach consisting of an analysis of the contents of the concept maps and interviews with students. The study was conducted in a school of nursing in a university in Hong Kong. A total of 38 students who attended the morning session (20 students) and afternoon session (18 students) respectively of a nursing problem-based learning class. The students in both the morning and afternoon classes were allocated into four groups (4-5 students per group). Each group was asked to draw two concept maps based on a given scenario, and then to participate in a follow-up interview. Two raters individually assessed the concept maps, and then discussed their views with each other. Among the concept maps that were drawn, four were selected. Their four core features of those maps were: a) the integration of informative and artistic elements; b) the delivery of sensational messages; c) the use of images rather than words; and d) three-dimensional and movable. Both raters were concerned about how informative the presentation was, the composition of the elements, and the ease of comprehension, and appreciated the three-dimensional presentation and effective use of images. From the results of the interview, the pros and cons of using concept maps were discerned. This study demonstrated how concept maps could be implemented in a PBL class to boost the students' creativity and to motivate them to learn. This study suggests the use of concept maps as an initiative to motivate student to learn, participate actively, and nurture their creativity. To conclude, this study explored an alternative way

  15. Comparing orbiter and rover image-based mapping of an ancient sedimentary environment, Aeolis Palus, Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Kathryn M.; Edwards, Christopher; Grotzinger, J. P.; Gupta, S.; Sumner, D.; Edgar, Lauren; Fraeman, A.; Jacob, S.; LeDeit, L.; Lewis, K.W.; Rice, M.S.; Rubin, D.; Calef, F.; Edgett, K.; Williams, R.M.E.; Williford, K.H.

    2016-01-01

    This study provides the first systematic comparison of orbital facies maps with detailed ground-based geology observations from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover to examine the validity of geologic interpretations derived from orbital image data. Orbital facies maps were constructed for the Darwin, Cooperstown, and Kimberley waypoints visited by the Curiosity rover using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images. These maps, which represent the most detailed orbital analysis of these areas to date, were compared with rover image-based geologic maps and stratigraphic columns derived from Curiosity’s Mast Camera (Mastcam) and Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI). Results show that bedrock outcrops can generally be distinguished from unconsolidated surficial deposits in high-resolution orbital images and that orbital facies mapping can be used to recognize geologic contacts between well-exposed bedrock units. However, process-based interpretations derived from orbital image mapping are difficult to infer without known regional context or observable paleogeomorphic indicators, and layer-cake models of stratigraphy derived from orbital maps oversimplify depositional relationships as revealed from a rover perspective. This study also shows that fine-scale orbital image-based mapping of current and future Mars landing sites is essential for optimizing the efficiency and science return of rover surface operations.

  16. Comparing orbiter and rover image-based mapping of an ancient sedimentary environment, Aeolis Palus, Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, K. M.; Edwards, C. S.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Gupta, S.; Sumner, D. Y.; Calef, F. J.; Edgar, L. A.; Edgett, K. S.; Fraeman, A. A.; Jacob, S. R.; Le Deit, L.; Lewis, K. W.; Rice, M. S.; Rubin, D.; Williams, R. M. E.; Williford, K. H.

    2016-12-01

    This study provides the first systematic comparison of orbital facies maps with detailed ground-based geology observations from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover to examine the validity of geologic interpretations derived from orbital image data. Orbital facies maps were constructed for the Darwin, Cooperstown, and Kimberley waypoints visited by the Curiosity rover using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images. These maps, which represent the most detailed orbital analysis of these areas to date, were compared with rover image-based geologic maps and stratigraphic columns derived from Curiosity's Mast Camera (Mastcam) and Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI). Results show that bedrock outcrops can generally be distinguished from unconsolidated surficial deposits in high-resolution orbital images and that orbital facies mapping can be used to recognize geologic contacts between well-exposed bedrock units. However, process-based interpretations derived from orbital image mapping are difficult to infer without known regional context or observable paleogeomorphic indicators, and layer-cake models of stratigraphy derived from orbital maps oversimplify depositional relationships as revealed from a rover perspective. This study also shows that fine-scale orbital image-based mapping of current and future Mars landing sites is essential for optimizing the efficiency and science return of rover surface operations.

  17. Mass Movement Susceptibility in the Western San Juan Mountains, Colorado: A Preliminary 3-D Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, K. A.; Giardino, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Mass movement is a major activity that impacts lives of humans and their infrastructure. Human activity in steep, mountainous regions is especially at risk to this potential hazard. Thus, the identification and quantification of risk by mapping and determining mass movement susceptibility are fundamental in protecting lives, resources and ensuring proper land use regulation and planning. Specific mass-movement processes including debris flows, rock falls, snow avalanches and landslides continuously modify the landscape of the San Juan Mountains. Historically, large-magnitude slope failures have repeatedly occurred in the region. Common triggers include intense, long-duration precipitation, freeze-thaw processes, human activity and various volcanic lithologies overlying weaker sedimentary formations. Predicting mass movement is challenging because of its episodic and spatially, discontinuous occurrence. Landslides in mountain terrain are characterized as widespread, highly mobile and have a long duration of activity. We developed a 3-D model for landslide susceptibility using Geographic Information Systems Technology (GIST). The study area encompasses eight USGS quadrangles: Ridgway, Dallas, Mount Sneffels, Ouray, Telluride, Ironton, Ophir and Silverton. Fieldwork consisted of field reconnaissance mapping at 1:5,000 focusing on surficial geomorphology. Field mapping was used to identify potential locations, which then received additional onsite investigation and photographic documentation of features indicative of slope failure. A GIS module was created using seven terrain spatial databases: geology, surficial geomorphology (digitized), slope aspect, slope angle, vegetation, soils and distance to infrastructure to map risk. The GIS database will help determine risk zonation for the study area. Correlations between terrain parameters leading to slope failure were determined through the GIS module. This 3-D model will provide a spatial perspective of the landscape to

  18. Study of the development road map of China's renewable energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Qili; Li Junfeng; Gao Hu

    2009-01-01

    Renewable energy (RE) has been attached high attention around the world due to its carbon-free and indige-nous production in a sustainable way. China enjoys plenty of renewable energy resources, particularly the wind, solar, hydro- and biomass energy, which could be a sound basis for a large-scale exploitation. This report examines the current status of RE technology and industry, analyzes the challenges of promoting RE in China. In order to pave the way for a long-term development of RE, this paper outlines the basic principles and priorities for individual RE technology. In line with these, the paper puts forward the RE targets and further describes the RE road map by 2020, 2030 and extend to 2050, taking consideration of China's RE resources, industrial basis and energy demand etc. At last, this paper pro-vides some recommendations to ensure the achievements of the RE targets.

  19. Pilot study of the application of Tellus airborne radiometric and soil geochemical data for radon mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, J D; Miles, J C H; Green, B M R; Larmour, R

    2008-10-01

    The scope for using Tellus Project airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and soil geochemical data to predict the probability of houses in Northern Ireland having high indoor radon concentrations is evaluated, in a pilot study in the southeast of the province, by comparing these data statistically with in-house radon measurements. There is generally good agreement between radon maps modelled from the airborne radiometric and soil geochemical data using multivariate linear regression analysis and conventional radon maps which depend solely on geological and indoor radon data. The radon maps based on the Tellus Project data identify some additional areas where the radon risk appears to be relatively high compared with the conventional radon maps. One of the ways of validating radon maps modelled on the Tellus Project data will be to carry out additional indoor measurements in these areas.

  20. Altitude of water table, surficial aquifer, Palm Beach County, Florida, April 24-26, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wesley L.

    1985-01-01

    Water levels in Palm Beach County, Florida, were measured in April 1984 to determine the altitude of the water table in the surficial aquifer. A total of 104 wells and 50 surface-water measurement sites were used to contour the altitude of the water table at 2 and 4-foot intervals. The water-level measurements made in April represent low-water levels near the end of south Florida 's dry season. Contours of the water table at this time ranged from 22 feet above sea level in the north-central part of the county to 2 feet near the coast. (USGS)

  1. Selection of a taxonomic level for soil mapping using diversity and map purity indices: A case study from an Iranian arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, A.; Ayoubi, S.; Khademi, H.; Finke, P. A.; Toomanian, N.

    2013-11-01

    There is a growing demand for digital soil maps for environmental planning, modeling and management. If mapped soil classes are taken from a hierarchical taxonomic system, a question arises: which taxonomic level is most appropriate to be depicted on the map with a given sample size, available environmental covariates and the strength of predictive relations between covariates and the soil classes? Pedodiversity, the study and measurement of soil diversity, can be considered as a framework to analyze spatial patterns depicted on soil maps. This paper discusses the selection of the taxonomic level for soil mapping in an arid region in southeast Iran on the basis of (1) the purity of a digital soil class map derived from an artificial neural network (ANN) prediction method using environmental covariates and (2) pedodiversity indices of these soil maps. The prediction of soil classes and the calculation of diversity indices were carried out for taxonomic categories of order, suborder, great group, and subgroup. Using the feed forward back-propagation algorithm, three-layer ANNs with input, hidden and output layers were trained for soil class prediction at each category level. In most predictions, the combined use of terrain attributes and geomorphic surfaces provided the best results. When the taxonomic level changed from order to subgroup, the purity decreased, whereas the values of the diversity indices increased. The highest purity and lowest diversity are observed at the order level, indicating a good quality map in terms of its purity, but reflecting only little soil diversity, thus with a low usage potential. On the other hand, soil maps at the level of subgroup illustrate high diversity and low purity, so that the predicted map units are highly uncertain. This map is also inappropriate for users. We introduced an index combining the diversity and purity which indicated that the best taxonomic level for soil mapping in the study area is the great group, with

  2. Comparison of Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform to study echo-planar imaging flow maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez G, A.; Bowtell, R.; Mansfield, P. [Area de Procesamiento Digital de Senales e Imagenes Biomedicas. Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa. Mexico D.F. 09340 Mexico (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Velocity maps were studied combining Doyle and Mansfield method (1986) with each of the following transforms: Fourier, window Fourier and wavelet (Mexican hat). Continuous wavelet transform was compared against the two Fourier transform to determine which technique is best suited to study blood maps generated by Half Fourier Echo-Planar Imaging. Coefficient images were calculated and plots of the pixel intensity variation are presented. Finally, contour maps are shown to visualize the behavior of the blood flow in the cardiac chambers for the wavelet technique. (Author)

  3. Long-term development of the Czech landscape studied on the basis of old topographic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokanová, H.; Havlíček, M.

    2009-04-01

    The paper deals with long-term land use changes in the Czech Republic with the help of old topographic maps. Departments of Landscape Ecology and GIS Applications from the Silva Tarouca Research Institute for Landscape and Ornamental Gardening, v.v.i. study these changes mainly in the research project MSM 6293359101 Research into sources and indicators of biodiversity in cultural landscape in the context of its fragmentation dynamics, the subpart Quantitative analysis of the dynamics of the Czech landscape development. In this paper, the authors concentrate mainly on map sources, which were acquired for the purpose of the project and also introduce partial results. Maps, which are the sources for the analyses, are following: maps from 2nd Austrian military survey in the scale 1:28 800 (created for the territory of the Czech Republic in the period 1836-1852), maps from 3rd Austrian military survey in the scale 1:25 000 (created for the Czech Republic in the period 1876-1880), Czechoslovak military topographic maps in the scale 1:25 000 from 1950s and 1990s, and Czech topographic base maps in the scale 1:10 000 from 2002-2006. It is necessary to complete maps of the 2nd and 3rd Austrian military survey thanks to their incompleteness, mainly along state borders. Also maps from 1nd Austrian military survey in the scale 1:28 800 (created for the Czech Republic in the period 1764-1783) are available; however, their usage for the accurate analyses in the GIS environment is restricted by their poor cartographic accuracy. Apart of the above mentioned maps, there has been progress in collecting maps from the interwar and war period (revised maps of the 3rd Austrian military survey maps, maps of the provisional military survey from 1923-1933, maps of definitive military survey from 1934-1938 and maps from survey of Moravian part of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, so called Messtischblätter from 1939-1945). Maps from five periods are manually vectorised in the GIS

  4. Native bitumens in surficial soils of the Athabasca oil sands region : preliminary characterization and assessment of contaminant mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, M.; Fleming, I. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Geological Engineering; Headley, J. [Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). National Hydrology Research Centre

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted on bitumen tarballs located in surficial soils in Alberta's Athabasca region. The tarballs occur in every soil type in the region, and pose a challenge to oil sands operators who hope to use the soils for reclamation activities. Chromatographic analyses have shown that the tarballs contain variable petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and possess a characteristic chromatographic footprint. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment has characterized the hydrocarbons according to various fractions. A soil-column leaching study is also being conducted by the University of Saskatchewan on heavily-impacted tarball soil under unsaturated conditions. Results of the study have indicated that the soil has low levels of contaminant mobility and degradation. Hydrocarbon concentrations in leachate water are less than 20 per cent of ground water guidelines for Alberta. It was concluded that after respiration over 9 months, the most active soil column in the study degraded only 2.7 g of an estimated 650 g.

  5. History and future of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Amy; Ponté, Linnae; Jerome, Lisa; Doblin, Rick

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the teenage vision of the founder of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) that humanity's future would be aided by the therapeutic and spiritual potential of psychedelic substances. The article traces the trajectory of MAPS from inception in 1986 to its present, noting future goals with respect to research, outreach, and harm reduction. MAPS was created as a non-profit psychedelic pharmaceutical company in response to the 1985 scheduling of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Overcoming many hurdles, MAPS developed the first double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and plans for FDA prescription approval in 2021. MAPS' program of research expanded to include a trial of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety when facing life-threatening illness, observational studies of ibogaine in the treatment of addiction, and studies of MDMA for social anxiety in people with autism spectrum disorders. MAPS meets the challenges of drug development through a clinical research team led by a former Novartis drug development professional experienced in the conduct, monitoring, and analysis of clinical trials. MAPS' harm-reduction efforts are intended to avoid backlash and build a post-prohibition world by assisting non-medical users to transform difficult psychedelic experiences into opportunities for growth.

  6. Thinking Maps: An innovative way to increase sixth-grade student achievement in social studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Tamita

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the effect of Thinking Maps on the achievement of 6th-grade social studies students in order to determine its effectiveness. The population of this study came from a suburban middle school in the state of Georgia. The quantitative data included a pretest and posttest. The study was designed to find (a) whether there is a significant difference between the mean posttest scores on the benchmark test of 6th-grade students who are taught with either Thinking Maps or traditional social studies methods, (b) whether there is a significant difference between the mean posttest scores on the benchmark test of 6th-grade male versus female social studies students, and (c) whether there is a significant interaction between 6th-grade students' type of social studies class and gender as to differentially affect their mean posttest scores on the benchmark test. To answer these questions, students' pretest and posttest were compared to determine if there was a statistically significant difference after Thinking Maps were implemented with the treatment group for 9 weeks. The results indicate that there was no significant difference in the test scores between the students who were taught with Thinking Maps and the students who were taught without Thinking Maps. However, the students taught with Thinking Maps had the higher adjusted posttest scores.

  7. [Mapping of parasitological environmental data: the tick Ixodes ricinus--a case of study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Dorota; Lonc, Elzbieta; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    While the mapping of health data is not new for epidemiologists the incorporation of differentiated environmental factors, e.g., temperature, rainfall, humidity, elevation, vegetation type, host abundance and distribution, zoonotic reservoirs of infection can create a new opportunities for parasitologists. Suitable tools for spatial modeling of health problems and pathogen occurrence in space and time are provided by geographic information system (GIS). It is computer-based system which integrates, storages, edits, analyses, shares and displays information. This software system is based on connection between information--data and their location. GIS applications allow users to create interactive queries, analyze spatial information, edit data and maps. GIS is very useful to define the habitats of parasites, especially for the ticks which are strong depended on environmental conditions. Mapping not only enables to create maps based on field monitoring but also to create forecasting maps for prevention and control strategies on small and large scale. Up to now ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBD) having strong relationship with the ecosystem are highly amenable to predictive mapping. The aim of study is the characterization of procedural steps with regard to entering field environmental data to GIS database and their visualization on digital maps. The field date of tick monitoring conducted in April 2008 in the Wrocław area (the Osobowicki Forest) made possible to create digital database. ArcView as one of three separate software products of ArcGIS (a scalable framework for implementing GIS) was used to create an interactive maps. Visualization of the data which are stored in tables of attributes made possible to show legibly the distribution of I. ricinus on the analysed area. Mapping of I. ricinus occurrence on digital maps enable to indicate areas of the highest risk of biting and potential tick-borne diseases.

  8. Hydrogeology and Migration of Septic-Tank Effluent in the Surficial Aquifer System in the Northern Midlands Area, Palm Beach County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wesley L.

    1992-01-01

    The northern Midlands area in Palm Beach County is an area of expected residential growth, but its flat topography, poor drainage, and near-surface marl layers retard rainfall infiltration and cause frequent flooding. Public water supplies and sewer services are not planned for the area, thus, residents must rely on domestic wells and septic tanks. The water table in the northern Midlands area is seldom more than 5 feet below land surface, and regional ground-water flows are east, southwest, and south from the north-central part of the area where ground-water levels are highest. Ground-water quality in the western part of the area and in the Loxahatchee Slough is greatly influenced by residual seawater emplaced during the Pleistocene Epoch. Chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water in the surficial aquifer system in these areas often exceed secondary drinking-water standards. Residual seawater has been more effectively flushed from the more permeable sediments elsewhere in the eastern and southwestern parts of the study area. Test at three septic-tank sites showed traces of effluent in ground water (38-92 feet from the septic tank outlets) and that near-surface marl layers greatly impede the downward migration of the effluent in the surficial aquifer system throughout the northern midlands.

  9. Inverse field-based approach for simultaneous B₁ mapping at high fields - a phantom based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jin; Liu, Feng; Zuo, Zhentao; Xue, Rong; Li, Mingyan; Li, Yu; Weber, Ewald; Crozier, Stuart

    2012-04-01

    Based on computational electromagnetics and multi-level optimization, an inverse approach of attaining accurate mapping of both transmit and receive sensitivity of radiofrequency coils is presented. This paper extends our previous study of inverse methods of receptivity mapping at low fields, to allow accurate mapping of RF magnetic fields (B(1)) for high-field applications. Accurate receive sensitivity mapping is essential to image domain parallel imaging methods, such as sensitivity encoding (SENSE), to reconstruct high quality images. Accurate transmit sensitivity mapping will facilitate RF-shimming and parallel transmission techniques that directly address the RF inhomogeneity issue, arguably the most challenging issue of high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The inverse field-based approach proposed herein is based on computational electromagnetics and iterative optimization. It fits an experimental image to the numerically calculated signal intensity by iteratively optimizing the coil-subject geometry to better resemble the experiments. Accurate transmit and receive sensitivities are derived as intermediate results of the optimization process. The method is validated by imaging studies using homogeneous saline phantom at 7T. A simulation study at 300MHz demonstrates that the proposed method is able to obtain receptivity mapping with errors an order of magnitude less than that of the conventional method. The more accurate receptivity mapping and simultaneously obtained transmit sensitivity mapping could enable artefact-reduced and intensity-corrected image reconstructions. It is hoped that by providing an approach to the accurate mapping of both transmit and receive sensitivity, the proposed method will facilitate a range of applications in high-field MRI and parallel imaging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Utilizing linkage disequilibrium information from Indian Genome Variation Database for mapping mutations: SCA12 case study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samira Bahl; Ikhlak Ahmed; The Indian Genome Variation Consortium; Mitali Mukerji

    2009-04-01

    Stratification in heterogeneous populations poses an enormous challenge in linkage disequilibrium (LD) based identification of causal loci using surrogate markers. In this study, we demonstrate the enormous potential of endogamous Indian populations for mapping mutations in candidate genes using minimal SNPs, mainly due to larger regions of LD. We show this by a case study of the PPP2R2B gene (∼400 kb) that harbours a CAG repeat, expansion of which has been implicated in spinocerebellar ataxia type 12 (SCA12). Using LD information derived from Indian Genome Variation database (IGVdb) on populations which share similar ethnic and linguistic backgrounds as the SCA12 study population, we could map the causal loci using a minimal set of three SNPs, without the generation of additional basal data from the ethnically matched population. We could also demonstrate transferability of tagSNPs from a related HapMap population for mapping the mutation.

  11. A Study on Problems of Hijras in West Bengal Based on Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Mondal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems faced by Hijras in West Bengal in order to find its solutions using neutrosophic cognitive maps. Florentin Smarandache and Vasantha Kandasamy studied neutrosophic cognitive map which is an extension of fuzzy cognitive map by incorporating indeterminacy. Hijras is considered as neither man nor woman in biological point of view. They are in special gender identity (third gender in Indian society. In their daily life, they have to face many of problems in social aspects. Some of the problems namely, absence of social security, education problem, bad habits, health problem, stigma and discrimination, access to information and service problem, violence, Hijra community issues, and sexual behavior problem are considered in this study. Based on the expert’s opinion and the notion of indeterminacy, we formulate neutrosophic cognitive map. Then we studied the effect of two instantaneous state vectors separately on connection matrix E and neutrosophic adjacency matrix N(E.

  12. Distribution and mass loss of volatile organic compounds in the surficial aquifer at sites FT03, LF13, and WP14/LF15, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, November 2000-February 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Neupane, Pradumna P.

    2002-01-01

    Ground-water and surface-water sampling was conducted in the natural attenuation study area in the East Management Unit of Dover Air Force Base, Delaware to determine the distributions of volatile organic compounds in the vicinity of four sites?Fire Training Area Three, the Rubble Area Landfill, the Receiver Station Landfill, and the Liquid Waste Disposal Landfill. This work was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, as part of an ongoing assessment of the effectiveness of natural attenuation at these sites. The specific objectives of the study were to (1) determine the areal and vertical extent of the contaminant plumes and source areas, (2) measure volatile organic compound concentrations in ground-water discharge areas and in surface water under base-flow conditions, (3) evaluate the potential for off-site migration of the mapped plumes, and (4) estimate the amount of mass loss downgradient of the Liquid Waste Disposal and Receiver Station Landfills. A direct-push drill rig and previously installed multi-level piezometers were used to determine the three-dimensional distributions of volatile organic compounds in the 30?60-foot-thick surficial aquifer underlying the natural attenuation study area. A hand -driven mini-piezometer was used to collect ground-water samples in ground-water discharge areas. A total of 319 ground-water and 4 surface-water samples were collected from November 2000 to February 2001 and analyzed for chlorinated solvents and fuel hydrocarbons. The contaminant plumes migrating from Fire Training Area Three and the Rubble Area Landfill are approximately 500 feet and 800 feet, respectively, in length. These plumes consist predominantly of cis-1,2-dichloroethene, a daughter product, indicating that extensive dechlorination of tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene has occurred at these sites. With an approximate length of 2,200 feet, the plume migrating from the Receiver Station and Liquid Waste Disposal

  13. Towards a semilocal study of parabolic invariant curves for fibred holomorphic maps

    CERN Document Server

    Ponce, Mario

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the study of the local dynamics around a parabolic indifferent invariant curve for fibred holomorphic maps. As in the classical non-fibred case, we show that petals are the main ingredient. Nevertheless, one expects the properties of the base rotation number should play an important role in the arrangement of the petals. We exhibit examples where the existence and the number of petals depend not just on the complex coordinate of the map, but on the base rotation number. Furthermore, under additional hypothesis on the arithmetics and smoothness of the map, we present a theorem that allows to characterize the local dynamics around a parabolic invariant curve.

  14. Poromechanical behaviour of a surficial geological barrier during fluid injection into an underlying poroelastic storage formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvadurai, A P S; Kim, Jueun

    2016-03-01

    A competent low permeability and chemically inert geological barrier is an essential component of any strategy for the deep geological disposal of fluidized hazardous material and greenhouse gases. While the processes of injection are important to the assessment of the sequestration potential of the storage formation, the performance of the caprock is important to the containment potential, which can be compromised by the development of cracks and other defects that might be activated during and after injection. This paper presents a mathematical modelling approach that can be used to assess the state of stress in a surficial caprock during injection of a fluid to the interior of a poroelastic storage formation. Important information related to time-dependent evolution of the stress state and displacements of the surficial caprock with injection rates, and the stress state in the storage formation can be obtained from the theoretical developments. Most importantly, numerical results illustrate the influence of poromechanics on the development of adverse stress states in the geological barrier. The results obtained from the mathematical analysis illustrate that the surface heave increases as the hydraulic conductivity of the caprock decreases, whereas the surface heave decreases as the shear modulus of the caprock increases. The results also illustrate the influence of poromechanics on the development of adverse stress states in the caprock.

  15. Composition And Characteristic Of The Surficial Sediments In The Southern Corniche Of Jeddah, Red Sea Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talha A Al-Dubai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the composition and characteristic of the surficial sediments in the southern corniche of Jeddah, Saudi Red Sea coast, in an attempt to infer the surficial distribution pattern of minerals and provenance of sediments. Twenty-six superficial sediments samples were collected from backreef and forereef areas and were analyzed for grain size, CaCO3 content, and mineralogy. The textural of grain size range from gravel to mud fraction. The mud-dominated substrates (<63 µm occur generally in the back-reef area near the shoreline (sheltered area and in the lagoon. Gravel rich-sediments are mostly found in forereef regions. The highest content of aragonite and Mg-calcite occur in the forereef area, probably because to suitability the forereef region for chemical and biochemical precipitation of these minerals. High Mg-calcite and Dolomite are low in both the regions. The pyrite occurs in lagoon; this indicates the reductive conditions in this part. However, on the contrary the percentage of carbonate minerals were low in the backreef-flat area, which could be attributed to the supply of non-carbonate terrigenous materials. The terrigenous material contains quartz, k-feldspar, plagioclase and amphibole minerals and are dominant in backreef-flat area with averages of 12.7%, 7.13%, 2.93% and 0.65%, respectively. Their abundance could be attributed to the supply of terrigenous materials by Aeolian deposits and intermittent Wadis.

  16. Shear-wave velocity of surficial geologic sediments in Northern California: Statistical distributions and depth dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, T.L.; Bennett, M.J.; Noce, T.E.; Tinsley, J. C.

    2005-01-01

    Shear-wave velocities of shallow surficial geologic units were measured at 210 sites in a 140-km2 area in the greater Oakland, California, area near the margin of San Francisco Bay. Differences between average values of shear-wave velocity for each geologic unit computed by alternative approaches were in general smaller than the observed variability. Averages estimated by arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and slowness differed by 1 to 8%, while coefficients of variation ranged from 14 to 25%. With the exception of the younger Bay mud that underlies San Francisco Bay, velocities of the geologic units are approximately constant with depth. This suggests that shear-wave velocities measured at different depths in these surficial geologic units do not need to be normalized to account for overburden stress in order to compute average values. The depth dependence of the velocity of the younger Bay mud most likely is caused by consolidation. Velocities of each geologic unit are consistent with a normal statistical distribution. Average values increase with geologic age, as has been previously reported. Velocities below the water table are about 7% less than those above it. ?? 2005, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  17. Surficial and vertical distribution of heavy metals in different estuary wetlands in the Pearl river, South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Honggang; Cui, Baoshan [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Zhang, Kejiang [Xinjiang Research Center of Water and Wastewater Treatment, Xinjiang Deland Co., LTD., Urumqi (China)

    2012-10-15

    A total of 87 soil profiles sampled from five types of wetlands in the Pearl River estuary were analyzed to investigate the surficial and vertical distributions of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). The results show that wetlands directly connected with rivers (e.g., riparian wetlands, estuarine wetlands, and mangrove wetlands) has much higher metal concentrations than those indirectly connected with rivers (e.g., pond wetlands and reclaimed wetlands). The river water is the major pollution source for all investigated heavy metals. The vertical distribution of heavy metals can be classified into three patterns: (i) linear distribution pattern. The concentration of heavy metals gradually decreases with an increase in soil depth (for riparian and estuarine wetlands); (ii) irregular and stable pattern (for pond and reclaimed wetlands); and (iii) middle enrichment pattern (for mangrove wetlands). In addition to river-borne inputs, a variety of vegetation composition, hydraulic conditions, and human activities also contribute to the variation in distribution of heavy metals in different wetlands. Soil properties (e.g., particle size, pH, salinity, and SOM) also affect the distribution of trace metals in each soil layer. The major pollution source of heavy metals is industrial wastewater. Other sources include agriculture and domestic premises, and atmospheric deposition. This study provides a sound basis for the risk assessment of heavy metals in the studied wetlands and for wetland conservation in general. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Physical, Chemical, Ecological, and Age Data and Trench Logs from Surficial Deposits at Hatch Point, Southeastern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harland L.; Miller, Mark E.; Yount, James C.; Reheis, Marith C.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Belnap, Jayne; Lamothe, Paul J.; McGeehan, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents data and describes the methodology for physical, chemical and ecological measurements of sediment, soil, and vegetation, as well as age determinations of surficial deposits at Hatch Point, Canyon Rims area, Colorado Plateau, southeastern Utah. The results presented in this report support a study that examines geomorphic and soil factors that may influence boundaries between shrubland and grassland ecosystems in the study area. Shrubland ecosystems dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) and grassland ecosystems dominated by native perennial grasses (for example, Hilaria jamesii and Sporabolis sp.) are high-priority conservation targets for the Federal Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and other resource managers because of their diversity, productivity, and vital importance as wildlife habitat. These ecosystems have been recognized as imperiled on a regional scale since at least the mid-1990s due to habitat loss (type conversions), land-use practices, and invasive exotic plants. In the Intermountain West, the exotic annual cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is recognized as one of the most pervasive and serious threats to the health of native sagebrush and grassland ecosystems through effects on fire regimes and resource conditions experienced by native species.

  19. Trace element distributions in surficial sediments of the northern Tyrrhenian Sea: Contribution to heavy-metal pollution assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, Leonardo; Sartori, Franco; Damiani, Vincenzo; Ferretti, Ornella; Viel, Monique

    1991-03-01

    The trace element distributions in surficial sediment of Tyrrhenian Sea have been investigated as a part of a series of studies on the environmental quality of the area off the Tuscany coast (west-central Italy). This research has focused on the presence of possible contaminated zones; it also provides data for the identification and future monitoring and control of pollution sources. The study of numerous surface sediments and core samples has made it possible to distinguish between heavy-metal enrichments related to natural sources and other anomalies caused by anthropogenic contamination. Over much of the basin, the surface Pb, Cu, Zn, and As contents appear considerably enriched relative to those below 15 cm; among these metals, Pb shows the highest and most widespread enrichment. Only in the case of some coarse-grained sediments close to the mouth of Cecina River it is possible to relate anomalously high Zn contents to natural sources. In all other sampling stations, the enrichments of Pb, Cu, Zn, and As are ascribed to man's influence. The sediment distributions of Co, Cr, and Ni do not seem to be related to anthropogenic activities; rather they mirror influx of materials derived from sources of ophiolitic rock. The distribution of barium shows only two significant positive anomalies, and both are related to natural causes. Concentrations of vanadium are high in a zone close to an important smelting plant; these are thought to be of anthropogenic origin.

  20. Trace element distributions in surficial sediments of the northern Tyrrhenian Sea: Contribution to heavy-metal pollution assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leoni, L.; Sartori, F. (Univ. of Pisa, (Italy)); Damiani, V.; Ferretti, O.; Viel, M. (ENEA, La Spezia (Italy))

    The trace element distributions in surficial sediments of Tyrrhenian Sea have been investigated as a part of a series of studies on the environmental quality of the area off the Tuscany coast (west-central Italy). This research has focused on the presence of possible contaminated zones; it also provides data for the identification and future monitoring and control of pollution sources. The study of numerous surface sediments and core samples has made it possible to distinguish between heavy-metal enrichments related to natural sources and other anomalies caused by anthropogenic contamination. Over much of the basin, the surface Pb, Cu, Zn, and As contents appear considerably enriched relative to the those below 15 cm; among these metals. Pb shows the highest and most widespread enrichment. Only in the case of some coarse-grained sediments close to the mouth of Cecina River it is possible to relate anomalously high Zn contents to natural sources. In all other sampling stations, the enrichments of Pb, Cu, Zn, and As are ascribed to man's influence. The sediment distributions of Co, Cr, and Ni do not seem to be related to anthropogenic activities; rather they mirror influx of materials derived from sources of ophiolitic rock. The distribution of barium shows only two significant positive anomalies, and both are related to natural causes. Concentrations of vanadium are high in a zone close to an important smelting plant; these are thought to be of anthropogenic origin.

  1. Diamonds in meteorites – Raman mapping and cathodoluminescence studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Karczemska

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available diversity among the diversity of other extraterrestrial carbon phases. The main subject of research shown here are example meteorites consisting diamonds: ureilites DaG 868 and Dho 3013. Results are compared with previous investigations. Diamonds exist in many different meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs and in comets dust. Origin of different diamonds is still debated among the scientists, two main possibilities are taken into consideration CVD process or shock metamorphism. Understanding laboratory techniques of manufacturing diamond helps in understanding the processes taking place in the Space. From the other side, the new findings and discoveries give the new insight to material science and laboratory techniques.Design/methodology/approach: The samples were examined with different methods, the most investigations presented here are Raman Mapping and Cathodoluminescence (CL.Findings: Diamonds have been found in different samples with different shock stages. It means that not all diamonds in urelites could have shock origin. Diamonds from examined samples show high diversity, they exist in different sizes, from nanodiamonds to micrometer sizes diamonds and in different polytypes. Shifts of Raman diamond peaks indicates this.Research limitations/implications: Results show the possibilities of creating the new diamond-based materials similar to those found in meteorites. Diamond polytypes are not well characterized yet and could give some surprises for materials science. For future research it would be interesting to apply more methods such as X-ray diffraction or HRTEM.Originality/value: SEM+BSE+EDS+CL results and Raman imaging results of DaG 868 and Dho 1303 ureilites are shown for the first time.

  2. WWC Quick Review of "Retrieval Practice Produces More Learning than Elaborative Studying with Concept Mapping"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The study examined whether using the retrieval-practice studying technique--in which students alternate between reading a passage and writing memorable information from that passage--improved student learning of a science passage more than the study-once, repeated-study, or concept-mapping techniques. The study found that students using the…

  3. Advantage of spatial map ion imaging in the study of large molecule photodissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin; Lin, Yen-Cheng; Lee, Shih-Huang; Lee, Yin-Yu; Tseng, Chien-Ming; Lee, Yuan-Tseh; Ni, Chi-Kung

    2017-07-07

    The original ion imaging technique has low velocity resolution, and currently, photodissociation is mostly investigated using velocity map ion imaging. However, separating signals from the background (resulting from undissociated excited parent molecules) is difficult when velocity map ion imaging is used for the photodissociation of large molecules (number of atoms ≥ 10). In this study, we used the photodissociation of phenol at the S1 band origin as an example to demonstrate how our multimass ion imaging technique, based on modified spatial map ion imaging, can overcome this difficulty. The photofragment translational energy distribution obtained when multimass ion imaging was used differed considerably from that obtained when velocity map ion imaging and Rydberg atom tagging were used. We used conventional translational spectroscopy as a second method to further confirm the experimental results, and we conclude that data should be interpreted carefully when velocity map ion imaging or Rydberg atom tagging is used in the photodissociation of large molecules. Finally, we propose a modified velocity map ion imaging technique without the disadvantages of the current velocity map ion imaging technique.

  4. Research on Integrated Mapping——A Case Study of Integrated Land Use with Swamp Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Yan, F.; Chang, L.

    2015-12-01

    Unified real estate registration system shows the attention, determination and effort to of CPC Central Committee and State Council on real estate registration in China. However, under current situation, China's real estate registration work made less progress. One of the reasons is that it's hard to express the property right of real estate on one map under the multi-sector management system. Under current multi-sector management system in China, different departments usually just survey and mapping the land type under its jurisdiction. For example, wetland investigation only mapping all kinds of wetland resources but not mapping other resource types. As a result, it cause he problem of coincidence or leak in integration of different results from different departments. As resources of the earth's surface, the total area of forest, grassland, wetland and so on should be equal to the total area of the earth's surface area. However, under the current system, the area of all kinds of resources is not equal to the sum of the earth's surface. Therefore, it is of great importance to express all the resources on one map. On one hand, this is conducive to find out the real area and distribution of resources and avoid the problem of coincidence or leak in integration; On the other hand, it is helpful to study the dynamic change of different resources. Therefore, we first proposed the "integrated mapping" as a solution, and take integrated land use with swamp mapping in Northeast China as an example to investigate the feasibility and difficulty. Study showed that: integrated land use with swamp mapping can be achieved through combining land use survey standards with swamps survey standards and "second mapping" program. Based on the experience of integrated land use with swamp mapping, we point out its reference function on integrated mapping and unified real estate registration system. We concluded that: (1) Comprehending and integrating different survey standard of

  5. Toxic Metals Enrichment in the Surficial Sediments of a Eutrophic Tropical Estuary (Cochin Backwaters, Southwest Coast of India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G. D.; George, Rejomon; Shaiju, P.; Muraleedharan, K. R.; Nair, S. M.; Chandramohanakumar, N.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations and distributions of trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in surficial sediments of the Cochin backwaters were studied during both monsoon and pre-monsoon periods. Spatial variations were in accordance with textural charaterstics and organic matter content. A principal component analysis distinguished three zones with different metal accumulation capacity: (i) highest levels in north estuary, (ii) moderate levels in central zone, and (iii) lowest levels in southern part. Trace metal enrichments are mainly due to anthropogenic contribution of industrial, domestic, and agricultural effluents, whose effect is enhanced by settling of metals due to organic flocculation and inorganic precipitation associated with salinity changes. Enrichments factors using Fe as a normalizer showed that metal contamination was the product of anthropogenic activities. An assessment of degree of pollution-categorized sediments as moderately polluted with Cu and Pb, moderately-to-heavily polluted with Zn, and heavily-to-extremely polluted with Cd. Concentrations at many sites largely exceed NOAA ERL (e.g., Cu, Cr, and Pb) or ERM (e.g., Cd, Ni, and Zn). This means that adverse effects for benthic organisms are possible or even highly probable. PMID:22645488

  6. Sediment pollution and dynamic in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (southern Italy): insights from bottom sediment traps and surficial sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Luca Giorgio; Cassin, Daniele; Giuliani, Silvia; Botter, Margherita; Zonta, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Major and trace element, PAH, and PCB concentrations were measured in surface sediments and particles from sediment traps collected in the First and Second Basin of the Mar Piccolo (Gulf of Taranto) in two periods (June-July and August-September, 2013). The aim of the study was to evaluate pollution degree, sediment transport and particle redistribution dynamic within the area. Results confirm the higher contamination of sediments from the First Basin observed by previous researches, particularly for Cu, Hg, Pb, total PAHs, and total PCBs. Advective transport from the First to the Second Basin appears to be the leading transfer mechanism of particles and adsorbed contaminants, as evidenced by measured fluxes and statistical analyses of contaminant concentrations in surficial sediments and particles from sediment traps. Long-range selective transports of PAHs and microbial anaerobic degradation processes for PCBs have been also observed. These results are limited to a restricted time window but are consistent with the presence of transport fluxes at the bottom of the water column. This mechanism deserves further investigation and monitoring activities, potentially being the main responsible of pollutant delivering to the less contaminated sectors of the Mar Piccolo.

  7. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Salt Point, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Greene, H. Gary; Cochrane, Guy R.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Watt, Janet T.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  8. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Pacifica, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brian D.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Bretz, Carrie K.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Chinn, John L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Cochran, Susan A.; Edwards, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. 

  9. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Endris, Charles A.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Ross, Stephanie L.; Bruns, Terry R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  10. California State Waters Map Series: Drakes Bay and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Janet T.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Sliter, Ray W.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.; Watt, Janet T.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  11. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Tomales Point, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 200 m) subsurface geology.

  12. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Conrad, James E.; Greene, H. Gary; Seitz, Gordon G.; Endris, Charles A.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; East, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  13. Creating a literature database of low-calorie sweeteners and health studies: evidence mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Ding Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence mapping is an emerging tool used to systematically identify, organize and summarize the quantity and focus of scientific evidence on a broad topic, but there are currently no methodological standards. Using the topic of low-calorie sweeteners (LCS and selected health outcomes, we describe the process of creating an evidence-map database and demonstrate several example descriptive analyses using this database. Methods The process of creating an evidence-map database is described in detail. The steps include: developing a comprehensive literature search strategy, establishing study eligibility criteria and a systematic study selection process, extracting data, developing outcome groups with input from expert stakeholders and tabulating data using descriptive analyses. The database was uploaded onto SRDR™ (Systematic Review Data Repository, an open public data repository. Results Our final LCS evidence-map database included 225 studies, of which 208 were interventional studies and 17 were cohort studies. An example bubble plot was produced to display the evidence-map data and visualize research gaps according to four parameters: comparison types, population baseline health status, outcome groups, and study sample size. This plot indicated a lack of studies assessing appetite and dietary intake related outcomes using LCS with a sugar intake comparison in people with diabetes. Conclusion Evidence mapping is an important tool for the contextualization of in-depth systematic reviews within broader literature and identifies gaps in the evidence base, which can be used to inform future research. An open evidence-map database has the potential to promote knowledge translation from nutrition science to policy.

  14. Study Abroad and the City: Mapping Urban Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Study abroad by U.S. students, despite recent growth into non-western and rural destinations, often remains focused on cities, often very large and highly urbanized ones. While the destination cities for study abroad are located across the globe, European cities remain predominant, and thus, this article focuses on study abroad in one city. The…

  15. [May Medically Assisted Procreation (MAP) be relevant for homosexual women? Study among 147 gynaeco-logists involved in MAP techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintes, R; Darves-Bornoz, J-M

    2002-01-01

    The second part of the twentieth century has seen societal modifications as well as evolution of medical techniques allowing now thinking human procreation in terms of choices or even rights. Certain voices require sometimes Medically Assisted Procreation (MAP) for lesbians. Even though society did not allow such a possibility in France, it seemed interesting to question about it professionals actively involved in the use of MAP techniques. Through systematic internet queries, we obtained a list of one hundred private or public french medical institutions with a unit for the treatment of sterility. A telephone call to their secretary allowed us to individualize those doctors who did practice MAP. A sample of 147 medical doctors practicing MAP was then drawn. They were questioned with a clinical instrument including 20 ended-questions in order to assess their opinions on: homosexual women with a desire of a child; possibility for these clinicians to intervene with a donor insemination in such situations; developmental risk for such children. One hundred twenty five (85%) accepted to answer. Nine percent of these gynaecologists still consider homosexuality as pathological, and 10% as deviant - contrary to international classifications of mental disorders - and 5% deny good maternal abilities to homosexual women. Before the so-called french laws of bioethics in 1994, none of them had practiced a donor insemination for a lesbian couple, though 4% had realized some for single homosexual women. Two third of them do not agree opening donor insemination to homosexual women though for half of them, the anonymity of a donor is not perceived as prejudicial to the child. Eighty-seven percent of these gynaecologists think that a child brought up by homosexual parents is at risk for developmental disorder, the configuration supposed the most pathogenic being when the birth results from a donor insemination. The supposedly most important risk factors are thought to be the

  16. Purposive versus random sampling for map validation: a case study on ecotope maps of floodplains in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knotters, M.; Brus, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    The quality of ecotope maps of five districts of main water courses in the Netherlands was assessed on the basis of independent validation samples of field observations. The overall proportion of area correctly classified, and user's and producer's accuracy for each map unit were estimated. In four

  17. Mapping biomass with remote sensing: a comparison of methods for the case study of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Matieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing biomass is gaining increasing interest mainly for bioenergy, climate change research and mitigation activities, such as reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+. In response to these needs, a number of biomass/carbon maps have been recently produced using different approaches but the lack of comparable reference data limits their proper validation. The objectives of this study are to compare the available maps for Uganda and to understand the sources of variability in the estimation. Uganda was chosen as a case-study because it presents a reliable national biomass reference dataset. Results The comparison of the biomass/carbon maps show strong disagreement between the products, with estimates of total aboveground biomass of Uganda ranging from 343 to 2201 Tg and different spatial distribution patterns. Compared to the reference map based on country-specific field data and a national Land Cover (LC dataset (estimating 468 Tg, maps based on biome-average biomass values, such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC default values, and global LC datasets tend to strongly overestimate biomass availability of Uganda (ranging from 578 to 2201 Tg, while maps based on satellite data and regression models provide conservative estimates (ranging from 343 to 443 Tg. The comparison of the maps predictions with field data, upscaled to map resolution using LC data, is in accordance with the above findings. This study also demonstrates that the biomass estimates are primarily driven by the biomass reference data while the type of spatial maps used for their stratification has a smaller, but not negligible, impact. The differences in format, resolution and biomass definition used by the maps, as well as the fact that some datasets are not independent from the

  18. User-Centered Design for Interactive Maps: A Case Study in Crime Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Roth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the topic of user-centered design (UCD for cartography, GIScience, and visual analytics. Interactive maps are ubiquitous in modern society, yet they often fail to “work” as they could or should. UCD describes the process of ensuring interface success—map-based or otherwise—by gathering input and feedback from target users throughout the design and development of the interface. We contribute to the expanding literature on UCD for interactive maps in two ways. First, we synthesize core concepts on UCD from cartography and related fields, as well as offer new ideas, in order to organize existing frameworks and recommendations regarding the UCD of interactive maps. Second, we report on a case study UCD process for GeoVISTA CrimeViz, an interactive and web-based mapping application supporting visual analytics of criminal activity in space and time. The GeoVISTA CrimeViz concept and interface were improved iteratively by working through a series of user→utility→usability loops in which target users provided input and feedback on needs and designs (user, prompting revisions to the conceptualization and functional requirements of the interface (utility, and ultimately leading to new mockups and prototypes of the interface (usability for additional evaluation by target users (user… and so on. Together, the background review and case study offer guidance for applying UCD to interactive mapping projects, and demonstrate the benefit of including target users throughout design and development.

  19. Sub-pixel mapping of water boundaries using pixel swapping algorithm (case study: Tagliamento River, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niroumand-Jadidi, Milad; Vitti, Alfonso

    2015-10-01

    Taking the advantages of remotely sensed data for mapping and monitoring of water boundaries is of particular importance in many different management and conservation activities. Imagery data are classified using automatic techniques to produce maps entering the water bodies' analysis chain in several and different points. Very commonly, medium or coarse spatial resolution imagery is used in studies of large water bodies. Data of this kind is affected by the presence of mixed pixels leading to very outstanding problems, in particular when dealing with boundary pixels. A considerable amount of uncertainty inescapably occurs when conventional hard classifiers (e.g., maximum likelihood) are applied on mixed pixels. In this study, Linear Spectral Mixture Model (LSMM) is used to estimate the proportion of water in boundary pixels. Firstly by applying an unsupervised clustering, the water body is identified approximately and a buffer area considered ensuring the selection of entire boundary pixels. Then LSMM is applied on this buffer region to estimate the fractional maps. However, resultant output of LSMM does not provide a sub-pixel map corresponding to water abundances. To tackle with this problem, Pixel Swapping (PS) algorithm is used to allocate sub-pixels within mixed pixels in such a way to maximize the spatial proximity of sub-pixels and pixels in the neighborhood. The water area of two segments of Tagliamento River (Italy) are mapped in sub-pixel resolution (10m) using a 30m Landsat image. To evaluate the proficiency of the proposed approach for sub-pixel boundary mapping, the image is also classified using a conventional hard classifier. A high resolution image of the same area is also classified and used as a reference for accuracy assessment. According to the results, sub-pixel map shows in average about 8 percent higher overall accuracy than hard classification and fits very well in the boundaries with the reference map.

  20. Geologic map of the eastern half of the Vail 30' x 60' quadrangle, Eagle, Summit, and Grand Counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Premo, Wayne R.; Bryant, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Recent mapping and geochronologic studies for the eastern half of the Vail 1:100,000-scale quadrangle have significantly improved our understanding of (1) Paleoproterozoic history of the basement rocks of the Gore Range and Williams Fork Mountains (western margin of the Front Range), (2) the Late Paleozoic history of the Gore fault system, (3) Laramide contractional tectonism, including deformation along the Gore fault and Williams Range thrust, (4) Oligocene and younger extensional history of the Blue River half graben (The northern extent of the Rio Grande rift), and (5) late Neogene and Quaternary surficial history. The recently active Gilman mining district, a major producer of zinc and lead, is in the southwestern corner of the map area. Marine sediments and mafic to felsic volcanic rocks deposited between about 1,740 and 1,780 m.y. were generally metamorphosed to amphibolite grade and intruded and deformed by mostly calc-alkalic granitic rocks during an orogenic episode that lasted about 110 m.y. The distribution of well-studied Upper Cambrian to thick Upper Cretaceous platform sediments is now greatly improved, which allows a better definition of the late Paleozoic uplift, erosion, and flanking sedimentation of the ancestral Front Range. Detailed mapping has also better defined the geometry of Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary Laramide deformation along both the Gore fault system and Williams Range thrust, as well as increased understanding of the details of mostly Neogene extension along the Blue River normal fault system (the western margin of the Blue River half graben). Scarps along the latter fault system indicate movement may be as young as Holocene. Detailed mapping of surficial deposits has defined and described (1) six ages of terrace alluvium, (2) three general ages of landslides, (3) glacial and periglacial deposits, and (4) fan, pediment, talus, and debris-flow deposits.

  1. Study on magnetic field mapping within cylindrical center volume of general magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li; Lee, Sang Jin [Uiduk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    For the magnetic field analysis or design, it is important to know the behavior of the magnetic field in an interesting space. Magnetic field mapping becomes a useful tool for the study of magnetic field. In this paper, a numerical way for mapping the magnetic field within the cylindrical center volume of magnet is presented, based on the solution of the Laplace's equation in the cylindrical coordinate system. The expression of the magnetic field can be obtained by the magnetic flux density, which measured in the mapped volume. According to the form of the expression, the measurement points are arranged with the parallel cylindrical line (PCL) method. As example, the magnetic flux density generated by an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) magnet and a quadrupole magnet were mapped using the PCL method, respectively. The mapping results show the PCL arrangement method is feasible and convenience to map the magnetic field within a cylindrical center volume generated by the general magnet.

  2. The use of Sentinel-2 imagery for seagrass mapping: Kalloni Gulf (Lesvos Island, Greece) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topouzelis, Konstantinos; Charalampis Spondylidis, Spyridon; Papakonstantinou, Apostolos; Soulakellis, Nikolaos

    2016-08-01

    Seagrass meadows play a significant role in ecosystems by stabilizing sediment and improving water clarity, which enhances seagrass growing conditions. It is high on the priority of EU legislation to map and protect them. The traditional use of medium spatial resolution satellite imagery e.g. Landsat-8 (30m) is very useful for mapping seagrass meadows on a regional scale. However, the availability of Sentinel-2 data, the recent ESA's satellite with its payload Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI) is expected to improve the mapping accuracy. MSI designed to improve coastline studies due to its enhanced spatial and spectral capabilities e.g. optical bands with 10m spatial resolution. The present work examines the quality of Sentinel-2 images for seagrass mapping, the ability of each band in detection and discrimination of different habitats and estimates the accuracy of seagrass mapping. After pre-processing steps, e.g. radiometric calibration and atmospheric correction, image classified into four classes. Classification classes included sub-bottom composition e.g. seagrass, soft bottom, and hard bottom. Concrete vectors describing the areas covered by seagrass extracted from the high-resolution satellite image and used as in situ measurements. The developed methodology applied in the Gulf of Kalloni, (Lesvos Island - Greece). Results showed that Sentinel-2 images can be robustly used for seagrass mapping due to their spatial resolution, band availability and radiometric accuracy.

  3. Meeting the Demands of Professional Education: A Study of Mind Mapping in a Professional Doctoral Physical Therapy Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Elicia L.

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to investigate whether the quiz scores of physical therapy students who integrated mind mapping in their learning strategies are significantly different than the quiz scores of students who did not use mind mapping to learn in a lecture-based research course and examine the students' perceptions of mind mapping as a…

  4. Optimization of friction stir welding using space mapping and manifold mapping-an initial study of thermal aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Astrup; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to optimize a thermal model of a friction stir welding process by finding optimal welding parameters. The optimization is performed using space mapping and manifold mapping techniques in which a coarse model is used along with the fine model to be optimized. Different...... coarse models are applied and the results and computation time are compared to gradient based optimization using the full model. It is found that the use of space and manifold mapping reduces the computational cost significantly due to the fact that fewer function evaluations and no fine model gradient...

  5. Identifying environmental sounds:a multimodal mapping study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eTomasino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our environment is full of auditory events such as warnings or hazards, and their correct recognition is essential. We explored environmental sound (ES recognition in a series of studies. In study 1 we performed an Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE meta-Analysis of neuroimaging studies addressing ES processing to delineate the network of areas consistently involved in ES processing. In study 2 we reported a series of 7 neurosurgical patients with lesions involving the areas found consistently activated by the ALE meta-analysis and tested their ES recognition abilities. In study 3 we investigated how the areas involved in ES might be functionally deregulated as an effect of lesion by performing an fMRI study on patients (in comparison to healthy controls. Areas found to be consistently activated in the ALE quantitative meta-analysis involved the STG/MTG, insula/rolandic operculum, parahippocampal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus complex bilaterally. Some of these areas were found modulated by design choices, e.g., type of task, type of control condition, type of stimuli. Patients with lesions in these areas of the left and the right hemisphere had an impaired ES recognition. The most frequently lesioned area corresponded to the hippocampus/insula/superior temporal gyrus. For the most part, the patients’ responses were unrelated to the target sounds or were semantically related to the target sounds. The other type of responses were: auditorily related, semantically and auditorily related, and I don't Know answers. The fMRI evidenced deregulations of the activation reported in the right IFG and in the STG bilaterally and in the left insula. We showed that some of these clusters of activation truly reflect ES processing, whereas others are related to design choices. Our results allowed a parcelization of the activation found along the MTG/STG area

  6. Flash flood hazard mapping: a pilot case study in Xiapu River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-wei Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Flash flood hazard mapping is a supporting component of non-structural measures for flash flood prevention. Pilot case studies are necessary to develop more practicable methods for the technical support systems of flash flood hazard mapping. In this study, the headwater catchment of the Xiapu River Basin in central China was selected as a pilot study area for flash flood hazard mapping. A conceptual distributed hydrological model was developed for flood calculation based on the framework of the Xinanjiang model, which is widely used in humid and semi-humid regions in China. The developed model employs the geomorphological unit hydrograph method, which is extremely valuable when simulating the overland flow process in ungauged catchments, as compared with the original Xinanjiang model. The model was tested in the pilot study area, and the results agree with the measured data on the whole. After calibration and validation, the model is shown to be a useful tool for flash flood calculation. A practicable method for flash flood hazard mapping using the calculated peak discharge and digital elevation model data was presented, and three levels of flood hazards were classified. The resulting flash flood hazard maps indicate that the method successfully predicts the spatial distribution of flash flood hazards, and it can meet the current requirements in China.

  7. Proposed seismic hazard maps of Sumatra and Java Islands and microzonation study of Jakarta City, Indonesia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Masyhur Irsyam; Donny T Dangkua; Hendriyawan; Drajat Hoedajanto; Bigman M Hutapea; Engkon K Kertapati; Teddy Boen; Mark D Petersen

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents the development of spectral hazard maps for Sumatra and Java islands, Indonesia and microzonation study for Jakarta city. The purpose of this study is to propose a revision of the seismic hazard map in Indonesian Seismic Code SNI 03-1726-2002. Some improvements in seismic hazard analysis were implemented in the analysis by considering the recent seismic activities around Java and Sumatra. The seismic hazard analysis was carried out using 3-dimension (3-D) seismic source models (fault source model) using the latest research works regarding the tectonic setting of Sumatra and Java. Two hazard levels were analysed for representing 10% and 2% probability of exceedance (PE) in 50 years ground motions for Sumatra and Java. Peak ground acceleration contour maps for those two hazard levels and two additional macrozonation maps for 10% PE in 50 years were produced during this research. These two additional maps represent short period (0.2 s) and long-period (1.0 s) spectra values at the bedrock. Microzonation study is performed in order to obtain ground motion parameters such as acceleration, amplification factor and response spectra at the surface of Jakarta. The analyses were carried out using nonlinear approach. The results were used to develop contour of acceleration at the surface of Jakarta. Finally, the design response spectra for structural design purposes are proposed in this study.

  8. Engineering Feasibility and Trade Studies for the NASA/VSGC MicroMaps Space Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkhalik, Ossama O.; Nairouz, Bassem; Weaver, Timothy; Newman, Brett

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of airborne CO concentrations is critical for accurate scientific prediction of global scale atmospheric behavior. MicroMaps is an existing NASA owned gas filter radiometer instrument designed for space-based measurement of atmospheric CO vertical profiles. Due to programmatic changes, the instrument does not have access to the space environment and is in storage. MicroMaps hardware has significant potential for filling a critical scientific need, thus motivating concept studies for new and innovative scientific spaceflight missions that would leverage the MicroMaps heritage and investment, and contribute to new CO distribution data. This report describes engineering feasibility and trade studies for the NASA/VSGC MicroMaps Space Mission. Conceptual studies encompass: 1) overall mission analysis and synthesis methodology, 2) major subsystem studies and detailed requirements development for an orbital platform option consisting of a small, single purpose spacecraft, 3) assessment of orbital platform option consisting of the International Space Station, and 4) survey of potential launch opportunities for gaining assess to orbit. Investigations are of a preliminary first-order nature. Results and recommendations from these activities are envisioned to support future MicroMaps Mission design decisions regarding program down select options leading to more advanced and mature phases.

  9. Cognitive map in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease: a computer-generated arena study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jheng, Sheng-Siang; Pai, Ming-Chyi

    2009-06-08

    In addition to memory impairment, a tendency to get lost is among the initial symptoms in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). At least two kinds of wayfinding strategies, egocentric and allocentric, have been proposed. It is believed that people may form a cognitive map after repeated movement in a specific environment, and are able to use it as an aid to navigation. In the present study, we investigated the cognitive maps in early AD patients and their application in a computer-generated arena (CGA). We invited very mild AD (CDR 0.5) patients and normal controls (NCs) to participate in the current study. Hand-drawing tests were used to assess their supposedly previously formed cognitive maps of familiar environments, and CGA was used to measure their new environment learning as well as the application of the old map. Nineteen patients (8 females, mean age 67.6 years old, education 9.7 years, and MMSE 24) and 18 NCs (10 females, mean age 66.4 years old, education 8.8 years, and MMSE 27) completed the study. In the hand-drawing map part, both groups did equally well. In the new environment learning, NCs did better than the AD group on the third of six trials. As for the old environment navigation experiment, the AD group spent more time than the NCs in finding the target, but showed no difference to NC regarding the path traveled in the target quadrant. Early AD patients maintain their ability to use a cognitive map and keep pretty good allocentric representation of their familiar environments as well as NC do, but probably both groups do not routinely use their cognitive map to navigate in everyday life properly.

  10. IMMUNOCAT—A Data Management System for Epitope Mapping Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo L. Chung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To enable rationale vaccine design, studies of molecular and cellular mechanisms of immune recognition need to be linked with clinical studies in humans. A major challenge in conducting such translational research studies lies in the management and integration of large amounts and various types of data collected from multiple sources. For this purpose, we have established “IMMUNOCAT”, an interactive data management system for the epitope discovery research projects conducted by our group. The system provides functions to store, query, and analyze clinical and experimental data, enabling efficient, systematic, and integrative data management. We demonstrate how IMMUNOCAT is utilized in a large-scale research contract that aims to identify epitopes in common allergens recognized by T cells from human donors, in order to facilitate the rational design of allergy vaccines. At clinical sites, demographic information and disease history of each enrolled donor are captured, followed by results of an allergen skin test and blood draw. At the laboratory site, T cells derived from blood samples are tested for reactivity against a panel of peptides derived from common human allergens. IMMUNOCAT stores results from these T cell assays along with MHC:peptide binding data, results from RAST tests for antibody titers in donor serum, and the respective donor HLA typing results. Through this system, we are able to perform queries and integrated analyses of the various types of data. This provides a case study for the use of bioinformatics and information management techniques to track and analyze data produced in a translational research study aimed at epitope identification.

  11. IMMUNOCAT-a data management system for epitope mapping studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jo L; Sun, Jian; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern

    2010-01-01

    To enable rationale vaccine design, studies of molecular and cellular mechanisms of immune recognition need to be linked with clinical studies in humans. A major challenge in conducting such translational research studies lies in the management and integration of large amounts and various types of data collected from multiple sources. For this purpose, we have established "IMMUNOCAT", an interactive data management system for the epitope discovery research projects conducted by our group. The system provides functions to store, query, and analyze clinical and experimental data, enabling efficient, systematic, and integrative data management. We demonstrate how IMMUNOCAT is utilized in a large-scale research contract that aims to identify epitopes in common allergens recognized by T cells from human donors, in order to facilitate the rational design of allergy vaccines. At clinical sites, demographic information and disease history of each enrolled donor are captured, followed by results of an allergen skin test and blood draw. At the laboratory site, T cells derived from blood samples are tested for reactivity against a panel of peptides derived from common human allergens. IMMUNOCAT stores results from these T cell assays along with MHC:peptide binding data, results from RAST tests for antibody titers in donor serum, and the respective donor HLA typing results. Through this system, we are able to perform queries and integrated analyses of the various types of data. This provides a case study for the use of bioinformatics and information management techniques to track and analyze data produced in a translational research study aimed at epitope identification.

  12. On the Connections Between Surficial Processes and Stratigraphy in River Deltas

    CERN Document Server

    Puma, Michael J; Paola, Chris; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    We explore connections between surficial deltaic processes (e.g. avulsion, deposition) and the stratigraphic record using a simple numerical model of delta-plain evolution, with the aim of constraining these connections and thus improving prediction of subsurface features. The model represents channel dynamics using a simple but flexible cellular approach, and is unique in that it explicitly includes backwater effects that are known to be important in low-gradient channel networks. The patterns of channel deposits in the stratigraphic record vary spatially due to variation in avulsion statistics with radial distance from the delta's source of water and sediment. We introduce channel residence time as an important statistical measure of the surface channel kinematics. The model suggests that the mean channel residence time anywhere within the delta is nicely described by a power law distribution showing a cutoff that depends on radial distance. Thicknesses of channel deposits are not uniquely determined by the...

  13. Nature, Source and Composition of Volcanic Ash in Surficial Sediments Around the Zhongsha Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Quanshu; SHI Xuefa; WANG Xinyu

    2008-01-01

    Volcanic detrital sediments are a unique indicator for reconstructing the petrogenetie evolution of submarine volcanic terrains. Volcanic ash in surficial sediments around the Zhongsha Islands includes three kinds of volcanogenic detritus, i.e., brown volcanic glass, colorless volcanic glass and volcanic scoria. The major element characteristics show that bimodal volcanic activity may have taken place in the northern margin of the South China Sea, with brown volcanic glass and colorless volcanic glass repre-senting the maric end-member and felsie end-member, respectively. Fractional crystallization is the main process for magma evolu-tion. The nature of the volcanic activity implies that the origin of volcanic activity was related to extensional tectonic settings, which is corresponding to an extensional geodynamie setting in the Xisha Trench, and supports the notion, which is based on geophysical data and petrology, that there may exist a mantle plume around the Hainan Island.

  14. Nature and Composition of Planetary Surficial Deposits and Their Relationship to Planetary Crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, S. M.

    2010-12-01

    Planetary soils constitute micron to meter sized debris blankets covering all or parts of the surfaces of many planetary bodies. Recent results from the Martian surface, by the MER rovers and Phoenix lander, the Huygens probe at Titan and perhaps even the NEAR mission to asteroid 433 Eros suggest a continuum between classic planetary soils, such as those on the Moon, and conventional sediments, such as those on Earth. Controls on this variation are governed by complex interactions related to (1) impact and volcanic history, (2) presence and nature of atmospheres (and thus climate), (3) occurrence, composition and physical state of near-surface volatiles (e.g., water, methane), and (4) presence and nature of crustal tectonics, crustal evolution, and so forth. The Moon represents one extreme where surficial deposits result almost exclusively from impact processes. Absence of water and air restrict further reworking or transport on a significant scale after initial deposition. Disruption and mixing of lunar soils takes place but is related to impact gardening operating on relatively local scales and largely in a vertical sense; alteration is restricted to space weathering. The effect is that lunar soils are compositionally variable and match the composition of the crust in the vicinity of where they form. Thus lunar soils in the highlands are fundamentally different in composition than those on maria. Earth provides the other extreme where the highly dynamic geochemical and geophysical nature of the surface precludes preservation of classic planetary soils, although analogs may exist in ejecta blankets and eolian loess. Instead, a complex suite of sedimentary deposits form in response to chemical and physical weathering, erosion, transport and deposition by a variety of mechanisms involving water, wind, ice and biology. Although there is substantial sedimentary lithological differentiation (e.g., shales, sands, carbonates, evaporites), greatly influenced by the

  15. Preliminary investigation of groundwater flow and trichloroethene transport in the Surficial Aquifer System, Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, Fridley, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeffrey N.; Davis, J. Hal

    2016-05-16

    Industrial practices at the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, in Fridley, Minnesota, caused soil and groundwater contamination. Some volatile organic compounds from the plant might have discharged to the Mississippi River, forced by the natural hydraulic gradient in the surficial aquifer system. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency included the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant on the Superfund National Priorities List in 1989.

  16. Effects of concept map teaching on students' critical thinking and approach to learning and studying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiah-Lian; Liang, Tienli; Lee, Mei-Li; Liao, I-Chen

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of concept mapping in developing critical thinking ability and approach to learning and studying. A quasi-experimental study design with a purposive sample was drawn from a group of nursing students enrolled in a medical-surgical nursing course in central Taiwan. Students in the experimental group were taught to use concept mapping in their learning. Students in the control group were taught by means of traditional lectures. After the intervention, the experimental group had better overall critical thinking scores than did the control group, although the difference was not statistically significant. After controlling for the effects of age and the pretest score on critical thinking using analysis of covariance, the experimental group had significantly higher adjusted mean scores on inference and overall critical thinking compared with the control group. Concept mapping is an effective tool for improving students' ability to think critically.

  17. Applying Value Stream Mapping Technique for Production Improvement in a Manufacturing Company: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaraj, K. L.; Muralidharan, C.; Mahalingam, R.; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain how value stream mapping (VSM) is helpful in lean implementation and to develop the road map to tackle improvement areas to bridge the gap between the existing state and the proposed state of a manufacturing firm. Through this case study, the existing stage of manufacturing is mapped with the help of VSM process symbols and the biggest improvement areas like excessive TAKT time, production, and lead time are identified. Some modifications in current state map are suggested and with these modifications future state map is prepared. Further TAKT time is calculated to set the pace of production processes. This paper compares the current state and future state of a manufacturing firm and witnessed 20 % reduction in TAKT time, 22.5 % reduction in processing time, 4.8 % reduction in lead time, 20 % improvement in production, 9 % improvement in machine utilization, 7 % improvement in man power utilization, objective improvement in workers skill level, and no change in the product and semi finished product inventory level. The findings are limited due to the focused nature of the case study. This case study shows that VSM is a powerful tool for lean implementation and allows the industry to understand and continuously improve towards lean manufacturing.

  18. A mapping study on cooperation between information system development and operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erich, Floris; Amrit, Chintan; Daneva, Maya; Jedlitschka, Andreas; Kuvaja, Pasi; Kuhrmann, Marco; Männistö, Tomi; Münch, Jürgen; Raatikainen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    DevOps is a conceptual framework for reintegrating development and operations of Information Systems.We performed a Systematic Mapping Study to explore DevOps. 26 articles out of 139 were selected, studied and summarized. Based on this a concept table was constructed. We discovered that DevOps has n

  19. Mapping the Journey from Home to School: A Study on Children's Representation of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thommen, Evelyne; Avelar, Silvania; Sapin, Veronique Zbinden; Perrenoud, Silvia; Malatesta, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a study conducted with 235 children from Brazil and Switzerland. The children, from 5 to 13 years of age, were asked to draw the journey they undertake every day from home to school. The purpose of the study is to understand the relationship between the cognitive development and map-drawing abilities of children in both…

  20. A genome-wide SNP panel for mapping and association studies in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, Isaäc J; Kuipers, Sylvia; Verheul, Mark; Guryev, Victor; Cuppen, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an important model for human disease, and is extensively used for studying complex traits for example in the physiological and pharmacological fields. To facilitate genetic studies like QTL mapping, genetic makers that can be easily typed, like S

  1. A genome-wide SNP panel for mapping and association studies in the rat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, I.J.; Kuipers, S.; Verheul, M.; Guryev, V.; Cuppen, E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an important model for human disease, and is extensively used for studying complex traits for example in the physiological and pharmacological fields. To facilitate genetic studies like QTL mapping, genetic makers that can be easily typed, like S

  2. A Mapping Study on Cooperation between Information System Development and Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erich, Floris; Amrit, Chintan Amrit; Daneva, Maia; Jedlitschka, Andreas; Kuvaja, Pasi; Kuhrmann, Marco; Männistö, Tomi; Münch, Jürgen; Raatikainen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    DevOps is a conceptual framework for reintegrating development and operations of Information Systems.We performed a Systematic Mapping Study to explore DevOps. 26 articles out of 139 were selected, studied and summarized. Based on this a concept table was constructed. We discovered that DevOps has

  3. Multibeam Sonar Mapping and Modeling of a Submerged Bryophyte Mat in Crater Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Peter; Collier, Robert; Buktenica, Mark; Jessup, Steven; Girdner, Scott; Triezenberg, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, multibeam data have been used to map sea floor or lake floor morphology as well as the distribution of surficial facies in order to characterize the geologic component of benthic habitats. In addition to using multibeam data for geologic studies, we want to determine if these data can also be used directly to map the distribution of biota. Multibeam bathymetry and acoustic backscatter data collected in Crater Lake, Oregon, in 2000 are used to map the distribution of a deep-water bryophyte mat, which will be extremely useful for understanding the overall ecology of the lake. To map the bryophyte's distribution, depth range, acoustic backscatter intensity, and derived bathymetric index grids are used as inputs into a hierarchical decision-tree classification model. Observations of the bryophyte mat from over 23 line kilometers of lake-floor video collected in the summer of 2006 are used as controls for the model. The resulting map matches well with ground-truth information and shows that the bryophyte mat covers most of the platform surrounding Wizard Island as well as on outcrops around the caldera wall.

  4. CMBPol Mission Concept Study: A Mission to Map our Origins

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Daniel; Dodelson, Scott; Dunkley, Joanna; Fraisse, Aurélien A; Jackson, Mark G; Kogut, Al; Krauss, Lawrence M; Smith, Kendrick M; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2008-01-01

    Quantum mechanical metric fluctuations during an early inflationary phase of the universe leave a characteristic imprint in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The amplitude of this signal depends on the energy scale at which inflation occurred. Detailed observations by a dedicated satellite mission (CMBPol) therefore provide information about energy scales as high as $10^{15}$ GeV, twelve orders of magnitude greater than the highest energies accessible to particle accelerators, and probe the earliest moments in the history of the universe. This summary provides an overview of a set of studies exploring the scientific payoff of CMBPol in diverse areas of modern cosmology, such as the physics of inflation, gravitational lensing and cosmic reionization, as well as foreground science and removal .

  5. Mars geologic mapping program: Review and highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David H.

    1991-06-01

    The Mars Geologic Mapping (MGM) Program was introduced by NASA in 1987 as a new initiative in the Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) Program. The overall purpose of the program is to support research on topical science problems that address specific questions. Among the objectives of the project are: (1) to produce highly detailed geologic maps that will greatly increase the knowledge of the materials and processes that have contributed to the evolutionary history of Mars; (2) to define areas of special interest for possible future investigation by planned missions (Mars Observer, Mars Sample Return); and (3) to maintain the interest of the planetary community in the development of new concepts and the re-evaluation of Martian geology as new data in usable form become available. Some interesting highlights of the geologic mapping indicate that multiple flood episodes occurred at different times during the Hesperian Period in both Kasei and Maja Valles. Studies of small channels in the Memnonia, Mangala, and Tharsis regions show that fluvial events appear to have occurred during the Amazonian Period at equatorial latitudes. Flood waters occurred during the Amazonian Period at equatorial latitudes. Flood waters from Mangala Valles may have seeped into surficial materials with the subsequent development of numerous sapping channels and debris flows; this suggests that the ancient highland terrain consists of relatively unconsolidated materials. Multiple layers were observed for the first time in the ridged plains lava flows covering large areas of Lunae Planum; some wrinkle ridges in this area are associated with grabens and collapse volcanic units at Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae indicates that the units may have been emplaced by gravity-driven pyroclastic flows. Unlike the north polar layered deposits, those in the south polar region show no angular unconformities or evidence of faulting and folding. Water ice in the south polar layered deposits may be protected

  6. Mars geologic mapping program: Review and highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David H.

    1991-01-01

    The Mars Geologic Mapping (MGM) Program was introduced by NASA in 1987 as a new initiative in the Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) Program. The overall purpose of the program is to support research on topical science problems that address specific questions. Among the objectives of the project are: (1) to produce highly detailed geologic maps that will greatly increase the knowledge of the materials and processes that have contributed to the evolutionary history of Mars; (2) to define areas of special interest for possible future investigation by planned missions (Mars Observer, Mars Sample Return); and (3) to maintain the interest of the planetary community in the development of new concepts and the re-evaluation of Martian geology as new data in usable form become available. Some interesting highlights of the geologic mapping indicate that multiple flood episodes occurred at different times during the Hesperian Period in both Kasei and Maja Valles. Studies of small channels in the Memnonia, Mangala, and Tharsis regions show that fluvial events appear to have occurred during the Amazonian Period at equatorial latitudes. Flood waters occurred during the Amazonian Period at equatorial latitudes. Flood waters from Mangala Valles may have seeped into surficial materials with the subsequent development of numerous sapping channels and debris flows; this suggests that the ancient highland terrain consists of relatively unconsolidated materials. Multiple layers were observed for the first time in the ridged plains lava flows covering large areas of Lunae Planum; some wrinkle ridges in this area are associated with grabens and collapse volcanic units at Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae indicates that the units may have been emplaced by gravity-driven pyroclastic flows. Unlike the north polar layered deposits, those in the south polar region show no angular unconformities or evidence of faulting and folding. Water ice in the south polar layered deposits may be protected

  7. Feasibility study of geospatial mapping of chronic disease risk to inform public health commissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Douglas; Smith, Dianna; Mathur, Rohini; Robson, John; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2012-01-01

    small-area geospatial maps of diabetes risk calculated from general practice electronic record data across a district-wide population was feasible but not straightforward. Geovisualisation of epidemiological and environmental data, made possible by interdisciplinary links between public health clinicians and human geographers, allows presentation of findings in a way that is both accessible and engaging, hence potentially of value to commissioners and policymakers. Impact studies are needed of how maps of chronic disease risk might be used in public health and urban planning.

  8. Effect of a study map intended to support informed consent in transplant research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foradori, Megan A; Nolan, Marie T

    2012-03-01

    Research participants' informed consent is integral to the protection of human subjects; studies exploring the enhancement of standard informed consent processes have had mixed success in increasing patients' understanding of complex research protocols. To determine the effect of a "study map," a flow diagram of a research protocol, on research participants' understanding of research purpose and procedures. This study was an experimental posttest-only design using 30 research participants enrolling in a study of decision making and recovery among living kidney donors. Participants were randomly assigned to the standard care group (verbal description with consent documents) or the experimental group (standard of care plus study map). An instrument measured perceived and objective understanding, and the differences between groups were determined by an independent t test. The high level of comprehension in the control group made detecting improvements in understanding difficult. Objective knowledge and perceived understanding were positively related, suggesting the importance of periodically confirming comprehension with research participants during the informed consent process. Future research should examine the effect of study maps in patients with lower educational levels. Knowledge levels were high in all participants (mean objective = 3.7 on a 5-point scale, SD = 1.02; mean subjective = 9.3 on a 10-point scale, SD = 1.29). There was a significant relationship between objective knowledge and perceived understanding (r = 0.56, P = .001); however, the study map itself had no significant effect on objective or perceived understanding.

  9. A Study of Concept Mapping as an Instructional Intervention in an Undergraduate General Chemistry Calorimetry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Mary W.

    This investigation, rooted in both chemistry and education, considers outcomes occurring in a small-scale study in which concept mapping was used as an instructional intervention in an undergraduate calorimetry laboratory. A quasi-experimental, multiple-methods approach was employed since the research questions posed in this study warranted the use of both qualitative and quantitative perspectives and evaluations. For the intervention group of students, a convenience sample, post-lab concept maps, written discussions, quiz responses and learning surveys were characterized and evaluated. Archived quiz responses for non-intervention students were also analyzed for comparison. Students uniquely constructed individual concept maps containing incorrect, conceptually correct and "scientifically thin" calorimetry characterizations. Students more greatly emphasized mathematical relationships and equations utilized during the calorimetry experiment; the meaning of calorimetry concepts was demonstrated to a lesser extent.

  10. Including non-public data and studies in systematic reviews and systematic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddaway, Neal R; Collins, Alexandra M; Coughlin, Deborah; Kohl, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Systematic reviews and maps should be based on the best available evidence, and reviewers should make all reasonable efforts to source and include potentially relevant studies. However, reviewers may not be able to consider all existing evidence, since some data and studies may not be publicly available. Including non-public studies in reviews provides a valuable opportunity to increase systematic review/map comprehensiveness, potentially mitigating negative impacts of publication bias. Studies may be non-public for many reasons: some may still be in the process of being published (publication can take a long time); some may not be published due to author/publisher restrictions; publication bias may make it difficult to publish non-significant or negative results. Here, we consider what forms these non-public studies may take and the implications of including them in systematic reviews and maps. Reviewers should carefully consider the advantages and disadvantages of including non-public studies, weighing risks of bias against benefits of increased comprehensiveness. As with all systematic reviews and maps, reviewers must be transparent about methods used to obtain data and avoid risks of bias in their synthesis. We make tentative suggestions for reviewers in situations where non-public data may be present in an evidence base.

  11. Development and Experimental Study of Phantoms for Mapping Skin Chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silapetere, A.; Spigulis, J.; Saknite, I.

    2014-06-01

    Skin chromophore phantoms are widely used for better understanding of the light interaction with tissue and for calibration of skin diagnostic imaging techniques. In this work, different phantoms were examined and compared in order to find biologically equivalent substances that are the most promising for this purpose. For mimicking the skin medium and layered structure, a fibrin matrix with epidermal and dermal cell inclusion was used. Synthesized bilirubin, red blood cells and nigrosin were taken as absorbers. For spectral analysis of the developed phantoms a computer-aided multispectral imaging system Nuance 2.4 (Cambridge Research & Instrumentation, Inc., USA) was used. In this study, skin phantoms were created using such substances as bilirubin, melanin, haemoglobin and nigrosin Mūsdienās multispektrālās attēlošanas iekārtas izmanto ādas parametru un fizioloģisko procesu aprakstīšanai gan pētniecības, gan diagnostikas nolūkiem. Iekārtu darbības uzlabošanai ir nepieciešams labāk saprast gaismas mijiedarbību ar audiem, kā arī veikt šo iekārtu kalibrēšanu ar ādas maketu. Redzamā un tuvā infrasarkanā optiskā diapazona spektroskopijā ir svarīgi ādas maketi, kas simulē audu slāņaino struktūru un ķīmiskās īpašības, kā arī maketi, kas ir bioloģiski līdzvērtīgi. Šajā pētījumā tika izveidots ādas makets no bioloģiskām un ķīmiski sintezētām struktūrām. Ādas maketa izveidei tika izmantota fibrīna matrica ar dermālo un epidermālo šūnu piejaukumu, lai imitētu ādas slāņaino struktūru. Fibrīna matrica tiek veidota no 0,47 ml asins plazmas, 0,4 ml fizioloģiskā šķīduma, 0,8 μl treneksāmskābes un 89,4 μl kalcija glukanāta. Izveidoto matricu ievieto šūnu inkubatorā, lai tā polimerizētos. Nākošais slānis tiek veidots ar dermālo šūnu piejaukumu (180-270 šūnas), un pēdējais fibrīna matriksa slānis tiek veidots ar epidermālo šūnu piejaukumu (270 šūnas) un šūnu aug

  12. The role of photogeologic mapping in traverse planning: lessons learned from DRATS 2010 activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, James A.; Fortezzo, Corey M.

    2013-01-01

    We produced a 1:24,000 scale photogeologic map of the Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) 2010 simulated lunar mission traverse area and surrounding environments located within the northeastern part of the San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF), north-central Arizona. To mimic an exploratory mission, we approached the region "blindly" by rejecting prior knowledge or preconceived notions of the regional geologic setting and focused instead only on image and topographic base maps that were intended to be equivalent to pre-cursor mission "orbital returns". We used photogeologic mapping techniques equivalent to those employed during the construction of modern planetary geologic maps. Based on image and topographic base maps, we identified 4 surficial units (talus, channel, dissected, and plains units), 5 volcanic units (older cone, younger cone, older flow, younger flow, and block field units), and 5 basement units (grey-toned mottled, red-toned platy, red-toned layered, light-toned slabby, and light-toned layered units). Comparison of our remote-based map units with published field-based map units indicates that the two techniques yield pervasively similar results of contrasting detail, with higher accuracies linked to remote-based units that have high topographic relief and tonal contrast relative to adjacent units. We list key scientific questions that remained after photogeologic mapping and prior to DRATS activities and identify 13 specific observations that the crew and science team would need to make in order to address those questions and refine the interpreted geologic context. We translated potential observations into 62 recommended sites for visitation and observation during the mission traverse. The production and use of a mission-specific photogeologic map for DRATS 2010 activities resulted in strategic and tactical recommendations regarding observational context and hypothesis tracking over the course of an exploratory mission.

  13. Mapping perception to action in piano practice: a longitudinal DC-EEG study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangert Marc

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Performing music requires fast auditory and motor processing. Regarding professional musicians, recent brain imaging studies have demonstrated that auditory stimulation produces a co-activation of motor areas, whereas silent tapping of musical phrases evokes a co-activation in auditory regions. Whether this is obtained via a specific cerebral relay station is unclear. Furthermore, the time course of plasticity has not yet been addressed. Results Changes in cortical activation patterns (DC-EEG potentials induced by short (20 minute and long term (5 week piano learning were investigated during auditory and motoric tasks. Two beginner groups were trained. The 'map' group was allowed to learn the standard piano key-to-pitch map. For the 'no-map' group, random assignment of keys to tones prevented such a map. Auditory-sensorimotor EEG co-activity occurred within only 20 minutes. The effect was enhanced after 5-week training, contributing elements of both perception and action to the mental representation of the instrument. The 'map' group demonstrated significant additional activity of right anterior regions. Conclusion We conclude that musical training triggers instant plasticity in the cortex, and that right-hemispheric anterior areas provide an audio-motor interface for the mental representation of the keyboard.

  14. Development of PowerMap: a software package for statistical power calculation in neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Karen E; Hayasaka, Satoru

    2012-10-01

    Although there are a number of statistical software tools for voxel-based massively univariate analysis of neuroimaging data, such as fMRI (functional MRI), PET (positron emission tomography), and VBM (voxel-based morphometry), very few software tools exist for power and sample size calculation for neuroimaging studies. Unlike typical biomedical studies, outcomes from neuroimaging studies are 3D images of correlated voxels, requiring a correction for massive multiple comparisons. Thus, a specialized power calculation tool is needed for planning neuroimaging studies. To facilitate this process, we developed a software tool specifically designed for neuroimaging data. The software tool, called PowerMap, implements theoretical power calculation algorithms based on non-central random field theory. It can also calculate power for statistical analyses with FDR (false discovery rate) corrections. This GUI (graphical user interface)-based tool enables neuroimaging researchers without advanced knowledge in imaging statistics to calculate power and sample size in the form of 3D images. In this paper, we provide an overview of the statistical framework behind the PowerMap tool. Three worked examples are also provided, a regression analysis, an ANOVA (analysis of variance), and a two-sample T-test, in order to demonstrate the study planning process with PowerMap. We envision that PowerMap will be a great aide for future neuroimaging research.

  15. Evidence for natural molecular hydrogen seepage associated with Carolina bays (surficial, ovoid depressions on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Province of the USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgonnik, Viacheslav; Beaumont, Valérie; Deville, Eric; Larin, Nikolay; Pillot, Daniel; Farrell, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-01

    A study of soil gases was made in North Carolina (USA) in and around morphological depressions called "Carolina bays." This type of depression is observed over the Atlantic coastal plains of the USA, but their origin remains debated. Significant concentrations of molecular hydrogen (H2) were detected, notably around the bays. These measurements suggest that Carolina bays are the surficial expression of fluid flow pathways for hydrogen gas moving from depth to the surface. The potential mechanisms of H2 production and transport and the geological controls on the fluid migration pathways are discussed, with reference to the hypothesis that Carolina bays are the result of local collapses caused by the alteration of rock along the deep pathways of H2 migrating towards the surface. The present H2 seepages are comparable to those in similar structures previously observed in the East European craton.

  16. Heavy metal concentrations in the soft tissues of swan mussel (Anodonta cygnea) and surficial sediments from Anzali wetland, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourang, N; Richardson, C A; Mortazavi, M S

    2010-04-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, copper, and lead were determined in surficial sediments and the soft tissues (foot and gills) of swan mussel Anodonta cygnea from two sampling sites in Anzali wetland, which is an internationally important wetland registered in the Ramsar Convention. The metal contents in the mussel species from the studied region were comparable to other world areas. In most cases, the levels of the metals either fell within the range for other areas or were lower. There were significant differences between the tissues for the accumulation of Cd and Pb. Only in the case of Pb accumulation in gills significant differences between the specimens from the selected sampling sites could be observed. Age-related correlations were found in the case of Cu accumulation in foot and Cd levels in gills. No weight-dependent trend could be observed for the accumulation of the three elements. There was significant negative width-dependent relationship in the case of Cu. A significant negative correlation was also found between the maximum shell height and Cu accumulation in the gills. The only association among the elements in the selected soft tissues was found between Cd and Pb. Highly significant differences could be found between the sampling sites from the concentration of the elements in sediments point of view. The pattern of metal occurrence in the selected tissues and sediments exhibited the following descending order: Pb, Cu>Cd for gills, Cu>Pb, Cd for foot, and Cu>Pb>Cd for sediments. The mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in the sediments from the study area were higher than the global baseline values and world average shale. In the case of Cu, our results were somewhat higher than the baseline values but well below the world average shale.

  17. The Study of Insurance Premium Rate GIS Mapping Considering the Storm and Flood Hazard Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. S.; Lee, I. S.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the number of natural disaster occurrence is increasing because of abnormal changes of weather in Korea. In Korea the storm and flood insurance system is in effect to prevent these natural disasters. The national storm and flood insurance Premium rate is very low and the risk of adverse selection resides because of choosing by who lives in high risk area. To solve these problems, the storm and flood insurance rate map are required. In this study, the prototype of storm and flood insurance premium rate map of the Ulsan, Korea was made and the method of GIS analysis for the insurance premium rate calculating and the procedure of the Ulsan storm and flood insurance rate map were researched.

  18. Aspects of the resilience and settlement of refugee youth: a narrative study using body maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charity Davy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The primary concern of this study is to assist refugee youths in telling their transition story through art in order to understand facilitators and barriers to successful settlement in Ontario, Canada. Methods: This article briefly explains a new approach to visual methodologies, body mapping. Body maps are life-size human body images created through drawing, painting or other art-based techniques and can be developed with different purposes. In this project, these artifacts were used to elicit refugee youths’ life stories in a more neutral and meaningful way than standard interviews. Results: The participants’ migration journey is described in three phases: (1 pre-arrival; (2 arrival; and (3 settlement. Each participant is presented in a brief narrative story. The main themes presented in the data are discussed, namely faith, family, education, and future. Finally, the body maps and their application in health research addressing sites of (a production, (b image, and (c audience are examined.

  19. THE STUDY OF INSURANCE PREMIUM RATE GIS MAPPING CONSIDERING THE STORM AND FLOOD HAZARD RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the number of natural disaster occurrence is increasing because of abnormal changes of weather in Korea. In Korea the storm and flood insurance system is in effect to prevent these natural disasters. The national storm and flood insurance Premium rate is very low and the risk of adverse selection resides because of choosing by who lives in high risk area. To solve these problems, the storm and flood insurance rate map are required. In this study, the prototype of storm and flood insurance premium rate map of the Ulsan, Korea was made and the method of GIS analysis for the insurance premium rate calculating and the procedure of the Ulsan storm and flood insurance rate map were researched.

  20. Studies of phase return map and symbolic dynamics in a periodically driven Hodgkin—Huxley neuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiong; Zhang, Hong; Tong, Qin-Ye; Chen, Zhuo

    2014-02-01

    How neuronal spike trains encode external information is a hot topic in neurodynamics studies. In this paper, we investigate the dynamical states of the Hodgkin—Huxley neuron under periodic forcing. Depending on the parameters of the stimulus, the neuron exhibits periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic spike trains. In order to analyze these spike trains quantitatively, we use the phase return map to describe the dynamical behavior on a one-dimensional (1D) map. According to the monotonicity or discontinuous point of the 1D map, the spike trains are transformed into symbolic sequences by implementing a coarse-grained algorithm — symbolic dynamics. Based on the ordering rules of symbolic dynamics, the parameters of the external stimulus can be measured in high resolution with finite length symbolic sequences. A reasonable explanation for why the nervous system can discriminate or cognize the small change of the external signals in a short time is also presented.

  1. Studies of Approximated Log-MAP Turbo Decoders%近似Log-MAP turbo译码器研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳; 刘星成; 张晓瑜; 张光昭

    2005-01-01

    该文研究近似Log-MAP算法在turbo译码器中的应用.文章对基于近似算法的WCDMA turbo译码器在AWGN信道和平坦慢衰落Rayleigh信道上的纠错性能进行了仿真.仿真结果表明,二阶近似Log-MAP turbo译码器与MAP turbo译码器性能等价,优于SOVA turbo译码器0.7-0.9dB.

  2. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for futures studies : a methodological assessment of concepts and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetter, J.J.; Kok, K.

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) modelling is highly suitable for the demands of future studies: it uses a mix of qualitative and quantitative approaches, it enables the inclusion of multiple and diverse sources to overcome the limitations of expert opinions, it considers multivariate interactions that lea

  3. An Evaluation of the Nystrom Map and Globe Study Skills Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokane School District 81, WA.

    During the 1975-76 school year the Nystrom Map and Globe Study Skills Program was pilot tested by approximately 1,400 students in three elementary schools in Spokane, Washington. The program is a continuous progress program based upon a series of sequential instructional objectives. Major objectives of the program were to help students develop…

  4. A concept mapping study on perpetuating factors of functional somatic symptoms from clinicians' perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Karin A M; Houtveen, Jan H; Tak, Lineke M; Bonvanie, Irma J; Scholtalbers, Anna; van Gils, Anne; Geenen, Rinie; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this concept mapping study was to identify the structure and alleged importance of perpetuating factors of functional somatic symptoms (FSS) from the perspective of professionals. Further, we examined to which extent these factors have been addressed in scientific literature. M

  5. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for futures studies : a methodological assessment of concepts and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetter, J.J.; Kok, K.

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) modelling is highly suitable for the demands of future studies: it uses a mix of qualitative and quantitative approaches, it enables the inclusion of multiple and diverse sources to overcome the limitations of expert opinions, it considers multivariate interactions that

  6. Investigating suburban environment by means of mental maps: a case study of Olomouc hinterland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Bioleka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Suburbanization as a key process transforming the hinterland of cities has been researched by human geographers for a long time. The study of suburbanization involves the application of a wide spectrum of methods or analytic tools falling within the groups of quantitative, qualitative and combined approaches. One of the possibilities to study this process is mental mapping that we primarily use as an instrument for examining the character of suburban environment, its perception by local inhabitants, their experience of and relation to the place of living. The aim of this study is to look at the environment of the suburban municipalities in the hinterland of Olomouc by means of mental mapping. We use concrete examples of sketches to describe and interpret the outputs of perception of the researched suburban municipalities and their components by local inhabitants. Despite schematization, incompleteness or distortion, the results of the study prove that character of their mental maps mostly depends on how much time the inhabitants spend in their municipalities, whether they participate in the collective life or use a map of the municipality and what their relation to place of living is.

  7. A Study of Kindergarten Children's Spatial Representation in a Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Genevieve A.; Hyun, Eunsook

    2005-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined kindergarten children's development of spatial representation in a year long mapping project. Findings and discussion relative to how children conceptualised and represented physical space are presented in light of theoretical notions advanced by Piaget, van Hiele, and cognitive science researchers Battista and…

  8. Using MatContM in the study of a nonlinear map in economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neirynck, Niels; Al-Hdaibat, Bashir; Govaerts, Willy; Kouznetsov, Yuri A.; Meijer, Hil G.E.

    2016-01-01

    MatContM is a MATLAB interactive toolbox for the numerical study of iterated smooth maps, their Lyapunov exponents, fixed points, and periodic, homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits as well as their stable and unstable invariant manifolds. The bifurcation analysis is based on continuation methods, trac

  9. Using MatContM in the study of a nonlinear map in economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neirynck, N.; Al Hdaibat, Bashir; Govaerts, W.; Kuznetsov, Yu.A.; Meijer, H.G.E.

    2016-01-01

    MatContM is a MATLAB interactive toolbox for the numerical study of iterated smooth maps, their Lyapunov exponents, fixed points, and periodic, homoclinic and heteroclitic orbits as well as their stable and unstable invariant manifolds. The bifurcation analysis is based on continuation methods, trac

  10. Landslide hazard mapping by multivariate statistics: comparison of methods and case study in the Spanish Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beguería, S.; Lorente, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper, written as a deliverable of the DAMOCLES project, is a review of the different existing methodologies to landslide hazard mapping by multivariate statistics. Within the DAMOCLES project, multivariate statistical models have been applied to different study regions in Italy and Spain. The

  11. Comment on "Retrieval practice produces more learning than elaborative studying with concept mapping".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzes, Joel J; Canas, Alberto; Coffey, John; Gorman, James; Gurley, Laine; Hoffman, Robert; McGuire, Saundra Y; Miller, Norma; Moon, Brian; Trifone, James; Wandersee, James H

    2011-10-28

    Karpicke and Blunt (Reports, 11 February 2011, p. 772) reported that retrieval practice produces greater gains in learning than elaborative studying with concept mapping and concluded that this strategy is a powerful way to promote meaningful learning of complex concepts commonly found in science education. We question their findings on methodological and epistemological grounds.

  12. Inundation mapping – a study based on December 2004 Tsunami Hazard along Chennai coast, Southeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Satheesh Kumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Tsunami impact study has been undertaken along Chennai coast starting from Pulicat to Kovalam. The study area Chennai coast is mainly devoted to prepare large scale action plan maps on tsunami inundation incorporating land use details derived from satellite data along with cadastral data using a GIS tool. Under tsunami inundation mapping along Chennai coast an integrated approach was adopted to prepare thematic maps on land use/land cover and coastal geomorphology using multispectral remote sensing data. The RTK dGPS instruments are used to collect elevation contour data at 0.5 m intervals for the Chennai coast. The GIS tool has been used to incorporate the elevation data, tsunami inundation markings obtained immediately after tsunami and thematic maps derived from remote sensing data. The outcome of this study provides an important clue on variations in tsunami inundation along Chennai coast, which is mainly controlled by local geomorphologic set-up, coastal zone elevation including coastal erosion protection measures and near shore bathymetry. This study highlights the information regarding most vulnerable areas of tsunami and also provides indication to demarcate suitable sites for rehabilitation.

  13. Tag SNP selection for candidate gene association studies using HapMap and gene resequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zongli; Kaplan, Norman L; Taylor, Jack A

    2007-10-01

    HapMap provides linkage disequilibrium (LD) information on a sample of 3.7 million SNPs that can be used for tag SNP selection in whole-genome association studies. HapMap can also be used for tag SNP selection in candidate genes, although its performance has yet to be evaluated against gene resequencing data, where there is near-complete SNP ascertainment. The Environmental Genome Project (EGP) is the largest gene resequencing effort to date with over 500 resequenced genes. We used HapMap data to select tag SNPs and calculated the proportions of common SNPs (MAF>or=0.05) tagged (rho2>or=0.8) for each of 127 EGP Panel 2 genes where individual ethnic information was available. Median gene-tagging proportions are 50, 80 and 74% for African, Asian, and European groups, respectively. These low gene-tagging proportions may be problematic for some candidate gene studies. In addition, although HapMap targeted nonsynonymous SNPs (nsSNPs), we estimate only approximately 30% of nonsynonymous SNPs in EGP are in high LD with any HapMap SNP. We show that gene-tagging proportions can be improved by adding a relatively small number of tag SNPs that were selected based on resequencing data. We also demonstrate that ethnic-mixed data can be used to improve HapMap gene-tagging proportions, but are not as efficient as ethnic-specific data. Finally, we generalized the greedy algorithm proposed by Carlson et al (2004) to select tag SNPs for multiple populations and implemented the algorithm into a freely available software package mPopTag.

  14. Polynomial mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Narkiewicz, Wŀadysŀaw

    1995-01-01

    The book deals with certain algebraic and arithmetical questions concerning polynomial mappings in one or several variables. Algebraic properties of the ring Int(R) of polynomials mapping a given ring R into itself are presented in the first part, starting with classical results of Polya, Ostrowski and Skolem. The second part deals with fully invariant sets of polynomial mappings F in one or several variables, i.e. sets X satisfying F(X)=X . This includes in particular a study of cyclic points of such mappings in the case of rings of algebrai integers. The text contains several exercises and a list of open problems.

  15. Disease mapping and risk assessment in veterinary parasitology: some case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cringoli, G; Rinaldi, L; Veneziano, V; Musella, V

    2005-03-01

    Disease mapping and risk assessment are important tasks in the area of medical and veterinary epidemiology. The development of methods for mapping diseases has progressed considerably in recent years. Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS), and Spatial Analysis represent new tools for the study of epidemiology, and their application to parasitology has become more and more advanced, in particular to study the spatial and temporal patterns of diseases. The present review highlights the usefulness of GIS and RS in veterinary parasitology in order to better know the epidemiology of parasite organisms, causing either snail/arthropod borne diseases or direct transmissible diseases, mostly in small areas with a strong impact by man. It demonstrates the potential of these technologies to serve as effective tools for: data capture, mapping and analysis for the development of descriptive parasitological maps; studying the environmental features that influence the distribution of parasites; predicting parasite occurrence/seasonality based on their environmental requirements and as decision support for disease intervention; and surveillance and monitoring of animal diseases.

  16. A genome-wide SNP panel for mapping and association studies in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guryev Victor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus is an important model for human disease, and is extensively used for studying complex traits for example in the physiological and pharmacological fields. To facilitate genetic studies like QTL mapping, genetic makers that can be easily typed, like SNPs, are essential. Results A genome-wide set of 820 SNP assays was designed for the KASPar genotyping platform, which uses a technique based on allele specific oligo extension and energy transfer-based detection. SNPs were chosen to be equally spread along all chromosomes except Y and to be polymorphic between Brown Norway and SS or Wistar rat strains based on data from the rat HapMap EU project. This panel was tested on 38 rats of 34 different strains and 3 wild rats to determine the level of polymorphism and to generate a phylogenetic network to show their genetic relationships. As a proof of principle we used this panel to map an obesity trait in Zucker rats and confirmed significant linkage (LOD 122 to chromosome 5: 119–129 Mb, where the leptin receptor gene (Lepr is located (chr5: 122 Mb. Conclusion We provide a fast and cost-effective platform for genome-wide SNP typing, which can be used for first-pass genetic mapping and association studies in a wide variety of rat strains.

  17. Flood hazard mapping by integrating airborne laser scanning data, high resolution images and large scale maps: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, P.; G. Gonçalves; Gomes Pereira, L.; Moreira, M.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment and management of flood risks framework impose the mapping of flood hazard in potential flood risks areas. Floods in urban environments may happen due to rainfall extreme events and be exacerbated by saturated or impervious surfaces. Flood risk is greater in urban areas. (...)

  18. Utilization of Historical Maps in the Land Use Change Impact Studies: A Case Study from Myjava River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, P.; Rončák, P.; Maliariková, M.; Behan, Š.

    2016-12-01

    The way land is used has a significant impact on many hydrological processes that determine the generation of flood runoff or soil erosion. Advancements in remote sensing which took place in the second half of the 20th century have led to the rise of a new research area focused on analyses of land use changes and their impact on hydrological processes. This study deals with an analysis of the changes in land use over a period of almost three centuries in the Myjava River catchment, which has an outlet at Šaštín-Stráže. In order to obtain information about the way the land was used in the past, three historical mappings representing various periods were used: the first (1st) military mapping (1764-1787), second (2nd) military mapping (1807-1869), and a military topographic mapping (1953-1957). The historical mappings have been manually vectorised in an ArcGIS environment to identify various land use categories. The historical evolution of land use was further compared with a concurrent land use mapping, which was undertaken in 2010 and exploited remote sensing techniques. The study also quantifies the impact of these changes on the long-term catchment runoff as well as their impact on flows induced by extreme precipitation events. This analysis was performed using the WetSpa distributed hydrological model, which enables the simulation of catchment runoff in a daily time step. The analysis showed that the selected catchment has undergone significant changes in land use, mainly characterized by massive deforestation at the end of the 18th century and land consolidation in the middle of the 20th century induced by communist collectivisation. The hydrological simulations demonstrated that the highest and lowest mean annual runoffs were simulated in the first (1st military mapping) and the last (concurrent land use monitoring) time intervals respectively with the smallest and largest percentages of forested areas.

  19. The HapMap and genome-wide association studies in diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolio, Teri A; Collins, Francis S

    2009-01-01

    The International HapMap Project produced a genome-wide database of human genetic variation for use in genetic association studies of common diseases. The initial output of these studies has been overwhelming, with over 150 risk loci identified in studies of more than 60 common diseases and traits. These associations have suggested previously unsuspected etiologic pathways for common diseases that will be of use in identifying new therapeutic targets and developing targeted interventions based on genetically defined risk. Here we examine the development and application of the HapMap to genome-wide association (GWA) studies; present and future technologies for GWA research; current major efforts in GWA studies; successes and limitations of the GWA approach in identifying polymorphisms related to complex diseases; data release and privacy polices; use of these findings by clinicians, the public, and academic physicians; and sources of ongoing authoritative information on this rapidly evolving field.

  20. Attributes for NHDPlus catchments (version 1.1) for the conterminous United States: surficial geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the area of surficial geology types in square meters compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set is the "Digital data set describing surficial geology in the conterminous US" (Clawges and Price, 1999). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 4, 5, 7 and 9. MRB4, covering the Missouri River

  1. Seasonal mercury transformation and surficial sediment detoxification by bacteria of Marano and Grado lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Franco; Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide; Fani, Renato; Maida, Isabel; Horvat, Milena; Fajon, Vesna; Zizek, Suzana; Hines, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Marano and Grado lagoons are polluted by mercury from the Isonzo River and a chlor-alkali plant, yet despite this contamination, clam cultivation is one of the main activities in the region. Four stations (MA, MB, MC and GD) were chosen for clam seeding and surficial sediments were monitored in autumn, winter and summer to determine the Hg detoxifying role of bacteria. Biotransformation of Hg species in surficial sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons was investigated while taking into consideration the speciation of organic matter in the biochemical classes of PRT (proteins), CHO (carbohydrates) and LIP (lipids), water-washed cations and anions, bacterial biomass, Hg-resistant bacteria, some specific microbial activities such as sulfate reduction rates, Hg methylation rates, Hg-demethylation rates, and enzymatic ionic Hg reduction. MeHg in sediments was well correlated with PRT content, whereas total Hg in sediments correlated with numbers of Hg-resistant bacteria. Correlations of the latter with Hg-demethylation rates in autumn and winter suggested a direct role Hg-resistant bacteria in Hg detoxification by producing elemental Hg (Hg0) from ionic Hg and probably also from MeHg. MeHg-demethylation rates were ˜10 times higher than Hg methylation rates, were highest in summer and correlated with high sulfate reduction rates indicating that MeHg was probably degraded in summer by sulfate-reducing bacteria via an oxidative pathway. During the summer period, aerobic heterotrophic Hg-resistant bacteria decreased to Staphylococcus and Bacillus) and two Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas). Two were able to produce Hg0, but just one contained a merA gene; while other two strains did not produce Hg0 even though they were able to grow at 5 μg ml of HgCl2. Lagoon sediments support a strong sulfur cycle in summer that controls Hg methylation and demethylation. However, during winter, Hg-resistant bacteria that are capable of degrading MeHg via the mer

  2. Soil mapping and classification: a case study in the Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Harb Rabia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil map is one of the basic tools in any agricultural development planning and generating a digital one is even more effective and more productive for natural resources evaluation. Moreover, remote sensing and GIS have added to soil classification different concept and enforcement. The study aim was to produce digital soil maps for the study area following different classification systems (ST and WRB and to define the spatial distribution and characteristics all the soil classes in the study area, which will be indispensable for future development planning. This work has been done as a part of the 29th Course Professional Master in IAO institution, Florence, Italy. The study area was Kilte Awulaelo district in Tigray region, Ethiopia, Which is characterized by different topographies and geomorphologies with different agro ecological conditions. Eleven main soil groups and sixty soil types were identified in the study area. The main soil groups are: Leptosols, Vertisols, Fluvisols, Stagnosols, Kastanozems, Phaeozems, Calcisols, Luvisols, Arenosols, Cambisols and Regosols.  Regosols and Cambisols are the dominant soils in the study area which is characteristic soils of rainfed agriculture and land affected by erosion. Using spatial distribution map of each soil group was very helpful to connect soil characteristics with soil forming factors. Lastly, GIS and remote sensing were very effective tools in this study and gave higher value for the final study results.

  3. Evaluation of phenoxybenzamine in the CFA model of pain following gene expression studies and connectivity mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Meiping; Smith, Sarah; Thorpe, Andrew; Barratt, Michael J; Karim, Farzana

    2010-09-16

    We have previously used the rat 4 day Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) model to screen compounds with potential to reduce osteoarthritic pain. The aim of this study was to identify genes altered in this model of osteoarthritic pain and use this information to infer analgesic potential of compounds based on their own gene expression profiles using the Connectivity Map approach. Using microarrays, we identified differentially expressed genes in L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from rats that had received intraplantar CFA for 4 days compared to matched, untreated control animals. Analysis of these data indicated that the two groups were distinguishable by differences in genes important in immune responses, nerve growth and regeneration. This list of differentially expressed genes defined a "CFA signature". We used the Connectivity Map approach to identify pharmacologic agents in the Broad Institute Build02 database that had gene expression signatures that were inversely related ('negatively connected') with our CFA signature. To test the predictive nature of the Connectivity Map methodology, we tested phenoxybenzamine (an alpha adrenergic receptor antagonist) - one of the most negatively connected compounds identified in this database - for analgesic activity in the CFA model. Our results indicate that at 10 mg/kg, phenoxybenzamine demonstrated analgesia comparable to that of Naproxen in this model. Evaluation of phenoxybenzamine-induced analgesia in the current study lends support to the utility of the Connectivity Map approach for identifying compounds with analgesic properties in the CFA model.

  4. Geologic map of the Colonial Beach South 7.5-minute quadrangle, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Wayne L.; Bricker, Owen P.; Robertson, Meredith S.

    2006-01-01

    The Open-File Report includes a geologic map with cross section, and composite stratigraphic section of the Tertiary stratigraphy and of the Quaternary stratigraphy. The Tertiary map units are presented and interpreted for erodability and derived surficial deposits. The map area contains the George Washington Birthplace National Monument. The map facilitates the interpretation of the natural history of the Park including processes such as bog (wetlands) formation and coastal erosion. Two cores of Holocene estuarine deposits are sited on the map. They present the transition from terrestrial to estuarine depositional environments.

  5. A Systematic Mapping Study of Software Architectures for Cloud Based Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chauhan, Muhammad Aufeef; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Context: Cloud computing has gained significant attention of researchers and practitioners. This emerging paradigm is being used to provide solutions in multiple domains without huge upfront investment because of its on demand recourse-provisioning model. However, the information about how software...... of this study is to systematically identify and analyze the currently published research on the topics related to software architectures for cloud-based systems in order to identify architecture solutions for achieving quality requirements. Method: We decided to carry out a systematic mapping study to find...... as much peer-reviewed literature on the topics related to software architectures for cloud-based systems as possible. This study has been carried out by following the guidelines for conducting systematic literature reviews and systematic mapping studies as reported in the literature. Based on our paper...

  6. Mineral resource potential map of the Muddy Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Leszcykowski, Andrew M.; Esparza, Leon E.; Rumsey, Clayton M.

    1982-01-01

    The Muddy Mountains Wilderness Study Area (WSA 050-0229), Clark County, Nevada, has a high potential for mineral deposits of calcium borates and lithium. The known and potential mineral deposits are concentrated in the east-central and south-central parts of the study area (see map). Zeolites (in particular clinoptilolite) are present in some tuff beds throughout much of the study area, and this resource potential is probably moderate to high. Stream-sediment sampling suggests that the Muddy Mountains area has little potential for mineral deposits of metals (other than lithium). Clay minerals are mined at one locality in the (!rea (see map). Building stone and silica sand have moderate to low potential in some places. Oil and gas potential within the study area is low, but complete evaluation of its potential is not possible without drilling.

  7. Stochastic resonance and chaotic resonance in bimodal maps: A case study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ambika; N V Sujatha; K P Harikrishnan

    2002-09-01

    We present the results of an extensive numerical study on the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in a bimodal cubic map. Both Gaussian random noise as well as deterministic chaos are used as input to drive the system between the basins. Our main result is that when two identical systems capable of stochastic resonance are coupled, the SNR of either system is enhanced at an optimum coupling strength. Our results may be relevant for the study of stochastic resonance in biological systems.

  8. Distribution of transmissivity and yield of the surficial, Castle Hayne, and Peedee aquifers in Northern New Hanover County, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Nagy, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Data were collected from more than 230 wells in northern New Hanover County, North Carolina, to evaluate the distribution of transmissivity and yield of the surficial, Castle Hayne, and Peedee aquifers of the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province. Constant-rate,single-well aquifer test data were obtained and analyzed to calculate additional transmissivity values for 25 production wells that were completed in the Castle Hayne or Peedee aquifer. In the surficial aquife, transmissivity values ranged from 400 to 12,700 feet squared per day, and reported yields ranged from 6 to 100 gallons per minute. In the Castle Hayne aquifer, transmissivity values ranged from 1,400 to 18,700 feet squared per day, and reported yields ranged from 9 to 640 gallons per minute. In the Peedee aquifer, transmissivity values ranged from 530 to 18,600 feet squared per day, and reported yields ranged from 8 to 1,000 gallons per minute.

  9. Mapping Crop Planting Quality in Sugarcane from UAV Imagery: A Pilot Study in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inti Luna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important economic resource for many tropical countries and optimizing plantations is a serious concern with economic and environmental benefits. One of the best ways to optimize the use of resources in those plantations is to minimize the occurrence of gaps. Typically, gaps open in the crop canopy because of damaged rhizomes, unsuccessful sprouting or death young stalks. In order to avoid severe yield decrease, farmers need to fill the gaps with new plants. Mapping gap density is therefore critical to evaluate crop planting quality and guide replanting. Current field practices of linear gap evaluation are very labor intensive and cannot be performed with sufficient intensity as to provide detailed spatial information for mapping, which makes replanting difficult to perform. Others have used sensors carried by land vehicles to detect gaps, but these are complex and require circulating over the entire area. We present a method based on processing digital mosaics of conventional images acquired from a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  (UAV that produced a map of gaps at 23.5 cm resolution in a study area of 8.7 ha with 92.9% overall accuracy. Linear Gap percentage estimated from this map for a grid with cells of 10 m × 10 m linearly correlates with photo-interpreted linear gap percentage with a coefficient of determination (R2= 0.9; a root mean square error (RMSE = 5.04; and probability (p << 0.01. Crop Planting Quality levels calculated from image-derived gaps agree with those calculated from a photo-interpreted version of currently used field methods (Spearman coefficient = 0.92. These results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of processing mosaics of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS images for mapping gap density and, together with previous studies using satellite and hand-held spectroradiometry, suggests the extension towards multi-spectral imagery to add insight on plant condition.

  10. Distributing Images and Information over the Web - a Case Study of the Pont Manuscript Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Fleet

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Technological changes in recent years have encouraged many libraries to deliver digital images of their materials over the Internet. For larger items, including maps, high resolution images of research quality can now be obtained from steadily cheaper equipment, computers can process larger images more comfortably, and newer compression formats have allowed these images to be viewed interactively online. The exponential growth of the Internet has also created a large body of users who wish to access these images from their homes or desktops. Within this context, this paper describes the scanning of the Pont manuscript maps of Scotland, the technology used to make these maps available over the Internet, and the initial stages of the construction of a website of associated information. This case study is not presented as a prescriptive example of best practice, but rather as an illustration of some of the main practical issues involved, using these to present arguments for and against current map digitisation and Web delivery work.

  11. Evaluation and mapping of cultural services in terraced landscapes. The case study of the Amalfi Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Gravagnuolo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultural landscapes are a key resource for sustainable development. Among them, terraced landscapes are classified as “evolutive living” landscapes (UNESCO, 2012, an expression of the historical interrelationship between man and his territory. Currently many terraced landscapes are considered at risk because of the changed socio-economic conditions. The need for conservation and effective management of change of this exceptional heritage poses the question of identification of functions and complex values of the landscape, taking into account the needs, views and preferences of local communities. This study aims to identify the terraced landscape values and services based on the ecosystem services theory. It is addressed the issue of evaluation and mapping of cultural services in terraced landscape, with reference to the site of the Amalfi Coast in Campania. The categories of services have been evaluated with the involvement of the local community through a semi-structured questionnaire administered online. The integration of multi-criteria evaluation and spatial analysis in GIS (Geographic Information System has led to the construction of maps of cultural services, which allow displaying the complex relations that link communities to the landscape. The tools for collaborative mapping (Volunteered Geographic Information – VGI have been used for the construction of some of the maps of cultural services, integrating the results of the questionnaire with data related to the direct experience of the users.

  12. Making maps of Cosmic Microwave Background polarization for B-mode studies: the POLARBEAR example

    CERN Document Server

    Poletti, Davide; Jeune, Maude Le; Peloton, Julien; Arnold, Kam; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Barron, Darcy; Beckman, Shawn; Borrill, Julian; Chapman, Scott; Chinone, Yuji; Cukierman, Ari; Ducout, Anne; Elleflot, Tucker; Errard, Josquin; Feeney, Stephen; Goeckner-Wald, Neil; Groh, John; Hall, Grantland; Hasegawa, Masaya; Hazumi, Masashi; Hill, Charles; Howe, Logan; Inoue, Yuki; Jaffe, Andrew H; Jeong, Oliver; Katayama, Nobuhiko; Keating, Brian; Keskitalo, Reijo; Kisner, Theodore; Kusaka, Akito; Lee, Adrian T; Leon, David; Linder, Eric; Lowry, Lindsay; Matsuda, Frederick; Navaroli, Martin; Paar, Hans; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Reichardt, Christian L; Ross, Colin; Siritanasak, Praween; Stebor, Nathan; Steinbach, Bryan; Stompor, Radek; Suzuki, Aritoki; Tajima, Osamu; Teply, Grant; Whitehorn, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of cosmic microwave background (CMB) datasets typically requires some filtering of the raw time-ordered data. Filtering is frequently used to minimize the impact of low frequency noise, atmospheric contributions and/or scan synchronous signals on the resulting maps. In this work we explicitly construct a general filtering operator, which can unambiguously remove any set of unwanted modes in the data, and then amend the map-making procedure in order to incorporate and correct for it. We show that such an approach is mathematically equivalent to the solution of a problem in which the sky signal and unwanted modes are estimated simultaneously and the latter are marginalized over. We investigate the conditions under which this amended map-making procedure can render an unbiased estimate of the sky signal in realistic circumstances. We then study the effects of time-domain filtering on the noise correlation structure in the map domain, as well as impact it may have on the performance of the popular pseudo...

  13. Linkage disequilibrium fine mapping of quantitative trait loci: A simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Enciso Miguel

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recently, the use of linkage disequilibrium (LD to locate genes which affect quantitative traits (QTL has received an increasing interest, but the plausibility of fine mapping using linkage disequilibrium techniques for QTL has not been well studied. The main objectives of this work were to (1 measure the extent and pattern of LD between a putative QTL and nearby markers in finite populations and (2 investigate the usefulness of LD in fine mapping QTL in simulated populations using a dense map of multiallelic or biallelic marker loci. The test of association between a marker and QTL and the power of the test were calculated based on single-marker regression analysis. The results show the presence of substantial linkage disequilibrium with closely linked marker loci after 100 to 200 generations of random mating. Although the power to test the association with a frequent QTL of large effect was satisfactory, the power was low for the QTL with a small effect and/or low frequency. More powerful, multi-locus methods may be required to map low frequent QTL with small genetic effects, as well as combining both linkage and linkage disequilibrium information. The results also showed that multiallelic markers are more useful than biallelic markers to detect linkage disequilibrium and association at an equal distance.

  14. Flood Hazard Mapping using Hydraulic Model and GIS: A Case Study in Mandalay City, Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Kyu Sein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of flood frequency analysis integrating with 1D Hydraulic model (HECRAS and Geographic Information System (GIS to prepare flood hazard maps of different return periods in Ayeyarwady River at Mandalay City in Myanmar. Gumbel’s distribution was used to calculate the flood peak of different return periods, namely, 10 years, 20 years, 50 years, and 100 years. The flood peak from frequency analysis were input into HEC-RAS model to find the corresponding flood level and extents in the study area. The model results were used in integrating with ArcGIS to generate flood plain maps. Flood depths and extents have been identified through flood plain maps. Analysis of 100 years return period flood plain map indicated that 157.88 km2 with the percentage of 17.54% is likely to be inundated. The predicted flood depth ranges varies from greater than 0 to 24 m in the flood plains and on the river. The range between 3 to 5 m were identified in the urban area of Chanayetharzan, Patheingyi, and Amarapua Townships. The highest inundated area was 85 km2 in the Amarapura Township.

  15. Instance selection in digital soil mapping: a study case in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio Giasson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A critical issue in digital soil mapping (DSM is the selection of data sampling method for model training. One emerging approach applies instance selection to reduce the size of the dataset by drawing only relevant samples in order to obtain a representative subset that is still large enough to preserve relevant information, but small enough to be easily handled by learning algorithms. Although there are suggestions to distribute data sampling as a function of the soil map unit (MU boundaries location, there are still contradictions among research recommendations for locating samples either closer or more distant from soil MU boundaries. A study was conducted to evaluate instance selection methods based on spatially-explicit data collection using location in relation to soil MU boundaries as the main criterion. Decision tree analysis was performed for modeling digital soil class mapping using two different sampling schemes: a selecting sampling points located outside buffers near soil MU boundaries, and b selecting sampling points located within buffers near soil MU boundaries. Data was prepared for generating classification trees to include only data points located within or outside buffers with widths of 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600m near MU boundaries. Instance selection methods using both spatial selection of methods was effective for reduced size of the dataset used for calibrating classification tree models, but failed to provide advantages to digital soil mapping because of potential reduction in the accuracy of classification tree models.

  16. Effects of raster resolution on landslide susceptibility mapping:A case study of Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Resolution has been playing a significant role in landslide susceptibility mapping and hazard assessment.Based on geographical information system(GIS) and information model,the effects of raster resolution on landslide susceptibility mapping are studied in a central area of Shenzhen,China.Eight factors are selected to calculate landslide susceptibility with eleven groups of different resolutions(5 to 190 m).It has been found that a finer resolution does not necessarily lead to a higher accuracy of landslide susceptibility mappings,while the result of 90 m-resolution has the best accuracy and the 150 m-resolution has the worst one.The accuracy curve is in a shape of "W" along with resolution decreasing:1) The accuracy decreases from 5 to 70 m;2) and then the best accuracy appears at 90 m,which is almost the same as the mean size of landslides in study area;3) the accuracy decreases again from 110 to 150 m;4) and finally the accuracy increases from 150 to 190 m.The sensitivity analysis indicates that the effects of raster resolution are mainly caused by the resolution impact on landform parameter derivation,while factors like geology and human activity are very insensitive to resolutions.A further study shows that in flat,ridge,and slope foot terrains,the susceptibility mapping result is sensitive to resolution,but in the sloping surface area the sensitivity is much less sensitive to resolution.At last,by choosing study areas with different sizes,it has also been found that the optimal resolutions are variable due to size of study area.But the study area is larger than a threshold,which is 135 km2 in this study,and the optimal resolution is almost fixed.

  17. Retrieval practice produces more learning than elaborative studying with concept mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpicke, Jeffrey D; Blunt, Janell R

    2011-02-11

    Educators rely heavily on learning activities that encourage elaborative studying, whereas activities that require students to practice retrieving and reconstructing knowledge are used less frequently. Here, we show that practicing retrieval produces greater gains in meaningful learning than elaborative studying with concept mapping. The advantage of retrieval practice generalized across texts identical to those commonly found in science education. The advantage of retrieval practice was observed with test questions that assessed comprehension and required students to make inferences. The advantage of retrieval practice occurred even when the criterial test involved creating concept maps. Our findings support the theory that retrieval practice enhances learning by retrieval-specific mechanisms rather than by elaborative study processes. Retrieval practice is an effective tool to promote conceptual learning about science.

  18. Elemental distributions in surficial sediments and potential offshore mineral resources from the western continental margin of India. Part 2. Potential offshore mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.; Mascarenhas, A.; Rao, Ch.M.; PrakashBabu, C.; Murty, P.S.N.

    patterns of ten selected elements is surficial sediments. Part 2 projects the potential offshore mineral resources. Target areas for future exploration and indicated and exploration strategies are recommended. Appendix 1 is a compilation of the bibliography...

  19. Surficial geology and distribution of post-impoundment sediment in Las Vegas Bay, Lake Mead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, David C.; Cross, VeeAnn A.; Rudin, Mark J.; Parolski, Kenneth F.; Rendigs, Richard R.

    2001-01-01

    Sidescan sonar imagery and seismic-reflection profiles were collected in the northwestern part of Las Vegas Bay to map the distribution and volume of sediment that has accumulated in this part of Lake Mead since impoundment. The mapping suggests that three ephemeral streams are the primary source of this sediment, and of these, Las Vegas Wash is the largest. Two deltas off the mouth of Las Vegas Wash formed at different lake elevations and account for 41% of the total volume of post-impoundment sediment within the study area. Deltas off the other two washes (Gypsum and Government) account for only 6% of the total volume. The sediment beyond the front of the deltas is primarily mud, and it only occurs in valley floors, where it forms a flat-lying blanket that is mostly less than 1.5 m thick. Although a thin layer, the fine-grained sediment accounts for approximately 53% of the total post-impoundment sediment volume of 5.7 x 106 m3 that has accumulated in the study area. This sediment appears to have been transported several kilometers from the river sources by density flows.

  20. Near-infrared study of fluctuations in cerebral hemodynamics during rest and motor stimulation: Temporal analysis and spatial mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Toronov, V; Franceschini, MA; Filiaci, M; Fantini, S; Wolf, M.; Michalos, A.; Gratton, E

    2000-01-01

    We have noninvasively studied the motor cortex hemodynamics in human subjects under rest and motor stimulation conditions using a multichannel near-infrared tissue spectrometer. Our instrument measures optical maps of the cerebral cortex at two wavelengths (758 and 830 nm), with an acquisition time of 160 ms per map. We obtained optical maps of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration changes in terms of amplitudes of folding average, power spectrum and coherence at the stimulation repetition ...

  1. Geologic Map and Map Database of the Oakland Metropolitan Area, Alameda, Contra Costa, and San Francisco Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graymer, R.W.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction This report contains a new geologic map at 1:50,000 scale, derived from a set of geologic map databases containing information at a resolution associated with 1:24,000 scale, and a new description of geologic map units and structural relationships in the mapped area. The map database represents the integration of previously published reports and new geologic mapping and field checking by the author (see Sources of Data index map on the map sheet or the Arc-Info coverage pi-so and the textfile pi-so.txt). The descriptive text (below) contains new ideas about the Hayward fault and other faults in the East Bay fault system, as well as new ideas about the geologic units and their relations. These new data are released in digital form in conjunction with the Federal Emergency Management Agency Project Impact in Oakland. The goal of Project Impact is to use geologic information in land-use and emergency services planning to reduce the losses occurring during earthquakes, landslides, and other hazardous geologic events. The USGS, California Division of Mines and Geology, FEMA, California Office of Emergency Services, and City of Oakland participated in the cooperative project. The geologic data in this report were provided in pre-release form to other Project Impact scientists, and served as one of the basic data layers for the analysis of hazard related to earthquake shaking, liquifaction, earthquake induced landsliding, and rainfall induced landsliding. The publication of these data provides an opportunity for regional planners, local, state, and federal agencies, teachers, consultants, and others outside Project Impact who are interested in geologic data to have the new data long before a traditional paper map could be published. Because the database contains information about both the bedrock and surficial deposits, it has practical applications in the study of groundwater and engineering of hillside materials, as well as the study of geologic hazards and

  2. A pilot study of high-density electromyographic maps of muscle activity in normal deglutition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Zhu, Mingxing; Xu, Lisheng; Li, Guanglin

    2013-01-01

    While various methods have been used to study physiological aspects of swallowing, few studies have been conducted to investigate the dynamics of a swallowing procedure with the activation pattern of swallowing muscles. In this pilot study we investigated the feasibility of surface electromyographic (sEMG) dynamic topography as a new approach for continuously visualizing muscle activity of normal swallowing. The dynamic sEMG topographies (or potential mappings) of swallowing were constructed with high-density sEMG recordings from three subjects without any swallowing disorders. The root mean square (RMS) of the sEMG signals was calculated as a function of both position and time to produce two-dimension dynamic sEMG maps of the muscle activity during swallowing. The sEMG maps could provide the information about the dynamic characteristics of swallowing muscles, which is accordance with physiological and biomechanical laws of a normal swallowing. With the results of the present study, we might conclude that the dynamic topography would provide a noninvasive means to continuously visualize the distribution of surface EMG signals of complex muscle activities of normal deglutition.

  3. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PANORAMIC MAPS DESIGN: A PRELIMINARY STUDY BASED ON MOBILE EYE-TRACKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balzarini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results from an ongoing research based on the study of visual attention through mobile eye-tracking techniques. The visual-cognitive approach investigates the reading-comprehension of a particular territorial representation: ski trails maps. The general issue of the study is to provide insights about the effectiveness of panoramic ski maps and more broadly, to suggest innovative efficient representation of the geographic information in mountain. According to some mountain operators, the information provided by paper ski maps no longer meets the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to new digital practices (iPhone, tablets. In a computerized process perspective, this study particularly focuses on the representations, and the inferred information, which are really helpful to the users-skiers to apprehend the territory and make decisions, and which could be effectively replicated into a digital system. The most interesting output relies on the relevance of the panorama view: panorama still fascinates, but contrary to conventional wisdom, the information it provides does not seem to be useful to the skier. From a socio-historical perspective this study shows how empirical evidence-based approach can support the change: our results enhance the discussion on the effectiveness of the message that mountain operators want to convey to the tourist and therefore, on the renewal of (geographical information in ski resorts.

  4. The Effectiveness of Panoramic Maps Design: a Preliminary Study Based on Mobile Eye-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzarini, R.; Murat, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from an ongoing research based on the study of visual attention through mobile eye-tracking techniques. The visual-cognitive approach investigates the reading-comprehension of a particular territorial representation: ski trails maps. The general issue of the study is to provide insights about the effectiveness of panoramic ski maps and more broadly, to suggest innovative efficient representation of the geographic information in mountain. According to some mountain operators, the information provided by paper ski maps no longer meets the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to new digital practices (iPhone, tablets). In a computerized process perspective, this study particularly focuses on the representations, and the inferred information, which are really helpful to the users-skiers to apprehend the territory and make decisions, and which could be effectively replicated into a digital system. The most interesting output relies on the relevance of the panorama view: panorama still fascinates, but contrary to conventional wisdom, the information it provides does not seem to be useful to the skier. From a socio-historical perspective this study shows how empirical evidence-based approach can support the change: our results enhance the discussion on the effectiveness of the message that mountain operators want to convey to the tourist and therefore, on the renewal of (geographical) information in ski resorts.

  5. Generating an agricultural risk map based on limited ecological information: A case study using Sicyos angulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Takeshi; Okawa, Shigenori; Kurokawa, Shunji; Ando, Shinichiro

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we propose a method for estimating the risk of agricultural damage caused by an invasive species when species-specific information is lacking. We defined the "risk" as the product of the invasion probability and the area of potentially damaged crop for production. As a case study, we estimated the risk imposed by an invasive weed, Sicyos angulatus, based on simple cellular simulations and governmental data on the area of crop that could potentially be damaged in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. Simulation results revealed that the current distribution range was sufficiently accurate for practical purposes. Using these results and records of crop areas, we present risk maps for S. angulatus in agricultural fields. Managers will be able to use these maps to rapidly establish a management plan with minimal cost. Our approach will be valuable for establishing a management plan before or during the early stages of invasion.

  6. Liquefaction Hazard Maps for Three Earthquake Scenarios for the Communities of San Jose, Campbell, Cupertino, Los Altos, Los Gatos, Milpitas, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Santa Clara, Saratoga, and Sunnyvale, Northern Santa Clara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Noce, Thomas E.; Bennett, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Maps showing the probability of surface manifestations of liquefaction in the northern Santa Clara Valley were prepared with liquefaction probability curves. The area includes the communities of San Jose, Campbell, Cupertino, Los Altos, Los Gatos Milpitas, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Santa Clara, Saratoga, and Sunnyvale. The probability curves were based on complementary cumulative frequency distributions of the liquefaction potential index (LPI) for surficial geologic units in the study area. LPI values were computed with extensive cone penetration test soundings. Maps were developed for three earthquake scenarios, an M7.8 on the San Andreas Fault comparable to the 1906 event, an M6.7 on the Hayward Fault comparable to the 1868 event, and an M6.9 on the Calaveras Fault. Ground motions were estimated with the Boore and Atkinson (2008) attenuation relation. Liquefaction is predicted for all three events in young Holocene levee deposits along the major creeks. Liquefaction probabilities are highest for the M7.8 earthquake, ranging from 0.33 to 0.37 if a 1.5-m deep water table is assumed, and 0.10 to 0.14 if a 5-m deep water table is assumed. Liquefaction probabilities of the other surficial geologic units are less than 0.05. Probabilities for the scenario earthquakes are generally consistent with observations during historical earthquakes.

  7. What makes segmentation good? A case study in boreal forest habitat mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Räsänen, Aleksi; Rusanen, Antti; Kuitunen, Markku; Lensu, Anssi

    2013-01-01

    Segmentation goodness evaluation is a set of approaches meant for deciding which segmentation is good. In this study, we tested different supervised segmentation evaluation measures and visual interpretation in the case of boreal forest habitat mapping in Southern Finland. The data used were WorldView-2 satellite imagery, a lidar digital elevation model (DEM), and a canopy height model (CHM) in 2 m resolution. The segmentation methods tested were the fractal net evolution approach (FNEA) and ...

  8. Mapping the sensory perception of apple using descriptive sensory evaluation in a genome wide association study

    OpenAIRE

    Amyotte, Beatrice; Bowen, Amy J.; Banks, Travis; Rajcan, Istvan; Somers, Daryl J.

    2017-01-01

    Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years thr...

  9. Concept mapping in legal documents. Case study : The translation of family law for Moroccan migrants

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Concept mapping in legal documents. Case study : The translation of family law for Moroccan migrants . LaHoussine Id-Youss & Frieda Steurs KU Leuven Abstract : The translation of legal documents is one of the most important activities for many translators. Looking at the internationalization of many activities, mobility of citizens and migration has increased. People migrate for economic reasons, looking for new employments elsewhere. This causes an increased used of new ...

  10. “American” Pictures and (Trans-National Iconographies: Mapping Interpictorial Clusters in American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo J. Hebel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Udo J. Hebel examines the recent critical history of visual cultures in American Studies in his essay “‘American’ Pictures and (Trans-National Iconographies: Mapping Interpictorial Clusters in American Studies,” focusing his analysis specifically on “political photography” and the concurrency of contexts that inform his reading of the history of US presidential images. This beautifully researched article, previously published in American Studies Today: New Research Agendas (Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, 2014, takes up questions related to “tensions” between disciplinary concerns and transdisciplinary potentialities for interpreting the representation of the political inside the framework of transnational American Studies.

  11. Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe; Martel, Richard; Poulin, Patrick; Dessau, Jean-Claude

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal-Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal-Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m(3) in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists.

  12. Historic maps and landscape evolution: a case study in the Little Hungarian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámolyi, A.; Székely, B.; Draganits, E.; Timár, G.

    2009-04-01

    Georeferenced historic maps provide a useful tool to derive geomorphologic landscape elements largely uninfluenced by anthropogenic activity, thus allowing the study of natural changes in the landscape evolution of increasingly densely populated areas. The study area, the Little Hungarian Plain (LHP), is located at the geologically and geomorphologically highly interesting region at the transition between the mountain chains of the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians. The area, as transport route and exchange zone of goods has had its specific importance since the Neolithic times. Consequently, the environment has been subject to human influence, especially since the onset of the industrial age. Geographically the LHP lies in the vicinity of major settlement areas (Vienna, Bratislava, Sopron, Győr) and stretches from the Leithagebirge, a mountainous area in Eastern Austria, to the City of Győr in Western Hungary. The political division of the area into two separate countries occurred after World War I. Thus, historic mapping in the Habsburg Empire and later in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy that was organized and conducted before World War I allows a comprehensive overview of the study area. Map sheets of the 2nd Military Survey of the whole Monarchy were mapped in the time from 1807 to 1873 in the area of the entire Empire (Kretschmer et al., 2004). The Kingdom of Hungary, as part of the Empire was mapped in a homogenous campaign in the time from 1819 - 1869. Beside the increasing human impact the area is characterized by active surface processes. The geologic evolution of the Little Hungarian Plain is dominated by tectonic processes related to the lateral extrusion of the Eastern Alps and the acceleration of northward movement of the Carpathians. Subsidence is accommodated mainly along high- and low angle normal faults with a high vertical movement component. Strike-slip movements at these faults are very rare. Most of these processes have been active also in the

  13. Synchrotron X-Ray Reciprocal Space Mapping, Topography and Diffraction Resolution Studies of Macromolecular Crystal Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggon, T. J.; Helliwell, J. R.; Judge, Russell A.; Siddons, D. P.; Snell, Edward H.; Stojanoff, V.

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive study of microgravity and ground grown chicken egg white lysozyme crystals is presented using synchrotron X-ray reciprocal space mapping, topography techniques and diffraction resolution. Microgravity crystals displayed, on average, reduced intrinsic mosaicities but no differences in terms of stress over their earth grown counterparts. Topographic analysis revealed that in the microgravity case the majority of the crystal was contributing to the peak of the reflection at the appropriate Bragg angle. In the earth case at the diffraction peak only a small volume of the crystal contributed to the intensity. The techniques prove to be highly complementary with the reciprocal space mapping providing a quantitative measure of the crystal mosaicity and stress (or variation in lattice spacing) and topography providing a qualitative overall assessment of the crystal in terms of its X-ray diffraction properties. Structural data collection was also carried out both at the synchrotron and in the laboratory.

  14. Methodology for generation of hydrogeologic maps: rio da Palma watershed case study, DF, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Nóbile Diniz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper had the objective of developing a methodology to support the management of water resources, based on hydro geological cartography, tested for the hydro geologic conditions of a watershed located at Central Brazil. Results show two major products: a hydro geologic, and a potential infiltration and recharge maps of the high course of the Rio da Palma watershed. This paper is presented in six parts. The first one discusses the map’s elements, essential thematic maps and appropriate scales. The second part proposes the graphic criteria for the integrated representation of the major parameters of overlaying aquifers. The third part demonstrates the importance of the data basis for the hydro geologic cartography, i.e., the contribution of each theme such as soil, geology, slope, climate and land use, when appropriately integrated. The fourth part discusses the selection and the integration of the main information layers for the Rio da Palma watershed using a Geographic Information System (GIS. On the fifth part, the result of the integration of the porous domain with the fractured domain aquifer information layers is shown and, finally, the potential infiltration and recharge map of the studied area, elaborated from the integration of overlapping of the data basis information layers is presented and discussed. In general, in the studied area, regions with high infiltration potential prevail where human interference is still moderate. Large portions of low infiltration potential are either associated with high slopes, with shallow soils (Cambissolos or else with urban constructions.

  15. Mapping the basic reproduction number (Ro) for vector-borne diseases: A case study on bluetongue virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, N.; Purse, B.V.; Meiswinkel, R.; Brown, H.E.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Boender, G.J.; Rogers, D.J.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Geographical maps indicating the value of the basic reproduction number, R0, can be used to identify areas of higher risk for an outbreak after an introduction. We develop a methodology to create R0 maps for vector-borne diseases, using bluetongue virus as a case study. This method provides a tool

  16. A Study of the Effects of Cognitive Mapping on Reading Comprehension and Written Protocols. Technical Report No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, Robert; Boyle, Owen

    A study explored how cognitive mapping assists college students in gathering information from long prose passages and organizing this information for subsequent writing. Mapping is a prewriting technique in which students develop a cognitive scheme or graphic representation of a text, which reduces memory load and facilitates integration and…

  17. A Study to Determine the Contribution Made by Concept Maps to a Computer Architecture and Organization Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Tuncay; Ergun, Serap

    2016-01-01

    Concept mapping is a method of graphical learning that can be beneficial as a study method for concept linking and organization. Concept maps, which provide an elegant, easily understood representation of an expert's domain knowledge, are tools for organizing and representing knowledge. These tools have been used in educational environments to…

  18. Geologic map of Yosemite National Park and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, N.K.; Bateman, P.C.; Wahrhaftig, Clyde

    1989-01-01

    This digital map database represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits of the Yosemite National Park vicinity. It was produced directly from the file used to create the print version in 1989. The Yosemite National Park region is comprised of portions of 15 7.5 minute quadrangles. The original publication of the map in 1989 included the map, described map units and provided correlations, as well as a geologic summary and references, all on the same sheet. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:125,000 or smaller.

  19. Holocene fluctuations of Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru based on lacustrine and surficial geologic archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, J. S.; Kelly, M. A.; Lowell, T. V.; Beal, S. A.; Smith, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Peru's Quelccaya Ice Cap (QIC; 13.9°S, 70.8°W, ~5200-5670 m asl) is an important site for understanding tropical paleoclimate, mainly because of annually layered ice cores that provide an ~1800 year long record of tropical paleoclimatic conditions (e.g., Thompson et al., 2013). Here, we present a detailed record of QIC fluctuations using surficial deposits and lake sediments that extend back to late glacial time. We compare the late Holocene records of QIC 10Be-dated moraines and ice core data with lake sediments from a nearby glacially fed lake to establish the framework we use to interpret a Holocene long sediment record from a glacially fed lake. We also examine sediments from a nearby non-glacial lake to constrain non-glacial clastic input. We collected two ~5 m-long sediment cores, one from Laguna Challpacocha, which is currently fed by QIC meltwater, and one from the Laguna Yanacocha, which has not received QIC meltwater since ~12.3 ka. Changes in magnetic susceptibility, loss on ignition, bulk density and X-ray fluorescence chemistry combined with 14C and 210Pb chronologies provide information about sediment transported to the lakes. Retreat from the late Holocene extent defined by the 10Be-dated moraine record (~0.52 ka) is contemporaneous with a sharp transition from organic to clastic sedimentation in the Challpacocha core at ~ 0.52 ka. This implies that glacially-sourced clastic sedimentation, as tracked by loss on ignition, Ti counts and bulk density, increased during ice cap recession. Based on these same proxy data, we suggest the following Holocene history of QIC: QIC receded from the Challpacocha basin by ~10.6 ka. Increased clastic sedimentation at 8.2 - 4.1, 3.6 - 2.7 ka and from 0.55 ka - present are interpreted as times of ice cap recession. The increased clastic sedimentation at ~8.2 - 4.1 ka is consistent with surficial deposits near the present-day ice margin that indicate that at ~7.0 - 4.6 ka QIC was smaller than at present (Buffen et al

  20. Experimental Approaches to Understanding Surficial Processes on Mars: The Stony Brook Experience 2000-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, S. M.; Dehouck, E.; Hurowitz, J.; Lindsley, D. H.; Schoonen, M. A.; Tosca, N. J.; Zhao, Y. Y. S.

    2016-12-01

    Starting with Pathfinder and Global Surveyor, recent missions to Mars have provided great opportunity for low-temperature experimental geochemistry investigations of the Martian sedimentary record by providing geochemical and mineralogical data that can be used as meaningful tests for experiments. These missions have documented a long-lived, complex and dynamic sedimentary rock cycle, including "source-to-sink" sedimentary systems and global paleoenvironmental transitions through time. We designed and constructed an experimental facility, beginning in 2000, specifically to evaluate surficial processes on Mars. Our experimental philosophy has been to (1) keep apparatus simple and flexible, and if feasible maintain sample access during experiments; (2) use starting materials (minerals, rocks) close to known Mars compositions (often requiring synthesis); (3) address sedimentary processes supported by geological investigations at Mars; (4) begin with experiments at standard conditions so they are best supported by thermodynamics; (5) support experiments with thermodynamic-kinetic-mass balance modeling in both design and interpretation, and by high quality chemical, mineralogical and textural lab analyses; (6) interpret results in the context of measurements made at Mars. Although eliciting much comment in proposal and manuscript reviews, we have not attempted to slavishly maintain "Mars conditions", doing so only to the degree required by variables being tested in any given experiments. Among the problems we have addressed are (1) Amazonian alteration of rock surfaces; (2) Noachian-Hesperian chemical weathering; (3) epithermal alteration of `evolved' igneous rocks; (4) mineral surface chemical reactivity from aeolian abrasion; (5) evaporation of mafic brines; (6) early diagenesis of sedimentary iron mineralogy; (7) trace element and halogen behavior during chemical weathering and diagenesis; (8) photochemical influences on halogen distribution and speciation; (9) post

  1. Chemical characteristics of water in the surficial aquifer system, Broward County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    Water quality data was collected in 1981 and 1982 during the drilling of test holes at 27 sites throughout Broward County, Florida. Determinations were made for the following physical properties and chemical constituents: pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, major ions, selected nutrients and dissolved iron, aluminum, and manganese. Determinations for the trace elements-arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, zinc, selenium, and mercury-were made at 14 wells. Water in the surficial aquifer system between the coastal ridge and the conservation areas is potable and usually is a calcium bicarbonate type for the first 140 ft or more below land surface. Between depths of 140 and 230 ft, groundwater generally grades into a mixed-ion water type. In some areas, diluted seawater occurs beneath the mixed water zone. Dissolved iron concentrations between the coastal ridge and the conservation areas are variable but generally exceed 1,000 micrograms/L. Beneath the conservation areas and the western edge of Broward County, groundwater in the first 100 ft below land surface generally is either a calcium bicarbonate type or a mixed-ion type. At depths between 100 and 200 ft, diluted residual seawater occurs, except along the far western edge of the county. Residual seawater is least diluted in the north. Dissolved iron concentrations generally are between 300 and 1 ,000 micrograms/L but increase to the east of the conservation areas. Other findings of the investigation include: (1) groundwater in some areas west of the coastal ridge probably would be suitable for most domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses if it were treated for carbonate hardness; (2) groundwater in much of Broward County is chemically altered by natural softening and magnesium enrichment (natural softening increases to the west and is very pronounced beneath the far western edge of the county); and (3) there is evidence of mineralized water from the conservation areas mixing with groundwater east of the

  2. Hydrophobic organic contaminants in surficial sediments of Baltimore Harbor: Inventories and sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, J.T.F.; Baker, J.E. [Univ. System of Maryland, Solomons, MD (United States). Chesapeake Biological Lab.

    1999-05-01

    The heavily urbanized and industrialized Baltimore Harbor/Patapsco River/Back River system is one of the most highly contaminated regions of the Chesapeake Bay. In June 1996, surficial sediments were collected at 80 sites throughout the subestuarine system, including historically undersampled creek sand embayments. The samples were analyzed for a suite of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) consisting of 32 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 113 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. Total PAH and total PCB concentrations ranged from 90 to 46,200 and 8 to 2,150 ng/g dry weight, respectively. There was enormous spatial variability in the concentrations of HOCs, which was not well correlated to grain size or organic carbon content, suggesting nonequilibrium partitioning and/or proximity to sources as important factors explaining the observed spatial variability. High concentrations of both classes of HOCs were localized around major urban stormwater runoff discharges. Elevated PAH concentrations were also centered around the Sparrow`s Point Industrial Complex, most likely a result of the pyrolysis of coal during the production of steel. All but 1 of the 80 sites exceeded the effects range-low (ERL) for total PCBs and, of those sites, 40% exceeded the effects range-medium (ERM), suggesting toxicity to marine benthic organisms would frequently occur. Using principal component analysis, differences in PAH signatures were discerned. Higher molecular weight PAHs were enriched in signatures from sediments close to suspected sources (i.e., urban stormwater runoff and steel production complexes) compared to those patterns observed at sites further from outfalls or runoff. Due to varying solubilities and affinities for organic matter of the individual PAHs, partitioning of the heavier weight PAHs may enrich settling particles with high molecular weight PAHs. Lower molecular weight PAHs, having lower affinity for particles, may travel from the source to a

  3. [Distribution Characteristics, Sources and Pollution Assessment of Trace Elements in Surficial Sediments of the Coastal Wetlands, Northeastern Hainan Island].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-kun; Gan, Hua-yang; Bi, Xiang-yang; Wang, Jia-sheng

    2016-04-15

    Totally 128 surficial sediments samples were collected from the coastal wetlands, northeastern Hainan Island and analyzed for their concentrations of 14 elements including Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO, Cu, Ni, Sr, Zn, V, Pb, Cr, Zr, As, Cd and Hg, TOC and grain sizes. The mean concentrations of trace metals V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb, Cd and Hg were (40.13 +/- 32.65), (35.92 +/- 26.90), (13.03 +/- 11.46), (11.56 +/- 10.27)-, (48.75 +/- 27.00), (5.48 +/- 1.60), ( 18.70 +/- 8.66), (0.054 +/- 0.045 ), (0.050 +/- 0.050) microg x g(-1), respectively, which were much lower than those in Pearl River Estuary, Yangzi River Estuary, Bohai Bay, upper crust and average shale. The average concentrations of Sr and Zr were much higher, reaching up to (1253.60 +/- 1649.58) microg x g(-1) and (372.40 +/- 516.49) microg x g(-1), respectively. The spatial distribution patterns of Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO, Cu, Ni, Zn, V, Pb, Cr, Cd and Hg concentrations were the same as each other except for those of As, Sr and Zr. Generally, relatively high concentrations of these elements only appeared in the Haikou Bay, Nandu estuary, Dongzhai Harbor, Qinglan Harbor and Xiaohai in study area. The factor analysis revealed that the trace elements Al2O3 Fe2O3, MnO, Cu, Ni, Zn, V, Pb, Cr and part of Hg were mainly originated from the rock material by natural weathering processes, while the Cd and a part of Hg were from the biological source controlled by TOC. As and part of MnO were influenced by anthropogenic source, especially by aquacultures. Zr and some MnO were derived from heavy minerals dominated by the coarse grain of sediments. In contrast to the ERL, ERM and the results of enrichment factors (EF) , the environment of study area was good in general and the degree of contamination by trace elements was low on the whole. However, there are still some places where anthropogenic input have caused serious enrichments of trace elements and the occasional adverse effect on benthic organism induced by Ni could probably

  4. The mouse QTL map helps interpret human genome-wide association studies for HDL cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Magalie S; Lyons, Malcolm; Darvishi, Katayoon; Walsh, Kenneth; Sheehan, Susan; Amend, Sarah; Cox, Allison; Orho-Melander, Marju; Kathiresan, Sekar; Paigen, Beverly; Korstanje, Ron

    2011-06-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies represent a powerful strategy for identifying susceptibility genes for complex diseases in human populations but results must be confirmed and replicated. Because of the close homology between mouse and human genomes, the mouse can be used to add evidence to genes suggested by human studies. We used the mouse quantitative trait loci (QTL) map to interpret results from a GWA study for genes associated with plasma HDL cholesterol levels. We first positioned single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a human GWA study on the genomic map for mouse HDL QTL. We then used mouse bioinformatics, sequencing, and expression studies to add evidence for one well-known HDL gene (Abca1) and three newly identified genes (Galnt2, Wwox, and Cdh13), thus supporting the results of the human study. For GWA peaks that occur in human haplotype blocks with multiple genes, we examined the homologous regions in the mouse to prioritize the genes using expression, sequencing, and bioinformatics from the mouse model, showing that some genes were unlikely candidates and adding evidence for candidate genes Mvk and Mmab in one haplotype block and Fads1 and Fads2 in the second haplotype block. Our study highlights the value of mouse genetics for evaluating genes found in human GWA studies.

  5. Improving the performance of digital soil maps by the application of remotely sensed data used in terroir mapping - case study of the Tokaj wine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Katalin; Laborczi, Annamária; Lukácsy, György; Pásztor, László

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the soil mapping is to explore and visualize the spatial extension and variability of the thematic knowledge about soils. Soil maps are thematic maps, which can present information about the primary or derivative soil characteristics, soil classes and knowledge about the processes, function and services of the soils. The method for information obtaining about soils is sampling which results only point data and should be spatially extended by a properly chosen process. The digital soil mapping (DSM) method uses environmental auxiliary variables for the spatial extension. These variables should be in direct or indirect relation with the target soil characteristic and should provide full coverage for the target area. Environmental variables can be derived from digital elevation models, land cover data or satellite images which can be obtained most efficiently with remote sensing methods. The soil-landscape relation can be modelled by geostatistical and data mining methods based the soil data and auxiliary variables. The study area is Tokaj wine region (approximately 400 km2) which is located in Northeast-Hungary, in Tokaj Mountains. Soil data is available for 200 sampling points. The terrain variables - such as elevation, slope, aspect and other derivatives - are derived from a relatively high resolution digital elevation model (DEM; 1 m), that was generated by LiDAR. The other environmental variables - such as land cover, NDVI - are prepared based on Landsat images which are acquired at different seasons in line with vegetation phenology and soil coverage. The target maps are prepared by digital soil mapping methods. For the analysis of the relationship between soil sampling data and the auxiliary variables different geostatistical methods are used to choose the most appropriate environmental variables for the spatial modelling. The spatial extension of point data are performed by interpolation methods. For summarizing the main aim of this study is to test

  6. A lattice study of N=2 Landau-Ginzburg model using a Nicolai map

    CERN Document Server

    Kawai, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    It has been conjectured that the two-dimensional N=2 Wess-Zumino model with a quasi-homogeneous superpotential provides the Landau-Ginzburg description of the N=2 superconformal minimal models. For the cubic superpotential W=(lambda) Phi^3/3, it is expected that the Wess-Zumino model describes A_{2} model (c=1) and the chiral superfield Phi shows the conformal weight (h,bar{h})=(1/6,1/6) at the IR fixed point. We study this conjecture by a lattice simulation, extracting the weight from the finite volume scaling of the susceptibility of the scalar component in Phi. We adopt a lattice model with the overlap fermion, which possesses a Nicolai map and a discrete R-symmetry. We set a(lambda)=0.3 and generate the scalar field configurations by solving the Nicolai map on L times L lattices in the range L=18 - 32. To solve the map, we use the Newton-Raphson algorithm with various initial configurations. The result is 1-h-bar{h}=0.660 \\pm0.011, which is consistent with the conjecture.

  7. Study on High Accuracy Topographic Mapping via UAV-based Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yun-Yao; Lee, Ya-Fen; Tsai, Shang-En

    2016-10-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) provides a promising tool for the acquisition of such multi-temporal aerial stereo photos and high-resolution digital surface models. Recently, the flight of UAVs operates with high degrees of autonomy by the global position system and onboard digit camera and computer. The UAV-based mapping can be obtained faster and cheaper, but its accuracy is anxious. This paper aims to identify the integration ability of high accuracy topographic map via the image of quad-rotors UAV and ground control points (GCPs). The living survey data is collected in the Errn river basins area in Tainan, Taiwan. The high accuracy UAV-based topographic in the study area is calibrated by the local coordinate of GCPs using the total station with the accuracy less than 1/2000. The comparison results show the accuracy of UAV-based topographic is accepted by overlapping. The results can be a reference for the practice works of mapping survey in earth.

  8. Quantitative NumART2* mapping in functional MRI studies at 1.5 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Gisela E; Bianciardi, Marta; Patria, Fabiana; Indovina, Iole

    2003-12-01

    Quantitative mapping of the effective transverse relaxation time, T2* and proton density was performed in a motor activation functional MRI (fMRI) study using multi-echo, echo planar imaging (EPI) and NumART2* (Numerical Algorithm for Real time T2*). Comparisons between NumART2* and conventional single echo EPI with an echo time of 64 ms were performed for five healthy participants examined twice. Simulations were also performed to address specific issues associated with the two techniques, such as echo time-dependent signal variation. While the single echo contrast varied with the baseline T2* value, relative changes in T2* remained unaffected. Statistical analysis of the T2* maps yielded fMRI activation patterns with an improved statistical detection relative to conventional EPI but with less activated voxels, suggesting that NumART2* has superior spatial specificity. Two effects, inflow and dephasing, that may explain this finding were investigated. Particularly, a statistically significant increase in proton density was found in a brain area that was detected as activated by conventional EPI but not by NumART2* while no such changes were observed in brain areas that showed stimulus correlated signal changes on T2* maps.

  9. Primary study on hand motor cortex mapping by using navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai LI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the feasibility and safety of using navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS to map hand motor cortex and further analyze its clinical application.  Methods The first dorsal interosseous (FDI was selected as target muscle. The location and area of bilateral FDI were mapped by using nTMS in 10 healthy right-handed volunteers. In order to identify the accuracy of nTMS, all individual MRI volumes and the coordinates of hotspots were normalized to Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI space using SPM8. Positive sites and motor-evoked potential (MEP were recorded. The areas of hand motor representations were calculated and compared between bilateral cerebral hemispheres.  Results nTMS was capable of identifying hand motor cortex area in both hemispheres in all cases. It took 45 to 60 minutes to finish the whole nTMS procedures of each side of hand motor area. The motor cortex was found at the Ω area of bilateral precentral gyri. The right hand motor representation area was significantly larger than that of left area [(6.22 ± 0.76 cm2 vs (4.30 ± 0.40 cm2; t = 7.078, P = 0.000]. Four cases presented sleepiness, but no side effect such as headache or epilepsy was found.  Conclusions nTMS is a reliable and safe technique to map hand motor cortex. It can be a very useful supplementary tool for preoperative motor cortex mapping and study on motor functional remodeling. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.08.011

  10. Mineral classification map using MF and SAM techniques: A case study in the Nohwa Island, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Young-Sun; Yoon, Wang-Jung [Department of Energy and Resources Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-10

    The purpose of this study is to map pyprophyllite distribution at surface of the Nohwa deposit, Korea by using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) data. For this, combined Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), and Matched Filtering (MF) technique based on mathematical algorithm was applied. The regional distribution of high-grade and low-grade pyrophyllite in the Nohwa deposit area could be differentiated by this method. The results of this study show that ASTER data analysis using combination of SAM and MF techniques will assist in exploration of pyrophyllite at the exposed surface.

  11. Comprehensive personal RF-EMF exposure map and its potential use in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rubio, Jesus; Najera, Alberto; Arribas, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, numerous epidemiological studies, which deal with the potential effects of mobile phone antennas on health, have almost exclusively focused on their distance to mobile phone base stations. Although it is known that this is not the best approach to the problem, this situation occurs due to the numerous difficulties when determining the personal exposure to the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). However, due to the rise of personal exposimeters, the evolution of spatial statistics, the development of geographical information systems and the use of powerful software, new alternatives are available to deal with these epidemiological studies and thus overcome the aforementioned difficulties. Using these tools, this paper presents a lattice map of personal RF-EMF exposure from exterior mobile phone base stations, covering the entire 110 administrative regions in the city of Albacete (Spain). For this purpose, we used a personal exposimeter, Satimo EME Spy 140 model, performing measurements every 4s The exposimeter was located inside the plastic basket of a bicycle, whose versatility permitted the access to all the zones of the city. Once the exposure map was prepared, its relation with the known antenna locations was studied. The 64 mobile telephone antennas of the city were also georeferenced; the randomness of both variables (exposure and antennas) were studied by means of the Moran's I test. Results showed that the distribution of the antennas follows a grouped pattern (pvalues have a random distribution (p=0.618). In addition, we showed two Spearman correlation studies: the first between the average exposure values and the number of mobile telephone antennas per administrative region, and the second, also considering the antennas of the neighbouring regions. No substantial correlation was detected in either of the two cases. This study also reveals the weaknesses of the epidemiological studies, which only take into account the distance

  12. Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: jean-philippe.drolet@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre (ETE-INRS), 490 de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec (Canada); Martel, Richard [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre (ETE-INRS), 490 de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec (Canada); Poulin, Patrick [Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ), 945 avenue Wolfe, G1V 5B3 Quebec (Canada); Dessau, Jean-Claude [Agence de la santé et des services sociaux des Laurentides, 1000 rue Labelle, J7Z 5 N6 Saint-Jérome (Canada)

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal–Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal–Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists. - Highlights: • 5 radiogeochemical datasets were used to map the geogenic indoor radon potential. • An indoor radon potential was determined for

  13. An Integrated Map of Soybean Physical Map and Genetic Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Zhaoming; LI Hui; WU Qiong; SUN Yanan; LIU Chunyan; HU Guohua; CHEN Qingshan

    2009-01-01

    Soybean is a major crop in the world, and it is a main source of plant proteins and oil. A lot of soybean genetic maps and physical maps have been constructed, but there are no integrated map between soybean physical map and genetic map. In this study, soybean genome sequence data, released by JGI (US Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute), had been downloaded. With the software Blast 2.2.16, a total of 161 super sequences were mapped on the soybean public genetic map to construct an integrated map. The length of these super sequences accounted for 73.08% of all the genome sequence. This integrated map could be used for gene cloning, gene mining, and comparative genome of legume.

  14. Geologic map and map database of northeastern San Francisco Bay region, California, [including] most of Solano County and parts of Napa, Marin, Contra Costa, San Joaquin, Sacramento, Yolo, and Sonoma Counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graymer, Russell Walter; Jones, David Lawrence; Brabb, Earl E.

    2002-01-01

    This digital map database, compiled from previously published and unpublished data, and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying text file (nesfmf.ps, nesfmf.pdf, nesfmf.txt), it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:62,500 or smaller.

  15. Rare earth element studies of surficial sediments from the southwestern Carlsberg Ridge, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N; Higgs, N

    into these sediments is suggested from the weak positive Eu/Eu anomaly. Shale-normalized (NASC) pattern along with La sub((n)/Yb sub((n) ratio suggest enrichment of heavy REE (HREE) relative to the light REE (LREE) with a negative Ce/Ce anomaly implying retention of a...

  16. Interpretation of the Surficial Geology in the Pulley Ridge Study Area (PULLEY_INTERP.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Pulley Ridge is a series of drowned barrier islands that extends almost 200 km in 60-100 m water depths. This drowned ridge is located on the Florida Platform in the...

  17. PULLEY_INTERP - Interpretation of the Surficial Geology in the Pulley Ridge Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Pulley Ridge is a series of drowned barrier islands that extends almost 200 km in 60-100 m water depths. This drowned ridge is located on the Florida Platform in...

  18. Interpretation of the Surficial Geology in the Pulley Ridge Study Area (PULLEY_INTERP.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Pulley Ridge is a series of drowned barrier islands that extends almost 200 km in 60-100 m water depths. This drowned ridge is located on the Florida Platform in the...

  19. Landslide hazard mapping with selected dominant factors: A study case of Penang Island, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, Lea Tien; Alkhasawneh, Mutasem Sh.; Ngah, Umi Kalthum [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Lateh, Habibah [School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11600 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Landslide is one of the destructive natural geohazards in Malaysia. In addition to rainfall as triggering factos for landslide in Malaysia, topographical and geological factors play important role in the landslide susceptibility analysis. Conventional topographic factors such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, plan curvature and profile curvature have been considered as landslide causative factors in many research works. However, other topographic factors such as diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity have not been considered, especially for the research work in landslide hazard analysis in Malaysia. This paper presents landslide hazard mapping using Frequency Ratio (FR) and the study area is Penang Island of Malaysia. Frequency ratio approach is a variant of probabilistic method that is based on the observed relationships between the distribution of landslides and each landslide-causative factor. Landslide hazard map of Penang Island is produced by considering twenty-two (22) landslide causative factors. Among these twenty-two (22) factors, fourteen (14) factors are topographic factors. They are elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, general curvature, tangential curvature, longitudinal curvature, cross section curvature, total curvature, diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity. These topographic factors are extracted from the digital elevation model of Penang Island. The other eight (8) non-topographic factors considered are land cover, vegetation cover, distance from road, distance from stream, distance from fault line, geology, soil texture and rainfall precipitation. After considering all twenty-two factors for landslide hazard mapping, the analysis is repeated with fourteen dominant factors which are selected from the twenty-two factors. Landslide hazard map was segregated into four categories of risks, i.e. Highly hazardous area, Hazardous area, Moderately hazardous area

  20. The status of soil mapping for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G.L.; Lee, R.D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jeppesen, D.J. [Department of Interior, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This report discusses the production of a revised version of the general soil map of the 2304-km{sup 2} (890-mi{sup 2}) Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site in southeastern Idaho and the production of a geographic information system (GIS) soil map and supporting database. The revised general soil map replaces an INEL soil map produced in 1978 and incorporates the most current information on INEL soils. The general soil map delineates large soil associations based on National Resources Conservation Services [formerly the Soil Conservation Service (SCS)] principles of soil mapping. The GIS map incorporates detailed information that could not be presented on the general soil map and is linked to a database that contains the soil map unit descriptions, surficial geology codes, and other pertinent information.

  1. Historic maps as a data source for socio-hydrology: a case study of the Lake Balaton wetland system, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zlinszky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Socio-hydrology is the science of human influence on the water cycle and the influence of the water cycle on human social systems. This newly emerging discipline inherently involves a historic perspective, often focusing on time scales of several centuries. While data on human history is typically available for this time frame, gathering information on the hydrological situation during such a period can prove difficult: measured hydrological data for such long periods are rare, while models and secondary datasets from geomorphology, pedology or archaeology are typically not accurate enough over such a short period. In the first part of this study, the use of historic maps in hydrology is reviewed. Major breakthroughs were the acceptance of historic map content as valid data, the use of preserved features for investigating situations earlier than the map, and the onset of digital georeferencing and data integration. Historic maps can be primary quantitative sources of hydro-geomorphological information, they can provide a context for point-based measurements over larger areas, and they can deliver time series for a better understanding of change scenarios. In the second part, a case study is presented: Water level fluctuations of Lake Balaton were reconstructed from maps, levelling logs and other documents. An 18th century map system of the whole 5700 km2 catchment was georeferenced, integrated with two 19th century map systems and wetlands, forests and open water digitized. Changes in wetland area were compared with lake water level changes in a 220 yr time series. Historic maps show that the water level of the lake was closer to present-day levels than expected, and that wetland loss pre-dates drainage of the lake. The present and future role of historic maps is discussed. Historic hydrological data has to be treated with caution: while it is possible to learn from the past, the assumption that future changes will be like past changes does not

  2. THE STUDY OF INSURANCE PREMIUM RATE GIS MAPPING CONSIDERING THE STORM AND FLOOD HAZARD RISKS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the number of natural disaster occurrence is increasing because of abnormal changes of weather in Korea. In Korea the storm and flood insurance system is in effect to prevent these natural disasters. The national storm and flood insurance Premium rate is very low and the risk of adverse selection resides because of choosing by who lives in high risk area. To solve these problems, the storm and flood insurance rate map are required. In this study, the prototype of storm and flood ins...

  3. Surficial geology of the sea floor in Long Island Sound offshore of Orient Point, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Guberski, M.R.; Wood, D.A.; Doran, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CT DEP) are working cooperatively to map and interpret features of the sea floor along the northeastern coast of the United States. This report presents multibeam bathymetry and sidescan-sonar data obtained during NOAA survey H11446, which was conducted in a 12-km2 area in Long Island Sound offshore of Orient Point, NY. In addition, sediment and photographic data from 26 stations obtained during a USGS verification cruise are presented. Overall, the sea floor slopes gently seaward, but topography is more complex in sand-wave and boulder areas, which are evident in the multibeam and sidescan-sonar data from the study area. Sand waves generally have north-south-oriented crests with 10- to 20-m wavelengths. Sand-wave asymmetry indicates eastward net sediment transport in the east and westward net sediment transport in the northern and western parts of the study area. Areas with boulders on the sea floor are typically hummocky and are part of a glacial moraine system. Boulders are typically encrusted with seaweed, sponges, and anemones as shown in the bottom photography.

  4. Distinct bacterial communities in surficial seafloor sediments following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A major fraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons discharged during the 2010 Macondo oil spill became associated with and sank to the seafloor as marine snow flocs. This sedimentation pulse induced the development of distinct bacterial communities. Between May 2010 and July 2011, full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries demonstrated bacterial community succession in oil-polluted sediment samples near the wellhead area. Libraries from early May 2010, before the sedimentation event, served as the baseline control. Freshly deposited oil-derived marine snow was collected on the surface of sediment cores in September 2010, and was characterized by abundantly detected members of the marine Roseobacter cluster within the Alphaproteobacteria. Samples collected in mid-October 2010 closest to the wellhead contained members of the sulfate-reducing, anaerobic bacterial families Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae within the Deltaproteobacteria, suggesting that the oil-derived sedimentation pulse triggered bacterial oxygen consumption and created patchy anaerobic microniches that favored sulfate-reducing bacteria. Phylotypes of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading genus Cycloclasticus, previously found both in surface oil slicks and the deep hydrocarbon plume, were also found in oil-derived marine snow flocs sedimenting on the seafloor in September 2010, and in surficial sediments collected in October and November 2010, but not in any of the control samples. Due to the relative recalcitrance and stability of polycyclic aromatic compounds, Cycloclasticus represents the most persistent microbial marker of seafloor hydrocarbon deposition that we could identify in this dataset. The bacterial imprint of the DWH oil spill had diminished in late November 2010, when the bacterial communities in oil-impacted sediment samples collected near the Macondo wellhead began to resemble their pre-spill counterparts and spatial controls. Samples collected in summer

  5. Changes in the Precambrian ocean U cycle linked to the evolution of surficial redox conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, C. A.; Bekker, A.; Scott, C.; Gill, B. C.; Lyons, T. W.

    2009-12-01

    detrital flux under prevailing anoxic surficial conditions, reflected as very low U concentrations in Archean black shales (atmospheric and ocean redox conditions. U concentrations in marine shales serve to more accurately delineate the evolution of Proterozoic atmospheric and oceanic redox conditions.

  6. A concept mapping study on organic food consumers in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasimu, Huliyeti; Marchesini, Sergio; Canavari, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Despite some similarities with developed countries, the growth of organic market in China seems to follow a different path. Thus, important questions are how Chinese urban consumers perceive organic food, and what are the main concepts associated to the organic attribute. We aimed at representing in graphic form the network of mental associations with the organic concept. We used an adapted version of the "Brand concept mapping" method to acquire, process, and draw individual concept networks perceived by 50 organic food consumers in Shanghai. We then analyzed the data using network and cluster analysis to create aggregated maps for two distinct groups of consumers. Similarly to their peers in developed countries, Chinese consumers perceive organic food as healthy, safe and expensive. However, organic is not necessarily synonymous with natural produce in China, also due to a translation of the term that conveys the idea of a "technology advanced" product. Organic overlaps with the green food label in terms of image and positioning in the market, since they are easily associated and often confused. The two groups we identified show clear differences in the way the organic concept is associated to other concepts and features. The study provides useful information for practitioners: marketers of organic products in China should invest in communication to emphasize the differences with Green Food products and they should consider the possibility of segmenting organic consumers; Chinese policy makers should consider implementing information campaigns aimed at achieving a better understanding of the features of these quality labels among consumers. For researchers, the study confirms that the BCM method is effective and its integration with network and cluster analysis improves the interpretation of individual and aggregated maps.

  7. Interpretation of the Surficial Geology of Apalachicola Bay and St. George Sound, Florida (SURFICIALGEOLOGY)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative mapping program between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal...

  8. Benthic Habitats and Surficial Geology of Apalachicola Bay, Florida 2006 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected under a cooperative mapping program between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office...

  9. Benthic Habitats and Surficial Geology of Apalachicola Bay, Florida 2006 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected under a cooperative mapping program between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office...

  10. Benthic Habitats and Surficial Geology of Apalachicola Bay, Florida 2006 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected under a cooperative mapping program between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office...

  11. Benthic Habitats and Surficial Geology of Apalachicola Bay, Florida 2006 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected under a cooperative mapping program between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office...

  12. Dimension theoretical study on skew product maps with coupled-expanding property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhyon Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We discuss on some families of skew product maps on a square. For a kind of skew product maps with coupled-expanding property, we estimate Hausdorff dimension of its attractor. And we prove that there exists an ergodic measure with full Hausdorff dimension for this kind of skew product maps.

  13. A fast and cost-effective approach to develop and map EST-SSR markers: oak as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherubini Marcello

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs are a source of simple sequence repeats (SSRs that can be used to develop molecular markers for genetic studies. The availability of ESTs for Quercus robur and Quercus petraea provided a unique opportunity to develop microsatellite markers to accelerate research aimed at studying adaptation of these long-lived species to their environment. As a first step toward the construction of a SSR-based linkage map of oak for quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping, we describe the mining and survey of EST-SSRs as well as a fast and cost-effective approach (bin mapping to assign these markers to an approximate map position. We also compared the level of polymorphism between genomic and EST-derived SSRs and address the transferability of EST-SSRs in Castanea sativa (chestnut. Results A catalogue of 103,000 Sanger ESTs was assembled into 28,024 unigenes from which 18.6% presented one or more SSR motifs. More than 42% of these SSRs corresponded to trinucleotides. Primer pairs were designed for 748 putative unigenes. Overall 37.7% (283 were found to amplify a single polymorphic locus in a reference full-sib pedigree of Quercus robur. The usefulness of these loci for establishing a genetic map was assessed using a bin mapping approach. Bin maps were constructed for the male and female parental tree for which framework linkage maps based on AFLP markers were available. The bin set consisting of 14 highly informative offspring selected based on the number and position of crossover sites. The female and male maps comprised 44 and 37 bins, with an average bin length of 16.5 cM and 20.99 cM, respectively. A total of 256 EST-SSRs were assigned to bins and their map position was further validated by linkage mapping. EST-SSRs were found to be less polymorphic than genomic SSRs, but their transferability rate to chestnut, a phylogenetically related species to oak, was higher. Conclusion We have generated a bin map for oak

  14. Concentric Ring Method for generating pollen maps. Quercus as case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteros, Jose; Valencia, Rosa Mª; Del Río, Sara; Vega, Ana Mª; García-Mozo, Herminia; Galán, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Pablo; Mandrioli, Paolo; Fernández-González, Delia

    2017-01-15

    Mapping pollen concentrations is of great interest to study the health impact and ecological implications or for forestry or agronomical purposes. A deep knowledge about factors affecting airborne pollen is essential for predicting and understanding its dynamics. The present work sought to predict annual Quercus pollen over the Castilla and León region (Central and Northern Spain). Also to understand the relationship between airborne pollen and landscape. Records of Quercus and Quercus pyrenaica pollen types were collected at 13 monitoring sites over a period of 8years. They were analyzed together with land use data applying the Concentric Ring Method (CRM), a technique that we developed to study the relationship between airborne particle concentrations and emission sources in the region. The maximum correlation between the Quercus pollen and forms of vegetation was determined by shrubland and "dehesa" areas. For the specific Qi pyrenaica model (Q. pyrenaica pollen and Q. pyrenaica forest distribution), the maximum influence of emission sources on airborne pollen was observed at 14km from the pollen trap location with some positive correlations up to a distance of 43km. Apart from meteorological behavior, the local features of the region can explain pollen dispersion patterns. The method that we develop here proved to be a powerful tool for multi-source pollen mapping based on land use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A "Map" of Common Points of View in the Discourse about Drug Addicts: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev M.A.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Drug use continues to be one of the key public health problems, so it is particularly relevant to develop effective prevention programs targeted at different groups of young people. In this case, any preventive measure must necessarily rely on the results of empirical research. The article presents the results of the preparatory phase of the study of social representations about drug addicts, made in the framework of the theory of social representations (in the framework of the Geneva School ideas developed by V. Doisy and colleagues. The aim of the study was to identify the "map" of the common points of view in the discourse about drug addicts. The sample consisted of 308 people (195 men and 112 women, and one respondent did not state his gender, aged 16 to 47 years (median age is 25 years. The results provide empirical support for the hypothesis of the authors of the "map" of common points of view in the discourse about drug addicts.

  16. Using MatContM in the study of a nonlinear map in economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neirynck, Niels; Al-Hdaibat, Bashir; Govaerts, Willy; Kuznetsov, Yuri A.; Meijer, Hil G. E.

    2016-02-01

    MatContM is a MATLAB interactive toolbox for the numerical study of iterated smooth maps, their Lyapunov exponents, fixed points, and periodic, homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits as well as their stable and unstable invariant manifolds. The bifurcation analysis is based on continuation methods, tracing out solution manifolds of various types of objects while some of the parameters of the map vary. In particular, MatContM computes codimension 1 bifurcation curves of cycles and supports the computation of the normal form coefficients of their codimension two bifurcations, and allows branch switching from codimension 2 points to secondary curves. MatContM builds on an earlier command-line MATLAB package CL MatContM but provides new computational routines and functionalities, as well as a graphical user interface, enabling interactive control of all computations, data handling and archiving. We apply MatContM in our study of the monopoly model of T. Puu with cubic price and quadratic marginal cost functions. Using MatContM, we analyze the fixed points and their stability and we compute branches of solutions of period 5, 10, 13 17. The chaotic and periodic behavior of the monopoly model is further analyzed by computing the largest Lyapunov exponents.

  17. Raman mapping study of the pigments in the dancheong of Korean traditional buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jeong-Eun; Han, Kiok; Nam, Jiyeon; Kim, Seung; Kang, Dai-Ill; Park, Min-Jung; Lee, Han-Hyoung; Yang, In-Sang

    2017-04-01

    Korea experienced a tragic loss of most of the Sungnyemun building in an arson attack in 2008. Few scientific records of the pigments originally used in the Korean national treasure exist, thus, the restoration of Sungnyemun was a serious failure. Because the Raman spectroscopic method has the advantage of analyzing the pigment phases in a simple, nondestructive, and noncontact way, it is becoming more important in scientific research on the colors present in cultural assets. In this study, Raman mapping measurements of the pigments in several "dancheong" - color decorations of the surfaces of the wood structure of Korean buildings - samples from Bongjeongsa Geukrakjeon and Sunglimsa Bogwangjeon are presented. The distribution of the pigments, which is difficult to observe with the naked eye, can be found in detail through a high-resolution Raman mapping image. A change of Raman spectrum due to the powderization of some pigments in the colored layer is also observed. The powderization of the pigments is considered to be due to weathering. Our Raman study will be helpful for the preservation and restoration of cultural heritage in general.

  18. GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAPPING AND GEODIVERSITY: STUDY AT THE MINAS DO CAMAQUÃ GEOSITE PROTECTION AREA (BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Mendes Von Ahn

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphological mapping allows the evaluation of geoheritage and subsidizes geoconservation efforts. This work aimed at identifying and analyzing the landforms at the Minas do Camaquã Geosite Protection Area (MCGPA – Rio Grande do Sul state – Brazil, emphasizing the anthropogenic morphologies to subsidize the conservation of the studied area’s geomorphological heritage. A geomorphological map (2015 of the MCGPA was made (1:25.000 to recognize and identify the natural and anthropogenic landforms. Based on this map, four sectors were identified according to the representativeness of the landforms: (1 Mineral extraction sector; (2 Tailings deposition sector; (3 Structural features sector; and (4 Boundary sector. The mining activities were the main reason for the geomorphological alterations and the creation of anthropogenic morphologies in the site. Despite the significant disturbance caused by the mining activity, there are still features of geologic-geomorphological interest fairly preserved. The identified and analyzed anthropogenic morphologies can describe the history of the mining activities that took place in the area and which formed a set of landforms currently present in the MCGPA. Although the surface features are not originated from natural morphogenesis, they belong to the area’s geodiversity. Furthermore, considering these features as geoheritage would create the need for management aiming at avoiding the collapse and degradation of these forms. Nowadays, the mining activities have remained inactive, and this set of anthropogenic morphologies need to be understood under a geomorphological point of view which will allow future exploitation of its potential touristic, scientific, pedagogical and cultural uses. The best way to promote and develop strategies of geoconservation for this place is to create and foment geotourism in this area.

  19. Geospatial modelling for groundwater quality mapping: a case study of Rupnagar district, Punjab, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S.; Kaur, A.; Litoria, P.; Pateriya, B.

    2014-11-01

    Over period of time, the water usage and management is under stress for various reasons including pollution in both surface and subsurface. The groundwater quality decreases due to the solid waste from urban and industrial nodes, rapid use of insecticides and pesticides in agricultural practices. In this study, ground water quality maps for Rupnagar district of Punjab has been prepared using geospatial interpolation technique through Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) approach. IDW technique has been used for major ground water quality parameters observed from the field samples like Arsenic, Hardness, pH, Iron, Fluoride, TDS, and Sulphate. To assess the ground water quality of the Rupnagar district, total 280 numbers of samples from various sources of tubewells for both pre and post monsoon have collected. Out of which, 80 to 113 samples found Iron with non potable limits ranging 0.3-1.1mg/l and 0.3-1.02mg/l according to BIS standard for both the seasons respectively. Chamkaur Sahib, Rupnagar, Morinda blocks have been found non potable limit of iron in both pre & post-monsoon. 11 to 52 samples in this region have sulphate with permissible limits in both the season ranging 200-400mg/l and 201-400mg/l. But arsenic had acceptable limit in both the season. Various parameters-wise ground water quality map is generated using the range values of drinking water quality to know the distribution of different parameters and diversification in the concentration of different elements. These maps are very much needful for human being to expand awareness among the people to maintain the Cleanness of water at their highest quality and purity levels to achieve a healthy life.

  20. CRF-PEPICO: Double velocity map imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy for reaction kinetics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztáray, Bálint; Voronova, Krisztina; Torma, Krisztián G.; Covert, Kyle J.; Bodi, Andras; Hemberger, Patrick; Gerber, Thomas; Osborn, David L.

    2017-07-01

    Photoelectron photoion coincidence (PEPICO) spectroscopy could become a powerful tool for the time-resolved study of multi-channel gas phase chemical reactions. Toward this goal, we have designed and tested electron and ion optics that form the core of a new PEPICO spectrometer, utilizing simultaneous velocity map imaging for both cations and electrons, while also achieving good cation mass resolution through space focusing. These optics are combined with a side-sampled, slow-flow chemical reactor for photolytic initiation of gas-phase chemical reactions. Together with a recent advance that dramatically increases the dynamic range in PEPICO spectroscopy [D. L. Osborn et al., J. Chem. Phys. 145, 164202 (2016)], the design described here demonstrates a complete prototype spectrometer and reactor interface to carry out time-resolved experiments. Combining dual velocity map imaging with cation space focusing yields tightly focused photoion images for translationally cold neutrals, while offering good mass resolution for thermal samples as well. The flexible optics design incorporates linear electric fields in the ionization region, surrounded by dual curved electric fields for velocity map imaging of ions and electrons. Furthermore, the design allows for a long extraction stage, which makes this the first PEPICO experiment to combine ion imaging with the unimolecular dissociation rate constant measurements of cations to detect and account for kinetic shifts. Four examples are shown to illustrate some capabilities of this new design. We recorded the threshold photoelectron spectrum of the propargyl and the iodomethyl radicals. While the former agrees well with a literature threshold photoelectron spectrum, we have succeeded in resolving the previously unobserved vibrational structure in the latter. We have also measured the bimolecular rate constant of the CH2I + O2 reaction and observed its product, the smallest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO. Finally, the second

  1. AVIRIS Land-Surface Mapping in Support of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dar A.; Gamon, John; Keightley, Keir; Prentiss, Dylan; Reith, Ernest; Green, Robert

    2001-01-01

    A key scientific objective of the original Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) field campaign (1993-1996) was to obtain the baseline data required for modeling and predicting fluxes of energy, mass, and trace gases in the boreal forest biome. These data sets are necessary to determine the sensitivity of the boreal forest biome to potential climatic changes and potential biophysical feedbacks on climate. A considerable volume of remotely-sensed and supporting field data were acquired by numerous researchers to meet this objective. By design, remote sensing and modeling were considered critical components for scaling efforts, extending point measurements from flux towers and field sites over larger spatial and longer temporal scales. A major focus of the BOREAS follow-on program is concerned with integrating the diverse remotely sensed and ground-based data sets to address specific questions such as carbon dynamics at local to regional scales. The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has the potential of contributing to BOREAS through: (1) accurate retrieved apparent surface reflectance; (2) improved landcover classification; and (3) direct assessment of biochemical/biophysical information such as canopy liquid water and chlorophyll concentration through pigment fits. In this paper, we present initial products for major flux tower sites including: (1) surface reflectance of dominant cover types; (2) a land-cover classification developed using spectral mixture analysis (SMA) and Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA); and (3) liquid water maps. Our goal is to compare these land-cover maps to existing maps and to incorporate AVIRIS image products into models of photosynthetic flux.

  2. Resistance to Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in Phaseolus vulgaris: a case study for mapping two independent genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffroy, Valérie; Sévignac, Mireille; Billant, Paul; Dron, Michel; Langin, Thierry

    2008-02-01

    Anthracnose, caused by the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is a devastating disease of common bean. Resistant cultivars are economical means for defense against this pathogen. In the present study, we mapped resistance specificities against 7 C. lindemuthianum strains of various geographical origins revealing differential reactions on BAT93 and JaloEEP558, two parents of a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population, of Meso-american and Andean origin, respectively. Six strains revealed the segregation of two independent resistance genes. A specific numerical code calculating the LOD score in the case of two independent segregating genes (i.e. genes with duplicate effects) in a RILs population was developed in order to provide a recombination value (r) between each of the two resistance genes and the tested marker. We mapped two closely linked Andean resistance genes (Co-x, Co-w) at the end of linkage group (LG) B1 and mapped one Meso-american resistance genes (Co-u) at the end of LG B2. We also confirmed the complexity of the previously identified B4 resistance gene cluster, because four of the seven tested strains revealed a resistance specificity near Co-y from JaloEEP558 and two strains identified a resistance specificity near Co-9 from BAT93. Resistance genes found within the same cluster confer resistance to different strains of a single pathogen such as the two anthracnose specificities Co-x and Co-w clustered at the end of LG B1. Clustering of resistance specificities to multiple pathogens such as fungi (Co-u) and viruses (I) was also observed at the end of LG B2.

  3. A Systematic Mapping Study of Tools for Distributed Software Development Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Paolo; Ali Babar, Muhammad

    Context: A wide variety of technologies have been developed to support Global Software Development (GSD). However, the information about the dozens of available solutions is quite diverse and scattered making it quite difficult to have an overview able to identify common trends and unveil research...... gaps. Objective: The objective of this research is to systematically identify and classify a comprehensive list of the technologies that have been developed and/or used for supporting GSD teams. Method: This study has been undertaken as a Systematic Mapping Study (SMS). Our searches identified 1958...... papers out of which 182 were found suitable for inclusion in this study. Results: We have identified 412 technologies reported to be developed and/or used for supporting GSD teams from 182 papers. The identified technologies have been analyzed in order to categorize them using four main classification...

  4. Geospatial approach in mapping soil erodibility using CartoDEM - A case study in hilly watershed of Lower Himalayan Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Gupta, Surya

    2016-10-01

    Soil erodibility is one of the most important factors used in spatial soil erosion risk assessment. Soil information derived from soil map is used to generate soil erodibility factor map. Soil maps are not available at appropriate scale. In general, soil maps at small scale are used in deriving soil erodibility map that largely generalized spatial variability and it largely ignores the spatial variability since soil map units are discrete polygons. The present study was attempted to generate soil erodibilty map using terrain indices derived from DTM and surface soil sample data. Soil variability in the hilly landscape is largely controlled by topography represented by DTM. The CartoDEM (30 m) was used to derive terrain indices such as terrain wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI), sediment transport index (STI) and slope parameters. A total of 95 surface soil samples were collected to compute soil erodibility factor ( K) values. The K values ranged from 0.23 to 0.81 t ha-1R-1 in the watershed. Correlation analysis among K-factor and terrain parameters showed highest correlation of soil erodibilty with TWI ( r 2= 0.561) followed by slope ( r 2= 0.33). A multiple linear regression model was developed to derive soil erodibilty using terrain parameters. A set of 20 soil sample points were used to assess the accuracy of the model. The coefficient of determination ( r 2) and RMSE were computed to be 0.76 and 0.07 t ha-1R-1 respectively. The proposed methodology is quite useful in generating soil erodibilty factor map using digital elevation model (DEM) for any hilly terrain areas. The equation/model need to be established for the particular hilly terrain under the study. The developed model was used to generate spatial soil erodibility factor ( K) map of the watershed in the lower Himalayan range.

  5. Dimensionality reduction in nonlinear optical datasets via diffusion mapping: case study of short-pulse second harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Dmitri; Smith, Stanley; Brady, John; Levis, Robert J.

    2008-02-01

    We have studied the application of the diffusion mapping technique to dimensionality reduction and clustering in multidimensional optical datasets. The combinational (input-output) data were obtained by sampling search spaces related to optimization of a nonlinear physical process, short-pulse second harmonic generation. The diffusion mapping technique hierarchically reduces the dimensionality of the data set and unifies the statistics of input (the pulse shape) and output (the integral output intensity) parameters. The information content of the emerging clustered pattern can be optimized by modifying the parameters of the mapping procedure. The low-dimensional pattern captures essential features of the nonlinear process, based on a finite sampling set. In particular, the apparently parabolic two-dimensional projection of this pattern exhibits regular evolution with the increase of higher-intensity data in the sampling set. The basic shape of the pattern and the evolution are relatively insensitive to the size of the sampling set, as well as to the details of the mapping procedure. Moreover, the experimental data sets and the sets produced numerically on the basis of a theoretical model are mapped into patterns of remarkable similarity (as quantified by the similarity of the related quadratic-form coefficients). The diffusion mapping method is robust and capable of predicting higher-intensity points from a set of low-intensity points. With these attractive features, diffusion mapping stands poised to become a helpful statistical tool for preprocessing analysis of vast and multidimensional combinational optical datasets.

  6. The integration of GPS, vegetation mapping and GIS in ecological and behavioural studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Mark Rutter

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS satellite navigation receivers are increasingly being used in ecological and behavioural studies to track the movements of animals in relation to the environments in which they live and forage. Concurrent recording of the animal's foraging behaviour (e.g. from jaw movement recording allows foraging locations to be determined. By combining the animal GPS movement and foraging data with habitat and vegetation maps using a Geographical Information System (GIS it is possible to relate animal movement and foraging location to landscape and habitat features and vegetation types. This powerful approach is opening up new opportunities to study the spatial aspects of animal behaviour, especially foraging behaviour, with far greater precision and objectivity than before. Advances in GPS technology now mean that sub-metre precision systems can be used to track animals, extending the range of application of this technology from landscape and habitat scale to paddock and patch scale studies. As well as allowing ecological hypotheses to be empirically tested at the patch scale, the improvements in precision are also leading to the approach being increasing extended from large scale ecological studies to smaller (paddock scale agricultural studies. The use of sub-metre systems brings both new scientific opportunities and new technological challenges. For example, fitting all of the animals in a group with sub-metre precision GPS receivers allows their relative inter-individual distances to be precisely calculated, and their relative orientations can be derived from data from a digital compass fitted to each receiver. These data, analyzed using GIS, could give new insights into the social behaviour of animals. However, the improvements in precision with which the animals are being tracked also needs equivalent improvements in the precision with which habitat and vegetation are mapped. This needs some degree of automation, as

  7. Population structure and association mapping studies for important agronomic traits in soybean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhupender Kumar; Akshay Talukdar; Indu Bala; Khushbu Verma; Sanjay Kumar Lal; Ramesh Lal Sapra; B. Namita; Subhash Chander; Reshu Tiwari

    2014-12-01

    The present study was carried out with a set of 96 diverse soybean genotypes with the objectives of analysing the population structure and to identify molecular markers associated with important agronomic traits. Large phenotypic variability was observed for the agronomic traits under study indicating suitability of the genotypes for association studies. The maximum values for plant height, pods per plant, seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and seed yield per plant were approximately two and half to three times more than the minimum values for the genotypes. Seed yield per plant was found to be significantly correlated with pods per plant ($r = 0.77$), 100-seed weight ($r = 0.35$) and days to maturity ($r = 0.23$). The population structure studies depicted the presence of seven subpopulations which nearly corresponded with the source of geographical origin of the genotypes. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the linked markers decreased with the increased distance, and a substantial drop in LD decay values was observed between 30 and 35 cM. Genomewide marker-traits association analysis carried out using general linear (GLM) and mixed linear models (MLM) identified six genomic regions (two of them were common in both) on chromosomes 6, 7, 8, 13, 15 and 17, which were found to be significantly associated with various important traits viz., plant height, pods per plant, 100-seed weight, plant growth habit, average number of seeds per pod, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity. The phenotypic variation explained by these loci ranged from 6.09 to 13.18% and 4.25 to 9.01% in the GLM and MLM studies, respectively. In conclusion, association mapping (AM) in soybean could be a viable alternative to conventional QTL mapping approach.

  8. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Surficial Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the area of surficial geology types in square meters compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set is the "Digital data set describing surficial geology in the conterminous US" (Clawges and Price, 1999).The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2008). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  9. An Indexed, Mapped Mutant Library Enables Reverse Genetics Studies of Biological Processes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobo; Zhang, Ru; Patena, Weronika; Gang, Spencer S; Blum, Sean R; Ivanova, Nina; Yue, Rebecca; Robertson, Jacob M; Lefebvre, Paul A; Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel T; Grossman, Arthur R; Jonikas, Martin C

    2016-02-01

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a leading unicellular model for dissecting biological processes in photosynthetic eukaryotes. However, its usefulness has been limited by difficulties in obtaining mutants in specific genes of interest. To allow generation of large numbers of mapped mutants, we developed high-throughput methods that (1) enable easy maintenance of tens of thousands of Chlamydomonas strains by propagation on agar media and by cryogenic storage, (2) identify mutagenic insertion sites and physical coordinates in these collections, and (3) validate the insertion sites in pools of mutants by obtaining >500 bp of flanking genomic sequences. We used these approaches to construct a stably maintained library of 1935 mapped mutants, representing disruptions in 1562 genes. We further characterized randomly selected mutants and found that 33 out of 44 insertion sites (75%) could be confirmed by PCR, and 17 out of 23 mutants (74%) contained a single insertion. To demonstrate the power of this library for elucidating biological processes, we analyzed the lipid content of mutants disrupted in genes encoding proteins of the algal lipid droplet proteome. This study revealed a central role of the long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase LCS2 in the production of triacylglycerol from de novo-synthesized fatty acids.

  10. Mapping the sensory perception of apple using descriptive sensory evaluation in a genome wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyotte, Beatrice; Bowen, Amy J; Banks, Travis; Rajcan, Istvan; Somers, Daryl J

    2017-01-01

    Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel. The trained sensory panel scored randomized sliced samples of each apple cultivar for seventeen taste, flavour and texture attributes using controlled sensory evaluation practices. In addition, the apple collection was subjected to genotyping by sequencing for marker discovery. A genome wide association analysis suggested significant genomic associations for several sensory traits including juiciness, crispness, mealiness and fresh green apple flavour. The findings include previously unreported genomic regions that could be used in apple breeding and suggest that similar sensory association mapping methods could be applied in other plants.

  11. Mapping the connectivity underlying multimodal (verbal and non-verbal) semantic processing: a brain electrostimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues

    2013-08-01

    Accessing the meaning of words, objects, people and facts is a human ability, made possible thanks to semantic processing. Although studies concerning its cortical organization are proficient, the subcortical connectivity underlying this semantic network received less attention. We used intraoperative direct electrostimulation, which mimics a transient virtual lesion during brain surgery for glioma in eight awaken patients, to map the anatomical white matter substrate subserving the semantic system. Patients performed a picture naming task and a non-verbal semantic association test during the electrical mapping. Direct electrostimulation of the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, a poorly known ventral association pathway which runs throughout the brain, induced in all cases semantic disturbances. These transient disorders were highly reproducible, and concerned verbal as well as non-verbal output. Our results highlight for the first time the essential role of the left inferior fronto-occipital fascicle in multimodal (and not only in verbal) semantic processing. On the basis of these original findings, and in the lights of phylogenetic considerations regarding this fascicle, we suggest its possible implication in the monitoring of the human level of consciousness related to semantic memory, namely noetic consciousness.

  12. Brain and Music: An Intraoperative Stimulation Mapping Study of a Professional Opera Singer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Marco; Casarotti, Alessandra; Comi, Alessandro; Pessina, Federico; Bello, Lorenzo

    2016-09-01

    Music is one of the most sophisticated and fascinating functions of the brain. Yet, how music is instantiated within the brain is not fully characterized. Singing is a peculiar aspect of music, in which both musical and linguistic skills are required to provide a merged vocal output. Identifying the neural correlates of this process is relevant for both clinical and research purposes. An adult white man with a presumed left temporal glioma was studied. He is a professional opera singer. A tailored music evaluation, the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia, was performed preoperatively and postoperatively, with long-term follow-up. Intraoperative stimulation mapping (ISM) with awake surgery with a specific music evaluation battery was used to identify and preserve the cortical and subcortical structures subserving music, along with standard motor-sensory and language mapping. A total resection of a grade I glioma was achieved. The Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia reported an improvement in musical scores after the surgery. ISM consistently elicited several types of errors in the superior temporal gyrus and, to a lesser extent, in the inferior frontal operculum. Most errors occurred during score reading; fewer errors were elicited during the assessment of rhythm. No spontaneous errors were recorded. These areas did not overlap with eloquent sites for counting or naming. ISM and a tailored music battery enabled better characterization of a specific network within the brain subserving score reading independently from speech with long-term clinical impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. QTL mapping for combining ability in different population-based NCII designs: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanzhi; Sun, Congwei; Chen, Yuan; Dai, Zhijun; Qu, Zhen; Zheng, Xingfei; Yu, Sibin; Mou, Tongmin; Xu, Chenwu; Hu, Zhongli

    2013-12-01

    The NCII design (North Carolina mating design II) has been widely applied in studies of combining ability and heterosis. The objective of our research was to estimate how different base populations, sample sizes, testcross numbers and heritability influence QTL analyses of combining ability and heterosis. A series of Monte Carlo simulation experiments with QTL mapping were then conducted for the base population performance, testcross population phenotypic values and the general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and Hmp (midparental heterosis) datasets. The results indicated that: (i) increasing the number of testers did not necessarily enhance the QTL detection power for GCA, but it was significantly related to the QTL effect. (ii) The QTLs identified in the base population may be different from those from GCA dataset. Similar phenomena can be seen from QTL detected in SCA and Hmp datasets. (iii) The QTL detection power for GCA ranked in the order of DH(RIL) based > F2 based > BC based NCII design, when the heritability was low. The recombinant inbred lines (RILs) (or DHs) allows more recombination and offers higher mapping resolution than other populations. Further, their testcross progeny can be repeatedly generated and phenotyped. Thus, RIL based (or DH based) NCII design was highly recommend for combining ability QTL analysis. Our results expect to facilitate selecting elite parental lines with high combining ability and for geneticists to research the genetic basis of combining ability.

  14. Expert Opinions on Improving Femicide Data Collection across Europe: A Concept Mapping Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Vives-Cases

    Full Text Available Femicide, defined as the killings of females by males because they are females, is becoming recognized worldwide as an important ongoing manifestation of gender inequality. Despite its high prevalence or widespread prevalence, only a few countries have specific registries about this issue. This study aims to assemble expert opinion regarding the strategies which might feasibly be employed to promote, develop and implement an integrated and differentiated femicide data collection system in Europe at both the national and international levels. Concept mapping methodology was followed, involving 28 experts from 16 countries in generating strategies, sorting and rating them with respect to relevance and feasibility. The experts involved were all members of the EU-Cost-Action on femicide, which is a scientific network of experts on femicide and violence against women across Europe. As a result, a conceptual map emerged, consisting of 69 strategies organized in 10 clusters, which fit into two domains: "Political action" and "Technical steps". There was consensus among participants regarding the high relevance of strategies to institutionalize national databases and raise public awareness through different stakeholders, while strategies to promote media involvement were identified as the most feasible. Differences in perceived priorities according to the level of human development index of the experts' countries were also observed.

  15. Landslide susceptibility mapping for rural development: Case studies and research findings from the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, J.; Petley, D. N.

    2003-04-01

    In 2002 landslides caused a reported 346 human fatalities in the Himalayan Kingdom of Nepal. Over the last decade the total reported deaths due to landslides has exceeded 900. During the past 2-3 years in neighbouring Bhutan landslides have caused extensive damage to roads and other infrastructure, also leading to significant loss of life. Landslides, therefore, are major considerations in the siting of new infrastructure, the maintenance of existing facilities and the protection of rural communities and road users in the Himalayan region. Despite this, there is extremely limited information available on landslide hazards in the region, and the situation is a particular concern in Nepal and Bhutan. The Landslide Risk Assessment Project was established in 2000 to investigate cause-effect relationships in landslide occurrence and to develop simple techniques of landslide susceptibility mapping. A total of over 1300 landslides have been mapped from remote sensing and field surveys in six study areas in Nepal and Bhutan. GIS has been used to compare the spatial distribution of these landslides with a range of geological, terrain and land use factors. The research has shown that consistent relationships can be found between the location of landslides and rock type, geological structure, slope steepness and terrain classification. The results have positive implications for the assessment of landslide susceptibility for rural development planning in areas where limited data already exist.

  16. Mapping Electrochemical Heterogeneity at Iron Oxide Surfaces: A Local Electrochemical Impedance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marie; Boily, Jean-François

    2015-12-22

    Alternating current scanning electrochemical microscopy (AC-SECM) was used for the first time to map key electrochemical attributes of oriented hematite (α-Fe2O3) single crystal surfaces at the micron-scale. Localized electrochemical impedance spectra (LEIS) of the (001) and (012) faces provided insight into the spatial variations of local double layer capacitance (C(dl)) and charge transfer resistance (R(ad)). These parameters were extracted by LEIS measurements in the 0.4-8000 Hz range to probe the impedance response generated by the redistribution of water molecules and charge carriers (ions) under an applied AC. These were attributed to local variations in the local conductivity of the sample surfaces. Comparison with global EIS measurements on the same samples uncovered highly comparable frequency-resolved processes, that were broken down into contributions from the bulk hematite, the interface as well as the microelectrode/tip assembly. This work paves the way for new studies aimed at mapping electrochemical processes at the mesoscale on this environmentally and technologically important material.

  17. Urban Flood Vulnerability and Risk Mapping Using Integrated Multi-Parametric AHP and GIS: Methodological Overview and Case Study Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at providing expertise for preparing public-based flood mapping and estimating flood risks in growing urban areas. To model and predict the magnitude of flood risk areas, an integrated Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis techniques are used for the case of Eldoret Municipality in Kenya. The flood risk vulnerability mapping follows a multi-parametric approach and integrates some of the flooding causative factors such as rainfall d...

  18. Comparison of HapMap and 1000 Genomes Reference Panels in a Large-Scale Genome-Wide Association Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Paul S.; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Chasman, Daniel I.; Trompet, Stella; Kleber, Marcus E.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Wang, Jie Jin; Attia, John R.; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Weng, Lu-Chen; Grossmann, Vera; Brody, Jennifer A.; Venturini, Cristina; Tanaka, Toshiko; Rose, Lynda M.; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Mazur, Johanna; Basu, Saonli; Yang, Qiong; Ligthart, Symen; Hottenga, Jouke J.; Rumley, Ann; Mulas, Antonella; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Grotevendt, Anne; Taylor, Kent D.; Delgado, Graciela E.; Kifley, Annette; Lopez, Lorna M.; Berentzen, Tina L.; Mangino, Massimo; Bandinelli, Stefania; Morrison, Alanna C.; Hamsten, Anders; Tofler, Geoffrey; de Maat, Moniek P. M.; Draisma, Harmen H. M.; Lowe, Gordon D.; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Sattar, Naveed; Lackner, Karl J.; Völker, Uwe; McKnight, Barbara; Huang, Jie; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; McEvoy, Mark A.; Starr, John M.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Guan, Weihua; Rivadeneira, Fernando; McArdle, Wendy L.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Zeller, Tanja; Psaty, Bruce M.; Uitterlinden, André G.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Stott, David J.; Binder, Harald; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Spector, Tim D.; Deary, Ian J.; März, Winfried; Greinacher, Andreas; Wild, Philipp S.; Cucca, Francesco; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Watkins, Hugh; Tang, Weihong; Ridker, Paul M.; Jukema, Jan W.; Scott, Rodney J.; Mitchell, Paul; Hansen, Torben; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Strachan, David P.

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of genome-wide association (GWA) studies are now using the higher resolution 1000 Genomes Project reference panel (1000G) for imputation, with the expectation that 1000G imputation will lead to the discovery of additional associated loci when compared to HapMap imputation. In order to assess the improvement of 1000G over HapMap imputation in identifying associated loci, we compared the results of GWA studies of circulating fibrinogen based on the two reference panels. Using both HapMap and 1000G imputation we performed a meta-analysis of 22 studies comprising the same 91,953 individuals. We identified six additional signals using 1000G imputation, while 29 loci were associated using both HapMap and 1000G imputation. One locus identified using HapMap imputation was not significant using 1000G imputation. The genome-wide significance threshold of 5×10−8 is based on the number of independent statistical tests using HapMap imputation, and 1000G imputation may lead to further independent tests that should be corrected for. When using a stricter Bonferroni correction for the 1000G GWA study (P-value < 2.5×10−8), the number of loci significant only using HapMap imputation increased to 4 while the number of loci significant only using 1000G decreased to 5. In conclusion, 1000G imputation enabled the identification of 20% more loci than HapMap imputation, although the advantage of 1000G imputation became less clear when a stricter Bonferroni correction was used. More generally, our results provide insights that are applicable to the implementation of other dense reference panels that are under development. PMID:28107422

  19. Physical, chemical, and mineralogical data from surficial deposits, groundwater levels, and water composition in the area of Franklin Lake playa and Ash Meadows, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harland L.; Breit, George N.; Yount, James C.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Reheis, Marith C.; Skipp, Gary L.; Fisher, Eric M.; Lamothe, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents data and describes the methods used to determine the physical attributes, as well as the chemical and mineralogical composition of surficial deposits; groundwater levels; and water composition in the area of Franklin Lake playa and Ash Meadows, California and Nevada. The results support studies that examine (1) the interaction between groundwater and the ground surface, and the transport of solutes through the unsaturated zone; (2) the potential for the accumulation of metals and metalloids in surface crusts; (3) emission of dust from metal-rich salt crust; and (4) the effects of metal-rich dusts on human and ecosystem health. The evaporation of shallow (salt in the subsurface and (or) the formation of salt crusts at the ground surface. Ground-surface characteristics such as hardness, electrical conductivity, and mineralogy depend on the types and forms of these salt crusts. In the study area, salt crusts range from hard and bedded to soft and loose (Reynolds and others, 2009). Depending on various factors such as the depth and composition of groundwater and sediment characteristics of the unsaturated zone, salt crusts may accumulate relatively high contents of trace elements. Soft, loose salt crusts are highly vulnerable to wind erosion and transport. These vulnerable crusts, which may contain high contents of potentially toxic trace elements, can travel as atmospheric dust and affect human and ecosystem health at local to regional scales.

  20. Multielement geochemical dataset of surficial materials for the northern Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Mary Jane; Kotlyar, Boris B.; Ludington, Steve; Folger, Helen W.; Mossotti, Victor G.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents geochemical data generated during mineral and environmental assessments for the Bureau of Land Management in northern Nevada, northeastern California, southeastern Oregon, and southwestern Idaho, along with metadata and map representations of selected elements. The dataset presented here is a compilation of chemical analyses of over 10,200 stream-sediment and soil samples originally collected during the National Uranium Resource Evaluation's (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program of the Department of Energy and its predecessors and reanalyzed to support a series of mineral-resource assessments by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The dataset also includes the analyses of additional samples collected by the USGS in 1992. The sample sites are in southeastern Oregon, southwestern Idaho, northeastern California, and, primarily, in northern Nevada. These samples were collected from 1977 to 1983, before the development of most of the present-day large-scale mining infrastructure in northern Nevada. As such, these data may serve as an important baseline for current and future geoenvironmental studies. Largely because of the very diverse analytical methods used by the NURE HSSR program, the original NURE analyses in this area yielded little useful geochemical information. The Humboldt, Malheur-Jordan-Andrews, and Winnemucca-Surprise studies were designed to provide useful geochemical data via improved analytical methods (lower detection levels and higher precision) and, in the Malheur-Jordan-Andrews and Winnemucca Surprise areas, to collect additional stream-sediment samples to increase sampling coverage. The data are provided in *.xls (Microsoft Excel) and *.csv (comma-separated-value) format. We also present graphically 35 elements, interpolated ("gridded") in a geographic information system (GIS) and overlain by major geologic trends, so that users may view the variation in elemental concentrations over the

  1. Brain electrical activity mapping in the study of visual development and amblyopia in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouvenin, D; Tiberge, M; Arne, J L; Arbus, L

    1995-01-01

    Brain electrical activity mapping (BEAM) allows the study of electrical visual reactivity on a computerized electroencephalogram (EEG). We carried out 150 BEAM studies on 120 infants to evaluate the usefulness and reliability of this noninvasive technique in the assessment of vision in very young children, compared with other methods (clinical testing, preferential looking, and visual evoked potentials). BEAM demonstrated amblyopia at a cortical level and showed specific electrical signs of amblyopia. The visual reactivity was variably affected depending on the type of amblyopia present. In addition, different results of BEAM corresponded to different kinds of visual maturation delay and strabismus in the absence of amblyopia. BEAM appears to be useful in the initial screening and during treatment of deprivation and strabismic amblyopia, especially when other methods have failed to elicit the level of vision.

  2. Mapping soil erosion using magnetic susceptibility. A case study in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nazarok

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic element grouping of the magnetic susceptibility (MS values is conducted. The relation between MS values and erosion index is shown. The objective of the investigation is study of the information about magnetic susceptibility of soils as a diagnostic criterion to erodibility. The investigations were conducted in the limits of Tcherkascy Tishki territory, Kharkiv district. The soils of the territory are presented by catenary row of chernozems. The study area was used in the field crop rotation. The soil conservation technologies have not been applied. The data analyze confirmed high correlation of the MS, erosive index and humus content. The possibility of MS cartogram using at the soil erodibility map is presented. The magnetic methods can be extensively used at the soil erosion investigations thanks to the speed and low cost.

  3. Community Mapping and Theory of Planned Behavior as Study Tools for Solid Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chainarong Apinhapath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cities have encountered problems with uncollected solid waste. Separate disposal of recyclable waste is viewed as the most effective procedure in waste management. However, this requires the cooperation of the people in the community. Community mapping is the most effective tool for understanding a community but it does not address possible ways to change people’s behavior. The Theory of Planned Behavior was the basis for this study of recycling behavior as it offers methods for changing people’s habits. However, the theory does not provide guidance on how to facilitate the use of recycling bins in the community. Many recycling projects have been unsuccessfully implemented due to the fact that most people do not want waste bins placed near their houses. Therefore, both of these effective tools were combined in this study, which propose an effective implementation method for community solid waste management.

  4. A plastic scintillator-based 2D thermal neutron mapping system for use in BNCT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghal-Eh, N; Green, S

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a scintillator-based measurement instrument is proposed which is capable of measuring a two-dimensional map of thermal neutrons within a phantom based on the detection of 2.22MeV gamma rays generated via nth+H→D+γ reaction. The proposed instrument locates around a small rectangular water phantom (14cm×15cm×20cm) used in Birmingham BNCT facility. The whole system has been simulated using MCNPX 2.6. The results confirm that the thermal flux peaks somewhere between 2cm and 4cm distance from the system entrance which is in agreement with previous studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dawn Maps the Surface Composition of Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prettyman, T.; Palmer, E.; Reedy, R.; Sykes, M.; Yingst, R.; McSween, H.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Capaccinoni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Filacchione, G.; Magni, G.; Ammannito, E.; Carraro, F.; Coradini, A.; Fonte, S.; Noschese, R.; Tosi, F.; Blewett, D.; Denevi, B.; Lawrence, D.; Buratti, B.; Raymond, C. A.; Combe, J. P.; McCord, T.; Forni, O.

    2011-01-01

    By 7-October-2011, the Dawn mission will have completed Survey orbit and commenced high altitude mapping of 4-Vesta. We present a preliminary analysis of data acquired by Dawn's Framing Camera (FC) and the Visual and InfraRed Spectrometer (VIR) to map mineralogy and surface temperature, and to detect and quantify surficial OH. The radiometric calibration of VIR and FC is described. Background counting data acquired by GRaND are used to determine elemental detection limits from measurements at low altitude, which will commence in November. Geochemical models used in the interpretation of the data are described. Thermal properties, mineral-, and geochemical-data are combined to provide constraints on Vesta s formation and thermal evolution, the delivery of exogenic materials, space weathering processes, and the origin of the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites.

  6. -Deformed nonlinear maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramaswamy Jaganathan; Sudeshna Sinha

    2005-03-01

    Motivated by studies on -deformed physical systems related to quantum group structures, and by the elements of Tsallis statistical mechanics, the concept of -deformed nonlinear maps is introduced. As a specific example, a -deformation procedure is applied to the logistic map. Compared to the canonical logistic map, the resulting family of -logistic maps is shown to have a wider spectrum of interesting behaviours, including the co-existence of attractors – a phenomenon rare in one-dimensional maps.

  7. Combining geomorphological mapping and near surface geophysics (GPR and ERT) to study piping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatek-Jakiel, Anita; Kondracka, Marta

    2016-12-01

    This paper aims to provide a more comprehensive characterization of piping systems in mountainous areas under a temperate climate using geomorphological mapping and geophysical methods (electrical resistivity tomography - ERT and ground penetrating radar - GPR). The significance of piping in gully formation and hillslope hydrology has been discussed for many years, and most of the studies are based on surface investigations. However, it seems that most surface investigations underestimate this subsurface process. Therefore, our purpose was to estimate the scale of piping activity based on both surface and subsurface investigations. We used geophysical methods to detect the boundary of lateral water movement fostering pipe development and recognize the internal structure of the underlying materials. The survey was carried out in the Bereźnica Wyżna catchment, in the Bieszczady Mountains. (Eastern Carpathians, Poland), where pipes develop in Cambisols at a mean depth of about 0.7-0.8 m. The geophysical techniques that were used are shown to be successful in identifying pipes. GPR data suggest that the density of piping systems is much larger than that detectible from surface observations alone. Pipe length can be > 6.5-9.2% (maximum = 49%) higher than what surface mapping suggests. Thus, the significance of piping in hillslope hydrology and gully formation can be greater than previously assumed. These results also draw attention to the scale of piping activity in the Carpathians, where this process has been neglected for many years. The ERT profiles reveal areas affected by piping as places of higher resistivity values, which are an effect of a higher content of air-filled pores (due to higher soil porosity, intense biological activity, and well-developed soil structure). In addition, the ERT profiles show that the pipes in the study area develop at the soil-bedrock interface, probably above the layers of shales or mudstones which create a water restrictive layer

  8. Geochronological arguments for a close relationship between surficial formation profiles and environmental crisis (c. 3000-2000 BP) in Gabon (Central Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiéblemont, Denis; Flehoc, Christine; Ebang-Obiang, Michel; Rigollet, Christophe; Prian, Jean-Pierre; Prognon, François

    2013-07-01

    We present new 14C data on charcoal fragments recovered from the lower (coarse-grained Stone Line) and upper (fine-grained Cover Horizon) portions of surficial formation profiles in Gabon. These data and others compiled from the literature enable a reconstruction of the Upper Holocene geological regional history of Gabon. The connection between the geological events recorded in the surficial formations and the Upper Holocene environmental crisis is discussed and a scenario connecting geological events with climatic and environmental changes is proposed. Such a scenario suggests that following the climatic crisis, the reconstitution of soils by aeolian sedimentation could have been an important factor of Bantu expansion.

  9. [Study on cine view of relative enhancement ratio map in O2-enhanced MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Keita; Watanabe, Yasushi; Hanaoka, Shouhei; Motoyoshi, Kouichi; Goto, Masami; Amemiya, Shiori; Ino, Kenji; Akahane, Masaaki; Yano, Keiichi; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2014-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables the evaluation of organ structure and function. Oxygen-enhanced MRI (O2-enhanced MRI) is a method for evaluating the pulmonary ventilation function using oxygen as a contrast agent. We created the Cine View of Relative Enhancement Ratio Map (Cine RER map) in O2-enhanced MRI to easily observe the contrast effect for clinical use. Relative enhancement ratio (RER) was determined as the pixel values of the Cine RER map. Moreover, six healthy volunteers underwent O2-enhanced MRI to determine the appropriate scale width of the Cine RER map. We calculated each RER and set 0 to 1.27 as the scale width of the Cine RER map based on the results. The Cine RER map made it possible to observe the contrast effect over time and thus is a convenient tool for evaluating the pulmonary ventilation function in O2-enhanced MRI.

  10. Open source technologies for delivering historical maps online - case studies at the National Library of Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Fleet

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last four years, the National Library of Scotland has saved money and improved user access to online historical maps through the implementation of new open source technologies. These new tools include a new Viewer for MrSID images using OpenLayers, a collaborative Georeferencer application, new Tile Map Services for delivering georeferenced historical maps online, and a new GeoServer and OpenLayers application for accessing 44,000 series maps as clickable indexes. All of these applications were developed by Petr Pridal / Klokan Technologies, in collaboration with the National Library of Scotland, and all of them are easily extendible to other map libraries. These open source tools also provide an excellent basis for collaboration with other map libraries, sharing technology, experience and advice.

  11. A study of photometry and image formation for application in localization and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Xue Iuan

    This dissertation studies the image formation process and physically based light reflection model. Purpose of this study is to expand the concept commonly used in computer graphic community toward develop a set of surface estimation algorithm and relative navigation sensor interested by aeronautical and astronautical application. Simplified camera model has been extensively applied toward developing image based relative pose sensing algorithm who are widely used in navigation and simultaneous localization and mapping purpose. Beside of providing data of measurement, navigation sensors are also expecting to provide uncertainty measurement who describe the accuracy of output data. Since most of the image space algorithms are commonly rely on various of image processing technique such as feature extract and tracking, who are generally difficult in providing uncertainty measurement in real time, one of the major objective of this research is to develop a computational efficient method to estimate confidential level of sensor outputs. Base on the study of camera projection model and light reflection model, this dissertation develop set of three algorithms. Digital VISNAV who provide real time six degree of freedom relative pose measurement from a set of structured light beacons and a camera. Photometric stereo in motion exploit the possibility of applying photometric stereo algorithm toward estimate surface geometry model of space object. At last, a newly developed algorithm base on both camera projection model and surface reflectance model named as PhotoNAV is providing a new method for dense image base simultaneous localization and mapping application on textureless surface. Each of these proposed algorithm are providing both sensing output along with estimated uncertainty measurement of the output. Performance of these algorithms are evaluated by both simulation and experiment. Under certain constraint when real measurements are not available, the experiment is carry

  12. On the utility of data from the International HapMap Project for Australian association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovich, Jim; Cox, Charles J; Tan, Rachel B; Montgomery, Douglas S; Huxtable, Stewart J; Rubio, Justin P; Ehm, Margaret G; Johnson, Laura; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Speed, Terence P; Roses, Allen D; Bahlo, Melanie; Foote, Simon J

    2006-03-01

    We compare patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) for 633 SNPs in two regions between samples collected in two Australian states and HapMap samples collected from Utah residents of Northern and Western (NW) European ancestry (CEU). Patterns of LD in the Australian and HapMap samples are similar, and tag SNPs chosen using HapMap genotypes perform almost as well on Australian samples as tags chosen using Australian genotypes.

  13. Assessment and application of national environmental databases and mapping tools at the local level to two community case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Davyda; Conlon, Kathryn; Barzyk, Timothy; Chahine, Teresa; Zartarian, Valerie; Schultz, Brad

    2011-03-01

    Communities are concerned over pollution levels and seek methods to systematically identify and prioritize the environmental stressors in their communities. Geographic information system (GIS) maps of environmental information can be useful tools for communities in their assessment of environmental-pollution-related risks. Databases and mapping tools that supply community-level estimates of ambient concentrations of hazardous pollutants, risk, and potential health impacts can provide relevant information for communities to understand, identify, and prioritize potential exposures and risk from multiple sources. An assessment of existing databases and mapping tools was conducted as part of this study to explore the utility of publicly available databases, and three of these databases were selected for use in a community-level GIS mapping application. Queried data from the U.S. EPA's National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment, Air Quality System, and National Emissions Inventory were mapped at the appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions for identifying risks of exposure to air pollutants in two communities. The maps combine monitored and model-simulated pollutant and health risk estimates, along with local survey results, to assist communities with the identification of potential exposure sources and pollution hot spots. Findings from this case study analysis will provide information to advance the development of new tools to assist communities with environmental risk assessments and hazard prioritization.

  14. A Study to Determine the Contribution made by Concept Maps to a Computer Architecture and Organization Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Aydogan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Concept mapping is a method of graphical learning that can be beneficial as a study method for concept linking and organization. Concept maps, which provide an elegant, easily understood representation of an expert’s domain knowledge, are tools for organizing and representing knowledge. These tools have been used in educational environments to better connect the relationships among theory and practice as well as among other concepts covered in a course. They also help the learners build relationships between previous knowledge and newly introduced concepts, encouraging meaningful learning rather than rote learning. The overall interactions among hardware, computer basics, computer functions and etc., used to be simple and transparent enough for understanding computer systems. Nevertheless the modern computer technologies have become increasingly more complex which makes it very difficult to understand the whole system of the computers. This study is an analysis of the contribution made by concept maps to a Computer Architecture and Organization course (CAO. For a period of one semester, students were asked to prepare concept maps that they were later allowed to use when revising for their final exam. The students’ success in the exam was then evaluated and their attitudes towards the course, the concept maps and the questions on them were surveyed and analyzed. The results lead to the conclusion that not only did concept maps make a positive contribution to the students’ overall success during the course, they also helped with their exam preparation.

  15. Modifiers of Neighbors' Bystander Intervention in Intimate Partner Violence: A Concept Mapping Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Sara; Todd, Mary-Justine; Oshiro, Michael; Greene, Emily; Frye, Victoria

    2016-03-01

    Encouraging bystander intervention in intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is potentially an important method of reducing the prevalence of such violence in urban communities. Most existing research has been conducted on campuses and in relation to sexual violence among teens or young adults. Our understanding of which bystander behaviors are feasible is nascent, and our knowledge of which situational factors influence neighbors' self-reported willingness to intervene is underdeveloped. We conducted a concept mapping study to identify potential bystander intervention behaviors in IPV among neighbors in urban settings; we also assessed whether perceived feasibility and effectiveness of those behaviors varied by situational characteristics. Using data collected from 41 residents of a low-income New York City neighborhood in late 2011, concept mapping was used to create a conceptual map of the 74 behaviors identified by participants. We examined participant differences in mean feasibility (i.e., that the participants "could" or "would" enact a behavior), feasibility given two situational characteristics (if the couple was perceived to have a history of IPV, and if children were believed to be involved or present), and perceived effectiveness of bystander behaviors. Differences across select sociodemographic factors of participants were also analyzed. A 13-cluster solution emerged, with clusters of bystander behaviors grouped into four larger cluster areas: victim focused, parenting/education focused, perpetrator focused, and community involvement focused. Bivariate analyses revealed that participants rated the four cluster areas as more feasible when a child was believed to be involved. Male participants rated intervention as less feasible when the couple was believed to have a history of IPV. Participants who reported a history of IPV victimization rated all four cluster areas as less effective on average, as compared with participants without a history of

  16. The Study of Enhancing Plans on Korean Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map (ECVAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, M.; Choi, Y.; Hwang, J.; Jeon, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    With the limitation of land area in the Republic of Korea, land use and excessive development in Korea is one of the huge socio-environmental problems. Plethora of land owners, government, and enterprises to develop land cover are still struggling for maintaining balance between efficient land utilization and sufficient land conservation. For the feasible management and land use in the future, ECVAM(as known as Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map) was created, accompanied with objective environmental grading of land in South Korea as well as integrated environmental information. ECVAM is the mapping system expressed by five-graded quality whether to develop or conserve in given land area with different colours. This map was primarily produced as the version 1.0 to ultimately use land eco-friendly and thoroughly which contains legally considered grade factors, environmental and ecological factors since 2001. From 2013, this project has planned to renovate the version 2.0 in more precise methods - strengthening legal support for user expansion, more amplified scale to 1:5,000, and the wide-spread supply such as education for those who demands ECVAM to adjust other fields like Environmental Impact Assessment to cope with land developers. For this year, we framed the official guideline to facilitate governments to design their newly-upgraded ECVAM but also to encourage local governors to utilize this figure for given land assessments. This assessment system also include the theoretical concept called natural asset valuation and the base study plan analyzing Vertical Vegetation Profile in the grading element of Stability of Community Structure. For the further study, it needs to reorganize the assessment factors to make the linkage between the ministry of environment and the ministry of land, infrastructure and transport in Korea for sustainable land use as well as to satisfy the grading ones in other nations' environmental conservation assessments such as

  17. Updating census urban area maps with LANDSAT data. [Orlando, Florida case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, S. Z.

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT data for updating census maps of urbanized areas by identification of a fringe of suburban territory to be considered for inclusion within a revised urban area map is described. Methodologies of the application system verification and transfer project are evaluated. These include manual analysis of color photographs, line printer maps, and land cover classifications; change detection using an image differencing routine to depict changes in reflectance values between the two anniversary LANDSAT images; and use of the IBIS/VICAR digital image processing system. Application of IBIS/VICAR to mapping the Orlando, Florida area is described in detail.

  18. An approach to define potential radon emission level maps using indoor radon concentration measurements and radiogeochemical data positive proportion relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe; Martel, Richard; Poulin, Patrick; Dessau, Jean-Claude; Lavoie, Denis; Parent, Michel; Lévesque, Benoît

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the first step of a new approach to make a map of radonprone areas showing different potential radon emission levels in the Quebec province. This map is a tool intended to assist the Quebec government in identifying populations with a higher risk of indoor radon gas exposure. This map of radon-prone areas used available radiogeochemical information for the province of Quebec: (1) Equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys; (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments; and (3) bedrock and surficial geology. Positive proportion relationships (PPR) between each individual criterion and the 1417 available basement radon concentrations were demonstrated. It was also shown that those criteria were reliable indicators of radon-prone areas. The three criteria were discretized into 3, 2 and 2 statistically significant different classes respectively. For each class, statistical heterogeneity was validated by Kruskal-Wallis one way analyses of variance on ranks. Maps of radon-prone areas were traced down for each criterion. Based on this statistical study and on the maps of radon-prone areas in Quebec, 18% of the dwellings located in areas with an equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys under 0.75 ppm showed indoor radon concentrations above 150 Bq/m3. This percentage increases to 33% when eU concentrations are between 0.75 ppm and 1.25 ppm and exceeds 40% when eU concentrations are above 1.25 ppm. A uranium concentration in sediments above 20 ppm showed an indoor radon concentration geometric mean of 215 Bq/m3 with more than 69% of the dwellings exceeding 150 Bq/m3 or more than 50% of dwellings exceeding the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m3. It is also shown that the radon emission potential is higher where a uranium-rich bedrock unit is not covered by a low permeability (silt/clay) surficial deposit.

  19. Dense fine-mapping study identifies new susceptibility loci for primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jimmy Z; Almarri, Mohamed A; Gaffney, Daniel J; Mells, George F; Jostins, Luke; Cordell, Heather J; Ducker, Samantha J; Day, Darren B; Heneghan, Michael A; Neuberger, James M; Donaldson, Peter T; Bathgate, Andrew J; Burroughs, Andrew; Davies, Mervyn H; Jones, David E; Alexander, Graeme J; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Sandford, Richard N; Anderson, Carl A

    2012-10-01

    We genotyped 2,861 cases of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) from the UK PBC Consortium and 8,514 UK population controls across 196,524 variants within 186 known autoimmune risk loci. We identified 3 loci newly associated with PBC (at P0.8) with the most associated variant at the locus. We found multiple independent common, low-frequency and rare variant association signals at five loci. Of the 26 independent non-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) signals tagged on the Immunochip, 15 have SNPs in B-lymphoblastoid open chromatin regions in high LD (r2>0.8) with the most associated variant. This study shows how data from dense fine-mapping arrays coupled with functional genomic data can be used to identify candidate causal variants for functional follow-up.

  20. The expression of depression among Javanese patients with major depressive disorder: a concept mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brintnell, E Sharon; Sommer, Ryan W; Kuncoro, Bambang; Setiawan, G Pandu; Bailey, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we explored the presentation of clinical depression in Java, Indonesia. Interviews were conducted with 20 Javanese patients (male and female) with major depressive disorder from both lower and higher socioeconomic levels. The recruited participants came from provincial and private mental health hospitals in the cities of Solo, Yogykarta (Jogja), Jakarta, and Malang on the island of Java, Indonesia. Concept mapping methodology using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify underlying themes in the expression of depressive phenomena in this Indonesian population. The results identified themes that grouped into six clusters: interpersonal relationships, hopelessness, physical/somatic, poverty of thought, discourage, and defeat. Findings give support to the view that culture influences the expression of Indonesian depressive phenomenology, which nevertheless has some common roots with Western clinical pictures of the disorder. Cultural influences may mask symptoms of the disorder to clinicians. Diagnostic and assessment tools must be carefully selected to ensure they address culturally specific expressions of depression.

  1. 3-D electromagnetic induction studies using the Swarm constellation: Mapping conductivity anomalies in the Earth's mantle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvshinov, A.; Sabaka, T.; Olsen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    satellite data that contain contributions from the core and lithosphere, from the rnagnetosphere and ionosphere (and their Earth-induced counterparts), as well as payload noise has been investigated. The model Studies have shown that C-responses obtained oil a regular grid might be used to map regional deep......An approach is presented to detect deep-seated regional conductivity anomalies by analysis of magnetic observations taken by low-Earth-orbiting satellites. The approach deals with recovery of C-responses on a regular grid and starts with a determination of time series of external and internal....... For validation of the approach, 3 years of realistic synthetic data at Simulated orbits of the forthcoming Swarm constellation of 3 satellites have been used. To obtain the synthetic data for a given 3-D conductivity Earth's model a time-domain scheme has been applied which relies oil a Fourier transformation...

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid production and dynamics in normal aging: a MRI phase-mapping study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Thomsen, C; Ståhlberg, F

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phase mapping was used for non-invasive evaluation of the to-and-fro motion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cerebral aqueduct, and to measure the supratentorial CSF production in vivo, in 13 healthy volunteers to determine whether normal aging affects...... these parameters. Eight young healthy volunteers (mean age 29.8 years) and five elderly healthy volunteers (mean age 69.0 years) were examined, all were normal on conventional MRI. Slightly higher aqueductal CSF peak flow velocities and peak volume flow in both the caudal and rostral directions were found...... in fact occurs at this relatively high rate. Our study further suggests that the differences found in human CSF production rates are caused by interindividual factors other than age....

  3. Surficial sediment character of the Louisiana offshore continental shelf region: a GIS compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Arsenault, Matthew A.; Buczkowski, Brian J.; Reid, Jane A.; Flocks, James; Kulp, Mark A.; Penland, Shea; Jenkins, Chris J.

    2007-01-01

    The Louisiana coastal zone, comprising the Mississippi River delta plain stretching nearly 400 km from Sabine Pass at the Texas border east to the Chandeleur Islands at the Mississippi border, represents one of North America’s most important coastal ecosystems in terms of natural resources, human infrastructure, and cultural heritage. At the same time, this region has the highest rates of coastal erosion and wetland loss in the Nation due to a complex combination of natural processes and anthropogenic actions over the past century. Comparison of historical maps dating back to 1855 and recent aerial photography show the Louisiana coast undergoing net erosion at highly variable rates. Rates have increased significantly during the past several decades. Earlier published statewide average shoreline erosion rates were >6 m/yr; rates have increased recently to >10 m/yr. The increase is attributable to collective action of storms, rapid subsidence, and pervasive man-made alterations of the rivers and the coast. In response to the dramatic landloss, regional-scale restoration plans are being developed by a partnership of federal and state agencies for the delta plain that have the objectives of maintaining the barrier islands, reducing wetland loss, and enhancing the natural sediment delivery processes. There is growing awareness that the sustainability of coastal Louisiana's natural resources and human infrastructure depends on the successful restoration of natural geologic processes. Critical to the long term success of restoration is scientific understanding of the geologic history and processes of the coastal zone region, including interactions between the rivers, wetlands, coast, and inner shelf. A variety of geophysical studies and mapping of Late Quaternary sedimentary framework and coastal processes by U.S. Geological Survey and other scientists during the past 50 years document that the Louisiana delta plain is the product of a complex history of cyclic delta

  4. Mapping invasive alien Acacia dealbata Link using ASTER multispectral imagery: a case study in central-eastern of Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, F.; Alegria, C.; Artur, G.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Acacia dealbata is an alien invasive species that is widely spread in Portugal. The main goal of this study was to produce an accurate and detailed map for this invasive species using ASTER multispectral imagery. Area of study: The central-eastern zone of Portugal was used as study area. This whole area is represented in an ASTER scene covering about 321.1 x 103 ha. Material and methods: ASTER imagery of two dates (flowering season and dry season) were classified by applying three supervised classifiers (Maximum Likelihood, Support Vector Machine and Artificial Neural Networks) to five different land cover classifications (from most generic to most detailed land cover categories). The spectral separability of the land cover categories was analyzed and the accuracy of the 30 produced maps compared. Main results: The highest classification accuracy for acacia mapping was obtained using the flowering season imagery, the Maximum Likelihood classifier and the most detailed land cover classification (overall accuracy of 86%; Kappa statistics of 85%; acacia class Kappa statistics of 100%). As a result, the area occupied by acacia was estimated to be approximated 24,770 ha (i.e. 8% of the study area). Research highlights: The methodology explored proved to be a cost-effective solution for acacia mapping in central-eastern of Portugal. The obtained map enables a more accurate and detailed identification of this species’ invaded areas due to its spatial resolution (minimum mapping unit of 0.02 ha) providing a substantial improvement comparably to the existent national land cover maps to support monitoring and control activities. (Author)

  5. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Indicates a Disturbed Brain Iron Homeostasis in Neuromyelitis Optica – A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado, Vanessa; Rueda, Fernanda; Deistung, Andreas; Reichenbach, Juergen R.; Tukamoto, Gustavo; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Schweser, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases and can be associated with oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate brain iron in patients with Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), a quantitative iron-sensitive MRI technique. 12 clinically confirmed NMO patients (6 female and 6 male; age 35.4y±14.2y) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (7 female and 5 male; age 33.9±11.3y) underwent MRI of the brain at 3 Tesla. Quantitative maps of the effective transverse relaxation rate (R2*) and magnetic susceptibility were calculated and a blinded ROI-based group comparison analysis was performed. Normality of the data and differences between patients and controls were tested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and t-test, respectively. Correlation with age was studied using Spearman’s rank correlation and an ANCOVA-like analysis. Magnetic susceptibility values were decreased in the red nucleus (p0.95; between -15 and -22 ppb depending on reference region) with a trend toward increasing differences with age. R2* revealed significantly decreased relaxation in the optic radiations of five of the 12 patients (p<0.0001; -3.136±0.567 s-1). Decreased relaxation in the optic radiation is indicative for demyelination, which is in line with previous findings. Decreased magnetic susceptibility in the red nucleus is indicative for a lower brain iron concentration, a chemical redistribution of iron into less magnetic forms, or both. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the pathological cause or consequence of this finding. PMID:27171423

  6. Perfusion SPECT studies with mapping of Brodmann areas in differentiating Alzheimer's disease from frontotemporal degeneration syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotassiou, Varvara; Papatriantafyllou, John; Sifakis, Nikolaos; Tzavara, Chara; Tsougos, Ioannis; Kapsalaki, Eftychia; Hadjigeorgiou, George; Georgoulias, Panagiotis

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies with mapping of Brodmann areas (BAs) in the differential diagnosis between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal degeneration (FTLD) syndromes. Thirty-nine patients with AD and 73 patients with FTLD syndromes [behavioural variant FTLD (bvFTLD); language variant FTLD (lvFTLD), including semantic dementia (SD) and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA); and corticobasal degeneration (CBD)/progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) syndromes] underwent brain perfusion SPECT. The NeuroGam software was used for the semiquantitative evaluation of perfusion in BAs of the left (L) and right (R) hemispheres. Compared with those in AD patients, BAs with statistically significant hypoperfusion were found in the prefrontal, orbitofrontal and cingulated cortices and Broca's areas of FTLD and bvFTLD patients; in the temporal and prefrontal cortices and Broca's areas of lvFTLD patients; in the left temporal gyrus of SD patients; in premotor and supplementary motor, prefrontal, orbitofrontal, temporal and anterior cingulated cortices and Broca's areas of PNFA patients; and in the prefrontal, temporal, posterior cingulated and primary and secondary visual cortices of CBD/PSP patients. BA 46R could differentiate AD patients from FTLD and bvFTLD patients; 21L and 25L were found to be independent predictors for lvFTLD in comparison with AD, and 25R, 21L and 23R could differentiate AD patients from PNFA, SD and CBD/PSP patients, respectively. Brain perfusion SPECT with BA mapping in AD and FTLD patients could improve the definition of brain areas that are specifically implicated in these disorders, resulting in a more accurate differential diagnosis.

  7. Reasons for using flavored liquids among electronic cigarette users: A concept mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Eric K; Lopez, Alexa A; Guy, Mignonne C; Cobb, Caroline O

    2016-09-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) aerosolize liquids often containing flavorants for inhalation. Few studies have examined the role of flavors in ECIG use. This study's purpose was to examine reasons for flavored ECIG use using a mixed-method approach, concept mapping (CM). Forty-six past 30-day adult ECIG users recruited from vape forums/conferences completed three online CM tasks. Participants brainstormed responses to a prompt: "A specific reason I use flavored e-liquid in my electronic cigarette product is…". The final 107 brainstormed statements were sorted by participants into groups of similar content. Participants rated each statement on a 7-point scale (1-Definitely NOT a reason to 7-Definitely a reason) based on a prompt: "This is a specific reason why I used flavored e-liquid in my electronic cigarette product in the past month." A cluster map was generated from participants' sorting and ratings using CM statistical software. Cluster mean ratings were compared. Analysis revealed five clusters of reasons for flavored ECIG use including Increased Satisfaction/Enjoyment, Better Feel/Taste than Cigarettes, Variety/Customization, Food Craving Suppression, and Social Impacts. Statements in the Increased Satisfaction/Enjoyment and Better Feel/Taste than Cigarettes clusters were rated significantly higher than statements from other clusters (ps<0.05). Some statements indicated flavors were perceived as masking agents for nicotine or other bad tastes associated with cigarette smoking making ECIG use more palatable. Flavored ECIGs are used for many reasons. Some statements suggested flavors may increase the rewarding and possible addictive effects of ECIGs. These results support continued examination of the role of flavors and ECIG use behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. How to include the variability of TMS responses in simulations: a speech mapping case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geeter, N.; Lioumis, P.; Laakso, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.

    2016-11-01

    When delivered over a specific cortical site, TMS can temporarily disrupt the ongoing process in that area. This allows mapping of speech-related areas for preoperative evaluation purposes. We numerically explore the observed variability of TMS responses during a speech mapping experiment performed with a neuronavigation system. We selected four cases with very small perturbations in coil position and orientation. In one case (E) a naming error occurred, while in the other cases (NEA, B, C) the subject appointed the images as smoothly as without TMS. A realistic anisotropic head model was constructed of the subject from T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI. The induced electric field distributions were computed, associated to the coil parameters retrieved from the neuronavigation system. Finally, the membrane potentials along relevant white matter fibre tracts, extracted from DTI-based tractography, were computed using a compartmental cable equation. While only minor differences could be noticed between the induced electric field distributions of the four cases, computing the corresponding membrane potentials revealed different subsets of tracts were activated. A single tract was activated for all coil positions. Another tract was only triggered for case E. NEA induced action potentials in 13 tracts, while NEB stimulated 11 tracts and NEC one. The calculated results are certainly sensitive to the coil specifications, demonstrating the observed variability in this study. However, even though a tract connecting Broca’s with Wernicke’s area is only triggered for the error case, further research is needed on other study cases and on refining the neural model with synapses and network connections. Case- and subject-specific modelling that includes both electromagnetic fields and neuronal activity enables demonstration of the variability in TMS experiments and can capture the interaction with complex neural networks.

  9. Cognitive maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minder, Bettina; Laursen, Linda Nhu; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2014-01-01

    . Conceptual clustering is used to analyse and order information according to concepts or variables from within the data. The cognitive maps identified are validated through the comments of some of the same experts. The study presents three cognitive maps and respective world-views explaining how the design...... and innovation field are related and under which dimensions they differ. The paper draws preliminary conclusions on the implications of the different world- views on the innovation process. With the growing importance of the design approach in innovation e.g. design thinking, a clear conception...

  10. Cognitive maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minder, Bettina; Laursen, Linda Nhu; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2014-01-01

    . Conceptual clustering is used to analyse and order information according to concepts or variables from within the data. The cognitive maps identified are validated through the comments of some of the same experts. The study presents three cognitive maps and respective world-views explaining how the design...... and innovation field are related and under which dimensions they differ. The paper draws preliminary conclusions on the implications of the different world- views on the innovation process. With the growing importance of the design approach in innovation e.g. design thinking, a clear conception...

  11. Mapping Alumni Program Studi Manajemen Pendidikan Islam (MPI Jurusan Tarbiyah STAIN Samarinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Julaiha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Islamic education management study program has 200 alumni. Unfortunely, there was no sufficient information about their jobs and activities after graduating from STAIN Samarinda. The objectiveof this study was to map the alumni of Islamic education management study programof Tarbiyah of STAIN Samarinda. Data were collected by using interview, documentation, and questionnaires. The subject of the study was the alumni of Islamic education management study program who graduated from STAIN Samarinda since 2000 to 2013. Data were analized by using the model of Miles dan Huberman. The findings shows that : firstly, most of the alumni could finish their study in four years. Secondly, the alumni are 51% male and 49% female. Thirdly, regarding to the place of the works, alumni of MPI could be found in Samarinda (majority, Balikpapan, Tenggarong, Bulungan, Sangata, Kota Bangun, Bengalon, Paser, Tanah Grogot, Malinau, Melak, tanah Tidung, and Sangkulirang. Forthly, in terms of the kinds of the jobs, alumni of MPI work in different field of works, such as: teachers, staff administration, and private sectors. Regarding to the aspect of interconectivity between the major and the work field, it could reach 68%.

  12. Construction of Polarimetric Radar-Based Reference Rain Maps for the Iowa Flood Studies Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walt; Krajewski, Witek; Wolff, David; Gatlin, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) campaign was conducted in central and northeastern Iowa during the months of April-June, 2013. Specific science objectives for IFloodS included quantification of uncertainties in satellite and ground-based estimates of precipitation, 4-D characterization of precipitation physical processes and associated parameters (e.g., size distributions, water contents, types, structure etc.), assessment of the impact of precipitation estimation uncertainty and physical processes on hydrologic predictive skill, and refinement of field observations and data analysis approaches as they pertain to future GPM integrated hydrologic validation and related field studies. In addition to field campaign archival of raw and processed satellite data (including precipitation products), key ground-based platforms such as the NASA NPOL S-band and D3R Ka/Ku-band dual-polarimetric radars, University of Iowa X-band dual-polarimetric radars, a large network of paired rain gauge platforms, and a large network of 2D Video and Parsivel disdrometers were deployed. In something of a canonical approach, the radar (NPOL in particular), gauge and disdrometer observational assets were deployed to create a consistent high-quality distributed (time and space sampling) radar-based ground "reference" rainfall dataset, with known uncertainties, that could be used for assessing the satellite-based precipitation products at a range of space/time scales. Subsequently, the impact of uncertainties in the satellite products could be evaluated relative to the ground-benchmark in coupled weather, land-surface and distributed hydrologic modeling frameworks as related to flood prediction. Relative to establishing the ground-based "benchmark", numerous avenues were pursued in the making and verification of IFloodS "reference" dual-polarimetric radar-based rain maps, and this study documents the process and results as they pertain specifically

  13. Construction of Polarimetric Radar-Based Reference Rain Maps for the Iowa Flood Studies Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walter; Wolff, David; Krajewski, Witek; Gatlin, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) campaign was conducted in central and northeastern Iowa during the months of April-June, 2013. Specific science objectives for IFloodS included quantification of uncertainties in satellite and ground-based estimates of precipitation, 4-D characterization of precipitation physical processes and associated parameters (e.g., size distributions, water contents, types, structure etc.), assessment of the impact of precipitation estimation uncertainty and physical processes on hydrologic predictive skill, and refinement of field observations and data analysis approaches as they pertain to future GPM integrated hydrologic validation and related field studies. In addition to field campaign archival of raw and processed satellite data (including precipitation products), key ground-based platforms such as the NASA NPOL S-band and D3R Ka/Ku-band dual-polarimetric radars, University of Iowa X-band dual-polarimetric radars, a large network of paired rain gauge platforms, and a large network of 2D Video and Parsivel disdrometers were deployed. In something of a canonical approach, the radar (NPOL in particular), gauge and disdrometer observational assets were deployed to create a consistent high-quality distributed (time and space sampling) radar-based ground "reference" rainfall dataset, with known uncertainties, that could be used for assessing the satellite-based precipitation products at a range of space/time scales. Subsequently, the impact of uncertainties in the satellite products could be evaluated relative to the ground-benchmark in coupled weather, land-surface and distributed hydrologic modeling frameworks as related to flood prediction. Relative to establishing the ground-based "benchmark", numerous avenues were pursued in the making and verification of IFloodS "reference" dual-polarimetric radar-based rain maps, and this study documents the process and results as they pertain specifically

  14. Environmental propagation of noise in mines and nearby villages: A study through noise mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena D Manwar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noise mapping being an established practice in Europe is hardly practiced for noise management in India although it is mandatory in Indian mines as per guidelines of the Directorate General of Mines Safety (DGMS. As a pilot study, noise mapping was conducted in an opencast mine with three different models; one based on the baseline operating conditions in two shifts (Situation A, and two other virtual situations where either production targets were enhanced by extending working hours to three shifts (Situation B or only by increased mechanization and not changing the duration of work (Situation C. Methods: Noise sources were categorized as point, line, area, and moving sources. Considering measured power of the sources, specific meteorological and geographical parameters, noise maps were generated using Predictor LimA software. Results: In all three situations, Lden values were 95 dB(A and 70–80 dB(A near drill machine and haul roads, respectively. Noise contours were wider in Situation C due to increase in frequency of dumpers. Lden values near Shovel 1 and Shovel 2 under Situation B increased by 5 dB and 3 dB, respectively due to expansion of working hours. In Situation C, noise levels were >82 dB(A around shovels. Noise levels on both sides of conveyor belts were in the range of 80–85 dB(A in Situations A and C whereas it was 85–90 dB(A in Situation B. Near crusher plants, it ranged from 80 to 90 dB(A in Situations A and C and between 85 and 95 dB(A in Situation B. In all situations, noise levels near residential areas exceeded the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB limits, i.e., 55 dB(A. Conclusions: For all situations, predicted noise levels exceeded CPCB limits within the mine and nearby residential area. Residential areas near the crusher plants are vulnerable to increased noise propagation. It is recommended to put an acoustic barrier near the crusher plant to attenuate the noise propagation.

  15. Improving learning with science and social studies text using computer-based concept maps for students with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciullo, Stephen; Falcomata, Terry S; Pfannenstiel, Kathleen; Billingsley, Glenna

    2015-01-01

    Concept maps have been used to help students with learning disabilities (LD) improve literacy skills and content learning, predominantly in secondary school. However, despite increased access to classroom technology, no previous studies have examined the efficacy of computer-based concept maps to improve learning from informational text for students with LD in elementary school. In this study, we used a concurrent delayed multiple probe design to evaluate the interactive use of computer-based concept maps on content acquisition with science and social studies texts for Hispanic students with LD in Grades 4 and 5. Findings from this study suggest that students improved content knowledge during intervention relative to a traditional instruction baseline condition. Learning outcomes and social validity information are considered to inform recommendations for future research and the feasibility of classroom implementation.

  16. A Study of Cognitive Mapping as a Means to Improve Summarization and Comprehension of Expository Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, Robert B.; Boyle, Owen F.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates the effects of cognitive mapping on written summarization and comprehension of expository text. Concludes that mapping appears to assist students in: (1) developing procedural knowledge resulting in more effective written summarization and (2) identifying and using supporting details in their essays. (MG)

  17. Mapping marine habitat suitability and uncertainty of Bayesian networks: a case study using Pacific benthic macrofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea Havron; Chris Goldfinger; Sarah Henkel; Bruce G. Marcot; Chris Romsos; Lisa Gilbane

    2017-01-01

    Resource managers increasingly use habitat suitability map products to inform risk management and policy decisions. Modeling habitat suitability of data-poor species over large areas requires careful attention to assumptions and limitations. Resulting habitat suitability maps can harbor uncertainties from data collection and modeling processes; yet these limitations...

  18. Ecology and space: A case study in mapping harmful invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    David T. Barnett,; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Chong, Geneva W.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Sunil Kumar,; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Brunn, Stanley D.; Dodge, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The establishment and invasion of non-native plant species have the ability to alter the composition of native species and functioning of ecological systems with financial costs resulting from mitigation and loss of ecological services. Spatially documenting invasions has applications for management and theory, but the utility of maps is challenged by availability and uncertainty of data, and the reliability of extrapolating mapped data in time and space. The extent and resolution of projections also impact the ability to inform invasive species science and management. Early invasive species maps were coarse-grained representations that underscored the phenomena, but had limited capacity to direct management aside from development of watch lists for priorities for prevention and containment. Integrating mapped data sets with fine-resolution environmental variables in the context of species-distribution models allows a description of species-environment relationships and an understanding of how, why, and where invasions may occur. As with maps, the extent and resolution of models impact the resulting insight. Models of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) across a variety of spatial scales and grain result in divergent species-environment relationships. New data can improve models and efficiently direct further inventories. Mapping can target areas of greater model uncertainty or the bounds of modeled distribution to efficiently refine models and maps. This iterative process results in dynamic, living maps capable of describing the ongoing process of species invasions.

  19. Reasons for Using Flavored Liquids among Electronic Cigarette Users: a Concept Mapping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Eric K.; Lopez, Alexa A.; Guy, Mignonne C.; Cobb, Caroline O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) aerosolize liquids often containing flavorants for inhalation. Few studies have examined the role of flavors in ECIG use. This study’s purpose was to examine reasons for flavored ECIG use using a mixed-method approach, concept mapping (CM). Methods Forty-six past 30-day adult ECIG users recruited from vape forums/conferences completed three online CM tasks. Participants brainstormed responses to a prompt: “A specific reason I use flavored e-liquid in my electronic cigarette product is…”. The final 107 brainstormed statements were sorted by participants into groups of similar content. Participants rated each statement on a 7-point scale (1-Definitely NOT a reason to 7-Definitely a reason) based on a prompt: “This is a specific reason why I used flavored e-liquid in my electronic cigarette product in the past month.” A cluster map was generated from participants’ sorting and ratings using CM statistical software. Cluster mean ratings were compared. Results Analysis revealed five clusters of reasons for flavored ECIG use including Increased Satisfaction/Enjoyment, Better Feel/Taste than Cigarettes, Variety/Customization, Food Craving Suppression, and Social Impacts. Statements in the Increased Satisfaction/Enjoyment and Better Feel/Taste than Cigarettes clusters were rated significantly higher than statements from other clusters (pscigarette smoking making ECIG use more palatable. Conclusions Flavored ECIGs are used for many reasons. Some statements suggested flavors may increase the risk of ECIG addiction. These results support continued examination of the role of flavors and ECIG use behaviors. PMID:27460860

  20. MAP as a conservation method for contemporary art with foodstuffs : three case studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Gilman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the use of Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP, a widely applied preservation method in the food packing industry, for preserving contemporary artworks with foodstuffs. Three case studies are presented for which guidelines to preserve those works are proposed, taking into account the temporal, ephemeral character of these artworks on the one hand and their material preservation on the other hand and to explore whether and how they can be presented and preserved for future generations.Cet article s’intéresse à l’utilisation de l’emballage sous atmosphère modifiée (MAP, une méthode de conservation largement appliquée dans l’industrie alimentaire, à des fins de préservation d’œuvres d’art contemporain comportant des denrées de ce type. Un grand nombre d’œuvres d’art qui utilisent la nourriture incluent des paramètres immatériels pour laquelle le restaurateur doit s’adapter et développer de nouvelles stratégies de conservation. Le choix des matériaux et la manière dont ils sont utilisés ont des implications importantes pour l’interprétation, l’exposition et l’évolution de ces pièces. L’objectif principal est d’analyser ces questions de façon systématique, sur une base scientifique et multidisciplinaire. Trois études de cas sont présentées : des orientations sont proposées pour le stockage et l’emballage des œuvres dans un environnement sous atmosphère modifiée, ce qui peut prolonger la durée de vie des oeuvres d’art comportant des denrées alimentaires.

  1. Integrating functional data to prioritize causal variants in statistical fine-mapping studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleb Kichaev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Standard statistical approaches for prioritization of variants for functional testing in fine-mapping studies either use marginal association statistics or estimate posterior probabilities for variants to be causal under simplifying assumptions. Here, we present a probabilistic framework that integrates association strength with functional genomic annotation data to improve accuracy in selecting plausible causal variants for functional validation. A key feature of our approach is that it empirically estimates the contribution of each functional annotation to the trait of interest directly from summary association statistics while allowing for multiple causal variants at any risk locus. We devise efficient algorithms that estimate the parameters of our model across all risk loci to further increase performance. Using simulations starting from the 1000 Genomes data, we find that our framework consistently outperforms the current state-of-the-art fine-mapping methods, reducing the number of variants that need to be selected to capture 90% of the causal variants from an average of 13.3 to 10.4 SNPs per locus (as compared to the next-best performing strategy. Furthermore, we introduce a cost-to-benefit optimization framework for determining the number of variants to be followed up in functional assays and assess its performance using real and simulation data. We validate our findings using a large scale meta-analysis of four blood lipids traits and find that the relative probability for causality is increased for variants in exons and transcription start sites and decreased in repressed genomic regions at the risk loci of these traits. Using these highly predictive, trait-specific functional annotations, we estimate causality probabilities across all traits and variants, reducing the size of the 90% confidence set from an average of 17.5 to 13.5 variants per locus in this data.

  2. Cartographic Production for the FLaSH Map Study: Generation of Rugosity Grids, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Knorr, Paul O.; Hansen, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Project Summary This series of raster data is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Data Series release from the Florida Shelf Habitat Project (FLaSH). This disc contains two raster images in Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) raster grid format, jpeg image format, and Geo-referenced Tagged Image File Format (GeoTIFF). Data is also provided in non-image ASCII format. Rugosity grids at two resolutions (250 m and 1000 m) were generated for West Florida shelf waters to 250 m using a custom algorithm that follows the methods of Valentine and others (2004). The Methods portion of this document describes the specific steps used to generate the raster images. Rugosity, also referred to as roughness, ruggedness, or the surface-area ratio (Riley and others, 1999; Wilson and others, 2007), is a visual and quantitative measurement of terrain complexity, a common variable in ecological habitat studies. The rugosity of an area can affect biota by influencing habitat, providing shelter from elements, determining the quantity and type of living space, influencing the type and quantity of flora, affecting predator-prey relationships by providing cover and concealment, and, as an expression of vertical relief, can influence local environmental conditions such as temperature and moisture. In the marine environment rugosity can furthermore influence current flow rate and direction, increase the residence time of water in an area through eddying and current deflection, influence local water conditions such as chemistry, turbidity, and temperature, and influence the rate and nature of sedimentary deposition. State-of-the-art computer-mapping techniques and data-processing tools were used to develop shelf-wide raster and vector data layers. Florida Shelf Habitat (FLaSH) Mapping Project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/flash) endeavors to locate available data, identify data gaps, synthesize existing information, and expand our understanding of geologic processes in our dynamic

  3. Shot-gun sequencing strategy for long-range genome mapping: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabarovsky, E R; Kashuba, V I; Pettersson, B; Petrov, N; Zakharyev, V; Gizatullin, R; Lebedeva, T; Bannikov, V; Pokrovskaya, E S; Zabarovska, V I

    1994-06-01

    We have recently proposed a strategy for construction of long-range physical maps based on random sequencing of NotI linking and jumping clones. Here, we present results of sequence comparison between 168 NotI linking (100 of them were sequenced from both sides) and 81 chromosome 3-specific jumping clones. We were able to identify 14 NotI jumping clones (17%), each joined with two NotI linking clones. The average size of chromosomal jumps was about 650 kb. The assembled 42 NotI genomic fragments correspond to 12-15% of chromosome 3. These results demonstrate the value of random sequencing of NotI linking and jumping clones for genome mapping. This mapping proposal can be used for connecting physical and genetic maps of the human genome and will be a valuable supplement to YAC and cosmid library based mapping projects.

  4. Distribution of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and selected water-quality constituents in the surficial aquifer at the Dover National Test Site, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Marie; Guertal, William R.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; McHale, Timothy J.

    2004-01-01

    A joint study by the Dover National Test Site, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, and the U.S. Geological Survey was conducted from June 27 through July 18, 2001, to determine the spatial distribution of the gasoline oxygenate additive methyl tert-butyl ether and selected water-quality constituents in the surficial aquifer underlying the Dover National Test Site. This report provides a summary assessment of the distribution of methyl tert-butyl ether and a preliminary screening of selected constituents that may affect natural attenuation and remediation demonstrations at the Dover National Test Site. The information gathered during this study is designed to assist potential remedial investigators who are considering conducting a methyl tert-butyl ether remedial demonstration at the test site. In addition, the study supported a planned enhanced bioremediation demonstration and assisted the Dover National Test Site in identifying possible locations for future methyl tert-butyl ether remediation demonstrations. A direct-push drill rig was used to collect a total of 147 ground-water samples (115 VOC samples and 32 quality-assurance samples) at varying depths. Volatile organic compounds were above the method reporting limits in 59 of the 115 ground-water samples. The concentrations ranged from below detection limits to maximum values of 12.4 micrograms per liter of cis-1,2-dichloro-ethene, 1.14 micrograms per liter of trichloro-ethene, 2.65 micrograms per liter of tetrachloro-ethene, 1,070 micrograms per liter of methyl tert-butyl ether, 4.36 micrograms per liter of benzene, and 1.8 micrograms per liter of toluene. Vinyl chloride, ethylbenzene, p,m-xylene, and o-xylene were not detected in any of the samples collected during this investigation. Methyl tert-butyl ether was detected in 47 of the 115 ground-water samples. The highest concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether were detected in the surficial aquifer from ?4.6 to 6.4 feet mean sea level; however, methyl tert

  5. Software Development Initiatives to Identify and Mitigate Security Threats - Two Systematic Mapping Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Software Security and development experts have addressed the problem of building secure software systems. There are several processes and initiatives to achieve secure software systems. However, most of these lack empirical evidence of its application and impact in building secure software systems. Two systematic mapping studies (SM have been conducted to cover the existent initiatives for identification and mitigation of security threats. The SMs created were executed in two steps, first in 2015 July, and complemented through a backward snowballing in 2016 July. Integrated results of these two SM studies show a total of 30 relevant sources were identified; 17 different initiatives covering threats identification and 14 covering the mitigation of threats were found. All the initiatives were associated to at least one activity of the Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC; while 6 showed signs of being applied in industrial settings, only 3 initiatives presented experimental evidence of its results through controlled experiments, some of the other selected studies presented case studies or proposals.

  6. A Mapping Study on Mobile Games for Patients of Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Kévin Cardoso; Martins, Márcio Garcia; da Costa, Cristiano André; Barbosa, Jorge Luis Victoria; da Rosa Righi, Rodrigo

    2017-09-01

    There is a growing interest of using technologies to propose solutions for healthcare issues. One of such issues is the incidence of chronic diseases, which are responsible for a considerable proportion of worldwide mortality. It is possible to prevent the development of such diseases using tools and methods that instruct the population. To achieve this, mobile games provide a powerful environment for teaching different subjects to user, without them actively knowing that they are learning new concepts. Despite the growing interest of using mobile games in healthcare, more specifically by patients with chronic diseases, in the best of our knowledge there are no studies that address the current research being published in the area. To close this gap, we carried out a systematic mapping study to synthesize an overview of the area. Five databases were searched and more than 1200 studies were analyzed and filtered. Among them, 17 met the the inclusion and exclusion criteria defined in this work. The results show that there is still room for research in this area, since the studies focus on a younger audience rather than proposing solutions for all ages. Furthermore, the number of chronic conditions being addressed is still small, obesity and diabetes are prevalent. Besides, the full capacity of game features that foster learning through games are not being employed, the majority of games proposed by the articles encompass less than half of these features.

  7. Indoor terrestrial gamma dose rate mapping in France: a case study using two different geostatistical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnery, E; Ielsch, G; Lajaunie, C; Cale, E; Wackernagel, H; Debayle, C; Guillevic, J

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gamma dose rates show important spatial variations in France. Previous studies resulted in maps of arithmetic means of indoor terrestrial gamma dose rates by "departement" (French district). However, numerous areas could not be characterized due to the lack of data. The aim of our work was to obtain more precise estimates of the spatial variability of indoor terrestrial gamma dose rates in France by using a more recent and complete data base and geostatistics. The study was based on the exploitation of 97,595 measurements results distributed in 17,404 locations covering all of France. Measurements were done by the Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) using RPL (Radio Photo Luminescent) dosimeters, exposed during several months between years 2011 and 2012 in French dentist surgeries and veterinary clinics. The data used came from dosimeters which were not exposed to anthropic sources. After removing the cosmic rays contribution in order to study only the telluric gamma radiation, it was decided to work with the arithmetic means of the time-series measurements, weighted by the time-exposure of the dosimeters, for each location. The values varied between 13 and 349 nSv/h, with an arithmetic mean of 76 nSv/h. The observed statistical distribution of the gamma dose rates was skewed to the right. Firstly, ordinary kriging was performed in order to predict the gamma dose rate on cells of 1*1 km(2), all over the domain. The second step of the study was to use an auxiliary variable in estimates. The IRSN achieved in 2010 a classification of the French geological formations, characterizing their uranium potential on the bases of geology and local measurement results of rocks uranium content. This information is georeferenced in a map at the scale 1:1,000,000. The geological uranium potential (GUP) was classified in 5 qualitative categories. As telluric gamma rays mostly come from the progenies of the (238)Uranium series present in rocks, this

  8. Geologic Maps and Structure Sections of the southwestern Santa Clara Valley and southern Santa Cruz Mountains, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Clark, J.C.; Brabb, E.E.; Helley, E.J.; Colon, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    This digital map database, compiled from previously published and unpublished data, and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying text file (scvmf.ps, scvmf.pdf, scvmf.txt), it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:24,000 or smaller.

  9. Mapping of the Lunokhod-1 Landing Site: A Case Study for Future Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachevtseva, I.; Oberst, J.; Konopikhin, A.; Shingareva, K.; Gusakova, E.; Kokhanov, A.; Baskakova, M.; Peters, O.; Scholten, F.; Wählisch, M.; Robinson, M.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction. Luna-17 landed on November 17, 1970 and deployed Lunokhod-1, the first remotely operated roving vehicle ever to explore a planetary surface. Within 332 days, the vehicle conquered a traverse of approx. 10 km. The rover was equipped with a navigation camera system as well as a scanner camera with which panoramic images were obtained. From separated stations, stereoscopic views were obtained. The history of the Lunokhods came back into focus recently, when the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter [1] obtained images from orbit at highest resolutions of 0.5-0.25 m/pixel. The Luna-17 landing platform as well as the roving vehicles at their final resting positions can clearly be identified. In addition, the rover tracks are clearly visible in most areas. From LRO stereo images, digital elevation model (DEM) of the Lunokhod-1 landing site areas have been derived [2]. These are useful to study the topographic profile and slopes of the traverse. The data are also useful to study the 3-D morphology of craters in the surroundings. Methodology. Lunokhod-1 area mapping have been done using GIS techniques. With CraterTools [3] we digitized craters in the Lunokhod-1 traverse area and created a geodatabase, which consists at this moment of about 45,000 craters including their diameters and depths, obtained from the DEM [4]. The LRO DEM also was used to measure traverse. We used automatic GIS functions for calculating various surface parameters of the Lunokhod-1 area surface including slopes, roughness, crater cumulative and spatial densities, and prepared respective thematic maps. We also measured relative depth (ratio D/H) and inner slopes of craters and classified craters by their morphological type using automatic and visual methods. Vertical profiles through several craters using the high resolution DEM have been done, and the results show good agreement with the topographic models with contours in 10cm that have been obtained from the Lunokhod-1 stereo images [5]. The

  10. A comparative study on the landslide susceptibility mapping using evidential belief function and weights of evidence models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qiqing Wang; Wenping Li; Yanli Yanli Wu; Yabing Pei; Maolin Xing; Dongdong Yang

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to produce landslide susceptibility map of a landslide-prone area (DaguanCounty, China) by evidential belief function (EBF) model and weights of evidence (WoE) model tocompare the results obtained. For this purpose, a landslide inventory map was constructed mainly basedon earlier reports and aerial photographs, as well as, by carrying out field surveys. A total of 194landslides were mapped. Then, the landslide inventory was randomly split into a training dataset; 70%(136 landslides) for training the models and the remaining 30% (58 landslides) was used for validationpurpose. Then, a total number of 14 conditioning factors, such as slope angle, slope aspect, generalcurvature, plan curvature, profile curvature, altitude, distance from rivers, distance from roads, distancefrom faults, lithology, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), sediment transport index (STI),stream power index (SPI), and topographic wetness index (TWI) were used in the analysis. Subsequently,landslide susceptibility maps were produced using the EBF and WoE models. Finally, the validationof landslide susceptibility map was accomplished with the area under the curve (AUC) method. Thesuccess rate curve showed that the area under the curve for EBF and WoE models were of 80.19% and80.75% accuracy, respectively. Similarly, the validation result showed that the susceptibility map usingEBF model has the prediction accuracy of 80.09%, while for WoE model, it was 79.79%. The results ofthis study showed that both landslide susceptibility maps obtained were successful and would be usefulfor regional spatial planning as well as for land cover planning.

  11. Mining unstructured data to support requirements elicitation by using controlled vocabularies: A systematic mapping study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Barros-Justo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a work-in- progress that deals with the asse ssment of the use of controlled vocabularies during the process es of requirements engineering, as a m eans to mine data from differen t sources (interviews, contracts, schemas and diagrams. By doi ng this the requirements description, analy sis and comprehension is facilit ated for both developers and end users. As a research methodolo gy, we decided to use a systematic mapping study covering the last fou rteen years (2000 - 2014. As far as we know, such studies have not yet been done; however, the cost incurred from errors in the requir ements elicitation phase is one of the problems that is most co mmonly reported by the practitioners. Our study includes data on the p rocesses of building the controlled vocabulary and assesses the productivity and quality. We are also interes ted in tools and techniques to classify and retrieve information. Our first findings suggest t hat this is an under-research area.

  12. Mapping Social Vulnerability to Air Pollution: A Case Study of the Yangtze River Delta Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many frequent and severe air pollution incidents have emerged across the vast parts of China recently. The identification of factors and mapping social vulnerability has become extremely necessary for environmental management and sustainable development. However, studies associating social vulnerability with air pollution remain sparse. With reference to research achievements of social vulnerability, this study made a new trial regarding social vulnerability assessment to air pollution. With the projection pursuit cluster (PPC model, the top three factors contributing to social vulnerability index (SVI were discovered and SVI and SVI dimensions (susceptibility, exposure, and adaptability were evaluated. Results revealed that adaptability values are higher than susceptibility and exposure values. SVI is in a poor condition as, for the whole region, most values belong to the high-medium level. High SVI values mainly appear in the northern and the southern ends of study area. SVI in Shanghai is lower than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. On the scale of prefecture-level city, it can be found that the low-value centers of SVI always occurred in urban core areas. The spatial variation and inequality in social vulnerability provide policy-makers a scientific basis for air pollution prevention and sustainable management.

  13. Creating probabilistic maps of the face network in the adolescent brain: a multicentre functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Amir M; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bruehl, Ruediger; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Gallinat, Jürgen; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Loth, Eva; Mareckova, Klara; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Paus, Tomáš

    2012-04-01

    Large-scale magnetic resonance (MR) studies of the human brain offer unique opportunities for identifying genetic and environmental factors shaping the human brain. Here, we describe a dataset collected in the context of a multi-centre study of the adolescent brain, namely the IMAGEN Study. We focus on one of the functional paradigms included in the project to probe the brain network underlying processing of ambiguous and angry faces. Using functional MR (fMRI) data collected in 1,110 adolescents, we constructed probabilistic maps of the neural network engaged consistently while viewing the ambiguous or angry faces; 21 brain regions responding to faces with high probability were identified. We were also able to address several methodological issues, including the minimal sample size yielding a stable location of a test region, namely the fusiform face area (FFA), as well as the effect of acquisition site (eight sites) and scanner (four manufacturers) on the location and magnitude of the fMRI response to faces in the FFA. Finally, we provided a comparison between male and female adolescents in terms of the effect sizes of sex differences in brain response to the ambiguous and angry faces in the 21 regions of interest. Overall, we found a stronger neural response to the ambiguous faces in several cortical regions, including the fusiform face area, in female (vs. male) adolescents, and a slightly stronger response to the angry faces in the amygdala of male (vs. female) adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Bathymetry Mapping Using Hyperspectral Data: a Case Study of Yamada Bay, Northeast Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasu, E.; Kakuta, S.; Takeda, T.

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to examine if the inversion method using hyperspectral data is applicable in Japan. Nowadays, overseas researchers are mainly applied an inversion method for accurately estimating water depth. It is able to gain not only water depth, but also benthic spectral reflection and inherent optical properties (IOPs) at the same time, based on physics-based radiative transfer theory for hyperspectral data. It is highly significant to understand the possibility to develop the application in future for coastal zone of main island, which is a common water quality in Japan, but there is not any case study applied this method in Japan. The study site of Yamada bay in Iwate Prefecture is located in northeast of Japan. An existed analytical model was optimized for mapping water depth in Yamada bay using airborne hyperspectral image and ground survey data which were simultaneously acquired in December, 2015. The retrieved remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) is basically qualitatively appropriate result. However, when compared with all ground survey points, the retrieved water depth showed low correlation, even though ground points which are selected sand bottom indicates high relationship. Overall, we could understand the inversion method is applicable in Japan. However, it needs to challenge to improve solving error-caused problems.

  15. The use of vintage surficial sediment data and sedimentary cores to determine past and future trends in estuarine metal contamination (Sydney estuary, Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, G F; Chang, C-H; Lee, J-H; Churchill, L J

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of the present investigation were to determine past trends in sediment contamination and possibly predict future trends. Multiple vintages of surficial sediment metal data, from a quasi-decadal 'Status and Trends' programme, were used to provide large-scale spatial information on current status and temporal change. This information was augmented by sediment cores, specifically located to verify surface sediment data and to determine trends at major points of stormwater discharge. The data obtained indicate that surficial sediment metal concentrations have declined, since about the early 1990s, in extensive parts of the upper and central estuaries and have increased slightly in the lower estuary, due mainly to a down-estuary shift in industry and urbanisation. Declining surficial sediment metal concentrations is due to a movement of industry out of the catchment, especially from foreshore areas and the introduction of regulation, which prevent pollutants being discharged directly to the estuary. The major present-day source of metals is stormwater, with minor inputs from the main estuary channel into embayments and runoff from previously contaminated mainland sites. Modelled relaxation rates are optimistic as high metal concentrations in stormwater will slow predicted rates. Stormwater remediation should be the main managerial focus for this estuary. Multiple vintages of surficial sediment metal data covering the past 30 years, supplemented by sedimentary core data, have allowed past and future contamination trends to be determined. This type of science-based information provides an important tool for strategic management of this iconic waterway.

  16. A high-resolution map of the Nile tilapia genome: a resource for studying cichlids and other percomorphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyon Richard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus is the second most farmed fish species worldwide. It is also an important model for studies of fish physiology, particularly because of its broad tolerance to an array of environments. It is a good model to study evolutionary mechanisms in vertebrates, because of its close relationship to haplochromine cichlids, which have undergone rapid speciation in East Africa. The existing genomic resources for Nile tilapia include a genetic map, BAC end sequences and ESTs, but comparative genome analysis and maps of quantitative trait loci (QTL are still limited. Results We have constructed a high-resolution radiation hybrid (RH panel for the Nile tilapia and genotyped 1358 markers consisting of 850 genes, 82 markers corresponding to BAC end sequences, 154 microsatellites and 272 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. From these, 1296 markers could be associated in 81 RH groups, while 62 were not linked. The total size of the RH map is 34,084 cR3500 and 937,310 kb. It covers 88% of the entire genome with an estimated inter-marker distance of 742 Kb. Mapping of microsatellites enabled integration to the genetic map. We have merged LG8 and LG24 into a single linkage group, and confirmed that LG16-LG21 are also merged. The orientation and association of RH groups to each chromosome and LG was confirmed by chromosomal in situ hybridizations (FISH of 55 BACs. Fifty RH groups were localized on the 22 chromosomes while 31 remained small orphan groups. Synteny relationships were determined between Nile tilapia, stickleback, medaka and pufferfish. Conclusion The RH map and associated FISH map provide a valuable gene-ordered resource for gene mapping and QTL studies. All genetic linkage groups with their corresponding RH groups now have a corresponding chromosome which can be identified in the karyotype. Placement of conserved segments indicated that multiple inter-chromosomal rearrangements have occurred

  17. INUNDATION MAPPING – A HAZARD STUDY BASED ON THE DECEMBER 26, 2004 TSUNAMI ALONG THE KARAIKAL COAST OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Baskaran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of tsunami impact was undertaken along India’s Karaikal coast from Poovam in Karaikal to Nagore, Nagapatinam. An integrated approach was adopted for the preparation of thematic maps on land use, land cover and coastal geomorphology using multispectral remote sensing data. RTK GPS instruments were used for the collection of topographic data with contour intervals of 0.5m. The GIS tool was used to incorporate the elevation data, the extent of tsunami inundation and the thematic maps derived from remote sensing data. The present study highlights the most vulnerable areas of tsunami inundation and provides demarcations of suitable sites for rehabilitation.

  18. Software process improvement: a systematic mapping study on the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Kuhrmann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Software process improvement (SPI has been around for decades: frameworks are proposed, success factors are studied, and experiences have been reported. However, the sheer mass of concepts, approaches, and standards published over the years overwhelms practitioners as well as researchers. What is out there? Are there new trends and emerging approaches? What are open issues? Still, we struggle to answer these questions about the current state of SPI and related research. In this article, we present results from an updated systematic mapping study to shed light on the field of SPI, to develop a big picture of the state of the art, and to draw conclusions for future research directions. An analysis of 769 publications draws a big picture of SPI-related research of the past quarter-century. Our study shows a high number of solution proposals, experience reports, and secondary studies, but only few theories and models on SPI in general. In particular, standard SPI models like CMMI and ISO/IEC 15,504 are analyzed, enhanced, and evaluated for applicability in practice, but these standards are also critically discussed, e.g., from the perspective of SPI in small-to-medium-sized companies, which leads to new specialized frameworks. New and specialized frameworks account for the majority of the contributions found (approx. 38%. Furthermore, we find a growing interest in success factors (approx. 16% to aid companies in conducting SPI and in adapting agile principles and practices for SPI (approx. 10%. Beyond these specific topics, the study results also show an increasing interest into secondary studies with the purpose of aggregating and structuring SPI-related knowledge. Finally, the present study helps directing future research by identifying under-researched topics awaiting further investigation.

  19. Effect of Interaction of Non-residual Fractions on Adsorption of Atrazine onto Surficial Sediments and Natural Surface Coating Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu; LI Shan-shan; GAO Qian; WANG Ao

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the effect of the interaction of non-residual fractions[Fe oxides(Fe), Mn oxide(Mn), organic materials(OMs)] in the surficial sediments and the natural surface coating samples on the adsorption of atrazine(AT),an AT multiple regression adsorption modeI(AT-MRAM) was developed. The AT-MRAM improves upon the previous AT additional adsorption modeI(AT-AAM) with superior goodness-of-fit test(adjusted R2=ca.l.000), F-test and t-test(P<0.01), and reveals the effect of the interaction among the components in the surficial sediments(SSs) and natural surface coatings samples(NSCSs) on the adsorption of AT, which was neglected by the AT-AAM. Meanwhile, the AT-MRAM was also verified through adsorption experiments of AT and the relative deviation between predicted maximum adsorption of AT and the experimental one is less than 15%. The resulted information shows that Mn is prone to interact with other non-residual components, the total maximum adsorption of AT is inversly proportional to the level of Mn, and Fe and OMs facilitate the adsorption of AT. The results also indicate that the adsorption of AT is not only dominated by Fe, OMs, Fe/OMs, but also restrained by Fe/Mn, Fe/Mn/OMs, with lesser roles attributed to Mn, and the estimated AT distributions among the components do not agree with that previously predicted by the AT-AAM, especially with the relative contribution of Mn to the adsorption of AT, revealing significant contribution of the interactions among non-residual components in controlling the behavior of AT in aquatic environments.

  20. C:N:P Molar Ratios, Sources and 14C Dating of Surficial Sediments from the NW Slope of Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe de la Lanza Espino

    Full Text Available The surficial sediments recovered from 12 sites located near the channel axis of the Florida Straits and the lower slope off NW Cuba were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC, nitrogen (TN, phosphorus (TP, elemental C:N:P ratios, C and N isotopic values, and 14C dating. The depth profiles of TOC, TN, and TP (0-18 cm displayed a downcore trend and a significant variation. The TOC values were low (0.15 to 0.62%; 66 to 516 µmol g(-1. Sites near the island's lower slope had lower TOC average concentrations (158-333 µmol g(-1 than those closer to the channel axis (averaging 341-516 µmol g(-1; p <0.05. The TN concentrations near the lower slope attained 0.11% (80 µmol g(-1, whereas, towards the channel axis, they decreased to 0.07% (55 µmol g(-1; p<0.05. The C:N ratios ranged from 1.9 to 10.2. The mean molar C:N ratio (5.4 indicated a marine hemipelagic deposition. The TP was lower at sites near the lower slope (38.4 to 50.0 µmol gv; 0.12% to 0.16% than those near the channel axis (50.0 to 66 µmol g(-1; 0.15 to 0.21%. C:P fluctuated from 7.7 to 14.1 in the surficial sediment layer. The bulk organic δ13Corg and δ15N values confirmed pelagic organic sources, and the 14C dating revealed that the sediments were deposited during the Holocene (1000-5000 yr BP. We suggest that the hydrodynamic conditions in the Straits influence vertical and advective fluxes of particulate organic material trapped in the mixed-layer, which reduces the particulate matter flux to the seabed.

  1. C:N:P Molar Ratios, Sources and 14C Dating of Surficial Sediments from the NW Slope of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Lanza Espino, Guadalupe; Soto, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The surficial sediments recovered from 12 sites located near the channel axis of the Florida Straits and the lower slope off NW Cuba were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen (TN), phosphorus (TP), elemental C:N:P ratios, C and N isotopic values, and 14C dating. The depth profiles of TOC, TN, and TP (0-18 cm) displayed a downcore trend and a significant variation. The TOC values were low (0.15 to 0.62%; 66 to 516 µmol g(-1)). Sites near the island's lower slope had lower TOC average concentrations (158-333 µmol g(-1)) than those closer to the channel axis (averaging 341-516 µmol g(-1); p <0.05). The TN concentrations near the lower slope attained 0.11% (80 µmol g(-1)), whereas, towards the channel axis, they decreased to 0.07% (55 µmol g(-1); p<0.05). The C:N ratios ranged from 1.9 to 10.2. The mean molar C:N ratio (5.4) indicated a marine hemipelagic deposition. The TP was lower at sites near the lower slope (38.4 to 50.0 µmol gv; 0.12% to 0.16%) than those near the channel axis (50.0 to 66 µmol g(-1); 0.15 to 0.21%). C:P fluctuated from 7.7 to 14.1 in the surficial sediment layer. The bulk organic δ13Corg and δ15N values confirmed pelagic organic sources, and the 14C dating revealed that the sediments were deposited during the Holocene (1000-5000 yr BP). We suggest that the hydrodynamic conditions in the Straits influence vertical and advective fluxes of particulate organic material trapped in the mixed-layer, which reduces the particulate matter flux to the seabed.

  2. Fiscal mapping autism spectrum disorder funds: a case study of Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Hilary D; Hoffman, Jill; Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Moodie-Dyer, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have complex needs requiring regular service utilization. Policymakers, administrators, and community leaders are looking for ways to finance ASD services and systems. Understanding the fiscal resources that support ASD services is essential. This article uses fiscal mapping to explore ASD funding streams in Ohio. Fiscal mapping steps are overviewed to assist ASD stakeholders in identifying and examining ASD-related funding. Implications are drawn related to how fiscal mapping could be used to identify and leverage funding for ASD services. The resulting information is critical to utilizing existing resources, advocating for resources, and leveraging available funds.

  3. A Study on the Application of Fauconnier ’s Space Mapping to Discourse Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹佳静

    2015-01-01

    As one of the branches of cognitive science, cognitive linguistics provides a new researching method for researching and illustrating language phenomena. Using Fauconnier’s mental spaces theory and the space mappings theory, this paper explores the mapping problems in metaphor, metonymy and schema mappings of idealized cognitive models (ICM). Fauconnier ’s space theory, as an important cognitive model, can help us understand those regular and irregular linguistic facts in our everyday communication, and provide a new cognitive model for the research of language phenomena.

  4. Accuracy of migrant landbird habitat maps produced from LANDSAT TM data: Two case studies in southern Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.P.; Sader, S.; Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Wilson, Marcia H.; Sader, Steven A.

    1995-01-01

    The study investigated the utility of Landsat TM data applied to produce geo-referenced habitat maps for two study areas (Toledo and Stann Creek). Locational and non-site-specific map accuracy was evaluated by stratified random sampling and statistical analysis of satellite classification (SCR) versus air photo interpretation results (PIR) for the overall classification and individual classes. The effect of classification scheme specificity on map accuracy was also assessed. A decision criteria was developed for the minimum acceptable level of map performance (i.e., classification accuracy and scheme specificity). A satellite map was deemed acceptable if it has a useful degree of classification specificity, plus either an adequate overall locational agreement (SCR and PIR are equal). For the most detailed revised classification, overall locational accuracy ranges from 52% (5 classes) for the Toledo to 63% (9 classes) for the Stann Creek. For the least detailed revised classification, overall locational accuracy ranges from 91% (2 classes) for Toledo to 86% (5 classes) for Stann Creek. Considering both location and non-site-specific accuracy results, the most detailed yet insufficient accurate classification for both sites includes low/medium/tall broadleaf forest, broadleaf forest scrub and herb-dominated openings. For these classifications, the overall locational accuracy is 72% for Toledo (4 classes) and 75% for Stann Creek (7 classes). This level of classification detail is suitable for aiding many analyses of migrant landbird habitat use.

  5. Study of Noise Map and its Features in an Indoor Work Environment through GIS-Based Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Majidi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noise mapping in industry can be useful to assess the risks of harmful noise, or to monitor noise in machine rooms. Using GIS -based software for plotting noise maps in an indoor noisy work environment can be helpful for occupational hygienists to monitor noise pollution. Methods: This study was carried out in a noisy packaging unit of a food industry in Ghazvin industrial zone, to evaluate noise levels by GIS technique. For this reason the floor of packaging unit was divided into squares of 2×2 meters and the center of each square was marked as a measurement station based on NIOSH method. The sound pressure level in each station was measured and then the measurement values were imported into Arc GIS software to plot noise map. Results: Unlike the current method, the noise maps generated by GIS technique are consistent with the nature of sound propagation. Conclusion: This study showed that for an indoor work environment, the application of GIS technology rendering the assessment of noise levels in the form of noise maps, is more realistic and more accurate than the routine method which is now being used by the occupational hygienists.

  6. Artificial groundwater recharge zones mapping using remote sensing and GIS: a case study in Indian Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amanpreet; Panda, S N; Kumar, K S; Sharma, Chandra Shekhar

    2013-07-01

    Artificial groundwater recharge plays a vital role in sustainable management of groundwater resources. The present study was carried out to identify the artificial groundwater recharge zones in Bist Doab basin of Indian Punjab using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) for augmenting groundwater resources. The study area has been facing severe water scarcity due to intensive agriculture for the past few years. The thematic layers considered in the present study are: geomorphology (2004), geology (2004), land use/land cover (2008), drainage density, slope, soil texture (2000), aquifer transmissivity, and specific yield. Different themes and related features were assigned proper weights based on their relative contribution to groundwater recharge. Normalized weights were computed using the Saaty's analytic hierarchy process. Thematic layers were integrated in ArcGIS for delineation of artificial groundwater recharge zones. The recharge map thus obtained was divided into four zones (poor, moderate, good, and very good) based on their influence to groundwater recharge. Results indicate that 15, 18, 37, and 30 % of the study area falls under "poor," "moderate," "good," and "very good" groundwater recharge zones, respectively. The highest recharge potential area is located towards western and parts of middle region because of high infiltration rates caused due to the distribution of flood plains, alluvial plain, and agricultural land. The least effective recharge potential is in the eastern and middle parts of the study area due to low infiltration rate. The results of the study can be used to formulate an efficient groundwater management plan for sustainable utilization of limited groundwater resources.

  7. Software project management tools in global software development: a systematic mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadli, Saad Yasser; Idri, Ali; Ros, Joaquín Nicolás; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; de Gea, Juan M Carrillo; Toval, Ambrosio

    2016-01-01

    Global software development (GSD) which is a growing trend in the software industry is characterized by a highly distributed environment. Performing software project management (SPM) in such conditions implies the need to overcome new limitations resulting from cultural, temporal and geographic separation. The aim of this research is to discover and classify the various tools mentioned in literature that provide GSD project managers with support and to identify in what way they support group interaction. A systematic mapping study has been performed by means of automatic searches in five sources. We have then synthesized the data extracted and presented the results of this study. A total of 102 tools were identified as being used in SPM activities in GSD. We have classified these tools, according to the software life cycle process on which they focus and how they support the 3C collaboration model (communication, coordination and cooperation). The majority of the tools found are standalone tools (77%). A small number of platforms (8%) also offer a set of interacting tools that cover the software development lifecycle. Results also indicate that SPM areas in GSD are not adequately supported by corresponding tools and deserve more attention from tool builders.

  8. Study of Research Trend in Knowledge Management Field(2001-2010 and Mapping its Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Sedighi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Using scientometric and bibliometric methods, the present study will answer this question: What approach had paid the scientific output in the field of knowledge management at international level in the last decade? For this purpose the first, keywords and subdirectories in this field were identified and selected. Then advanced search of these words were performed in the Web of Science database. All the extracted data from WoS database were entered to the "Histcite" software in the form of 500 record files. After performing the necessary analysis on them, scientific map in this field in 2001-2010 periods was drawn by the software. The study showed average annual growth rate of WoS publications in the field of knowledge management in the last decade, was 10.9 percent. Scientific products of Iranian scientists were included 221 records, and were formed 0.4 percent of the total scientific outputs in this field, and the rank of it, was 35. The most frequent thematic trends were: support information technology like 'data mining' and also organizational, social and managerial elements of knowledge management.

  9. Mapping soil gas radon concentration: a comparative study of geostatistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttafuoco, Gabriele; Tallarico, Adalisa; Falcone, Giovanni

    2007-08-01

    Understanding soil gas radon spatial variations can allow the constructor of a new house to prevent radon gas flowing from the ground. Indoor radon concentration distribution depends on many parameters and it is difficult to use its spatial variation to assess radon potential. Many scientists use to measure outdoor soil gas radon concentrations to assess the radon potential. Geostatistical methods provide us a valuable tool to study spatial structure of radon concentration and mapping. To explore the structure of soil gas radon concentration within an area in south Italy and choice a kriging algorithm, we compared the prediction performances of four different kriging algorithms: ordinary kriging, lognormal kriging, ordinary multi-Gaussian kriging, and ordinary indicator cokriging. Their results were compared using an independent validation data set. The comparison of predictions was based on three measures of accuracy: (1) the mean absolute error, (2) the mean-squared error of prediction; (3) the mean relative error, and a measure of effectiveness: the goodness-of-prediction estimate. The results obtained in this case study showed that the multi-Gaussian kriging was the most accurate approach among those considered. Comparing radon anomalies with lithology and fault locations, no evidence of a strict correlation between type of outcropping terrain and radon anomalies was found, except in the western sector where there were granitic and gneissic terrain. Moreover, there was a clear correlation between radon anomalies and fault systems.

  10. School dropout susceptibility mapping with fuzzy logic – a study in the District of Purulia, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukunda Mishra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-input prediction models are gradually finding their places in the arena of social and economic sciences to assess, locate and address the complicated socio-economic issues arising around the globe. These models treat the problems as the output aroused from a complex interaction between a range of variables linked with physical, socio-cultural, economic as well as ambient political systems. The discussion on dropout from the education system belongs to the core of the educational researchers. The researchers within this domain are attempting to develop the ‘tools and techniques’ for efficiently demarcating the space with a given degree of susceptibility. The scope is to drop out and examine the internal functions of the interactive variables associated with the process. In the present study, we try to apply the fuzzy logic in mapping the spatial variation of the susceptibility of school dropout in the district of Purulia, a backwards district in India regarding achieved level of human development. The training datasets for building the fuzzy model based on the available secondary data from different reports published by the Government and a range of primary data collected through a socio-economic survey. The model output is an index, namely the Index of Susceptibility of School Drop Out (ISDO which reflects the levels of susceptibility to school dropout at different parts of the study area. The proposed model should allow the success within the larger social and economic system.

  11. Functional Topography of Human Corpus Callosum: An fMRI Mapping Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Fabri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a topographical map of the corpus callosum (CC has emerged from human lesion studies and from electrophysiological and anatomical tracing investigations in other mammals. Over the last few years a rising number of researchers have been reporting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI activation in white matter, particularly the CC. In this study the scope for describing CC topography with fMRI was explored by evoking activation through simple sensory stimulation and motor tasks. We reviewed our published and unpublished fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging data on the cortical representation of tactile, gustatory, auditory, and visual sensitivity and of motor activation, obtained in 36 normal volunteers and in 6 patients with partial callosotomy. Activation foci were consistently detected in discrete CC regions: anterior (taste stimuli, central (motor tasks, central and posterior (tactile stimuli, and splenium (auditory and visual stimuli. Reconstruction of callosal fibers connecting activated primary gustatory, motor, somatosensory, auditory, and visual cortices by diffusion tensor tracking showed bundles crossing, respectively, through the genu, anterior and posterior body, and splenium, at sites harboring fMRI foci. These data confirm that the CC commissure has a topographical organization and demonstrate that its functional topography can be explored with fMRI.

  12. Earthquake damage mapping by using remotely sensed data: the Haiti case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniello, Vito; Piscini, Alessandro; Bignami, Christian; Anniballe, Roberta; Stramondo, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes methodologies aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) change features obtained from satellite images with respect to the damage grade due to an earthquake. The test case is the Mw 7.0 earthquake that hit Haiti on January 12, 2010, located 25 km west-south-west of the city of Port-au-Prince. The disastrous shock caused the collapse of a huge number of buildings and widespread damage. The objective is to investigate possible parameters that can affect the robustness and sensitivity of the proposed methods derived from the literature. It is worth noting how the proposed analysis concerns the estimation of derived features at object scale. For this purpose, a segmentation of the study area into several regions has been done by considering a set of polygons, over the city of Port-au-Prince, extracted from the open source open street map geo-database. The analysis of change detection indicators is based on ground truth information collected during a postearthquake survey and is available from a Joint Research Centre database. The resulting damage map is expressed in terms of collapse ratio, thus indicating the areas with a greater number of collapsed buildings. The available satellite dataset is composed of optical and SAR images, collected before and after the seismic event. In particular, we used two GeoEye-1 optical images (one preseismic and one postseismic) and three TerraSAR-X SAR images (two preseismic and one postseismic). Previous studies allowed us to identify some features having a good sensitivity with damage at the object scale. Regarding the optical data, we selected the normalized difference index and two quantities coming from the information theory, namely the Kullback-Libler divergence (KLD) and the mutual information (MI). In addition, for the SAR data, we picked out the intensity correlation difference and the KLD parameter. In order to analyze the capability of these parameters to correctly

  13. Generating samples for association studies based on HapMap data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yixuan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the completion of the HapMap project, a variety of computational algorithms and tools have been proposed for haplotype inference, tag SNP selection and genome-wide association studies. Simulated data are commonly used in evaluating these new developed approaches. In addition to simulations based on population models, empirical data generated by perturbing real data, has also been used because it may inherit specific properties from real data. However, there is no tool that is publicly available to generate large scale simulated variation data by taking into account knowledge from the HapMap project. Results A computer program (gs was developed to quickly generate a large number of samples based on real data that are useful for a variety of purposes, including evaluating methods for haplotype inference, tag SNP selection and association studies. Two approaches have been implemented to generate dense SNP haplotype/genotype data that share similar local linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns as those in human populations. The first approach takes haplotype pairs from samples as inputs, and the second approach takes patterns of haplotype block structures as inputs. Both quantitative and qualitative traits have been incorporated in the program. Phenotypes are generated based on a disease model, or based on the effect of a quantitative trait nucleotide, both of which can be specified by users. In addition to single-locus disease models, two-locus disease models have also been implemented that can incorporate any degree of epistasis. Users are allowed to specify all nine parameters in a 3 × 3 penetrance table. For several commonly used two-locus disease models, the program can automatically calculate penetrances based on the population prevalence and marginal effects of a disease that users can conveniently specify. Conclusion The program gs can effectively generate large scale genetic and phenotypic variation data that can be

  14. Exploratory User Study to Evaluate the Effect of Street Name Changes on Route Planning Using 2d Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenbach, Victoria; Coetzee, Serena; Hankel, Melissa

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory user study using 2D maps to observe and analyse the effect of street name changes on prospective route planning. The study is part of a larger research initiative to understand the effect of street name changes on wayfinding. The common perception is that street name changes affect our ability to navigate an environment, but this has not yet been tested with an empirical user study. A combination of a survey, the thinking aloud method and eye tracking was used with a group of 20 participants, mainly geoinformatics students. A within-subject participant assignment was used. Independent variables were the street network (regular and irregular) and orientation cues (street names and landmarks) portrayed on a 2D map. Dependent variables recorded were the performance (were the participant able to plan a route between the origin and destination?); the accuracy (was the shortest path identified?); the time taken to complete a task; and fixation points with eye tracking. Overall, the results of this exploratory study suggest that street name changes impact the prospective route planning performance and process that individuals use with 2D maps. The results contribute to understanding how route planning changes when street names are changed on 2D maps. It also contributes to the design of future user studies. To generalise the findings, the study needs to be repeated with a larger group of participants.

  15. The importance of magnetic methods for soil mapping and process modelling. Case study in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshov, Oleksandr; Pereira, Paulo; Kruglov, Oleksandr; Sukhorada, Anatoliy

    2016-04-01

    The correct planning of agriculture areas is fundamental for a sustainable future in Ukraine. After the recent political problems in Ukraine, new challenges emerged regarding sustainability questions. At the same time the soil mapping and modelling are intensively developing all over the world (Pereira et al., 2015; Brevik et al., in press). Magnetic susceptibility (MS) methods are low cost and accurate for the developing maps of agricultural areas, fundamental for Ukrain's economy.This allow to colleact a great amount of soil data, usefull for a better understading of the spatial distribution of soil properties. Recently, this method have been applied in other works in Ukraine and elsewhere (Jordanova et al., 2011; Menshov et al., 2015). The objective of this work is to study the spatial distribution of MS and humus content on the topsoils (0-5 cm) in two different areas. The first is located in Poltava region and the second in Kharkiv region. The results showed that MS depends of soil type, topography and anthropogenic influence. For the interpretation of MS spatial distribution in top soil we consider the frequency and time after the last tillage, tilth depth, fertilizing, and the puddling regarding the vehicle model. On average the soil MS of the top soil of these two cases is about 30-70×10-8 m3/kg. In Poltava region not disturbed soil has on average MS values of 40-50×10-8 m3/kg, for Kharkiv region 50-60×10-8 m3/kg. The tilled soil of Poltava region has on average an MS of 60×10-8 m3/kg, and 70×10-8 m3/kg in Kharkiv region. MS is higher in non-tilled soils than in the tilled ones. The correlation between MS and soil humus content is very high ( up to 0.90) in both cases. Breivik, E., Baumgarten, A., Calzolari, C., Miller, B., Pereira, P., Kabala, C., Jordán, A. Soil mapping, classification, and modelling: history and future directions. Geoderma (in press), doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.05.017 Jordanova D., Jordanova N., Atanasova A., Tsacheva T., Petrov P

  16. Expert Opinions on Improving Femicide Data Collection across Europe: A Concept Mapping Study: e0148364

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carmen Vives-Cases; Isabel Goicolea; Alison Hernández; Belen Sanz-Barbero; Aisha K Gill; Anna Costanza Baldry; Monika Schröttle; Heidi Stoeckl

    2016-01-01

    ... in Europe at both the national and international levels. Concept mapping methodology was followed, involving 28 experts from 16 countries in generating strategies, sorting and rating them with respect to relevance and feasibility...

  17. Expert Opinions on Improving Femicide Data Collection across Europe: A Concept Mapping Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vives-Cases, Carmen; Goicolea, Isabel; Hernández, Alison; Sanz-Barbero, Belen; Gill, Aisha K; Baldry, Anna Costanza; Schröttle, Monika; Stöckl, Heidi; Stoeckl, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    ... in Europe at both the national and international levels. Concept mapping methodology was followed, involving 28 experts from 16 countries in generating strategies, sorting and rating them with respect to relevance and feasibility...

  18. Study on the mapping of dark matter clustering from real space to redshift space

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The mapping of dark matter clustering from real space to redshift space introduces the anisotropic property to the measured density power spectrum in redshift space, known as the Redshift Space Distortion effect. The mapping formula is intrinsically non-linear, which is complicated by the higher order polynomials due to indefinite cross correlations between the density and velocity fields, and the Finger--of--God effect due to the randomness of the peculiar velocity field. %Furthermore, the rigorous test of this mapping formula is contaminated by the unknown non--linearity of the density and velocity fields, including their auto- and cross-correlations, for calculating which our theoretical calculation breaks down beyond some scales. Whilst the full higher order polynomials remain unknown, the other systematics can be controlled consistently within the same order truncation in the expansion of the mapping formula, as shown in this paper. The systematic due to the unknown non--linear density and velocity field...

  19. Study of the influence of design parameters of MAPS for the ALICE ITS Upgrade: Project Report

    CERN Document Server

    Munteanu, Laura-Iuliana

    2016-01-01

    This report illustrates the results of measurements performed on various MAPS chips used during the R&D phase for the ALICE ITS Upgrade. It lists the influence that pixel design parameters have on the performance of the chips.

  20. Spatial distribution of interpolation uncertainity: Case study of isotherm map of Serbia (1991-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Milutin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available More widely used geostatistical methods for modeling distributed phenomena requires the evaluation of the quality of the product (maps obtained by their application. The method of evaluation of uncertainty i.e. quality of the map was described on the example of a map of mean annual air temperature in Serbia for the period from the years 1991 to 2009 that was obtained from a relatively small number of samples for the whole country area (110 meteorological stations. The uncertainty of the map, obtained by kriging interpolation was evaluated by applying a Monte Carlo simulation modeling method. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47014, br. III43007 i br. TR 36009