WorldWideScience

Sample records for surficial electromagnetic em

  1. Next wave EM technology : Electromagnetic communication technology continues to progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwick, J.

    1998-01-01

    Alpine Oil Services Corp. and Ryan Energy Technologies Inc., have made technological advances in the use of real time electromagnetic (EM) data transmission, using low frequency radio waves to transmit well commands or geological information. The development of the telemetry activated tool was done in two steps. The first technology was real time EM data transmission from the subsurface which used the wellbore to transfer information. The second step was constructing a memory pack which involved an electronic instrument installed in the wellbore which was programmed to perform certain tasks at certain times by transmitting signals back and forth. The use of EM communication allows the geological steering information to come back faster. The EM signal is much faster compared to MWD systems for deeper directional wells. The EM technology also has immediate applications in underbalanced drilling. 1 fig

  2. Superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) system for Grumman Maglev concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Swarn S.

    1994-01-01

    The Grumman developed Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev system has the following key characteristics: a large operating airgap--40 mm; levitation at all speeds; both high speed and low speed applications; no deleterious effects on SC coils at low vehicle speeds; low magnetic field at the SC coil--less than 0.35 T; no need to use non-magnetic/non-metallic rebar in the guideway structure; low magnetic field in passenger cabin--approximately 1 G; low forces on the SC coil; employs state-of-the-art NbTi wire; no need for an active magnet quench protection system; and lower weight than a magnet system with copper coils. The EMS Maglev described in this paper does not require development of any new technologies. The system could be built with the existing SC magnet technology.

  3. Hybrid polymer composite membrane for an electromagnetic (EM) valveless micropump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Muzalifah Mohd; Yunas, Jumril; Bais, Badariah; Azlan Hamzah, Azrul; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we report on a hybrid membrane used as an actuator in an electromagnetically driven valveless micropump developed using MEMS processes. The membrane structure consists of the combination of a magnetic polymer composite membrane and an attached bulk permanent magnet which is expected to have a compact structure and a strong magnetic force with maintained membrane flexibility. A soft polymeric material made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is initially mixed with neodymium magnetic particles (NdFeB) to form a magnetic polymer composite membrane. The membrane is then bonded with the PDMS based microfluidic part, developed using soft lithography process. The developed micropump was tested in terms of the actuator membrane deflection capability and the fluidic flow of the injected fluid sample through the microfluidic channel. The experimental results show that the magnetic composite actuator membrane with an attached bulk permanent magnet is capable of producing a maximum membrane deflection of up to 106 µm. The functionality test of the electromagnetic (EM) actuator for fluid pumping purposes was done by supplying an AC voltage with various amplitudes, signal waves and frequencies. A wide range of sample injection rates from a few µl min-1 to tens of nl min-1 was achieved with a maximum flow rate of 6.6 µl min-1. The injection flow rate of the EM micropump can be controlled by adjusting the voltage amplitude and frequency supplied to the EM coil, to control the membrane deflection in the pump chamber. The designed valveless EM micropump has a very high potential to enhance the drug delivery system capability in biomedical applications.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE COHERENT NOISE, ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE OF THE ATLAS EM CALORIMETER FRONT END BOARD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHASE, B.; CITTERIO, M.; LANNI, F.; MAKOWIECKI, D.; RADEKA, S.; RESCIA, S.; TAKAI, H.

    1999-01-01

    The ATLAS Electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter (EMCAL) Front End Board (FEB) will be located in custom-designed enclosures solidly connected to the feedtroughs. It is a complex mixed signal board which includes the preamplifier, shaper, switched capacitor array analog memory unit (SCA), analog to digital conversion, serialization of the data and related control logic. It will be described in detail elsewhere in these proceedings. The electromagnetic interference (either pick-up from the on board digital activity, from power supply ripple or from external sources) which affects coherently large groups of channels (coherent noise) is of particular concern in calorimetry and it has been studied in detail

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE COHERENT NOISE, ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE OF THE ATLAS EM CALORIMETER FRONT END BOARD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHASE, R.L.; CITTERIO, M.; LANNI, F.; MAKOWIECKI, D.; RADEKA, V.; RESCIA, S.; TAKAI, H.; BAN, J.; PARSONS, J.; SIPPACH, W.

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS Electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter (EMCAL) Front End Board (FEB) will be located in custom-designed enclosures solidly connected to the feedtroughs. It is a complex mixed signal board which includes the preamplifier, shaper, switched capacitor array analog memory unit (SCA), analog to digital conversion, serialization of the data and related control logic. It will be described in detail elsewhere in these proceedings. The electromagnetic interference (either pick-up from the on board digital activity, from power supply ripple or from external sources) which affects coherently large groups of channels (coherent noise) is of particular concern in calorimetry and it has been studied in detail

  6. Uraniferous surficial deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.; Hambleton-Jones, B.B.

    1980-10-01

    As a result of the discovery of uranium in surficial deposits of Tertiary to Recent age, in Australia and Southern Africa, increasing attention is being paid to the location and understanding of the genesis of these deposits. The paper discusses the definitions and terminology currently in use and a classification of these deposits is presented. It is concluded that in order to obtain a measure of clarity, the terms calcrete, gypcrete and dolocrete should not be used to describe the uraniferous valley-fill deposits of Southern Africa and Australia [af

  7. Investigation of Electromagnetic Signatures of a FPGA Using an APREL EM-ISIGHT System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    shelf (COTS) field- programmable gate array (FPGA) at the optimized factor levels established from the DOE and varying the programmed signal. This...signature using APREL’s EM-ISight automated system is hypothesized to be a novel way to accomplish this task. Research Questions The research...a field programmable gate array (FPGA) is the circuit board utilized for testing the inherent electromagnetic signature. Every device produces an

  8. Theoretical and FEM analysis of suspension and propulsion system with HTS hybrid electromagnets in an EMS Maglev model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y.D., E-mail: ydchung@suwon.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Suwon University, Bongdang Eup, Hwaseong Si 445-743 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C.Y. [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Woram Dong, Uiwang Si 437-757 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, J.Y. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Ansan College of Technology, Choji-Dong, Ansan Si 425-792 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Y.S. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Sinchon-dong, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, T.K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Ansan College of Technology, Choji-Dong, Ansan Si 425-792 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    We examine levitation and propulsion forces of the proto-type maglev vehicle system based on 3D FEM. The levitation force increases over 15% due to AC current of the guideway. The levitation force by HTS electromagnet (EM) and AC current is larger over 30% than that of only HTS EM. We have been constructed a proto-type electromagnetic suspension (EMS) based maglev vehicle system. The maglev concept utilizes magnetic forces for noncontact suspension, guidance and propulsion. The suspension system with high temperature superconducting (HTS) hybrid electromagnet (EM) is composed of HTS coils and normal coils, which consume little power to keep large suspension gap. The magnetic forces realize to guide the vehicle, propel the vehicle along the guide-way and assist in braking action. The proto-type EMS-based Maglev model is designed to keep the suspension gap of 20 mm. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of the maglev vehicle based on the EMS model to obtain the designing parameters for levitation and propulsion forces. The magnetic field distributions of the electromagnetic forces with hybrid EM and propulsion stator coils are analyzed based on three dimension (3D) finite element method (FEM) analysis. From the simulation results, appropriately design parameters of the suspension, guidance and propulsion were obtained.

  9. Theoretical and FEM analysis of suspension and propulsion system with HTS hybrid electromagnets in an EMS Maglev model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Jang, J.Y.; Yoon, Y.S.; Ko, T.K.

    2011-01-01

    We examine levitation and propulsion forces of the proto-type maglev vehicle system based on 3D FEM. The levitation force increases over 15% due to AC current of the guideway. The levitation force by HTS electromagnet (EM) and AC current is larger over 30% than that of only HTS EM. We have been constructed a proto-type electromagnetic suspension (EMS) based maglev vehicle system. The maglev concept utilizes magnetic forces for noncontact suspension, guidance and propulsion. The suspension system with high temperature superconducting (HTS) hybrid electromagnet (EM) is composed of HTS coils and normal coils, which consume little power to keep large suspension gap. The magnetic forces realize to guide the vehicle, propel the vehicle along the guide-way and assist in braking action. The proto-type EMS-based Maglev model is designed to keep the suspension gap of 20 mm. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of the maglev vehicle based on the EMS model to obtain the designing parameters for levitation and propulsion forces. The magnetic field distributions of the electromagnetic forces with hybrid EM and propulsion stator coils are analyzed based on three dimension (3D) finite element method (FEM) analysis. From the simulation results, appropriately design parameters of the suspension, guidance and propulsion were obtained.

  10. EM-SAGD/EM-GD : electromagnetic heating method : sustainable improvement of in-situ bitumen recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacker, B.; Diehl, D.; Huber, N.; Torlak, M.; Koolman, M. [Siemens AG, Munich (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper described an electro-magnetic heating technology for the in situ recovery of bitumen. Studies have indicated that the technology promises a higher yield of bitumen with a smaller surface footprint than other bitumen production technologies. A laboratory study conducted with an inductor loop embedded in a 1 meter{sup 3} sand-box demonstrated that the technology is technically feasible. A series of field tests were then conducted by Siemens in a conductive subsurface later in Deggendorf, Germany. The field test included remotely operated surface equipment that was tested under down-scaled field conditions over a period of 6 months. New fiber optic sensors were used to obtain underground temperature readings. The field tests demonstrated a rise in temperature caused by the induction of eddy currents through electromagnetic fields in the conductive sub-surface. Results of the study will be used at an oil sands reservoir in 2011. The process can be combined with steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Ian S

    1990-01-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw the Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  12. System concept definition of the Grumman superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proise, M.

    1994-01-01

    Grumman, under contract to the Army Corps of Engineers, completed a System Concept Definition (SCD) study to design a high-speed 134 m/s (300 m.p.h.) magnetically levitated (Maglev) transportation system. The primary development goals were to design a Maglev that is safe, reliable, environmentally acceptable, and low-cost. The cost issue was a predominant one, since previous studies have shown that an economically viable Maglev system (one that is attractive to investors for future models of passenger and/or freight transportation) requires a cost that is about $12.4 M/km ($20 Million per mile). The design is based on the electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system using superconducting iron-core magnets mounted along both sides of the vehicle. The EMS system has several advantages compared to the electrodynamic suspension (EDS) Maglev systems such as low stray magnetic fields in the passenger cabin and the surrounding areas, uniform load distribution along the full length of the vehicle, and small pole pitch for smoother propulsion and ride comfort. It is also levitated at all speeds and incorporates a wrap-around design of safer operation. The Grumman design has all the advantages of an EMS system identified above, while eliminating (or significantly improving) drawbacks associated with normal magnet powered EMS systems. Improvements include larger gap clearance, lighter weight, lower number of control servos, and higher off line switching speeds. The design also incorporates vehicle tilt (plus or minus 9 deg) for higher coordinated turn and turn out speed capability.

  13. Integrated electromagnetic (EM) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) geophysical studies of environmental impact of Awotan dumpsite in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinowo, Olawale Olakunle; Falufosi, Michael Oluseyi; Omiyale, Eniola Oluwatosin

    2018-04-01

    This study attempts to establish the level of contamination caused by the decomposition of wastes by defining the lateral distribution and the vertical limit of leachate induced zone of anomalous conductivity distribution within the subsurface through the analyses of Electromagnetic (EM) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) data, generated from the integrated geophysical survey over Awotan landfill dumpsite, in Ibadan, southwest Nigeria. Nine (9) EM and ERT profiles each were established within and around the Awotan landfill site. EM data were acquire at 5 m station interval using 10 m, 20 m and 40 m inter-coil spacings, while ERT stations were occupied at 2 m electrode spacing using dipole-dipole electrode configuration. The near perfect agreement between the two sets of data generated from the EM and ERT surveys over the Awotan landfill site as well as the subsurface imaging ability of these geophysical methods to delineate the region of elevated contamination presented in the form of anomalously high apparent ground conductivity and low subsurface resistivity distribution, suggest the importance of integrating electromagnetic and electrical resistivity investigation techniques for environmental studies and more importantly for selecting appropriate landfill dump site location such with ability to retain the generated contaminants and thus prevent environmental pollution.

  14. On the variation of e/m ratio in the five-dimensional theory of gravity, electromagnetism and scalar field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, Yu.S.; Kislov, V.V.

    1982-01-01

    Basic equations of the united five-dimensional theory of gravity, electromagnetism and scalar field are given. Discussed is one of the given theory consequences - dependence of electric charge ratio to the e/m test, particle mass on fundamental scalar field value in the specified point. The latter is determined by the solution of the Einstein, Maxwell and Klein-Fock equations system. In particular, this field varies in the Sun-Earth system for an observer bound to the Earth owing to orbit ellipticity of the Earth. The formula describing the e/m variation is given. Data on measuring Josephson frequency revealing the tendency of season dependence (Earth-Sun distances) which raises the problem of performing direct experiments for controlling e/m ratio stability are reproduced

  15. Geologic-SURFICIAL62K-Sand and gravel pits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The GeologicSurficial_SURFICIAL data consists of surficial geologic features as digitized from the 1:62,500 15 minute series USGS quadrangle map sheets, compiled by...

  16. Relativistic theory of surficial Love numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Philippe; Poisson, Eric

    2014-06-01

    A relativistic theory of surficial Love numbers, which characterize the surface deformation of a body subjected to tidal forces, was initiated by Damour and Nagar. We revisit this effort in order to extend it, clarify some of its aspects, and simplify its computational implementation. First, we refine the definition of surficial Love numbers proposed by Damour and Nagar and formulate it directly in terms of the deformed curvature of the body's surface, a meaningful geometrical quantity. Second, we develop a unified theory of surficial Love numbers that applies equally well to material bodies and black holes. Third, we derive a compactness-dependent relation between the surficial and (electric-type) gravitational Love numbers of a perfect-fluid body and show that it reduces to the familiar Newtonian relation when the compactness is small. And fourth, we simplify the tasks associated with the practical computation of the surficial and gravitational Love numbers for a material body.

  17. Surficial uranium deposits in Somalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briot, P.

    1984-01-01

    Surficial uranium deposits in Somalia are of the valley-fill calcrete type and occur in the arid Mudugh Province of the Dusa Mareb-El Bur region. They are located in a belt about 240 km in length which is orientated parallel to the north-south regional tectonic framework. The uranium resources of the region amount to about 5,000 t U 3 O 8 at an average grade of 0.1% U 3 O 8 . Basement rocks constitute a 7,000 m thick succession of Jurassic to Quaternary sediments of the Somalian Basin. Uranium mineralization in the form of carnotite occurs in the uppermost Mercia Series. The origin of the uranium and vanadium is unclear due to a shortage of the favourable source rocks. (author)

  18. Correction magnetic field in electromagnet of proton accelerator using CST software; Correcao do campo magnetico em um eletroima de um acelerador de protons usando o software CST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo, L.A.; Campos, T.P.R., E-mail: luisarabelo88@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the study and simulation of uniform magnetic field electromagnets new circular accelerator model for protons with energy range between 15 MeV and 64 MeV. In addition, investigating materials and the changes induced by the presence of 'gaps' synchronism correction. The electromagnet simulations, predefined, were made in electromagnetic field simulation software CST EM Studio® 3D 2015. The results showed an even distribution of the magnetic field in the compact electromagnet with the same homogenization structures. The results showed regular distribution of the magnetic field in the compact electromagnet with homogenization structures. In conclusion, the electromagnetic model proposed shown to be feasible for a circular accelerator and comply the synchronization requirements. (author)

  19. Deck41 Surficial Seafloor Sediment Description Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deck41 is a digital summary of surficial sediment composition for 36,401 seafloor samples worldwide. Data include collecting source, ship, cruise, sample id,...

  20. Uraniferous surficial deposits in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambleton-Jones, B.B.; Levin, M.; Wagener, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    Surficial uranium deposits are located in the north-western Cape Province of South Africa, in the Namib Desert east of Walvis Bay in South West Africa/Namibia and in the Serule Block of Botswana. They have been classified into the valley-fill, lacustrine, and pedogenic types. Carnotite is the main uranium-bearing mineral in the larger surficial deposits, with other minerals such as soddyite and phosphuranylite occurring locally. Uraninite or urano-organic complexes occur in the reducing environments of the diatomaceous earth, peat-rich deposits. Economically, the valley-fill type is the most important, with the largest deposits occurring in South West Africa/Namibia. In South West Africa/Namibia the valley-fill surficial uranium deposits occur in the Tumas and Langer Heinrich formations of the Teriary to Recent Namib Group. The Tubas, Langer Heinrich, and Welwitchia deposits are discussed: in them, carnotite occurs in calcareous and gypsiferous fluvial gravels. The pedogenic deposit at Mile 72 occurs in weathered granite and overlying gypcrete and has little economic potential. The economic potential of the surficial deposits in the north-western Cape Province is very limited in comparison with their South West African/Namibian counterparts, but the most important deposits are the lacustrine type, in particular those containing peat and diatomaceous earth. The mechanisms for the precipitation and preservation of the uranium are discussed

  1. Inhibition of Salmonella typhi growth using extremely low frequency electromagnetic (ELF-EM) waves at resonance frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, M A; Mohamed, S A; Abdelbacki, A M; El-Sharkawy, A H

    2014-08-01

    Typhoid is a serious disease difficult to be treated with conventional drugs. The aim of this study was to demonstrate a new method for the control of Salmonella typhi growth, through the interference with the bioelectric signals generated from the microbe during cell division by extremely low frequency electromagnetic waves (ELF-EMW-ELF-EM) at resonance frequency. Isolated Salmonella typhi was subjected to square amplitude modulated waves (QAMW) with different modulation frequencies from two generators with constant carrier frequency of 10 MHz, amplitude of 10 Vpp, modulating depth ± 2 Vpp and constant field strength of 200 V m(-1) at 37°C. Both the control and exposed samples were incubated at the same conditions during the experiment. The results showed that there was highly significant inhibition effect for Salm. typhi exposed to 0·8 Hz QAMW for a single exposure for 75 min. Dielectric relaxation, TEM and DNA results indicated highly significant changes in the molecular structure of the DNA and cellular membrane resulting from the exposure to the inhibiting EM waves. It was concluded that finding out the inhibiting resonance frequency of ELF-EM waves that deteriorates Salm. typhi growth will be promising method for the treatment of Salm. typhi infection either in vivo or in vitro. This new non-invasive technique for treatment of bacterial infections is of considerable interest for the use in medical and biotechnological applications. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Electromagnetic-coil (EM-coil) measurement technique to verify presence of metal/absence of oxide attribute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.L.; Hockey, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes how an Electromagnetic-coil (EM-coil) measurement technique can be used to discriminate between plutonium metal and plutonium oxide inside sealed storage containers. As evidence, measurements on a variety of metals and their oxides are presented. This non-radiation measurement method provides assurance of the 'presence of metal/absence of oxide' attribute in less than a minute. During initial development, researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory have demonstrated the ability of this method to discriminate between aluminum and aluminum oxide placed inside an AT-400R storage container (total stainless steel wall thickness of over 2.5 cm). Similar results are expected, since Pu metal is electrically conductive and a Pu oxide behaves as an electrical insulator. At this writing, work is underway to perform the same demonstration using plutonium and plutonium oxide. Similar success has been demonstrated when using ALR-8 storage containers (basically carbon steel drums). Within these container types two scenarios have been explored. 1.) The same configuration made from different metals for demonstrating material property effects. A clear distinction was seen between the slight alloy changes among various forms of aluminum and brass in the same configuration. 2.) The same metal configured differently to demonstrate how mass distribution affects the EM signature. Hundreds of bb's (each about 2 mm in diameter) were placed in different containers to show how a slight change in distribution will affect the EM signature. With a five percent change in bb container diameter, the resulting EM signature changes are clear. This measurement method offers an extremely wide dynamic range resulting from its sensitivity to the wide range in electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability found in most metals and alloys. In fact, electrical conductivity spans the widest spectrum of all the known physical properties. Most insulators such as the oxides cover the

  3. Magnetic reconnection simulation using the 2.5D em [electromagnetic] direct implicit code AVANTI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, D.W.; Francis, G.E.; Max, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Collisionless reconnection of magnetic field lines depends upon electron inertia effects and details of the electron and ion distribution functions, thus requiring a kinetic description of both. Though traditional explicit PIC techniques provide this description in principle, they are severely limited in parameters by time step constraints. This parameter regime has been expanded by using the recently constructed 2.5 D electromagnetic code AVANTI in this work. The code runs stably with arbitrarily large Δt and is quite robust with respect to large fluctuations occurring due to small numbers of particles per cell. We have found several qualitatively new features. The reconnection process is found to occur in distinct stages: early spontaneous reconnection fed by the free energy of an initial anisotropy in the electron component, coalescence of the resulting small-scale filaments of electron current, accompanied by electron jetting, and oscillatory flow of electrons through the magnetic X-point, superposed on continuing nonlinear growth of ion-mediated reconnection. The time evolution of stage is strongly dependent on M i /m e . 12 refs., 6 figs

  4. Electromagnetic Fields in Reverberant Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt-Ardatjew, Robert Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    The phenomenon of resonating electromagnetic (EM) fields has been commonly and successfully exploited in reverberation chambers (RC) for the purpose of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing, as well as modeling multipath environments. Although largely successful, the currently used statistical

  5. Deploying electromagnetic particle-in-cell (EM-PIC) codes on Xeon Phi accelerators boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    The complexity of the phenomena involved in several relevant plasma physics scenarios, where highly nonlinear and kinetic processes dominate, makes purely theoretical descriptions impossible. Further understanding of these scenarios requires detailed numerical modeling, but fully relativistic particle-in-cell codes such as OSIRIS are computationally intensive. The quest towards Exaflop computer systems has lead to the development of HPC systems based on add-on accelerator cards, such as GPGPUs and more recently the Xeon Phi accelerators that power the current number 1 system in the world. These cards, also referred to as Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) offer peak theoretical performances of >1 TFlop/s for general purpose calculations in a single board, and are receiving significant attention as an attractive alternative to CPUs for plasma modeling. In this work we report on our efforts towards the deployment of an EM-PIC code on a Xeon Phi architecture system. We will focus on the parallelization and vectorization strategies followed, and present a detailed performance evaluation of code performance in comparison with the CPU code.

  6. The Great Acceleration and the disappearing surficial geologic record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Jason A.; Springer, Kathleen; Pigati, Jeffrey S.

    2017-01-01

    The surficial geologic record is the relatively thin veneer of young (Earth’s terrestrial surface (Fig. 1). Once largely ignored as “overburden” by geologists, surficial deposits are now studied to address a wide range of issues related to the sustainability of human societies. Geologists use surficial deposits to determine the frequency and severity of past climatic changes, quantify natural and anthropogenic erosion rates, identify hazards, and calculate recurrence intervals associated with earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. Increasingly, however, humans are eradicating the surficial geologic record in many key areas through progressive modification of Earth’s surface.

  7. Definition and classification of surficial uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.; Hambleton-Jones, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    Uraniferous surficial deposits may be broadly defined as uraniferous sediments or soils, usually of Tertiary to Recent age, that have not been subjected to deep burial and may or may not have been cemented to some degree. Evaluation of the available literature shows that confusion has arisen as to the use of the term ''calcrete'' when describing fluviatile sediments that have been calcified to a greater or lesser degree. It is felt that a useful purpose would be served by proposing a classification system which may go some way towards a redefinition of the applicable terminology. Unfortunately the terms ''calcrete'' or ''valley calcrete'' have been used to define Tertiary to Recent sediments ranging from boulder beds to silts which, in some Namibian examples, contain between 5 and 50% CaCO 3 and as much as 90% total carbonate in some Australian surficial uranium deposits. It is proposed that the detrital material constituting the sediments be prefixed with the terms calcareous, dolomitic, gypsiferous, halitiferous or ferruginous (e.g. calcareous grit) rather than the terms calcrete, dolocrete, gypcrete, and ferricrete, all of which have genetic connotations. The latter group of terms are preferably used for the pedogenic uranium deposits only. This will have the effect of placing these deposits in categories of their own and not confusing the issue with the overprint of pedogenic calcrete or duricrustal deposits which may or may not be present. This view is not shared by some authorities notably Butt and Carlisle (see this volume). (author)

  8. Surficial uranium deposits: summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otton, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Uranium occurs in a variety of surficial environments in calcretes, gypcretes, silcretes, dolocretes and in organic sediments. Groundwater moving on low gradients generates these formations and, under favourable circumstances, uranium deposits. A variety of geomorphic settings can be involved. Most surficial deposits are formed in desert, temperate wetland, tropical, or transitional environments. The largest deposits known are in sedimentary environments in arid lands. The deposits form largely by the interaction of ground or surface waters on the geomorphic surface in favourable geologic terrains and climates. The deposits are commonly in the condition of being formed or reconstituted, or being destroyed. Carnotite is common in desert deposits while in wetland deposits no uranium minerals may be seen. Radioactive disequilibrium is common, particularly in wetland deposits. Granites and related rocks are major source rocks and most large deposits are in regions with enriched uranium contents, i.e. significantly greater than 5 ppm uranium. Uranium dissolution and transport is usually under oxidizing conditions. Transport in desert conditions is usually as a bicarbonate. A variety of fixation mechanisms operate to extract the uranium and form the deposits. Physical barriers to groundwater flow may initiate ore deposition. Mining costs are likely to be low because of the near surface occurrence, but there may be processing difficulties as clay may be present and the saline or carbonate content may be high. (author)

  9. The genesis of surficial uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    Surficial uranium deposits can form in such diverse environments as calcareous-dolomitic-gypsiferous fluvial and aeolian valley sediments in hot arid and semi-arid regions, oxidizing and reducing alkaline and saline playas, highly organic and/or clay-rich wetland areas, calcareous regoliths in arid terranes, laterites, lake sediments, and highly fractured zones in igneous and metamorphic basement complexes. Formation of ore is governed by the interrelationships between source of ore-forming elements, mechanisms of migration, environment of deposition, climate, preservation, tectonic history and structural framework. The principal factors controlling mobilization of ore-forming elements from source to site of deposition are the availability of elements in source rocks, presence of complexing agents, climate, nature of source rock regolith and structure of source rock terrane. The major processes governing precipitation of uranium in the surficial environment are reduction mechanisms, sorption processes, dissociation of uranyl complexes, change in redox states of ore-forming constituents, evaporation of surface and groundwaters, change in partial pressure of dissolved carbon dioxide, changes in pH, colloidal precipitation, and mixing of two or more surface and groundwaters. One or a number of these processes may be actively involved in ore formation. (author)

  10. Electromagnetic reciprocity in antenna theory

    CERN Document Server

    Stumpf, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The reciprocity theorem is among the most intriguing concepts in wave field theory and has become an integral part of almost all standard textbooks on electromagnetic (EM) theory. This book makes use of the theorem to quantitatively describe EM interactions concerning general multiport antenna systems. It covers a general reciprocity-based description of antenna systems, their EM scattering properties, and further related aspects. Beginning with an introduction to the subject, Electromagnetic Reciprocity in Antenna Theory provides readers first with the basic prerequisites before offering coverage of the equivalent multiport circuit antenna representations, EM coupling between multiport antenna systems and their EM interactions with scatterers, accompanied with the corresponding EM compensation theorems.

  11. Surficial Geologic Map of the Town of Randolph, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG10-2 Wright, S., Larsen, F., and Springston, G., 2010,�Surficial Geologic Map of the Town of Randolph, Vermont: Vermont Geological Survey...

  12. Surficial geology and hydrogeology of the Town Londonderry, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG08-2 De Simone, D., and Gale, M., 2008,�Surficial geology and hydrogeology of the Town Londonderry, Vermont: Vermont Geological Survey Open-File...

  13. Developing Methods For Linking Surficial Aquifers With Localized Rainfall Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrenz, W. B.; van Gaalen, J. F.

    2008-12-01

    Water level hydrographs of the surficial aquifer can be evaluated to identify both the cause and consequence of water supply development. Rainfall, as a source of direct recharge and as a source of delayed or compounded recharge, is often the largest influence on surficial aquifer water level responses. It is clear that proximity of the rain gauge to the observation well is a factor in the degree of correlation, but in central Florida, USA, rainfall patterns change seasonally, with latitude, and with distance from the coast . Thus, for a location in central Florida, correlation of rain events with observed hydrograph responses depends on both distance and direction from an observation well to a rain gauge. In this study, we examine the use of extreme value analysis as a method of selecting the best rainfall data set for describing a given surficial aquifer monitor well. A surficial aquifer monitor well with a substantial suite of data is compared to a series of rainfall data sets from gauges ranging from meters to tens of kilometers in distance from the monitor well. The gauges vary in a wide range of directions from the monitor well in an attempt to identify both a method for rainfall gauge selection to be associated with the monitor well. Each rainfall gauge is described by a correlation coefficient with respect to the surficial aquifer water level data.

  14. Conductivity gradients as inferred by electromagnetic-induction meter (EM38) readings within a salt-affected wetland in Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirck, Jaconette; Schroeder, William

    2018-01-01

    The change from deep-rooted grass and shrub vegetation to annual-cropping dryland farming has contributed to serious soil salinization challenges on the semi-arid North American Great Plains. In some cases, cultivation of the Great Plains has increased the availability of water, causing dominant sulfate salts to travel from the uphill areas to depressions where it will surface when water evaporates at the soil surface. A potential solution could include the replanting of the native deep-rooted vegetation, which requires knowledge of the spatial distribution of soil salinity. This study tested the soil factors influencing electromagnetic-induction meter (EM38) readings of soil salinity distribution around wetlands. The objectives were to: (1) predict growth and survival of Salix dasyclados Wimm. (cv. `India') along a salinity gradient in a small wetland, and (2) investigate whether newly established willows affected water-table fluctuations, which would indicate their phreatophytic nature or their ability to obtain their water supply from the zone of saturation. Results indicated significantly lower salinity values for sampling points with EM38 readings above 175 and 250 mS m-1 for height and survival, respectively. In addition, diurnal fluxes of the water table in areas of good willow growth and lower salinity indicated that cultivar `India' was phreatophytic in these areas and therefore has great potential for being used to combat saline seeps.

  15. Petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of surficial uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, M.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the petrology, mineralogy, and geochemistry of surficial uranium ore deposits is important for developing prospecting and evaluation strategies. Carnotite is the main uranium mineral and is found in those deposits that have the greatest potential uranium resources. The following uranium-bearing minerals have been reported to occur in surficial deposits: carnotite, tyuyamunite, soddyite, weeksite, haiweeite, uranophane, betauranophane, metaankoleite, torbernite, autunite, phosphuranylite, schroeckingerite, Pb-V-U hydroxide (unnamed mineral), uraninite and organourano complexes. The interrelationships between some of the minerals of the host rocks (especially the clays) are not well understood. (author)

  16. Engineering Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Yun

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with engineering electromagnetics. It contains seven chapters, which treats understanding of engineering electromagnetics such as magnet and electron spin, current and a magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave, Essential tool for engineering electromagnetics on rector and scalar, rectangular coordinate system and curl vector, electrostatic field with coulomb rule and method of electric images, Biot-Savart law, Ampere law and magnetic force, Maxwell equation and an electromagnetic wave and reflection and penetration of electromagnetic plane wave.

  17. ELECTROMAGNETIC MWD/LWD - WHERE AND WHY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Steiner

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of electromagnetics as a mean of data transfer from bottom hole assembly to the surface during deep well drilling is described. Particularly, it is convenient when drilling with foam, aerated mud or air drilling in underbalance condition. Historic development of electromagnetics (EM and of EM Measurement While Drilling (EM MWD is elaborated briefly. Accentuated is the problem of attenuation of EM waves propagating through the rocks.

  18. Surficial Geologic Map of the Bennington Area, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG2017-1 DeSimone, D. J., 2017, Surficial Geology of the Bennington Area, Vermont: VGS Open File report VG2017-1, scale 1:12,000. Data may include...

  19. Lithology and surficial sediment distribution: northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, S.M.; Laine, E.P.; Friedrich, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    Surficial sediments of the LLWODP study area E-N3 have several common characteristics and a few anomalous features. All of the 26 surficial samples examined are Holocene in age. In E-N3, the Holocene sequence ranges from 12-90 cm. The sequence is composed primarily of brown foraminiferal lutite. The lutites show evidence of burrowing by benthic animals in the form of burrows infilled with sediment of a different color. Below the bioturbated lutites is a dark brown, iron-enriched horizon stratigraphically near (within a few centimeters of) the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary. The vertical extent of this unit, which ranges from 2-22 cm, varies systematically within the study area. The maximum thickness is found in a region most removed from the terrigenous sediment entry points. Fine-grained turbidity currents, an abyssal current, and a debris flow created the uncommon features of the surficial sediments. The areal extent of these deposits is estimated as 10% of the E-N3 region below 5300 m. The largest turbidite is probably greater than 2000 km 2 in extent. However, evidence of coarse-grained turbidity current activity in the Holocene is absent. Hemipelagic deposition during the Holocene has resulted in a texturally uniform sequence of surficial sediments. 22 references, 10 figures, 6 tables

  20. Surficial geology of Panther Lake Quadrangle, Oswego County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.

    1981-01-01

    The location and extent of eight kinds of surficial deposits in Panther Lake quadrangle, Oswego County, N.Y., are mapped on a 7.5-minute U.S. Geological Survey topographic map. The map was compiled to indicate the lithology and potential for groundwater development at any specific location. (USGS)

  1. Surficial geology of Hannibal Quadrangle, Oswego County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.

    1981-01-01

    The location and extent of 10 kinds of surficial deposits in part of Hannibal quadrangle, Oswego County, N.Y., are mapped on a 7.5-minute U.S. Geological Survey topographic map. The map was compiled to indicate the lithology and potential for ground-water development at any specific location. (USGS)

  2. LLL transient-electromagnetics-measurement facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deadrick, F.J.; Miller, E.K.; Hudson, H.G.

    1975-01-01

    The operation and hardware of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's transient-electromagnetics (EM)-measurement facility are described. The transient-EM range is useful for determining the time-domain transient responses of structures to incident EM pulses. To illustrate the accuracy and utility of the EM-measurement facility, actual experimental measurements are compared to numerically computed values

  3. Development of the electromagnetic tomography system. Field test results using existing equipment; EM tomography system no kaihatsu. Kison sochi ni yoru test sokutei kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumekawa, Y; Miura, Y; Takasugi, S [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, E [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    With the purpose of developing an electromagnetic tomography system, an observation was carried out with existing equipment combined, and the data was analyzed. The measuring equipment consisted of existing borehole vertical magnetic field sensors as the sensor part, MT method receivers as the receiving device, and existing CSMT method transmitters as the transmitting device. The measuring was performed at the Richmond Field Station which was abundant in existing data and which had a comparatively simple resistivity structure. The borehole vertical magnetic field sensors were lowered inside the borehole, and signal sources were arranged at 10m apart on the traverse line in the direction from northeast to southwest with the borehole as the center. The analysis of the data was made with the use of EM1D by three models, namely, 10 ohm{center_dot}m homogeneous earth model, 100 ohm{center_dot}m homogeneous earth model, and horizontal 7 layer model prepared on the basis of electric logging results; and a comparative examination was made against the measured data. As a result, it was demonstrated that the test measurement agreed very well with the model from the electric logging results and that it was the data reflecting a resistivity structure. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....

  5. Science 101: Can Electromagnetic Waves Affect Emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2017-01-01

    The answer to this month's question, "Can electromagnetic waves affect emotions," is yes. Wherever there are electromagnetic (EM) waves (basically everywhere!), there is the potential for them directly or indirectly to affect the emotions. But what about the likely motivation behind the originally-posed question? Can EM waves affect your…

  6. Surficial Geology of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, Dwight Raymond

    1969-01-01

    Much of the ground surface around Mount Rainier volcano is directly underlain by loose geologic deposits that veneer the hard rock formations. Examples of these deposits are sand and gravel bars along the rivers, ridges of loose rock debris beside the glaciers, and sloping aprons of rock fragments beneath almost every cliff. Even though they are generally thin and inconspicuous when compared with the rock formations, these surficial deposits are clues to geologic events that have profoundly influenced the shape of the park's landscape. Thus, from the character and extent of glacial deposits one can judge the age and size of former glaciers that carved the cirques and deep canyons of the park; from the mudflows which streamed down nearly every valley one can infer the age and size of huge landslides of the past that helped determine Mount Rainier's present shape; and from the pumice deposits some of the volcano's recent eruptive activity can be reconstructed. The map (plate 1, in pocket) that accompanies this description of the surficial deposits of Mount Rainier National Park shows the location of the various geologic formations, and the explanation shows the formations arranged in order of their relative age, with the oldest at the bottom. The text describes the surficial deposits in sequence from older to younger. A discussion of the pumice deposits of the park, which were not mapped, is followed by a description of the formations shown on the geologic map. Inspection of the geologic map may lead the viewer to question why the surficial deposits are shown in more detail in a zone several miles wide around the base of the volcano than elsewhere. This is partly because the zone is largely near or above timberline, relatively accessible, and the surficial deposits there can be readily recognized, differentiated, and mapped. In contrast, access is more difficult in the heavily timbered parts of the park, and surficial deposits there are generally blanketed by a dense

  7. Surficial geology and land classification, Mackenzie Valley Transportation Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, O L; Pilon, J; Veilette, J

    1974-01-01

    The objective of this project, continued from 1971 and 1972 is to provide an inventory of surficial geology and permafrost distribution data pertinent to pipeline construction, road building, and other land use activities that might take place in the Mackenzie Valley Transportation Corridor. Hughes together with N.W. Rutter devoted one month to reconnaissance examination of the area encompassed by this project and Project 710047 (see this report). A primary objective was to insure uniform usage of map-units throughout the 2 areas. Construction on the Mackenzie Highway was examined in order to evaluate terrain performance of various map-units crossed by the highway. Limited geological studies, including shallow borings and measurement of sections, were conducted to supplement field work of 1971 and 1972. J. Veillette conducted diamond drilling in permanently frozen surficial deposits during the period mid-March to mid-April.

  8. Uranium occurrences in the surficial deposits of Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambleton-Jones, B.B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper outlines the geology of the Tertiary to Recent(10 to 0,1 Ma) surficial uranium deposits in South West Africa/Namibia and South Africa. They occur mainly in the Namib Desert to the east of Walvis Bay in South West Africa/Namibia and in the north-western Cape Province of South Africa. All the deposits can be classified as fluviatile, lacustrine/pan, or pedogenic types. The economic potential of the surficial uranium deposits in the north-western Cape is insignificant compared with their South West African/Namibian counterparts. Most of the deposits occur in gypsiferous fluviatile gravels and lacustrine/pan sediments. The largest of the deposits is a lacustrinal, peat-rich, diatomaceous earth type. The mechanisms for the precipitation of the uranium are discussed

  9. A review of electromagnetic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.T.; Shen, H.M.; Myers, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical results are reviewed pertaining to the behavior of transient electromagnetic fields in the limit of great distances from their sources. In 1985 it was shown that pulses of finite total radiated energy could propagate to a distant receiver, delivering energy that decreases much more slowly than the usual r - 2 . Such pulses have been referred to as electromagnetic (EM) missiles. The types first discovered propagate along a straight line with a monotonically (though slowly) decreasing time-integrated flux. Other types are now known. One type can be made to rise and fall with increasing distance; another is the curved EM missile. Early efforts to classify EM missiles are reviewed

  10. Optimal Electromagnetic (EM) Geophysical Techniques to Map the Concentration of Subsurface Ice and Adsorbed Water on Mars and the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, D. E.; Grimm, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Water ice is ubiquitous in our Solar System and is a probable target for planetary exploration. Mapping the lateral and vertical concentration of subsurface ice from or near the surface could determine the origin of lunar and martian ice and quantify a much-needed resource for human exploration. Determining subsurface ice concentration on Earth is not trivial and has been attempted previously with electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR), airborne EM (AEM), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). These EM geophysical techniques do not actually detect ice, but rather the absence of unfrozen water. This causes a non-unique interpretation of frozen and dry subsurface sediments. This works well in the arctic because most locations are not dry. However, for planetary exploration, liquid water is exceedingly rare and subsurface mapping must discriminate between an ice-rich and a dry subsurface. Luckily, nature has provided a unique electrical signature of ice: its dielectric relaxation. The dielectric relaxation of ice creates a temperature and frequency dependence of the electrical properties and varies the relative dielectric permittivity from ~3.1 at radar frequencies to >100 at low frequencies. On Mars, sediments smaller than silt size can hold enough adsorbed unfrozen water to complicate the measurement. This is because the presence of absorbed water also creates frequency-dependent electrical properties. The dielectric relaxation of adsorbed water and ice can be separated as they have different shapes and frequency ranges as long as a spectrum spanning the two relaxations is measured. The volume concentration of ice and adsorbed water is a function of the strength of their relaxations. Therefore, we suggest that capacitively-coupled dielectric spectroscopy (a.k.a. spectral induced polarization or complex resistivity) can detect the concentration of both ice and adsorbed water in the subsurface. To prove this concept we have collected

  11. Lectures on electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    These lecture notes on electromagnetism have evolved from graduate and undergraduate EM theory courses given by the author at the University of Rochester, with the basics presented with clarity and his characteristic attention to detail. The thirteen chapters cover, in logical sequence, topics ranging from electrostatics, magnetostatics and Maxwell's equations to plasmas and radiation. Boundary value problems are treated extensively, as are wave guides, electromagnetic interactions and fields. This second edition comprises many of the topics expanded with more details on the derivation of vari

  12. Effect of competing cations on strontium sorption to surficial sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunde, R.L.; Rosentreter, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The following study was conducted to determine strontium distribution coefficients (K d 'S) of a surficial sediment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine K d 's which describe the partitioning of a solute between the solution and solid phase. A surficial sediment was mixed with synthesized aqueous solutions designed to chemically simulate wastewater disposed to infiltrations ponds near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the INEL with respect to major ionic character and pH. The effects of variable concentrations of competing cations (sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium) on strontium sorption were investigated at a fixed pH of 8.00. The pH of the natural system shows no appreciable variation, whereas a marked variability in cation concentration has been noted. Strontium sorption was impacted to a greater degree by the concentration of calcium and magnesium in solution than by the presence of sodium or potassium. However, extreme sodium solution concentrations of 1.0 to 5.0 g/L dramatically reduced strontium sorption. In all cases, strontium K d 's decreased as the concentration of calcium and magnesium in solution increased. Linear isotherm model K d 's ranged from 12.0 to 84.7 mL/g. Analysis of data from these experiments indicated that moderate concentrations of calcium and magnesium (less than 40 mg/L) and high concentrations of sodium (1.0 to 5.0 g/L) in wastewater increase strontium mobility by decreasing the sorption of strontium on surficial sediments beneath infiltration ponds at the INEL

  13. Experimental Simulations to Understand the Lunar and Martian Surficial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. Y. S.; Li, X.; Tang, H.; Li, Y.; Zeng, X.; Chang, R.; Li, S.; Zhang, S.; Jin, H.; Mo, B.; Li, R.; Yu, W.; Wang, S.

    2016-12-01

    In support with China's Lunar and Mars exploration programs and beyond, our center is dedicated to understand the surficial processes and environments of planetary bodies. Over the latest several years, we design, build and optimize experimental simulation facilities and utilize them to test hypotheses and evaluate affecting mechanisms under controlled conditions particularly relevant to the Moon and Mars. Among the fundamental questions to address, we emphasize on five major areas: (1) Micrometeorites bombardment simulation to evaluate the formation mechanisms of np-Fe0 which was found in lunar samples and the possible sources of Fe. (2) Solar wind implantation simulation to evaluate the alteration/amorphization/OH or H2O formation on the surface of target minerals or rocks. (3) Dusts mobility characteristics on the Moon and other planetary bodies by excitation different types of dust particles and measuring their movements. (4) Mars basaltic soil simulant development (e.g., Jining Martian Soil Simulant (JMSS-1)) and applications for scientific/engineering experiments. (5) Halogens (Cl and Br) and life essential elements (C, H, O, N, P, and S) distribution and speciation on Mars during surficial processes such as sedimentary- and photochemical- related processes. Depending on the variables of interest, the simulation systems provide flexibility to vary source of energy, temperature, pressure, and ambient gas composition in the reaction chambers. Also, simulation products can be observed or analyzed in-situ by various analyzer components inside the chamber, without interrupting the experimental conditions. In addition, behavior of elements and isotopes during certain surficial processes (e.g., evaporation, dissolution, etc.) can be theoretically predicted by our theoretical geochemistry group with thermodynamics-kinetics calculation and modeling, which supports experiment design and result interpretation.

  14. Multiforms, dyadics, and electromagnetic media

    CERN Document Server

    Lindell, Ismo V

    2015-01-01

    This book applies the four-dimensional formalism with an extended toolbox of operation rules, allowing readers to define more general classes of electromagnetic media and to analyze EM waves that can exist in them. End-of-chapter exercises. Formalism allows readers to find novel classes of media. Covers various properties of electromagnetic media in terms of which they can be set in different classes.

  15. Applied Electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, H; Marinova, I; Cingoski, V [eds.

    2002-07-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics.

  16. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, H.; Marinova, I.; Cingoski, V.

    2002-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  17. Electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosanac, Slobodan Danko

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.

  18. Map Database for Surficial Materials in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, David R.; Reheis, Marith C.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Van Sistine, D. R.

    2009-01-01

    The Earth's bedrock is overlain in many places by a loosely compacted and mostly unconsolidated blanket of sediments in which soils commonly are developed. These sediments generally were eroded from underlying rock, and then were transported and deposited. In places, they exceed 1000 ft (330 m) in thickness. Where the sediment blanket is absent, bedrock is either exposed or has been weathered to produce a residual soil. For the conterminous United States, a map by Soller and Reheis (2004, scale 1:5,000,000; http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/of03-275/) shows these sediments and the weathered, residual material; for ease of discussion, these are referred to as 'surficial materials'. That map was produced as a PDF file, from an Adobe Illustrator-formatted version of the provisional GIS database. The provisional GIS files were further processed without modifying the content of the published map, and are here published.

  19. Surficial geologic map of the Dillingham quadrangle, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.

    2018-05-14

    The geologic map of the Dillingham quadrangle in southwestern Alaska shows surficial unconsolidated deposits, many of which are alluvial or glacial in nature. The map area, part of Alaska that was largely not glaciated during the late Wisconsin glaciation, has a long history reflecting local and more distant glaciations. Late Wisconsin glacial deposits have limited extent in the eastern part of the quadrangle, but are quite extensive in the western part of the quadrangle. This map and accompanying digital files are the result of the interpretation of black and white aerial photographs from the 1950s as well as more modern imagery. Limited new field mapping in the area was conducted as part of a bedrock mapping project in the northeastern part of the quadrangle; however, extensive aerial photographic interpretation represents the bulk of the mapping effort.

  20. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  1. Non linear dynamic of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas; Dinamica nao linear de ondas de Langmuir e eletromagneticas em plasmas espaciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guede, Jose Ricardo Abalde

    1995-11-01

    The aim of this work is to study the nonlinear dynamics of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas. Firstly, the generalized Zakharov equations are derived which are used to study the hybrid parametric instability involving the generation of daughter Langmuir, electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves induced by two counter-propagating Langmuir pump waves with different amplitudes based on a coupled dispersion relation. Secondly, starting from the generalized Zakharov equations the linear and nonlinear coupled mode theories of three-wave and four-wave parametric interactions are developed, respectively. In three-waves processes, a Langmuir wave decays into another Langmuir wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electrostatic parametric decay) or into an electromagnetic wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electromagnetic parametric decay). In four-wave (modulational) processes, the interaction involves two wave triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplet the coupling of a pump wave with a low-frequency wave generate an anti-Stokes wave. These modulational processes are convective and resonant processes wherein the low-frequency modes are Eigenmodes of plasma and are known as the stimulated modulational processes. Four such processes are investigated in this thesis: two with Langmuir pump waves (electrostatic and hybrid stimulated modulation processes) and the other two with electromagnetic pump waves (stimulated modulation Brillouin scattering and electromagnetic stimulated modulation process). Applications of the theoretical results in space plasmas are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the electrostatic and electromagnetic parametric decay processes of Langmuir waves can model the generation and modulation of radio emissions and Langmuir waves in the

  2. Electromagnetic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    An electromagnetic shield is described comprising: closed, electrically-conductive rings, each having an open center; and binder means for arranging the rings in a predetermined, fixed relationship relative to each other, the so-arranged rings and binder means defining an outer surface; wherein electromagnetic energy received by the shield from a source adjacent its outer surface induces an electrical current to flow in a predetermined direction adjacent and parallel to the outer surface, through the rings; and wherein each ring is configured to cause source-induced alternating current flowing through the portion of the ring closest to the outer surface to electromagnetically induce an oppositely-directed current in the portion of the ring furthest from the surface, such oppositely-directed current bucking any source-induced current in the latter ring portion and thus reducing the magnitude of current flowing through it, whereby the electromagnetic shielding effected by the shield is enhanced

  3. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, David T; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    1973-01-01

    The applications involving electromagnetic fields are so pervasive that it is difficult to estimate their contribution to the industrial output: generation of electricity, power transmission lines, electric motors, actuators, relays, radio, TV and microwave transmission and reception, magnetic storage, and even the mundane little magnet used to hold a paper note on the refrigerator are all electromagnetic in nature. One would be hard pressed to find a device that works without relaying on any electromagnetic principle or effect. This text provides a good theoretical understanding of the electromagnetic field equations but also treats a large number of applications. In fact, no topic is presented unless it is directly applicable to engineering design or unless it is needed for the understanding of another topic. In electrostatics, for example, the text includes discussions of photocopying, ink-jet printing, electrostatic separation and deposition, sandpaper production, paint spraying, and powder coating. In ma...

  4. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....

  5. Simple Electromagnetic Analysis in Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Martinasek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main principle and methods of simple electromagnetic analysis and thus provides an overview of simple electromagnetic analysis.The introductions chapters describe specific SPA attack used visual inspection of EM traces, template based attack and collision attack.After reading the article, the reader is sufficiently informed of any context of SEMA.Another aim of the article is the practical realization of SEMA which is focused on AES implementation.The visual inspection of EM trace of AES is performed step by step and the result is the determination of secret key Hamming weight.On the resulting EM trace, the Hamming weight of the secret key 1 to 8 was clearly visible.This method allows reduction from the number of possible keys for following brute force attack.

  6. Electromagnetic pulse distortion in living tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepelaars, E.S.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Insight into the distortion of electromagnetic (EM) signals in living tissue is important for optimising medical applications. To obtain this insight, field calculations have been carried out for a plane-stratified configuration of air, skin, fat, muscle and bone tissue. In this configuration, an EM

  7. Surficial origin of North American pitchblende and related uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langford, F.F.

    1977-01-01

    The ubiquitous association of pitchblende uranium deposits with terrestrial sediments is believed to be the natural result of formation of the orebodies by surficial processes operating under continental conditions. The major uranium deposits of North America illustrate this. The quartz-pebble conglomerate uranium deposits of Elliot Lake, Ontario, have thorium-rich uranium minerals that indicate a detrital origin. With the development of an oxygenic atmosphere before 1,700 m.y. ago, uranium was transported in solution in meteoric surface and near-surface ground water, and produced pitchblende veins in fractures in the basement and in lava flows in terrestrial environments. This accounts for the closee association of fluvial sediments with the pitchblende deposits at Beaverlodge, Rabbit Lake, Baker Lake, and Great Bear Lake, Canada. The development of land plants about 300 m.y. ago produced favorable environments within the terrestrial sandstones themselves, and resulted in the tabular uranium orebodies of the Colorado Plateau. The close relation of tabular orebodies to sedimentation is apparent when compared to recent fluvial sedimentation. In Wyoming, the stratigraphic restriction of the boundary-roll deposits to a few zones in Eocene rocks results from their being remobilized tabular deposits

  8. Surficial uranium occurrences in relation to climate and physical setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlisle, D.

    1984-01-01

    Important surficial chemogenic uranium deposits develop within 1) calcretes, 2) simple evaporative environments and 3) bogs or similar organic environments (''young'' uranium). Calcrete occurrences are the largest, most novel and most dependent upon extreme aridity and geomorphic stability. Economic calcrete deposits are nonpedogenic, resulting from near-surface groundwater transport and lateral concentration of uranium, vanadium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium rather than from ordinary soil-forming processes. Their genesis is essentially observable in Western Australia where carnotite-bearing nonpedogenic calcrete is currently forming under a unique aridic soil moisture regime and where major deposits have formed under similar climates during the last few thousand years. Rainfall is less than 250mm annually, only 1/12 to 1/20 of potential evaporation and concentrated almost entirely in episodic late summer storms. Outside this region, under less arid conditions, only pedogenic calcretes form and they do not contain economic uranium. In southern Africa, calcrete and gypcrete uranium deposits, although Late Tertiary to Quaternary in age, are also nonpedogenic and appear to have formed under similar climatic constraints with local variations in geomorphology and calcrete morphology. (author)

  9. Uranium in surficial deposits and waters at Palmottu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, L.; Blomqvist, R.; Ervanne, H.; Suksi, J.; Jaakkola, T.

    1994-01-01

    Occurrence of uranium in surficial formations in the vicinity of an underground U deposit was studied. Several water samples from the Lake Palmottu and nearby springs, three lake sediment cores and three peat cores were collected for the study. Uranium concentrations in the water samples varied from 1.4 to 6.9 mBq/l, reflecting the average concentration of near-surface waters in Finland. In some samples, however, the 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio and water chemistry suggest a partial mixing with deeper groundwaters. In the lake sediments, uranium concentrations increases from 53 Bq/kg in surface layer to five fold in the bottom layers deposited 9000 years ago. In peat cores large variations in uranium concentrations can be observed: from tens of Bq/kg to over 20 kBq/kg of peat ash. The large variation also in the 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio, from 0.79 to l.91, tends to indicate uranium migration to the peat from more than one uranium source. (orig.) (19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.)

  10. Electromagnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Koji; Suetake, Norio; Aizawa, Toshie; Nakasaki, Masayoshi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic pump suitable to a recycling pump for liquid sodium as coolants of an FBR type reactor. Namely, a stator module of the electromagnetic pump of the present invention comprises a plurality of outer laminate iron core units and outer stator modules stacked alternately in the axial direction. With such a constitution, even a long electromagnetic pump having a large number of outer stator coils can be manufactured without damaging electric insulation of the outer stator coils. In addition, the inner circumferential surface of the outer laminate iron cores is urged and brought into contact with the outer circumferential surface of the outer duct by an elastic material. With such a constitution, Joule loss heat generated in the outer stator coils and internal heat generated in the outer laminate iron cores can be released to an electroconductive fluid flowing the inner circumference of the outer duct by way of the outer duct. (I.S.)

  11. Surficial geology of the Cabot 7 1/2 minute quadrangle, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG2016-3 Springston, G., 2016, Surficial geology of the Cabot 7 1/2 minute quadrangle, Vermont:�Vermont Geological Survey Open File Report...

  12. Electromagnetic Detection of a Perfect Invisibility Cloak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baile; Wu, Bae-Ian

    2009-01-01

    A perfect invisibility cloak is commonly believed to be undetectable from electromagnetic (EM) detection because it is equivalent to a curved but empty EM space created from coordinate transformation. Based on the intrinsic asymmetry of coordinate transformation applied to motions of photons and charges, we propose a method to detect this curved EM space by shooting a fast-moving charged particle through it. A broadband radiation generated in this process makes a cloak visible. Our method is the only known EM mechanism so far to detect an ideal perfect cloak (curved EM space) within its working band.

  13. Integration of Full Tensor Gravity and Z-Axis Tipper Electromagnetic Passive Low Frequency EM Instruments for Simultaneous Data Acquisition - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieberg, Scott [Bell Geospace, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-12-02

    Ground gravity is a common and useful tool for geothermal exploration. Gravity surveys map density changes in the subsurface that may be caused by tectonic deformation such as faulting, fracturing, plutonism, volcanism, hydrothermal alteration, etc. Full Tensor Gravity Gradient (FTG) data has been used for over a decade in both petroleum and mining exploration to map changes in density associated with geologic structure. Measuring the gravity gradient, rather than the gravity field, provides significantly higher resolution data. Modeling studies have shown FTG data to be a viable tool for geothermal exploration, but no FTG data had been acquired for geothermal applications to date. Electromagnetic methods have been used for geothermal exploration for some time. The Z-Axis Tipper Electromagnetic (ZTEM) was a newer technology that had found success in mapping deep conductivity changes for mining applications. ZTEM had also been used in limited tests for geothermal exploration. This newer technology provided the ability to cost effectively map large areas whilst detailing the electrical properties of the geological structures at depths. The ZTEM is passive and it uses naturally occurring audio frequency magnetic (AFMAG) signals as the electromagnetic triggering source. These geophysical methods were to be tested over a known geothermal site to determine whether or not the data provided the information required for accurately interpreting the subsurface geologic structure associated with a geothermal deposit. After successful acquisition and analysis of the known source area, an additional survey of a “greenfield” area was to be completed. The final step was to develop a combined interpretation model and determine if the combination produced a higher confident geophysical model compared to models developed using each of the technologies individually.

  14. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Hasse, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Landscape demonstrates in direct, tangible and immediate ways effects of the disruption of the familiar. An ubiquitous technological medium, FM radio, is turned into an alien and unfamiliar one. Audience participation, the environment, radio signals and noise create a site...

  15. Results of the application of seismic-reflection and electromagnetic techniques for near-surface hydrogeologic and environmental investigations at Fort Bragg, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M.T.; Fine, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    increase in electromagnetic conductivity across shallow sampling EM31 and EM34 profiles provided corroborative evidence of the shallow, thickening clay units. Plots of raw EM31 and EM34 data provided no direct interpretable information to delineate sand and clay units in the shallow subsurface. At two sites, the ground-penetrating radar effectively delineated the lateral continuity of surficial sand units 5 to 25 feet in thickness and the tops of their underlying clay units. The effective exploration depth of the ground-penetrating radar was limited by the proximity of clay units to the subsurface and their thickness. The ground-penetrating radar delineated the areal extent and depth of cover at a previously unrecognized extension of a trench-like landfill underlying a vehicle salvage yard. Attenuation of the radar signal beneath the landfill cover and the adjacent subsurface clays made these two mediums indistinguishable by ground-penetrating radar; however, EM31 data indicated that the electrical conductivity of the landfill was higher than the subsurface material adjacent to the landfill. The EM31 and EM34 conductivity surveys defined the areal extent of a landfill whose boundaries were inaccurately mapped, and also identified the locations of an old dumpsite and waste incinerator site at another landfill. A follow-up ground-penetrating radar survey of the abandoned dumpsite showed incongruities in some of the shallow radar reflections interpreted as buried refuse dispersed throughout the landfill. The ground-penetrating radar and EM31 effectively delineated a shallow buried fuel-oil tank. Of the three electromagnetic instruments, the ground-penetrating radar with the shielded 100-megahertz antenna was the least affected by cultural noise followed, in order, by the EM31 and EM34. The combination of terrain- conductivity and ground-penetrating radar for the site assessment of the landfill provided a powerful means to identify the areal extent of the landfill, potenti

  16. WE-A-17A-03: Catheter Digitization in High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy with the Assistance of An Electromagnetic (EM) Tracking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damato, AL; Bhagwat, MS; Buzurovic, I; Devlin, PM; Friesen, S; Hansen, JL; Kapur, T; Lee, LJ; Mehrtash, A; Nguyen, PL; O' Farrell, D; Wang, W; Viswanathan, AN; Cormack, RA [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the use of a system using EM tracking, postprocessing and error-detection algorithms for measuring brachytherapy catheter locations and for detecting errors and resolving uncertainties in treatment-planning catheter digitization. Methods: An EM tracker was used to localize 13 catheters in a clinical surface applicator (A) and 15 catheters inserted into a phantom (B). Two pairs of catheters in (B) crossed paths at a distance <2 mm, producing an undistinguishable catheter artifact in that location. EM data was post-processed for noise reduction and reformatted to provide the dwell location configuration. CT-based digitization was automatically extracted from the brachytherapy plan DICOM files (CT). EM dwell digitization error was characterized in terms of the average and maximum distance between corresponding EM and CT dwells per catheter. The error detection rate (detected errors / all errors) was calculated for 3 types of errors: swap of two catheter numbers; incorrect catheter number identification superior to the closest position between two catheters (mix); and catheter-tip shift. Results: The averages ± 1 standard deviation of the average and maximum registration error per catheter were 1.9±0.7 mm and 3.0±1.1 mm for (A) and 1.6±0.6 mm and 2.7±0.8 mm for (B). The error detection rate was 100% (A and B) for swap errors, mix errors, and shift >4.5 mm (A) and >5.5 mm (B); errors were detected for shifts on average >2.0 mm (A) and >2.4 mm (B). Both mix errors associated with undistinguishable catheter artifacts were detected and at least one of the involved catheters was identified. Conclusion: We demonstrated the use of an EM tracking system for localization of brachytherapy catheters, detection of digitization errors and resolution of undistinguishable catheter artifacts. Automatic digitization may be possible with a registration between the imaging and the EM frame of reference. Research funded by the Kaye Family Award 2012.

  17. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynen, I.; Quievy, N.; Bailly, C.; Bollen, P.; Detrembleur, C.; Eggermont, S.; Molenberg, I.; Thomassin, J.M.; Urbanczyk, L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and ∼1 S/m electrical conductivity. → New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. → The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. → A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. → The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  18. Studies for the electro-magnetic calorimeter {\\em SplitCal} for the SHiP experiment at CERN with shower direction reconstruction capability

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the basic ideas and the first simulation results of a new electro-magnetic calorimeter concept, named {\\it SplitCal}, aimed at optimising the measurement of photon direction in fixed-target experiment configuration, with high photon detection efficiency. This calorimeter was designed for the invariant mass reconstruction of axion-like particles decaying into two photons in the mass range 200~MeV to 1~GeV for the proposed proton beam dump experiment SHiP at CERN. Preliminary results indicate that angular resolutions better than obtained by past experiments can be achieved with this design. An implementation of this concept with real technologies is under study.

  19. Time domain electromagnetic metal detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, P.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation focuses on illustrating by case histories the range of applications and limitations of time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) systems for buried metal detection. Advantages claimed for TDEM metal detectors are: independent of instrument response (Geonics EM61) to surrounding soil and rock type; simple anomaly shape; mitigation of interference by ambient electromagnetic noise; and responsive to both ferrous and non-ferrous metallic targets. The data in all case histories to be presented were acquired with the Geonics EM61 TDEM system. Case histories are a test bed site on Molokai, Hawaii; Fort Monroe, Virginia; and USDOE, Rocky Flats Plant. The present limitations of this technology are: discrimination capabilities in terms of type of ordnance, and depth of burial is limited, and ability of resolving targets with small metallic ambient needs to be improved

  20. Electromagnetic shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, Wen-Shian V.

    1991-01-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials are well known in the art in forms such as gaskets, caulking compounds, adhesives, coatings and the like for a variety of EMI shielding purposes. In the past, where high shielding performance is necessary, EMI shielding has tended to use silver particles or silver coated copper particles dispersed in a resin binder. More recently, aluminum core silver coated particles have been used to reduce costs while maintaining good electrical and physical properties. (author). 8 figs

  1. Electromagnetic Reciprocity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, David F.

    2014-11-01

    A reciprocity theorem is an explicit mathematical relationship between two different wavefields that can exist within the same space - time configuration. Reciprocity theorems provi de the theoretical underpinning for mod ern full waveform inversion solutions, and also suggest practical strategies for speed ing up large - scale numerical modeling of geophysical datasets . In the present work, several previously - developed electromagnetic r eciprocity theorems are generalized to accommodate a broader range of medi um, source , and receiver types. Reciprocity relations enabling the interchange of various types of point sources and point receivers within a three - dimensional electromagnetic model are derived. Two numerical modeling algorithms in current use are successfully tested for adherence to reciprocity. Finally, the reciprocity theorem forms the point of departure for a lengthy derivation of electromagnetic Frechet derivatives. These mathe matical objects quantify the sensitivity of geophysical electromagnetic data to variatio ns in medium parameters, and thus constitute indispensable tools for solution of the full waveform inverse problem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Labor atories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. Signif icant portions of the work reported herein were conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and CARBO Ceramics Incorporated. The author acknowledges Mr. Chad Cannan and Mr. Terry Pa lisch of CARBO Ceramics, and Ms. Amy Halloran, manager of SNL's Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Department, for their interest in and encouragement of this work. Special thanks are due to Dr . Lewis C. Bartel ( recently retired from Sandia National Labo ratories

  2. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Ida, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    This book provides students with a thorough theoretical understanding of electromagnetic field equations and it also treats a large number of applications. The text is a comprehensive two-semester textbook. The work treats most topics in two steps – a short, introductory chapter followed by a second chapter with in-depth extensive treatment; between 10 to 30 applications per topic; examples and exercises throughout the book; experiments, problems  and summaries.   The new edition includes: updated end of chapter problems; a new introduction to electromagnetics based on behavior of charges; a new section on units; MATLAB tools for solution of problems and demonstration of subjects; most chapters include a summary. The book is an undergraduate textbook at the Junior level, intended for required classes in electromagnetics. It is written in simple terms with all details of derivations included and all steps in solutions listed. It requires little beyond basic calculus and can be used for self-study. The weal...

  3. Electromagnetic pump technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, R.

    1994-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors have an important role to play in our nuclear power programme. Liquid metal sodium is used as the coolant for removing fission heat generated in fast reactors and a distinctive physical property of sodium is its high electrical conductivity. This enables application of electromagnetic (EM) pumps, working on same principle as electric motors, for pumping liquid sodium. Due to its lower efficiency as compared to centrifugal pumps, use of EM pumps has been restricted to reactor auxiliary circuits and experimental facilities. As part of our efforts to manufacture fast reactor components indigenously, work on the development of two types of EM pumps namely flat linear induction pump (FLIP) and annular linear induction pump (ALIP) has been undertaken. Design procedures based on an equivalent circuit approach have been established and results from testing a 5.6 x 10E-3 Cum/s (20 Cum/h) FLIP in a sodium loop were used to validate the procedure. (author). 7 refs., 6 figs

  4. Surficial geology and geomorphology of Potter County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, C.S.

    1956-01-01

    Potter County is located in the Appalachian Plateaus of north-central Pennsylvania and contains the headwaters of the Genesee River, the Allegheny River, and the Susquehanna River. Drift of Wisconsin age covers the northeastern part of the county. This study includes a detailed survev of the surficial deposits of the Genesee quadrangle in north-central Potter County and a reconnaissance of the remainder of the county; a soil survey and a botanical survey were carried on concurrently. The region is a deeply dissected plateau having extensive areas of steeply sloping land separated by narrow ridges and valleys; there is very little level land. Near the junction of the three watersheds the uplands rise to altitudes of more than 2,500 feet. The maximum relief in the Susquehanna drainage is more than 1,500 feet; in the Genesee and Allegheny drainage it. is about 800 feet. Valley walls are steep (15° to 30°), and the uplands have gentle slopes (0.5° to 10°). The drainage pattern is trellised. The climate is continental. Temperatures range from about -30° F. to more than 100° F. The average annual precipitation ranges approximately from 34 to 42 inches. Floods may occur at any season of the year. The large volumes of water from rain or melting snow carried by small streams come from springs. There is little precise data on frost in the ground, but it is probable that the ground seldom freezes in forested areas. The soils of Potter County have relatively immature profiles with poorly developed horizons that commonly have many characteristics inherited from their parent materials. At the great soil group level, the zonal soils are divided into Podzol soils and Brown Podzolic soils. Many soils have a high silt content in the upper part of the profile, apparently derived (at least partly) from a mantle of eolian silt. Mos~ of Potter County is covered by second-growth forests consisting of 40- to 60-year-old hardwood stands. The present forests growing on slopes and

  5. Development of the electromagnetic tomography system. Sensitivity study of anomalous body by model studies; EM tomography system no kaihatsu. Model kaiseki ni yoru ijotai no kando chosa kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumekawa, Y; Miura, Y; Takasugi, S [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, E [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    An examination was made by a model analysis on sensitivity and the like against a resistive anomalous body, in connection with an electromagnetic tomography system with surface earthquake sources and underground receiver arrangements. A resistivity model was of a three-dimensional structure, and built with a 5 ohm{center_dot}m low resistivity anomalous body assembled in a 100 ohm{center_dot}m homogeneous medium. As a result of the examination, it was shown that the size limitation of an analyzable anomalous body was 50{times}50{times}20m at a frequency of 8 to 10kHz and that a system with high precision in a high frequency range was necessary. The examination of effects under a shallow anomalous body revealed, for example, that the fluctuation of a low frequency response was large compared with a deep anomalous body and that, where a second anomalous body existed under it, the effect also appeared with a surface earthquake source positioned in the opposite side from the anomalous body. The examination of effects under the three dimensional structure revealed, for example, that a remarkable change appeared in the data with the change in the inclined angle of the transmission line against the strike of the anomalous body. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Thickness of surficial sediment at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.R.; Liszewski, M.J.; Ackerman, D.J.

    1996-06-01

    Thickness of surficial sediment was determined from natural-gamma logs in 333 wells at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in eastern Idaho to provide reconnaissance data for future site-characterization studies. Surficial sediment, which is defined as the unconsolidated clay, silt, sand, and gravel that overlie the uppermost basalt flow at each well, ranges in thickness from 0 feet in seven wells drilled through basalt outcrops east of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to 313 feet in well Site 14 southeast of the Big Lost River sinks. Surficial sediment includes alluvial, lacustrine, eolian, and colluvial deposits that generally accumulated during the past 200 thousand years. Additional thickness data, not included in this report, are available from numerous auger holes and foundation borings at and near most facilities

  7. Histories electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Aidan

    2004-01-01

    Working within the HPO (History Projection Operator) Consistent Histories formalism, we follow the work of Savvidou on (scalar) field theory [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] and that of Savvidou and Anastopoulos on (first-class) constrained systems [Class. Quantum Gravt. 17, 2463 (2000)] to write a histories theory (both classical and quantum) of Electromagnetism. We focus particularly on the foliation-dependence of the histories phase space/Hilbert space and the action thereon of the two Poincare groups that arise in histories field theory. We quantize in the spirit of the Dirac scheme for constrained systems

  8. Preliminary surficial geologic map database of the Amboy 30 x 60 minute quadrangle, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, David R.; Miller, David M.; Phelps, Geoffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    The surficial geologic map database of the Amboy 30x60 minute quadrangle presents characteristics of surficial materials for an area approximately 5,000 km2 in the eastern Mojave Desert of California. This map consists of new surficial mapping conducted between 2000 and 2005, as well as compilations of previous surficial mapping. Surficial geology units are mapped and described based on depositional process and age categories that reflect the mode of deposition, pedogenic effects occurring post-deposition, and, where appropriate, the lithologic nature of the material. The physical properties recorded in the database focus on those that drive hydrologic, biologic, and physical processes such as particle size distribution (PSD) and bulk density. This version of the database is distributed with point data representing locations of samples for both laboratory determined physical properties and semi-quantitative field-based information. Future publications will include the field and laboratory data as well as maps of distributed physical properties across the landscape tied to physical process models where appropriate. The database is distributed in three parts: documentation, spatial map-based data, and printable map graphics of the database. Documentation includes this file, which provides a discussion of the surficial geology and describes the format and content of the map data, a database 'readme' file, which describes the database contents, and FGDC metadata for the spatial map information. Spatial data are distributed as Arc/Info coverage in ESRI interchange (e00) format, or as tabular data in the form of DBF3-file (.DBF) file formats. Map graphics files are distributed as Postscript and Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files, and are appropriate for representing a view of the spatial database at the mapped scale.

  9. Calculation of electromagnetic parameter based on interpolation algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenqiang; Yuan, Liming; Zhang, Deyuan

    2015-01-01

    Wave-absorbing material is an important functional material of electromagnetic protection. The wave-absorbing characteristics depend on the electromagnetic parameter of mixed media. In order to accurately predict the electromagnetic parameter of mixed media and facilitate the design of wave-absorbing material, based on the electromagnetic parameters of spherical and flaky carbonyl iron mixture of paraffin base, this paper studied two different interpolation methods: Lagrange interpolation and Hermite interpolation of electromagnetic parameters. The results showed that Hermite interpolation is more accurate than the Lagrange interpolation, and the reflectance calculated with the electromagnetic parameter obtained by interpolation is consistent with that obtained through experiment on the whole. - Highlights: • We use interpolation algorithm on calculation of EM-parameter with limited samples. • Interpolation method can predict EM-parameter well with different particles added. • Hermite interpolation is more accurate than Lagrange interpolation. • Calculating RL based on interpolation is consistent with calculating RL from experiment

  10. Very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity (ER) investigation for groundwater potential evaluation in a complex geological terrain around the Ijebu-Ode transition zone, southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osinowo, Olawale O; Olayinka, A Idowu

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater exploration in either a basement or sedimentary environment is often fairly well defined and focuses on delineating weathered/fractured rocks or saturated formations, respectively. Conversely, unique geological structures, the complex coexistence of different rock types and poorly defined basal/lateral contacts between basement and sedimentary rocks make groundwater development in a geological transition environment very challenging. Ijebu-Ode and its environs lie within such a problematic transition zone, between the Precambrian basement rocks and Cretaceous sediments of the Dahomey Basin, in southwestern Nigeria, where associated acute groundwater development challenges require adequate subsurface information to maximize its groundwater resource potential. This study integrated very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity (ER) geophysical prospecting techniques for a detailed terrain study of Ijebu-Ode in order to establish the reasons for the low groundwater resource potential in the area. Thirty five VLF-EM profiles, 140 vertical electrical soundings (VES) and relevant hydrogeological data were acquired along grids and profiles. Data were filtered, inverted and enhanced using appropriate software packages. The current density and geoelectric parameters of the VLF-EM and VES data were employed to generate terrain maps, the conductivity distribution and a subsurface basement model of the study area. Current density plots and geoelectric parameters identified up to three layers in the basement complex terrain which comprised lateritic topsoil, weathered basement and fresh basement rocks. The five layers encountered in the sedimentary terrain were topsoil, a lateritic unit, a dry sandy unit, a saturated sandy unit and fresh basement rocks. The hydraulic conductivity of the thick (3–18 m) lateritic unit was determined to be 1.32 × 10 −5 mm s −1 , while that of the underlying sandy units ranged from 2.65 × 10 −4 to 1

  11. Synergizing Crosswell Seismic and Electromagnetic Techniques for Enhancing Reservoir Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Sun, Shuyu

    2015-01-01

    density contrast between water and oil has made electromagnetic (EM) technology an attractive complement to improve fluid distinction, especially for high-saline water. This crosswell technology assumes greater importance for obtaining higher

  12. Interaction between electromagnetic waves and plasma waves in motional plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S. Y.; Gao, M.; Tang, C. J.; Peng, X. D.

    2009-01-01

    The electromagnetic wave (EM wave) behavior and the electromagnetic instability caused by the interaction between an EM wave and a plasma wave in motional plasma are studied. The dispersion relation of EM waves and the dielectric tensor of motional plasma are derived by magnetohydrodynamics, and the wave phenomenon in motional plasma is displayed. As a result, the electromagnetic instability, which is excited by the interaction between the EM waves and the plasma waves, is revealed. The mechanism of the instability is the coupling between high frequency electromagnetic field and the transverse electron oscillation derived from the deflection of longitudinal electron oscillation due to self-magnetic field. The present research is useful with regard to the new type of plasma radiation source, ion-focusing accelerator, and plasma diagnostic technique.

  13. Statistical Characterization of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Mine Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Yucel, Abdulkadir C.; Liu, Yang; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A computational framework for statistically characterizing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation through mine tunnels and galleries is presented. The framework combines a multi-element probabilistic collocation method with a full-wave fast Fourier

  14. Techniques for predicting environment electromagnetic radiation at satellite ground station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Peiji

    1987-01-01

    The measurement theories, techniques, and calculation methods on public exposure level of electromagnetic radiation at satellite ground station are described for the purpose of enviroment protection and research of EM compatibility. According to the results of the measurement and calculation, it is possible to predict the effects of electromagnetic radiation to environment at satellite ground station

  15. Charged particles in external electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, N.P.D.

    1976-01-01

    The present study contains a general theoretical group analysis of the problem of a charged massive particle moving in an (arbitrary) classical external electromagnetic field. This analysis is essentially based on the space-time symmetry properties of e.m. fields and e.m. field equations, as well as the fact that the considered equations of motion depend on the field via a potential

  16. Electromagnetic fields in cased borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Ha; Kim, Hee Joon; Uchida, Toshihiro

    2001-01-01

    Borehole electromagnetic (EM) measurements, using fiberglass-cased boreholes, have proven useful in oil field reservoir characterization and process monitoring (Wilt et al., 1995). It has been presumed that these measurements would be impossible in steel-cased wells due to the very large EM attenuation and phase shifts. Recent laboratory and field studies have indicated that detection of EM signals through steel casing should be possible at low frequencies, and that these data provide a reasonable conductivity image at a useful scale. Thus, we see an increased application of this technique to mature oilfields, and an immediate extension to geothermal industry as well. Along with the field experiments numerical model studies have been carried out for analyzing the effect of steel casing to the EM fields. The model used to be an infinitely long uniform casing embedded in a homogeneous whole space. Nevertheless, the results indicated that the formation signal could be accurately recovered if the casing characteristics were independently known (Becker et al., 1998; Lee el al., 1998). Real steel-cased wells are much more complex than the simple laboratory models used in work to date. The purpose of this study is to develop efficient numerical methods for analyzing EM fields in realistic settings, and to evaluate the potential application of EM technologies to cross-borehole and single-hole environment for reservoir characterization and monitoring

  17. Sup(10)Be variation in surficial sediments of the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.; Selvaraj, K.; Mascarenhas-Pereira, M.B.L.; Chen, C.T.A.

    Distribution of 10Be in systematically collected (degree + degree interval at 10 to 16 degrees S; 73.5 to 76.5 degrees E) surficial siliceous ooze, siliceous clay and pelagic clay sediments (top 2 cm) from the abyssal Central Indian Basin...

  18. Surficial sediments of the wave-dominated Orange River Delta and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The textural and compositional characteristics of the surficial shelf sediments north and south of the Orange River Delta are reviewed and compared. Sediments are fractionated and dispersed both north- and southwards of the Orange River mouth by wave action, longshore drift and subsurface currents. The mean grain ...

  19. Surficial geologic map of the Burlington, Vermont 7.5 minute quadrangle

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG09-1 Wright, S., S. Fuller, S. Jones, A. McKinney, S. Rupard, and S.D. Shaw, 2009,�Surficial geologic map of the Burlington, Vermont 7.5 minute...

  20. Localized structures of electromagnetic waves in hot electron-positron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartal, S.; Tsintsadze, L.N.; Berezhiani, V.I.

    1995-08-01

    The dynamics of relatively strong electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in hot electron-positron plasma is investigated. The possibility of finding localized stationary structures of EM waves is explored. It it shown that under certain conditions the EM wave forms a stable localized soliton-like structures where plasma is completely expelled from the region of EM field location. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs

  1. Electromagnetic topology: Characterization of internal electromagnetic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmantier, J. P.; Aparicio, J. P.; Faure, F.

    1991-01-01

    The main principles are presented of a method dealing with the resolution of electromagnetic internal problems: Electromagnetic Topology. A very interesting way is to generalize the multiconductor transmission line network theory to the basic equation of the Electromagnetic Topology: the BLT equation. This generalization is illustrated by the treatment of an aperture as a four port junction. Analytical and experimental derivations of the scattering parameters are presented. These concepts are used to study the electromagnetic coupling in a scale model of an aircraft, and can be seen as a convenient means to test internal electromagnetic interference.

  2. Quantifying Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Environment Using Measurements From A Small Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PROPAGATION ENVIRONMENT USING MEASUREMENTS FROM A SMALL BUOY by Andrew E. Sweeney June 2017 Thesis Advisor: Qing Wang...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE QUANTIFYING ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PROPAGATION ENVIRONMENT USING MEASUREMENTS FROM A...the Coupled Air Sea Processes and Electromagnetic (EM) ducting Research (CASPER), to understand air-sea interaction processes and their representation

  3. Generating a heated fluid using an electromagnetic radiation-absorbing complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2018-01-09

    A vessel including a concentrator configured to concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source and a complex configured to absorb EM radiation to generate heat. The vessel is configured to receive a cool fluid from the cool fluid source, concentrate the EM radiation using the concentrator, apply the EM radiation to the complex, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the cool fluid to the heated fluid. The complex is at least one of consisting of copper nanoparticles, copper oxide nanoparticles, nanoshells, nanorods, carbon moieties, encapsulated nanoshells, encapsulated nanoparticles, and branched nanostructures. Further, the EM radiation is at least one of EM radiation in an ultraviolet region of an electromagnetic spectrum, in a visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and in an infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  4. Computational electromagnetics recent advances and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Emerging Topics in Computational Electromagnetics in Computational Electromagnetics presents advances in Computational Electromagnetics. This book is designed to fill the existing gap in current CEM literature that only cover the conventional numerical techniques for solving traditional EM problems. The book examines new algorithms, and applications of these algorithms for solving problems of current interest that are not readily amenable to efficient treatment by using the existing techniques. The authors discuss solution techniques for problems arising in nanotechnology, bioEM, metamaterials, as well as multiscale problems. They present techniques that utilize recent advances in computer technology, such as parallel architectures, and the increasing need to solve large and complex problems in a time efficient manner by using highly scalable algorithms.

  5. Electromagnetically shielded building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Nakamura, M.; Yabana, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Nagata, K.

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a building having an electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system utilizing electromagnetic waves, and more particularly to an electromagnetically shielded building for enhancing the electromagnetic shielding performance of an external wall. 6 figs

  6. Electromagnetically shielded building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T; Nakamura, M; Yabana, Y; Ishikawa, T; Nagata, K

    1992-04-21

    This invention relates to a building having an electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system utilizing electromagnetic waves, and more particularly to an electromagnetically shielded building for enhancing the electromagnetic shielding performance of an external wall. 6 figs.

  7. Polímeros condutores intrínsecos e seu potencial em blindagem de radiações eletromagnéticas Intrinsically conducting polymers and their potencial in electromagnetic interference shielding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselena Faez

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A procura por novos materiais que possuam propriedades magnéticas e dielétricas adequadas ao uso em absorvedores de radiação eletromagnética é de grande importância. Dentre os materiais em estudo, os polímeros condutores têm sido aplicados como centros de absorção de radiação, devido à possibilidade de variação da sua condutividade com a freqüência da radiação das ondas incidentes, sendo esta pesquisa o estado da arte no processamento de materiais absorvedores de radiação (MAR. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar a ampla faixa de propriedades dos polímeros condutores, correlacionando-as com o potencial de aplicação destes materiais como aditivos no processamento de MAR. Uma breve análise dos resultados obtidos com uma blenda de EPDM contendo 30-80 %(m/m de PAni-DBSA e espessuras de 1 e 3 mm, analisadas na faixa de 8-12 GHz, mostra que o material absorveu na faixa de 50 a 90% da radiação incidente.The search for new materials possessing magnetic and dieletric properties adequated to be used as radar absorbing materials has been of great importance. Among the materials under study, conducting polymers have been applied due to the possibility of variation of their conductivity with the frequency of the incident radiation. These research areas have been considered the state of the art in the processing of radar absorbing materials. The aim of this work is to present the large range of properties of the conducting polymers and their correlation with the potential application of these materials as electromagnetic radiation absorbers. Some results are also presented on blends of EPDM and 30-80% (w/w of PAni-DBSA with thickness of 1 and 3 mm, analysed in the range of 8-12 GHz, which absorbed in the range of 50-90% of incident radiation.

  8. Influence of electromagnetic signal of antibiotics excited by low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields on growth of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yin-Lung; Chang, Fu-Yu; Chen, Ming-Kun; Li, Shun-Lai; Jang, Ling-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Energy medicine (EM) provides a new medical choice for patients, and its advantages are the noninvasive detection and nondrug treatment. An electromagnetic signal, a kind of EM, induced from antibiotic coupling with weak, extremely low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) is utilized for investigating the growth speed of Escherichia coli (E. coli). PEMFs are produced by solenoidal coils for coupling the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics (penicillin). The growth retardation rate (GRR) of E. coli is used to investigate the efficacy of the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics. The E. coli is cultivated in the exposure of PEMFs coupling with the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics. The maximum GRR of PEMFs with and without the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics on the growth of E. coli cells in the logarithmic is 17.4 and 9.08%, respectively. The electromagnetic signal of antibiotics is successfully coupled by the electromagnetic signal coupling instrument to affect the growth of E. coli. In addition, the retardation effect on E. coli growth can be improved of by changing the carrier frequency of PEMFs coupling with the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics. GRR caused by the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics can be fixed by a different carrier frequency in a different phase of E. coli growth.

  9. Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's interior

    CERN Document Server

    Spichak, Viacheslav V

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition provides a comprehensive up-to-date collection of contributions, covering methodological, computational and practical aspects of Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth by different techniques at global, regional and local scales. Moreover, it contains new developments such as the concept of self-consistent tasks of geophysics and , 3-D interpretation of the TEM sounding which, so far, have not all been covered by one book. Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition consists of three parts: I- EM sounding methods, II- Forward modelling and inversion techniques, and III - Data processing, analysis, modelling and interpretation. The new edition includes brand new chapters on Pulse and frequency electromagnetic sounding for hydrocarbon offshore exploration. Additionally all other chapters have been extensively updated to include new developments. Presents recently developed methodological findings of the earth's study, including seism...

  10. Propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Weiyan

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the SLF/ELF wave propagation, an important branch of electromagnetic theory. The SLF/ELF wave propagation theory is well applied in earthquake electromagnetic radiation, submarine communication, thunderstorm detection, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics. The propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves is introduced in various media like the earth-ionospheric waveguide, ionospheric plasma, sea water, earth, and the boundary between two different media or the stratified media. Applications in the earthquake electromagnetic radiation and the submarine communications are also addressed. This book is intended for scientists and engineers in the fields of radio propagation and EM theory and applications. Prof. Pan is a professor at China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation in Qingdao (China). Dr. Li is a professor at Zhejiang University in Hangzhou (China).

  11. Electromagnetic launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolm, H.; Mongeau, P.; Williams, F.

    1980-09-01

    Recent advances in energy storage, switching and magnet technology make electromagnetic acceleration a viable alternative to chemical propulsion for certain tasks, and a means to perform other tasks not previously feasible. Applications include the acceleration of gram-size particles for hypervelocity research and the initiation of fusion by impact, a replacement for chemically propelled artillery, the transportation of cargo and personnel over inaccessible terrain, and the launching of space vehicles to supply massive space operations, and for the disposal of nuclear waste. The simplest launcher of interest is the railgun, in which a short-circuit slide or an arc is driven along two rails by direct current. The most sophisticated studied thus far is the mass driver, in which a superconducting shuttle bucket is accelerated by a line of pulse coils energized by capacitors at energy conversion efficiencies better than 90%. Other accelerators of interest include helical, brush-commutated motors, discrete coil arc commutated drivers, flux compression momentum transformers, and various hybrid electrochemical devices.

  12. Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Terrence W

    2008-01-01

    Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism seeks a fundamental understanding of the dynamics of electromagnetism; and marshals the evidence that in certain precisely defined topological conditions, electromagnetic theory (Maxwell's theory) must be extended or generalized in order to provide an explanation and understanding of, until now, unusual electromagnetic phenomena. Key to this generalization is an understanding of the circumstances under which the so-called A potential fields have physical effects. Basic to the approach taken is that the topological composition of electromagnetic field

  13. Planar passive electromagnetic deflector for millimeter-wave frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelijn, M.C.T.; Akkermans, J.A.G.

    2008-01-01

    A novel passive planar structure is proposed that is able to deflect an incoming electromagnetic (EM) wave into a desired direction. The direction of the outgoing EM wave is determined by the design of this deflector. The deflector can be used to extend coverage of a steerable source with limited

  14. Statistical Characterization of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Mine Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Yucel, Abdulkadir C.

    2013-01-01

    A computational framework for statistically characterizing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation through mine tunnels and galleries is presented. The framework combines a multi-element probabilistic collocation method with a full-wave fast Fourier transform and fast multipole method accelerated surface integral equation-based EM simulator to statistically characterize fields from wireless transmitters in complex mine environments. 1536-1225 © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Comparison of the Recoil of Conventional and Electromagnetic Cannon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Schmidt

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The recoil from an electromagnetic (EM railgun is discussed and compared with that from conventional, propellant gas driven cannon. It is shown that, under similar launch conditions, the recoil of the EM gun is less than that of the powder gun; however, use of a muzzle brake on a powder gun can alter this relative behavior.

  16. Interaction of free charged particles with a chirped electromagnetic pulse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; van Goor, F.A.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2004-01-01

    We study the effect of chirp on electromagnetic (EM) pulse interaction with a charged particle. Both the one-dimensional (1D) and 3D cases are considered. It is found that, in contrast to the case of a nonchirped pulse, the charged particle energy can be changed after the interaction with a 1D EM

  17. Gauge constraints and electromagnetic properties of off-shell particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagorny, S.I.; Dieperink, A.E.L.

    The consequences of the gauge constraints for off-shellness in the electromagnetic (EM) vertices have been considered, using Compton scattering as an example. We have found that even if the gauge constraint for the 3-point EM Green function allows for off-shell effects in the charge (Dirac) form

  18. Experimental evaluation of structural integrity of scram release electromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patri, Sudheer; Ruhela, S.P.; Punniyamoorthy, R.; Vijayashree, R.; Chandramouli, S.; Kumar, P. Madan; Rajendraprasad, R.; Rao, P. Vijayamohana; Narmadha, S.; Sreedhar, B.K.; Rajan, K.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The structural integrity of scram release electromagnet is evaluated against thermal shocks. • A simple test facility, employed for simulating the thermal shocks in a typical FBR, is presented. • The cold shock experienced by electromagnet during scram is simulated. • The testing qualified electromagnet for 11.6 yr of reactor operation. - Abstract: Prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR), under construction at Kalpakkam, India, plays an important role in the commercialisation of fast breeder reactors (FBR) in India. It consists of two independent, fast acting and diverse shutdown systems. An electromagnet (EM) immersed in sodium acts as scram release device for the second shutdown system of prototype fast breeder reactor. The inside of EM is sealed from the sodium to achieve the required response time and to prevent the exposure of EM coil to sodium. As the EM response time is an important parameter for reactor safety, the integrity of EM is to be maintained under all anticipated loadings. The EM experiences thermal shocks and thermal stresses during reactor transients such as scram. The dissimilar weld joint present in EM is more susceptible to fatigue failure due to these thermal stresses. Failure of weld joint results in the entry of sodium into the EM, increasing its response time with associated safety implications. In this connection, the structural integrity of EM against thermal shocks was experimentally evaluated in Thermal Shock Test Facility. The EM was subjected to 1000 cycles of thermal shocks, which constitutes 29% of total number of shocks required to qualify the EM for 40 years of reactor operation, thus qualifying it for 11.6 yr of reactor operation. The testing has enhanced the confidence level for safe and reliable operation of EM of DSRDM in PFBR. The testing not only qualified the EM for use in reactor but also provided input for licensing the erection of DSRDM on reactor pile. Moreover, it provided a direction for

  19. Ground-water availability from surficial aquifers in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppe, Thomas H.C.

    2005-01-01

    Population growth and commercial and industrial development in the Red River of the North Basin in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota have prompted the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior, to evaluate sources of water to sustain this growth. Nine surficial-glacial (surficial) aquifers (Buffalo, Middle River, Two Rivers, Beach Ridges, Pelican River, Otter Tail, Wadena, Pineland Sands, and Bemidji-Bagley) within the Minnesota part of the basin were identified and evaluated for their ground-water resources. Information was compiled and summarized from published studies to evaluate the availability of ground water. Published information reviewed for each of the aquifers included location and extent, physical characteristics, hydraulic properties, ground-water and surface-water interactions, estimates of water budgets (sources of recharge and discharge) and aquifer storage, theoretical well yields and actual ground-water pumping data, recent (2003) ground-water use data, and baseline ground-water-quality data.

  20. Electromagnetic Signatures of SMBH Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    When two supermassive black holes (SMBHs) approach within 1-10 mpc, gravitational wave (GW) losses begin to dominate the evolution of the binary, pushing the system to merge in a relatively small time. During this final inspiral regime, the system will emit copious energy in GWs, which should be directly detectable by pulsar timing arrays and space-based interferometers. At the same time, any gas or stars in the immediate vicinity of the merging 5MBHs can get heated and produce bright electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to the GW signals. We present here a number of possible mechanisms by which simultaneous EM and GW signals will yield valuable new information about galaxy evolution, accretion disk dynamics, and fundamental physics in the most extreme gravitational fields.

  1. Electromagnetic damping of neutron star oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, P.N.; Savedoff, M.P.; Van Horn, H.M.; Zweibel, E.G.; Hansen, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Nonradial pulsations of a neutron star with a strong dipole magnetic field cause emission of electromagnetic radiation. Here we compute the power radiated to vacuum by neutron star g-mode pulsations and by torsional oscillations of the neutron star crust. For the low-order quadrupole fluid g-modes we have considered, we find electromagnetic damping to be considerably more effective than gravitational radiation. For example, a 0.5 M/sub sun/ neutron star with a core temperature approx.10 7 K has a g 1 -mode period of 371 ms; for this mode were find the electromagnetic damping time to be tau/sub FM/approx.0.3 s, assuming the surface magnetic field strength of the neutron star to be B 0 approx.10 12 gauss. This is considerably less than the corresponding gravitational radiation time tau/sub GR/approx.3 x 10 17 yr. For dipole g-mode oscillations, there is no gravitational radiation, but electromagnetic damping and ohmic dissipation are efficient damping mechanisms. For dipole torsional oscillations, we find that electromagnetic damping again dominates, with tau/sub EM/approx.5 yr. Among the cases we have studied, quadrupole torsional oscillations appear to be dominated by gravitational radiation damping, with tau/sub GR/approx.10 4 yr, as compared with tau/sub EM/approx.2 x 10 7 yr

  2. Preliminary mapping of surficial geology of Midway Valley Yucca Mountain Project, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesling, J.R.; Bullard, T.F.; Swan, F.H.; Perman, R.C.; Angell, M.M.; Gibson, J.D.

    1992-04-01

    The tectonics program for the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada must evaluate the potential for surface faulting beneath the prospective surface facilities. To help meet this goal, Quaternary surficial mapping studies and photolineament analyses were conducted to provide data for evaluating the location, recency, and style of faulting with Midway Valley at the eastern base of Yucca Mountain, the preferred location of these surface facilities. This interim report presents the preliminary results of this work

  3. Detections of MTBE in surficial and bedrock aquifers in New England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    The gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was detected in 24% of water samples collected from surficial and bedrock aquifers in areas of New England. MTBE was the most frequently detected volatile organic compound among the 60 volatile chemicals analyzed and was present in 33 of 133 wells sampled from July 1993 through September 1995. The median MTBE concentration measured in ground-water samples was 0.45 microgram per liter and concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 5.8 microgram per liter. The network of wells sampled for MTBE consisted of 103 monitoring wells screened in surficial sand-and-gravel aquifers and 30 domestic-supply wells in fractured crystalline bedrock aquifers. Seventy-seven percent of all MTBE detections were from 26 shallow monitoring wells screened in surficial aquifers. MTBE was detected in42% of monitoring wells in urban areas. In agricultural areas, MTBE was detected i 8% (2 of 24) of wells and was not detected in undeveloped areas. Sixty-two percent of the MTBE detections in surficial aquifers were from wells within 0.25 mile of gasoline stations or underground gasoline storage tanks; all but one of these wells were in Connecticut and Massachusetts, where reformulated gasoline is used. MTBE was detected in 23% of deep domestic-supply wells that tapped fractured bedrock aquifers. MTBE was detected in bedrock wells only in Connecticut and Massachusetts; land use near the wells was suburban to rural, and none of the sampled bedrock wells were within 0.25 mile of a gasoline station

  4. Surficial Geologic Map of the Southern Two-Thirds of the Woodbury Quadrangle, Vermont, Washington County, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG2015-3 Springston, G, Thomas, E, and Kim, J, 2015,�Surficial Geologic Map of the Southern Two-Thirds of the Woodbury Quadrangle, Vermont,...

  5. Elevation of surficial sediment/basalt contact in the Subsurface Disposal Area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The elevation of the surficial sediment/basalt contact at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is presented to provide a data base for future remedial actions at this site. About 1,300 elevation data from published and unpublished reports, maps, and surveyors notes were compiled to generate maps and cross-sections of the surficial sediment/basalt contact. In general, an east to west trending depression exists in the south central portion of the SDA with basalt closer to land surface on the northern and southern boundaries of the SDA. The lowest elevation of the surficial sediment/basalt contact is 4,979 ft and the greatest is land surface at 5,012 ft. The median elevation of the sediment/basalt interface is 4,994 ft. The median depth to basalt in the SDA is 16 ft if land surface elevation is assumed to be 5,010 ft. The depth from land surface to the sediment/basalt interface ranges from 24 ft in the southeast corner of the SDA to less than 3 ft at the north-central boundary of the SDA

  6. Multiparameter Optimization for Electromagnetic Inversion Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elkattan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic (EM methods have been extensively used in geophysical investigations such as mineral and hydrocarbon exploration as well as in geological mapping and structural studies. In this paper, we developed an inversion methodology for Electromagnetic data to determine physical parameters of a set of horizontal layers. We conducted Forward model using transmission line method. In the inversion part, we solved multi parameter optimization problem where, the parameters are conductivity, dielectric constant, and permeability of each layer. The optimization problem was solved by simulated annealing approach. The inversion methodology was tested using a set of models representing common geological formations.

  7. Intermediate energy electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcon, M.

    1994-11-01

    Polarization measurements in electromagnetic interactions are reviewed. Deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons and muons an polarized targets, photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons on protons, photonuclear reactions, and the electromagnetic structure of the deuteron are discussed. (K.A.)

  8. Intermediate energy electromagnetic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcon, M.

    1994-11-01

    Polarization measurements in electromagnetic interactions are reviewed. Deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons and muons an polarized targets, photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons on protons, photonuclear reactions, and the electromagnetic structure of the deuteron are discussed. (K.A.).

  9. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic wave matching capable of reducing a cost for the transmission system in a system of using electromagnetic waves for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor. Namely, incident electromagnetic waves are reflected by using a plurality of phase correction mirrors. The reflected electromagnetic waves are connected to an external transmission system through an exit. The phase correction mirrors have such a shape to receive a plurality of beam-like electromagnetic waves and output electromagnetic waves by the number different from the number of the received electromagnetic wave beams having a predetermined distribution. Further, at least two of the phase correction mirrors have such a shape to change the phase of the electromagnetic waves beams incident to the reflection surface of the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection surface. Then, the cost for transmission system can greatly be reduced. (I.S.)

  10. Surficial geologic map of the Mount Grace-Ashburnham-Monson-Webster 24-quadrangle area in central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Janet R.

    2013-01-01

    The surficial geologic map shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 24 7.5-minute quadrangles (1,238 mi2 total) in central Massachusetts. Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and as resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, and organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for assessing water resources, construction-aggregate resources, and earth-surface hazards, and for making land-use decisions. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text (PDF), quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  11. Surficial geologic map of the Norton-Manomet-Westport-Sconticut Neck 23-quadrangle area in southeast Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Byron D.; Stone, Janet R.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.; Kincare, Kevin A.

    2012-01-01

    The surficial geologic map shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 23 7.5-minute quadrangles (919 mi2 total) in southeastern Massachusetts. Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and as resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, and organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for assessing water resources, construction aggregate resources, and earth-surface hazards, and for making land-use decisions. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text (PDF), quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  12. Preliminary Surficial Geology of the Dove Spring Off-Highway Vehicle Open Area, Mojave Desert, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David M.; Amoroso, Lee

    2007-01-01

    Introduction As part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitoring plan to evaluate the environmental impact of off-highway vehicle (OHV) use on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land in California, this report presents results of geologic studies in the Dove Spring OHV Open Area. This study produced baseline data, which when combined with historic and current patterns of land use, forms the basis for vegetation and wildlife monitoring designed to address the following questions: 1. Is the density and length of OHV routes increasing? 2. Are there cumulative effects of past and current OHV use associated with changes in the environmental integrity of soils, plants, and wildlife? 3. Is the spread of invasive species associated with levels of OHV use? 4. Is there a threshold of OHV impact that might be translated to management action by the BLM? The monitoring studies will be used to collect baseline environmental information to determine levels of environmental impact of OHV use. This approach will use a low-impact area as a proxy for pre-impact conditions (substituting space for time) to determine thresholds of OHV impacts beyond which environmental integrity is affected. Indicators of environmental integrity will emphasize factors that are fundamental to ecosystem structure and function and likely to be sensitive to OHV impacts. Surficial geology is studied because material properties such as texture and chemistry strongly control soil moisture and nutrient availability and therefore affect plant growth and distribution. An understanding of surficial geology can be used to predict and extrapolate soil properties and improve understanding of vegetation assemblages and their distribution. In the present study, vegetation associations may be examined as a function of surficial geology as well as other environmental variables such as slope, aspect, NRCS (National Resources Conservation Service) soil classification, elevation, and land-use history. Ground measurements of

  13. Electromagnetism of Bacterial Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainiwaer, Ailiyasi

    2011-10-01

    There has been increasing concern from the public about personal health due to the significant rise in the daily use of electrical devices such as cell phones, radios, computers, GPS, video games and television. All of these devices create electromagnetic (EM) fields, which are simply magnetic and electric fields surrounding the appliances that simultaneously affect the human bio-system. Although these can affect the human system, obstacles can easily shield or weaken the electrical fields; however, magnetic fields cannot be weakened and can pass through walls, human bodies and most other objects. The present study was conducted to examine the possible effects of bacteria when exposed to magnetic fields. The results indicate that a strong causal relationship is not clear, since different magnetic fields affect the bacteria differently, with some causing an increase in bacterial cells, and others causing a decrease in the same cells. This phenomenon has yet to be explained, but the current study attempts to offer a mathematical explanation for this occurrence. The researchers added cultures to the magnetic fields to examine any effects to ion transportation. Researchers discovered ions such as potassium and sodium are affected by the magnetic field. A formula is presented in the analysis section to explain this effect.

  14. Electromagnetic Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Shrish; Asif, Siddiqui Sajida; Akhtar, Syed Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Out of the four fundamental interactions in nature, electromagnetics is one of them along with gravitation, strong interaction and weak interaction. The field of electromagnetics has made much of the modern age possible. Electromagnets are common in day-to-day appliances and are becoming more conventional as the need for technology increases.…

  15. Effect of weak electromagnetic fields and ionizing radiation on mice sciatic nerve regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudkin, A.O.; Zamuraev, I.N.

    1998-01-01

    Effect of X-ray impulses and electromagnetic (EM) impulses on sciatic nerve regeneration in mice after crush lesion was studied. Limb jerk amplitude at electric stimulation of nerve and postural reflex in thin rod in X + EM and EM groups were restored within 13th days after lesion, in control group within 15 days (p [ru

  16. Electromagnetic Counterparts to Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    During the final moments of a binary black hole (BH) merger, the gravitational wave (GW) luminosity of the system is greater than the combined electromagnetic (EM) output of the entire observable universe. However, the extremely weak coupling between GWs and ordinary matter makes these waves very difficult to detect directly. Fortunately, the inspirating BH system will interact strongly-on a purely Newtonian level-with any surrounding material in the host galaxy, and this matter can in turn produce unique EM signals detectable at Earth. By identifying EM counterparts to GW sources, we will be able to study the host environments of the merging BHs, in turn greatly expanding the scientific yield of a mission like LISA. Here we present a comprehensive review of the recent literature on the subject of EM counterparts, as well as a discussion of the theoretical and observational advances required to fully realize the scientific potential of the field.

  17. In medium modification of nucleon electromagnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, F.; Rakhimov, A.; Yakhsiev, U.

    1997-01-01

    Since nucleons are composite objects, their internal structure is expected to be changed by nuclear environment. A Skyrme like Lagrangian is proposed to consider such effects, namely the modification of electromagnetic (EM) properties of the nucleon. The static properties and EM form factors were obtained. It was shown that the charge radius of the nucleon increased in medium and the mass and axial coupling constant are reduced. The enhancement of magnetic moment of proton is smaller than that obtained in non-topological soliton model.Obtained results may be useful in electron nucleus scattering analysis.(A.A.D.)

  18. Time-of-day-dependent global distribution of lunar surficial water/hydroxyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhler, Christian; Grumpe, Arne; Berezhnoy, Alexey A; Shevchenko, Vladislav V

    2017-09-01

    A new set of time-of-day-dependent global maps of the lunar near-infrared water/hydroxyl (H 2 O/OH) absorption band strength near 2.8 to 3.0 μm constructed on the basis of Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M 3 ) data is presented. The analyzed absorption band near 2.8 to 3.0 μm indicates the presence of surficial H 2 O/OH. To remove the thermal emission component from the M 3 reflectance spectra, a reliable and physically realistic mapping method has been developed. Our maps show that lunar highlands at high latitudes show a stronger H 2 O/OH absorption band in the lunar morning and evening than at midday. The amplitude of these time-of-day-dependent variations decreases with decreasing latitude of the highland regions, where below about 30°, absorption strength becomes nearly constant during the lunar day at a similar level as in the high-latitude highlands at midday. The lunar maria exhibit weaker H 2 O/OH absorption than the highlands at all, but showing a smaller difference from highlands absorption levels in the morning and evening than at midday. The level around midday is generally higher for low-Ti than for high-Ti mare surfaces, where it reaches near-zero values. Our observations contrast with previous studies that indicate a significant concentration of surficial H 2 O/OH at high latitudes only. Furthermore, although our results generally support the commonly accepted mechanism of H 2 O/OH formation by adsorption of solar wind protons, they suggest the presence of a more strongly bounded surficial H 2 O/OH component in the lunar highlands and parts of the mare regions, which is not removed by processes such as diffusion/thermal evaporation and photolysis in the course of the lunar day.

  19. Multiple-scale hydraulic characterization of a surficial clayey aquitard overlying a regional aquifer in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Steven W.; Cherry, John A.; Parker, Beth L.

    2018-03-01

    The vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) of a 30-m thick surficial clayey aquitard overlying a regional aquifer at an industrial site in the Mississippi River Valley in Louisiana was investigated via intensive hydraulic characterization using high resolution vertical hydraulic head profiles with temporal monitoring and laboratory tests. A study area was instrumented with a semi-circular array of piezometers at many depths in the aquitard at equal distance from a large capacity pumping well including replicate piezometers. Profiles showed negligible head differential to 20 m bgs, below which there was an abrupt change in vertical gradients over the lower 8-10 m of the aquitard. Hydraulic characteristics are strongly associated with depositional environment; the upper zone of minimal head differentials with depth and minimal variation over time correlates with Paleo-Mississippi River backswamp deposits, while the lower zone with large head differentials and slow but moderate head changes correlates with lacustrine deposits. The lower zone restricts groundwater flow between the surface and underlying regional aquifer, which is hydraulically connected to the Mississippi River. Lab tests on lacustrine samples show low Kv (8 × 10-11-4 × 10-9 m/s) bracketing field estimates (6 × 10-10 m/s) from 1-D model fits to piezometric data in response to large aquifer head changes. The slow response indicates absence of through-going open fractures in the lacustrine unit, consistent with geotechnical properties (high plasticity, normal consolidation), suggesting high integrity that protects the underlying aquifer from surficial contamination. The lack of vertical gradients in the overlying backswamp unit indicates abundant secondary permeability features (e.g. fractures, rootholes) consistent with depositional and weathering conditions. 2-D stylized transient flow simulations including both units supports this interpretation. Other published reports on surficial aquitards in the

  20. Rapid coastal survey of anthropogenic radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds in surficial marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.; Noakes, S.E.; Dvoracek, D.K.; Culp, R.A.; Bush, P.B.

    1999-01-01

    A towed survey system, the GIMS/CS 3 , has been developed to enable the rapid measurement and mapping of a variety of physical and geochemical parameters in the surficial sediments of aquatic environments while the survey vessel is underway. With its capability for measuring radiometric, elemental and organic compound constituents of sediments, as well as bathymetry and water quality parameters, the GIMS/CS 3 provides a cost-effective means of performing reconnaissance determinations of contaminant distributions and environmental monitoring tasks over broad geographic regions

  1. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a matching device capable of increasing an efficiency of combining beams of electromagnetic waves outputted from an output window of a gyrotron which is expected for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor and an electromagnetic wave transmission system as high as possible. Namely, an electromagnetic wave matching device reflects beams of electromagnetic waves incident from an inlet by a plurality of phase correction mirrors and combines them to an external transmission system through an exit. In this case, the phase correction mirrors change the phase of the beams of electromagnetic waves incident to the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection mirrors. Then, the beams of electromagnetic waves outputted, for example, from a gyrotron can properly be shaped as desired for the intensity and the phase. As a result, combination efficiency with the transmission system can be increased. (I.S.)

  2. Electromagnetic Gowdy universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charach, C.

    1979-01-01

    Following Gowdy and Berger we construct an inhomogeneous closed electromagnetic universe with three-torus topology. This model is obtained as a result of the homogeneity breaking in the electromagnetic Bianchi type-I universe and contains interacting gravitational and electromagnetic waves. This cosmological solution provides an exactly solvable model for the study of the nonlinear fully relativistic regime of coupled electromagnetic and gravitational fields in the early universe. The asymptotic behavior is considered (i) in the vicinity of the initial singularity and (ii) in the high-frequency limit. It is shown that the effects of coupling between electromagnetic and gravitational waves cause an evolution which is significantly different from that of the vacuum model. The influence of the primordial homogeneous electromagnetic field on the dynamics of the model is also discussed

  3. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  4. Basic Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...

  5. Characteristics of persistent-current mode of HTS coil on superconducting electromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.Y.; Kim, J.; Han, Y.J.; Kang, B.; Chung, Y.D.; Yoon, Y.S.; Chu, S.Y.; Hwang, Y.J.; Jo, H.C.; Jang, J.Y.; Ko, T.K.

    2011-01-01

    The levitation gap of an electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system affects the current decay rate of superconducting electromagnet. The presence of iron core provides a significant benefit in the PCM performance of SC coil. The increased levitation gap of the EMS model with the SC-EM could negatively affect the design of SC-EM operated in PCM. This paper investigates the way in which the levitation gap of an electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system affects the current decay rate of superconducting electromagnet (SC-EM) operated in persistence-current mode (PCM). Using inductance analyzed from the magnetic circuit of an EMS model, the current decay rate caused by the variation in the levitation gap was simulated. In order to experimentally verify the simulation results, we fabricated a small-scale EMS model with SC coil operated in PCM and measured the current decay rates at different levitation gaps. The result showed that the presence of iron core provides a significant benefit in the PCM performance of SC coil, but the benefit decreased as the levitation gap increases. This study revealed that the increased levitation gap of the EMS model with the SC-EM could negatively affect the design of SC-EM operated in PCM.

  6. Review on Computational Electromagnetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sumithra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Computational electromagnetics (CEM is applied to model the interaction of electromagnetic fields with the objects like antenna, waveguides, aircraft and their environment using Maxwell equations.  In this paper the strength and weakness of various computational electromagnetic techniques are discussed. Performance of various techniques in terms accuracy, memory and computational time for application specific tasks such as modeling RCS (Radar cross section, space applications, thin wires, antenna arrays are presented in this paper.

  7. Static electromagnetic frequency changers

    CERN Document Server

    Rozhanskii, L L

    1963-01-01

    Static Electromagnetic Frequency Changers is about the theory, design, construction, and applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers, devices that used for multiplication or division of alternating current frequency. It is originally published in the Russian language. This book is organized into five chapters. The first three chapters introduce the readers to the principles of operation, the construction, and the potential applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers and to the principles of their design. The two concluding chapters use some hitherto unpublished work

  8. Model for Electromagnetic Information Leakage

    OpenAIRE

    Mao Jian; Li Yongmei; Zhang Jiemin; Liu Jinming

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic leakage will happen in working information equipments; it could lead to information leakage. In order to discover the nature of information in electromagnetic leakage, this paper combined electromagnetic theory with information theory as an innovative research method. It outlines a systematic model of electromagnetic information leakage, which theoretically describes the process of information leakage, intercept and reproduction based on electromagnetic radiation, and ana...

  9. Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...

  10. Composition And Characteristic Of The Surficial Sediments In The Southern Corniche Of Jeddah, Red Sea Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talha A Al-Dubai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the composition and characteristic of the surficial sediments in the southern corniche of Jeddah, Saudi Red Sea coast, in an attempt to infer the surficial distribution pattern of minerals and provenance of sediments. Twenty-six superficial sediments samples were collected from backreef and forereef areas and were analyzed for grain size, CaCO3 content, and mineralogy. The textural of grain size range from gravel to mud fraction. The mud-dominated substrates (<63 µm occur generally in the back-reef area near the shoreline (sheltered area and in the lagoon. Gravel rich-sediments are mostly found in forereef regions. The highest content of aragonite and Mg-calcite occur in the forereef area, probably because to suitability the forereef region for chemical and biochemical precipitation of these minerals. High Mg-calcite and Dolomite are low in both the regions. The pyrite occurs in lagoon; this indicates the reductive conditions in this part. However, on the contrary the percentage of carbonate minerals were low in the backreef-flat area, which could be attributed to the supply of non-carbonate terrigenous materials. The terrigenous material contains quartz, k-feldspar, plagioclase and amphibole minerals and are dominant in backreef-flat area with averages of 12.7%, 7.13%, 2.93% and 0.65%, respectively. Their abundance could be attributed to the supply of terrigenous materials by Aeolian deposits and intermittent Wadis.

  11. Aerial inventory of surficial geological effects induced by the recent Emilia earthquake (Italy: preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bertolini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the two main shocks that recently struck the central alluvial Po Plain (May 20, 2012, Ml 5.9, and May 29, 2012, Ml 5.8, a great number of surficial geologic disturbances appeared over a wide area (ca. 500 km2, which extended up to 20 km from the epicenters. The affected area includes Mirabello, San Carlo, Sant'Agostino (Province of Ferrara, San Felice, Cavezzo, Concordia (Modena, Moglia and Quistello (Mantova. Most of the surficial effects that were observed during this study were clearly induced (directly or indirectly by sand liquefaction phenomena, such as sand volcanoes, burst of water and sand from domestic wells, tension cracks, lateral spreading and associated deformation, graben-like fracturing, and sink-holes. Other effects can probably be ascribed simply to the shaking of the ground (e.g., small collapses of irrigation canal walls. Lastly, there were also some features of dubious origin, such as two 'yellow crop spots' that are cited here with reservations. All of these data were surveyed by means of a small airplane that was especially adapted for this purpose. The aim of this study was to furnish a wide-ranging image of the surface deformation over the whole area impacted by these recent earthquakes, as an instrument towards more exhaustive research, both at the scientific and technical levels (e.g., seismic microzonation. […

  12. Surficial Geologic Map of the Evansville, Indiana, and Henderson, Kentucky, Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David W.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Counts, Ronald C.; Martin, Steven L.; Andrews, William M.; Newell, Wayne L.; Murphy, Michael L.; Thompson, Mark F.; Taylor, Emily M.; Kvale, Erik P.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2009-01-01

    The geologic map of the Evansville, Indiana, and Henderson, Kentucky, area depicts and describes surficial deposits according to their origin and age. Unconsolidated alluvium and outwash fill the Ohio River bedrock valley and attain maximum thickness of 33-39 m under Diamond Island, Kentucky, and Griffith Slough, south of Newburgh, Indiana. The fill is chiefly unconsolidated, fine- to medium-grained, lithic quartz sand, interbedded with clay, clayey silt, silt, coarse sand, granules, and gravel. Generally, the valley fill fines upward from the buried bedrock surface: a lower part being gravelly sand to sandy gravel, a middle part mostly of sand, and a surficial veneer of silt and clay interspersed with sandy, natural levee deposits at river's edge. Beneath the unconsolidated fill are buried and discontinuous, lesser amounts of consolidated fill unconformably overlying the buried bedrock surface. Most of the glaciofluvial valley fill accumulated during the Wisconsin Episode (late Pleistocene). Other units depicted on the map include creek alluvium, slackwater lake (lacustrine) deposits, colluvium, dune sand, loess, and sparse bedrock outcrops. Creek alluvium underlies creek floodplains and consists of silt, clayey silt, and subordinate interbedded fine sand, granules, and pebbles. Lenses and beds of clay are present locally. Silty and clayey slackwater lake (lacustrine) deposits extensively underlie broad flats northeast of Evansville and around Henderson and are as thick as 28 m. Fossil wood collected from an auger hole in the lake and alluvial deposits of Little Creek, at depths of 10.6 m and 6.4 m, are dated 16,650+-50 and 11,120+-40 radiocarbon years, respectively. Fossil wood collected from lake sediment 16 m below the surface in lake sediment was dated 33,100+-590 radiocarbon years. Covering the hilly bedrock upland is loess (Qel), 3-7.5 m thick in Indiana and 9-15 m thick in Kentucky, deposited about 22,000-12,000 years before present. Most mapped surficial

  13. Regional setting, distribution and genesis of surficial uranium deposits in calcretes and associated sediments in Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, C.R.M.; Mann, A.W.; Horwitz, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Surficial uranium deposits in Western Australia are largely in the Yilgarn Block in areas of Archean granitoids and greenstones, and in the Gascoyne Province in Proterozoic granites and gneisses. The region has had a long weathering history marked by continuous planation developing a regolith up to 100 metres thick. The distribution of calcrete type uranium deposits is controlled by geologic as well as weathering, erosion and climatic factors. Valley, playa and terrace deposits are recognized. The principal known surficial uranium deposit, Yeelirrie, occurs in the Yilgarn block as a valley deposit. (author)

  14. Fast electromagnetic characterization of integrated circuit passive isolation structures based on interference blocking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grau Novellas, M.; Serra, R.; Rose, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    An early characterization of integrated circuit passive isolation structures is crucial to predict their performance and effectiveness in minimizing substrate coupling. In this paper, an electromagnetic (EM) modeling methodology is proposed, which can be applied to different types of isolation

  15. [INVITED] Coherent perfect absorption of electromagnetic wave in subwavelength structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Pu, Mingbo; Luo, Jun; Huang, Yijia; Li, Xiong; Ma, Xiaoliang; Luo, Xiangang

    2018-05-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) absorption is a common process by which the EM energy is transformed into other kinds of energy in the absorber, for example heat. Perfect absorption of EM with structures at subwavelength scale is important for many practical applications, such as stealth technology, thermal control and sensing. Coherent perfect absorption arises from the interplay of interference and absorption, which can be interpreted as a time-reversed process of lasing or EM emitting. It provides a promising way for complete absorption in both nanophotonics and electromagnetics. In this review, we discuss basic principles and properties of a coherent perfect absorber (CPA). Various subwavelength structures including thin films, metamaterials and waveguide-based structures to realize CPAs are compared. We also discuss the potential applications of CPAs.

  16. GSM base station electromagnetic radiation and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurekli, Ali Ihsan; Ozkan, Mehmed; Kalkan, Tunaya; Saybasili, Hale; Tuncel, Handan; Atukeren, Pinar; Gumustas, Koray; Seker, Selim

    2006-01-01

    The ever increasing use of cellular phones and the increasing number of associated base stations are becoming a widespread source of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation. Some biological effects are likely to occur even at low-level EM fields. In this study, a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell was used as an exposure environment for plane wave conditions of far-field free space EM field propagation at the GSM base transceiver station (BTS) frequency of 945 MHz, and effects on oxidative stress in rats were investigated. When EM fields at a power density of 3.67 W/m2 (specific absorption rate = 11.3 mW/kg), which is well below current exposure limits, were applied, MDA (malondialdehyde) level was found to increase and GSH (reduced glutathione) concentration was found to decrease significantly (p < 0.0001). Additionally, there was a less significant (p = 0.0190) increase in SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity under EM exposure.

  17. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development...

  18. Classical electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Heald, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Newly corrected, this highly acclaimed text is suitable for advanced physics courses. The author presents a very accessible macroscopic view of classical electromagnetics that emphasizes integrating electromagnetic theory with physical optics. The survey follows the historical development of physics, culminating in the use of four-vector relativity to fully integrate electricity with magnetism.

  19. High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Hernández, David A

    2009-01-01

    Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.

  20. Electromagnetically Operated Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, H D; Goldberg, M I

    1951-12-18

    An electromagnetically operated counter wherein signals to be counted are applied to cause stepwise rotation of a rotatable element which is connected to a suitable register. The mechanism involved consists of a rotatable armature having three spaced cores of magnetic material and a pair of diametrically opposed electromagnets with a suitable pulsing circuit to actuate the magnets.

  1. Electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.; Hamamatsu, K.

    1981-09-01

    Electromagnetic electron cyclotron harmonic waves just below the electron cyclotron harmonics are investigated numerically and experimentally. Backward waves which are observed to propagate nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field just below the electron cyclotron frequency in a high density magnetoplasma are confirmed to be in accord with the theoretical electromagnetic cyclotron waves. (author)

  2. Lorentz covariance ‘almost’ implies electromagnetism and more

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobouti, Y

    2015-01-01

    Beginning from two simple assumptions, (i) the speed of light is a universal constant, or its equivalent, the spacetime intervals are Lorentz invariant, and (ii) there are mutually interacting particles, with a covariant ‘source-field’ equation, one arrives at a class of field equations of which the standard electromagnetism (EM) and electrodynamics are special cases. The formalism, depending on how one formulates the source-field equation, allows one to speculate magnetic monopoles, massive photons, nonlinear EMs, and more. (paper)

  3. Investigating the effects various compilers have on the electromagnetic signature of a cryptographic executable

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Frieslaar, Ibraheem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available with a discussion in Section 6. 2 ELECTROMAGNETIC ATTACKS This section discusses the side channel analysis attacks involving electromagnetic (EM) attacks against high frequency devices such as smartphones and systems utilizing ARM processors. As a program... by Aboulkassimi et al. [1]. Unfortunately, they added an intrusive factor by placing a MicroSD extension cable onto theMicroSD card to extract EM information. In addition, Goller and Sigl [17] attacked an Android smartphone executing public key cryptography...

  4. Surficial Geologic Map of the Worcester North-Oxford- Wrentham-Attleboro Nine-Quadrangle Area in South- Central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Byron D.; Stone, Janet R.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    The surficial geologic map layer shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of nine 7.5-minute quadrangles (417 mi2 total) in south-central Massachusetts (fig. 1). Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and in resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, or organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for water resources, construction aggregate resources, earth-surface hazards assessments, and land-use decisions. The mapped distribution of surficial materials that lie between the land surface and the bedrock surface is based on detailed geologic mapping of 7.5-minute topographic quadrangles, produced as part of an earlier (1938-1982) cooperative statewide mapping program between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Department of Public Works (now Massachusetts Highway Department) (Page, 1967; Stone, 1982). Each published geologic map presents a detailed description of local geologic map units, the genesis of the deposits, and age correlations among units. Previously unpublished field compilation maps exist on paper or mylar sheets and these have been digitally rendered for the present map compilation. Regional summaries based on the Massachusetts surficial geologic mapping

  5. Electromagnetic servoing-a new tracking paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, Tobias; Gardiazabal, José; Navab, Nassir

    2013-08-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking is highly relevant for many computer assisted interventions. This is in particular due to the fact that the scientific community has not yet developed a general solution for tracking of flexible instruments within the human body. Electromagnetic tracking solutions are highly attractive for minimally invasive procedures, since they do not require line of sight. However, a major problem with EM tracking solutions is that they do not provide uniform accuracy throughout the tracking volume and the desired, highest accuracy is often only achieved close to the center of tracking volume. In this paper, we present a solution to the tracking problem, by mounting an EM field generator onto a robot arm. Proposing a new tracking paradigm, we take advantage of the electromagnetic tracking to detect the sensor within a specific sub-volume, with known and optimal accuracy. We then use the more accurate and robust robot positioning for obtaining uniform accuracy throughout the tracking volume. Such an EM servoing methodology guarantees optimal and uniform accuracy, by allowing us to always keep the tracked sensor close to the center of the tracking volume. In this paper, both dynamic accuracy and accuracy distribution within the tracking volume are evaluated using optical tracking as ground truth. In repeated evaluations, the proposed method was able to reduce the overall error from 6.64±7.86 mm to a significantly improved accuracy of 3.83±6.43 mm. In addition, the combined system provides a larger tracking volume, which is only limited by the reach of the robot and not the much smaller tracking volume defined by the magnetic field generator.

  6. Electromagnetic shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kenji.

    1994-01-01

    As an electromagnetic shaft seal, there are disposed outwarding electromagnetic induction devices having generating power directing to an electroconductive fluid as an object of sealing, and inwarding electromagnetic induction device added coaxially. There are disposed elongate rectangular looped first coils having a predetermined inner diameter, second coils having the same shape and shifted by a predetermined pitch relative to the first coil and third coil having the same shape and shifted by a predetermined pitch relative to the second coil respectively each at a predetermined inner diameter of clearance to the outwarding electromagnetic induction devices and the inwarding electromagnetic induction device. If the inwarding electromagnetic induction device and the outwarding electromagnetic induction device are operated, they are stopped at a point that the generating power of the former is equal with the sum of the generating power of the latter and a differential pressure. When three-phase AC is charged to the first coil, the second coil and the third coil successively, a force is generated in the advancing direction of the magnetic field in the electroconductive fluid by the similar effect to that of a linear motor, and the seal is maintained at high reliability. Moreover, the limit for the rotational angle of the shaft is not caused. (N.H.)

  7. Intrinsic alterations in the partial molar volume on the protein denaturation: surficial Kirkwood-Buff approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Isseki; Takayanagi, Masayoshi; Nagaoka, Masataka

    2009-03-19

    The partial molar volume (PMV) of the protein chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 (CI2) was calculated by all-atom MD simulation. Denatured CI2 showed almost the same average PMV value as that of native CI2. This is consistent with the phenomenological question of the protein volume paradox. Furthermore, using the surficial Kirkwood-Buff approach, spatial distributions of PMV were analyzed as a function of the distance from the CI2 surface. The profiles of the new R-dependent PMV indicate that, in denatured CI2, the reduction in the solvent electrostatic interaction volume is canceled out mainly by an increment in thermal volume in the vicinity of its surface. In addition, the PMV of the denatured CI2 was found to increase in the region in which the number density of water atoms is minimum. These results provide a direct and detailed picture of the mechanism of the protein volume paradox suggested by Chalikian et al.

  8. Geophysical techniques for reconnaissance investigations of soils and surficial deposits in mountainous terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, C.G.; Doolittle, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two techniques were assessed for their capabilities in reconnaissance studies of soil characteristics: depth to the water table and depth to bedrock beneath surficial deposits in mountainous terrain. Ground-penetrating radar had the best near-surface resolution in the upper 2 m of the profile and provided continuous interpretable imagery of soil profiles and bedrock surfaces. Where thick colluvium blankets side slopes, the GPR could not consistently define the bedrock interface. In areas with clayey or shaley sediments, the GPR is also more limited in defining depth and is less reliable. Seismic refraction proved useful in determining the elevation of the water table and depth to bedrock, regardless of thickness of overlying material, but could not distinguish soil-profile characteristics.-from Authors

  9. Surficial geology and benthic habitat of the German Bank seabed, Scotian Shelf, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brian J.; Kostylev, Vladimir E.

    2011-01-01

    To provide the scientific context for management of a newly opened scallop fishing ground, surficial geology and benthic habitats were mapped on German Bank on the southern Scotian Shelf off Atlantic Canada. To provide a seamless regional dataset, multibeam sonar surveys covered 5320 sqaure kilometres of the bank in water depths of 30–250 m and provided 5 m horizontal resolution bathymetry and backscatter strength. Geoscience data included high-resolution geophysical profiles (seismic reflection and sidescan sonar) and seabed sediment samples. Geological interpretation and is overlain in places by glacial and postglacial sediment. Biological data included seafloor video transects and photographs from which 127 taxa of visible megabenthos were identified. Trawl bycatch data were obtained from government annual research surveys. Statistical analysis of revealed that bedrock is exposed at the seafloor on much of German Bankthese two datasets and a suite of oceanographic environmental variables demonstrated that significantly different fauna exist on bedrock, glacial sediment and postglacial sediment.

  10. Data on nearshore wave process and surficial beach deposits, central Tamil Nadu coast, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joevivek, V; Chandrasekar, N

    2017-08-01

    The chronicles of nearshore morphology and surficial beach deposits provide valuable information about the nature of the beach condition and the depositional environment. It imparts an understanding about the spatial and temporal relationship of nearshore waves and its influence over the distribution of beach sediments. This article contains data about wave and sediment dynamics of the ten sandy beaches along the central Tamil Nadu coast, India. This present dataset comprises nearshore wave parameters, breaker wave type, beach morphodynamic state, grain size distribution and weight percentage of heavy and light mineral distribution. The dataset will figure out the beach morphology and hydrodynamic condition with respect to the different monsoonal season. This will act as a field reference to realize the coastal dynamics in an open sea condition. The nearshore entities were obtained from the intensive field survey between January 2011 and December 2011, while characteristics of beach sediments are examined by the chemical process in the laboratory environment.

  11. Assessing Sea Level Rise Impacts on the Surficial Aquifer in the Kennedy Space Center Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, H.; Wang, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Medeiros, S. C.; Warnock, A. M.; Hall, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    Global sea level rise in the past century due to climate change has been seen at an average rate of approximately 1.7-2.2 mm per year, with an increasing rate over the next century. The increasing SLR rate poses a severe threat to the low-lying land surface and the shallow groundwater system in the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, resulting in saltwater intrusion and groundwater induced flooding. A three-dimensional groundwater flow and salinity transport model is implemented to investigate and evaluate the extent of floods due to rising water table as well as saltwater intrusion. The SEAWAT model is chosen to solve the variable-density groundwater flow and salinity transport governing equations and simulate the regional-scale spatial and temporal evolution of groundwater level and chloride concentration. The horizontal resolution of the model is 50 m, and the vertical domain includes both the Surficial Aquifer and the Floridan Aquifer. The numerical model is calibrated based on the observed hydraulic head and chloride concentration. The potential impacts of sea level rise on saltwater intrusion and groundwater induced flooding are assessed under various sea level rise scenarios. Based on the simulation results, the potential landward movement of saltwater and freshwater fringe is projected. The existing water supply wells are examined overlaid with the projected salinity distribution map. The projected Surficial Aquifer water tables are overlaid with data of high resolution land surface elevation, land use and land cover, and infrastructure to assess the potential impacts of sea level rise. This study provides useful tools for decision making on ecosystem management, water supply planning, and facility management.

  12. Distribution of surficial sediment in Long Island Sound and adjacent waters: Texture and total organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; Knebel, H.J.; Mlodzinska, Z.J.; Hastings, M.E.; Seekins, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    The surficial sediment distribution within Long Island Sound has been mapped and described using bottom samples, photography, and sidescan sonar, combined with information from the geologic literature. The distributions of sediment type and total organic carbon (TOC) reveal several broad trends that are largely related to the sea-floor geology, the bathymetry, and the effects of modern tidal- and wind-driven currents. Sediment types are most heterogeneous in bathymetrically complex and shallow nearshore areas; the heterogeneity diminishes and the texture fines with decreasing bottom-current energy. Lag deposits of gravel and gravelly sand dominate the surficial sediment texture in areas where bottom currents are the strongest (such as where tidal flow is constricted) and where glacial till crops out at the sea floor. Sand is the dominant sediment type in areas characterized by active sediment transport and in shallow areas affected by fine-grained winnowing. Silty sand and sand-silt-clay mark transitions within the basin from higher- to lower-energy environments, suggesting a diminished hydraulic ability to sort and transport sediment. Clayey silt and silty clay are the dominant sediment types accumulating in the central and western basins and in other areas characterized by long-term depositional environments. The amount of TOC in the sediments of Long Island Sound varies inversely with sediment grain size. Concentrations average more than 1.9% (dry weight) in clayey silt, but are less than 0.4% in sand. Generally, values for TOC increase both toward the west in the Sound and from the shallow margins to the deeper parts of the basin floor. Our data also suggest that TOC concentrations can vary seasonally.

  13. Curved electromagnetic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.M.; Shen, H.M.; Wu, T.T.

    1989-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic fields can exhibit interesting behavior in the limit of great distances from their sources. In situations of finite total radiated energy, the energy reaching a distant receiver can decrease with distance much more slowly than the usual r - 2 . Cases of such slow decrease have been referred to as electromagnetic missiles. All of the wide variety of known missiles propagate in essentially straight lines. A sketch is presented here of a missile that can follow a path that is strongly curved. An example of a curved electromagnetic missile is explicitly constructed and some of its properties are discussed. References to details available elsewhere are given

  14. Electromagnetic spatial coherence wavelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, R.; Garcia-Sucerquia, J.

    2005-10-01

    The recently introduced concept of spatial coherence wavelets is generalized for describing the propagation of electromagnetic fields in the free space. For this aim, the spatial coherence wavelet tensor is introduced as an elementary amount, in terms of which the formerly known quantities for this domain can be expressed. It allows analyzing the relationship between the spatial coherence properties and the polarization state of the electromagnetic wave. This approach is completely consistent with the recently introduced unified theory of coherence and polarization for random electromagnetic beams, but it provides a further insight about the causal relationship between the polarization states at different planes along the propagation path. (author)

  15. Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ponath, H-E

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are

  16. Electromagnetic Radiation: Final Range Environmental Assessment, Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-03

    typically include residential, commercial, industrial , agricultural, military, and recreational. Land use also includes areas set aside for...procedures, controls, shielding standards, nominal ocular hazard distance, protective eyewear verification, radiation footprint determination, and...from human activities. An example of these activities includes using the electromagnetic (EM) energy spectrum for communications and industrial

  17. Potential effects of deepening the St. Johns River navigation channel on saltwater intrusion in the surficial aquifer system, Jacksonville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellino, Jason C.; Spechler, Rick M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has proposed dredging a 13-mile reach of the St. Johns River navigation channel in Jacksonville, Florida, deepening it to depths between 50 and 54 feet below North American Vertical Datum of 1988. The dredging operation will remove about 10 feet of sediments from the surficial aquifer system, including limestone in some locations. The limestone unit, which is in the lowermost part of the surficial aquifer system, supplies water to domestic wells in the Jacksonville area. Because of density-driven hydrodynamics of the St. Johns River, saline water from the Atlantic Ocean travels upstream as a saltwater “wedge” along the bottom of the channel, where the limestone is most likely to be exposed by the proposed dredging. A study was conducted to determine the potential effects of navigation channel deepening in the St. Johns River on salinity in the adjacent surficial aquifer system. Simulations were performed with each of four cross-sectional, variable-density groundwater-flow models, developed using SEAWAT, to simulate hypothetical changes in salinity in the surficial aquifer system as a result of dredging. The cross-sectional models were designed to incorporate a range of hydrogeologic conceptualizations to estimate the effect of uncertainty in hydrogeologic properties. The cross-sectional models developed in this study do not necessarily simulate actual projected conditions; instead, the models were used to examine the potential effects of deepening the navigation channel on saltwater intrusion in the surficial aquifer system under a range of plausible hypothetical conditions. Simulated results for modeled conditions indicate that dredging will have little to no effect on salinity variations in areas upstream of currently proposed dredging activities. Results also indicate little to no effect in any part of the surficial aquifer system along the cross section near River Mile 11 or in the water-table unit along the cross

  18. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, C.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of electromagnetic (em) fields on biological systems were first observed and exploited well over a century ago. Concern over the possible health hazards of human exposure to such fields developed much later. It is now well known that excessive exposure to em fields may have in undesirable biological consequences. Standards were introduced to determine what constitute an excessive exposure and how to avoid it. Current concern over the issue of hazards stems mainly from recent epidemiological studies of exposed populations and also from the results of laboratory experiments in which whole animals are exposed in vivo or tissue and cell cultures exposed in vitro to low levels of irradiation. The underlying fear is the possibility of a causal relationship between chronic exposure to low field levels and some forms of cancer. So far the evidence does not add up to a firm statement on the matter. At present it is not known how and at what level, if at all, can these exposure be harmful to human health. This state of affair does not provide a basis for incorporating the outcome of such research in exposure standards. This paper will give a brief overview of the research in this field and how it is evaluated for the purpose of producing scientifically based standards. The emphasis will be on the physical, biophysical and biological mechanisms implicated in the interaction between em fields and biological systems. Understanding such mechanisms leads not only to a more accurate evaluation of their health implications but also to their optimal utilization, under controlled conditions, in biomedical applications. (author)

  19. Statistical electromagnetics: Complex cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2008-01-01

    A selection of the literature on the statistical description of electromagnetic fields and complex cavities is concisely reviewed. Some essential concepts, for example, the application of the central limit theorem and the maximum entropy principle, are scrutinized. Implicit assumptions, biased

  20. Broadband Electromagnetic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    The objectives of this project are to continue the enhancements to the combined Broadband Electromagnetic and Full Encirclement Unit (BEM-FEU) technologies and to evaluate the systems capability in the laboratory and the field. The BEM instrument ...

  1. Magnetorheological suspension electromagnetic brake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bica, Ioan

    2004-01-01

    The magnetorheological suspension (MRS) brake is of the monoblock type. The main part of the electromagnetic brake is an electromagnet, between whose poles two MRS disks are placed. For distances between disks of 0.65x10 -3 m±10%, revolutions of the electric motor, coupled to the electromagnetic brake, ranging between 200 and 1600 rev/min and braking powers of up to 85 W, there are no differences in revolutions between the disks of the electromagnetic brake. For fixed revolutions of the electric motor, the revolution of the parallel disk can be modified continuously by means of the intensity of the magnetic field. In all cases, the quantity of MRS is of 0.35x10 -3 kg

  2. Computational electromagnetic-aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shang, Joseph J S

    2016-01-01

    Presents numerical algorithms, procedures, and techniques required to solve engineering problems relating to the interactions between electromagnetic fields, fluid flow, and interdisciplinary technology for aerodynamics, electromagnetics, chemical-physics kinetics, and plasmadynamics This book addresses modeling and simulation science and technology for studying ionized gas phenomena in engineering applications. Computational Electromagnetic-Aerodynamics is organized into ten chapters. Chapter one to three introduce the fundamental concepts of plasmadynamics, chemical-physics of ionization, classical magnetohydrodynamics, and their extensions to plasma-based flow control actuators, high-speed flows of interplanetary re-entry, and ion thrusters in space exploration. Chapter four to six explain numerical algorithms and procedures for solving Maxwell’s equation in the time domain for computational electromagnetics, plasma wave propagation, and the time-dependent c mpressible Navier-Stokes equation for aerodyn...

  3. OPAL detector electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    1988-01-01

    Half of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the OPAL detector is seen in this photo. This calorimeter consists of 4720 blocks of lead glass. It was used to detect and measure the energy of photons, electrons and positrons by absorbing them.

  4. The classical electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Eyges, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    This excellent text covers a year's course in advanced theoretical electromagnetism, first introducing theory, then its application. Topics include vectors D and H inside matter, conservation laws for energy, momentum, invariance, form invariance, covariance in special relativity, and more.

  5. Continuity equations for bound electromagnetic field and the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholmetskii, A L; Missevitch, O V; Yarman, T

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the application of the Poynting theorem to the bound (velocity-dependent) electromagnetic (EM) field and show that an often-used arbitrary elimination of the term of self-interaction in the product j·E (where j is the current density and E the electric field) represents, in general, an illegitimate operation, which leads to incorrect physical consequences. We propose correct ways of eliminating the terms of self-interaction from the Poynting theorem to transform it into the form that is convenient for problems with bound EM field, which yield the continuity equations for the proper EM energy density, the interaction part of EM energy density and the total EM energy density of bound fields, respectively. These equations indicate the incompleteness of the common EM energy-momentum tensor, and in our analysis, we find a missed term in its structure, which makes its trace non-vanished. Some implications of these results are discussed, in particular, in view of the notion of EM mass of charged particles.

  6. Continuity equations for bound electromagnetic field and the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholmetskii, A L [Department of Physics, Belarusian State University, 4 Nezavisimosti Avenue, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Missevitch, O V [Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, 11 Bobruiskaya Street, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Yarman, T, E-mail: khol123@yahoo.com [Department of Engineering, Okan University, Akfirat, Istanbul, Turkey and Savronik, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2011-05-01

    We analyze the application of the Poynting theorem to the bound (velocity-dependent) electromagnetic (EM) field and show that an often-used arbitrary elimination of the term of self-interaction in the product j{center_dot}E (where j is the current density and E the electric field) represents, in general, an illegitimate operation, which leads to incorrect physical consequences. We propose correct ways of eliminating the terms of self-interaction from the Poynting theorem to transform it into the form that is convenient for problems with bound EM field, which yield the continuity equations for the proper EM energy density, the interaction part of EM energy density and the total EM energy density of bound fields, respectively. These equations indicate the incompleteness of the common EM energy-momentum tensor, and in our analysis, we find a missed term in its structure, which makes its trace non-vanished. Some implications of these results are discussed, in particular, in view of the notion of EM mass of charged particles.

  7. Mathematics and electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Danta, M.

    2000-01-01

    Symbiosis between mathematics and electromagnetism is analyzed in a simple and concise manner by taking a historical perspective. The universal tool character of mathematical models allowed the transfer of models from several branches of physics into the realm of electromagnetism by drawing analogies. The mutual interdependence between covariant formulation and tensor calculus is marked. The paper focuses on the guiding idea of field theory and Maxwell's equations. Likewise, geometrization of interactions in connection with gauge fields is also noted. (Author)

  8. The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Michel Mathieu, a technician for the ATLAS collaboration, is cabling the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter's first end-cap, before insertion into its cryostat. Millions of wires are connected to the electromagnetic calorimeter on this end-cap that must be carefully fed out from the detector so that data can be read out. Every element on the detector will be attached to one of these wires so that a full digital map of the end-cap can be recreated.

  9. Electromagnetic Fields Exposure Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Mr. T.P. (Tjerk) KUIPERS Senior Adviser Health Physics Military Healthcare & Occupational Health Expertise Co-ordination Centre Support...Test of Biological Integrity in Dogs Exposed to an Electromagnetic Pulse Environment”, Health Physics 36:159-165, 1979. [11] Baum, S.J., Ekstrom, M.E...Electromagnetic Radiation”, Health Physics 30:161-166, 1976. [12] Baum, S., Skidmore, W. and Ekstrom, M., “Continuous Exposure of Rodents to 108 Pulses

  10. Electromagnetic Manifestation of Earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Uvarov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    In a joint analysis of the results of recording the electrical component of the natural electromagnetic field of the Earth and the catalog of earthquakes in Kamchatka in 2013, unipolar pulses of constant amplitude associated with earthquakes were identified, whose activity is closely correlated with the energy of the electromagnetic field. For the explanation, a hypothesis about the cooperative character of these impulses is proposed.

  11. Electromagnetic Manifestation of Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a joint analysis of the results of recording the electrical component of the natural electromagnetic field of the Earth and the catalog of earthquakes in Kamchatka in 2013, unipolar pulses of constant amplitude associated with earthquakes were identified, whose activity is closely correlated with the energy of the electromagnetic field. For the explanation, a hypothesis about the cooperative character of these impulses is proposed.

  12. Electromagnetic reverberation chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Besnier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Dedicated to a complete presentation on all aspects of reverberation chambers, this book provides the physical principles behind these test systems in a very progressive manner. The detailed panorama of parameters governing the operation of electromagnetic reverberation chambers details various applications such as radiated immunity, emissivity, and shielding efficiency experiments.In addition, the reader is provided with the elements of electromagnetic theory and statistics required to take full advantage of the basic operational rules of reverberation chambers, including calibration proc

  13. Electromagnetic radiation from beam-plasma instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, P. L.; Dawson, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A computer simulation is developed for the generation of electromagnetic radiation in an electron beam-plasma interaction. The plasma is treated as a two-dimensional finite system, and effects of a continuous nonrelativistic beam input are accounted for. Three momentum and three field components are included in the simulation, and an external magnetic field is excluded. EM radiation generation is possible through interaction among Langmuir oscillations, ion-acoustic waves, and the electromagnetic wave, producing radiation perpendicular to the beam. The radiation is located near the plasma frequency, and polarized with the E component parallel to the beam. The scattering of Langmuir waves caused by ion-acoustic fluctuations generates the radiation. Comparison with laboratory data for the three-wave interactions shows good agreement in terms of the radiation levels produced, which are small relative to the plasma thermal energy.

  14. Fluidic electrodynamics: Approach to electromagnetic propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Alexandre A.; Pinheiro, Mario J.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a new methodological approach to electrodynamics based on a fluidic viewpoint. We develop a systematic approach establishing analogies between physical magnitudes and isomorphism (structure-preserving mappings) between systems of equations. This methodological approach allows us to give a general expression for the hydromotive force, thus re-obtaining the Navier-Stokes equation departing from the appropriate electromotive force. From this ground we offer a fluidic approach to different kinds of issues with interest in propulsion, e.g., the force exerted by a charged particle on a body carrying current; the magnetic force between two parallel currents; the Magnus's force. It is shown how the intermingle between the fluid vector fields and electromagnetic fields leads to new insights on their dynamics. The new concepts introduced in this work suggest possible applications to electromagnetic (EM) propulsion devices and the mastery of the principles of producing electric fields of required configuration in plasma medium.

  15. Electromagnetic processes and interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheck, F.

    1983-01-01

    The electron and muon are important tools in testing the structure of the fundamental electromagnetic interactions. On the other hand, if these interactions are known, they serve as ideal probes for the internal structure of complex hadronic targets such as nucleons and nuclei. Purely electromagnetic interactions play a distinctive role, for obvious experimental reasons: At low and intermediate energies the effective electromagnetic coupling is larger by many orders of magnitude than the weak couplings, so that electromagnetic processes are measurable to much higher accuracy than purely weak processes. The present chapter deals primarily with applications of charged leptons to problems of nucleon and nuclear structure, and to selected precision tests of quantum electrodynamics (QED) at low momentum transfers. In most of these applications the electromagnetic interactions effectively appear in the form of external fields in the leptonic particle's Dirac equation. This is the domain where the physics of (electromagnetically) interacting leptons can still be described in the framework of an effective, though relativistic, single particle theory. (orig.)

  16. Covariant electromagnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.

  17. Electromagnetic cellular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifra, Michal; Fields, Jeremy Z; Farhadi, Ashkan

    2011-05-01

    Chemical and electrical interaction within and between cells is well established. Just the opposite is true about cellular interactions via other physical fields. The most probable candidate for an other form of cellular interaction is the electromagnetic field. We review theories and experiments on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields generally, and if the cell-generated electromagnetic field can mediate cellular interactions. We do not limit here ourselves to specialized electro-excitable cells. Rather we describe physical processes that are of a more general nature and probably present in almost every type of living cell. The spectral range included is broad; from kHz to the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We show that there is a rather large number of theories on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields and discuss experimental evidence on electromagnetic cellular interactions in the modern scientific literature. Although small, it is continuously accumulating. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Blindagem eletromagnética, aterramento e proteção contra surtos de tensão em equipamentos para monitoramento automático do teor de água no solo Electromagnetic shielding, grounding and protection against voltage surges in equipments for automatic soil-water measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia F. A. Teixeira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi implementar um sistema de blindagem eletromagnética, aterramento e proteção contra surtos de tensão na instalação de instrumental para o monitoramento automático do teor de água no solo. O experimento foi instalado em Piracicaba, São Paulo, em que os equipamentos utilizados foram um testador de cabos marca Tektronix, que opera pelo princípio da reflectometria no domínio do tempo e um sistema de aquisição de dados marca Campbell Scientific Inc. (CSI, que controla e analisa as formas de onda produzidas pelo testador de cabos. A umidade volumétrica foi obtida indiretamente por meio de sensores inseridos no solo, os quais medem a constante dielétrica do mesmo. Utilizaram-se tubos galvanizados para a blindagem eletromagnética dos cabos e hastes "cooperweld", cordoalha de cobre e terminais bimetálicos para o sistema de aterramento. Para o sistema de proteção eletroeletrônica, utilizaram-se um disjuntor para a separação do circuito de alimentação, protetor de surtos, "no-breaks" e medidor de resistência de terra. Face aos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que o sistema proposto, ao utilizar material geralmente preexistente em locais de pesquisa agropecuária, apresentou uma proteção eficaz.The objective of this paper was to implement an electromagnetic shielding, grounding and voltage surge protection in equipments for automatic soil water monitoring. The experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil, using a Tektronix Cable Tester (Model 1502 B that operates by time domain reflectometry (TDR and a datalogger (CR10X, Campbell Scientific Inc., CSI to control and analyze the waveforms produced by the cable tester. The water content was indirectly obtained by measuring the dielectric constant through probes inserted in the soil. For electromagnetic shielding the energy and signal cables were inserted in galvanized pipes, linked together by means of copper wire fixed in

  19. Design, manufacture and performance evaluation of HTS electromagnets for the hybrid magnetic levitation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, S.Y.; Hwang, Y.J.; Choi, S.; Na, J.B.; Kim, Y.J.; Chang, K.S.; Bae, D.K.; Lee, C.Y.; Ko, T.K.

    2011-01-01

    A high speed electromagnetic suspension (EMS) maglev has emerged as the solution to speed limit problem that conventional high-speed railroad has. In the EMS maglev, small levitation gap needs uniform guide-way which leads to increase the construction cost. The large levitation gap can reduce the construction cost. However it is hard for normal conducting electromagnet to produce larger magneto-motive force (MMF) for generating levitation force as increased levitation gap. This is because normal conductors have limited rating current to their specific volume. Therefore, the superconducting electromagnet can be one of the solutions for producing both large levitation gap and sufficient MMF. The superconducting electromagnets have incomparably high allowable current density than what normal conductors have. In this paper, the prototype of high temperature superconducting (HTS) electromagnets were designed and manufactured applicable to hybrid electromagnetic suspension system (H-EMS). The H-EMS consists of control coils for levitation control and superconducting coils for producing MMF for levitation. The required MMF for generating given levitation force was calculated by both equations of ideal U-core magnet and magnetic field analysis using the finite element method (FEM). The HTS electromagnets were designed as double pancakes with Bi-2223/Ag tapes. Experiments to confirm its operating performance were performed in liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ).

  20. Design, manufacture and performance evaluation of HTS electromagnets for the hybrid magnetic levitation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, S. Y.; Hwang, Y. J.; Choi, S.; Na, J. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Chang, K. S.; Bae, D. K.; Lee, C. Y.; Ko, T. K.

    2011-11-01

    A high speed electromagnetic suspension (EMS) maglev has emerged as the solution to speed limit problem that conventional high-speed railroad has. In the EMS maglev, small levitation gap needs uniform guide-way which leads to increase the construction cost. The large levitation gap can reduce the construction cost. However it is hard for normal conducting electromagnet to produce larger magneto-motive force (MMF) for generating levitation force as increased levitation gap. This is because normal conductors have limited rating current to their specific volume. Therefore, the superconducting electromagnet can be one of the solutions for producing both large levitation gap and sufficient MMF. The superconducting electromagnets have incomparably high allowable current density than what normal conductors have. In this paper, the prototype of high temperature superconducting (HTS) electromagnets were designed and manufactured applicable to hybrid electromagnetic suspension system (H-EMS). The H-EMS consists of control coils for levitation control and superconducting coils for producing MMF for levitation. The required MMF for generating given levitation force was calculated by both equations of ideal U-core magnet and magnetic field analysis using the finite element method (FEM). The HTS electromagnets were designed as double pancakes with Bi-2223/Ag tapes. Experiments to confirm its operating performance were performed in liquid nitrogen (LN2).

  1. Design, manufacture and performance evaluation of HTS electromagnets for the hybrid magnetic levitation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, S.Y.; Hwang, Y.J.; Choi, S.; Na, J.B.; Kim, Y.J.; Chang, K.S. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, D.K. [Chungju National University, Chungju 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C.Y. [Ultra High-Speed Train Research Department, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang-Si 437-757 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, T.K., E-mail: tkko@yonsei.ac.kr [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    A high speed electromagnetic suspension (EMS) maglev has emerged as the solution to speed limit problem that conventional high-speed railroad has. In the EMS maglev, small levitation gap needs uniform guide-way which leads to increase the construction cost. The large levitation gap can reduce the construction cost. However it is hard for normal conducting electromagnet to produce larger magneto-motive force (MMF) for generating levitation force as increased levitation gap. This is because normal conductors have limited rating current to their specific volume. Therefore, the superconducting electromagnet can be one of the solutions for producing both large levitation gap and sufficient MMF. The superconducting electromagnets have incomparably high allowable current density than what normal conductors have. In this paper, the prototype of high temperature superconducting (HTS) electromagnets were designed and manufactured applicable to hybrid electromagnetic suspension system (H-EMS). The H-EMS consists of control coils for levitation control and superconducting coils for producing MMF for levitation. The required MMF for generating given levitation force was calculated by both equations of ideal U-core magnet and magnetic field analysis using the finite element method (FEM). The HTS electromagnets were designed as double pancakes with Bi-2223/Ag tapes. Experiments to confirm its operating performance were performed in liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}).

  2. A multiscale quantum mechanics/electromagnetics method for device simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, ChiYung; Meng, Lingyi; Zhang, Yu; Chen, GuanHua

    2015-04-07

    Multiscale modeling has become a popular tool for research applying to different areas including materials science, microelectronics, biology, chemistry, etc. In this tutorial review, we describe a newly developed multiscale computational method, incorporating quantum mechanics into electronic device modeling with the electromagnetic environment included through classical electrodynamics. In the quantum mechanics/electromagnetics (QM/EM) method, the regions of the system where active electron scattering processes take place are treated quantum mechanically, while the surroundings are described by Maxwell's equations and a semiclassical drift-diffusion model. The QM model and the EM model are solved, respectively, in different regions of the system in a self-consistent manner. Potential distributions and current densities at the interface between QM and EM regions are employed as the boundary conditions for the quantum mechanical and electromagnetic simulations, respectively. The method is illustrated in the simulation of several realistic systems. In the case of junctionless field-effect transistors, transfer characteristics are obtained and a good agreement between experiments and simulations is achieved. Optical properties of a tandem photovoltaic cell are studied and the simulations demonstrate that multiple QM regions are coupled through the classical EM model. Finally, the study of a carbon nanotube-based molecular device shows the accuracy and efficiency of the QM/EM method.

  3. Graphite crystals grown within electromagnetically levitated metallic droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Shaahin; Kalaantari, Haamun; Mojgani, Sasan; Abbaschian, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Various graphite morphologies were observed to grow within the electromagnetically levitated nickel–carbon melts, including primary flakes and spheres, curved surface graphite and eutectic flakes, as well as engulfed and entrapped particles. As the supersaturated metallic solutions were cooled within the electromagnetic (EM) levitation coil, the primary graphite flakes and spheres formed and accumulated near the periphery of the droplet due to EM circulation. The primary graphite islands, moreover, nucleated and grew on the droplet surface which eventually formed a macroscopic curved graphite crystal covering the entire liquid. Upon further cooling, the liquid surrounding the primary graphite went under a coupled eutectic reaction while the liquid in the center formed a divorced eutectic due to EM mixing. This brought about the formation of graphite fine flakes and agglomerated particles close to the surface and in the center of the droplet, respectively. The graphite morphologies, growth mechanisms, defects, irregularities and growth instabilities were interpreted with detailed optical and scanning electron microscopies.

  4. Tale of Two Curricula: The Performance of 2000 Students in Introductory Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmyer, Matthew A.; Caballero, Marcos D.; Catrambone, Richard; Chabay, Ruth W.; Ding, Lin; Haugan, Mark P.; Marr, M. Jackson; Sherwood, Bruce A.; Schatz, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of over 2000 students in introductory calculus-based electromagnetism (E&M) courses at four large research universities was measured using the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment (BEMA). Two different curricula were used at these universities: a traditional E&M curriculum and the Matter & Interactions (M&I)…

  5. Surficial geologic map of Berrien County, Michigan, and the adjacent offshore area of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Byron D.; Kincare, Kevin A.; O'Leary, Dennis W.; Newell, Wayne L.; Taylor, Emily M.; Williams, Van S.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Abraham, Jared E.; Powers, Michael H.

    2017-12-13

    The surficial geologic map of Berrien County, southwestern Michigan (sheet 1), shows the distribution of glacial and postglacial deposits at the land surface and in the adjacent offshore area of Lake Michigan. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Drill-hole information correlated in cross sections provides details of typical stratigraphic sequences that compose one or more penetrated geologic map units. A new bedrock geologic map (on sheet 2) includes contours of the altitude of the eroded top of bedrock and shows the distribution of middle Paleozoic shale and carbonate units in the subcrop. A sediment thickness map (also on sheet 2) portrays the extent of as much as 150 meters of surficial materials that overlie the bedrock surface.The major physical features of the county are related principally to deposits of the last Laurentide ice sheet that advanced and then retreated back through the region from about 19,000 to 14,000 radiocarbon years before present. Glacial and postglacial deposits underlie the entire county; shale bedrock crops out only in the adjacent offshore area on the bottom of Lake Michigan. All glacial deposits and glacial meltwater deposits in Berrien County are related to the late Wisconsinan glacial advances of the Lake Michigan ice lobe and its three regional recessional moraines, which cross the county as three north-northeast-trending belts.From east to west (oldest to youngest), the three moraine belts are known as the Kalamazoo, Valparaiso, and Lake Border morainic systems. The till-ridge morainic systems (Lake Border and local Valparaiso morainic systems) consist of multiple, elongate moraine ridges separated by till plains and lake-bottom plains. Tills in ground and end moraines in Berrien County are distinguished as informal units, and are correlated with three proposed regional till units in southwestern Michigan

  6. Assessment of Convolution Neural Networks for Surficial Geology Mapping in the South Rae Geological Region, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasim Latifovic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mapping of surficial geology is an important requirement for broadening the geoscience database of northern Canada. Surficial geology maps are an integral data source for mineral and energy exploration. Moreover, they provide information such as the location of gravels and sands, which are important for infrastructure development. Currently, surficial geology maps are produced through expert interpretation of aerial photography and field data. However, interpretation is known to be subjective, labour-intensive and difficult to repeat. The expert knowledge required for interpretation can be challenging to maintain and transfer. In this research, we seek to assess the potential of deep neural networks to aid surficial geology mapping by providing an objective surficial materials initial layer that experts can modify to speed map development and improve consistency between mapped areas. Such an approach may also harness expert knowledge in a way that is transferable to unmapped areas. For this purpose, we assess the ability of convolution neural networks (CNN to predict surficial geology classes under two sampling scenarios. In the first scenario, a CNN uses samples collected over the area to be mapped. In the second, a CNN trained over one area is then applied to locations where the available samples were not used in training the network. The latter case is important, as a collection of in situ training data can be costly. The evaluation of the CNN was carried out using aerial photos, Landsat reflectance, and high-resolution digital elevation data over five areas within the South Rae geological region of Northwest Territories, Canada. The results are encouraging, with the CNN generating average accuracy of 76% when locally trained. For independent test areas (i.e., trained over one area and applied over other, accuracy dropped to 59–70% depending on the classes selected for mapping. In the South Rae region, significant confusion was found

  7. Surficial weathering of iron sulfide mine tailings under semi-arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sarah M; Root, Robert A; Perdrial, Nicolas; Maier, Raina; Chorover, Jon

    2014-09-15

    Mine wastes introduce anthropogenic weathering profiles to the critical zone that often remain unvegetated for decades after mining cessation. As such, they are vulnerable to wind and water dispersion of particulate matter to adjacent ecosystems and residential communities. In sulfide-rich ore tailings, propagation to depth of the oxidative weathering front controls the depth-variation in speciation of major and trace elements. Despite the prevalence of surficial mine waste deposits in arid regions of the globe, few prior studies have been conducted to resolve the near-surface profile of sulfide ore tailings weathered under semi-arid climate. We investigated relations between gossan oxidative reaction-front propagation and the molecular speciation of iron and sulfur in tailings subjected to weathering under semi-arid climate at an EPA Superfund Site in semi-arid central Arizona (USA). Here we report a multi-method data set combining wet chemical and synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) methods to resolve the tight coupling of iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) geochemical changes in the top 2 m of tailings. Despite nearly invariant Fe and S concentration with depth (130-140 and 100-120 g kg -1 , respectively), a sharp redox gradient and distinct morphological change was observed within the top 0.5 m, associated with a progressive oxidative alteration of ferrous sulfides to (oxyhydr)oxides and (hydroxy)sulfates. Transformation is nearly complete in surficial samples. Trends in molecular-scale alteration were co-located with a decrease in pH from 7.3 to 2.3, and shifts in Fe and S lability as measured via chemical extraction. Initial weathering products, ferrihydrite and gypsum, transform to schwertmannite, then jarosite-group minerals with an accompanying decrease in pH. Interestingly, thermodynamically stable phases such as goethite and hematite were not detected in any samples, but ferrihydrite was observed even in

  8. Mineralogy and origin of surficial uranium deposits hosted in travertine and calcrete from central Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, H.N.; Salameh, E.M.; Clark, I.D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Surficial uranium deposits are hosted in thick travertine and calcrete. • Tyuyamunite–strelkinite are the major components in central Jordan. • The leached water was enriched in redox sensitive U and V. • Deposition is related to unusual highly alkaline circulating water. - Abstract: Secondary uranium encrustations are hosted in thick travertine and calcrete deposits of Pleistocene–Recent age in central Jordan. The central Jordan varicolored marble and travertine are equivalent to the active metamorphic area in Maqarin, north Jordan. More than 100 samples were collected from the outcrops of the varicolored marble, travertine, calcrete, and the yellow uranium encrustations. The secondary yellow encrustations are mainly composed of uranyl vanadate complexes. Tyuyamunite Ca(UO 2 ) 2 V 2 5+ O 8 ·3(H 2 O)–strelkinite Na 2 (UO 2 ) 2 V 2 O 8 ·6(H 2 O) solid solution series are the major components and their composition reflects changes in the Ca/Na ratio in solution. Potentially, new vanadium free calcium uranate phases (restricted to the varicolored marble) were identified with CaO:UO 3 ratios different from the known mineral vorlanite (CaU 6+ )O 4 . Carbon and oxygen isotope data from calcite in the varicolored marble are characterized by Rayleigh-type enrichment in light isotopes associated with release of 13 C and 18 O enriched CO 2 by high temperature decarbonation during combustion of the bituminous marl. Stable isotope results from uranium hosted travertine and calcrete varieties exhibit a wide range in isotopic values, between decarbonated and normal sedimentary carbonate rocks. The depleted δ 13 C and δ 18 O values in the travertine are related to the kinetic reaction of atmospheric CO 2 with hyperalkaline Ca(OH) 2 water. The gradual enrichment of δ 13 C and δ 18 O values in the calcrete towards equilibrium with the surrounding environment is related to continuous evaporation during seasonal dry periods. Uranium mineralization in

  9. Seasonal mercury transformation and surficial sediment detoxification by bacteria of Marano and Grado lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Franco; Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide; Fani, Renato; Maida, Isabel; Horvat, Milena; Fajon, Vesna; Zizek, Suzana; Hines, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Marano and Grado lagoons are polluted by mercury from the Isonzo River and a chlor-alkali plant, yet despite this contamination, clam cultivation is one of the main activities in the region. Four stations (MA, MB, MC and GD) were chosen for clam seeding and surficial sediments were monitored in autumn, winter and summer to determine the Hg detoxifying role of bacteria. Biotransformation of Hg species in surficial sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons was investigated while taking into consideration the speciation of organic matter in the biochemical classes of PRT (proteins), CHO (carbohydrates) and LIP (lipids), water-washed cations and anions, bacterial biomass, Hg-resistant bacteria, some specific microbial activities such as sulfate reduction rates, Hg methylation rates, Hg-demethylation rates, and enzymatic ionic Hg reduction. MeHg in sediments was well correlated with PRT content, whereas total Hg in sediments correlated with numbers of Hg-resistant bacteria. Correlations of the latter with Hg-demethylation rates in autumn and winter suggested a direct role Hg-resistant bacteria in Hg detoxification by producing elemental Hg (Hg0) from ionic Hg and probably also from MeHg. MeHg-demethylation rates were ˜10 times higher than Hg methylation rates, were highest in summer and correlated with high sulfate reduction rates indicating that MeHg was probably degraded in summer by sulfate-reducing bacteria via an oxidative pathway. During the summer period, aerobic heterotrophic Hg-resistant bacteria decreased to <2% compared to 53% in winter. Four Hg-resistant bacterial strains were isolated, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus and Bacillus) and two Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas). Two were able to produce Hg0, but just one contained a merA gene; while other two strains did not produce Hg0 even though they were able to grow at 5 μg ml of HgCl2. Lagoon sediments support a strong sulfur cycle in summer that controls Hg methylation and demethylation

  10. Surficial weathering of iron sulfide mine tailings under semi-arid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sarah M.; Root, Robert A.; Perdrial, Nicolas; Maier, Raina M.; Chorover, Jon

    2014-09-01

    Mine wastes introduce anthropogenic weathering profiles to the critical zone that often remain unvegetated for decades after mining cessation. As such, they are vulnerable to wind and water dispersion of particulate matter to adjacent ecosystems and residential communities. In sulfide-rich ore tailings, propagation to depth of the oxidative weathering front controls the depth-variation in speciation of major and trace elements. Despite the prevalence of surficial mine waste deposits in arid regions of the globe, few prior studies have been conducted to resolve the near-surface profile of sulfide ore tailings weathered under semi-arid climate. We investigated relations between gossan oxidative reaction-front propagation and the molecular speciation of iron and sulfur in tailings subjected to weathering in a semi-arid climate at an EPA Superfund Site in central Arizona (USA). Here we report a multi-method data set combining wet chemical and synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) methods to resolve the tight coupling of iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) geochemical changes in the top 2 m of tailings. Despite nearly invariant Fe and S concentration with depth (130-140 and 100-120 g kg-1, respectively), a sharp redox gradient and distinct morphological change was observed within the top 0.5 m, associated with a progressive oxidative alteration of ferrous sulfides to (oxyhydr)oxides and (hydroxy)sulfates. Transformation is nearly complete in surficial samples. Trends in molecular-scale alteration were co-located with a decrease in pH from 7.3 to 2.3, and shifts in Fe and S lability as measured via chemical extraction. Initial weathering products, ferrihydrite and gypsum, transform to schwertmannite, then jarosite-group minerals with an accompanying decrease in pH. Interestingly, thermodynamically stable phases such as goethite and hematite were not detected in any samples, but ferrihydrite was observed even in samples with

  11. Electromagnetic radiation optimum neutralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Igor

    2002-01-01

    This particular article relates to subtle electrical effects, and provides some evidence of a fundamental nature on how subtle low frequency electromagnetic fields might be utilized to protect human body against harmful effects of high frequencies electromagnetic radiation. I have focused my efforts on definite polar polymer compound named EMRON which is patented in the USA. This polar polymer compound can be excited by external high frequencies electromagnetic fields to generate subtle low frequency oscillations that are beneficial for cellular life structures. This concept is based on the possibility of existence of resonance phenomenon between polar polymers and biopolymers such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, etc. Low frequency patterns generated by defined polar polymer compound can interact with biostructures and transmit the signals that support and improve cellular functions in the body. The mechanism of this process was confirmed by number of studies. The animal (including human) brain is affected by electromagnetic waves to the extent that production of Alpha or Theta waves can be directly induced into brain by carrying an ELF (extremely low frequency, 5-12 Hz) signal on a microwave carrier frequency. EMRON does not reduce the power of electromagnetic fields. It 'shields' the cellular structures of the body against the harmful effects of EMR. The radiation is still entering the body but the neutralizing effect of EMRON renders the radiation harmless

  12. Redatuming of borehole-to-surface electromagnetic data at the Kevin Dome exploration site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Zhdanov, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The method of redatuming the controlled-source electromagnetic data was introduced in Zhdanov and Cai (2012). The approach is based on a Stratton-Chu type integral and the Lorentz lemma to relate observed EM data on the earth’s surface to EM data on some horizontal plane P located underground....... By applying this methodology, we are able to calculate the EM scattering field at some depth from the observed data on the earth’s surface. Once the EM field at some underground plane P is found, we can use these data for upward continuation and recomputing of the EM scattering data on the earth’s surface...... the physics of the EM field, which makes the redatuming more accurate than simple mathematical transformation. In this paper, we illustrate this method by redatuming of borehole-to-surface electromagnetic data at the Kevin Dome exploration site....

  13. Electromagnetic fields and their impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prša, M. A.; Kasaš-Lažetić, K. K.

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to briefly recall some different electromagnetic field definitions, some macroscopic sources of electromagnetic fields, electromagnetic fields classification regarding time dependences, and the ways of field determination in concrete cases. After that, all the mechanisms of interaction between electromagnetic field and substance, on atomic level, are described in details. Interaction between substance and electric field is investigated separately from the substance and magnetic field interaction. It is demonstrated that, in all cases of the unique electromagnetic field, total interaction can be treated as a superposition of two separated interactions. Finally, the main electromagnetic fields surrounding us is cited and discussed.

  14. Electromagnetic backscattering from one-dimensional drifting fractal sea surface II: Electromagnetic backscattering model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Tao; Zhao Shang-Zhuo; Fang He; Yu Wen-Jin; He Yi-Jun; Perrie, William

    2016-01-01

    Sea surface current has a significant influence on electromagnetic (EM) backscattering signals and may constitute a dominant synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging mechanism. An effective EM backscattering model for a one-dimensional drifting fractal sea surface is presented in this paper. This model is used to simulate EM backscattering signals from the drifting sea surface. Numerical results show that ocean currents have a significant influence on EM backscattering signals from the sea surface. The normalized radar cross section (NRCS) discrepancies between the model for a coupled wave-current fractal sea surface and the model for an uncoupled fractal sea surface increase with the increase of incidence angle, as well as with increasing ocean currents. Ocean currents that are parallel to the direction of the wave can weaken the EM backscattering signal intensity, while the EM backscattering signal is intensified by ocean currents propagating oppositely to the wave direction. The model presented in this paper can be used to study the SAR imaging mechanism for a drifting sea surface. (paper)

  15. Electromagnetic Wave Attenuation in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shu; Hu Xiwei; Liu Minghai; Luo Fang; Feng Zelong

    2007-01-01

    When an electromagnetic (EM) wave propagates in an atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) layer, its attenuation depends on the APP parameters such as the layer width, the electron density and its profile and collision frequency between electrons and neutrals. This paper proposes that a combined parameter-the product of the line average electron density n-bar and width d of the APP layer (i.e., the total number of electrons in a unit volume along the wave propagation path) can play a more explicit and decisive role in the wave attenuation than any of the above individual parameters does. The attenuation of the EM wave via the product of n-bar and d with various collision frequencies between electrons and neutrals is presented

  16. Oscillating electromagnetic soliton in an anisotropic ferromagnetic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathishkumar, P., E-mail: perumal_sathish@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, K.S.R. College of Engineering (Autonomous), Tiruchengode 637215, Tamilnadu (India); Senjudarvannan, R. [Department of Physics, Jansons Institute of Technology, Karumathampatty, Coimbatore 641659 (India)

    2017-05-01

    We investigate theoretically the propagation of electromagnetic oscillating soliton in the form of breather in an anisotropic ferromagnetic medium. The interaction of magnetization with the magnetic field component of the electromagnetic (EM) wave has been studied by solving Maxwell's equations coupled with a Landau–Lifshitz equation for the magnetization of the medium. We made a small perturbation on the magnetization and magnetic field along the direction of propagation of EM wave in the framework of reductive perturbation method and the associated nonlinear magnetization dynamics is governed by a generalized derivative nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation. In order to understand the dynamics of the concerned system, we employ the Jacobi elliptic function method to solve the DNLS equation and deduce breatherlike soliton modes for the EM wave in the medium. - Highlights: • The propagation of electromagnetic oscillating soliton in an anisotropic ferromagnetic medium is investigated in the presence of varying external magnetic field. • The magnetization and electromagnetic wave modulates in the form of breathing like oscillating solitons. • The governing nonlinear spin dynamical equation is studied through a reductive perturbation method. • The magnetization components of the ferromagnetic medium are derived using Jacobi elliptic functions method with the aid of symbolic computation.

  17. Gravitation and electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Apsel, D

    1979-01-01

    Through an examination of the Bohm-Aharonov experiment, a new theory of gravitation and electromagnetism is proposed. The fundamental assumption of the theory is that the motion of a particle in a combination of gravitational and electromagnetic fields is determined from a variational principle of the form delta integral /sub A//sup B /d tau =0. The form of the physical time is determined from an examination of the Maxwell-Einstein action function. The field and motion equations are formally identical to those of Maxwell-Einstein theory. The theory predicts that even in a field-free region of space, electromagnetic potentials can alter the phase of a wave function and the lifetime of a charged particle. The phase alteration has been observed in the Bohm-Aharonov experiment. There is an indication that the lifetime alteration has shown up in a recent CERN storage ring experiment. Experimental tests are proposed. (11 refs).

  18. Applied electromagnetic scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Osipov, Andrey A

    2017-01-01

    Besides classical applications (radar and stealth, antennas, microwave engineering), scattering and diffraction are enabling phenomena for some emerging research fields (artificial electromagnetic materials or metamaterials, terahertz technologies, electromagnetic aspects of nano-science). This book is a tutorial for advanced students who need to study diffraction theory. The textbook gives fundamental knowledge about scattering and diffraction of electromagnetic waves and provides some working examples of solutions for practical high-frequency scattering and diffraction problems. The book focuses on the most important diffraction effects and mechanisms influencing the scattering process and describes efficient and physically justified simulation methods - physical optics (PO) and the physical theory of diffraction (PTD) - applicable in typical remote sensing scenarios. The material is presented in a comprehensible and logical form, which relates the presented results to the basic principles of electromag...

  19. Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Claire M; Liu, Xianliang; Padilla, Willie J

    2012-06-19

    The advent of negative index materials has spawned extensive research into metamaterials over the past decade. Metamaterials are attractive not only for their exotic electromagnetic properties, but also their promise for applications. A particular branch-the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA)-has garnered interest due to the fact that it can achieve unity absorptivity of electromagnetic waves. Since its first experimental demonstration in 2008, the MPA has progressed significantly with designs shown across the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwave to optical. In this Progress Report we give an overview of the field and discuss a selection of examples and related applications. The ability of the MPA to exhibit extreme performance flexibility will be discussed and the theory underlying their operation and limitations will be established. Insight is given into what we can expect from this rapidly expanding field and future challenges will be addressed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Water quality in the surficial aquifer near agricultural areas in the Delaware Coastal Plain, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brandon J.; Mensch, Laura L.; Denver, Judith M.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-07-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Agriculture, developed a network of wells to monitor groundwater quality in the surficial aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain. Well-drained soils, a flat landscape, and accessible water in the Delaware Coastal Plain make for a productive agricultural setting. As such, agriculture is one of the largest industries in the State of Delaware. This setting enables the transport of chemicals from agriculture and other land uses to shallow groundwater. Efforts to mitigate nutrient transport to groundwater by the implementation of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been ongoing for several decades. To measure the effectiveness of BMPs on a regional scale, a network of 48 wells was designed to measure shallow groundwater quality (particularly nitrate) over time near agricultural land in the Delaware Coastal Plain. Water characteristics, major ions, nutrients, and dissolved gases were measured in groundwater samples collected from network wells during fall 2014. Wells were organized into three groups based on their geochemical similarity and these groups were used to describe nitrate and chloride concentrations and factors that affect the variability among the groups. The results from this study are intended to establish waterquality conditions in 2014 to enable comparison of future conditions and evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural BMPs on a regional scale.

  1. Shaded seafloor relief, backscatter strength, and surficial geology; German Bank, Scotian Shelf, offshore Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, B.J.; Valentine, Page C.

    2010-01-01

    This map is part of a three-map series of German Bank, located on the Scotian Shelf off southern Nova Scotia.  This map is the product of a number of surveys (1997-2003) that used a multibeam sonar system to map 5321 km2 of the seafloor.  Other surveys collected geological data for scientific interpretation.  This map sheet shows the seafloor topography of German Bank in shaded-relief view and seafloor depth (coded by colour) at a scale of 1:1000,000.  Topographic contours generated from the multibeam data are shown (in white) on the colour-coded multibeam topography at a depth interval of 20 m.  Bathymetic contours (in blue) outside the multibeam survey area, presented at a depth interval of 10 m, are from the Natural Resource Map series (Canadian Hydrographic Service, 1967, 1971a, 1971b, 1972). Sheet 2 shows coloured backscatter strength in shaded-relief view.  Sheet 3 shows seafloor topography in shaded-relief view with colour-coded surficial geological units.

  2. Handbook on surficial uranium deposits. Chapter 3. World distribution relative to climate and physical setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlisle, D.

    This chapter discusses regional controls which affect the world distribution of surficial chemogenic uranium deposits. The most important of these are (1) climate, (2) geomorphology, including physiographic and climatic stability, and (3) provenance, i.e., the weathering terrain from which uranium and associated substances are derived. The three economically important environments are the calcrete environment, simple evaporative environments and paludal environments. Of these three categories, the calcrete uranium environment is probably the most uniquely constrained in terms of regional climate, geomorphic setting, provenance (vanadium as well as uranium) and especially the need for long term stability of both climate and physiography. Purely evaporative deposits, though subject to some of the same kinds of constraints, can also reflect local circumstances and a wider range of climates, physiographic settings, and source terrains. The third category encompassing bogs, marshes and organic-rich playas can form under an even wider range of climates and settings provided only that organic materials accumulate in abundance and are contacted by uranium-bearing waters. For all of these reasons and also because of the great economic importance of the calcrete environment as well as its relative novelty and complexity the discussion in this chapter is focused on calcrete, dolocrete and gypcrete uranium deposits. Objective data are reviewed first follwed by inferences and suggestions. 13 figures

  3. Surficial geology of the sea floor in Long Island Sound offshore of Plum Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Ostapenko, A.J.; Glomb, K.A.; Doran, E.F.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been working cooperatively to interpret surficial sea-floor geology along the coast of the Northeastern United States. NOAA survey H11445 in eastern Long Island Sound, offshore of Plum Island, New York, covers an area of about 12 square kilometers. Multibeam bathymetry and sidescan-sonar imagery from the survey, as well as sediment and photographic data from 13 stations occupied during a USGS verification cruise are used to delineate sea-floor features and characterize the environment. Bathymetry gradually deepens offshore to over 100 meters in a depression in the northwest part of the study area and reaches 60 meters in Plum Gut, a channel between Plum Island and Orient Point. Sand waves are present on a shoal north of Plum Island and in several smaller areas around the basin. Sand-wave asymmetry indicates that counter-clockwise net sediment transport maintains the shoal. Sand is prevalent where there is low backscatter in the sidescan-sonar imagery. Gravel and boulder areas are submerged lag deposits produced from the Harbor Hill-Orient Point-Fishers Island moraine segment and are found adjacent to the shorelines and just north of Plum Island, where high backscatter is present in the sidescan-sonar imagery.

  4. Assessing the transport of PAH in the surficial sediment layer by passive sampler approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belles, Angel; Alary, Claire; Criquet, Justine; Ivanovsky, Anastasia; Billon, Gabriel

    2017-02-01

    A new method based on passive samplers has been developed to assess the diffusive flux of fluorene, fluoranthene and pyrene in the sediment bed and across the sediment-water interface. The dissolved compound concentration gradient in the sediment in the vertical direction was measured at the outlet of a storm water pond by using polyethylene strips as passive samplers. Simultaneously, the dissipation of a set of tracer compounds preloaded in the passive samplers was measured to estimate the effective diffusion coefficients of the pollutants in the sediment. Both measurements were used to evaluate the diffusive flux of the compounds according to Fick's first law. The diffusive fluxes of the 3 studied compounds have been estimated with a centimetre-scale resolution in the upper 44cm of the sediment. According to the higher compound diffusion coefficient and the steeper concentration gradient in the surficial sediment layer, the results show that the net flux of compounds near the sediment interface (1cm depth) is on average 500 times higher than in the deep sediment, with average fluxes at 1cm depth on the order of 5, 0.1 and 0.1ng/m 2 /y for fluorene, fluoranthene and pyrene, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Heavy metal pollutants in surficial sediments from different coastal sites in Aden Governorate, Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Anis Ahmed; Baharoon Aqil Abdulrahman

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of Gd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Mn and Fe in surficial sediments (<63μm) from the shores in Aden Governorate were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. The obtained concentration data show significant regional variations concerning both the total and leachable metals in sediments. Total metal concentrations of Cd and Pb were greatest in sediments from labor Island; Cu, Cr, and Fe occurred in the highest levels in Bandar Fuqum sediments, while maximum levels of Mn, Co, and Ni were observed in sediments from Sahel Abyan and Fuqum. Labile, easily extractable species of metals such as Cd and Pb, are similar to their total concentrations, and additionally Cu, Zn, Cr, and Fe were found in the highest concentrations in sediments from labor Island. Sediments from Sahel Abyan and Khawr Bir Ahmed were characterized by a maximum accumulation of bioavailable species of Co and Mn, respectively. The linear regression slopes for metals correlated were <1, this explains the slow enrichment of these metals in the sediments, and attributes their geological nature. (author)

  6. Acoustic structure and echo character of surficial sediments of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreery, C.J.; Laine, E.P.

    1986-05-01

    A study has been made of the high frequency acoustic response of abyssal plain depositional facies. Piston cores have been obtained at six stations and deep hydrophone recordings at three stations on the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain. 3.5 kHz seismic profiles indicate acoustically transparent lobes of surficial sediment which thicken towards the Hatteral Transverse Canyon and Sohm Gap/Wilmington Fan. Physical property data from piston cores indicate a higher percentage of coarse sediment in the areas of transparent acoustic response. Many of the characteristics normally used in mapping of conventional 3.5 kHz profiler acoustic response varied only slightly in the study area. Regions of diffuse 3.5 kHz surface echoes, similar to prolonged echoes attributed to high percent sand beds, have been identified in the study area. High trace to trace variation in deep hydrophone/pinger recordings in these areas suggests that the diffuse echo returns are due to unresolved microtopography and are not necessarily associated with a sandy seafloor

  7. Quaternary allostratigraphy of surficial deposit map units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstrom, S.C.; Wesling, J.R.; Swan, F.H.; Taylor, E.M.; Whitney, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Surficial geologic mapping at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is relevant to site characterization studies of paleoclimate, tectonics, erosion, flood hazards, and water infiltration. Alluvial, colluvial, and eolian allostratigraphic map units are defined on the basis of age-related surface characteristics and soil development, as well as lithology and sedimentology indicative of provenance and depositional mode. In gravelly alluvial units, which include interbedded debris flows, the authors observe a useful qualitative correlation between surface and soil properties. Map units of estimated middle Pleistocene age typically have a well-developed, varnished desert pavement, and minimal erosional and preserved depositional microrelief, associated with a soil with a reddened Bt horizon and stage 3 carbonate and silica morphology. Older units have greater erosional relief, an eroded argillic horizon and stage 4 carbonate morphology, whereas younger units have greater preservation of depositional morphology, but lack well-developed pavements, rock varnish, and Bt and Kqm soil horizons. Trench and gully-wall exposures show that alluvial, colluvial and eolian dominated surface units are underlain by multiple buried soils separating sedimentologically similar deposits; this stratigraphy increases the potential for understanding the long-term Quaternary paleoenvironmental history of Yucca Mountain. Age estimates for allostratigraphic units, presently based on uranium-trend dating and regional correlation using soil development, will be further constrained by ongoing dating studies that include tephra identification, uranium-series disequilibrium, and thermoluminescence methods

  8. Mineralogical correlation of surficial sediment from area drainages with selected sedimentary interbeds at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomay, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    Ongoing research by the US Geological Survey at the INEL involves investigation of the migration of radioactive elements contained in low-level radioactive waste, hydrologic and geologic factors affecting waste movement, and geochemical factors that influence the chemical composition of the waste. Identification of the mineralogy of the Snake River Plain is needed to aid in the study of the hydrology and geochemistry of subsurface waste disposal. The US Geological Surveys project office at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, used mineralogical data to correlate surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Greek drainages with selected sedimentary interbed core samples taken from test holes at the RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex), TRA (Test Reactors Area), ICPP (Idaho Chemical Processing Plant), and TAN (Test Area North). Correlating the mineralogy of a particular present-day drainage area with a particular sedimentary interbed provides information on historical source of sediment for interbeds in and near the INEL. Mineralogical data indicate that surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River drainage contained a larger amount of feldspar and pyroxene and a smaller amount of calcite and dolomite than samples from the Little Lost River and Birch Creek drainages. Mineralogical data from sedimentary interbeds at the RWMC, TRA, and ICPP correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day big Lost River drainage. Mineralogical data from a sedimentary interbed at TAN correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day Birch Creek drainage. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Mineralogical correlation of surficial sediment from area drainages with selected sedimentary interbeds at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    Ongoing research by the US Geological Survey at the INEL involves investigation of the migration of radioactive elements contained in low-level radioactive waste, hydrologic and geologic factors affecting waste movement, and geochemical factors that influence the chemical composition of the waste. Identification of the mineralogy of the Snake River Plain is needed to aid in the study of the hydrology and geochemistry of subsurface waste disposal. The US Geological Surveys project office at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, used mineralogical data to correlate surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Greek drainages with selected sedimentary interbed core samples taken from test holes at the RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex), TRA (Test Reactors Area), ICPP (Idaho Chemical Processing Plant), and TAN (Test Area North). Correlating the mineralogy of a particular present-day drainage area with a particular sedimentary interbed provides information on historical source of sediment for interbeds in and near the INEL. Mineralogical data indicate that surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River drainage contained a larger amount of feldspar and pyroxene and a smaller amount of calcite and dolomite than samples from the Little Lost River and Birch Creek drainages. Mineralogical data from sedimentary interbeds at the RWMC, TRA, and ICPP correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day big Lost River drainage. Mineralogical data from a sedimentary interbed at TAN correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day Birch Creek drainage. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  10. The theory of electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, D S

    1964-01-01

    The Theory of the Electomagnetism covers the behavior of electromagnetic fields and those parts of applied mathematics necessary to discover this behavior. This book is composed of 11 chapters that emphasize the Maxwell's equations. The first chapter is concerned with the general properties of solutions of Maxwell's equations in matter, which has certain macroscopic properties. The succeeding chapters consider specific problems in electromagnetism, including the determination of the field produced by a variable charge, first in isolation and then in the surface distributions of an antenna. The

  11. Electromagnetic clutches and couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Vorob'Yeva, T M; Fry, D W; Higinbotham, W

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic Clutches and Couplings contains a detailed description of U.S.S.R. electromagnetic friction clutches, magnetic couplings, and magnetic particle couplings. This book is divided into four chapters. The first chapter discusses the design and construction of magnetic (solenoid-operated) couplings, which are very quick-acting devices and used in low power high-speed servo-systems. Chapter 2 describes the possible fields of application, design, construction, and utilization of magnetic particle couplings. The aspects of construction, design, and utilization of induction clutches (sli

  12. Improved Electromagnetic Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Toby B.

    2004-01-01

    A proposed design for an electromagnetic brake would increase the reliability while reducing the number of parts and the weight, relative to a prior commercially available electromagnetic brake. The reductions of weight and the number of parts could also lead to a reduction of cost. A description of the commercial brake is prerequisite to a description of the proposed electromagnetic brake. The commercial brake (see upper part of figure) includes (1) a permanent magnet and an electromagnet coil on a stator and (2) a rotor that includes a steel contact plate mounted, with tension spring loading, on an aluminum hub. The stator is mounted securely on a stationary object, which would ordinarily be the housing of a gear drive or a motor. The rotor is mounted on the shaft of the gear drive or motor. The commercial brake nominally operates in a fail-safe (in the sense of normally braking) mode: In the absence of current in the electromagnet coil, the permanent magnet pulls the contact plate, against the spring tension, into contact with the stator. To release the brake, one excites the electromagnet with a current of the magnitude and polarity chosen to cancel the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet, thereby enabling the spring tension to pull the contact plate out of contact with the stator. The fail-safe operation of the commercial brake depends on careful mounting of the rotor in relation to the stator. The rotor/stator gap must be set with a tolerance between 10 and 15 mils (between about 0.25 and about 0.38 mm). If the gap or the contact pad is thicker than the maximum allowable value, then the permanent magnetic field will not be strong enough to pull the steel plate across the gap. (For this reason, any contact pad between the contact plate and the stator must also be correspondingly thin.) If the gap exceeds the maximum allowable value because of shaft end play, it becomes impossible to set the brake by turning off the electromagnet current. Although it may

  13. Essentials of Computational Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Xin-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Essentials of Computational Electromagnetics provides an in-depth introduction of the three main full-wave numerical methods in computational electromagnetics (CEM); namely, the method of moment (MoM), the finite element method (FEM), and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Numerous monographs can be found addressing one of the above three methods. However, few give a broad general overview of essentials embodied in these methods, or were published too early to include recent advances. Furthermore, many existing monographs only present the final numerical results without specifyin

  14. Elemental distributions in surficial sediments and potential offshore mineral resources from the western continental margin of India. Part 2. Potential offshore mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.; Mascarenhas, A.; Rao, Ch.M.; PrakashBabu, C.; Murty, P.S.N.

    patterns of ten selected elements is surficial sediments. Part 2 projects the potential offshore mineral resources. Target areas for future exploration and indicated and exploration strategies are recommended. Appendix 1 is a compilation of the bibliography...

  15. Hearing aids' electromagnetic immunity to environmental RF fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facta, S.; Benedetto, A.; Anglesio, L.; D'Amore, G.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the electromagnetic interference on hearing aids was evaluated. Electromagnetic (EM) immunity tests on different types of hearing aids were carried out, using signals of intensity and modulation comparable to those present in the environment. The purpose of this work is to characterise the interference, establishing the immunity threshold for different frequencies and finding out which types of hearing aids are more susceptible, and in which frequency range. The tests were carried out in a GTEM cell on seven hearing aids, using AM and GSM signals in the radiofrequency (RF) range. (authors)

  16. New perspectives on classical electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Cote, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The fallacies associated with the gauge concept in electromagnetism are illustrated. A clearer and more valid formulation of the basics of classical electromagnetism is provided by recognizing existing physical constraints as well as the physical reality of the vector potential.

  17. Electromagnetic fields in stratified media

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Dealing with an important branch of electromagnetic theory with many useful applications in subsurface communication, radar, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics, this book introduces electromagnetic theory and wave propagation in complex media.

  18. Electromagnetic interference: a radiant future!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Although Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic Compatibility are well established domains, the introduction of new technologies results in new challenges. Changes in both measurement techniques, and technological trends resulting in new types of interference are described. These are the

  19. Electromagnetic Sampo soundings at Olkiluoto in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korhonen, K.; Lehtimaeki, J.

    2007-11-01

    The Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) carried out a Sampo Gefinex 400S frequency domain electromagnetic (EM) survey in the central part of the eastern Olkiluoto island. The survey comprised a total of 408 soundings; 134 of these were measurements of EM noise. The goal of the survey was to supplement previously performed soundings. The measurements of EM noise were used to analyse the influence of power lines on the soundings. A statistically significant correlation was found between EM noise and the distance between the receiver and the high-voltage power line located northeast of the research area. The high-voltage power line exerted a considerable influence on the soundings. Numerical modelling was used to evaluate the effect of a dipping layer on the interpretation of Sampo soundings, which is based on the 1-D layered earth model. The results indicate that Sampo interpretation is robust even in the case of a dipping layer, assuming that the dip of the layer is not steep, and both the transmitter and receiver are located above the layer. The interpretations of the soundings indicate three conducting layers. There appear to be two layers of significant conductivity above the depth of 600 m. These layers may be indications of sulphide and/or graphite rich layers. Furthermore, a deeper conducting layer below the depth of 600 m was also indicated by the interpretations. This layer may indicate deep saline groundwater. (orig.)

  20. Visualizing electromagnetic fields in metals by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrika Sefcikova Chandrashekar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Based upon Maxwell’s equations, it has long been established that oscillating electromagnetic (EM fields incident upon a metal surface, decay exponentially inside the conductor, leading to a virtual absence of EM fields at sufficient depths. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI utilizes radiofrequency (r.f. EM fields to produce images. Here we present a visualization of a virtual EM vacuum inside a bulk metal strip by MRI, amongst several findings. At its simplest, an MRI image is an intensity map of density variations across voxels (pixels of identical size (=Δx Δy Δz. By contrast in bulk metal MRI, we uncover that despite uniform density, intensity variations arise from differing effective elemental volumes (voxels from different parts of the bulk metal. Further, we furnish chemical shift imaging (CSI results that discriminate different faces (surfaces of a metal block according to their distinct nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR chemical shifts, which holds much promise for monitoring surface chemical reactions noninvasively. Bulk metals are ubiquitous, and MRI is a premier noninvasive diagnostic tool. Combining the two, the emerging field of bulk metal MRI can be expected to grow in importance. The findings here may impact further development of bulk metal MRI and CSI.

  1. Surficial geologic map of the Heath-Northfield-Southwick-Hampden 24-quadrangle area in the Connecticut Valley region, west-central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Janet R.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    The surficial geologic map layer shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 24 7.5-minute quadrangles (1,238 mi2 total) in west-central Massachusetts. Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and as resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, and organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for assessing water resources, construction aggregate resources, and earth-surface hazards, and for making land-use decisions. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text, quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  2. Low frequency electromagnetic field sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Min; Zhou Yan; He Yicheng; Zheng Zhenxing; Liu Sunkun

    2000-01-01

    The measurement technique of low frequency electromagnetic field is reported. According to this principle, the authors have designed a sensor, which is used to measure the natural electromagnetic field, SLEMP and electromagnetic signals generated by some explosions. The frequency band of this sensor is from 0.08 Hz to 2 MHz

  3. Electromagnetic radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jay L.; Hansen, Gordon J.

    1976-01-01

    An electromagnetic radiation detector including a collimating window, a cathode member having a photoelectric emissive material surface angularly disposed to said window whereby radiation is impinged thereon at acute angles, an anode, separated from the cathode member by an evacuated space, for collecting photoelectrons emitted from the emissive cathode surface, and a negatively biased, high transmissive grid disposed between the cathode member and anode.

  4. Disconnected electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, Walter

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary results of a calculation of disconnected nucleon electromagnetic factors factors on the lattice are presented. The implementation of the numerical subtraction scheme is outlined. A comparison of results for electric and magnetic disconnected form factors on two lattice sizes with those of the Kentucky group is presented. Unlike previous results, the results found in this calculation are consistent with zero in these sectors

  5. Electromagnetic distance measurement

    CERN Document Server

    1967-01-01

    This book brings together the work of forty-eight geodesists from twenty-five countries. They discuss various new electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) instruments - among them the Tellurometer, Geodimeter, and air- and satellite-borne systems - and investigate the complex sources of error.

  6. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  7. Electromagnetic Environments Simulator (EMES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnado, G.B.

    1975-11-01

    A multipurpose electromagnetic environments simulator has been designed to provide a capability for performing EMR, EMP, and lightning near stroke testing of systems, subsystems and components in a single facility. This report describes the final facility design and presents the analytical and experimental verification of the design

  8. Pregnancy and electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisseriex, Ch.; Laurent, P.; Cabaret, Ph.; Bonnet, C.; Marteau, E.; Le Berre, G.; Tirlemont, S.; Castro, H.; Becker, A.; Demaret, Ph.; Donati, M.; Ganem, Y.; Moureaux, P.

    2011-07-01

    This document briefly indicates the status of knowledge regarding the effect of magnetic fields on biological tissues and pregnancy, outlines the lack of data on some frequencies and the weakness of studies on long term effects on child development. It evokes the issue of exposure assessment and that of identification of workstations exposed to electromagnetic fields

  9. Electromagnetic structure of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.G.

    1986-07-01

    A brief review is given of selected topics in the electromagnetic structure of nucleons and nuclei, including nucleon form factors from both quantum chromodynamics and electron scattering data, measurements of the deuteron and triton form factors, quasi-elastic scattering, and the EMC effect. 47 refs., 13 figs

  10. "Hearing" Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Marta; Munoz, Juan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an educational experience is described in which a microwave communication link is used to make students aware that all electromagnetic waves have the same physical nature and properties. Experimental demonstrations are linked to theoretical concepts to increase comprehension of the physical principles underlying electromagnetic…

  11. Electromagnetic resonance waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaba, J.M.; Manjon, F.J.; Guirao, A.; Andres, M.V.

    1994-01-01

    We describe in this paper a set of experiments designed to make qualitative and quantitative measurements on electromagnetic resonances of several simple systems. The experiments are designed for the undergraduate laboratory of Electricity and Magnetism in Physics. These experiments can help the students understanding the concept of resonance, which appears in different fields of Physics. (Author) 8 refs

  12. Gauge theory of weak, electromagnetic and dual electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soln, J.

    1980-01-01

    An SU 2 x U 1 algebra, in addition to the ordinary electric charge, also establishes the existence of the dual electric charge. This is taken as an indication of the existence of dual electromagnetic interactions in nature. Here, the unification of weak, electromagnetic and dual electromagnetic interactions is performed. The Yang-Mills-type group which contains the electromagnetic, dual electromagnetic and weak currents is SUsub(L,2) x U 1 x U' 1 . The masses of vector mesons are generated through the Higgs-Kibble mechanism. A simple consistency requirement suggests that dual electromagnetism and ordinary electromagnetism have the same strengths, leading the theory to a rather good agreement with experiments. (author)

  13. Magnesiothermic reduction of rice husk ash for electromagnetic wave adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shu-Ting; Yan, Kang-kang; Zhang, Yuan hu; Jin, Shi-di; Ye, Ying; Chen, Xue-Gang, E-mail: chenxg83@zju.edu.cn

    2015-11-15

    The increase in electromagnetic pollution due to the extensive exploitation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in modern technology creates correspondingly urgent need for developing effective EM wave absorbers. In this study, we carried out the magnesiothermic reduced the rice husk ash under different temperatures (400–800 °C) and investigated the electromagnetic wave adsorption of the products. The EM absorbing for all samples are mainly depend on the dielectric loss, which is ascribed to the carbon and silicon carbide content. RA samples (raw rice husk ashed in air and was magesiothermic reduced in different temperatures) exhibit poor dielectric properties, whereas RN samples (raw rice husk ashed in nitrogen and was magesiothermic reduced in different temperatures) with higher content of carbon and silicon carbide display considerable higher dielectric loss values and broader bandwidth for RL<−5 dB and −10 dB. For RN samples, the maximum bandwidth for −5 dB and −10 dB decrease with carbon contents, while the optimum thickness decrease with increasing SiC content. The optimum thickness of RN400–800 for EM absorption is 1.5–2.0 mm, with maximum RL of between −28.9 and −68.4 dB, bandwidth of 6.7–13 GHz for RL<−5 dB and 3.2–6.2 GHz for RL<−10 dB. The magnesiothermic reduction will enhance the potential application of rice husk ash in EM wave absorption and the samples benefited from low bulk density and low thickness. With the advantages of light-weight, high EM wave absorption, low cost, RN400–800 could be promising candidates for light-weight EM wave absorption materials over many conventional EM wave absorbers. - Highlights: • RN400–800 samples are potential light-weight electromagnetic absorbers. • Carbon and SiC are considered as dominating contributions for the dielectric loss. • Magnesiumothermic reduction extends the EM wave absorption potential of RHN.

  14. Holocene fluctuations of Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru based on lacustrine and surficial geologic archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, J. S.; Kelly, M. A.; Lowell, T. V.; Beal, S. A.; Smith, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Peru's Quelccaya Ice Cap (QIC; 13.9°S, 70.8°W, ~5200-5670 m asl) is an important site for understanding tropical paleoclimate, mainly because of annually layered ice cores that provide an ~1800 year long record of tropical paleoclimatic conditions (e.g., Thompson et al., 2013). Here, we present a detailed record of QIC fluctuations using surficial deposits and lake sediments that extend back to late glacial time. We compare the late Holocene records of QIC 10Be-dated moraines and ice core data with lake sediments from a nearby glacially fed lake to establish the framework we use to interpret a Holocene long sediment record from a glacially fed lake. We also examine sediments from a nearby non-glacial lake to constrain non-glacial clastic input. We collected two ~5 m-long sediment cores, one from Laguna Challpacocha, which is currently fed by QIC meltwater, and one from the Laguna Yanacocha, which has not received QIC meltwater since ~12.3 ka. Changes in magnetic susceptibility, loss on ignition, bulk density and X-ray fluorescence chemistry combined with 14C and 210Pb chronologies provide information about sediment transported to the lakes. Retreat from the late Holocene extent defined by the 10Be-dated moraine record (~0.52 ka) is contemporaneous with a sharp transition from organic to clastic sedimentation in the Challpacocha core at ~ 0.52 ka. This implies that glacially-sourced clastic sedimentation, as tracked by loss on ignition, Ti counts and bulk density, increased during ice cap recession. Based on these same proxy data, we suggest the following Holocene history of QIC: QIC receded from the Challpacocha basin by ~10.6 ka. Increased clastic sedimentation at 8.2 - 4.1, 3.6 - 2.7 ka and from 0.55 ka - present are interpreted as times of ice cap recession. The increased clastic sedimentation at ~8.2 - 4.1 ka is consistent with surficial deposits near the present-day ice margin that indicate that at ~7.0 - 4.6 ka QIC was smaller than at present (Buffen et al

  15. Statistical pattern analysis of surficial karst in the Pleistocene Miami oolite of South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul (Mitch); Purkis, Sam; Reyes, Bella

    2018-05-01

    A robust airborne light detection and ranging digital terrain model (LiDAR DTM) and select outcrops are used to examine the extent and characteristics of the surficial karst overprint of the late Pleistocene Miami oolite in South Florida. Subaerial exposure of the Miami oolite barrier bar and shoals to a meteoric diagenetic environment, lasting ca. 120 kyr from the end of the last interglacial highstand MIS 5e until today, has resulted in diagenetic alteration including surface and shallow subsurface dissolution producing extensive dolines and a few small stratiform caves. Analysis of the LiDAR DTM suggests that >50% of the dolines in the Miami oolite have been obscured/lost to urbanization, though a large number of depressions remain apparent and can be examined for trends and spatial patterns. The verified dolines are analyzed for their size and depth, their lateral distribution and relation to depositional topography, and the separation distance between them. Statistical pattern analysis shows that the average separation distance and average density of dolines on the strike-oriented barrier bar versus dip-oriented shoals is statistically inseparable. Doline distribution on the barrier bar is clustered because of the control exerted on dissolution by the depositional topography of the shoal system, whereas patterning of dolines in the more platform-ward lower-relief shoals is statistically indistinguishable from random. The areal extent and depth of dissolution of the dolines are well described by simple mathematical functions, and the depth of the dolines increases as a function of their size. The separation and density results from the Miami oolite are compared to results from other carbonate terrains. Near-surface, stratiform caves in the Miami oolite occur in sites where the largest and deepest dolines are present, and sit at, or near, the top of the present water table.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides in surficial coastal sediments of the Ligurian Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolotto, R.M.; Cuneo, C.; Albanese, S. [ARPAL, Direzione Scientifica, Genova (Italy); Magherini, A. [ARPAL, Dipartimento di Genova, Genova (Italy); Frignani, M.; Bellucci, L.G.; Alvarado-Aguilar, D. [ISMAR, Sezione di Geologia Marina, Bologna (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    , sources and potential toxicological significance of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in surficial sediments of the marine coastal area of the Ligurian Sea.

  17. Hydrophobic organic contaminants in surficial sediments of Baltimore Harbor: Inventories and sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, J.T.F.; Baker, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    The heavily urbanized and industrialized Baltimore Harbor/Patapsco River/Back River system is one of the most highly contaminated regions of the Chesapeake Bay. In June 1996, surficial sediments were collected at 80 sites throughout the subestuarine system, including historically undersampled creek sand embayments. The samples were analyzed for a suite of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) consisting of 32 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 113 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. Total PAH and total PCB concentrations ranged from 90 to 46,200 and 8 to 2,150 ng/g dry weight, respectively. There was enormous spatial variability in the concentrations of HOCs, which was not well correlated to grain size or organic carbon content, suggesting nonequilibrium partitioning and/or proximity to sources as important factors explaining the observed spatial variability. High concentrations of both classes of HOCs were localized around major urban stormwater runoff discharges. Elevated PAH concentrations were also centered around the Sparrow's Point Industrial Complex, most likely a result of the pyrolysis of coal during the production of steel. All but 1 of the 80 sites exceeded the effects range-low (ERL) for total PCBs and, of those sites, 40% exceeded the effects range-medium (ERM), suggesting toxicity to marine benthic organisms would frequently occur. Using principal component analysis, differences in PAH signatures were discerned. Higher molecular weight PAHs were enriched in signatures from sediments close to suspected sources (i.e., urban stormwater runoff and steel production complexes) compared to those patterns observed at sites further from outfalls or runoff. Due to varying solubilities and affinities for organic matter of the individual PAHs, partitioning of the heavier weight PAHs may enrich settling particles with high molecular weight PAHs. Lower molecular weight PAHs, having lower affinity for particles, may travel from the source to a

  18. Sedimentology of a surficial uranium deposit on North Flodelle Creek, Stevens County, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macke, D.L.; Johnson, S.Y.; Otton, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Surficial accumulations of uranium (up to 0.2 wt. % U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, dry basis) are currently forming in organic-rich, poorly drained sediments deposited in fluvial-lacustrine environments. Known occurrences are in northeastern Washington, northern Idaho, the Sierra Nevada, the Colorado Front Range, New Hampshire, and several areas in Canada. The first accumulation of this type to be mined is in postglacial sediments of a 10-acre boggy meadow along North Flodelle Creek in Stevens County, Washington. The meadow is flanked by hills of fine- to medium-grained two-mica quartz monzonite that are mantled by glacial drift of late Wisconsin age (about 18,000 to 11,500 yr B.P.). Relatively thick, hummocky deposits of this same glacial drift impede drainage at the lower end of the meadow. Following ice retreat, glacial sediments on the meadow floor were reworked by fluvial processes, and patches of organic-rich sediment may have formed in ice-melt depressions. About 6700 yr B.P., a blanket of Mazama ash from the Crater Lake eruption was deposited in the meadow. Shortly thereafter, a beaver dam across the lower end of the meadow further restricted drainage, and peat and organic mud accumulated in the pond behind the dam. The dam is preserved in the stratigraphic record as a sheet-like body of woody peat (with beaver-gnawed sticks) about 100m wide and 60 cm thick. After the gradual influx of sand and coarse silt had filled the pond, and the beavers had abandoned the site, fluvial deposition was reestablished

  19. Latest Pleistocene and Holocene surficial deposits and landforms of Yosemite Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, E. K.; Stock, G. M.; Booth, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    Field studies on the surficial geology and geomorphology of Yosemite Valley since the 1870's formed an early basis for our understanding of Quaternary landscape evolution in the central Sierra Nevada. These landmark studies described the erosional origin of Yosemite's iconic scenery, but left details of the latest Pleistocene and Holocene sedimentary record for later investigation. We combined mapping of deposits and landforms with geochronology to reconstruct the geomorphic evolution of Yosemite Valley since the 15 ka retreat of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) valley glacier. We document a sustained period of relative landscape stability, characterized by valley-bottom aggradation of glacial till, fluvial sediments, and lacustrine silts, as well as valley-margin accumulation of talus and fan alluvium. Recessional moraines, episodically emplaced rock avalanches, and alluvial fans impeded surface flow and controlled the local base level. This predominantly aggradational regime then shifted to incision in the earliest Holocene, likely due to a diminishing supply of glacial sediment, and created a flight of fluvial terraces inset by up to 9 m. The volume of fringing talus and fan alluvium in comparison with fluvial terrace sequences emphasizes the importance of valley-wall erosion as a sediment source. Cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages from rock avalanche boulders and 14C charcoal ages from deltaic sequences and inset fluvial gravels suggest variable rates of Holocene river incision. Although some incision events likely record local base level changes at the El Capitan LGM recessional moraine, the presence of perched, well-developed outwash terraces downstream indicates a more regional climatic forcing. These findings, including the depositional record of land-use disturbances over the past two centuries, help illuminate the geologic evolution of this celebrated landscape and inform ongoing river-restoration work.

  20. Wave propagation in electromagnetic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    This book is concerned with wave propagation in reacting media, specifically in electromagnetic materials. An account is presented of the mathematical methods of wave phenomena in electromagnetic materials. The author presents the theory of time-varying electromagnetic fields, which involves a discussion of Faraday's laws, Maxwell's equations and their application to electromagnetic wave propagation under a variety of conditions. The author gives a discussion of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics. Chapters are included on quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity. The mathematical foundation of electromagnetic waves vis a vis partial differential equations is discussed

  1. Um estudo piloto na avaliação das estratégias posturais em jovens e idosos usando um sistema eletromagnético tridimensional A pilot study on the evaluation of postural strategies in young and elderly subjects using a tridimensional electromagnetic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ailton Oliveira Carneiro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Para manter o equilíbrio postural, algumas estratégias posturais são normalmente usadas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as estratégias posturais de jovens e idosos em diferentes condições sensoriais usando um sistema de sensores eletromagnéticos tridimensionais posicionados na primeira vértebra torácica e região sacral. Também reportamos valores de oscilação postural dos jovens e idosos. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal observacional. Participaram do estudo 25 jovens e 16 idosas. O equipamento PolhemusTM com dois sensores foi usado para avaliar os parâmetros de oscilação postural (deslocamento máximo, velocidade média e trajetória. A aquisição dos dados foi realizada com os sujeitos em pé, realizando um teste de 90 segundos para as quatro condições sensoriais: olhos abertos e fechados nas superfícies estável e instável. RESULTADOS: Os sensores 1 e 2 apresentaram alta correlação cruzada em todas as condições sensoriais para ambos os grupos (r > 0.99; p One resorts to various postural strategies while attempting to maintain balance. OBJECTIVE: To assess the postural strategies adopted by young and elderly subjects in varying sensory conditions by using a system of tridimensional electromagnetic sensors positioned on the projection of the first thoracic vertebra and on the sacral region. Postural oscillation values for young and elderly subjects were also reported. METHOD: This observational cross-sectional study enrolled 25 young and 16 elderly individuals. A PolhemusTM device equipped with two sensors was used to assess postural oscillation parameters (maximum displacement, mean velocity, and trajectory. Data acquisition was carried out with subjects standing while undergoing a 90-second test in four sensory conditions: eyes opened, eyes closed, on a stable surface, and on an unstable surface. RESULTS: Sensors 1 and 2 presented significant cross-correlations in all sensory conditions for both groups (r > 0.99; p < 0.001. No

  2. Progress in Geant4 Electromagnetic Physics Modelling and Validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolakis, J; Burkhardt, H; Ivanchenko, V N; Asai, M; Bagulya, A; Grichine, V; Brown, J M C; Chikuma, N; Cortes-Giraldo, M A; Elles, S; Jacquemier, J; Guatelli, S; Incerti, S; Kadri, O; Maire, M; Urban, L; Pandola, L; Sawkey, D; Toshito, T; Yamashita, T

    2015-01-01

    In this work we report on recent improvements in the electromagnetic (EM) physics models of Geant4 and new validations of EM physics. Improvements have been made in models of the photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, gamma conversion to electron and muon pairs, fluctuations of energy loss, multiple scattering, synchrotron radiation, and high energy positron annihilation. The results of these developments are included in the new Geant4 version 10.1 and in patches to previous versions 9.6 and 10.0 that are planned to be used for production for run-2 at LHC. The Geant4 validation suite for EM physics has been extended and new validation results are shown in this work. In particular, the effect of gamma-nuclear interactions on EM shower shape at LHC energies is discussed. (paper)

  3. Anisotropic Bianchi II cosmological models with matter and electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, D.

    1978-01-01

    A class of solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations is presented, which corresponds to anisotropic Bianchi II spatially homogeneous cosmological models with perfect fluid and electromagnetic field. A particular model is examined and shown to be unstable for perturbations of the electromagnetic field strength parameter about a particular value. This value defines a limiar unstable case in which the ratio epsilon, of the fluid density to the e.m. energy density is monotonically increasing with a minimum finite value at the singularity. Beyond this limiar, the model has a matter dominated singularity, and a characteristic stage appears where epsilon has a minimum, at a finite time from the singularity. For large times, the models tend to an exact solution for zero electromagnetic field and fluid with p = (1/5)p. Some cosmological features of the models are calculated, as the effect of anisotropy on matter density and expansion time scale factors, as compared to the corresponding Friedmann model [pt

  4. QUICKSILVER - A general tool for electromagnetic PIC simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, David B.; Coats, Rebecca S.; Johnson, William A.; Kiefer, Mark L.; Mix, L. Paul; Pasik, Michael F.; Pointon, Timothy D.; Quintenz, Jeffrey P.; Riley, Douglas J.; Turner, C. David

    1997-01-01

    The dramatic increase in computational capability that has occurred over the last ten years has allowed fully electromagnetic simulations of large, complex, three-dimensional systems to move progressively from impractical, to expensive, and recently, to routine and widespread. This is particularly true for systems that require the motion of free charge to be self-consistently treated. The QUICKSILVER electromagnetic Particle-In-Cell (EM-PIC) code has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to provide a general tool to simulate a wide variety of such systems. This tool has found widespread use for many diverse applications, including high-current electron and ion diodes, magnetically insulated power transmission systems, high-power microwave oscillators, high-frequency digital and analog integrated circuit packages, microwave integrated circuit components, antenna systems, radar cross-section applications, and electromagnetic interaction with biological material. This paper will give a brief overview of QUICKSILVER and provide some thoughts on its future development

  5. Evaluation of reciprocating electromagnetic air pumping for portable PEMFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kilsung; Kang, Ho; Kang, Seongwon; Kim, Daejoong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) integrated with an electromagnetic (EM) air pump. The EM air pump provides the PEMFC with air by reciprocating motions of the permanent magnet attached to a flexible membrane. We performed a parametric study to decide the optimal dimensions of the reciprocating EM air pump. The effects of various operating parameters on the EM air pump were investigated with the root-mean-square (RMS) flow rate and current. A core with a higher relative permeability shows better performance. The RMS current linearly increases with the applied voltage and shows no dependence on the frequency. The RMS flow rate also increases with the voltage. The RMS flow rate per power consumption is highest at the frequency around 20 Hz and decreases as the applied voltage increases. When the reciprocating EM air pump was used to supply air to the portable PEMFC, it was found that the power density of the PEMFC increases with the applied voltage and shows the highest performance at the frequency of 10 Hz. We compared the performance of the PEMFC between the flow meter and the EM air pump used as an air supplier. About 81% of the output power using the flow meter was obtained when the EM air pump is operated at the applied voltage of 5 V. The parasitic power ratio reaches at its minimum value about 0.1 with an EM applied voltage of 0.25V. (paper)

  6. Even Shallower Exploration with Airborne Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Kirkegaard, C.; Nyboe, N. S.; Sørensen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne electromagnetics (EM) is in many ways undergoing the same type rapid technological development as seen in the telecommunication industry. These developments are driven by a steadily increasing demand for exploration of minerals, groundwater and geotechnical targets. The latter two areas demand shallow and accurate resolution of the near surface geology in terms of both resistivity and spatial delineation of the sedimentary layers. Airborne EM systems measure the grounds electromagnetic response when subject to either a continuous discrete sinusoidal transmitter signal (frequency domain) or by measuring the decay of currents induced in the ground by rapid transmission of transient pulses (time domain). In the last decade almost all new developments of both instrument hardware and data processing techniques has focused around time domain systems. Here we present a concept for measuring the time domain response even before the transient transmitter current has been turned off. Our approach relies on a combination of new instrument hardware and novel modeling algorithms. The newly developed hardware allows for measuring the instruments complete transfer function which is convolved with the synthetic earth response in the inversion algorithm. The effect is that earth response data measured while the transmitter current is turned off can be included in the inversion, significantly increasing the amount of available information. We demonstrate the technique using both synthetic and field data. The synthetic examples provide insight on the physics during the turn off process and the field examples document the robustness of the method. Geological near surface structures can now be resolved to a degree that is unprecedented to the best of our knowledge, making airborne EM even more attractive and cost-effective for exploration of water and minerals that are crucial for the function of our societies.

  7. Electromagnetic wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave energy is converted into electric power with an array of mutually insulated electromagnetic wave absorber elements each responsive to an electric field component of the wave as it impinges thereon. Each element includes a portion tapered in the direction of wave propagation to provide a relatively wideband response spectrum. Each element includes an output for deriving a voltage replica of the electric field variations intercepted by it. Adjacent elements are positioned relative to each other so that an electric field subsists between adjacent elements in response to the impinging wave. The electric field results in a voltage difference between adjacent elements that is fed to a rectifier to derive dc output power.

  8. Electromagnetic fields and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Iskander, Magdy F

    2013-01-01

    The latest edition of Electromagnetic Fields and Waves retains an authoritative, balanced approach, in-depth coverage, extensive analysis, and use of computational techniques to provide a complete understanding of electromagnetic—important to all electrical engineering students. An essential feature of this innovative text is the early introduction of Maxwell's equations, together with the quantifying experimental observations made by the pioneers who discovered electromagnetics. This approach directly links the mathematical relations in Maxwell's equations to real experiments and facilitates a fundamental understanding of wave propagation and use in modern practical applications, especially in today's wireless world. New and expanded topics include the conceptual relationship between Coulomb's law and Gauss's law for calculating electric fields, the relationship between Biot-Savart's and Ampere's laws and their use in calculating magnetic fields from current sources, the development of Faraday's law from e...

  9. Transmission of electromagnetic waves through sub-wavelength channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Mortensen, Asger

    2010-01-01

    We propose a method of tunneling electromagnetic (EM) waves through a channel with sub-wavelength cross section. By filling the channel with high-ε isotropic material and implementing two matching layers with uniaxial metamterial substrates, the guided waves can go through the narrow channel...... without being cut off, as if it has just passed through the original empty waveguide. Both the magnitude and phase information of the EM fields can be effectively restored after passing this channel, regardless of the polarization of the incoming wave. The performance of this subwavelength channel, which...

  10. Interaction of free charged particles with a chirped electromagnetic pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; Goor, F.A. van; Boller, K.-J.

    2004-01-01

    We study the effect of chirp on electromagnetic (EM) pulse interaction with a charged particle. Both the one-dimensional (1D) and 3D cases are considered. It is found that, in contrast to the case of a nonchirped pulse, the charged particle energy can be changed after the interaction with a 1D EM chirped pulse. Different types of chirp and pulse envelopes are considered. In the case of small chirp, an analytical expression is found for arbitrary temporal profiles of the chirp and the pulse envelope. In the 3D case, the interaction with a chirped pulse results in a polarization-dependent scattering of charged particles

  11. Magnetization reversal in ferromagnetic film through solitons by electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veerakumar, V.; Daniel, M.

    2001-07-01

    We study the reversal of magnetization in an isotopic ferromagnetic film free from charges by exposing it to a circularly polarized electromagnetic (EM) field. The magnetization excitations are obtained in the form of line and lump solitons of the completely integrable modified KP-II equation which is derived using a reductive perturbation method from the set of coupled Landau-Lifschitz and Maxwell equations. It is observed that when the polarization of the EM-field is reversed followed by a rotation, for every (π)/2-degrees, the magnetization is reversed. (author)

  12. Induced polarization and electromagnetic field surveys of sedimentary uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.L.; Smith, B.D.

    1985-01-01

    Induced polarization (IP) and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical surveys were made over three areas of sedimentary uranium deposits in the western United States. The EM techniques were sometimes useful for investigating general structural settings, but not for finding uranium deposits per se. IP techniques were useful to help pinpoint zones of disseminated pyrite associated with the uranium deposits. In one case no clear differences were seen between the IP signatures of oxidized and reduced ground. Spectral (multi-frequency) IP showed no particular advantages over conventional IP for exploration applications. A sediment mineralization factor is introduced comparable to the ''metal factor'' used to detect porphyry copper mineralization. (author)

  13. Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramotnev, D. K.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation, that is, reducing the cross sections of propagating optical modes far beyond the diffraction limit in dielectric media, can be achieved in tapered metal-dielectric waveguides that support surface plasmon-polariton modes. Although the main principles...... radiation on the nanoscale. Here, we present the underlying physical principles of radiation nanofocusing in metallic nanostructures, overview recent progress and major developments, and consider future directions and potential applications of this subfield of nano-optics....

  14. Electromagnetic Hammer for Metalworking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. A.; Brunet, F.; Dowd, A.; Durham, R.; Ezell, J.; Gorr, G.; Hartley, D.; Jackson, F.; Marchand, J.; Macfarlane, W.; hide

    1986-01-01

    High eddy currents apply pressure for cold-forming. Coil housing constructed for mechanical strength to hold coil against magnetic force, to maintain electrical contact with coil ends, and to maintain insulation between coil turns. Drilled holes placed to facilitate release of bubbles during potting. In contrast with mechanical hammers, electromagnetic hammer requires no dynamic material contact with workpiece; consequently, produces almost no change in metal grain structure.

  15. Electromagnetic compatibility and earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque Henao, Alan; Casas Ospina, Favio

    2001-01-01

    It is such the increment of applications of electric and electronic equipment in the modern companies that the lack of control of the electromagnetic perturbations, brings, get big losses and difficulties in the normal operations. The paper contribute to ago with base in the challenges that day-by-day are confronting, where the settings to earth, to be the foundation of the electric building, are fundamental for a good coexistence among the different equipment s

  16. Hard Electromagnetic Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, F.

    1987-09-01

    Among hard electromagnetic processes, I will use the most recent data and focus on quantitative test of QCD. More specifically, I will retain two items: - hadroproduction of direct photons, - Drell-Yan. In addition, I will briefly discuss a recent analysis of ISR data obtained with AFS (Axial Field Spectrometer) which sheds a new light on the e/π puzzle at low P T

  17. Introduction to electromagnetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, George E

    2003-01-01

    A direct, stimulating approach to electromagnetic theory, this text employs matrices and matrix methods for the simple development of broad theorems. The author uses vector representation throughout the book, with numerous applications of Poisson's equation and the Laplace equation (the latter occurring in both electronics and magnetic media). Contents include the electrostatics of point charges, distributions of charge, conductors and dielectrics, currents and circuits, and the Lorentz force and the magnetic field. Additional topics comprise the magnetic field of steady currents, induced ele

  18. Electromagnetic polarizabilities of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Electromagnetic polarizabilities of hadrons are reviewed, after a discussion of classical analogues. Differences between relativistic and non-relativistic approaches can lead to conflicts with conventional nuclear physics sum rules and calculational techniques. The nucleon polarizabilities are discussed in the context of the non-relativistic valence quark model, which provides a good qualitative description. The recently measured pion polarizabilities are discussed in the context of chiral symmetry and quark-loop models. 58 refs., 5 figs

  19. Electromagnetism and interconnections

    CERN Document Server

    Charruau, S

    2009-01-01

    This book covers the theoretical problems of modeling electrical behavior of the interconnections encountered in everyday electronic products. The coverage shows the theoretical tools of waveform prediction at work in the design of a complex and high-speed digital electronic system. Scientists, research engineers, and postgraduate students interested in electromagnetism, microwave theory, electrical engineering, or the development of simulation tools software for high speed electronic system design automation will find this book an illuminating resource.

  20. Electromagnetic radiation unmasked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, P.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the nature of the electromagnetic waves, what they are and how do they affect us. Current concern is focused on exposure to low level power-frequency magnetic fields like microwave radiation from mobile phones and leaking microwave ovens; high power radiation from defence and airport radars; fields close to high voltage transmission lines; radio frequency fields from industrial welders and heaters and DC magnetic fields in aluminium smelters. These fields with frequency less than 300 GHz do not carry sufficient energy to break chemical bonds and it is assumed that they cannot damage cell DNA. The amount of radiation absorbed by a human exposed to far field electromagnetic radiation (EMR) depends on the orientation and size of the person. In the 30-300 MHz range it is possible to excite resonance in the whole or partial body such as the head. It is emphasised that since there are some evidence that electromagnetic fields do harm, a policy of prudent avoidance is recommended, especially for children. ills

  1. The electromagnetic dark sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, Jose Beltran; Maroto, Antonio L.

    2010-01-01

    We consider electromagnetic field quantization in an expanding universe. We find that the covariant (Gupta-Bleuler) method exhibits certain difficulties when trying to impose the quantum Lorenz condition on cosmological scales. We thus explore the possibility of consistently quantizing without imposing such a condition. In this case there are three physical states, which are the two transverse polarizations of the massless photon and a new massless scalar mode coming from the temporal and longitudinal components of the electromagnetic field. An explicit example in de Sitter space-time shows that it is still possible to eliminate the negative norm state and to ensure the positivity of the energy in this theory. The new state is decoupled from the conserved electromagnetic currents, but is non-conformally coupled to gravity and therefore can be excited from vacuum fluctuations by the expanding background. The cosmological evolution ensures that the new state modifies Maxwell's equations in a totally negligible way on sub-Hubble scales. However, on cosmological scales it can give rise to a non-negligible energy density which could explain in a natural way the present phase of accelerated expansion of the universe.

  2. Electromagnetic solitons in degenerate relativistic electron–positron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhiani, V I; Shatashvili, N L; Tsintsadze, N L

    2015-01-01

    The existence of soliton-like electromagnetic (EM) distributions in a fully degenerate electron–positron plasma is studied applying relativistic hydrodynamic and Maxwell equations. For a circularly polarized wave it is found that the soliton solutions exist both in relativistic as well as nonrelativistic degenerate plasmas. Plasma density in the region of soliton pulse localization is reduced considerably. The possibility of plasma cavitation is also shown. (invited comment)

  3. Asymptotical behaviour of pion electromagnetic form factor in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.V.; Radyushkin, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    In the framework of the renormalizable quantum field theory a new approach is developed to the investigation of asymptotical behaviour of two-particle bound state electromagnetic form factor. It is shown that the behaviour of the pion EM form factor in quantum chromodynamics at sufficiently large momentum transfers is controlled by the short-distance dynamics only. The formula is obtained which expresses the asymptotical behaviour of the pion form factor in terms of the fundamental constants of the theory

  4. VETEM -- a very early time electromagnetic system -- year 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellerin, L.; Pfeifer, M.C.; Labson, V.F.

    1996-01-01

    In electrically conductive conditions common in environmental characterization studies the minimum depth of investigation for traditional electromagnetic (EM) sounding techniques is roughly 5 meters, while ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems often investigate no more than the top meter or so when clay minerals are present in the soil. Bridging this gap is essential to the characterization of buried waste, contaminant plumes, and other environmental and hydrogeological targets located in the shallow subsurface. The Very Early Time Electromagnetic (VETEM) system is designed to ascertain the conductivity and dielectric properties of the shallow subsurface in conductive terrain. Hence, the one-dimensional (1-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) numerical modeling algorithms, developed in the first year of the project, contain the full solution to the EM problem including both displacement and conduction currents. The VETEM system fills a gap between EM and GPR, but all three methods are necessary to successfully image the shallow subsurface. To achieve the goal of fully 3-D subsurface imaging, the VETEM project is hosting the Electromagnetic Integrated Demonstration (EMID) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's Cold Test Pit (INEL's CTP). Over a dozen EM systems will acquire data over the same survey area for interpretation in conjunction with the VETEM team. The prototype time-domain instrument employs a magnetic dipole transmitter and receiver and operates from 10 nano-second to a micro-second. The USGS high frequency sounder (HFS), which served as the VETEM proof-of-concept, uses the same antenna geometry as the time-domain instrument and acquires data from 30 kHz to 30 MHz. The first VETEM survey was recently conducted at the INEL's CTP as a part of the EMID. The electromagnetic migration technique is being investigated for interpretation of the VETEM data

  5. Manipulating electromagnetic waves with metamaterials: Concept and microwave realizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qiong; Xiao Shi-Yi; Li Xin; Song Zheng-Yong; Sun Wu-Jiong; Zhou Lei; Sun Shu-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Our recent efforts in manipulating electromagnetic (EM) waves using metamaterials (MTMs) are reviewed with emphasis on 1) manipulating wave polarization and transporting properties using homogeneous MTMs, 2) manipulating surface-wave properties using plasmonic MTMs, and 3) bridging propagating and surface waves using inhomogeneous meta-surfaces. For all these topics, we first illustrate the physical concepts and then present several typical practical realizations and applications in the microwave regime. (topical review - plasmonics and metamaterials)

  6. Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Bradly J [Jemez Springs, NM; Guenther, David C [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.

  7. Electromagnetic force on a brane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental assumption in the theory of brane world is that all matter and radiation are confined on the four-dimensional brane and only gravitons can propagate in the five-dimensional bulk spacetime. The brane world theory did not provide an explanation for the existence of electromagnetic fields and the origin of the electromagnetic field equation. In this paper, we propose a model for explaining the existence of electromagnetic fields on a brane and deriving the electromagnetic field equation. Similar to the case in Kaluza–Klein theory, we find that electromagnetic fields and the electromagnetic field equation can be derived from the five-dimensional Einstein field equation. However, the derived electromagnetic field equation differs from the Maxwell equation by containing a term with the electromagnetic potential vector coupled to the spacetime curvature tensor. So it can be considered as generalization of the Maxwell equation in a curved spacetime. The gravitational field equation on the brane is also derived with the stress–energy tensor for electromagnetic fields explicitly included and the Weyl tensor term explicitly expressed with matter fields and their derivatives in the direction of the extra-dimension. The model proposed in the paper can be regarded as unification of electromagnetic and gravitational interactions in the framework of brane world theory. (paper)

  8. Numerical model of electromagnetic scattering off a subterranean 3-dimensional dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dease, C.G.; Didwall, E.M.

    1983-08-01

    As part of the effort to develop On-Site Inspection (OSI) techniques for verification of compliance to a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a computer code was developed to predict the interaction of an electromagnetic (EM) wave with an underground cavity. Results from the code were used to evaluate the use of surface electromagnetic exploration techniques for detection of underground cavities or rubble-filled regions characteristic of underground nuclear explosions

  9. Geologic Map and Engineering Properties of the Surficial Deposits of the Tok Area, East-Central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2007-01-01

    The Tok area 1:100,000-scale map, through which the Alaska Highway runs, is in east-central Alaska about 160 km west of the Yukon border. The surficial geologic mapping in the map area is in support of the 'Geologic Mapping in support of land, resources, and hazards issues in Alaska' Project of the USGS National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program. The Tok map area contains parts of three physiographic provinces, the Alaska Range, the Yukon-Tanana Upland, and the Northway-Tanana Lowland. The high, rugged, glaciated landscape of the eastern Alaska Range dominates the southwestern map area. The highest peak, an unnamed summit at the head of Cathedral Rapids Creek No. 2, rises to 2166 m. The gently rolling hills of the Yukon-Tanana Upland, in the northern map area, rise to about 1000 m. The Northway-Tanana Lowland contains the valley of the westerly flowing Tanana River. Elevations along the floor of the lowland generally range between 470 and 520 m. The dominant feature within the map is the Tok fan, which occupies about 20 percent of the map area. This large (450 km2), nearly featureless fan contains a high percentage of volcanic clasts derived from outside the present-day drainage of the Tok River. Because the map area is dominated by various surficial deposits, the map depicts 26 different surficial units consisting of man-made, alluvial, colluvial, eolian, lacustrine, organic, glaciofluvial, glacial, and periglacial deposits. The accompanying table provides information concerning the various units including their properties, characteristics, resource potential, and associated hazards in this area of the upper Tanana valley.

  10. An Overview of Electromagnetics-Related Research Status in Vietnam(Asia-Pacific Symposium on Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (APSAEM08))

    OpenAIRE

    N. H., Phuc; D. L., Mo; T. V., Su; D. M., Tien; Faculty of Electrical-Electronics Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology; Faculty of Electrical-Electronics Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology; Faculty of Electrical-Electronics Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology; Faculty of Electrical-Electronics Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the electromagnetics (EM) related research status in Vietnamese universities. A survey is carried on researches on EM field computer simulations from low frequency problems in power devices up to high frequency wave propagation. Depending on the mathematical formulation, the methods in use can be narrowed down to integral equation (IE) models or differential equation (DE) models. In general, moment method involves IE modeling whereas finite element method (F...

  11. Surficial Geologic Map of Mesa Verde National Park, Montezuma County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado was established in 1906 to preserve and protect the artifacts and dwelling sites, including the famous cliff dwellings, of the Ancestral Puebloan people who lived in the area from about A.D. 550 to A.D. 1300. In 1978, the United Nations designated the park as a World Heritage Site. The geology of the park played a key role in the lives of these ancient people. For example, the numerous (approximately 600) cliff dwellings are closely associated with the Cliff House Sandstone of Late Cretaceous age, which weathers to form deep alcoves. In addition, the ancient people farmed the thick, red loess (wind-blown dust) deposits on the mesa tops, which because of its particle size distribution has good moisture retention properties. The soil in this loess cover and the seasonal rains allowed these people to grow their crops (corn, beans, and squash) on the broad mesa tops. Today, geology is still an important concern in the Mesa Verde area because the landscape is susceptible to various forms of mass movement (landslides, debris flows, rockfalls), swelling soils, and flash floods that affect the park's archeological sites and its infrastructure (roads, septic systems, utilities, and building sites). The map, which encompasses an area of about 100 mi2 (260 km2), includes all of Mesa Verde National Park, a small part of the Ute Mountain Indian Reservation that borders the park on its southern and western sides, and some Bureau of Land Management and privately owned land to the north and east. Surficial deposits depicted on the map include: artificial fills, alluvium of small ephemeral streams, alluvium deposited by the Mancos River, residual gravel on high mesas, a combination of alluvial and colluvial deposits, fan deposits, colluvial deposits derived from the Menefee Formation, colluvial deposits derived from the Mancos Shale, rockfall deposits, debris flow deposits, earthflow deposits, translational and rotational landslide

  12. Distinct bacterial communities in surficial seafloor sediments following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A major fraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons discharged during the 2010 Macondo oil spill became associated with and sank to the seafloor as marine snow flocs. This sedimentation pulse induced the development of distinct bacterial communities. Between May 2010 and July 2011, full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries demonstrated bacterial community succession in oil-polluted sediment samples near the wellhead area. Libraries from early May 2010, before the sedimentation event, served as the baseline control. Freshly deposited oil-derived marine snow was collected on the surface of sediment cores in September 2010, and was characterized by abundantly detected members of the marine Roseobacter cluster within the Alphaproteobacteria. Samples collected in mid-October 2010 closest to the wellhead contained members of the sulfate-reducing, anaerobic bacterial families Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae within the Deltaproteobacteria, suggesting that the oil-derived sedimentation pulse triggered bacterial oxygen consumption and created patchy anaerobic microniches that favored sulfate-reducing bacteria. Phylotypes of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading genus Cycloclasticus, previously found both in surface oil slicks and the deep hydrocarbon plume, were also found in oil-derived marine snow flocs sedimenting on the seafloor in September 2010, and in surficial sediments collected in October and November 2010, but not in any of the control samples. Due to the relative recalcitrance and stability of polycyclic aromatic compounds, Cycloclasticus represents the most persistent microbial marker of seafloor hydrocarbon deposition that we could identify in this dataset. The bacterial imprint of the DWH oil spill had diminished in late November 2010, when the bacterial communities in oil-impacted sediment samples collected near the Macondo wellhead began to resemble their pre-spill counterparts and spatial controls. Samples collected in summer

  13. Distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in surficial sediments of Jakarta bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali Arman Lubis

    2006-01-01

    he concentration and distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclide in surficial sediments of Jakarta Bay were investigated with the aim of evaluating its level and environmental radioactivity. Sediments were sampled in 30 locations using Smith-McIntyre Grab sampler. Sediments were dried, homogenized and sealed for 1 month for equilibration and for the detection, analysis and data acquisition, a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector coupled with a high resolution multichannel analyzer (MCA) was used. Additionally, the grain sizes were analyzed by means of hydrometer. The result shows that the specific activity of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs range from 6.71±1.01 Bq/kg to 28.63±4.29 Bq/kg, 6.46±0.97 Bq/kg to 28.21±4.23 Bq/kg, 16.62±2.49 Bq/kg to 40.46±6.07 Bq/kg, 115.80±12.16 Bq/kg to 358.69±30.49 Bq/kg, and 0.03±0.01 Bq/kg to 1.99±0.34 Bq/kg with the average value are 12.83±2.11 Bq/kg, 12.03±1.98 Bq/kg, 26.55±4.36 Bq/kg, 235.55±19.37 Bq/kg, and 0.77±0.13 Bq/kg, respectively. It shows that the activity of radionuclides in the research area are in natural level and the variation may be influenced by the grain size distribution in the sample. The absorbed dose rate and radium equivalent of gamma radiation was estimated to be 32.06±7.72 nano Grey/h and 68.14±11.20 Bq/kg, respectively. (author)

  14. Surficial geologic map of the Red Rock Lakes area, southwest Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Sojda, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    The Centennial Valley and Centennial Range continue to be formed by ongoing displacement on the Centennial fault. The dominant fault movement is downward, creating space in the valley for lakes and the deposition of sediment. The Centennial Valley originally drained to the northeast through a canyon now represented by a chain of lakes starting with Elk Lake. Subsequently, large landslides blocked and dammed the drainage, which created Lake Centennial, in the Centennial Valley. Sediments deposited in this late Pleistocene lake underlie much of the valley floor and rest on permeable sand and gravel deposited when the valley drained to the northeast. Cold Pleistocene climates enhanced colluvial supply of gravelly sediment to mountain streams and high peak flows carried gravelly sediment into the valley. There, the lower gradient of the streams resulted in deposition of alluvial fans peripheral to Lake Centennial as the lake lowered through time to the level of the two present lakes. Pleistocene glaciers formed in the high Centennial Range, built glacial moraines, and also supplied glacial outwash to the alluvial fans. Winds from the west and south blew sand to the northeast side of the valley building up high dunes. The central part of the map area is flat, sloping to the west by only 0.6 meters in 13 kilometers (2 feet in 8 miles) to form a watery lowland. This lowland contains Upper and Lower Red Rock Lakes, many ponds, and peat lands inside the “water plane,” above which are somewhat steeper slopes. The permeable sands and gravels beneath Lake Centennial sediments provide a path for groundwater recharged from the adjacent uplands. This groundwater leaks upward through Lake Centennial sediments and sustains wetland vegetation into late summer. Upper and Lower Red Rock Lakes are formed by alluvial-fan dams. Alluvial fans converge from both the south and the north to form outlet thresholds that dam the two shallow lakes upstream. The surficial geology aids in

  15. Surficial geology and stratigraphy of Pleistocene Lake Manix, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, Marith C.; Redwine, Joanna R.; Wan, Elmira; McGeehin, John P.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2014-01-01

    Pluvial Lake Manix and its surrounding drainage basin, in the central Mojave Desert of California, has been a focus of paleoclimate, surficial processes, and neotectonic studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since about 2004. The USGS initiated studies of Lake Manix deposits to improve understanding of the paleoclimatic record and the shifts in atmospheric circulation that controlled precipitation in the Mojave Desert. Until approximately 25,000 years ago, Lake Manix was the terminus of the Mojave River, which drains northeasterly from the San Bernardino Mountains; the river currently terminates in the Soda Lake and Silver Lake playas. Pleistocene Lake Manix occupied several subbasins at its maximum extent. This map focuses on the extensive exposures created by incision of the Mojave River and its tributaries into the interbedded lacustrine and alluvial deposits within the central (Cady) and northeastern (Afton) subbasins of Lake Manix, and extends from the head of Afton Canyon to Manix Wash. The map illuminates the geomorphic development and depositional history of the lake and alluvial fans within the active tectonic setting of the eastern California shear zone, especially interactions with the left-lateral Manix fault. Lake Manix left an extraordinarily detailed but complex record of numerous transgressive-regressive sequences separated by desiccation and deposition of fan, eolian, and fluvial deposits, and punctuated by tectonic movements and a catastrophic flood that reconfigured the lake basin. Through careful observation of the intercalated lacustrine and fan sequences and by determining the precise elevations of unit contacts, this record was decoded to understand the response of the lake and river system to the interplay of climatic, geomorphic, and tectonic forces. These deposits are exposed in steep badland topography. Mapping was carried out mostly at scales of 1:12,000, although the map is presented at 1:24,000 scale, and employs custom unit

  16. Interannual changes in seafloor surficial geology at an artificial reef site on the inner continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineault, Nicole A.; Trembanis, Arthur C.; Miller, Douglas C.; Capone, Vince

    2013-04-01

    The influence of reef structures on seafloor surface sediments has implications for marine spatial planning and coastal development, including use of the coastal zone for offshore wind energy. We present results of interannual changes in seafloor surficial geology at the Redbird artificial reef site, located on the continental shelf offshore of Delaware Bay. The Redbird reef is composed of NYC subway cars, barges, tugboats, and other sunken objects. Since objects were added sporadically between 1996 and 2009, the survey area acts as a natural laboratory to study the evolution of the surrounding seafloor at a structural reef habitat through time. Annual side-scan surveys from 2008 through 2011, and one bathymetric survey in 2010 provide information about surface geology and morphology. Local wave and current data for this time period were analyzed to determine the main morphological agents. Automated backscatter segmentation show that three bottom types dominate and that these large-scale (>10 m) surface sediment patterns persist from year to year. Grab samples reveal that the bottom types are silty sand with clay and sandy gravel. Clear sediment and biological patterns emerged revealing the influence of the objects on the seafloor. Comet-shaped moats of sandy gravel surround single objects and grow to form large-scale coalesced patches around groups of objects. Alignment of sediment patches suggests the periodic hydrodynamic influence of seasonal storms. The abundance and diversity of organisms increases with decreasing clay/silt content. Evidence of scour includes the removal of fine sediments, the formation of moats 1-30 m in diameter and 0.5-1 m deep around the reef objects, and the >1 m settling of objects into the seafloor. Data suggest subway cars reached equilibrium with the environment in 6-7 years, but that larger objects or clusters of objects take a longer time to equilibrate and have farther-reaching effects. Knowledge of local wave and current climate

  17. Groundwater flow and water budget in the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Nicasio; Tiedeman, Claire; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Burger, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    A numerical transient model of the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida was developed to (1) increase the understanding of water exchanges between the surficial and the Floridan aquifer systems, (2) assess the recharge rates to the surficial aquifer system from infiltration through the unsaturated zone and (3) obtain a simulation tool that could be used by water-resource managers to assess the impact of changes in groundwater withdrawals on spring flows and on the potentiometric surfaces of the hydrogeologic units composing the Floridan aquifer system. The hydrogeology of east-central Florida was evaluated and used to develop and calibrate the groundwater flow model, which simulates the regional fresh groundwater flow system. The U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional groundwater flow model, MODFLOW-2005, was used to simulate transient groundwater flow in the surficial, intermediate, and Floridan aquifer systems from 1995 to 2006. The East-Central Florida Transient model encompasses an actively simulated area of about 9,000 square miles. Although the model includes surficial processes-rainfall, irrigation, evapotranspiration (ET), runoff, infiltration, lake water levels, and stream water levels and flows-its primary purpose is to characterize and refine the understanding of groundwater flow in the Floridan aquifer system. Model-independent estimates of the partitioning of rainfall into ET, streamflow, and aquifer recharge are provided from a water-budget analysis of the surficial aquifer system. The interaction of the groundwater flow system with the surface environment was simulated using the Green-Ampt infiltration method and the MODFLOW-2005 Unsaturated-Zone Flow, Lake, and Streamflow-Routing Packages. The model is intended to simulate the part of the groundwater system that contains freshwater. The bottom and lateral boundaries of the model were established at the estimated depths where the chloride concentration is 5,000 milligrams

  18. Electromagnetic structure of a bound nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of binding on the electromagnetic (e.m.) structure of a nucleon in a nucleus is examined by means of a model consisting of a single nucleon which is bound in a harmonic oscillator potential and also coupled to the pion field through the Chew-Low interaction. The 'two-pion contribution' to the e.m. structure is considered. This is the part which is probably most susceptible to the binding effect. By the binding effect it is meant the one which arises because the nucleon wave functions, in the intermediate state as well as in the initial and final states, are distorted by the potential in which the nucleon is bound. This may be compared to a similar correction to the impulse approximation for pion-nucleus scattering. Unlike the latter which is likely to be quite appreciable, the binding correction to the e.m. structure of the nucleon is found to be negligibly small. The so-called quenching effect due to the Pauli principle when there are other nucleons is also discussed [pt

  19. On absorption of low frequency electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, S.; Vaclavik, J.

    1993-03-01

    The drift kinetic equation (DKE) is used to establish a formula for power absorption of small amplitude, low frequency electromagnetic (EM) fields in a hot toroidal axisymmetric plasma. The stationary plasma is first considered. Electrons and ions are described by local Maxwellian distributions, alpha particles by a local slowing-down distribution. The fluctuating part of the distribution function for each species is then evaluated from the linearized DKE in terms of the EM fields using a perturbation method. The parameter b p =B p /B o , where B p is the poloidal component of the magnetostatic field B o , and the parameter v d /λω, where v d is the magnetic curvature drift, λ the wavelength perpendicular to B o and ω the frequency of the EM fields, are considered to be small. By integrating the resulting distribution function over velocity space, an explicit formula for the power absorbed by each species is obtained. To obtain an expression suitable for direct implementation in an ideal-MHD code, the electric field component parallel to the magnetostatic field is evaluated using the quasi-neutrality equation. (author) 4 refs

  20. PLASMA EMISSION BY NONLINEAR ELECTROMAGNETIC PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziebell, L. F.; Petruzzellis, L. T.; Gaelzer, R. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Yoon, P. H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park (United States); Pavan, J., E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br, E-mail: laripetruzzellis@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rudi.gaelzer@ufrgs.br, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu, E-mail: joel.pavan@ufpel.edu.br [Instituto de Física e Matemática, UFPel, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2015-06-20

    The plasma emission, or electromagnetic (EM) radiation at the plasma frequency and/or its harmonic(s), is generally accepted as the radiation mechanism responsible for solar type II and III radio bursts. Identification and characterization of these solar radio burst phenomena were done in the 1950s. Despite many decades of theoretical research since then, a rigorous demonstration of the plasma emission process based upon first principles was not available until recently, when, in a recent Letter, Ziebell et al. reported the first complete numerical solution of EM weak turbulence equations; thus, quantitatively analyzing the plasma emission process starting from the initial electron beam and the associated beam-plasma (or Langmuir wave) instability, as well as the subsequent nonlinear conversion of electrostatic Langmuir turbulence into EM radiation. In the present paper, the same problem is revisited in order to elucidate the detailed physical mechanisms that could not be reported in the brief Letter format. Findings from the present paper may be useful for interpreting observations and full-particle numerical simulations.

  1. Fast breeder reactor electromagnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araseki, Hideo; Murakami, Takahiro

    2008-01-01

    Main pumps circulating sodium in the FBR type reactor have been mechanical types, not electromagnetic pumps. Electromagnetic pump of 1-2 m 3 /min has been used as an auxiliary pump. Large sized electromagnetic pumps such as several hundred m 3 /min have not been commercialized due to technical difficulties with electromagnetic instability and pressure pulsations. This article explained electromagnetic and fluid equations and magnetic Reynolds number related with electromagnetic pumps and numerical analysis of instability characteristics and pressure pulsations and then described applications of the results to FBR system. Magnetic Reynolds number must be chosen less than one with appropriate operating frequency and optimum slip of 0.2-0.4. (T. Tanaka)

  2. Study on the electromagnetic waves propagation characteristics in partially ionized plasma slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Bin Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Propagation characteristics of electromagnetic (EM waves in partially ionized plasma slabs are studied in this paper. Such features are significant to applications in plasma antennas, blackout of re-entry flying vehicles, wave energy injection to plasmas, and etc. We in this paper developed a theoretical model of EM wave propagation perpendicular to a plasma slab with a one-dimensional density inhomogeneity along propagation direction to investigate essential characteristics of EM wave propagation in nonuniform plasmas. Particularly, the EM wave propagation in sub-wavelength plasma slabs, where the geometric optics approximation fails, is studied and in comparison with thicker slabs where the geometric optics approximation applies. The influences of both plasma and collisional frequencies, as well as the width of the plasma slab, on the EM wave propagation characteristics are discussed. The results can help the further understanding of propagation behaviours of EM waves in nonuniform plasma, and applications of the interactions between EM waves and plasmas.

  3. Method of moments in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Walton C

    2007-01-01

    Responding to the need for a clear, up-to-date introduction to the field, The Method of Moments in Electromagnetics explores surface integral equations in electromagnetics and presents their numerical solution using the method of moments (MOM) technique. It provides the numerical implementation aspects at a nuts-and-bolts level while discussing integral equations and electromagnetic theory at a higher level. The author covers a range of topics in this area, from the initial underpinnings of the MOM to its current applications. He first reviews the frequency-domain electromagnetic theory and t

  4. Electromagnetic fields in biological systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, James C

    2012-01-01

    "Focusing on exposure, induced fields, and absorbed energy, this volume covers the interaction of electromagnetic fields and waves with biological systems, spanning static fields to terahertz waves...

  5. Electromagnetic waves in stratified media

    CERN Document Server

    Wait, James R; Fock, V A; Wait, J R

    2013-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Electromagnetic Waves, Volume 3: Electromagnetic Waves in Stratified Media provides information pertinent to the electromagnetic waves in media whose properties differ in one particular direction. This book discusses the important feature of the waves that enables communications at global distances. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general analysis for the electromagnetic response of a plane stratified medium comprising of any number of parallel homogeneous layers. This text then explains the reflection of electromagne

  6. Handheld Broadband Electromagnetic UXO Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Won, I. J; San Filipo, William A; Marqusee, Jeffrey; Andrews, Anne; Robitaille, George; Fairbanks, Jeffrey; Overbay, Larry

    2005-01-01

    The broadband electromagnetic sensor improvement and demonstration undertaken in this project took the prototype GEM-3 and evolved it into an operational sensor with increased bandwidth and dynamic...

  7. Battlefield Electromagnetic Environments Office (BEEO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Battlefield Electromagnetic Environments Office (BEEO) develops, maintains, and operates the Army Materiel Command (AMC) databases for spectrum management, per...

  8. Enhanced electromagnetic emission from plasmas containing positive dust grains and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.; Shukla, Nitin; Stenflo, L.

    2007-01-01

    Large amplitude high-frequency (HF) electromagnetic (EM) waves can scatter off dust-acoustic waves in plasmas containing positive dust grains and electrons, and can thus be responsible for HF enhanced electromagnetic emissions (EEE). An expression for the ensemble average of the squared HF-EEE vector potential is therefore derived, following the standard parametric interaction formalism and adopting the Rostoker superposition principle. The results should be useful for deducing the dust plasma parameters (e.g. the dust number density and dust charge) in situ, and HF intense EM beams can thus be used for diagnosis of positive dust-electron plasmas in space and laboratories

  9. Electromagnetic shielding formulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlberg, E.

    1979-02-01

    This addendum to an earlier collection of electromagnetic shielding formulae (TRITA-EPP-75-27) contains simple transfer matrices suitable for calculating the quasistatic shielding efficiency for multiple transverse-field and axial-field cylindrical and spherical shields, as well as for estimating leakage fields from long coaxial cables and the normal-incidence transmission of a plane wave through a multiple plane shield. The differences and similarities between these cases are illustrated by means of equivalent circuits and transmission line analogies. The addendum also includes a discussion of a possible heuristic improvement of some shielding formulae. (author)

  10. Handbook of electromagnetic compatibility

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    This""know-how""book gives readers a concise understanding of the fundamentals of EMC, from basic mathematical and physical concepts through present, computer-age methods used in analysis, design, and tests. With contributions from leading experts in their fields, the text provides a comprehensive overview. Fortified with information on how to solve potential electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems that may arise in electronic design, practitioners will be betterable to grasp the latest techniques, trends, and applications of this increasingly important engineering discipline.Handbook of E

  11. Introduction to electromagnetic engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Harrington, Roger E

    2003-01-01

    This study of electromagnetic theory introduces students to a broad range of quantities and concepts, imparting the necessary vector analysis and associated mathematics and reinforcing its teachings with several elementary field problems. Based on circuit theory rather than on the classical force-relationship approach, the text uses the theory of electric circuits to provide a system of experiments already familiar to the electrical engineer; a series of field concepts are then introduced as a logical extension of circuit theory. Virtually unobtainable elsewhere, this text was written by a pr

  12. Mapping surficial geology and assessment of permafrost conditions under the Iqaluit airport, Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathon-Dufour, V.; Allard, M.; Leblanc, A.; L'Hérault, E.; Oldenborger, G. A.; Sladen, W. E.

    2012-12-01

    Formerly, characterization of permafrost conditions was minimal before the construction of infrastructures. It was assumed that the permafrost would forever remain a solid substrate. Before global warming, transportation infrastructures were not designed, especially in terms of materials and dimensions, to withstand without damage an increased input of heat in the soil. Iqaluit airport, the hub of the eastern Canadian Arctic, is currently affected by thawing permafrost. In fact, the runway, taxiways and apron are affected by differential settlements resulting from the presence of localized ice-rich soils. This study uses a GIS approach that makes up for the absence of appropriate characterization before the construction of the airport during WWII and in the 1950s. Mapping of surficial geology, hydrography and landforms indicative of the presence of ground ice (e.g. tundra polygons) was produced by interpreting aerial photographs dating back from the initial phases of construction (1948) and photographs taken at intervals since then, to the most recent high-resolution satellite images. Subsequent map analysis shows that the original terrain conditions prevailing before the construction of the airport have a significant impact on the current stability of the infrastructure. Data integration allowed us to summarize the main problems affecting the Iqaluit airport which are: 1) Differential settlements associated with pre-construction drainage network 2) Cracking due to thermal contraction, 3) Linear depressions associated with ice wedge degradation and 4) Sink holes. Most of the sectors affected by differential settlements and instabilities are perfectly coincident with the original streams and lakes network that has been filled to increase the size of the runway, taxiways and the apron. In addition, the runway is affected by intense frost cracking. Similarities with nearby natural terrain suggest that the network pattern of the cracks follows pre-existing ice wedges

  13. Metamaterials beyond electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Metamaterials are rationally designed man-made structures composed of functional building blocks that are densely packed into an effective (crystalline) material. While metamaterials are mostly associated with negative refractive indices and invisibility cloaking in electromagnetism or optics, the deceptively simple metamaterial concept also applies to rather different areas such as thermodynamics, classical mechanics (including elastostatics, acoustics, fluid dynamics and elastodynamics), and, in principle, also to quantum mechanics. We review the basic concepts, analogies and differences to electromagnetism, and give an overview on the current state of the art regarding theory and experiment—all from the viewpoint of an experimentalist. This review includes homogeneous metamaterials as well as intentionally inhomogeneous metamaterial architectures designed by coordinate-transformation-based approaches analogous to transformation optics. Examples are laminates, transient thermal cloaks, thermal concentrators and inverters, ‘space-coiling’ metamaterials, anisotropic acoustic metamaterials, acoustic free-space and carpet cloaks, cloaks for gravitational surface waves, auxetic mechanical metamaterials, pentamode metamaterials (‘meta-liquids’), mechanical metamaterials with negative dynamic mass density, negative dynamic bulk modulus, or negative phase velocity, seismic metamaterials, cloaks for flexural waves in thin plates and three-dimensional elastostatic cloaks. (review article)

  14. Metamaterials beyond electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Metamaterials are rationally designed man-made structures composed of functional building blocks that are densely packed into an effective (crystalline) material. While metamaterials are mostly associated with negative refractive indices and invisibility cloaking in electromagnetism or optics, the deceptively simple metamaterial concept also applies to rather different areas such as thermodynamics, classical mechanics (including elastostatics, acoustics, fluid dynamics and elastodynamics), and, in principle, also to quantum mechanics. We review the basic concepts, analogies and differences to electromagnetism, and give an overview on the current state of the art regarding theory and experiment—all from the viewpoint of an experimentalist. This review includes homogeneous metamaterials as well as intentionally inhomogeneous metamaterial architectures designed by coordinate-transformation-based approaches analogous to transformation optics. Examples are laminates, transient thermal cloaks, thermal concentrators and inverters, ‘space-coiling’ metamaterials, anisotropic acoustic metamaterials, acoustic free-space and carpet cloaks, cloaks for gravitational surface waves, auxetic mechanical metamaterials, pentamode metamaterials (‘meta-liquids’), mechanical metamaterials with negative dynamic mass density, negative dynamic bulk modulus, or negative phase velocity, seismic metamaterials, cloaks for flexural waves in thin plates and three-dimensional elastostatic cloaks.

  15. The basis of electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldron, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Observations on fast mesons in cyclotrons have necessitated a revision of the earlier version of the ballistic theory. Insufficient information was available when the theory was first published to permit a unique choice of the velocity-dependent factors occurring in electromagnetic force formulas, and the forms chosen did not lead to an explanation of the decay times of fast mesons that were observed subsequently. These observations provide the information needed to permit a unique choice of the velocity-dependent factors. The new forms of the force formulae explain all observations, and lead to the conclusion that the velocities of mesons in cyclotrons are many times that of light. If these velocities could be directly measured, it would provide a method of discriminating between the Lorentz-Einstein and the ballistic theories, although it would not confirm the latter. In this revised form of the theory, magnetism appears as a residual effect of the velocity dependence of electric force laws, and the whole of electromagnetism then follows from a single basic equation, a modified form of Coulomb's law. (Auth.)

  16. Electro-magnetic flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    Full details of the invention are given. A sensing unit assembly for an electromagnetic flux distortion flowmeter for use in liquid metal coolant of a nuclear reactor is described. The assembly comprises coils of electrically insulated conductors each wound on an individual former. The formers and coils are mounted coaxially on a spine to form at least three spaced groups arranged end to end. Each group comprises two secondary coils and an intermediate primary coil. Leads extend along a duct formed in the spine, each lead terminating at a common end. Alternative versions of the assembly are also described. The primary coil leads are connected to an alternating power supply; those for the secondary coils connected to suitable display instrumentation. When liquid metal flows along the conductor the electromagnetic field is disturbed and the induced voltage in the secondary coils is disturbed-(set at zero for no flow); the distortion depends on the rate of flow. When the induced voltage differential of at least two of the groups falls or rises outside a pre-set level a trip signal is initiated to shut down the reactor. (UK)

  17. Electromagnetic Basis of Metabolism and Heredity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Friedemann; Stolc, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Living organisms control their cellular biological clocks to maintain functional oscillation of the redox cycle, also called the "metabolic cycle" or "respiratory cycle". Organization of cellular processes requires parallel processing on a synchronized time-base. These clocks coordinate the timing of all biochemical processes in the cell, including energy production, DNA replication, and RNA transcription. When this universal time keeping function is perturbed by exogenous induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the rate of metabolism changes. This causes oxidative stress, aging and mutations. Therefore, good temporal coordination of the redox cycle not only actively prevents chemical conflict between the reductive and oxidative partial reactions; it also maintains genome integrity and lifespan. Moreover, this universal biochemical rhythm can be disrupted by ROS induction in vivo. This in turn can be achieved by blocking the electron transport chain either endogenously or exogenously by various metabolites, e.g. hydrogen sulfide (H2S), highly diffusible drugs, and carbon monoxide (CO). Alternatively, the electron transport in vivo can be attenuated via a coherent or interfering transfer of energy from exogenous ultralow frequency (ULF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic (EM) fields, suggesting that-on Earth-such ambient fields are an omnipresent (and probably crucially important) factor for the time-setting basis of universal biochemical reactions in living cells. Our work demonstrated previously un-described evidence for quantum effects in biology by electromagnetic coupling below thermal noise at the universal electron transport chain (ETC) in vivo.

  18. Radome electromagnetic theory and design

    CERN Document Server

    Shavit, Reuven

    2018-01-01

    Radome Electromagnetic Theory and Design explores the theoretical tools and methods required to design radomes that are fully transparent to the electromagnetic energy transmitted or received by the enclosed antenna. A radome is a weatherproof and camouflaged enclosure that protects the enclosed radar or communication antenna, and are typically used on a fixed or moving platform such as an aircraft, ship or missile.

  19. Electromagnetic actuation in MEMS switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Mária; Chemnitz, Steffen

    . Electromagnetic actuation is a very promising approach to operate such MEMS and Power MEMS devices, due to the long range, reproducible and strong forces generated by this method, among other advantages. However, the use of electromagnetic actuation in such devices requires the use of thick magnetic films, which...

  20. Electromagnetic compatibility in power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Costa , François; Revol , Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Scientists largely attribute the recent deterioration of the electromagnetic environment to power electronics. This realization has spurred the study of methodical approaches to electromagnetic compatibility designs as explored in this text. The book addresses major challenges, such as handling numerous parameters vital to predicting electro magnetic effects and achieving compliance with line-harmonics norms, while proposing potential solutions.

  1. Electromagnetic direct implicit PIC simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langdon, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    Interesting modelling of intense electron flow has been done with implicit particle-in-cell simulation codes. In this report, the direct implicit PIC simulation approach is applied to simulations that include full electromagnetic fields. The resulting algorithm offers advantages relative to moment implicit electromagnetic algorithms and may help in our quest for robust and simpler implicit codes

  2. Enhanced characterization of reservoir hydrocarbon components using electromagnetic data attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-12-23

    Advances in electromagnetic imaging techniques have led to the growing utilization of this technology for reservoir monitoring and exploration. These exploit the strong conductivity contrast between the hydrocarbon and water phases and have been used for mapping water front propagation in hydrocarbon reservoirs and enhancing the characterization of the reservoir formation. The conventional approach for the integration of electromagnetic data is to invert the data for saturation properties and then subsequently use the inverted properties as constraints in the history matching process. The non-uniqueness and measurement errors may however make this electromagnetic inversion problem strongly ill-posed, leading to potentially inaccurate saturation profiles. Another limitation of this approach is the uncertainty of Archie\\'s parameters in relating rock conductivity to water saturation, which may vary in the reservoir and are generally poorly known. We present an Ensemble Kalman Filter framework for efficiently integrating electromagnetic data into the history matching process and for simultaneously estimating the Archie\\'s parameters and the variance of the observation error of the electromagnetic data. We apply the proposed framework to a compositional reservoir model. We aim at assessing the relevance of EM data for estimating the different hydrocarbon components of the reservoir. The experimental results demonstrate that the individual hydrocarbon components are generally well matched, with nitrogen exhibiting the strongest improvement. The estimated observation error standard deviations are also within expected levels (between 5 and 10%), significantly contributing to the robustness of the proposed EM history matching framework. Archie\\'s parameter estimates approximate well the reference profile and assist in the accurate description of the electrical conductivity properties of the reservoir formation, hence leading to estimation accuracy improvements of around

  3. Enhanced characterization of reservoir hydrocarbon components using electromagnetic data attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens; Arango, Santiago; Sun, Shuyu; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Advances in electromagnetic imaging techniques have led to the growing utilization of this technology for reservoir monitoring and exploration. These exploit the strong conductivity contrast between the hydrocarbon and water phases and have been used for mapping water front propagation in hydrocarbon reservoirs and enhancing the characterization of the reservoir formation. The conventional approach for the integration of electromagnetic data is to invert the data for saturation properties and then subsequently use the inverted properties as constraints in the history matching process. The non-uniqueness and measurement errors may however make this electromagnetic inversion problem strongly ill-posed, leading to potentially inaccurate saturation profiles. Another limitation of this approach is the uncertainty of Archie's parameters in relating rock conductivity to water saturation, which may vary in the reservoir and are generally poorly known. We present an Ensemble Kalman Filter framework for efficiently integrating electromagnetic data into the history matching process and for simultaneously estimating the Archie's parameters and the variance of the observation error of the electromagnetic data. We apply the proposed framework to a compositional reservoir model. We aim at assessing the relevance of EM data for estimating the different hydrocarbon components of the reservoir. The experimental results demonstrate that the individual hydrocarbon components are generally well matched, with nitrogen exhibiting the strongest improvement. The estimated observation error standard deviations are also within expected levels (between 5 and 10%), significantly contributing to the robustness of the proposed EM history matching framework. Archie's parameter estimates approximate well the reference profile and assist in the accurate description of the electrical conductivity properties of the reservoir formation, hence leading to estimation accuracy improvements of around 15%.

  4. Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

  5. Electromagnetic current in weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, E.

    1983-01-01

    In gauge models which unify weak and electromagnetic interactions, the weak neutral-current interaction also involves the electromagnetic current. The exact nature of such a component can be explored using e + e - experimental data. In recent years, the existence of a new component of the weak interaction has become firmly established, i.e., the neutral-current interaction. As such, it competes with the electromagnetic interaction whenever the particles involved are also charged, but at a very much lower rate because its effective strength is so small. Hence neutrino processes are best for the detection of the neutral-current interaction. However, in any gauge model which unifies weak and electromagnetic interactions, the weak neutral-current interaction also involves the electromagnetic current

  6. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and TEMPEST Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and TEMPEST testing are conducted at EPG's Blacktail Canyon Test Facility in one of its two...

  7. Hybrid synchronous motor electromagnetic torque research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvorkova Elena E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic field distribution models in reluctance and permanent magnet parts were made by means of Elcut. Dependences of electromagnetic torque on torque angle were obtained.

  8. Electromagnetic study on HCCR TBM for ITER major disruption scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, Duck Young; Lee, Youngmin; Cho, Seungyon; Ahn, Muyoung [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) has been developed in Korea in order to experiment a breeding blanket module in ITER. This TBM will verify the feasibility of tritium self-sufficiency in reactor and the extraction of high-grade heat suitable for electricity generation. Since various loads such as seismic load, electromagnetic (EM) load and heat load significantly affect the soundness of the TBM, a variety of analyses were carried out for design optimization. The EM load is particularly one of main design drivers because large amount of magnetic energy in the plasma are transferred to in-vessel components including the TBM during plasma disruption. Because the TBM is located in equatorial port, major disruption (MD) among various plasma disruption scenarios causes the largest EM loads on the TBM.

  9. Electromagnetic study on HCCR TBM for ITER major disruption scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, Duck Young; Lee, Youngmin; Cho, Seungyon; Ahn, Muyoung

    2014-01-01

    Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) has been developed in Korea in order to experiment a breeding blanket module in ITER. This TBM will verify the feasibility of tritium self-sufficiency in reactor and the extraction of high-grade heat suitable for electricity generation. Since various loads such as seismic load, electromagnetic (EM) load and heat load significantly affect the soundness of the TBM, a variety of analyses were carried out for design optimization. The EM load is particularly one of main design drivers because large amount of magnetic energy in the plasma are transferred to in-vessel components including the TBM during plasma disruption. Because the TBM is located in equatorial port, major disruption (MD) among various plasma disruption scenarios causes the largest EM loads on the TBM

  10. Improved heat transfer modeling of the eye for electromagnetic wave exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa

    2007-05-01

    This study proposed an improved heat transfer model of the eye for exposure to electromagnetic (EM) waves. Particular attention was paid to the difference from the simplified heat transfer model commonly used in this field. From our computational results, the temperature elevation in the eye calculated with the simplified heat transfer model was largely influenced by the EM absorption outside the eyeball, but not when we used our improved model.

  11. Focusing of electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhayalan, V.

    1996-01-01

    The focusing of electromagnetic waves inside a slab has been examined together with two special cases in which the slab is reduced to a single interface or a single medium. To that end the exact solutions for the fields inside a layered medium have been used, given in terms of the outside current source in order to obtain the solutions for the focused electric field inside a slab. Both exact and asymptotic solutions of the problem have been considered, and the validity of the latter has been discussed. The author has developed a numerical algorithm for evaluation of the diffraction integral with special emphasis on reducing the computing time. The numerical techniques in the paper can be readily applied to evaluate similar diffraction integrals occurring e.g. in microstrip antennas. 46 refs

  12. Solved problems in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar Bloise, Félix; Bayón Rojo, Ana; Gascón Latasa, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental concepts of electromagnetism through problems with a brief theoretical introduction at the beginning of each chapter. The present book has a strong  didactic character. It explains all the mathematical steps and the theoretical concepts connected with the development of the problem. It guides the reader to understand the employed procedures to learn to solve the exercises independently. The exercises are structured in a similar way: The chapters begin with easy problems increasing progressively in the level of difficulty. This book is written for students of physics and engineering in the framework of the new European Plans of Study for Bachelor and Master and also for tutors and lecturers. .

  13. PANDA electromagnetic calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, P.A.; Kharlov, Yu.V.; Uzunian, A.V.; Chernichenko, S.K.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Davidenko, A.M.; Goncharenko, Y.M.; Kachanov, V.A.; Konstantinov, A.S.; Kormilitsin, V.A.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; Meschanin, A.P.; Melnick, Y.M.; Minaev, N.G.; Mochalov, V.V.; Morozov, D.A.; Novotny, R.W.; Ryazantsev, A.A.; Soldatov, A.P.; Soloviev, L.F.

    2009-01-01

    PANDA is a challenging experimental setup to be implemented at the high-energy storage ring (HESR) at the international facility FAIR, GSI (Germany). PANDA physics program relies heavily on the capability to measure photons with excellent energy, position and timing resolution. For this purpose PANDA proposed to employ electromagnetic calorimeters using two different technologies: compact crystal calorimeter cooled to -25 deg. C around target and lead-scintillator sandwich calorimeter with optical fibers light collection (so-called shashlyk calorimeter) in the forward region. Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP) PANDA group reports on two types of measurements performed at IHEP, Protvino: radiation hardness of the PWO crystals at -25 deg. C and testbeam studies of the energy and position resolution of the shashlyk calorimeter prototype in the energy range up to 19 GeV.

  14. Electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desplanques, B.

    1987-01-01

    Electromagnetic form factors, in first approximation, are sensitive to spatial distribution of nucleons and to their current. In second approximation, more precise effects are concerned, whose role is increasing with momentum transfer and participating essentially of short range nuclei description. They concern of course the nucleon-nucleon interaction while approaching each other and keeping their free-state identity, but also mutually polarizing one the other. In this last effect, radial and orbital excitations of nucleon, the nucleon mesonic cloud modification and the nucleon antinucleon pair excitation are included. In this paper, these contributions are discussed while trying to find the important elements for a good description of form factors. Current questions are also discussed. Light nuclei are essentially concerned [fr

  15. Electromagnetic scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J. F.; Farrell, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic scattering theory is discussed with emphasis on the general stochastic variational principle (SVP) and its applications. The stochastic version of the Schwinger-type variational principle is presented, and explicit expressions for its integrals are considered. Results are summarized for scalar wave scattering from a classic rough-surface model and for vector wave scattering from a random dielectric-body model. Also considered are the selection of trial functions and the variational improvement of the Kirchhoff short-wave approximation appropriate to large size-parameters. Other applications of vector field theory discussed include a general vision theory and the analysis of hydromagnetism induced by ocean motion across the geomagnetic field. Levitational force-torque in the magnetic suspension of the disturbance compensation system (DISCOS), now deployed in NOVA satellites, is also analyzed using the developed theory.

  16. Electromagnetic fields and life

    CERN Document Server

    Presman, A S

    1970-01-01

    A broad region of the electromagnetic spectrum long assumed to have no influence on living systems under natural conditions has been critically re-examined over the past decade. This spectral region extends from the superhigh radio frequencies, through de­ creasing frequencies, to and including essentially static electric and magnetic fields. The author of this monograph, A. S. Presman, has reviewed not only the extensive Russian literatur!;"l, but also al­l most equally comprehensively the non-Russian literature, dealing with biological influences of these fields. Treated also is literature shedding some light on possible theoretical foundations for these phenomena. A substantial, rapidly increasing number of studies in many laboratories and countries has now clearly established bio­ logical influences which are independent of the theoretically predictable, simple thermal effects. Indeed many of the effects are produced by field strengths very close to those within the natural environment. The author has,...

  17. Causal electromagnetic interaction equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinoviev, Yury M.

    2011-01-01

    For the electromagnetic interaction of two particles the relativistic causal quantum mechanics equations are proposed. These equations are solved for the case when the second particle moves freely. The initial wave functions are supposed to be smooth and rapidly decreasing at the infinity. This condition is important for the convergence of the integrals similar to the integrals of quantum electrodynamics. We also consider the singular initial wave functions in the particular case when the second particle mass is equal to zero. The discrete energy spectrum of the first particle wave function is defined by the initial wave function of the free-moving second particle. Choosing the initial wave functions of the free-moving second particle it is possible to obtain a practically arbitrary discrete energy spectrum.

  18. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

    2007-10-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.

  19. Stability of miniature electromagnetic tracking systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schicho, Kurt; Figl, Michael; Donat, Markus; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Seemann, Rudolf; Wagner, Arne; Bergmann, Helmar; Ewers, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    This study aims at a comparative evaluation of two recently introduced electromagnetic tracking systems under reproducible simulated operating-room (OR) conditions: the recently launched Medtronic StealthStation TM Treon-EM TM and the NDI Aurora TM . We investigate if and to what extent these systems provide improved performance and stability in the presence of surgical instruments as possible sources of distortions compared with earlier reports on electromagnetic tracking technology. To investigate possible distortions under pseudo-realistic OR conditions, a large Langenbeck hook, a dental drill with its handle and an ultrasonic (US) scanhead are fixed on a special measurement rack at variable distances from the navigation sensor. The position measurements made by the Treon-EM TM were least affected by the presence of the instruments. The lengths of the mean deviation vectors were 0.21 mm for the Langenbeck hook, 0.23 mm for the drill with handle and 0.56 mm for the US scanhead. The Aurora TM was influenced by the three sources of distortion to a higher degree. A mean deviation vector of 1.44 mm length was observed in the vicinity of the Langenbeck hook, 0.53 mm length with the drill and 2.37 mm due to the US scanhead. The maximum of the root mean squared error (RMSE) for all coordinates in the presence of the Langenbeck hook was 0.3 mm for the Treon TM and 2.1 mm for the Aurora TM ; the drill caused a maximum RMSE of 0.2 mm with the Treon TM and 1.2 mm with the Aurora TM . In the presence of the US scanhead, the maximum RMSE was 1.4 mm for the Treon TM and 5.1 mm for the Aurora TM . The new generation of electromagnetic tracking systems has significantly improved compared to common systems that were available in the middle of the 1990s and has reached a high level of technical development. We conclude that, in general, both systems are suitable for routine clinical application

  20. Heliborne time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) surveys for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne geophysical surveys have been used extensively in petroleum, mineral exploration, and environmental mapping. Of all the geophysical methods, Electromagnetic (EM) methods, both ground and airborne are used to map the conductive ore bodies buried in the resistive bed rock. Mapping resistivity variations can help unravel complex geological problems and identify areas of hidden potential. Besides the traditional applications to ground water investigations and other natural resource exploration and geological mapping, a number of new applications have been reported. These include hazardous-waste characterization studies, precision agriculture applications, archaeological surveys etc. Airborne Electromagnetic (AEM) methods have undergone rapid improvements over the past few decades. Several new airborne Time Do-main EM (TDEM) systems appeared; existing systems were updated and/or enhanced. The use of natural field (passive) EM surveys continued to increase, with new or improved systems becoming available for both airborne and ground surveys. The number of large airborne survey systems with combined EM, magnetic, gravimetric and gamma-ray spectrometric capabilities also increased. Exploration of a mineral deposit is a multi-stage and multi-disciplinary approach that commences from regional investigations and concludes with establishing of a deposit. As economics play a major role in exploration, a proper integrated study is always beneficial in narrowing down the potential mineral target zones. Heliborne geophysical surveys are being conducted world-wide for exploration of base metals, gold, phosphorite, oil, uranium etc. that are very effective tool in identifying zones of interest accurately, economically and with less span of time. These surveys give a very good insight of surface and sub-surface geophysical signatures that can be attributed to geology with proper modeling. Heliborne Time - domain Electromagnetic (TEM) methods are well known for search of

  1. Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ould-Saada, F.

    1996-01-01

    Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos and their implications are discussed, and the experimental situation summarised. Spin precession in solar magnetic fields presents a solution of the solar neutrino problem. A magnetic moment, μ ν , of the order of 10 -11 μ B would be needed. In the simplest extension of the standard model, with no-vanishing neutrino masses, dipole moment interactions are allowed through higher order processes. A neutrino mass of ≅10 eV would give μ ν ≅10 -18 μ B , much smaller than the present experimental upper limit of 2x10 -10 μ B . Although model-dependent, upper bounds on dipole moments from astrophysics and cosmology are 10 to 100 times more stringent. Any values of μ ν , larger than the SM predictions, would then signal the onset of new physics. Among the processes sensitive to the magnetic moment, νe - scattering presents two advantages: it is a pure weak, theoretically well understood process, and the recoil electron can be easily measured. A hypothetical electromagnetic contribution to the cross-section would dominate at low energies. A low background detector, MUNU, being built at the Bugey nuclear reactor is presented.It is based on a gas TPC, surrounded by a scintillator. The threshold on the electron recoil energy can be set very low, around 500 keV, giving the experiment a good sensitivity to the magnetic moment of the ν e , extending down to 2x10 -11 μ B . (author) 15 figs., 5 tabs., 96 refs

  2. Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ould-Saada, F [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik

    1996-11-01

    Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos and their implications are discussed, and the experimental situation summarised. Spin precession in solar magnetic fields presents a solution of the solar neutrino problem. A magnetic moment, {mu}{sub {nu}}, of the order of 10{sup -11} {mu}{sub B} would be needed. In the simplest extension of the standard model, with no-vanishing neutrino masses, dipole moment interactions are allowed through higher order processes. A neutrino mass of {approx_equal}10 eV would give {mu}{sub {nu}}{approx_equal}10{sup -18} {mu}{sub B}, much smaller than the present experimental upper limit of 2x10{sup -10} {mu}{sub B}. Although model-dependent, upper bounds on dipole moments from astrophysics and cosmology are 10 to 100 times more stringent. Any values of {mu}{sub {nu}}, larger than the SM predictions, would then signal the onset of new physics. Among the processes sensitive to the magnetic moment, {nu}e{sup -} scattering presents two advantages: it is a pure weak, theoretically well understood process, and the recoil electron can be easily measured. A hypothetical electromagnetic contribution to the cross-section would dominate at low energies. A low background detector, MUNU, being built at the Bugey nuclear reactor is presented.It is based on a gas TPC, surrounded by a scintillator. The threshold on the electron recoil energy can be set very low, around 500 keV, giving the experiment a good sensitivity to the magnetic moment of the {nu}{sub e}, extending down to 2x10{sup -11} {mu}{sub B}. (author) 15 figs., 5 tabs., 96 refs.

  3. Geant4 electromagnetic physics for high statistic simulation of LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, J; Bagulya, A; Champion, C; Elles, S; Garay, F; Grichine, V; Howard, A; Incerti, S; Ivanchenko, V; Jacquemier, J; Maire, M; Mantero, A; Nieminen, P; Pandola, L; Santin, G; Sawkey, D; Schalicke, A; Urban, L

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the current status of electromagnetic physics (EM) of the Geant4 toolkit is presented. Recent improvements are focused on the performance of large scale production for LHC and on the precision of simulation results over a wide energy range. Significant efforts have been made to improve the accuracy without compromising of CPU speed for EM particle transport. New biasing options have been introduced, which are applicable to any EM process. These include algorithms to enhance and suppress processes, force interactions or splitting of secondary particles. It is shown that the performance of the EM sub-package is improved. We will report extensions of the testing suite allowing high statistics validation of EM physics. It includes validation of multiple scattering, bremsstrahlung and other models. Cross checks between standard and low-energy EM models have been performed using evaluated data libraries and reference benchmark results.

  4. Electromagnetic Field Redistribution in Metal Nanoparticle on Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Keke; Liu, Anping; Wei, Dapeng; Yu, Keke; Sun, Xiaonan; Yan, Sheng; Huang, Yingzhou

    2018-04-25

    Benefiting from the induced image charge on metal film, the light energy is confined on a film surface under metal nanoparticle dimer, which is called electromagnetic field redistribution. In this work, electromagnetic field distribution of metal nanoparticle monomer or dimer on graphene is investigated through finite-difference time-domain method. The results point out that the electromagnetic field (EM) redistribution occurs in this nanoparticle/graphene hybrid system at infrared region where light energy could also be confined on a monolayer graphene surface. Surface charge distribution was analyzed using finite element analysis, and surface-enhanced Raman spectrum (SERS) was utilized to verify this phenomenon. Furthermore, the data about dielectric nanoparticle on monolayer graphene demonstrate this EM redistribution is attributed to strong coupling between light-excited surface charge on monolayer graphene and graphene plasmon-induced image charge on dielectric nanoparticle surface. Our work extends the knowledge of monolayer graphene plasmon, which has a wide range of applications in monolayer graphene-related film.

  5. Utilization Of Carbon Nanotubes In Electromagnetic Wave Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hanis Zakariah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Direct detection of hydrocarbon by an active source using electromagnetic (EM energy termed seabed logging (SBL has shown very promising results. However, currently available electromagnetic wave technology has a number of challenges include sensitivity and frequency matching. This paper presents development of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs as electromagnetic wave detector due to outstanding properties of carbon nanotubes. They are currently one of the desired materials for advanced technologies. Two types of detectors were developed in this work, carbon nanotube-based (D1 and without nanotube-based (D2 detectors. Various configuration and arrangement for each type of detector were investigated to determine the one with the highest detection measurement and stability of frequency stability of detection system. It was found that 20 turn-coils coil placed at its centre gives the maximum detection of induction voltage, 39.61 mV. However, the 20 turn- coils with CNTs which gives 36.50 mV is the preferred EM detectors due to the stability in frequency of the detection system.

  6. Fracture detection using subsurface electromagnetic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Q.; Becker, A.; Goldstein, N.E.; Morrison, H.F.; Lee, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    Audio frequency subsurface electromagnetic (EM) techniques using cross-hole and in-hole arrays for fracture detection are evaluated numerically. The fracture zone is represented by a thin rectangular conductor with finite dimensions, embedded in a conductive host rock. Because of its practical advantages, the EM source considered in this study is a grounded vertical electrical dipole (G.V.E.D.) placed in a vertical bore hole. Three source-receiver configurations are considered. The first is the cross-hole configuration with the source and receiver moving parallel to each other in separate holes. The second configuration is a fixed source in one hole and a moving receiver in the other. Finally, the author also treat the case of a tandem source and receiver at fixed separation traversing a single hole. In all cases the conductive fracture zone is not intersected by either hole. Comparisons between the grounded electric dipole and the vertical magnetic dipole indicate clear advantages for the former

  7. Surficial geology and shaded seafloor relief of Georges Bank, Fundian Channel and Northeast Channel, Gulf of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, B.J.; Valentine, Page C.

    2015-01-01

    Georges Bank is a shallow submarine bank that lies south of Nova Scotia and east of Cape Cod and bounds the seaward side of the Gulf of Maine. The international boundary between Canada and the United States transects the bank, and the eastern part of the bank (~7500 square kilometres) lies in Canadian territory. This map shows the surficial geology of a part of Georges Bank at a scale of 1:50 000. This map has companion topographic and backscatter strength maps. These companion maps provide a basis for interpreting the origin of seafloor features and the nature of materials that form the seafloor. The maps are based on multibeam-sonar surveys conducted in 1999 and 2000 to map 11,965 square kilometres of the seafloor.

  8. Hydrologic conditions, recharge, and baseline water quality of the surficial aquifer system at Jekyll Island, Georgia, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Torak, Lynn J.

    2016-03-08

    An increase of groundwater withdrawals from the surficial aquifer system on Jekyll Island, Georgia, prompted an investigation of hydrologic conditions and water quality by the U.S. Geological Survey during October 2012 through December 2013. The study demonstrated the importance of rainfall as the island’s main source of recharge to maintain freshwater resources by replenishing the water table from the effects of hydrologic stresses, primarily evapotranspiration and pumping. Groundwater-flow directions, recharge, and water quality of the water-table zone on the island were investigated by installing 26 shallow wells and three pond staff gages to monitor groundwater levels and water quality in the water-table zone. Climatic data from Brunswick, Georgia, were used to calculate potential maximum recharge to the water-table zone on Jekyll Island. A weather station located on the island provided only precipitation data. Additional meteorological data from the island would enhance potential evapotranspiration estimates for recharge calculations.

  9. Electromagnetic transients in power cables

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Filipe Faria

    2013-01-01

    From the more basic concepts to the most advanced ones where long and laborious simulation models are required, Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables provides a thorough insight into the study of electromagnetic transients and underground power cables. Explanations and demonstrations of different electromagnetic transient phenomena are provided, from simple lumped-parameter circuits to complex cable-based high voltage networks, as well as instructions on how to model the cables.Supported throughout by illustrations, circuit diagrams and simulation results, each chapter contains exercises,

  10. Differential forms on electromagnetic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramanian, N V; Sen Gupta, D P

    2013-01-01

    Differential Forms on Electromagnetic Networks deals with the use of combinatorial techniques in electrical circuit, machine analysis, and the relationship between circuit quantities and electromagnetic fields. The monograph is also an introduction to the organization of field equations by the methods of differential forms. The book covers topics such as algebraic structural relations in an electric circuit; mesh and node-pair analysis; exterior differential structures; generalized Stoke's theorem and tensor analysis; and Maxwell's electromagnetic equation. Also covered in the book are the app

  11. Electromagnetic modeling in accelerator designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.; Chan, K.C.D.

    1990-01-01

    Through the years, electromagnetic modeling using computers has proved to be a cost-effective tool for accelerator designs. Traditionally, electromagnetic modeling of accelerators has been limited to resonator and magnet designs in two dimensions. In recent years with the availability of powerful computers, electromagnetic modeling of accelerators has advanced significantly. Through the above conferences, it is apparent that breakthroughs have been made during the last decade in two important areas: three-dimensional modeling and time-domain simulation. Success in both these areas have been made possible by the increasing size and speed of computers. In this paper, the advances in these two areas will be described

  12. Electromagnetic foundations of electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Faria, J A Brandao

    2008-01-01

    The applications of electromagnetic phenomena within electrical engineering have been evolving and progressing at a fast pace. In contrast, the underlying principles have been stable for a long time and are not expected to undergo any changes. It is these electromagnetic field fundamentals that are the subject of discussion in this book with an emphasis on basic principles, concepts and governing laws that apply across the electrical engineering discipline. Electromagnetic Foundations of Electrical Engineering begins with an explanation of Maxwell's equations, from which the fundament

  13. Essentials of Electromagnetics for Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolf, David A.

    2000-11-01

    Essentials of Electromagnetics for Engineering introduces the key physical and engineering principles of electromagnetics. Throughout the book, David de Wolf describes the intermediate steps in mathematical derivations that many other textbooks leave out. He covers in depth the concepts of fields and potentials and then progresses to magnetostatics, Maxwell's equations, electrodynamics and wave propagation, waveguides, transmission lines, and antennas. At each stage, de Wolf stresses the physical principles underlying the mathematical results. He also includes homework exercises, a separate chapter on numerical methods in electromagnetics, and a broad range of worked examples to illustrate important concepts. Solutions manual available.

  14. Concentration and chiral signature of chlordane in soils and sediments of the Central Tibetan Plateau, China: Transformation in the surficial process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Guo-Li; Wu, Ming-Zhe; Sun, Yong; Li, Jun; Han, Peng; Wang, Gen-Hou

    2015-01-01

    The fraction of trans-chlordane (TC) in chlordane was used to indicate racemic degradation while the enantiomer fractions (EFs) indicated enantioselective depletion. In 44 soils of the Central Tibetan Plateau, the fractions of TC ranged from 0.368 to 0.411. The EFs ranged from 0.174 to 0.696 for TC and from 0.483 to 0.672 for cis-chlordane (CC). (−) enantiomer excess (ee) was found to be 80.0% in the soils for TC and (+) ee was 86.5% for CC. The fraction of TC changed with the clay content while the EFs changed with the soil organic carbon. Meanwhile, the fractions of TC and the EFs were determined for the surficial sediments in Yamzhog Yumco Lake, which were compared with those in the soils at its catchment area. The composition and chiral signature of chlordane did not vary between soils and sediments. Our results will help to elucidate the transformation of chlordane in soils and in surficial transport. - Highlights: • F TC and EFs were determined for TC and CC in soil and sediment of CTP. • F TC of racemic degradation changed with the content of clays in soils. • EFs of enantioselective depletion changed with SOC in soils. • F TC and EFs were maintained during the surficial transport process. - The racemic and enantioselective transformation of chlordane were investigated in soils and sediments to characterize the surficial soil-to-sediment transport in the CTP.

  15. Investigation into the Origin and Character of Surficial Sedimentary Deposits at the Midshore Regional Solid Waste Facility near Easton, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, Joseph P.; Newell, Wayne L.; DeJong, Benjamin D.

    2009-01-01

    A temporary exposure at the Midshore Regional Solid Waste Facility near Easton, MD, provided an opportunity to document the characteristics of the complex assemblage of surficial facies in that area. This unusually large cross section allowed interpretation of the changing processes that shaped the landscape in response to climate change through the late Pleistocene. Eight stratigraphic units were recognized: (1) gray, fossiliferous, muddy silt of the marine Miocene Choptank Formation; (2) coarse, crossbedded conglomerate of the late Miocene to Pliocene fluvial Pensauken Formation; (3) bioturbated muddy conglomerate interpreted as deposits of small colluvial fans; (4) pebbly, quartzose sand overlying a planar erosional surface reflecting a marine transgression; (5) irregular pods and lenses of sand and gravel deformed into bowl-shaped folds and faulted, which are interpreted as wind deposits over a semipermanent snow cover (niveo-aeolian deposits); (6) crossbedded sand and conglomerate with abundant mud partings indicating tidal influences on sinuous stream channels; (7) heavily bioturbated silt and sand with abundant root casts and flattened vesicles interpreted as aeolian loess deposits in marshy fens; and (8) pebbly sand and mud with scattered boulders and cobbles that reflect modern infill of the excavation by the operators. Soils formed on units 3, 4, and 7. Superimposed on units 4, 5, and 7 is evidence of deep freezing and permafrost development and subsequent thermokarst development after thawing, which includes large, complexly filled wedge-shaped cracks, deformed bedding and faults, fluid-injection structures, and spherical blobs of sand and mud. Each of the stratigraphic units has irregular distributions and lateral changes. The results of this study provide a unique insight into the geometry of surficial deposits that will help facilitate mapping of units, interpretation of cored intervals, and understanding of ground-penetrating radar profiles. The

  16. C:N:P Molar Ratios, Sources and 14C Dating of Surficial Sediments from the NW Slope of Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe de la Lanza Espino

    Full Text Available The surficial sediments recovered from 12 sites located near the channel axis of the Florida Straits and the lower slope off NW Cuba were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC, nitrogen (TN, phosphorus (TP, elemental C:N:P ratios, C and N isotopic values, and 14C dating. The depth profiles of TOC, TN, and TP (0-18 cm displayed a downcore trend and a significant variation. The TOC values were low (0.15 to 0.62%; 66 to 516 µmol g(-1. Sites near the island's lower slope had lower TOC average concentrations (158-333 µmol g(-1 than those closer to the channel axis (averaging 341-516 µmol g(-1; p <0.05. The TN concentrations near the lower slope attained 0.11% (80 µmol g(-1, whereas, towards the channel axis, they decreased to 0.07% (55 µmol g(-1; p<0.05. The C:N ratios ranged from 1.9 to 10.2. The mean molar C:N ratio (5.4 indicated a marine hemipelagic deposition. The TP was lower at sites near the lower slope (38.4 to 50.0 µmol gv; 0.12% to 0.16% than those near the channel axis (50.0 to 66 µmol g(-1; 0.15 to 0.21%. C:P fluctuated from 7.7 to 14.1 in the surficial sediment layer. The bulk organic δ13Corg and δ15N values confirmed pelagic organic sources, and the 14C dating revealed that the sediments were deposited during the Holocene (1000-5000 yr BP. We suggest that the hydrodynamic conditions in the Straits influence vertical and advective fluxes of particulate organic material trapped in the mixed-layer, which reduces the particulate matter flux to the seabed.

  17. Effect of frequency variation on electromagnetic pulse interaction with charges and plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; van Goor, F.A.; Verschuur, Jeroen W.J.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of frequency variation (chirp) in an electromagnetic (EM) pulse on the pulse interaction with a charged particle and plasma is studied. Various types of chirp and pulse envelopes are considered. In vacuum, a charged particle receives a kick in the polarization direction after interaction

  18. Preliminary assessment of the electromagnetic environment in the immediate vicinity of the ETA accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabayan, H.S.; Bogdan, E.; Zicker, J.; Wythe, D.; Burke, G.J.

    1980-04-01

    The electromagnetic fields in the immediate vicinity of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory have been characterized. Various EM sensors that cover the frequency band from the very low frequencies up into the GHz region have been used. The report describes in detail the probes, the test set-up and the data processing techniques

  19. Electromagnetic modelling of large complex 3-D structures with LEGO and the eigencurrent expansion method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancellotti, V.; Hon, de B.P.; Tijhuis, A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Linear embedding via Green's operators (LEGO) is a computational method in which the multiple scattering between adjacent objects - forming a large composite structure - is determined through the interaction of simple-shaped building domains, whose electromagnetic (EM) behavior is accounted for by

  20. geometric optics and WKB method for electromagnetic wave propagation in an inhomogeneous plasma near cutoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Light, Max Eugene [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-04-13

    This report outlines the theory underlying electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in an unmagnetized, inhomogeneous plasma. The inhomogeneity is given by a spatially nonuniform plasma electron density ne(r), which will modify the wave propagation in the direction of the gradient rne(r).

  1. Monitoring scale-specific and temporal variation in electromagnetic conductivity images

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the semi-arid and arid landscapes of southwest USA, irrigation sustains agricultural activity; however, there are increasing demands on water resources. As such spatial temporal variation of soil moisture needs to be monitored. One way to do this is to use electromagnetic (EM) induction instrumen...

  2. Time-lapse monitoring of soil water content using electromagnetic conductivity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The volumetric soil water content (VWC) is fundamental to agriculture. Unfortunately, the universally accepted thermogravimetric method is labour intensive and time-consuming to use for field-scale monitoring. Electromagnetic (EM) induction instruments have proven to be useful in mapping the spatio-...

  3. Electromagnetically induced acoustic emission—novel NDT technique for damage evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, P.; Godinez, V.; Miller, R.; Finlayson, R.

    2001-04-01

    A recently developed electromagnetically induced acoustic emission technique (EM AE) which can be used for damage assessment of thin walled conducting structures is described. This technique allows a structure to be loaded locally by applying an electromagnetic field in order to produce an AE response, which may be captured by conventional or fiber optic (FO) AE sensors. The advantage of this technique is that the localized dynamic stresses induced by a short current pulse in the presence of an external magnetic field aid in the detection of cracks. Also, it is shown that electromagnetic stimulation can be applied to enhance conventional ultrasonics by modulation of the scattered signal from the defect (EM UT). Experimental data is presented for the case of a fatigue crack near rivet holes in thin walled aluminum structures.

  4. Redatuming controlled-source electromagnetic data using Stratton–Chu type integral transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhdanov, Michael; Cai, Hongzhu

    2016-01-01

    We present a new method of analyzing controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data based on redatuming of the observed data from the actual receivers into the virtual receivers. We use the Stratton–Chu type integral transform to calculate the EM field in the virtual receivers. The virtual receivers...... can be placed at any desirable position, including close to the target, which increases the sensitivity of the EM data to the target. The developed method provides an effective model-based interpolation/extrapolation tool for electromagnetic field data. This paper demonstrates that redatuming can...... be used for designing the optimized CSEM survey configuration. The numerical examples, for the Kevin Dome Electromagnetic Project Site, illustrate the practical effectiveness of the developed method....

  5. Ground-water quality of the surficial aquifer system and the upper Floridan Aquifer, Ocala National Forest and Lake County, Florida, 1990-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, J.C.; Knowles, Leel

    2001-01-01

    Data from 217 ground-water samples were statistically analyzed to assess the water quality of the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer in the Ocala National Forest and Lake County, Florida. Samples were collected from 49 wells tapping the surficial aquifer system, 141 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer, and from 27 springs that discharge water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. A total of 136 samples was collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1995 through 1999. These data were supplemented with 81 samples collected by the St. Johns River Water Management District and Lake County Water Resources Management from 1990 through 1998. In general, the surficial aquifer system has low concentrations of total dissolved solids (median was 41 milligrams per liter) and major ions. Water quality of the surficial aquifer system, however, is not homogeneous throughout the study area. Concentrations of total dissolved solids, many major ions, and nutrients are greater in samples from Lake County outside the Ocala National Forest than in samples from within the Forest. These results indicate that the surficial aquifer system in Lake County outside the Ocala National Forest probably is being affected by agricultural and (or) urban land-use practices. High concentrations of dissolved oxygen (less than 0.1 to 8.2 milligrams per liter) in the surficial aquifer system underlying the Ocala National Forest indicate that the aquifer is readily recharged by precipitation and is susceptible to surface contamination. Concentrations of total dissolved solids were significantly greater in the Upper Floridan aquifer (median was 182 milligrams per liter) than in the surficial aquifer system. In general, water quality of the Upper Floridan aquifer was homogeneous, primarily being a calcium or calciummagnesium- bicarbonate water type. Near the St. Johns River, the water type of the Upper Floridan aquifer is sodium-chloride, corresponding to an increase in total dissolved

  6. Quantitative Understanding on the Amplitude Decay Characteristic of the Evanescent Electromagnetic Waves Generated by Seismoelectric Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hengxin; Huang, Qinghua; Chen, Xiaofei

    2018-03-01

    We conduct numerical simulations and theoretical analyses to quantitatively study the amplitude decay characteristic of the evanescent electromagnetic (EM) waves, which has been neglected in previous studies on the seismoelectric conversion occurring at a porous-porous interface. Time slice snapshots of seismic and EM wave-fields generated by a vertical single force point source in a two-layer porous model show that evanescent EM waves can be induced at a porous-porous interface. The seismic and EM wave-fields computed for a receiver array located in a vertical line nearby the interface are investigated in detail. In addition to the direct and interface-response radiation EM waves, we identify three groups of coseismic EM fields and evanescent EM waves associated with the direct P, refracted SV-P and direct SV waves, respectively. Thereafter, we derive the mathematical expression of the amplitude decay factor of the evanescent EM waves. This mathematical expression is further validated by our numerical simulations. It turns out the amplitude decay of the evanescent EM waves generated by seismoelectric conversion is greatly dependent on the horizontal wavenumber of seismic waves. It is also found the evanescent EM waves have a higher detectability at a lower frequency range. This work provides a better understanding on the EM wave-fields generated by seismoelectric conversion, which probably will help improve the interpretation of the seismoelectric coupling phenomena associated with natural earthquakes or possibly will inspire some new ideas on the application of the seismoelectric coupling effect.

  7. Modeling the Effects of Storm Surge from Hurricane Jeanne on Saltwater Intrusion into the Surficial Aquifer, East-Central Florida (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, H.; Wang, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Medeiros, S. C.; Hall, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    Saltwater intrusion (SWI) that has been widely recognized as a detrimental issue causing the deterioration of coastal aquifer water quality and degradation of coastal ecosystems. While it is widely recognized that SWI is exacerbated worldwide due to global sea-level rise, we show that increased SWI from tropical cyclones under climate change is also a concern. In the Cape Canaveral Barrier Island Complex (CCBIC) located in east-central Florida, the salinity level of the surficial aquifer is of great importance to maintain a bio-diverse ecosystem and to support the survival of various vegetation species. Climate change induced SWI into the surficial aquifer can lead to reduction of freshwater storage and alteration of the distribution and productivity of vegetation communities. In this study, a three-dimensional variable-density SEAWAT model is developed and calibrated to investigate the spatial and temporal variation of salinity level in the surficial aquifer of CCBIC. We link the SEAWAT model to surge model data to examine the effects of storm surge from Hurricane Jeanne. Simulation results indicate that the surficial aquifer salinity level increases significantly right after the occurrence of storm surge because of high aquifer permeability and rapid infiltration and diffusion of the overtopping saltwater, while the surficial aquifer salinity level begins to decrease after the fresh groundwater recharge from the storm's rainfall. The tropical storm precipitation generates an effective hydraulic barrier further impeding SWI and providing seaward freshwater discharge for saltwater dilution and flushing. To counteract the catastrophic effects of storm surge, this natural remediation process may take at least 15-20 years or even several decades. These simulation results contribute to ongoing research focusing on forecasting regional vegetation community responses to climate change, and are expected to provide a useful reference for climate change adaptation planning

  8. Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.

  9. Earthquake prediction with electromagnetic phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Masashi, E-mail: hayakawa@hi-seismo-em.jp [Hayakawa Institute of Seismo Electomagnetics, Co. Ltd., University of Electro-Communications (UEC) Incubation Center, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu Tokyo, 182-8585 (Japan); Advanced Wireless & Communications Research Center, UEC, Chofu Tokyo (Japan); Earthquake Analysis Laboratory, Information Systems Inc., 4-8-15, Minami-aoyama, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 107-0062 (Japan); Fuji Security Systems. Co. Ltd., Iwato-cho 1, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Short-term earthquake (EQ) prediction is defined as prospective prediction with the time scale of about one week, which is considered to be one of the most important and urgent topics for the human beings. If this short-term prediction is realized, casualty will be drastically reduced. Unlike the conventional seismic measurement, we proposed the use of electromagnetic phenomena as precursors to EQs in the prediction, and an extensive amount of progress has been achieved in the field of seismo-electromagnetics during the last two decades. This paper deals with the review on this short-term EQ prediction, including the impossibility myth of EQs prediction by seismometers, the reason why we are interested in electromagnetics, the history of seismo-electromagnetics, the ionospheric perturbation as the most promising candidate of EQ prediction, then the future of EQ predictology from two standpoints of a practical science and a pure science, and finally a brief summary.

  10. Classical electromagnetism in a nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    This graduate-level physics textbook provides a comprehensive treatment of the basic principles and phenomena of classical electromagnetism. While many electromagnetism texts use the subject to teach mathematical methods of physics, here the emphasis is on the physical ideas themselves. Anupam Garg distinguishes between electromagnetism in vacuum and that in material media, stressing that the core physical questions are different for each. In vacuum, the focus is on the fundamental content of electromagnetic laws, symmetries, conservation laws, and the implications for phenomena such as radiation and light. In material media, the focus is on understanding the response of the media to imposed fields, the attendant constitutive relations, and the phenomena encountered in different types of media such as dielectrics, ferromagnets, and conductors. The text includes applications to many topical subjects, such as magnetic levitation, plasmas, laser beams, and synchrotrons.

  11. Electromagnetic Hadronic Form-Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    We present a calculation of the nucleon electromagnetic form-factors as well as the pion and rho to pion transition form-factors in a hybrid calculation with domain wall valence quarks and improved staggered (Asqtad) sea quarks

  12. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-28

    Feb 28, 2012 ... radiofrequency emitting sources are radars, mobile phones and their base stations, ... and industrial applications, could have effect on living organisms. ...... Hazards of Electromagnetic Pollution (Msc Thesis). Department of ...

  13. Hadronic processes and electromagnetic corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scimemi, I.

    2004-01-01

    The inclusion of electromagnetism in a low energy effective theory is worth further study in view of the present high precision experiments (muon g - 2, π 0 → γγ, τ decays, etc.). In particular in many applications of chiral perturbation theory, one has to purify physical matrix elements from electromagnetic effects. The theoretical problems that I want to point out here are following: the splitting of a pure QCD and a pure electromagnetic part in a hadronic process is model dependent: is it possible to parametrise in a clear way this splitting? What kind of information (scale dependence, gauge dependence,) is actually included in the parameters of the low energy effective theory? I will attempt to answer these questions introducing a possible convention to perform the splitting between strong and electromagnetic parts in some examples

  14. Electromagnetic shower detector-calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review of the state-of-the-art of electromagnetic calorimeters is presented. The choice of detector based on the experimental requirements in cost, spatial resolution, energy resolution, and hadron rejection is discussed

  15. Electromagnetic field sources in radiofrequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.; Sebastiao, D.; Ladeira, D.; Antunes, M.; Correia, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the scope of the monIT Project, several measurements were made of electromagnetic fields in Portugal. This paper presents an analysis of the sources operating in the radiofrequency range, resulting from 2429 measurements in 466 locations.

  16. Electromagnetic matrix elements in baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.; Moinester, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Some simple symmetry relations between matrix elements of electromagnetic operators are investigated. The implications are discussed for experiments to study hyperon radiative transitions and polarizabilities and form factors. (orig.)

  17. Wave propagation in electromagnetic media

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Julian L

    1990-01-01

    This is the second work of a set of two volumes on the phenomena of wave propagation in nonreacting and reacting media. The first, entitled Wave Propagation in Solids and Fluids (published by Springer-Verlag in 1988), deals with wave phenomena in nonreacting media (solids and fluids). This book is concerned with wave propagation in reacting media-specifically, in electro­ magnetic materials. Since these volumes were designed to be relatively self­ contained, we have taken the liberty of adapting some of the pertinent material, especially in the theory of hyperbolic partial differential equations (concerned with electromagnetic wave propagation), variational methods, and Hamilton-Jacobi theory, to the phenomena of electromagnetic waves. The purpose of this volume is similar to that of the first, except that here we are dealing with electromagnetic waves. We attempt to present a clear and systematic account of the mathematical methods of wave phenomena in electromagnetic materials that will be readily accessi...

  18. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  19. The law of electromagnetic force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J. Kutkovetskyy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calculation peculiarities for Lorentz force, Ampere force, interaction of parallel electric currents, and the moment of electrical machines are analyzed. They have exceptions on application, and they are the rules which result from the law of electromagnetic force as coordinate derivative of the operating magnetic flow. An addition to the direction of electromagnetic force action is proposed. Standards of salient-pole electrical machine designing are considered.

  20. Advanced Model of Electromagnetic Launcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Leubner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An advanced 2D model of electromagnetic launcher is presented respecting the influence of eddy currents induced in the accelerated ferromagnetic body. The time evolution of electromagnetic field in the system, corresponding forces acting on the projectile and time evolutions of its velocity and current in the field circuit are solved numerically using own application Agros2d. The results are then processed and evaluated in Wolfram Mathematica. The methodology is illustrated with an example whose results are discussed.

  1. Electromagnetic processes in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez Campos, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    With the framework of the cluster model within the supermultiplet scheme is developed algebra for oscillator cluster configurations. With this algebra and the selection rules for electromagnetic multipole transitions we calculate transition matrix elements and radiative widths. The electromagnetic transition probabilities show big differences. Responsible for this are the exchange terms of the orbital partitions of our oscillator cluster configurations. Detailed calculations are presented for the case of γ-radiative capture transitions in 6 Li nucleus. (orig.) [de

  2. High frequency electromagnetic characterization of NEG properties for the CLIC damping rings

    CERN Document Server

    Koukovini-Platia, E; Zannini, C

    2014-01-01

    Coating materials will be used in the CLIC damping rings (DR) to suppress two-stream effects. In particular, NEG coating is necessary to suppress fast beam ion instabilities in the electron damping ring (EDR). The electromagnetic (EM) characterization of the material properties up to high frequencies is required for the impedance modeling of the CLIC DR components. The EM properties for frequencies of few GHz are determined with the waveguide method, based on a combination of experimental measurements of the complex transmission coefficient S21 and CST 3D EM simulations. The results obtained from a NEG-coated copper (Cu) waveguide are presented in this paper.

  3. Redatuming borehole-to-surface electromagnetic data using Stratton-Chu integral transforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhdanov, Michael; Cai, Hongzhu

    2012-01-01

    We present a new method of analyzing borehole-to-surface electromagnetic (BSEM) survey data based on redatuming of the observed data from receivers distributed over the surface of the earth onto virtual receivers located within the subsurface. The virtual receivers can be placed close to the target...... of interest, such as just above a hydrocarbon reservoir, which increases the sensitivity of the EM data to the target. The method is based on the principles of downward analytical continuation of EM fields. We use Stratton-Chu type integral transforms to calculate the EM fields at the virtual receivers. Model...

  4. Behavioral electromagnetic models of high‐speed p‐i‐n photodiodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Krozer, Viktor; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a methodology for developing small‐signal behavioral electromagnetic (EM) models of p‐i‐n photodiodes (PDs) for high‐speed applications. The EM model includes RC bandwidth limitation effect and transit‐time effect. The model is capable of accurately modeling arbitrary comple...... parasitics as well as extracting parasitic values and provide straightforward access to EM characteristics of devices. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 53:2530–2533, 2011; View this article online at wileyonlinelibrary.com. DOI 10.1002/mop.26327...

  5. ELECTROMAGNET CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Rusack

    Installation is under way of the last piece of the electromagnetic calorimeter. This is the preshower (ES) that sits in front of the two endcap calorimeters. The construction of the ES was completed in December and went through a detailed set of tests in December and January. The two preshower detectors have a total of 4300 silicon sensors with 137,000 strips. After final assembly and system testing in January, only two of the strips were found to be defective. Once CMS was fully opened a new support structure (‘Gazprom’) was put into place underneath the beam pipe, to support the Surkov platform, on which the preshower installation takes place. In the early hours of 26th February the first two Dees, which form the ‘ES+’ endcap,  were transported to P5 , a journey that took two and a half hours. The Dees, still inside environmental protection boxes, were then lowered  underground and moved to the ‘+’ end of CMS. Installation start...

  6. Fracture induced electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, V; Rabinovitch, A; Bahat, D

    2003-01-01

    In our laboratory, we combine accurate electromagnetic radiation (EMR) measurements during fracture of rocks (carbonate and igneous) and transparent materials (glass, PMMA and glass ceramics) with careful fractographic methods. A critical analysis of experimental observations, accumulated here during the last decade together with supporting material from the works of other authors are used in this study to demonstrate the failure of all current models to explain the properties of EMR arising from fracture. The basic elements of a new model are proposed. These are (a) the EMR amplitude increases as long as the crack continues to grow, since new atomic bonds are severed and their contribution is added to the EMR. As a result, the atoms on both sides of the bonds are moved to 'non-equilibrium' positions relative to their steady state ones and begin to oscillate collectively in a manner similar to Debye model bulk oscillations - 'surface vibrational optical waves'; (b) when the crack halts, the waves and the EMR pulse amplitude decay by relaxation. These basic elements are already enough to describe the characteristics of the experimentally obtained isolated individual EMR pulses. These characteristics include the shape of the EMR pulse envelope, and the frequency, time duration and rise - fall time of the pulse

  7. Fracture induced electromagnetic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, V [Geological and Environmental Sciences Department, Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel); Rabinovitch, A [Physics Department, Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel); Bahat, D [Geological and Environmental Sciences Department, Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)

    2003-07-07

    In our laboratory, we combine accurate electromagnetic radiation (EMR) measurements during fracture of rocks (carbonate and igneous) and transparent materials (glass, PMMA and glass ceramics) with careful fractographic methods. A critical analysis of experimental observations, accumulated here during the last decade together with supporting material from the works of other authors are used in this study to demonstrate the failure of all current models to explain the properties of EMR arising from fracture. The basic elements of a new model are proposed. These are (a) the EMR amplitude increases as long as the crack continues to grow, since new atomic bonds are severed and their contribution is added to the EMR. As a result, the atoms on both sides of the bonds are moved to 'non-equilibrium' positions relative to their steady state ones and begin to oscillate collectively in a manner similar to Debye model bulk oscillations - 'surface vibrational optical waves'; (b) when the crack halts, the waves and the EMR pulse amplitude decay by relaxation. These basic elements are already enough to describe the characteristics of the experimentally obtained isolated individual EMR pulses. These characteristics include the shape of the EMR pulse envelope, and the frequency, time duration and rise - fall time of the pulse.

  8. Electromagnetic fields and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Neeta; Mathur, R.; Behari, J.

    1997-01-01

    Several studies in recent years have raised the possibility that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) may be hazardous to human health, in particular by promotion or initiation of cancer. Recent reports have indicated increased cancer risk from industrial and domestic exposure to environmental ELF fields and to RF fields that are amplitude modulated at ELF. EMF fields have been reported to affect biological systems in various ways, affecting changes in the morphology and or functional behavior of cells, which have been observed in a variety of tissues. Although the mechanism of interaction of EMFs with living cells are not known, it has been proposed that they have multiple effects and can affect cell signalling, including modification of plasma membrane permeability and ion transport. Our findings suggest that EMFs can affect post translational modification of proteins such as poly ADP-ribosylation by epigenetic mechanism and that the effect of EMFs are highly specific regarding both the cell type and the frequency and amplification of the applied field. (author)

  9. Mapping Earth's electromagnetic dimensionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J. J.; Kelbert, A.; Bedrosian, P.

    2017-12-01

    The form of a magnetotelluric impedance tensor, obtained for a given geographic site through simultaneous measurement of geomagnetic and geoelectric field variation, is affected by electrical conductivity structure beneath the measurement site. Building on existing methods for characterizing the symmetry of magnetotelluric impedance tensors, a simple scalar measure is developed for measuring the (frequency dependent) proportion of the impedance tensor that is not just a one-dimensional (1D) function of depth ("non-1D-ness"). These measures are applied to nearly 1000 impedance tensors obtained during magnetotelluric surveys, those for the continental United States and obtained principally through the National Science Foundation's EarthScope project. Across geomagnetic/geoelectric variational periods ranging from 30 s to 3,000 s, corresponding to crustal and upper mantle depths, it is shown that local Earth structure is very often not simply 1D-depth-dependent - often less than 50% of magnetotelluric impedance is 1D. For selected variational frequencies, non-1D-ness is mapped and the relationship between electromagnetic dimensionality and known geological and tectonic structures is discussed. The importance of using realistic surface impedances to accurately evaluate magnetic-storm geoelectric hazards is emphasized.

  10. Introduction to engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Yeon Ho

    2013-01-01

    This text provides students with the missing link that can help them master the basic principles of electromagnetics. The concept of vector fields is introduced by starting with clear definitions of position, distance, and base vectors. The symmetries of typical configurations are discussed in detail, including cylindrical, spherical, translational, and two-fold rotational symmetries. To avoid serious confusion between symbols with two indices, the text adopts a new notation: a letter with subscript 1-2 for the work done in moving a unit charge from point 2 to point 1, in which the subscript 1-2 mimics the difference in potentials, while the hyphen implies a sense of backward direction, from 2 to 1. This text includes 300 figures in which real data are drawn to scale. Many figures provide a three-dimensional view. Each subsection includes a number of examples that are solved by examining rigorous approaches in steps. Each subsection ends with straightforward exercises and answers through which students can c...

  11. The CPLEAR Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, R; Bal, F; Behnke, O; Bloch, P; Damianoglou, D; Dechelette, Paul; Dröge, M; Eckart, B; Felder, C; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Garreta, D; Gerber, H J; Gumplinger, P; Guyon, D; Johner, H U; Löfstedt, B; Kern, J; Kokkas, P; Krause, H; Mall, U; Marin, C P; Nanni, F; Pagels, B; Pavlopoulos, P; Petit, P; Polivka, G; Rheme, C; Ruf, T; Santoni, C; Schaller, L A; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Tschopp, H; Weber, P; Wendler, H; Witzig, C; Wolter, M

    1997-01-01

    A large-acceptance lead/gas sampling electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) was constructed for the CPLEAR experiment to detect photons from decays of $\\pi^0$s with momentum $p_{\\pi^0} \\le 800$ MeV$/c$. The main purpose of the ECAL is to determine the decay vertex of neutral-kaon decays $\\ko \\rightarrow \\pi^0\\pi^0 \\rightarrow 4 \\gamma$ and $\\ko \\rightarrow \\pi^0\\pi^0\\pi^0 \\rightarrow 6 \\gamma$. This requires a position-sensitive photon detector with high spatial granularity in $r$-, $\\varphi$-, and $z$-coordinates. The ECAL --- a barrel without end-caps located inside a magnetic field of 0.44 T --- consists of 18 identical concentric layers. Each layer of $1/3$ radiation length (X${_0}$) contains a converter plate followed by small cross-section high-gain tubes of 2640 mm active length which are sandwiched by passive pick-up strip plates. The ECAL, with a total of $6$ X${_0}$, has an energy resolution of $\\sigma (E)/E \\approx 13\\% / \\sqrt{E(\\mathrm{GeV})}$ and a position resolution of 4.5 mm for the shower foot. ...

  12. NEMP (Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunow, H.K.

    The variety of measures discussed in this contribution can be used to achieve with minimum effort a damping of 10 6 :1 (120 dB) between the interfering pulses in the networks and lines outside the buildings and the lines leading to the semiconductors. Expert knowledge, experience, and insight into the systems are required to solve this task optimally. The procedure to be adopted for NEMP protection differs only slightly from that used for achieving electromagnetic compatibility and lightning protection. Industry has developed the equipment for overvoltage protection and offers graded protection systems, experienced experts and systems engineers are available. This potential of the industry could be used to sponsor a pilot project, e.g. by public research funds. One of the goals of such a project could be to work out reliable data for cost estimated for large projects. Even if one would not accept the hypothetical probability of a nuclear war as a reason good anough to start such a project, it would not be justified to deny the necessity of additional expenditure for setting up a ''NEMP emergency system'' for protection waterborne traffic on purely financial grounds. (orig./RW) [de

  13. General Geometry and Geometry of Electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Shahverdiyev, Shervgi S.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that Electromagnetism creates geometry different from Riemannian geometry. General geometry including Riemannian geometry as a special case is constructed. It is proven that the most simplest special case of General Geometry is geometry underlying Electromagnetism. Action for electromagnetic field and Maxwell equations are derived from curvature function of geometry underlying Electromagnetism. And it is shown that equation of motion for a particle interacting with electromagnetic...

  14. Radiation and propagation of electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tyras, George; Declaris, Nicholas

    1969-01-01

    Radiation and Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves serves as a text in electrical engineering or electrophysics. The book discusses the electromagnetic theory; plane electromagnetic waves in homogenous isotropic and anisotropic media; and plane electromagnetic waves in inhomogenous stratified media. The text also describes the spectral representation of elementary electromagnetic sources; the field of a dipole in a stratified medium; and radiation in anisotropic plasma. The properties and the procedures of Green's function method of solution, axial currents, as well as cylindrical boundaries a

  15. The ultra low frequency electromagnetic radiation observed in the topside ionosphere above boundaries of tectonic plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Athanasiou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present results of a comparison between ultra low frequency (ULF electromagnetic (EM radiation, recorded by an electric field instrument onboard the satellite detection of electromagnetic emissions transmitted from earthquake regions in the topside ionosphere, and the seismicity of regions with high and low seismic activity. In particular, we evaluated the energy variations of the ULF Ezelectric field component during a period of four years (2006-2009, in order to examine the possible relation of ULF EM radiation with seismogenic regions located in Central America, Indonesia, the Eastern Mediterranean Basin and Greece. As a tool for evaluating the ULF Ez energy variations we used singular spectrum analysis techniques. The results of our analysis clearly show a significant increase of the ULF EM energy emitted from regions of highest seismic activity at the boundaries tectonic plates. Furthermore, we found that higher electromagnetic radiation was detected in a region above the northern- western Greek Arc (R1 than above the adjacent region including Athens and its urban area. We interpret these results of the present study as suggesting that: i the seismogenic regions at the boundary of tectonic plates radiate ULF EM emissions observed by satellites in the topside ionosphere; and ii that this EM radiation is not only related with the occurrence time of great (M≥5 earthquakes, but it is often present in intermediate times and it appears as a quasi-permanent phenomenon.

  16. Active electromagnetic invisibility cloaking and radiation force cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2018-03-01

    This investigation shows that an active emitting electromagnetic (EM) Dirichlet source (i.e., with axial polarization of the electric field) in a homogeneous non-dissipative/non-absorptive medium placed near a perfectly conducting boundary can render total invisibility (i.e. zero extinction cross-section or efficiency) in addition to a radiation force cancellation on its surface. Based upon the Poynting theorem, the mathematical expression for the extinction, radiation and amplification cross-sections (or efficiencies) are derived using the partial-wave series expansion method in cylindrical coordinates. Moreover, the analysis is extended to compute the self-induced EM radiation force on the active source, resulting from the waves reflected by the boundary. The numerical results predict the generation of a zero extinction efficiency, achieving total invisibility, in addition to a radiation force cancellation which depend on the source size, the distance from the boundary and the associated EM mode order of the active source. Furthermore, an attractive EM pushing force on the active source directed toward the boundary or a repulsive pulling one pointing away from it can arise accordingly. The numerical predictions and computational results find potential applications in the design and development of EM cloaking devices, invisibility and stealth technologies.

  17. Broadband Electromagnetic Emission from PZT Ferroelectric Ceramics after Shock Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiodoras ANISIMOVAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It was experimentally registered pulsed electromagnetic (EM radiation in frequency range higher than television one using wideband horns with coaxial and waveguide outputs. The EM radiation was received during shock loading of lead zirconate titanate (PZT ceramics cylinders in conventional piezoelectric ignition mechanisms. Digital oscilloscope allows registering whole series of EM pulses and each pulse from the series transmitted from horn antenna of (1 – 18 GHz operating band frequencies. There is (1 – 4 ms delay between the shock and the first pulse of the series. Duration of the series is about (3 – 4 ms. The PZT cylinders were cleaved along their axes and the surfaces formed in the process were investigated by scanning electron microscope. It was concluded that from electrical point of view PZT ceramics contain interacting subsystems. It was found that EM radiation spectrum of pulse detected by waveguide detector heads has harmonics reaching 80 GHz. Presence of harmonics higher than 20 GHz indicates on radiation due to deceleration of electrons emitted during the switching. The EM pulses in the series appear randomly and have different amplitudes which partly confirmed thesis on independent switching dynamics of small volumes governed by a local electric field.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.3137

  18. Electro-magnetic heating in viscous oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Marathon Oil Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    This paper discussed electromagnetic (EM) heating techniques for primary and secondary enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. Ohmic, induction, and formation resistive heating techniques were discussed. Issues related to energy equivalence and hardware requirements were reviewed. Challenges related to heat losses in vertical wellbores, well integrity, and galvanic corrosion were also outlined. A pair of 1500 foot horizontal wells in a heavy oil reservoir were then modelled in order to optimize EM recovery processes. DC current was used in a base case water flood run. Electrical conductivities were measured. The model was converted to a homogenous model in order to study injector and producer electrodes. The study showed that reservoir resistance was low, and most of the heating took place near the electrode area where electric lines diverged or converged. Results of the study suggested that EM heating in formations is not as efficient as steam-based processes. Accurate simulations of EM heating processes within reservoirs are difficult to obtain, as the amounts of estimated heat input are sensitive to grid refinement. It was concluded that hot spots in the EM electrodes have also caused failures in other field applications and studies. 11 refs., 12 figs.

  19. Induced Electromagnetic Field by Seismic Waves in Stratified Media in Earth's Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, K.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic waves accompany electromagnetic (EM) variations because Earth's crust involves a variety of EM properties such as finite electrical conductivity and ion contents. If we can catch the EM variations just after the earthquake rupture, we will know the occurrence of earthquake before the arrival of seismic waves at observation point. However, quantitative aspects of EM variations arising from seismic waves have not sufficiently understood. Together with observational works, theoretical works have been made to simulate EM variations arising from seismic waves. The generation mechanisms of EM variations include electrokinetic effect (Pride, 1994), motional induction (Gao et al., 2014), piezo-electric effect (Ogawa and Utada, 2000), piezo-magnetic effect (Yamazaki, 2016), etc. It is widely accepted that the electrokinetic effect is the dominant mechanism. Theoretical calculation of EM variations assuming the electrokinetic effect roughly explains the observed EM variations accompanying with earthquake ground motions (e.g. Gao et al. 2016). However, there are a significant disagreement between observed and predicted EM variations. In the present study, I focus on the motional induction mechanism that possibly explain some parts of EM variations accompanying with seismic waves. A theoretical work on EM variations arising from the motional induction has been presented by Gao et al. (2014), but their work assumed uniform full-space medium. In contrast, the present work assumes stratified media which correctly incorporate the effect of the ground surface. I apply a calculating method developed in seismology (e.g. Kennett, 2013) and in EM studies (Haartsen and Pride, 1997), and derive a set of expressions describing the spatial-temporal variations of the EM field after the onset of rupture. The derived formula is used to calculate EM variations for actual earthquakes to compare the theoretical prediction to observed EM variations.

  20. Helicopter electromagnetic survey of the Model Land Area, Southeastern Miami-Dade County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, David V.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Prinos, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a helicopter electromagnetic survey flown over the Model Land Area in southeastern Miami-Dade County, Florida, to map saltwater intrusion in the Biscayne aquifer. The survey, which is located south and east of Florida City, Florida, covers an area of 115 square kilometers with a flight-line spacing of 400 meters. A five-frequency, horizontal, coplanar bird with frequencies ranging from 400 to 100,000 Hertz was used. The data were interpreted using differential resistivity analysis and inversion to produce cross sections and resistivity depth-slice maps. The depth of investigation is as deep as 100 meters in freshwater-saturated portions of the Biscayne aquifer and the depth diminishes to about 50 meters in areas that are intruded by saltwater. The results compare favorably with ground-based, time-domain electromagnetic soundings and induction logs from observation wells in the area. The base of a high-resistivity, freshwater-saturated zone mapped in the northern 2 kilometers of the survey area corresponds quite well with the base of the surficial aquifer that has been determined by drilling. In general, saltwater in the survey area extends 9 to 12 kilometers inland from the coast; however, there is a long nose of saltwater centered along the Card Sound Road Canal that extends 15 kilometers inland. The cause of this preferential intrusion is likely due to uncontrolled surface flow along the canal and subsequent leakage of saltwater into the aquifer. Saltwater also extends farther inland in the area between U.S. Highway 1 and Card Sound Road than it does to the west of this area. Until 1944, a railroad grade occupied the current location of U.S. Highway 1. Borrow ditches associated with the railroad grade connected to Barnes Sound and allowed saltwater to flow during droughts and storm surges to within a few kilometers of Florida City. Relicts of this saltwater that settled to the bottom of the Biscayne aquifer can be seen in the helicopter

  1. Electromagnetic Simulations for Aerospace Application Final Report CRADA No. TC-0376-92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meredith, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-24

    Electromagnetic (EM) simulation tools play an important role in the design cycle, allowing optimization of a design before it is fabricated for testing. The purpose of this cooperative project was to provide Lockheed with state-of-the-art electromagnetic (EM) simulation software that will enable the optimal design of the next generation of low-observable (LO) military aircraft through the VHF regime. More particularly, the project was principally code development and validation, its goal to produce a 3-D, conforming grid,time-domain (TD) EM simulation tool, consisting of a mesh generator, a DS13D-based simulation kernel, and an RCS postprocessor, which was useful in the optimization of LO aircraft, both for full-aircraft simulations run on a massively parallel computer and for small scale problems run on a UNIX workstation.

  2. Electromagnetic fields of Nanometer electromagnetic waves and X-ray. New frontiers of electromagnetic wave engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The investigating committee aimed at research on electromagnetic fields in functional devices and X-ray fibers for efficient coherent X-ray generation and their material science, high-precision manufacturing, X-ray microscope, application to medical and information communication technologies, such as interaction between material and nanometer electromagnetic waves of radiated light and X-ray, interaction between microwaves and particle beams, theory and design of high-frequency waveguides for resonator and accelerator, from January 2003 to December 2005. In this report, we describe our research results, in particular, on the topics of synchrotron radiation and Cherenkov radiation, Kyushu synchrotron light source and its technology, nanometer electromagnetic fields in optical region, process of interaction between evanescent waves and near-field light, orthogonal relation of electromagnetic fields including evanescent waves in dispersive dielectrics, optical amplification using electron beam, nanometer electromagnetic fields in focusing waveguide lens device with curved facets, electromagnetic fields in nanometer photonic crystal waveguide consisting of atoms, X-ray scattering and absorption I bio-material for image diagnosis. (author)

  3. Matter in the form of toroidal electromagnetic vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Wilhelm F.

    2015-09-01

    The creation of charged elementary particles from neutral photons is explained as a conversion process of electromagnetic (EM) energy from linear to circular motion at the speed of light into two localized, toroidal shaped vortices of trapped EM energy that resist change of motion, perceptible as particles with inertia and hence mass. The photon can be represented as a superposition of left and right circular polarized transverse electric fields of opposite polarity originating from a common zero potential axis, the optical axis of the photon. If these components are separated by interaction with a strong field (nucleon) they would curl up into two electromagnetic vortices (EMV) due to longitudinal magnetic field components forming toroids. These vortices are perceptible as opposite charged elementary particles e+/- . These spinning toroids generate extended oscillating fields that interact with stationary field oscillations. The velocity-dependent frequency differences cause beat signals equivalent to matter waves, leading to interference. The extended fields entangled with every particle explain wave particle duality issues. Spin and magnetic moment are the natural outcome of these gyrating particles. As the energy and hence mass of the electron increases with acceleration so does its size shrink proportional to its reduced wavelength. The artificial weak and strong nuclear forces can be easily explained as different manifestations of the intermediate EM forces. The unstable neutron consists of a proton surrounded by a contracted and captured electron. The associated radial EM forces represent the weak nuclear force. The deuteron consists of two axially separated protons held together by a centrally captured electron. The axial EM forces represent the strong nuclear force, providing stability for "neutrons" only within nucleons. The same principles were applied to determine the geometries of force-balanced nuclei. The alpha-particle emerges as a very compact

  4. Electromagnetic brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekihara, Kensuke

    2008-01-01

    Present imaging methods of cerebral neuro-activity like brain functional MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) secondarily measure only average activities within a time of the second-order (low time-resolution). In contrast, the electromagnetic brain imaging (EMBI) directly measures the faint magnetic field (10 -12 -10 -13 T) yielded by the cerebral activity with use of multiple arrayed sensors equipped on the head surface within a time of sub-millisecond order (high time-resolution). The sensor array technology to find the signal source from the measured data is common in wide areas like signal procession for radar, sonar, and epicenter detection by seismic wave. For estimating and reconstructing the active region in the brain in EMBI, the efficient method must be developed and this paper describes the direct and inverse problems concerned in signal and image processions of EMBI. The direct problem involves the cerebral magnetic field/lead field matrix and inverse problem for reconstruction of signal source, the MUSIC (multiple signal classification) algorithm, GLRT (generalized likelihood ratio test) scan, and adaptive beamformer. As an example, given are results of magnetic intensity changes (unit, fT) in the somatosensory cortex vs time (msec) measured by 160 sensors and of images reconstructed from EMBI and MRI during electric muscle afferent input from the hand. The real-time imaging is thus possible with EMBI and extremely, the EMBI image, the real-time cerebral signals, can inversely operate a machine, of which application directs toward the brain/machine interface development. (R.T.)

  5. Electromagnetic forming - a potentially viable technique for accelerator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajawat, R.K.; Desai, S.V.; Kulkarni, M.R.; Dolly Rani; Nagesh, K.V.; Sethi, R.C.

    2003-01-01

    Modern day accelerator development encompasses a myriad technologies required for their diverse needs. Whereas RF, high voltage, vacuum, cryogenics etc., technologies meet their functional requirements, high finish lapping processes, ceramic-metal joining, oven brazing, spark erosion or wire cutting etc., are a must to meet their fabrication requirements. Electromagnetic (EM) forming technique falls in the latter category and is developed as a special technology. It is currently catering to the development as a nuclear reactor technology, but has the potential to meet accelerator requirements too. This paper highlights the general principle of its working, simple design guidelines, advantages, and suggests some specific areas where this could benefit accelerator technologies

  6. Electromagnetic Modelling of MMIC CPWs for High Frequency Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinulingga, E. P.; Kyabaggu, P. B. K.; Rezazadeh, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    Realising the theoretical electrical characteristics of components through modelling can be carried out using computer-aided design (CAD) simulation tools. If the simulation model provides the expected characteristics, the fabrication process of Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) can be performed for experimental verification purposes. Therefore improvements can be suggested before mass fabrication takes place. This research concentrates on development of MMIC technology by providing accurate predictions of the characteristics of MMIC components using an improved Electromagnetic (EM) modelling technique. The knowledge acquired from the modelling and characterisation process in this work can be adopted by circuit designers for various high frequency applications.

  7. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Installation Restoration Program, Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, is considering remedialaction alternatives to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites that may discharge to the surface. This requires a quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system and how the system will respond to any future stresses. The geologic units of interest in the study area consist of sediments of Holocene to Miocene age that extend from land surface to the base of the Hawthorn Group. The hydrogeology within the study area was determined from gamma-ray and geologists? logs. Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system was simulated with a seven-layer, finite-difference model that extended vertically from the water table to the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Results from the calibrated model were based on a long-term recharge rate of 6 inches per year, which fell in the range of 4 to 10 inches per year, estimated using stream hydrograph separation methods. More than 80 percent of ground-water flow circulates within the surficial-sand aquifer, which indicates that most contaminant movement also can be expected to move through the surficial-sand aquifer alone. The surficial-sand aquifer is the uppermost unit of the surficial aquifer system. Particle-tracking results showed that the distances of most flow paths were 1,500 feet or less from a given site to its discharge point. For an assumed effective porosity of 20 percent, typical traveltimes are 40 years or less. At all of the sites investigated, particles released 10 feet below the water table had shorter traveltimes than those released 40 feet below the water table. Traveltimes from contaminated sites to their point of discharge ranged from 2 to 300 years. The contributing areas of the domestic supply wells are not very extensive. The shortest traveltimes for particles to reach the domestic supply wells from their respective

  8. Electromagnetic aquametry electromagnetic wave interaction with water and moist substances

    CERN Document Server

    Kupfer, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of Electromagnetic Aquametry. It summarizes the wide area of metrology and its applications in electromagnetic sensing of moist materials. The physical properties of water in various degrees of binding interacting with electromagnetic fields is presented by model systems. The book describes measurement methods and sensors in the frequency domain, TDR-techniques for environmental problems, methods and sensors for quality assessment of biological substances, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Environmental sciences, as well as civil and geoengineering, fossil fuels, food and pharmaceutical science are the main fields of application. A very wide frequency sprectrum is used for dielectric measurement methods, but the microwave range is clearly dominant. Multiparameter methods as well as methods of principal components and artificial neural networks for density independent measurements are described.

  9. An electromagnetism-like method for the maximum set splitting problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratica Jozef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an electromagnetism-like approach (EM for solving the maximum set splitting problem (MSSP is applied. Hybrid approach consisting of the movement based on the attraction-repulsion mechanisms combined with the proposed scaling technique directs EM to promising search regions. Fast implementation of the local search procedure additionally improves the efficiency of overall EM system. The performance of the proposed EM approach is evaluated on two classes of instances from the literature: minimum hitting set and Steiner triple systems. The results show, except in one case, that EM reaches optimal solutions up to 500 elements and 50000 subsets on minimum hitting set instances. It also reaches all optimal/best-known solutions for Steiner triple systems.

  10. Broadband electromagnetic environments simulator (EMES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, N.

    1977-01-01

    A new test facility has been developed by Sandia Laboratories for determining the effects of electromagnetic environments on systems and components. The facility is capable of producing uniform, vertically polarized, continuous wave (CW) and pulsed fields over the frequency range of dc to 10 GHz. This broadband capability addresses the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) threat and is ideally suited to computer controlled sweeping and data acquisition. EMES is also capable of producing uniform transient fields having the wave shape and magnitude characteristic of a nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and near lightning. The design consists of a truncated, triplate, rectangular coaxial transmission line. The spacing between the flat center conductor and the ground planes is 4 meters. The line is terminated in its characteristic impedance of 50 ohms. At frequencies below the first resonance of the facility it behaves as a typical coaxial system. Above resonance, a wall of electromagnetic absorbing material provides a nonreflecting termination. Thus, EMES essentially combines the elements of a transmission line and an anechoic chamber. It will not radiate electromagnetic energy into the surrounding area because it is a shielded transmission line

  11. High performance electromagnetic simulation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedney, Stephen D.; Whites, Keith W.

    1994-10-01

    Army Research Office Grant #DAAH04-93-G-0453 has supported the purchase of 24 additional compute nodes that were installed in the Intel iPsC/860 hypercube at the Univesity Of Kentucky (UK), rendering a 32-node multiprocessor. This facility has allowed the investigators to explore and extend the boundaries of electromagnetic simulation for important areas of defense concerns including microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) design/analysis and electromagnetic materials research and development. The iPSC/860 has also provided an ideal platform for MMIC circuit simulations. A number of parallel methods based on direct time-domain solutions of Maxwell's equations have been developed on the iPSC/860, including a parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm, and a parallel planar generalized Yee-algorithm (PGY). The iPSC/860 has also provided an ideal platform on which to develop a 'virtual laboratory' to numerically analyze, scientifically study and develop new types of materials with beneficial electromagnetic properties. These materials simulations are capable of assembling hundreds of microscopic inclusions from which an electromagnetic full-wave solution will be obtained in toto. This powerful simulation tool has enabled research of the full-wave analysis of complex multicomponent MMIC devices and the electromagnetic properties of many types of materials to be performed numerically rather than strictly in the laboratory.

  12. Attracting electromagnet for control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuo; Sasaki, Kotaro.

    1989-01-01

    Non-magnetic material plates with inherent resistivity of greater than 20 μΩ-cm and thickness of less than 3 mm are used for the end plates of attracting electromagnets for closed type control rods. By using such control rod attracting electromagnets, the scram releasing time can be shortened than usual. Since the armature attracting side of the electromagnet has to be sealed by a non-magnetic plate, a bronze plate of about 5 mm thickness has been used so far. Accordingly, non-magnetic plate is inserted to the electromagnet attracting face to increase air source length for improving to shorten the scram releasing time. This method, however, worsens the attracting property on one hand to require a great magnetomotive force. For overcoming these drawbacks, in the present invention, the material for tightly closing end plates in an electromagnet is changed from bronze plate to non-magnetic stainless steel SUS 303 or non-magnetic Monel metal and, in addition, the plate thickness is reduced to less than 5 mm thereby maintaining the attracting property and shortening the scram releasing time. (K.M.)

  13. Electromagnetic potentials without gauge transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubykalo, A; Espinoza, A; Alvarado Flores, R

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the use of the Helmholtz theorem enables the derivation of uniquely determined electromagnetic potentials without the necessity of using gauge transformation. We show that the electromagnetic field comprises two components, one of which is characterized by instantaneous action at a distance, whereas the other propagates in retarded form with the velocity of light. In our attempt to show the superiority of the new proposed method to the standard one, we argue that the action-at-a-distance components cannot be considered as a drawback of our method, because the recommended procedure for eliminating the action at a distance in the Coulomb gauge leads to theoretical subtleties that allow us to say that the needed gauge transformation is not guaranteed. One of the theoretical consequences of this new definition is that, in addition to the electric E and magnetic B fields, the electromagnetic potentials are real physical quantities. We show that this property of the electromagnetic potentials in quantum mechanics is also a property of the electromagnetic potentials in classical electrodynamics.

  14. Electromagnetic coupling of high-altitude, nuclear electromagnetic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    We have used scale models to measure the predicted coupling of electromagnetic fields simulating the effects of high-altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulses (HEMP) on the interior surfaces of electronic components. Predictive tools for exterior coupling are adequate. For interior coupling, however, such tools are in their infancy. Our methodological approach combines analytical, computational, and laboratory techniques in a complementary way to take advantage of their separate strengths. Computer models are a promising tool, as they can be used to treat complex objects with arbitrary shapes, dielectrics, and cables, and multiple apertures. Laboratory tests can expand the domain of investigation even further

  15. An FMM-FFT Accelerated SIE Simulator for Analyzing EM Wave Propagation in Mine Environments Loaded with Conductors

    KAUST Repository

    Yucel, Abdulkadir C.; Sheng, Weitian; Zhou, Chenming; Liu, Yang Z.; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric

    2018-01-01

    A fast and memory efficient 3D full wave simulator for analyzing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in electrically large and realistic mine tunnels/galleries loaded with conductors is proposed. The simulator relies on Muller and combined field

  16. Analysis of electromagnetic scattering by uniaxial anisotropic bispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Jun; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Li, Hai-Ying

    2011-02-01

    Based on the generalized multiparticle Mie theory and the Fourier transformation approach, electromagnetic (EM) scattering of two interacting homogeneous uniaxial anisotropic spheres with parallel primary optical axes is investigated. By introducing the Fourier transformation, the EM fields in the uniaxial anisotropic spheres are expanded in terms of the spherical vector wave functions. The interactive scattering coefficients and the expansion coefficients of the internal fields are derived through the continuous boundary conditions on which the interaction of the bispheres is considered. Some selected calculations on the effects of the size parameter, the uniaxial anisotropic absorbing dielectric, and the sphere separation distance are described. The backward radar cross section of two uniaxial anisotropic spheres with a complex permittivity tensor changing with the sphere separation distance is numerically studied. The authors are hopeful that the work in this paper will help provide an effective calibration for further research on the scattering characteristic of an aggregate of anisotropic spheres or other shaped anisotropic particles.

  17. Electromagnetic micropores: fabrication and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basore, Joseph R; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Baker, Lane A

    2010-12-21

    We describe the fabrication and characterization of electromagnetic micropores. These devices consist of a micropore encompassed by a microelectromagnetic trap. Fabrication of the device involves multiple photolithographic steps, combined with deep reactive ion etching and subsequent insulation steps. When immersed in an electrolyte solution, application of a constant potential across the micropore results in an ionic current. Energizing the electromagnetic trap surrounding the micropore produces regions of high magnetic field gradients in the vicinity of the micropore that can direct motion of a ferrofluid onto or off of the micropore. This results in dynamic gating of the ion current through the micropore structure. In this report, we detail fabrication and characterize the electrical and ionic properties of the prepared electromagnetic micropores.

  18. Moving Manifolds in Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V. Svintradze

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose dynamic non-linear equations for moving surfaces in an electromagnetic field. The field is induced by a material body with a boundary of the surface. Correspondingly the potential energy, set by the field at the boundary can be written as an addition of four-potential times four-current to a contraction of the electromagnetic tensor. Proper application of the minimal action principle to the system Lagrangian yields dynamic non-linear equations for moving three dimensional manifolds in electromagnetic fields. The equations in different conditions simplify to Maxwell equations for massless three surfaces, to Euler equations for a dynamic fluid, to magneto-hydrodynamic equations and to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation.

  19. Perturbations in electromagnetic dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez, Jose Beltrán; Maroto, Antonio L.; Koivisto, Tomi S.; Mota, David F.

    2009-01-01

    It has been recently proposed that the presence of a temporal electromagnetic field on cosmological scales could explain the phase of accelerated expansion that the universe is currently undergoing. The field contributes as a cosmological constant and therefore, the homogeneous cosmology produced by such a model is exactly the same as that of ΛCDM. However, unlike a cosmological constant term, electromagnetic fields can acquire perturbations which in principle could affect CMB anisotropies and structure formation. In this work, we study the evolution of inhomogeneous scalar perturbations in this model. We show that provided the initial electromagnetic fluctuations generated during inflation are small, the model is perfectly compatible with both CMB and large scale structure observations at the same level of accuracy as ΛCDM

  20. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske

    2011-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators. -- Highlights: → We propose a fractional Lagrangian formulation for fractional Maxwell's fields. → We obtain gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields. → Our generalized fractional Maxwell's field is spatially symmetrical. → We discuss the non-causality of the theory.

  1. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske, E-mail: matheuslazo@furg.br [Instituto de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2011-09-26

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators. -- Highlights: → We propose a fractional Lagrangian formulation for fractional Maxwell's fields. → We obtain gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields. → Our generalized fractional Maxwell's field is spatially symmetrical. → We discuss the non-causality of the theory.

  2. Advanced electromagnetics and scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book present the lecture notes used in two courses that the late Professor Kasra Barkeshli had offered at Sharif University of Technology, namely, Advanced Electromagnetics and Scattering Theory. The prerequisite for the sequence is vector calculus and electromagnetic fields and waves. Some familiarity with Green's functions and integral equations is desirable but not necessary. The book  provides a brief but concise introduction to classical topics in the field. It is divided into three parts including annexes. Part I covers principle of electromagnetic theory. The discussion starts with a review of the Maxwell's equations in differential and integral forms and basic boundary conditions. The solution of inhomogeneous wave equation and various field representations including Lorentz's potential functions and the Green's function method are discussed next. The solution of Helmholtz equation and wave harmonics follow. Next, the book presents plane wave propagation in dielectric and lossy media and various...

  3. Electromagnetic corrections to baryon masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Loyal; Ha, Phuoc

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the electromagnetic contributions to the octet and decuplet baryon masses using the heavy-baryon approximation in chiral effective field theory and methods we developed in earlier analyses of the baryon masses and magnetic moments. Our methods connect simply to Morpurgo's general parametrization of the electromagnetic contributions and to semirelativistic quark models. Our calculations are carried out including the one-loop mesonic corrections to the basic electromagnetic interactions, so to two loops overall. We find that to this order in the chiral loop expansion there are no three-body contributions. The Coleman-Glashow relation and other sum rules derived in quark models with only two-body terms therefore continue to hold, and violations involve at least three-loop processes and can be expected to be quite small. We present the complete formal results and some estimates of the matrix elements here. Numerical calculations will be presented separately

  4. Heliborne time domain electromagnetic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.

    2009-01-01

    Atomic Minerals Directorate (AMD), are using heliborne and ground time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) system for the exploration of deep seated unconformity type uranium deposits. Uranium has been explored in various parts of the world like Athabasca basin using time domain electromagnetic system. AMD has identified some areas in India where such deposits are available. Apart from uranium exploration, the TDEM systems are used for the exploration of deep seated minerals like diamonds. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is involved in the indigenous design of the heliborne time domain system since this system is useful for DAE and also it has a scope of wide application. In this paper we discuss about the principle of time domain electromagnetic systems, their capabilities and the development and problems of such system for various other mineral exploration. (author)

  5. Clinical importance of electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruppe, I.

    1993-01-01

    The clinical importance of most of the electromagnetic fields is not highly. Mostly they only have thermal effects, produced by energy-absorption. About 1 C increase of whole-body-temperature is valid for tolerable limit. For measuring is used the SAR-Value (Specific Absorption Rate) in W/kg body mass. SAR = 0,8W/kg for the whole body is valid to be safety. For the evaluation of possible other effects of electromagnetic fields the scientific knowledges are till now not sufficient to allow a final statement. That could be impacts of electromagnetic fields to conduction or switch processes in the nerves or brains, in the framwork of cellular regulations, in the genetic reactions are occurig is little, but if is necessary to find it out in scinentific investigations. (orig.) [de

  6. Water- and air-quality and surficial bed-sediment monitoring of the Sweetwater Reservoir watershed, San Diego County, California, 2003-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Gregory O.; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.; Morita, Andrew Y.

    2015-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sweetwater Authority, began a study to assess the overall health of the Sweetwater watershed in San Diego County, California. This study was designed to provide a data set that could be used to evaluate potential effects from the construction and operation of State Route 125 within the broader context of the water quality and air quality in the watershed. The study included regular sampling of water, air, and surficial bed sediment at Sweetwater Reservoir (SWR) for chemical constituents, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), base-neutral and acid- extractable organic compounds (BNAs) that include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, and metals. Additionally, water samples were collected for anthropogenic organic indicator compounds in and around SWR. Background water samples were collected at Loveland Reservoir for VOCs, BNAs, pesticides, and metals. Surficial bed-sediment samples were collected for PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, and metals at Sweetwater and Loveland Reservoirs.

  7. Patterns and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in surficial sediments of Lakes Erie and Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Li; Gewurtz, Sarah B.; Reiner, Eric J.; MacPherson, Karen A.; Kolic, Terry M.; Helm, Paul A.; Brindle, Ian D.; Marvin, Chris H.

    2008-01-01

    This study determines spatial trends and congener patterns of 2378-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in surficial sediments of Lakes Erie and Ontario. Sediments are enriched in 2378-PCDFs in Lake Ontario, and the PCDD/F concentrations increased from shallow near-shore sediments towards deep-water depositional zone sediments. In Lake Erie, sediments were dominated by octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and the highest PCDD/F concentrations were observed in the western basin and the southern shoreline of the central basin with a decrease towards the eastern basin and the northern shoreline of the central basin. Principal components analysis revealed that chemical manufacture and disposal of chemical waste along the Niagara River has been a major PCDD/F source to Lake Ontario; while PCDD/Fs in Lake Erie are from multiple sources including industrial sources along the Detroit River, major tributaries along the southern shoreline of the lake, and atmospherically-derived material from the upper lakes and connecting channels. - Lake-wide 2378-PCDD/F congener patterns are first reported in L. Erie and L. Ontario sediments

  8. Surficial and vertical distribution of heavy metals in different estuary wetlands in the Pearl river, South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Honggang; Cui, Baoshan [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Zhang, Kejiang [Xinjiang Research Center of Water and Wastewater Treatment, Xinjiang Deland Co., LTD., Urumqi (China)

    2012-10-15

    A total of 87 soil profiles sampled from five types of wetlands in the Pearl River estuary were analyzed to investigate the surficial and vertical distributions of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). The results show that wetlands directly connected with rivers (e.g., riparian wetlands, estuarine wetlands, and mangrove wetlands) has much higher metal concentrations than those indirectly connected with rivers (e.g., pond wetlands and reclaimed wetlands). The river water is the major pollution source for all investigated heavy metals. The vertical distribution of heavy metals can be classified into three patterns: (i) linear distribution pattern. The concentration of heavy metals gradually decreases with an increase in soil depth (for riparian and estuarine wetlands); (ii) irregular and stable pattern (for pond and reclaimed wetlands); and (iii) middle enrichment pattern (for mangrove wetlands). In addition to river-borne inputs, a variety of vegetation composition, hydraulic conditions, and human activities also contribute to the variation in distribution of heavy metals in different wetlands. Soil properties (e.g., particle size, pH, salinity, and SOM) also affect the distribution of trace metals in each soil layer. The major pollution source of heavy metals is industrial wastewater. Other sources include agriculture and domestic premises, and atmospheric deposition. This study provides a sound basis for the risk assessment of heavy metals in the studied wetlands and for wetland conservation in general. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology of the Bear Creek Valley Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lietzke, D.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Lambert, R.E.

    1988-04-01

    An intensive soil survey was conducted on the proposed Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site (LLWDDD) in Bear Creek Valley. Soils on the site were related to the underlying residuum and to the surficial colluvium and alluvium. Within any particular geologic formation, soils were subdivided based mostly on the degree of weathering, as reflected by saprolite weathering and morphologic features of the soils. Degree of weathering was related both to slope shape and gradient and to the joint-fracture system. Erosion classes were also used to make further subdivisions of any particular soil. Deep pits were dug in each of the major Conasauga Group formations (Pumpkin Valley, Rogersville, Maryville, and Nolichucky) for soil and saprolite characterization. Because of the widespread presence of alluvium and colluvium, which are potential sources of fill and final cover material, pits and trenches were dug to characterize the properties of these soils and to try to understand the past geomorphic history of the site. The results of the soil survey investigation indicated that the deeply weathered Pumpkin Valley residuum has good potential for the construction of tumuli or other types of belowground or aboveground burial of prepackaged compacted waste. 11 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Hydrogeologic and Hydraulic Characterization of the Surficial Aquifer System, and Origin of High Salinity Groundwater, Palm Beach County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronald S.; Wacker, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of the hydrogeology of the surficial aquifer system in Palm Beach County, Florida, have focused mostly on the eastern one-half to one-third of the county in the more densely populated coastal areas. These studies have not placed the hydrogeology in a framework in which stratigraphic units in this complex aquifer system are defined and correlated between wells. Interest in the surficial aquifer system has increased because of population growth, westward expansion of urbanized areas, and increased utilization of surface-water resources in the central and western areas of the county. In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District, initiated an investigation to delineate the hydrogeologic framework of the surficial aquifer system in Palm Beach County, based on a lithostratigraphic framework, and to evaluate hydraulic properties and characteristics of units and permeable zones within this framework. A lithostratigraphic framework was delineated by correlating markers between all wells with data available based primarily on borehole natural gamma-ray geophysical log signatures and secondarily, lithologic characteristics. These correlation markers approximately correspond to important lithostratigraphic unit boundaries. Using the markers as guides to their boundaries, the surficial aquifer system was divided into three main permeable zones or subaquifers, which are designated, from shallowest to deepest, zones 1, 2, and 3. Zone 1 is above the Tamiami Formation in the Anastasia and Fort Thompson Formations. Zone 2 primarily is in the upper part or Pinecrest Sand Member of the Tamiami Formation, and zone 3 is in the Ochopee Limestone Member of the Tamiami Formation or its correlative equivalent. Differences in the lithologic character exist between these three zones, and these differences commonly include differences in the nature of the pore space. Zone 1 attains its greatest thickness (50 feet or more

  11. Physical, Chemical, Ecological, and Age Data and Trench Logs from Surficial Deposits at Hatch Point, Southeastern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harland L.; Miller, Mark E.; Yount, James C.; Reheis, Marith C.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Belnap, Jayne; Lamothe, Paul J.; McGeehan, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents data and describes the methodology for physical, chemical and ecological measurements of sediment, soil, and vegetation, as well as age determinations of surficial deposits at Hatch Point, Canyon Rims area, Colorado Plateau, southeastern Utah. The results presented in this report support a study that examines geomorphic and soil factors that may influence boundaries between shrubland and grassland ecosystems in the study area. Shrubland ecosystems dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) and grassland ecosystems dominated by native perennial grasses (for example, Hilaria jamesii and Sporabolis sp.) are high-priority conservation targets for the Federal Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and other resource managers because of their diversity, productivity, and vital importance as wildlife habitat. These ecosystems have been recognized as imperiled on a regional scale since at least the mid-1990s due to habitat loss (type conversions), land-use practices, and invasive exotic plants. In the Intermountain West, the exotic annual cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is recognized as one of the most pervasive and serious threats to the health of native sagebrush and grassland ecosystems through effects on fire regimes and resource conditions experienced by native species.

  12. Adsorption of multi-heavy metals Zn and Cu onto surficial sediments: modeling and adsorption capacity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Meng; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Improved multiple regression adsorption models (IMRAMs) was developed to estimate the adsorption capacity of the components [Fe oxides (Fe), Mn oxides (Mn), organic materials (OMs), residuals] in surficial sediments for multi-heavy metal Zn and Cu. IMRAM is an improved version over MRAM, which introduces a computer program in the model developing process. As MRAM, Zn(Cu) IMRAM, and Cu(Zn) IMRAM again confirmed that there is significant interaction effects that control the adsorption of compounded Zn and Cu, which was neglected by additional adsorption model. The verification experiment shows that the relative deviation of the IMRAMs is less than 13%. It is revealed by the IMRAMs that Mn, which has the greatest adsorption capability for compounded Zn and Cu (54.889 and 161.180 mg/l, respectively), follows by interference adsorption capacity of Fe/Mn (-1.072 and -24.591 mg/l respectively). Zn and Cu influence each other through different mechanisms. When Zn is the adsorbate, compounded Cu mainly affects the adsorption capacities of Fe/Mn and Fe/Mn/OMs; while when Cu is the adsorbate, compounded Zn mainly exerts its effect on Mn, Fe/Mn, and Mn/OMs. It also shows that the compounded Zn or Cu weakened the interference adsorption of Fe/Mn, and meanwhile, strengthened the interference adsorption of Mn/OMs.

  13. Estimations of the extent of migration of surficially applied water for various surface conditions near the potential repository perimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolik, S.R.; Fewell, M.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Site characterization includes surface-based and underground testing. Analyses have been performed to support the design of site characterization activities so to have minimal impact on the ability of the site to isolate waste, and on tests performed as part of the characterization process. Two examples of site characterization activities are the construction of an Exploratory Studies Facility, which may include underground shafts, drifts, and ramps, and surface-based testing activities, which may require borehole drilling, excavation of test pits, and road watering for dust control. The information in this report pertains to two-dimensional numerical calculations modeling the movement of surficially applied water and the potential effects of that water on repository performance and underground experiments. This document contains information that has been used in preparing recommendations for two Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project documents: Appendix I of the Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements document, and the Surface-Based Testing Field Requirements Document

  14. Mathematical methods of electromagnetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrichs, Kurt O

    2014-01-01

    This text provides a mathematically precise but intuitive introduction to classical electromagnetic theory and wave propagation, with a brief introduction to special relativity. While written in a distinctive, modern style, Friedrichs manages to convey the physical intuition and 19th century basis of the equations, with an emphasis on conservation laws. Particularly striking features of the book include: (a) a mathematically rigorous derivation of the interaction of electromagnetic waves with matter, (b) a straightforward explanation of how to use variational principles to solve problems in el

  15. Circuit modeling for electromagnetic compatibility

    CERN Document Server

    Darney, Ian B

    2013-01-01

    Very simply, electromagnetic interference (EMI) costs money, reduces profits, and generally wreaks havoc for circuit designers in all industries. This book shows how the analytic tools of circuit theory can be used to simulate the coupling of interference into, and out of, any signal link in the system being reviewed. The technique is simple, systematic and accurate. It enables the design of any equipment to be tailored to meet EMC requirements. Every electronic system consists of a number of functional modules interconnected by signal links and power supply lines. Electromagnetic interference

  16. Measurement of advanced electromagnetic radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Bajlo, Darko

    2017-01-01

    For the purpose of detecting advanced electromagnetic radiation predicted by Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory for the case of incomplete absorption of retarded electromagnetic radiation, pulses in duration of 6 ns to 24 ns, wavelength from 91 cm to 200 cm where supplied to three different transmitting antennas. Detection was done with a λ/20 monopole antenna in the advanced time window at a time 2r/c before the arrival of the center of the retarded pulse. At distances ranging from 430 cm to 18...

  17. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske

    2011-09-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators.

  18. Nonlinear classical theory of electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisello, D.

    1977-01-01

    A topological theory of electric charge is given. Einstein's criteria for the completion of classical electromagnetic theory are summarized and their relation to quantum theory and the principle of complementarity is indicated. The inhibiting effect that this principle has had on the development of physical thought is discussed. Developments in the theory of functions on nonlinear spaces provide the conceptual framework required for the completion of electromagnetism. The theory is based on an underlying field which is a continuous mapping of space-time into points on the two-sphere. (author)

  19. Electromagnetic computations for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1989-09-01

    Among the difficulties in making nuclear fusion a useful energy source, two important ones are producing the magnetic fields needed to drive and confine the plasma, and controlling the eddy currents induced in electrically conducting components by changing fields. All over the world, researchers are developing electromagnetic codes and employing them to compute electromagnetic effects. Ferromagnetic components of a fusion reactor introduce field distortions. Eddy currents are induced in the vacuum vessel, blanket and other torus components of a tokamak when the plasma current disrupts. These eddy currents lead to large forces, and 3-D codes are being developed to study the currents and forces. 35 refs., 6 figs

  20. Electromagnetic compatibility principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weston, David A

    2001-01-01

    This totally revised and expanded reference/text provides comprehensive, single-source coverage of the design, problem solving, and specifications of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) into electrical equipment/systems-including new information on basic theories, applications, evaluations, prediction techniques, and practical diagnostic options for preventing EMI through cost-effective solutions. Offers the most recent guidelines, safety limits, and standards for human exposure to electromagnetic fields! Containing updated data on EMI diagnostic verification measurements, as well as over 900 drawings, photographs, tables, and equations-500 more than the previous edition

  1. The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allgower, C.E.; Anderson, B.D.; Baldwin, A.R.; Balewski, J.; Belt-Tonjes, M.; Bland, L.C.; Brown, R.L.; Cadman, R.V.; Christie, W.; Cyliax, I.; Dunin, V.; Efimov, L.; Eppley, G.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Hallman, T.; Hunt, W.; Jacobs, W.W.; Klyachko, A.; Krueger, K.; Kulikov, A.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Y.; Planinic, M.; Puskar-Pasewicz, J.; Rakness, G.; Razin, S.; Rogachevski, O.; Shimansky, S.; Solberg, K.A.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.; Stephenson, E.J.; Tikhomirov, V.; Tokarev, M.; Tribble, R.E.; Underwood, D.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Vigdor, S.E.; Watson, J.W.; Westfall, G.; Wissink, S.W.; Yokosawa, A.; Yurevich, V.; Zhang, W.-M.; Zubarev, A.

    2003-01-01

    The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter will provide full azimuthal coverage for high-p T photons, electrons and electromagnetically decaying mesons over the pseudorapidity range 1.086≤η≤2.00. It includes a scintillating-strip shower-maximum detector to provide π 0 /γ discrimination and preshower and postshower layers to aid in distinguishing between electrons and charged hadrons. The triggering capabilities and coverage it offers are crucial for much of the spin physics program to be carried out in polarized proton-proton collisions

  2. Electromagnetic geothermometry theory, modeling, practice

    CERN Document Server

    Spichak, Viacheslav V

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Geothermometry explores, presents and explains the new technique of temperature estimation within the Earth's interior; the Electromagnetic technique will identify zones of geothermal anomalies and thus provides locations for deep drilling. This book includes many case studies from geothermal areas such as Travale (Italy), Soultz-sous-Forêts (France) and Hengill (Iceland), allowing the author and reader to draw conclusions regarding the dominating heat transfer mechanisms, location of its sources and to constrain the locations for drilling of the new boreholes. Covering a to

  3. Integral equation methods for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Volakis, John

    2012-01-01

    This text/reference is a detailed look at the development and use of integral equation methods for electromagnetic analysis, specifically for antennas and radar scattering. Developers and practitioners will appreciate the broad-based approach to understanding and utilizing integral equation methods and the unique coverage of historical developments that led to the current state-of-the-art. In contrast to existing books, Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetics lays the groundwork in the initial chapters so students and basic users can solve simple problems and work their way up to the mo

  4. The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgower, C.E.; Anderson, B.D.; Baldwin, A.R.; Balewski, J.; Belt-Tonjes, M.; Bland, L.C.; Brown, R.L.; Cadman, R.V.; Christie, W.; Cyliax, I.; Dunin, V.; Efimov, L.; Eppley, G.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Hallman, T.; Hunt, W.; Jacobs, W.W.; Klyachko, A.; Krueger, K.; Kulikov, A.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Y.; Planinic, M.; Puskar-Pasewicz, J.; Rakness, G.; Razin, S.; Rogachevski, O.; Shimansky, S.; Solberg, K.A.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.; Stephenson, E.J.; Tikhomirov, V.; Tokarev, M.; Tribble, R.E.; Underwood, D.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Vigdor, S.E. E-mail: vigdor@iucf.indiana.edu; Watson, J.W.; Westfall, G.; Wissink, S.W.; Yokosawa, A.; Yurevich, V.; Zhang, W.-M.; Zubarev, A

    2003-03-01

    The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter will provide full azimuthal coverage for high-p{sub T} photons, electrons and electromagnetically decaying mesons over the pseudorapidity range 1.086{<=}{eta}{<=}2.00. It includes a scintillating-strip shower-maximum detector to provide {pi}{sup 0}/{gamma} discrimination and preshower and postshower layers to aid in distinguishing between electrons and charged hadrons. The triggering capabilities and coverage it offers are crucial for much of the spin physics program to be carried out in polarized proton-proton collisions.

  5. Electromagnetic Compatibility of Devices on Hybrid Electromagnetic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konesev, S. G.; Khazieva, R. T.; Kirillov, R. V.; Gainutdinov, I. Z.; Kondratyev, E. Y.

    2018-01-01

    There is a general tendency to reduce the weight and dimensions, the consumption of conductive and electrical insulating materials, increase the reliability and energy efficiency of electrical devices. In recent years, designers have been actively developing devices based on hybrid electromagnetic components (HEMC) such as inductive-capacitive converters (ICC), voltages pulse generators (VPG), secondary power supplies (SPS), capacitive storage devices (CSD), induction heating systems (IHS). Sources of power supplies of similar electrical devices contain, as a rule, links of increased frequency and function in key (pulse) modes, which leads to an increase in electromagnetic interference (EMI). Nonlinear and periodic (impulse) loads, non-sinusoidal (pulsation) of the electromotive force and nonlinearity of the internal parameters of the source and input circuits of consumers distort the shape of the input voltage lead to an increase in thermal losses from the higher harmonic currents, aging of the insulation, increase in the weight of the power supply filter units, resonance at higher harmonics. The most important task is to analyze the operation of electrotechnical devices based on HEMC from the point of view of creating EMIs and assessing their electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) with power supply systems (PSS). The article presents the results of research on the operation of an IHS, the operation principle of a secondary power supply source of which is based on the operation of a half-bridge autonomous inverter, the switching circuit of which is made in the form of a HEMC, called the «multifunctional integrated electromagnetic component»" (MIEC).

  6. A Model for Microcontroller Functionality Upset Induced by External Pulsed Electromagnetic Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-21

    AFRL-RD-PS- AFRL-RD-PS- TN-2016-0003 TN-2016-0003 A Model for Microcontroller Functionality Upset Induced by External Pulsed Electromagnetic...TYPE Technical Note 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 22-11-2015 – 21-11-2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Model for Microcontroller Functionality Upset Induced by... microcontroller (µC) subjected to external irradiation by a narrowband electromagnetic (EM) pulse. In our model, the state of a µC is completely specified by

  7. Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... waves through a network of fixed antennas called base stations. Radiofrequency waves are electromagnetic fields, and unlike ionizing radiation ... waves through a network of fixed antennas called base stations. Radiofrequency waves are electromagnetic fields, and unlike ionizing radiation ...

  8. Higher-order techniques in computational electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Graglia, Roberto D

    2016-01-01

    Higher-Order Techniques in Computational Electromagnetics explains 'high-order' techniques that can significantly improve the accuracy, computational cost, and reliability of computational techniques for high-frequency electromagnetics, such as antennas, microwave devices and radar scattering applications.

  9. Electromagnetic problems in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eloranta, E.H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper reviews the electromagnetic characterization of fractured rock during various phases of radioactive waste disposal investigations and construction, and also discusses the methods of the electromagnetic safeguards monitoring

  10. Monitoring of electromagnetic pollution inside switchyard substation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    selected circuit of two 220Kv power lines inside El- Hadjar electrical post often requiring ... human body exposure to the electromagnetic radiation .... electromagnetic behavior at the industrial .... partnership with Algerian company of electricity.

  11. Combined Approach for Solving the Electromagnetic Induction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    boundary. For example, in electromagnetic induction imaging, it is the magnetic ... Applications of electromagnetic .... The first integral is referred to as a single layer potential and is continuous across ..... Scattering Theory, 2nd ed., Springer.

  12. Electromagnetic Compatibility Design of the Computer Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitai, Hong

    2018-02-01

    Computers and the Internet have gradually penetrated into every aspect of people’s daily work. But with the improvement of electronic equipment as well as electrical system, the electromagnetic environment becomes much more complex. Electromagnetic interference has become an important factor to hinder the normal operation of electronic equipment. In order to analyse the computer circuit compatible with the electromagnetic compatibility, this paper starts from the computer electromagnetic and the conception of electromagnetic compatibility. And then, through the analysis of the main circuit and system of computer electromagnetic compatibility problems, we can design the computer circuits in term of electromagnetic compatibility. Finally, the basic contents and methods of EMC test are expounded in order to ensure the electromagnetic compatibility of equipment.

  13. Nuclear structure investigations with electromagnetic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drechsel, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is related to the study of electromagnetic interactions, current of hadronic systems, deep inelastic scattering, quasifree scattering, low energy theorems and electromagnetic reactions above pion threshold. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  14. X-ray em simulation tool for ptychography dataset construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoevelaar, L.P.; Gerini, Giampiero

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present an electromagnetic full-wave modeling framework, as a support EM tool providing data sets for X-ray ptychographic imaging. Modeling the entire scattering problem with Finite Element Method (FEM) tools is, in fact, a prohibitive task, because of the large area illuminated by

  15. Production of gravitation waves by electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchner, K.; Rosca, R.

    1980-01-01

    An exact solution of Einstein's equations is presented that corresponds to an axisymmetric bundle of electromagnetic waves with finite cross section. Outside this bundle, there is gravitational radiation parallel to the electromagnetic radiation. If no static electromagnetic fields are present, the frequency of the gravitational waves is twice the frequency of the electromagnetic waves. Einstein's energy complex vanishes identically. The covariant energy complex, however, yields also a radial momentum. (author)

  16. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in a weakly ionized dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Jieshu; Yuan, Chengxun; Gao, Ruilin; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yaoze; Gao, Junying; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Sun, Xiudong; Li, Hui; Wu, Jian; Pu, Shaozhi

    2015-01-01

    Propagation properties of electromagnetic (EM) waves in weakly ionized dusty plasmas are the subject of this study. Dielectric relation for EM waves propagating at a weakly ionized dusty plasma is derived based on the Boltzmann distribution law while considering the collision and charging effects of dust grains. The propagation properties of EM energy in dusty plasma of rocket exhaust are numerically calculated and studied, utilizing the parameters of rocket exhaust plasma. Results indicate that increase of dust radius and density enhance the reflection and absorption coefficient. High dust radius and density make the wave hardly transmit through the dusty plasmas. Interaction enhancements between wave and dusty plasmas are developed through effective collision frequency improvements. Numerical results coincide with observed results by indicating that GHz band wave communication is effected by dusty plasma as the presence of dust grains significantly affect propagation of EM waves in the dusty plasmas. The results are helpful to analyze the effect of dust in plasmas and also provide a theoretical basis for the experiments. (paper)

  17. Cosimulation of electromagnetics-circuit systems exploiting DGTD and MNA

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2014-06-01

    A hybrid electromagnetics (EM)-circuit simulator exploiting the discontinuous Galerkin time domain (DGTD) method and the modified nodal analysis (MNA) algorithm is developed for analyzing hybrid distributive and nonlinear multiport lumped circuit systems. The computational domain is split into two subsystems. One is the EM subsystem that is analyzed by DGTD, while the other is the circuit subsystem that is solved by the MNA method. The coupling between the EM and circuit subsystems is enforced at the lumped port where related field and circuit unknowns are coupled via the use of numerical flux, port voltages, and current sources. Since the spatial operations of DGTD are localized, thanks to the use of numerical flux, coupling matrices between EM and circuit subsystems are small and are directly inverted. To handle nonlinear devices within the circuit subsystem, the standard Newton-Raphson method is applied to the nonlinear coupling matrix system. In addition, a local time-stepping scheme is applied to improve the efficiency of the hybrid solver. Numerical examples including single and multiport linear/nonlinear circuit networks are presented to validate the proposed solver. © 2014 IEEE.

  18. Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks—Part I: Link Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gara Quintana-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs using electromagnetic (EM technology in marine shallow waters are examined, not just for environmental monitoring but for further interesting applications. Particularly, the use of EM waves is reconsidered in shallow waters due to the benefits offered in this context, where acoustic and optical technologies have serious disadvantages. Sea water scenario is a harsh environment for radiocommunications, and there is no standard model for the underwater EM channel. The high conductivity of sea water, the effect of seabed and the surface make the behaviour of the channel hard to predict. This justifies the need of link characterization as the first step to approach the development of EM underwater sensor networks. To obtain a reliable link model, measurements and simulations are required. The measuring setup for this purpose is explained and described, as well as the procedures used. Several antennas have been designed and tested in low frequency bands. Agreement between attenuation measurements and simulations at different distances was analysed and made possible the validation of simulation setups and the design of different communications layers of the system. This leads to the second step of this work, where data and routing protocols for the sensor network are examined.

  19. Effect of electromagnetic navigated ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement on failure rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Nayoung; Kim, Dongwon

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of electromagnetic (EM) navigation system on ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt failure rate through comparing the result of standard shunt placement. All patients undergoing VP shunt from October 2007 to September 2010 were included in this retrospective study. The first group received shunt surgery using EM navigation. The second group had catheters inserted using manual method with anatomical landmark. The relationship between proximal catheter position and shunt revision rate was evaluated using postoperative computed tomography by a 3-point scale. 1) Grade I; optimal position free-floating in cerebrospinal fluid, 2) Grade II; touching choroid or ventricular wall, 3) Grade III; tip within parenchyma. A total of 72 patients were participated, 27 with EM navigated shunts and 45 with standard shunts. Grade I was found in 25 patients from group 1 and 32 patients from group 2. Only 2 patients without use of navigation belonged to grade III. Proximal obstruction took place 7% in grade I, 15% in grade II and 100% in grade III. Shunt revision occurred in 11% of group 1 and 31% of group 2. Compared in terms of proximal catheter position, there was growing trend of revision rate according to increase of grade on each group. Although infection rate was similar between both groups, the result had no statistical meaning (p=0.905, chi-square test). The use of EM navigation in routine shunt surgery can eliminate poor shunt placement resulting in a dramatic reduction in failure rates.

  20. Recent progress of Geant4 electromagnetic physics for calorimeter simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incerti, S.; Ivanchenko, V.; Novak, M.

    2018-02-01

    We report on recent progress in the Geant4 electromagnetic (EM) physics sub-packages. New interfaces and models introduced recently in Geant4 10.3 are already used in LHC applications and may be useful for any type of simulation. Additional developments for EM physics are available with the new public version Geant4 10.4 (December, 2017). Important developments for calorimetry applications were carried out for the modeling of single and multiple scattering of charged particles. Corrections to scattering of positrons and to sampling of displacement have recently been added to the Geant4 default Urban model. The fully theory-based Goudsmit-Saunderson (GS) model for electron/positron multiple scattering was recently reviewed and a new improved version is available in Geant4 10.4. For testing purposes for novel calorimeters we provide a configuration of electron scattering based on the GS model or on the single scattering model (SS) instead of the Urban model. In addition, the GS model with Mott corrections enabled is included in the option4 EM physics constructor. This EM configuration provides the most accurate results for scattering of electrons and positrons.

  1. A new online database of nuclear electromagnetic moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertzimekis, Theo J.

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear electromagnetic (EM) moments, i.e., the magnetic dipole and the electric quadrupole moments, provide important information of nuclear structure. As in other types of experimental data available to the community, measurements of nuclear EM moments have been organized systematically in compilations since the dawn of nuclear science. However, the wealth of recent moments measurements with radioactive beams, as well as earlier existing measurements, lack an online, easy-to-access, systematically organized presence to disseminate information to researchers. In addition, available printed compilations suffer a rather long life cycle, being left behind experimental measurements published in journals or elsewhere. A new, online database (http://magneticmoments.info) focusing on nuclear EM moments has been recently developed to disseminate experimental data to the community. The database includes non-evaluated experimental data of nuclear EM moments, giving strong emphasis on frequent updates (life cycle is 3 months) and direct connection to the sources via DOI and NSR hyperlinks. It has been recently integrated in IAEA LiveChart [1], but can also be found as a standalone webapp [2]. A detailed review of the database features, as well as plans for further development and expansion in the near future is discussed.

  2. Optimizing the energy measurement of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampl, W.

    2005-12-01

    This PhD-thesis addresses the calibration of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter. ATLAS is a high-energy physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is currently under construction at CERN in Geneva. LHC and ATLAS are foreseen to start up in 2007. In summer 2004, an extensive beam-test was carried out. This means that individual detector modules are exposed to a particle beam of known energy in order to verify the detector performance. At this occasion, all ATLAS subdetectors where operated together for the first time. The thesis contains a comprehensive description of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter, the reconstruction software and the test-beam experiment that was carried out at CERN in 2004. Furthermore, the physics of the electromagnetic shower is discussed in detail. Data from the test beam as well as a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation are used to develop a novel energy-reconstruction method for the ATLAS EM calorimeter that achieves an excellent energy resolution (sampling term ∼ 11 %) as well as a very good linearity (< 0.4 %). Data taken during the beam test is also used to verify the accuracy of the simulation and to test the new energy-reconstruction method. (author)

  3. The modern trends in space electromagnetic instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korepanov, V. E.

    The future trends of the experimental plasma physics development in outer space demand more and more exact and sophisticated scientific instrumentation. Moreover, the situation is complicated by constant reduction of financial support of scientific research, even in leading countries. This resulted in the development of mini; micro and nanosatellites with low price and short preparation time. Consequently, it provoked the creation of new generation of scientific instruments with reduced weight and power consumption but increased level of metrological parameters. The recent state of the development of electromagnetic (EM) sensors for microsatellites is reported. For flux-gate magnetometers (FGM) the reduction of weight as well as power consumption was achieved not only due to the use of new electronic components but also because of the new operation mode development. The scientific and technological study allowed to decrease FGM noise and now the typical noise figure is about 10 picotesla rms at 1 Hz and the record one is below 1 picotesla. The super-light version of search-coil magnetometers (SCM) was created as the result of intensive research. These new SCMs can have about six decades of operational frequency band with upper limit ˜ 1 MHz and noise level of few femtotesla with total weight about 75 grams, including electronics. A new instrument.- wave probe (WP) - which combines three independent sensors in one body - SCM, split Langmuir probe and electric potential sensor - was created. The developed theory confirms that WP can directly measure the wave vector components in space plasmas.

  4. Laboratory study of electromagnetic initiation of slip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chikhladze

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently Russian seismologists reported the triggering effect of MHD soundings on microseismic activity in the Central Asia test area.The paper focuses on an experimental test of the possibility of triggering the mechanical instability of a system that is close to critical state by a series of electromagnetic pulses.The mechanical system consisted of two pieces of rock;the upper piece can slip on the fixed supporting sample if the latter one is tilted up to the critical angle.In this state,the triggering of mechanical instability by some weak impact such as electrical pulse became more probable.The slope of support in the experiment is an analogue of tectonic stress in natural conditions.The preliminary experiments,carried out in a dry environment,at the humidity of atmosphere 30-50%,show that a strong EM-pulse induces sliding of a sample of rock (granite,basalt,labradoriteplaced on the supporting sample which is inclined at the slope close to,but less than,the critical angle with a probability 0.07.

  5. Geology, Surficial, Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Geomorphology - DRG �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, shallow aquifers and confining units; shape file with geomorphic map units interpreted from, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2006. Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Geomorphology - DRG �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain...

  6. Geology, Surficial, Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Core Locations �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, and shallow aquifers and confining units; Excel spread sheet with core names, coordinates, and data co, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2006. Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Core Locations �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize...

  7. Biologic effects of electromagnetic radiation and microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Hua

    2002-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation and microwave exist mankind's environment widely. People realize they disserve authors' health when authors make use of them. Electromagnetic radiation is one of the major physic factors which injure people's health. A review of the biologic mechanism about electromagnetic radiation and microwave, their harmful effects to human body, problems in authors' research and the prospect

  8. Electromagnetic Pulse Coupling Analysis of Electronic Equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Lei; Qingying LI

    2017-01-01

    High-intensity nuclear explosion caused by high-altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulse through the antenna, metal cables, holes and other channels, coupled with very high energy into the electronic device, and cause serious threats. In this paper, the mechanism, waveform, coupling path and damage effect of nuclear electromagnetic pulse is analyzed, and the coupling mechanism of nuclear electromagnetic pulse is studied.

  9. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Fact or fiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Lipp, Christopher T.

    2012-01-01

    As the prevalence of wireless telecommunication escalates throughout the world, health professionals are faced with the challenge of patients who report symptoms they claim are connected with exposure to some frequencies of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some scientists and clinicians acknowledge the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to EMR resulting from common exposures such as wireless systems and electrical devices in the home or workplace; others suggest that electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is psychosomatic or fictitious. Various organizations including the World Health Organization as well as some nation states are carefully exploring this clinical phenomenon in order to better explain the rising prevalence of non-specific, multi-system, often debilitating symptoms associated with non-ionizing EMR exposure. As well as an assortment of physiological complaints, patients diagnosed with EHS also report profound social and personal challenges, impairing their ability to function normally in society. This paper offers a review of the sparse literature on this perplexing condition and a discussion of the controversy surrounding the legitimacy of the EHS diagnosis. Recommendations are provided to assist health professionals in caring for individuals complaining of EHS. - Highlights: ► Many people report symptoms when near devices emanating electromagnetic fields(EMF). ► Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) research has generated conflicting outcomes. ► Recent evidence suggests pathophysiological change in some individuals with EHS. ► EHS patients consistently report profound social and personal challenges. ► Clinicians need to be apprised of the EHS condition and potential interventions.

  10. Heat Radiators for Electromagnetic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Report proposes use of carbon/carbon composite radiators in electromagnetic coolant pumps of nuclear reactors on spacecraft. Carbon/carbon composite materials function well at temperatures in excess of 2,200 K. Aluminum has melting temperature of only 880 K.

  11. Solved problems in classical electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Jerrold

    2018-01-01

    This original Dover publication is the companion to a new edition of the author's Classical Electromagnetism: Second Edition. The latter volume will feature only basic answers; this book will contain some problems from the reissue as well as many other new ones. All feature complete, worked-out solutions and form a valuable source of problem-solving material for students.

  12. An electromagnetic system for biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to an electromagnetic system for biosensors, in which the system can switch quickly between high magnetic gradients, without the need of movement of mech. elements. This is realized by two independent emu which are sepd. in the region of the pole shoes over a gap, in which a

  13. Particle acceleration by electromagnetic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, H.M.

    1982-01-01

    Particle interaction with plane electromagnetic pulses is studied. It is shown that particle acceleration by a wavy pulse, depending on the shape of the pulse, may not be small. Further, a diffusive-type particle acceleration by multiple weak pulses is described and discussed. (author)

  14. Proposed electromagnetic wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Device converts wave energy into electric power through array of insulated absorber elements responsive to field of impinging electromagnetic radiation. Device could also serve as solar energy converter that is potentially less expensive and fragile than solar cells, yet substantially more efficient.

  15. Electromagnetic properties of excited bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salading, J.X.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper the predictions of various microcopic and phenomenological models for the electromagnetic properties of nuclei are compared with experiment. The discussion centers on five case studies and illustrates that there often exist certain key matrix elements which permit to differentiate between various models. (orig.)

  16. Synthetic aperture controlled source electromagnetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Y.; Snieder, R.; Slob, E.; Hunziker, J.W.; Singer, J.; Sheiman, J.; Rosenquist, M.

    2010-01-01

    Controlled?source electromagnetics (CSEM) has been used as a de?risking tool in the hydrocarbon exploration industry. Although there have been successful applications of CSEM, this technique is still not widely used in the industry because the limited types of hydrocarbon reservoirs CSEM can detect.

  17. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.

    1993-01-01

    In this generally intelligible article, the author describes at first the physical fundamentals of electromagnetic fields and their basic biological significance and effects for animals and human beings before dealing with the discussion regarding limiting values and dangers. The article treats possible connections with leukaemia as well as ith melatonine production more detailed. (vhe) [de

  18. Awake craniotomy using electromagnetic navigation technology without rigid pin fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Ahmed A; Ng, Wai Hoe

    2015-11-01

    We report our institutional experience using an electromagnetic navigation system, without rigid head fixation, for awake craniotomy patients. The StealthStation® S7 AxiEM™ navigation system (Medtronic, Inc.) was used for this technique. Detailed preoperative clinical and neuropsychological evaluations, patient education and contrast-enhanced MRI (thickness 1.5mm) were performed for each patient. The AxiEM Mobile Emitter was typically placed in a holder, which was mounted to the operating room table, and a non-invasive patient tracker was used as the patient reference device. A monitored conscious sedation technique was used in all awake craniotomy patients, and the AxiEM Navigation Pointer was used for navigation during the procedure. This offers the same accuracy as optical navigation, but without head pin fixation or interference with intraoperative neurophysiological techniques and surgical instruments. The application of the electromagnetic neuronavigation technology without rigid head fixation during an awake craniotomy is accurate, and offers superior patient comfort. It is recommended as an effective adjunctive technique for the conduct of awake surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Australian developments in airborne electromagnetics - from minerals to dryland salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) methods are based on the principle of inducing eddy currents in conductive material by varying the magnetic field in a transmitter wire loop. The eddy currents are detected by measuring their associated secondary magnetic fields in an ultra-sensitive induction coil. The author outlines the the early development of electromagnetic prospecting methods, particularly in Australia. In the late 1980s, World Geoscience Corporation, a subsidiary of Aerodata Holdings, tapped into the GIRD grant scheme with collaboration from CSIRO to develop the SALTMAP system, the world's first fully digital broadband airborne EM system. Unfortunately, the promises and expectations exceeded what technology could realistically deliver. Early SALTMAP surveys produced inconclusive, poor quality conductivity maps that sometimes appeared to correlate with known salt stores and sometimes not. Later on, the success story was the TEMPEST system, much better suited to mineral exploration in Australia than previous technologies. The TEMPEST system featured broadband (25 Hz to 37 kHz) multi-component acquisition, and streaming data recording suitable for post-survey digital processing. Using powerful interpretation and imaging software, users were able to quickly and reliably visualise conductivity variations in the subsurface in three dimensions. An interdisciplinary regional survey in the Temora/Gilmore area of western NSW in 1998, which later became known as Project Gilmore, clearly demonstrated the potential of the TEMPEST system for mineral exploration using a 'geological systems' approach for highlighting prospective areas, as well for regolith-based salinity mapping

  20. Modeling the source contribution of heavy metals in surficial sediment and analysis of their historical changes in the vertical sediments of a drinking water reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqiang; A, Yinglan; Jiang, Hong; Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui

    2015-01-01

    Increasing water pollution in developing countries poses a significant threat to environmental health and human welfare. Understanding the spatial distribution and apportioning the sources of pollution are important for the efficient management of water resources. In this study, ten types of heavy metals were detected during 2010-2013 for all ambient samples and point sources samples. A pollution assessment based on the surficial sediment dataset by Enrichment Factor (EF) showed the surficial sediment was moderately contaminated. A comparison of the multivariate approach (principle components analysis/absolute principle component score, PCA/APCS) and the chemical mass balance model (CMB) shows that the identification of sources and calculation of source contribution based on the CMB were more objective and acceptable when source profiles were known and source composition was complex. The results of source apportionment for surficial heavy metals, both from PCA/APCS and CMB model, showed that the natural background (30%) was the most dominant contributor to the surficial heavy metals, followed by mining activities (29%). The contribution percentage of the natural background was negatively related to the degree of contamination. The peak concentrations of many heavy metals (Cu, Ba, Fe, As and Hg) were found in the middle layer of sediment, which is most likely due to the result of development of industry beginning in the 1970s. However, the highest concentration of Pb appeared in the surficial sediment layer, which was most likely due to the sharp increase in the traffic volume. The historical analysis of the sources based on the CMB showed that mining and the chemical industry are stable sources for all of the sections. The comparing of change rates of source contribution versus years indicated that the composition of the materials in estuary site (HF1) is sensitive to the input from the land, whereas center site (HF4) has a buffering effect on the materials from

  1. Multifunction waveform generator for EM receiver testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Jin, Sheng; Deng, Ming

    2018-01-01

    In many electromagnetic (EM) methods - such as magnetotelluric, spectral-induced polarization (SIP), time-domain-induced polarization (TDIP), and controlled-source audio magnetotelluric (CSAMT) methods - it is important to evaluate and test the EM receivers during their development stage. To assess the performance of the developed EM receivers, controlled synthetic data that simulate the observed signals in different modes are required. In CSAMT and SIP mode testing, the waveform generator should use the GPS time as the reference for repeating schedule. Based on our testing, the frequency range, frequency precision, and time synchronization of the currently available function waveform generators on the market are deficient. This paper presents a multifunction waveform generator with three waveforms: (1) a wideband, low-noise electromagnetic field signal to be used for magnetotelluric, audio-magnetotelluric, and long-period magnetotelluric studies; (2) a repeating frequency sweep square waveform for CSAMT and SIP studies; and (3) a positive-zero-negative-zero signal that contains primary and secondary fields for TDIP studies. In this paper, we provide the principles of the above three waveforms along with a hardware design for the generator. Furthermore, testing of the EM receiver was conducted with the waveform generator, and the results of the experiment were compared with those calculated from the simulation and theory in the frequency band of interest.

  2. A Trust Region Aggressive Space Mapping Algorithm for EM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr., M.; Bandler, J. W.; Biernacki, R.

    1998-01-01

    A robust new algorithm for electromagnetic (EM) optimization of microwave circuits is presented. The algorithm (TRASM) integrates a trust region methodology with the aggressive space mapping (ASM). The trust region ensures that each iteration results in improved alignment between the coarse....... This suggested step exploits all the available EM simulations for improving the uniqueness of parameter extraction. The new algorithm was successfully used to design a number of microwave circuits. Examples include the EM optimization of a double-folded stub filter and of a high-temperature superconducting (HTS...

  3. Electromagnetic and thermal properties of three-dimensional printed multilayered nano-carbon/poly(lactic) acid structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paddubskaya, A. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya Str. 11, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, A. Goštauto 11, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania); Valynets, N.; Batrakov, K. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya Str. 11, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Kuzhir, P., E-mail: polina.kuzhir@gmail.com; Maksimenko, S. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya Str. 11, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Kotsilkova, R.; Velichkova, H.; Petrova, I. [Open Laboratory on Experimental Micro and Nano Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 4, Sofia (Bulgaria); Biró, I. [3D Wishes, Bíró u. 44/a/2, Érd (Hungary); Kertész, K.; Márk, G. I.; Horváth, Z. E.; Biró, L. P. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Centre for Energy Research, PO Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-04-07

    A new type of light-weight material produced by 3D printing consisting of nano-carbon doped polymer layer followed by a dielectric polymer layer is proposed. We performed temperature dependent characterization and measured the electromagnetic (EM) response of the samples in the GHz and THz range. The temperature dependent structural characteristics, crystallization, and melting were observed to be strongly affected by the presence and the number of nano-carbon doped layers in the sandwich structure. The electromagnetic measurements show a great potential of such a type of periodic material for electromagnetic compatibility applications in microwave frequency range. Sandwich structures containing only two nano-carbon layers already become not transparent to the microwaves, giving an electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency at the level of 8–15 dB. A sandwich consisting of one nano-carbon doped and one polymer layer is opaque for THz radiation, because of 80% of absorption. These studies serve as a basis for design and realization of specific optimal geometries of meta-surface type with the 3D printing technique, in order to reach a high level of electromagnetic interference shielding performance for real world EM cloaking and EM ecology applications.

  4. Electromagnetic and thermal properties of three-dimensional printed multilayered nano-carbon/poly(lactic) acid structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paddubskaya, A.; Valynets, N.; Batrakov, K.; Kuzhir, P.; Maksimenko, S.; Kotsilkova, R.; Velichkova, H.; Petrova, I.; Biró, I.; Kertész, K.; Márk, G. I.; Horváth, Z. E.; Biró, L. P.

    2016-01-01

    A new type of light-weight material produced by 3D printing consisting of nano-carbon doped polymer layer followed by a dielectric polymer layer is proposed. We performed temperature dependent characterization and measured the electromagnetic (EM) response of the samples in the GHz and THz range. The temperature dependent structural characteristics, crystallization, and melting were observed to be strongly affected by the presence and the number of nano-carbon doped layers in the sandwich structure. The electromagnetic measurements show a great potential of such a type of periodic material for electromagnetic compatibility applications in microwave frequency range. Sandwich structures containing only two nano-carbon layers already become not transparent to the microwaves, giving an electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency at the level of 8–15 dB. A sandwich consisting of one nano-carbon doped and one polymer layer is opaque for THz radiation, because of 80% of absorption. These studies serve as a basis for design and realization of specific optimal geometries of meta-surface type with the 3D printing technique, in order to reach a high level of electromagnetic interference shielding performance for real world EM cloaking and EM ecology applications.

  5. Evaluation of <em>HER2em> Gene Amplification in Breast Cancer Using Nuclei Microarray <em>in em>S>itu em>Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence<em> em>>in situ em>hybridization (FISH assay is considered the “gold standard” in evaluating <em>HER2/neu (HER2em> gene status. However, FISH detection is costly and time consuming. Thus, we established nuclei microarray with extracted intact nuclei from paraffin embedded breast cancer tissues for FISH detection. The nuclei microarray FISH (NMFISH technology serves as a useful platform for analyzing <em>HER2em> gene/chromosome 17 centromere ratio. We examined <em>HER2em> gene status in 152 cases of invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast that were resected surgically with FISH and NMFISH. <em>HER2em> gene amplification status was classified according to the guidelines of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP. Comparison of the cut-off values for <em>HER2em>/chromosome 17 centromere copy number ratio obtained by NMFISH and FISH showed that there was almost perfect agreement between the two methods (κ coefficient 0.920. The results of the two methods were almost consistent for the evaluation of <em>HER2em> gene counts. The present study proved that NMFISH is comparable with FISH for evaluating <em>HER2em> gene status. The use of nuclei microarray technology is highly efficient, time and reagent conserving and inexpensive.

  6. Electromagnetic engineering - from dc to light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    Electromagnetic engineering is of great importance to modern world. Some of its various applications can be found in communications science. There is little agreement between the East and West about electromagnetic radiation effects. Although the West believes that there is no danger in power frequency fields, standards for the maximum power densities to which humans may be exposed were laid down by various national and international bodies. Two other effects of electromagnetic energy include: a) The possible ignition of flammable vapours and gases by electromagnetic radiation and; b) the electromagnetic pulse. The application of radar is also discussed

  7. Velocity measurement of conductor using electromagnetic induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gu Hwa; Kim, Ho Young; Park, Joon Po; Jeong, Hee Tae; Lee, Eui Wan

    2002-01-01

    A basic technology was investigated to measure the speed of conductor by non-contact electromagnetic method. The principle of the velocity sensor was electromagnetic induction. To design electromagnet for velocity sensor, 2D electromagnetic analysis was performed using FEM software. The sensor output was analyzed according to the parameters of velocity sensor, such as the type of magnetizing currents and the lift-off. Output of magnetic sensor was linearly depended on the conductor speed and magnetizing current. To compensate the lift-off changes during measurement of velocity, the other magnetic sensor was put at the pole of electromagnet.

  8. A System for Electromagnetic Field Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A system is provided for conversion of a first electromagnetic field into a desired second electromagnetic field, for example for coupling modes between waveguides or into microstructured waveguides. The system comprises a complex spatial electromagnetic field converter that is positioned...... for reception of at least a part of the first electromagnetic field and that is adapted for conversion of the received field into the desired electromagnetic field, and wherein at least one of the first and second fields matches a mode of a microstructured waveguide. It is an important advantage of the present...

  9. Particle physics in intense electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurilin, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    The quantum field theory in the presence of classical background electromagnetic field is reviewed giving a pedagogical introduction to the Feynman-Furry method of describing non-perturbative interactions with very strong electromagnetic fields. A particular emphasis is given to the case of the plane-wave electromagnetic field for which the charged particles' wave functions and propagators are presented. Some general features of quantum processes proceeding in the intense electromagnetic background are argued. The possibilities of searching new physics through the investigations of quantum phenomena induced by a strong electromagnetic environment are also discussed

  10. Evaluation of surficial sediment toxicity and sediment physico-chemical characteristics of representative sites in the Lagoon of Venice (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losso, C.; Arizzi Novelli, A.; Picone, M.; Marchetto, D.; Pessa, G.; Molinaroli, E.; Ghetti, P. F.; Volpi Ghirardini, A.

    2004-11-01

    Toxic hazard in sites with varying types and levels of contamination in the Lagoon of Venice was estimated by means of toxicity bioassays based on the early life-stages of the autochthonous sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Elutriate was chosen as the test matrix, due to its ability to highlight potential toxic effects towards sensitive biological components of the water column caused by sediment resuspension phenomena affecting the Lagoon. Surficial sediments (core-top 5 cm deep), directly influenced by resuspension/redeposition processes, and core sediments (core 20 cm deep), recording time-mediated contamination, were sampled in some sites located in the lagoonal area most greatly influenced by anthropogenic activities. Particle size, organic matter and water content were also analysed. In two sites, the results of physical parameters showed that the core-top sediments were coarser than the 20-cm core sediments. Sperm cell toxicity test results showed the negligible acute toxicity of elutriates from all investigated sites. The embryo toxicity test demonstrated a short-term chronic toxicity gradient for elutriates from the 20-cm core sediments, in general agreement both with the expected contamination gradient and with results of the Microtox® solid-phase test. Elutriates of the core-top 5-cm sediments revealed a totally inverted gradient, in comparison with that for the 20-cm core sediments, and the presence of a "hot spot" of contamination in the site chosen as a possible reference. Investigations on ammonia and sulphides as possible confounding factors excluded their contribution to this "hot spot". Integrated physico-chemical and toxicity results on sediments at various depths demonstrated the presence of disturbed sediments in the central basin of the Lagoon of Venice.

  11. A landscape-scale approach to examining the fate of atmospherically derived industrial metals in the surficial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromsoe, Nicola; Marx, Samuel K; McGowan, Hamish A; Callow, Nikolaus; Heijnis, Henk; Zawadzki, Atun

    2015-02-01

    Industrial metals are now ubiquitous within the atmosphere and their deposition represents a potential source of contamination to surficial environments. Few studies, however, have examined the environmental fate of atmospheric industrial metals within different surface environments. In this study, patterns of accumulation of atmospherically transported industrial metals were investigated within the surface environments of the Snowy Mountains, Australia. Metals, including Pb, Sb, Cr and Mo, were enriched in aerosols collected in the Snowy Mountains by 3.5-50 times pre-industrial concentrations. In sedimentary environments (soils, lakes and reservoirs) metals showed varying degrees of enrichment. Differences were attributed to the relative degree of atmospheric input, metal sensitivity to enrichment, catchment area and metal behaviour following deposition. In settings where atmospheric deposition dominated (ombrotrophic peat mires in the upper parts of catchments), metal enrichment patterns most closely resembled those in collected aerosols. However, even in these environments significant dilution (by 5-7 times) occurred. The most sensitive industrial metals (those with the lowest natural concentration; Cd, Ag, Sb and Mo) were enriched throughout the studied environments. However, in alpine tarn-lakes no other metals were enriched, due to the dilution of pollutant-metals by catchment derived sediment. In reservoirs, which were located lower within catchments, industrial metals exhibited more complex patterns. Particle reactive metals (e.g. Pb) displayed little enrichment, implying that they were retained up catchment, whereas more soluble metals (e.g., Cu and Zn) showed evidence of concentration. These same metals (Cu and Zn) were depleted in soils, implying that they are preferentially transported through catchments. Enrichment of other metals (e.g. Cd) varied between reservoirs as a function of contributing catchment area. Overall this study showed that the fate

  12. Fault Growth and Propagation and its Effect on Surficial Processes within the Incipient Okavango Rift Zone, Northwest Botswana, Africa (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atekwana, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ) is suggested to be a zone of incipient continental rifting occuring at the distal end of the southwestern branch of the East African Rift System (EARS), therefore providing a unique opportunity to investigate neotectonic processes during the early stages of rifting. We used geophysical (aeromagnetic, magnetotelluric), Shuttle Radar Tomography Mission, Digital Elevation Model (SRTM-DEM), and sedimentological data to characterize the growth and propagation of faults associated with continental extension in the ORZ, and to elucidate the interplay between neotectonics and surficial processes. The results suggest that: (1) fault growth occurs by along axis linkage of fault segments, (2) an immature border fault is developing through the process of “Fault Piracy” by fault-linkages between major fault systems, (3) significant discrepancies exits between the height of fault scarps and the throws across the faults compared to their lengths in the basement, (4) utilization of preexisting zones of weakness allowed the development of very long faults (> 25-100 km) at a very early stage of continental rifting, explaining the apparent paradox between the fault length versus throw for this young rift, (5) active faults are characterized by conductive anomalies resulting from fluids, whereas, inactive faults show no conductivity anomaly; and 6) sedimentlogical data reveal a major perturbation in lake sedimentation between 41 ka and 27 ka. The sedimentation perturbation is attributed to faulting associated with the rifting and may have resulted in the alteration of hydrology forming the modern day Okavango delta. We infer that this time period may represent the age of the latest rift reactivation and fault growth and propagation within the ORZ.

  13. A New Natural Lactone from <em>Dimocarpus> <em>longan> Lour. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjun Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A new natural product named longanlactone was isolated from <em>Dimocarpus> <em>longan> Lour. seeds. Its structure was determined as 3-(2-acetyl-1<em>H>-pyrrol-1-yl-5-(prop-2-yn-1-yldihydrofuran-2(3H-one by spectroscopic methods and HRESIMS.

  14. Electromagnetic fields and health impact: measurements, monitoring and environmental indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubritto, C.; Vetromile, C.; Petraglia, A.; Racioppoli, M.; D'Onofrio, A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: During the last 10 years there has been a remarkable growth of the attention for problems related to the electromagnetic pollution, motivated by the alert connected to potential risk for the health of persons and due to the increasing diffusion of Bats for mobile telecommunication as EMF sources. Many projects are being realized about the environmental and health impact of electromagnetic field and an important social role is played by specific actions to minimize the risk perception of the population. This study aims to find an innovative approach to these problems through the use of a system of continuous time monitoring of the electromagnetic fields and the individuation of appropriate environmental indicators. The proposed system monitors the electromagnetic fields continuously over time, and is already operating in many southern Italian cities. It works in a very efficient way as a mean for: a) Info to the citizens, thanks to diffusion of daily collected data on Internet Web; b) Control for local administrations and Authorities, due to capability of the system itself to alert when measured values exceed the limits reported by the Italian laws; c) Planning, for the implementation of : 1) New procedures agreed among local environmental control agency, local administrations and mobile Companies for network planning and management of alarm situations; 2) New local guidelines documents concerning the installation and operation of telecommunications apparatus. Moreover, starting from the general principles of the Strategic Environmental Evaluation (VAS), the environmental impacts of EMS field is studied. Based on the model DPSIR (Drivers, Pressure, State, Impacts, Responses), 12 environmental indicators have been chosen providing an immediate and understandable tool to obtain very important information on electromagnetic pollution generated by radio-telecommunication systems. The selected environmental indicators have been applied to 11 cities of the

  15. Electromagnetic-gravitational conversion cross sections in external electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Ngoc Long; Dang Van Soa; Tuan Tran, A.

    1994-09-01

    The classical processes: the conversion of photons into gravitons in the static electromagnetic fields are considered by using Feynman perturbation techniques. The differential cross sections are presented for the conversion in the electric field of the flat condenser and the magnetic field of the solenoid. A numerical evaluation shows that the cross sections may have the observable value in the present technical scenario. (author). 11 refs

  16. Intense EM filamentation in relativistic hot plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qiang-Lin [Department of Physics, Jinggangshan University, Ji' an, Jiangxi 343009 (China); Chen, Zhong-Ping [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Mahajan, Swadesh M., E-mail: mahajan@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Uttar Pradesh 201314 (India)

    2017-03-03

    Highlights: • Breaking up of an intense EM pulse into filaments is a spectacular demonstration of the nonlinear wave-plasma interaction. • Filaments are spectacularly sharper, highly extended and longer lived at relativistic temperatures. • EM energy concentration can trigger new nonlinear phenomena with absolute consequences for high energy density matter. - Abstract: Through 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we demonstrate that the nature of filamentation of a high intensity electromagnetic (EM) pulse propagating in an underdense plasma, is profoundly affected at relativistically high temperatures. The “relativistic” filaments are sharper, are dramatically extended (along the direction of propagation), and live much longer than their lower temperature counterparts. The thermally boosted electron inertia is invoked to understand this very interesting and powerful phenomenon.

  17. The Characteristics of Electromagnetic Fields Induced by Different Type Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Q.; Fu, C.; Wang, R.; Xu, C.; An, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Controlled source audio-frequence magnetotelluric (CSAMT) method has played an important role in the shallow exploration (less than 1.5km) in the field of resources, environment and engineering geology. In order to prospect the deeper target, one has to increase the strength of the source and offset. However, the exploration is nearly impossible for the heavy larger power transmitting source used in the deeper prospecting and mountain area. So an EM method using a fixed large power source, such as long bipole current source, two perpendicular "L" shape long bipole current source and large radius circle current source, is beginning to take shape. In order to increase the strength of the source, the length of the transmitting bipole in one direction or in perpendicular directions has to be much larger, such as L=100km, or the radius of the circle current source is much larger. The electric field strength are IL2and IL2/4π separately for long bipole source and circle current source with the same wire length. Just considering the effectiveness of source, the strength of the circle current source is larger than that of long bipole source if is large enough. However, the strength of the electromagnetic signal doesn't totally depend on the transmitting source, the effect of ionosphere on the electromagnetic (EM) field should be considered when observation is carried at a very far (about several thousands kilometers) location away from the source for the long bipole source or the large radius circle current source. We firstly calculate the electromagnetic fields with the traditional controlled source (CSEM) configuration using the integral equation (IE) code developed by our research group for a three layers earth-ionosphere model which consists of ionosphere, atmosphere and earth media. The modeling results agree well with the half space analytical results because the effect of ionosphere for this small scale source can be ignorable, which means the integral equation

  18. Electricity generation using electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2017-08-22

    In general, in one aspect, the invention relates to a system to create vapor for generating electric power. The system includes a vessel comprising a fluid and a complex and a turbine. The vessel of the system is configured to concentrate EM radiation received from an EM radiation source. The vessel of the system is further configured to apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat. The vessel of the system is also configured to transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the fluid to vapor. The vessel of the system is further configured to sending the vapor to a turbine. The turbine of the system is configured to receive, from the vessel, the vapor used to generate the electric power.

  19. Gefinex 400S (Sampo) EM-soundings at Olkiluoto 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokinen, T.; Lehtimaeki, J.

    2008-09-01

    In the beginning of June 2008 Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) carried out electromagnetic frequency soundings with Gefinex 400S equipment (Sampo) in the vicinity of ONKALO at the Olkiluoto site investigation area. The same soundings sites were first time measured and marked in 2004 and has been repeated after it yearly in the same season. The aim of the measurements is to monitor the changes of groundwater conditions by the changes of the electric conductivity of the earth at ONKALO and repository area. The measurements form two 1400 m long broadside profiles, which have 200 m mutual distance and 200 m station separation. The profiles have been measured using 200, 500, and 800 m coil separations. Because of the strong electromagnetic noise all planned sites (48) could not be measured. In 2008 the measurements were performed at the sites that were successful in 2007 (43 soundings). The numerous power lines and cables in the area generate local disturbances on the sounding curves, but the signal/noise also with long coil separations and the repeatability of the results is reasonably good. However, most suitable for monitoring purposes are the sites without strong surficial 3D effects. Comparison of the results of 2004 to 2008 surveys shows differences on some ARD (Apparent resistivity-depth) curves. Those are mainly results of the modified man-made structures. The effects of changes in groundwater conditions are obviously slight. (orig.)

  20. Modified VMD model with correct analytic properties for describing electromagnetic structure of He4 nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubnicka, S.; Lucan, L.

    1988-12-01

    A new phenomenological model for electromagnetic (e.m.) form factor (ff) of He 4 nucleus is presented, which is based on a modification of the well proved in e.m. interactions of hadrons vector-meson-dominance (VMD) model by means of an incorporation of correct He 4 ff analytic properties, nonzero vector-meson widths and the right power asymptotic behaviour predicted by the quark model. It reproduces the existing experimental information on He 4 e.m. ff in the space-like region quite well. Furthermore, couplings of all well established isoscalar vector mesons with J pc = 1 -- to He 4 nucleus are evaluated as a result of the analysis and the time-like region behaviour of He 4 e.m. ff is predicted. As a consequence of the latter the total cross section of e + e - → He 4 He-bar 4 process is calculated for the first time. (author). 17 refs, 3 figs