WorldWideScience

Sample records for surfactants triton x-100

  1. Utilization of Triton X-100 and polyethylene glycols during surfactant-mediated biodegradation of diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwas, Bogdan; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Szulc, Alicja; Cyplik, Paweł; Białas, Wojciech; Szymański, Andrzej; Hołderna-Odachowska, Aleksandra

    2011-12-15

    The hypothesis regarding preferential biodegradation of surfactants applied for enhancement of microbial hydrocarbons degradation was studied. At first the microbial degradation of sole Triton X-100 by soil isolated hydrocarbon degrading bacterial consortium was confirmed under both full and limited aeration with nitrate as an electron acceptor. Triton X-100 (600 mg/l) was utilized twice as fast for aerobic conditions (t(1/2)=10.3h), compared to anaerobic conditions (t(1/2)=21.8h). HPLC/ESI-MS analysis revealed the preferential biodegradation trends in both components classes of commercial Triton X-100 (alkylphenol ethoxylates) as well as polyethylene glycols. The obtained results suggest that the observed changes in the degree of ethoxylation for polyethylene glycol homologues occurred as a consequence of the 'central fission' mechanism during Triton X-100 biodegradation. Subsequent experiments with Triton X-100 at approx. CMC concentration (150 mg/l) and diesel oil supported our initial hypothesis that the surfactant would become the preferred carbon source even for hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. Regardless of aeration regimes Triton X-100 was utilized within 48-72 h. Efficiency of diesel oil degradation was decreased in the presence of surfactant for aerobic conditions by approx. 25% reaching 60 instead of 80% noted for experiments without surfactant. No surfactant influence was observed for anaerobic conditions.

  2. Surfactant-enhanced remediation of a trichloroethene-contaminated aquifer. 1. Transport of triton X-100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.A.; Sahoo, D.; Mclellan, H.M.; Imbrigiotta, T.E.

    1997-01-01

    Transport of a nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) at aqueous concentrations less than 400 mg/L through a trichloroethene-contaminated sand-and-gravel aquifer at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ, has been studied through a series of laboratory and field experiments. In the laboratory, batch and column experiments were conducted to quantify the rate and amount of Triton X-100 sorption to the aquifer sediments. In the field, a 400 mg/L aqueous Triton X-100 solution was injected into the aquifer at a rate of 26.5 L/min for a 35-d period. The transport of Triton X-100 was monitored by sampling and analysis of groundwater at six locations surrounding the injection well. Equilibrium batch sorption experiments showed that Triton X-100 sorbs strongly and nonlinearly to the field soil with the sharpest inflection point of the isotherm occurring at an equilibrium aqueous Triton X-100 concentration close to critical micelle concentration. Batch, soil column, and field experimental data were analyzed with zero-, one-, and two- dimensional (respectively) transient solute transport models with either equilibrium or rate-limited sorption. These analyses reveal that Triton X- 100 sorption to the aquifer solids is slow relative to advective and dispersive transport and that an equilibrium sorption model cannot simulate accurately the observed soil column and field data. Comparison of kinetic sorption parameters from batch, column, and field transport data indicate that both physical heterogeneities and Triton X-100 mass transfer between water and soil contribute to the kinetic transport effects.Transport of a nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) at aqueous concentrations less than 400 mg/L through a trichloroethene-contaminated sand-and-gravel aquifer was studied. Equilibrium batch sorption experiments showed that Triton X-100 sorbs strongly and nonlinearly to the field soil with the sharpest inflection point of the isotherm occurring at an equilibrium aqueous Triton X-100 concentration close to

  3. Thermodynamics of non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100-cationic surfactants mixtures at the cloud point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batigoec, Cigdem [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Trakya University, 22030 Edirne (Turkey); Akbas, Halide, E-mail: hakbas34@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Trakya University, 22030 Edirne (Turkey); Boz, Mesut [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Trakya University, 22030 Edirne (Turkey)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Non-ionic surfactants are used as emulsifier and solubilizate in such as textile, detergent and cosmetic. > Non-ionic surfactants occur phase separation at temperature as named the cloud point in solution. > Dimeric surfactants have attracted increasing attention due to their superior surface activity. > The positive values of {Delta}G{sub cp}{sup 0} indicate that the process proceeds nonspontaneous. - Abstract: This study investigates the effects of gemini and conventional cationic surfactants on the cloud point (CP) of the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) in aqueous solutions. Instead of visual observation, a spectrophotometer was used for measurement of the cloud point temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters of these mixtures were calculated at different cationic surfactant concentrations. The gemini surfactants of the alkanediyl-{alpha}-{omega}-bis (alkyldimethylammonium) dibromide type, on the one hand, with different alkyl groups containing m carbon atoms and an ethanediyl spacer, referred to as 'm-2-m' (m = 10, 12, and 16) and, on the other hand, with -C{sub 16} alkyl groups and different spacers containing s carbon atoms, referred to as '16-s-16' (s = 6 and 10) were synthesized, purified and characterized. Additions of the cationic surfactants to the TX-100 solution increased the cloud point temperature of the TX-100 solution. It was accepted that the solubility of non-ionic surfactant containing polyoxyethylene (POE) hydrophilic chain was a maximum at the cloud point so that the thermodynamic parameters were calculated at this temperature. The results showed that the standard Gibbs free energy ({Delta}G{sub cp}{sup 0}), the enthalpy ({Delta}H{sub cp}{sup 0}) and the entropy ({Delta}S{sub cp}{sup 0}) of the clouding phenomenon were found positive in all cases. The standard free energy ({Delta}G{sub cp}{sup 0}) increased with increasing hydrophobic alkyl chain for both gemini and conventional cationic

  4. Effect of inorganic positive ions on the adsorption of surfactant Triton X-100 at quartz/solution interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The electrode-separated piezoelectric sensor (ESPS), an improved setup of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), has been employed to investigate the adsorption behavior of nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 at the hydrophilic quartz-solution interface in mineralized water medium in situ, which contained CaCl2 0.01 mol·L?1, MgCl2 0.01 mol·L?1, NaCl 0.35 mol·L?1. In a large scale of surfactant concentration, the effects of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ on the adsorption isotherm and kinetics are obviously different. In aque-ous solution containing NaCl only, adsorption of Triton X-100 on quartz-solution interface is promoted, both adsorption rate and adsorption amount increase. While in mineralized water medium, multivalent positive ions Ca2+ and Mg2+ are firmly adsorbed on quartz-solution interface, result in the increasing of adsorption rate and adsorption amount at low concentration of surfactant and the peculiar desorption of surfactant at high concentration of Triton X-100. The results got by solution depletion method are in good agreement with which obtained by ESPS. The "bridge" and "separate" effect of inorganic positive ions on the adsorption and desorption mechanism of Triton X-100 at the quartz- solution interface is discussed with molecular dynamics simulations (MD), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods.

  5. Triton X-100 as an effective surfactant for the isolation and purification of photosystem I from Arthrospira platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Daoyong; Huang, Guihong; Xu, Fengxi; Wang, Mengfei; Liu, Shuang; Huang, Fang

    2014-06-01

    Surfactants play important roles in the preparation, structural, and functional research of membrane proteins, and solubilizing and isolating membrane protein, while keeping their structural integrity and activity intact is complicated. The commercial n-Dodecyl-β-D-maltoside (DDM) and Triton X-100 (TX) were used as solubilizers to extract and purify trimeric photosystem I (PSI) complex, an important photosynthetic membrane protein complex attracting broad interests. With an optimized procedure, TX can be used as an effective surfactant to isolate and purify PSI, as a replace of the much more expensive DDM. A mechanism was proposed to interpret the solubilization process at surfactant concentrations lower than the critical solubilization concentration. PSI-TX and PSI-DDM had identical polypeptide bands, pigment compositions, oxygen consumption, and photocurrent activities. This provides an alternative procedure and paves a way for economical and large-scale trimeric PSI preparation.

  6. Cloud Point Extraction of Toxic Reactive Black 5 Dye from Water Samples Using Triton X-100 as Nonionic Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raziyeh Mousavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A surfactant mediated cloud point extraction (CPE procedure has been developed to remove color from wastewater containing reactive black 5, using triton x-100 (TX-100 as non-ionic surfactant. The effects of the concentration of the surfactant, pH, temperature and salt concentration on the different concentrations of dye have been studied and optimum conditions were obtained for the removal of reactive black 5 (RB 5. The concentration of RB 5 in the dilute phase was measured using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. It was found that the separation of phases was complete and the recovery of RB 5 was very effective in the presence of NaCl as an electrolyte. The results showed that up to 600 mg L-1 of RB 5 can quantitatively be removed (>97% by cloud point extraction procedure in a single extraction using optimum conditions.

  7. Influence of a nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) on contaminant distribution between water and several soil solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.-F.; Liao, P.-M.; Kuo, C.-C.; Yang, H.-T.; Chiou, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of a nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) on the contaminant distribution coefficients in solid-water mixtures was determined for a number of relatively nonpolar compounds (contaminants) on several natural solids. The studied compounds consisted of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and p-xylene) and chlorinated pesticides (lindane, ??-BHC, and heptachlor epoxide), which span several orders of magnitude in water solubility (S(W)); the solid samples comprised a bentonite, a peat, and two other soils, which cover a wide range of solid organic matter (SOM) content. The applied surfactant concentrations (X) ranged from below the (nominal) CMC to 2-3 times the CMC. For relatively water-soluble BTEX compounds, the distribution coefficients with surfactant (K*(d)) all exceeded those without surfactant (K(d)); the K*(d)/K(d) ratios increased with increasing S(w) from p-xylene to benzene on each solid at a given X, with increasing X for each compound on a solid, and with decreasing solid SOM content for each compound over the range of X studied. For the less-soluble pesticides, the K*(d)/K(d) ratios exhibited a large increase with X for bentonite, a marginal change (increase or decrease) for a soil of 2.4% SOM, and a moderate-to-large decrease for two soils of 14.8% and 86.4% SOM. These unique observations were rationalized in terms of the properties of the compound, the amount of surfactant sorbed on the solid, the enhanced solubilization of the compound by surfactant in water, and the relative effects of the surfactant when adsorbed on minerals and when partitioned into SOM. (C) 2000 Academic Press.

  8. Conductometric study of sodium dodecyl sulfate - nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85) mixed micelles in aqueous solution

    OpenAIRE

    Ćirin Dejan M; Poša Mihalj M.; Krstonošić Veljko S.; Milanović Maja Lj.

    2012-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the determination of the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of mixed micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate with one of five nonionic surfactants (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85) from conductance measurements. Based on the calculated values of the β parameters we have noticed that SDS-nonionic surfactants mostly showed strong synergistic effect. It was found that nonionic surfactants with mainly longer and more hydrophobic tail s...

  9. Improvements in permeation and fouling resistance of PVC ultrafiltration membranes via addition of Tetronic-1107 and Triton X-100 as two non-ionic and hydrophilic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiee, Hesamoddin; Seyedi, S Mojtaba; Rabiei, Hossein; Alvandifar, Negar

    2016-09-01

    Two non-ionic and hydrophilic surfactant additives, Tetronic-1107 and Triton X-100, were added to poly(vinyl chloride)/NMP polymeric solution to prepare ultrafiltration membranes via immersion precipitation. Surfactants at three different weight percentages up to 6 wt% were added, and the fabricated membranes were characterized and their performance for water treatment in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a foulant was assessed. The scanning electron microscopy images indicated remarkable changes in morphology due to higher thermodynamic instability after surfactant addition. The membranes are more porous with more macro-voids in the sub-layer. Plus, the membranes become more hydrophilic. Water flux increases for the modified membranes by nearly two times and the ability of membranes for flux recovery increases from 66% to over 83%. BSA rejection reduces slightly with the addition of surfactants, however this parameter is still almost over 90% for the membranes with the highest amount of surfactants.

  10. Raman spectra and molecular conformation of 2,4,4-trimethyl-2-pentanethiol as a model compound of a hydrophobic group of triton X-100 surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Hiroatsu; Fukuhara, Koichi

    1986-05-01

    Raman spectra of 2,4,4-trimethyl-2-pentanethiol were measured. The spectral analysis with the normal coordinate treatment indicated that this molecule takes the gauche conformation about the CCCS bond in the solid state and the trans and gauche conformations in the liquid state. The Raman bands due to the totally symmetric C&.zdbnd;C streching vibration of the t-butyl part of the 1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl group were found to be important to distinguish the two conformations. These key bands were applied to the interpretation of the Raman spectra of Triton X-100 surfactant which contains the p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenoxyl group as a hydrophobic moiety. The 1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl group of Triton X-100 molecules is shown to be predominantly in the gauche conformation in the liquid state and in aquaeous solution.

  11. Conductometric study of sodium dodecyl sulfate - nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85 mixed micelles in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirin Dejan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the determination of the critical micelle concentration (cmc of mixed micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate with one of five nonionic surfactants (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85 from conductance measurements. Based on the calculated values of the β parameters we have noticed that SDS-nonionic surfactants mostly showed strong synergistic effect. It was found that nonionic surfactants with mainly longer and more hydrophobic tail show stronger interactions with hydrophobic part of SDS, thus expressing stronger synergism. In SDS-Tween 80 binary system the strongest synergistic effect was noticed. SDS-Tween 85 micellar system showed antagonistic effect, most probably because the presence of the double bond in its three hydrophobic tails (three C18 tails makes it sterically rigid.

  12. The influence of Triton X-100 surfactant on the morphology and properties of zinc sulfide nanoparticles for applications in azo dyes degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumbrava, Anca, E-mail: adumbrava@univ-ovidius.ro [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ovidius University of Constanta, 124 Mamaia Blvd., Constanta 900527 (Romania); Berger, Daniela, E-mail: danaberger01@yahoo.com [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Polizu Street 1-7, Bucharest 011061 (Romania); Prodan, Gabriel [Electron Microscopy Laboratory, Ovidius University of Constanta, 124 Mamaia Blvd., Constanta 900527 (Romania); Matei, Cristian [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Polizu Street 1-7, Bucharest 011061 (Romania); Moscalu, Florin [Department of Physics, Ovidius University of Constanta, 124 Mamaia Blvd., Constanta 900527 (Romania); Diacon, Aurel [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Bioresources and Polymer Science, Polizu Street 1-7, Bucharest 011061 (Romania)

    2017-06-01

    Herein we report the synthesis, by two different routes, of ZnS nanoparticles capped with Triton X-100 (TX), which were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and surface area measurements. The TX-capped ZnS nanopowders have a very good photocatalytic activity and high specific surface area, depending on the synthesis route; e.g. an azo dye solution is almost complete photobleached in only 60 min (a photocatalytic activity of 97.79%) using TX-capped ZnS nanopowder, with specific surface area of 191 m{sup 2}/g, and further a photocatalytic activity of 99.75% was achieved in 120 min. Based on the photocatalytic results, the ZnS nanopowders can be considered suitable catalysts for a green, very efficient and quick strategy for removing of organic pollutants from wastewaters. - Highlights: • Triton X-100 was used as surfactant in ZnS nanopowders synthesis by two methods. • Triton X-capped ZnS nanoparticles with high specific surface area were synthesized. • A very high capacity for bleaching an azo dye solution was evidenced. • Some of ZnS powders properties were crucially modified by the synthesis technique.

  13. Role of Triton X-100 in chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays capable of diagnosing genetic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Richard; Rho, Jee-Eun R; Yoon, Hye-Joo; Park, Paul S; Rho, Tae-Ho D; Park, Jee Y; Park, Lucienne; Kim, Young-Hwan; Lee, Ji Hoon

    2013-11-15

    The use of Triton X surfactants in developing 1,1'-oxalylimidazole chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays (ODI CEIs) with extended linear response range for the quantification of unconjugated estriol (uE3), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is reported for the first time. The wider linear dynamic range in ODI CLEIA results from Triton X series (e.g., Triton X-100, -114, -405, -705) acting as an inhibitor in the interaction between Amplex Red (hydrophobic substrate) and horseradish peroxidase (hydrophilic enzyme) to produce resorufin (hydrophobic fluorescent dye). Triton X-100 acts as the appropriate inhibitor in ODI CLEIA. The maximum concentrations of AFP and hCG quantified with sandwich ODI CLEIA in the presence of Triton X-100 were 8 times higher than when analyzed with the same system in the absence of Triton X-100. In addition, the lowest concentration of uE3 determined using competitive ODI CLEIA in the presence of Triton X-100 was 20 times lower than that measured with competitive ODI CLEIA in the absence of Triton X-100. These results indicate that rapid quantification of AFP, uE3, and hCG using cost effective and highly sensitive ODI CLEIAs in the presence of Triton X-100 can be applied as an accurate, precise, and reproducible method to diagnose genetic disorders (e.g., trisomy 18 and trisomy 21) in fetuses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Influences of Triton X-100 on Hemoglobin Behaviors in Hemoglobin/Acyclovir/Triton X-100/H2O System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU,Tian-Qing; GUO,Rong

    2007-01-01

    The influences of Triton X-100 on hemoglobin(Hb)behaviors were studied by the methods of UV-Vis spectrum,fluorescence spectrum,HPLC,conductivity,zeta potential and negative-staining transmission electron microscope in Hb/acyclovir/Triton X-100/H2O system.With the increase of Triton X-100 concentration in the system,the percentage of the free acyclovir increased from 58%-63% to 90%-94%.The static quenching constant and the association number of acyclovir to Hb decreased.The fluorescence spectrum,conductivity,zeta potential,fluorescence polarization and negative-staining morphology of Hb tended to recover to those of the original state of Hb in the same concentration of Hb.The interaction between Triton X-100 and Hb is stronger than that between acyclovir and Hb.Most Triton-X-100 was associated with Hb at low Triton X-100 concentration.But the interaction of Triton X-100 with Hb was apparently dominant in high Triton X-100 concentration.The Hb structure was unfolded and finally denatured.

  15. Lipid Bilayers in the Gel Phase Become Saturated by Triton X-100 at Lower Surfactant Concentrations Than Those in the Fluid Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahyayauch, Hasna; Collado, M. Isabel; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Felix M.

    2012-01-01

    It has been repeatedly observed that lipid bilayers in the gel phase are solubilized by lower concentrations of Triton X-100, at least within certain temperature ranges, or other nonionic detergents than bilayers in the fluid phase. In a previous study, we showed that detergent partition coefficients into the lipid bilayer were the same for the gel and the fluid phases. In this contribution, turbidity, calorimetry, and 31P-NMR concur in showing that bilayers in the gel state (at least down to 13–20°C below the gel-fluid transition temperature) become saturated with detergent at lower detergent concentrations than those in the fluid state, irrespective of temperature. The different saturation may explain the observed differences in solubilization. PMID:22713566

  16. Photophysical studies of some dyes in aqueous solution of triton X-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Benoy B; Ganguly, Papia

    2005-12-01

    The spectral (both absorption and fluorescence) and photoelectrochemical studies of a few selective dyes, namely, anionic erythrosin B, neutral riboflavin and cationic safranin O have been carried out in aqueous solution of triton X-100, a neutral surfactant. The results show that the ionic dyes, erythrosin B and safranin O form 1:1 electron donor-acceptor (EDA) or charge-transfer (CT) complexes with triton X-100 both in the ground and excited states, whereas neutral dye riboflavin in its excited state forms 1:1 complex with triton X-100. In these complexes, the dyes act as electron acceptors whereas triton X-100 acts as an electron donor. The fluorescence spectra of erythrosin B and safranin O in presence of triton X-100 show enhancement of fluorescence intensity with red and blue shifts respectively while riboflavin shows normal quenching of fluorescence. A good correlation has been found among photovoltage generation of the systems consisting of these dyes and triton X-100, spectral shift due to complex formation and thermodynamic properties of these complexes.

  17. The removal of Triton X-100 by dialysis is feasible!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Stefan; Hannika, Franziska; Krüger, Thomas; Rhode, Heidrun

    2015-02-01

    Triton X-100 has been widely used in many analytical and preparative protocols for a long time. Nevertheless, mass spectrometry, chromatographic separation, and spectrophotometric readout may be considerably hampered by this detergent due to signal suppression, complex formation, and high blank values, respectively. Additionally, Triton X-100 is not safe to remove prior to analytics. Here, microdialysis is introduced as a parallelizable, high-throughput method to clean samples from Triton X-100 with high efficacy and precision. To achieve this, we exploit the potential to considerably increase the critical micellar concentration of Triton X-100 by alteration of matrix properties. To that end, addition of several chaotropic compounds and organic solvents has been shown to increase the critical micellar concentration as well as the removal rate of the detergent. For application, matrix additives can be selected for analyte stability requirements out of a variety of compounds. Conveniently, all these additives are removable subsequently using the same microdialysis tool for downstream analytics requirements. Applicability and protocols are shown with proteomic sample preparation of purified proteins and complex protein mixtures prior to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry.

  18. Bioavailability of hydrocarbons to bacterial consortia during Triton X-100 mediated biodegradation in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pęziak, Daria; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Marecik, Roman; Lisiecki, Piotr; Woźniak, Marta; Szulc, Alicja; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of Triton X-100 on the biodegradation efficiency of hexadecane and phenanthrene carried out by two bacterial consortia. It was established that the tested consortia were not able to directly uptake compounds closed in micelles. It was observed that in micellar systems the nonionic synthetic surfactant was preferentially degraded (the degradation efficiency of Triton X-100 after 21 days was 70% of the initial concentration - 500 mg/l), followed by a lesser decomposition of hydrocarbon released from the micelles (30% for hexadecane and 20% for phenanthrene). However, when hydrocarbons were used as the sole carbon source, 70% of hexadecane and 30% of phenanthrene were degraded. The degradation of the surfactant did not contribute to notable shifts in bacterial community dynamics, as determined by Real-Time PCR. The obtained results suggest that if surfactant-supplementation is to be used as an integral part of a bioremediation process, then possible bioavailability decrease due to entrapment of the contaminant into surfactant micelles should also be taken into consideration, as this phenomenon may have a negative impact on the biodegradation efficiency. Surfactant-induced mobilization of otherwise recalcitrant hydrocarbons may contribute to the spreading of contaminants in the environment and prevent their biodegradation.

  19. Interactions between selected bile salts and Triton X-100 or sodium lauryl ether sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirin Dejan M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to develop colloidal drug carriers with desired properties, it is important to determine physico-chemical characteristics of these systems. Bile salt mixed micelles are extensively studied as novel drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation is to develop and characterize mixed micelles of nonionic (Triton X-100 or anionic (sodium lauryl ether sulfate surfactant having oxyethylene groups in the polar head and following bile salts: cholate, deoxycholate and 7-oxodeoxycholate. Results The micellization behaviour of binary anionic-nonionic and anionic-anionic surfactant mixtures was investigated by conductivity and surface tension measurements. The results of the study have been analyzed using Clint's, Rubingh's, and Motomura's theories for mixed binary systems. The negative values of the interaction parameter indicate synergism between micelle building units. It was noticed that Triton X-100 and sodium lauryl ether sulfate generate the weakest synergistic interactions with sodium deoxycholate, while 7-oxodeoxycholate creates the strongest attractive interaction with investigated co-surfactants. Conclusion It was concluded that increased synergistic interactions can be attributed to the larger number of hydrophilic groups at α side of the bile salts. Additionally, 7-oxo group of 7-oxodeoxycholate enhance attractive interactions with selected co-surfactants more than 7-hydroxyl group of sodium cholate.

  20. Preparation of acellular nerve grafts with triton X-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinbao Han; Juwen Chen; Baohui Zhao; Jichun Zhang; Dehu Tian; Jiuhui Han

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The source of nerve allograft enriches.We may choose expediently nerve allograft to repair injured nerve and the structure of choice nerve homlolgy or similar with the injured nerve,but the immunological rejiction limits the climical application of nerve allograft.The ideal substitute of autograft never is reaearching.OBJECTIVE: In this experiment,Triton X-100 was used to extract the Schwann cells and myelin sheaths of allograft nerve and obtain the inartiflcial and eliminated antigenicity nerve-transplanter(nerve grafts).DESIGN: Controlled experiment.SETTING: Department of Hand Surgery,the Third Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Medical University;Second Department of Orthopedics,Fourth Center Hospital of Tianjin.MATERIALS: Thirty heath New Zealand big ear white rabbit .of either sex(gender).weighing 2000-3000 g,were provided by the Center of Experimental Animal of Hebei Medical University.Triton X-100 was offered by SIGMA Company.METHODS: The experiment was carried out at the Central Laboratory of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Medical University from December 2003 to December 2004.Sixty pieces of sciatic nerves.10-mm-long nerve segment,which were taken from 30 rabbits,were incised.They were randomly divided into chemical extraction group(n=50)and control group(n=10).In the chemical extraction groups,the nerves were put into 3% Triton X-100 solution.They were treated with Triton X-100 for 12 hours,24 hours,48 hours,96 hours and 1 week.respectively.They were examined in every period.The control groups did not treated with anything. ①Respectively two segments of nerve by 2 mm length were taken from each nerve in the every periods.②The laminin immunohistochemical stained sections were performed with image acquisition and analyzed with multicolor pathological image analysis system.Measured the laminin antibody reaction part of each section and computed laminin average gray degrees of the unit area.All dates were analyzed by SPSS 10.0 software

  1. Kinetics of solubilization with Triton X-100 of egg-yolk lecithin bilayers containing cholesterol

    CERN Document Server

    Hobai, S

    2001-01-01

    The titration solubilization of multilamellar egg-yolk lecithin liposomes (MLV-EYL) with Triton X-100 was studied by rectangular optical diffusimetric measurements as a function of cholesterol (Chol) concentration. It was determinated the variation of optic percentage diffu-sion (per mmol surfactant), DDif%/mmol TX-100, in the course of solubilization of MLV-EYL-Chol system with TX-100 10mM. The statistical analysis of the titration curves can reveal the contribution of cholesterol to the stability of phospholipid bilayer membranes. The solubilization of the lecithin-cholesterol mixtures, with a high cholesterol content, much more bile salt requires.

  2. Crude soybean hull peroxidase treatment of phenol in synthetic and real wastewater: enzyme economy enhanced by Triton X-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steevensz, Aaron; Madur, Sneha; Feng, Wei; Taylor, Keith E; Bewtra, Jatinder K; Biswas, Nihar

    2014-02-05

    Soybean peroxidase (SBP)-catalyzed removal of phenol from wastewater has been demonstrated as a feasible wastewater treatment strategy and a non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-100, has the potential for increasing the enzyme economy of the process. Systematic studies on the enzyme-surfactant system have been lacking as well as demonstration of its applicability to industrial wastewater. This paper addresses those two gaps, the latter based on real wastewater from alkyd resin manufacture. The minimum effective Triton X-100 concentrations for crude SBP-catalyzed phenol conversion (≥95%) over 1-10 mM showed a linear trend. To illustrate translation of such lab results to real-world samples, this data were used to optimize crude SBP needed for phenol conversion over that concentration range. Triton X-100 increases enzyme economy by 10- to 13-fold. This treatment protocol was directly applied to tote-scale (700-1000 L) treatment of alkyd resin wastewater, with phenol ranging from 7 to 28 mM and total organic carbon content of >40 g/L, using a crude SBP extract derived from dry soybean hulls by simple aqueous elution. This extract can be used to remove phenol from a complex industrial wastewater and the process is markedly more efficient in the presence of Triton X-100. The water is thus rendered amenable to conventional biological treatment whilst the hulls could still be used in feed, thus adding further value to the crop.

  3. Sorption and transport studies of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)and Triton X-100 in clayey soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sivaram Harendra; Cumaraswamy Vipulanandan

    2013-01-01

    Surfactants are soil washing agents and facilitators for subsurface remediation of hydrocarbon spills.It is important to understand the sorption and transport behavior of surfactants for enhanced soil remediation.The adsorption and desorption isotherms of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Triton X-100 with sand and kaolinite have been quantified.Kaolinite clay had the highest sorption capacity compared to blasting sand.Transport parameters such as diffusion coefficient (D) and retardation factor (R) of the above mentioned surfactant solutions were determined in clayey soils (82.5% sand and 17.5% kaolinite mixture) with near zero and 0.1 g/L ionic strength.NaCl was used as the electrolyte solution.Convection-Diffusion equation was used to model the breakthrough curves of the surfactants.Bromide ion was chosen as the tracer material in order to characterize the column.CTAB and Triton X-100 were used to flush the perchloroethylene (PCE) contaminated soil.The effectiveness of CTAB and Triton X-100 in flushing the PCE from the contaminated soil was quantified.

  4. Complexation of serum albumins and triton X-100: Quenching of tryptophan fluorescence and analysis of the rotational diffusion of complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, I. M.; Vlasov, A. A.; Saletskii, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    The polarized and nonpolarized fluorescence of bovine serum albumin and human serum albumin in Triton X-100 solutions is studied at different pH values. Analysis of the constants of fluorescence quenching for BSA and HSA after adding Triton X-100 and the hydrodynamic radii of BSA/HSA-detergent complexes show that the most effective complexation between both serum albumins and Triton X-100 occurs at pH 5.0, which lies near the isoelectric points of the proteins. Complexation between albumin and Triton X-100 affects the fluorescence of the Trp-214 residing in the hydrophobic pockets of both BSA and HSA.

  5. ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF DIVYA METHIPACHAK AGAINST TRITON X-100 INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIA IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setty Seema K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Divya Methipachak a polyherbal formulation against triton induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Hyperlipidemia was induced by Triton X-100 (100 mg/kg, i.p. and then treated with Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, p.o and low and high dose of Divya Methipachak (150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg, p.o for 7 days. The effect of treatment was analyzed by quantification of serum lipid profile, blood glucose level and histopathological analysis. The experimental results indicated all the lipid profile such as total cholesterol, Triglyceride, High density lipoprotein cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol and the glucose level were restored significantly by all the treated groups compared to triton group. To conclude Divya Methipachak was found to be potential antihyperlipidemic agent in a dose dependent manner in alleviating abnormal conditions induced by triton.

  6. Enhanced biodegradation of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAHs) by marine halotolerant Achromobacter xylosoxidans using Triton X-100 and β-cyclodextrin--a microcosm approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Bharti P; Ghevariya, Chirag M; Bhatt, Jwalant K; Dudhagara, Dushyant R; Rajpara, Rahul K

    2014-02-15

    Ability of Achromobacter xylosoxidans, a chrysene degrading marine halotolerant bacterium to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using a cost effective laboratory microcosm approach, was investigated. Effect of variables as chrysene, glucose as a co-substrate, Triton X-100 as a non-ionic surfactant and β-cyclodextrin as a PAHs solubilizer was examined on degradation of low molecular weight (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. A total of eleven PAHs detected from polluted saline soil were found to be degraded. Glucose, in combination with Triton X-100 and β-cyclodextrin resulted in 2.8 and 1.4-fold increase in degradation of LMW PAHs and 7.59 and 2.23-fold increase in degradation of HMW PAHs, respectively. Enhanced biodegradation of total PAHs (TPAHs) by amendments with Triton X-100 and β-cyclodextrin using Achromobacter xylosoxidans can prove to be promising approach for in situ bioremediation of marine sites contaminated with PAHs.

  7. Influence of cyclodextrin on the solubility and the polymerization of (methacrylated Triton® X-100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Kemnitz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Triton® X-100 (poly(ethylene glycol tert-octylphenyl ether was (methacrylated and polymerized in the absence and presence of randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin (RAMEB-CD. Triton®-polymers that were polymerized with RAMEB-CD in water were compared with polymers that were synthesized in organic solvents after the addition of RAMEB-CD. The polymers were characterized by 1H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS, dynamic light scattering (DLS, gel-permeation chromatography (GPC and turbidity measurements. Additionally, the viscosity change of the methacrylic homopolymer with RAMEB-CD was evaluated.

  8. Adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate on granular activated carbon from date pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzougui, Z.; Nedjah, S.; Azoudj, Y.; Addoun, F. [Laboratoire d' etude physic-chimique des materiaux et application a l' environnement, Faculte de Chimie, USTHB (Algeria)], E-mail: zmerzougi@yahoo.fr

    2011-07-01

    Activated carbons, thanks to their versatility, are being used in the water treatment sector to absorb pollutants. Several factors influence the adsorption capacity of activated carbon and the aim of this study was to assess the effects of the porous texture and chemical nature of activated carbons on the adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate. Activated carbons used in this study were prepared from date pits with ZnCl2, KOH and H3PO4 by carbonization without adjuvant and adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate was conducted at 298K. Results showed that activated carbons prepared from date pits have a great potential for removing organic and inorganic pollutants from water and that the adsorption potential depends on the degree of activation of the activated carbons and on the compounds to absorb. This study highlighted that an increase of the carbon surface area and porosity results in a better adsorption capacity.

  9. Micelle size modulation and phase behavior in MEGA-10/Triton X-100 mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naous, M., E-mail: elzahraadz@yahoo.fr; Molina-Bolívar, J.A.; Ruiz, C. Carnero, E-mail: ccarnero@uma.es

    2014-12-20

    Highlights: • The size of micelles was studied as a function of the micellar composition, NaCl addition and temperature. • Cloud point can be modulated by changing both micellar composition and NaCl addition. • The energetic quantities at the cloud point were evaluated and discussed. - Abstract: This paper reports the effect of temperature and NaCl addition on micelle size and phase behavior in mixtures of N-decanoyl-N-methylglucamide (MEGA-10) and p-tert-octyl-phenoxy polyethylene (9.5) ether (Triton X-100 or TX100). The size of mixed micelles, as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS), was found to increase with temperature but to be less pronounced at higher proportions of MEGA-10 in the solution. The cloud point was found to increase with an initial increase in the percentage of sugar-based surfactant in the mixture. This phase separation was sensitive to the presence of NaCl in the micellar solution, which induced a cloud point depression, thereby suggesting that the presence of electrolyte produces a marked alteration of the hydration layer of micelles. A thermodynamic analysis was performed assuming the clouding phenomenon to be a liquid–liquid phase-separation process. The resulting ΔG{sub CP}{sup 0} values were positive for all solutions. The cloud point process was exothermic in nature for the mixed micellar system, as proven by the negative value of ΔH{sub CP}{sup 0}. The process was more exothermic as the proportion of sugar-based surfactant in the mixed micelle increased (with and without NaCl in the solution). Furthermore, the negative values of ΔS{sub CP}{sup 0} indicate that the association of micelles in the clouding phenomenon is entropically unfavorable. It was observed from the enthalpy–temperature plots that the change in heat capacity is negative, thus indicating the important role played by dehydration in this thermodynamic process. This study found that the enthalpy–entropy compensation relationship holds for this

  10. A small-angle neutron scattering study of the structure of graphitized carbon black aggregates in Triton X-100/water solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garamus, V.M.; Pedersen, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The structure of graphitized carbon black (CB) aggregates dispersed in water solutions with a non-ionic surfactant are studied by small-angle neutron scattering using contrast variation by heavy/light water mixing. The addition of CB to Triton X-100/water mixtures shifts the critical micelle...... particles is 8% and is constant with varying CB and surfactant concentration. The volume fraction of the voids does not exceed 1% of the CB; The micelle structure is found to be the same as in surfactant/water solutions. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V....

  11. Inhibition of Triton X-100/n-C5H11OH/H2O System on Hydrolysis of Cephanone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Jun-hong; GUO Rong; ZHU Jun

    2004-01-01

    The hydrolysis of cephanone in Triton X-100 micelle and Triton X-100/n-C5H11OH/H2O(O/W) microemulsion were studied by means of UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The results show that compared with water, Triton X-100 micelle and Triton X-100/n-C5H11OH/H2O(O/W) microemulsion can inhibit the hydrolysis of cephanone. The inhibition effects of Triton X-100 micelle and Triton X-100/n-C5H11OH/H2O(O/W) microemulsion on the hydrolysis of cephanone are related to the location of cephanone in the interphases of Triton X-100 micelles and Triton X-100/n-C5H11OH/H2O(O/W) microemulsion droplets.

  12. Tuning intermicellar potential of Triton X-100– anthranilic acid mixed micelles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gunjan Verma; V K Aswal; S K Kulshreshtha; C Manohar; P A Hassan; Eric W Kaler

    2008-11-01

    Structural parameters of micelles formed by Triton X-100 in the presence of solubilized anthranilic acid at different pH values was investigated using light scattering and small angle neutron scattering. Analysis of the SANS data indicate that micelles are oblate ellipsoidal in nature with little variation in the dimensions, in the investigated pH range (from 0.5 to 6.0). The interaction potential of the micelles shows a minimum closer to the isoelectric point of anthranilic acid. A similar variation is observed in the cloud point of the micelles with pH. The observed variation in the interaction potential with pH of the micellar solution can be explained in terms of the reversal of charge on anthranilic acid due to shift in the acid–base equilibrium. The variation in interaction potential and cloud point with pH is modelled using Coulombic repulsion of charged molecules at the micelle interface.

  13. Polypyrrole nanoparticles fabricated via Triton X-100 micelles template approach and their acetone gas sensing property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fake; Li, Hang [Department of Clinical Laboratory Medcine, Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Jiang, Hongmin [26th Research Institute, Chinese Electronics Scientific and Technical Group Company, Chongqing 400060 (China); Zhang, Kejun; Chang, Kai; Jia, Shuangrong; Jiang, Wenbin; Shang, Ya; Lu, Weiping [Department of Clinical Laboratory Medcine, Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Deng, Shaoli, E-mail: dengsl072@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Clinical Laboratory Medcine, Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Chen, Ming, E-mail: chenming1971@yahoo.com [Department of Clinical Laboratory Medcine, Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Nano-scaled polypyrrole (PPy) particles have been successfully synthesized with the help of Triton X-100 micelles via soft template approach. The polypyrrole nanoparticles have been spin-coated on surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducers to demonstrate their sensing capability toward acetone gas exposure. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopes (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy have been utilized to characterize these PPy nanoparticles. The PPy nanoparticles have an average diameter of 95 nm. The responses of the sensors are linearly associated with the acetone concentrations in the range from 5.5 ppm to 80 ppm. In response to 5.5 ppm acetone exposure, the response and recovery time are 9 s and 8.3 s, respectively. SAW sensors coated with PPy nanoparticles were potentially useful to detect acetone.

  14. 血浆制品中Triton X-100残留量测定方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鹏云; 程雅琴

    2003-01-01

    目的建立血浆(SD法病毒灭活)中Triton X-100残留量测定方法.方法采用新型Oasis固相提取小柱进行样品预处理,用反相SymmetryShield RP18色谱柱的HPLC方法检测SD灭活法血浆中Triton X-100残留量,并对该方法进行讨论.结果用固相提取方法可获得良好的回收率(99.2%),检测限达到1.0ppm,检测精度CV值为3.04%.结论该方法快速、简便、准确,重现性好,可作为实验室SD病毒灭活血浆中Triton X-100检测方法.

  15. Small Variations in the Composition and Properties of Triton X-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li; Rharbi; Huang; Winnik

    2000-10-01

    Two samples of Triton X-100 (TX100) were compared. The "old sample," manufactured by Rohm and Haas, has a mean degree of ethoxylation of 10.1. The "new sample," manufactured by Union Carbide, has a mean degree of ethoxylation of 9.6. The cmc values near room temperature (23 degrees C, old sample; 24.6 degrees C, new sample), as determined from surface tension measurements, are similar. Dynamic light scattering measurements on the new sample gave hydrodynamic radii at different temperatures in reasonable accord with those reported a number of years ago. In contrast, time-resolved fluorescence quenching (TRFQ) experiments using a pyrene-labeled triglyceride as a probe gave aggregation numbers N(agg) near room temperature that were similar to those determined previously by light scattering; however, the N(agg) of the new sample was larger, and the difference was outside of experimental error to one standard deviation. More troubling was that the TRFQ experiment failed to give meaningful results on solutions exposed to air, as in the case of the older TX100 sample. To get useful data by TRFQ measurements, one had to first remove oxygen from the solution. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  16. Triton X-100 inhibits agonist-induced currents and suppresses benzodiazepine modulation of GABA(A) receptors in Xenopus oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Ebert, Bjarke; Klaerke, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Changes in lipid bilayer elastic properties have been proposed to underlie the modulation of voltage-gated Na(+) and L-type Ca(2+) channels and GABA(A) receptors by amphiphiles. The amphiphile Triton X-100 increases the elasticity of lipid bilayers at micromolar concentrations, assessed from its ...

  17. Verification of turbidimetric method for detection of residual TritonX-100 in vaccines%比浊法检测疫苗中TritonX-100残留量的方法学验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平; 罗珊; 钟静; 刘杰; 孙艳; 何敏; 范凤鸣; 曾献武

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a turbidimetric method for detection of residual TritonX-100 in vaccines. Methods TritonX-100 was mixed with 5% phenol solution well and incubated at room temperature for 15 min, of which the A340 value was determined by turbidimetric method and compared with that on standard curve plotted using the standard TritonX-100 treated by the same method to calculate the residual TritonX-100 content in samples. Each sample was tested for 12 times in 3 consecutive days by 4 laboratory workers to evaluate the success rate of establishment of standard curve. TritonX-100 samples at low (15 μg/ml), moderate(25 μg/ml) and high(45 μg/ml) concentrations were determined by one laboratory worker in one test and on different working days, as well as by four laboratory workers on different working days, to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the method. The effects of BSA on the precision and accuracy were observed. Results All the results of twelve tests by 4 laboratory workers in 3 working days proved that the standard curve was valid, indicating a success rate of 100%. The coefficients of variation(CVs) of results of TritonX-100 samples at low, moderate and high concentrations determined by one laboratory worker for 10 times in one test were 5. 33%, 1. 19% and 1. 39%, while the recovery rates were 99. 33%, 105. 60% and 110. 67%, respectively; the CVs of results determined by one laboratory worker for 3 times in different working days were 4. 94%, 7. 49% and 3. 46%, while the recovery rates were 87. 75%, 93. 85% and 95. 51%, respectively. However, the CVs of results determined by 4 laboratory workers in different working days were 1. 73%~12. 17%, while the recovery rates were 89. 55%~99. 26%. The method showed a sensitivity of 10 μg/ml as well as high precision and accuracy. BSA showed no significant effect on the accuracy and precision of the method. Conclusion The developed turbidimetric method was rapid, simple, sensitive and accurate

  18. Direct Visualization of the Action of Triton X-100 on Giant Vesicles of Erythrocyte Membrane Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadei, Bruna R.; Domingues, Cleyton C.; de Paula, Eneida; Riske, Karin A.

    2014-01-01

    The raft hypothesis proposes that microdomains enriched in sphingolipids, cholesterol, and specific proteins are transiently formed to accomplish important cellular tasks. Equivocally, detergent-resistant membranes were initially assumed to be identical to membrane rafts, because of similarities between their compositions. In fact, the impact of detergents in membrane organization is still controversial. Here, we use phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy to observe giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) made of erythrocyte membrane lipids (erythro-GUVs) when exposed to the detergent Triton X-100 (TX-100). We clearly show that TX-100 has a restructuring action on biomembranes. Contact with TX-100 readily induces domain formation on the previously homogeneous membrane of erythro-GUVs at physiological and room temperatures. The shape and dynamics of the formed domains point to liquid-ordered/liquid-disordered (Lo/Ld) phase separation, typically found in raft-like ternary lipid mixtures. The Ld domains are then separated from the original vesicle and completely solubilized by TX-100. The insoluble vesicle left, in the Lo phase, represents around 2/3 of the original vesicle surface at room temperature and decreases to almost 1/2 at physiological temperature. This chain of events could be entirely reproduced with biomimetic GUVs of a simple ternary lipid mixture, 2:1:2 POPC/SM/chol (phosphatidylcholine/sphyngomyelin/cholesterol), showing that this behavior will arise because of fundamental physicochemical properties of simple lipid mixtures. This work provides direct visualization of TX-100-induced domain formation followed by selective (Ld phase) solubilization in a model system with a complex biological lipid composition. PMID:24896120

  19. Radiolytic syntheses of hollow UO{sub 2} nanospheres in Triton X-100-based lyotropic liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yongming; Chen, Qingde; Shen, Xinghai [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Fundamental Science on Radiochemistry and Radiation Chemistry Lab.

    2017-08-01

    Hollow nanospheres (φ: 60-80 nm, wall thickness: 10-20 nm), consisted of UO{sub 2} nanoparticles (φ: 3-5 nm), were successfully prepared in a Triton X-100-water (50:50, w/w) hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) by γ-irradiation, where water soluble ammonium uranyl tricarbonate was added as precursor. The product was stable at least up to 300 C. Furthermore, whether the nanospheres were hollow or not, and the wall thickness of the hollow nanospheres could be easily controlled via adjusting dose rate. While in the Triton X-100 based micellar systems, only solid nanospheres were obtained. At last, a possible combination mechanism containing adsorption, aggregation and fracturing processes was proposed.

  20. Measurement and Identification of NADPH : Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase Solubilized with Triton X-100 from Etioplast Membranes of Squash Cotyledons

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiko, IKEUCHI; Satoru, Murakami; Department of Biology, College of General Education, University of Tokyo

    1982-01-01

    Etioplast membranes were solubilized with 1 mM Triton X-100 in the presence of excess NADPH and protochlorophyllide to isolate NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase. The activity of this reductase was assayed as the formation of chlorophyllide by a single flash and was equivalent to the amount of photoactive protochlorophyllide-NADPH-enzyme complex present before illumination. The rate of regeneration of the phtoactive complex was estimated from the time course of chlorophyllide formation ...

  1. Streamlined Membrane Proteome Preparation for Shotgun Proteomics Analysis with Triton X-100 Cloud Point Extraction and Nanodiamond Solid Phase Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Minh D.; Ting-Chun Wen; Hung-Cheng Li; Pei-Hsuan Hsieh; Yet-Ran Chen; Huan-Cheng Chang; Chau-Chung Han

    2016-01-01

    While mass spectrometry (MS) plays a key role in proteomics research, characterization of membrane proteins (MP) by MS has been a challenging task because of the presence of a host of interfering chemicals in the hydrophobic protein extraction process, and the low protease digestion efficiency. We report a sample preparation protocol, two-phase separation with Triton X-100, induced by NaCl, with coomassie blue added for visualizing the detergent-rich phase, which streamlines MP preparation fo...

  2. Functions, structures and Triton X-100 effect for the catalytic subunits of heterodimeric phospholipases A2 from Vipera nikolskii venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Starkov, Vladislav G; He, Zi-Xuan; Wang, Qi-hai; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N; Lin, Zheng-jiong; Bi, Ru-chang

    2009-11-01

    Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s) from snake venoms have diverse pharmacological functions including neurotoxicity, and more studies are necessary to understand relevant mechanisms. Here we report the different crystal structures for two enzymatically active basic subunits (HDP-1P and HDP-2P) of heterodimeric neurotoxic PLA(2)s isolated from Vipera nikolskii venom. Structural comparisons with similar PLA(2)s clearly show some flexible regions which might be important for the catalytic function and neurotoxicity. Unexpectedly, Triton X-100 molecule bound in the hydrophobic channel of HDP-1P and HDP-2P was observed, and its binding induced conformational changes in the Ca(2+) binding loop. Enzymatic activity measurements indicated that Triton X-100 decreased the activity of PLA(2), although with comparatively low inhibitory activity. For the first time exocytosis experiments in pancreatic beta cells were used to confirm the presynaptic neurotoxicity of relevant snake PLA(2). These experiments also indicated that Triton X-100 inhibited the influence of HDP-1P on exocytosis, but the inhibition was smaller than that of MJ33, a phospholipid-analogue inhibitor of PLA(2). Our studies performed at a cellular level are in good agreement with earlier findings that enzymatic activity of the snake presynaptic PLA(2) neurotoxins is essential for effective block of nerve terminals.

  3. Cloud point extraction of Cu(II) using a mixture of Triton X-100 and dithizone with a salting-out effect and its application to visual determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nobuko; Mori, Masanobu; Itabashi, Hideyuki

    2013-12-15

    A method for the separation and concentration of trace copper(II) ion (Cu(II)) via cloud point extraction (CPE) using a nonionic surfactant with a salting-out effect was developed and applied as a technique for the visual determination of Cu(II). Triton X-100 (TX-100), which has a cloud point at 64-67 °C in aqueous solutions, was used as the nonionic surfactant for the CPE of Cu(II). Although CPE with TX-100 requires heating of the solution to separate the surfactant-rich phase from the aqueous phase, the new method achieves phase separation at 15-30 °C owing to the addition of a large amount of salt to the solution, which lowers the cloud point. The compound 1,5-diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone) was selected as the chelating agent for complexation and transfer of Cu(II) to the surfactant-rich phase. The extractability of Cu(II) (initial concentration: 10 μM) was 96.6±2.1% when Na2SO4 was added to a 20% TX-100/4 μM dithizone solution (pH 2). Using this method, the visual determination of Cu(II) was possible for concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10 μM. In addition, the extraction system was successfully applied to the visual determination of Cu(II) in a river water sample.

  4. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Highly Viscous Media: A Comparison between the Dispersive Agents [BMIM][BF4 ], L121, and Triton X-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarri, Carla; Croce, Fausto; Meschini, Ida; Bowen, Christopher H; Marinelli, Lisa; Di Stefano, Antonio; Angelini, Guido

    2016-01-11

    Dispersions of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been prepared by using the room-temperature ionic liquid [BMIM][BF4 ] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), the triblock copolymer Pluronic L121 [poly(ethylene oxide)5 -poly(propylene oxide)68 -poly(ethylene oxide)5 ] and the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX100) in the pure state. The size of the SWNTs aggregates and the dispersion degree in the three viscous systems depend on the sonication time, as highlighted by UV/Vis/NIR spectroscopy and optical microscopy analysis. A nonlinear increase in conductivity can be observed as a function of the SWNTs loading, as suggested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The generation of a three-dimensional network of SWNTs showing a viscoelastic gel-like behavior above a critical percolation concentration has been found at 25 °C in all the investigated systems by oscillatory rheology measurements.

  5. Solubilisation effect of Nonidet P-40, triton X-100 and CHAPS in the detection of MHC-like glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeta, M O; Fernandez, N; Festenstein, H

    1988-08-09

    We have analysed the differential solubilisation effect of three detergents on cell-membrane histocompatibility glycoproteins. Two nonionic detergents (Nonidet P-40 and Triton X-100) which are extensively used in the extraction of MHC proteins and a zwitterionic detergent (CHAPS) which is sulphobetaine derivative of cholic acid were used. An AKR (H-2k) derived spontaneous leukaemic cell line--424--was used as the experimental model. In this tumour cell line a class I-like antigen is expressed but not directly detected by cell-binding radioimmunoassay or immunoprecipitation from NP-40 or Triton X-100 solubilised glycoproteins. However, 46 kDa and 12 kDa bands consistent with the classical H-2 class I pattern were seen by SDS-PAGE after immunoprecipitation with the 34.5.8 anti-H-2Dd MoAb using CHAPS solubilised 424 glycoproteins. The H-2Dd-reactive molecule appears to be associated with at least one of the syngeneic class I specificities (H-2Kk, H-2Dk) and not accessible to react with the specific anti H-2Dd MoAb. The detergents NP-40 and Triton X-100 appear to be less efficient than CHAPS in breaking protein-protein interactions. This property of CHAPS permitted the adequate solubilisation of the novel antigen and its direct detection. The results of this study suggest that the alternative use of a non-denaturing zwitterionic detergent may contribute to the detection and characterisation of MHC-related, membrane-bound proteins of tumours and normal cells.

  6. Modulation of the Access of Exogenous NAD(P)H to the Alternative Pathway in Potato Tuber Callus Mitochondria with Triton X-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A M; van den Bergen, C W; Krab, K

    1992-11-01

    Alternative oxidase activity in potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Bintje) callus mitochondria with exogenous NAD(P)H as substrate is inhibited by low concentrations of the detergent Triton X-100. Alternative oxidase activity with succinate or malate as substrate is not affected by these low concentrations of Triton X-100. Cytochrome pathway activity was not influenced under these conditions, neither with endogenous nor with exogenous substrate. Washing of Triton X-100-treated mitochondria did partially restore both uninhibited and CN-resistant NADH oxidation, indicating that under these conditions Triton X-100 does not permanently remove major components from the mitochondrial membrane. Apparently, it is possible to manipulate mitochondria in such a way that the access of exogenous NADH to the alternative pathway is blocked while access to the cytochrome pathway is uninhibited. It is suggested that membrane conditions have a regulatory function (possibly via influencing the diffusion path) in the oxidation of exogenous NADH via the alternative pathway.

  7. Optimization and efficient purification of recombinant Omp28 protein of Brucella melitensis using Triton X-100 and β-mercaptoethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashu; Tiwari, Sapana; Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Sathyaseelan, Kannusamy; Prakash, Archana; Barua, Anita; Arora, Sonia; Kameswara Rao, M

    2012-06-01

    The high level expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli often leads to the formation of inclusion bodies that contain most of the expressed protein held together by non-covalent forces. The inclusion bodies are usually solubilized using strong denaturing agents like urea and guanidium hydrochloride. In this study recombinant Omp28 (rOmp28) protein of Brucella melitensis was expressed in two different vector systems and further efficient purification of the protein was done by modification in buffers to improve the yield and purity. Different concentrations of Triton X-100 and β-mercaptoethanol were optimized for the solubilization of inclusion bodies. The lysis buffer with 8M urea alone was not sufficient to solubilize the inclusion bodies. It was found that the use of 1% Triton X-100 and 20mM β-mercaptoethanol in lysis and wash buffers used at different purification steps under denaturing conditions increased the yield of purified rOmp28 protein. The final yield of purified protein obtained with modified purification protocol under denaturing conditions was 151 and 90mg/l of the culture or 11.8 and 9.37mg/g of wet weight of cells in pQE30UA and pET28a(+) vector respectively. Thus modified purification protocol yielded more than threefold increase of protein in pQE30UA as compared with purification by conventional methods.

  8. Adsorption of Dimethyldodecylamine Oxide and Its Mixtures with Triton X-100 at the Hydrophilic Silica/Water Interface Studied Using Total Internal Reflection Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Dien; Baldelli, Steven

    2016-12-08

    Adsorption of dimethyldodecylamine oxide (DDAO) and its mixtures with Triton X-100 (TX-100) at the hydrophilic silica/water interface has been studied using total internal reflection (TIR) Raman spectroscopy and target factor analysis (TFA). The use of a linear vibrational spectroscopic technique helps obtain information on molecular behavior, adsorbed amount, and conformational order of surfactant molecules at the interface. The results obtained from polarized Raman measurements of pure DDAO show insignificant changes in the orientation and conformational order of surface molecules as a function of DDAO bulk concentrations. The adsorption isotherm of pure DDAO shows a change in the structure of the adsorbed layer at concentrations close to the critical micelle concentration (cmc). TFA reveals that, for a low concentration of DDAO (0.30 mM in this study), adsorption of both DDAO and TX-100 in the mixed surfactants was enhanced at low TX-100 concentrations. The synergistic effect is dominant at low concentrations of TX-100, with enhanced adsorption of both surfactants. Although competitive adsorption is effective at high concentrations of TX-100, the presence of a small amount of DDAO at the interface still enhances TX-100 adsorption. When DDAO concentrations are increased to 1.00 mM, TX-100 replaces DDAO molecules on the surface when TX-100 concentration is increased.

  9. Extraction and separation of tungsten (VI) from aqueous media with Triton X-100-ammonium sulfate-water aqueous two-phase system without any extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqiang Zhang; Tichang Sun; Tieqiang Lu; Chunhuan Yan

    2016-11-25

    An aqueous two-phase system composed of Triton X-100-(NH4)2SO4-H2O was proposed for extraction and separation of tungsten(VI) from aqueous solution without using any extractant. The effects of aqueous pH, concentration of ammonium sulfate, Triton X-100 and tungsten, extracting temperature on the extraction of tungsten were investigated. The extraction of tungsten has remarkable relationship with aqueous pH and are to above 90% at pH=1.0-3.0 under studied pH range (pH=1.0-7.0) and increases gradually with increasing Triton X-100 concentration, but decreases slightly with increasing ammonium sulfate concentration. The extraction percentage of tungsten is hardly relevant to temperature but its distribution coefficient linearly increases with increasing temperature within 303.15-343.15K. The distribution coefficient of tungsten increases with the increase of initial tungsten concentration (0.1-3%) and temperature (303.15 K-333.15K). The solubilization capacity of tungsten in Triton X-100 micellar phase is independent of temperature. FT-IR analysis reveals that there is no evident interaction between polytungstate anion and ether oxygen unit in Triton X-100, and DLS analysis indicates that zeta potential of Triton X-100 micellar phase have a little change from positive to negative after extracting tungsten. Based on the above-mentioned results, it can be deduced that polytungstate anions are solubilized in hydrophilic outer shell of Triton X-100 micelles by electrostatic attraction depending on its relatively high hydrophobic nature. The stripping of tungsten is mainly influenced by temperature and can be easily achieved to 95% in single stage stripping. The tungsten (VI) is separated out from solution containing Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Al(III), Cr(III) and Mn(II) under the suitable conditions.

  10. Phagocyte NADPH-oxidase. Studies with flavin analogues as active site probes in triton X-100-solubilized preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, J F; Gabig, T G

    1988-06-25

    NADPH-oxidase of stimulated human neutrophil membranes was solubilized in Triton X-100 and activity reconstituted with FAD, 8-F-FAD, 8-phenyl-S-FAD, and 8-S-FAD. The enzyme had similar affinities for all the flavins with Km values in the 60-80 nM range. Vmax was found to increase 4-fold with increasing redox midpoint potential of the flavin. 8-F-FAD reconstituted with the enzyme was reactive toward thiophenol, suggesting exposure of the 8-position to solvent, a finding supported by unsuccessful attempts to label the enzyme with the photoaffinity probe 8-N3-[32P]FAD. Solubilized oxidase stabilized the red thiolate form of 8-S-FAD, a characteristic of flavoproteins of the dehydrogenase/electron transferase classes which stabilize the blue neutral form of the flavin semiquinone radical.

  11. Absorption,fluorescence and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra of hydrophobic hydrogen bonding of eosin Y/Triton X-100 nanoparticles and their analytical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In a weak acidic medium(pH 2.4-2.8),eosin Y molecules(H2L) could replace water molecules to associate with Triton X-100 to form hydrophobic hydrogen bonding complexes.These complexes could further aggregate to form nanoparticles through the squeezing action of the water phase and Van Der Waals force,resulting in changes in the absorption spectrum and fluorescence quenching of EY as well as the significant enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering.This enables the sensitive determination of Triton X-100 using the fading spectrophotometry,fluorescence quenching method and RRS method.Among them,the RRS method shows the highest sensitivity with a detection limit of 20.6 ng mL-1 for Triton X-100.The optimum experimental conditions and factors that affect the absorption,fluorescence and RRS spectra were tested.The effects of coexisting substances were investigated and the results showed good selectivity.Based on these results,new spectrophotometric methods,fluorescence quenching method and RRS method for the determination of Triton X-100,were established.The hydrogen bonding association of eosin Y with Triton X-100 and the formation of nanoparticles as well as their effects on related spectral characteristics were discussed utilizing infrared,transmission electron microscope technique and quantum chemical method.

  12. On Cloud Point Extraction of Cd2+and Co2+with TritonX-100%TritonX-100对废水中Cd2+、Co2+的浊点萃取研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海霞; 谭雪晴

    2015-01-01

    TritonX-100为萃取剂,8-羟基喹啉为络合剂,对废水中Cd2+、Co2+进行浊点萃取,考察了萃取剂的用量、络合剂用量、pH值、平衡时间、平衡温度、离心时间、离心速度等影响萃取效果的因素,得到了浊点萃取的最佳条件,在最佳条件下,Cd2+的最大萃取率为93%,Co2+的最大萃取率为88%。结果表明,此体系对 Cd2+和Co2+的萃取率都比较高,而且对Cd2+的萃取效果比对Co2+的萃取效果较好,用此法处理含Cd2+和Co2+的废水,方法可行。%An experiment was made to remove trace amounts of Cd2+ and Co2+ from waste water by cloud point extraction using TritonX-100 as the extraction agent,8 -hydroxyquinoline as the complexion agent,and NaOH-KH2 PO3 as the buffer solution. The effects of the amount of the extraction agent,the amount of complex-ion,pH value,equilibrium time and temperature,centrifugation time,speed of centrifugation and other factors on the efficiency of cloud point extraction had been systematically examined. Under optimized conditions,the maxi-mum extraction rate of Cd2+ and Co2+ reached to 93% and 88% respectively. The results showed that the system had high extraction ability for Cd2+ and Co2+,but the extraction efficiency to Cd2+ was a little higher than to Co2+. Therefore,the method was practicable to treat waste water containing Cd2+ and Co2+.

  13. Catalytic spectrophotometric determination of trace vanadium in fly ash and coal gangue by Triton X-100 enhancing effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Changbin; HUANG Niandong

    2004-01-01

    Trace V(V) catalyzes mightily the decolorization reaction of arsenazo Ⅲ (AsA Ⅲ) by oxidizing with H2O2 in a pH 4.0 HAc-NaAc buffer solution, and the addition of Triton X-100 can further increase the sensitivity of the reaction and its catalytic extent is linear with the content of V(V). A catalytic spectrophotometric procedure for determining trace V(V)was developed. The results show that the maximun absorption of the color solution is at 560 nm and the detection limit of the method for V(V) is 0.014 mg@L-1 Beer's law is obeyed for V(V) in the range of 0.00-0.20 mg.L-1. The recoveries are 99.0%-104.6%, and the relative standard deviations (RSD) are 2.7%-3.7%. Combined with ion-exchange resin, the method has been applied to the determination of trace vanadium in fly ash and coal gangue with satisfactory results.

  14. Photoinitiated gold sol generation in aqueous Triton X-100 and its analytical application for spectrophotometric determination of gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, A

    1998-08-01

    Gold complex, HAuCl(4) has been transformed into pink-coloured stable gold sol having lambda(max) at 523 nm (in=3.06x10(3)1.mol(-1)cm(-1)) at room temperature in aqueous Triton X-100 (TX-100) upon photoirradiation. It is a very rapid and simple process and the absorbance at 523 nm is a direct measure of gold concentration. Beer's law is obeyed in the range of 0-150 ppm of gold. The relative standard deviation for 22.7 and 90.9 ppm of gold are 2.8 and 2.5% respectively. The 95% confidence limit (ten determinations) for 22.7 ppm of gold is 23.6+/-0.5 ppm. Sandell sensitivity is 6.44x10(-2) mug cm(-2). TX-100 acts both as a reducing agent and a stabilizer here. Statistical parameters, effects of TX-100 concentration, irradiation time and interferents are studied. The method is applicable for ore and synthetic mixture analysis.

  15. Streamlined Membrane Proteome Preparation for Shotgun Proteomics Analysis with Triton X-100 Cloud Point Extraction and Nanodiamond Solid Phase Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh D. Pham

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available While mass spectrometry (MS plays a key role in proteomics research, characterization of membrane proteins (MP by MS has been a challenging task because of the presence of a host of interfering chemicals in the hydrophobic protein extraction process, and the low protease digestion efficiency. We report a sample preparation protocol, two-phase separation with Triton X-100, induced by NaCl, with coomassie blue added for visualizing the detergent-rich phase, which streamlines MP preparation for SDS-PAGE analysis of intact MP and shot-gun proteomic analyses. MP solubilized in the detergent-rich milieu were then sequentially extracted and fractionated by surface-oxidized nanodiamond (ND at three pHs. The high MP affinity of ND enabled extensive washes for removal of salts, detergents, lipids, and other impurities to ensure uncompromised ensuing purposes, notably enhanced proteolytic digestion and down-stream mass spectrometric (MS analyses. Starting with a typical membranous cellular lysate fraction harvested with centrifugation/ultracentrifugation, MP purities of 70%, based on number (not weight of proteins identified by MS, was achieved; the weight-based purity can be expected to be much higher.

  16. Effects of Benzalkonium Chloride, Proxel LV, P3 Hypochloran, Triton X-100 and DOWFAX 63N10 on anaerobic digestion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores, German Antonio Enriquez; Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the individual and synergistic toxicity of the following xenobiotics: Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC), Proxel LV (PRX), P3 Hypochloran (HPC), Triton X-100 (TRX), and DOWFAX 63N10 (DWF), on anaerobic digestion (AD) process, was assessed. The experiments were performed in batch and conti...

  17. Zirconium-titanium-phosphate nanoparticles. Triton X-100 based size modification, characterization and application in radiochemical separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, R.; Sen, B.; Chattopadhyay, P. [Burdwan Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-07-01

    Zirconium-titanium-phosphate nanoparticles (ZTP) of different sizes were synthesized using tritron X-100 (polyethylene glycol-p-isooctylphenyl ether) surfactant. The materials were characterized by FTIR and powdered X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structural and morphological details of the material were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SEM study was followed by energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis (EDS) for elemental analysis of the sample. The important peaks of the XRD spectra were analyzed to determine the probable composition of the material. The particle sizes were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) method. Ion exchange capacity was measured for different metal ions with sizes of the ZTP nanoparticles and size-dependent ion exchange property of the material was investigated thoroughly. The nanomaterial of the smallest size of around 5 nm was employed to separate carrier-free {sup 137m}Ba from {sup 137}Cs in column chromatographic technique using 1.0 M HNO{sub 3} as eluting agent at pH = 5. (orig.)

  18. Fluorescence Quenching of Anthracene by N,N-Diethylaniline and Phenothiazine in Triton X-100/n-C10H21OH/H2O Microemulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xia; XU Hui; GUO Rong

    2003-01-01

    The photo-induced electron transfer reactions of anthracene with N,N-diethylaniline(DEA) and phenothiazine(PTZ) occur in the membrane phase of a Triton X-100/n-C10H21OH(1-decanol)/H2O microemulsion. DEA and PTZ exist in the membrane phase of the microemulsion. Anthracene exists in the oil continuous phase of the W/O microemulsion and in the oil core and membrane phase of the O/W microemulsion.

  19. Combined application of Triton X-100 and Sinorhizobium sp. Pb002 inoculum for the improvement of lead phytoextraction by Brassica juncea in EDTA amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gregorio, Simona; Barbafieri, Meri; Lampis, Silvia; Sanangelantoni, Anna Maria; Tassi, Eliana; Vallini, Giovanni

    2006-04-01

    The process of EDTA-assisted lead phytoextraction from the Bovisa (Milan, Italy) brownfield soil was optimized in microcosms vegetated with Brassica juncea. An autochthonous plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR), Sinorhizobium sp. Pb002, was isolated from the rhizosphere of B. juncea grown on the Pb-contaminated soil in presence of 2 mM EDTA. The strain was augmented (10(8) CFU g(-1) soil) in vegetated microcosms to stimulate B. juncea biomass production and, hence, its phytoextraction potential. Triton X-100 was also added to microcosms at 5 and 10 times the critical micelle concentration (cmc) to increase the permeability of root barriers to the EDTA-Pb complexes. Triton X-100 amendment determined an increase in Pb concentration within plant tissues. However it contextually exerted a phytotoxic effect. Sinorhizobium sp. Pb002 augmentation was crucial to plant survival in presence of both bioavailable lead and Triton X-100. The combination of the two treatments produced up to 56% increase in the efficiency of lead phytoextraction by B. juncea. The effects of these treatments on the structure of the soil bacterial community were evaluated by 16S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).

  20. Determination of Trace Titanium by Solid Substrate-Room Temperature Phosphorimetry with 4,5-Dibromophenylfluorone as Luminescent Ligand and Triton X-100 as Sensitizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jia-ming; YANG Tian-long; YAN Hai-gang; SHEN Li-shuang; LI Long-di

    2003-01-01

    A new highly sensitive solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry for the determination of trace titanium is proposed based on the sensitization of Triton X-100 to the SS-RTP intensity of 4,5-dibromophenylfluorone-titanium complex adsorbed on the filter paper substrate modified by gelatin. When Triton X-100 was added into the luminescence system, the RTP intensity was raised 3 times stronger than that of the system without Triton X-100. The linear dynamic range of the new method is 0.64~3.2 fg/spot(0.4 μL) with a detection limit of 12.8 ag/spot, and the regression equation of the working curve is ΔIp =482.0+119.5mTi(Ⅳ)(fg/spot), the correlation coefficient r=0.9992, n=6. The phosphorescence lifetime(τ=0.85 ms) was also determined. The recoveries(and RSD) for the determinations of titanium in human hair and tea samples were 101.0%(3.0%) and 99.97%(4.2%), respectively.

  1. Application of Triton X-100 coated poly vinyl chloride as new solid phase for preconcentration of Fe3+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions and their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrorang Ghaedi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A selective, sensitive and efficient method for preconcentration of trace amounts of Cu(II, Fe(II and Zn(II ions based on the uptake of their complexes with 3-((indolin-3-yl(phenylmethylindoline (IYPMI loaded on Triton X-100 coated poly vinyl chloride has been reported. The influences of the analytical parameters including pH, ligand amount, surfactant type and concentration, eluting condition and sample volume on metal ions recovery were investigated. The method has been successfully applied for the extraction of these ions content in some real samples of soil and plants. The extraction efficiency was > 97% with low relative standard deviation (RSD < 2.4% and the preconcentration factor of 90 (5 mL elution volume for a 450 mL of sample volume.

  2. An efficient protocol to enhance the extracellular production of recombinant protein from Escherichia coli by the synergistic effects of sucrose, glycine, and Triton X-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ru-Meng; Yang, Hong-Ming; Yu, Chang-Mei; Zhang, Wei-Fen; Tang, Jin-Bao

    2016-10-01

    Targeting recombinant proteins at highly extracellular production in the culture medium of Escherichia coli presents a significant advantage over cytoplasmic or periplasmic expression. In this work, a recombinant protein between ZZ protein and alkaline phosphatase (rZZ-AP) was constructed. Because rZZ-AP has the IgG-binding capacity and enzymatic activity, it can serve as an immunoreagent in immunoassays. However, only a very small portion of rZZ-AP is generally secreted into the aqueous medium under conventional cultivation procedure. Hence, we emphasized on the optimization of the culture procedures and attempted to dramatically enhance the yield of extracellular rZZ-AP from E. coli HB101 host cells by adding sucrose, glycine, and Triton X-100 in the culture medium. Results showed that the extracellular production of rZZ-AP in the culture medium containing 5% sucrose, 1% glycine, and 1% Triton X-100 was 18.6 mg/l, which was 18.6-fold higher than that without the three chemicals. And the β-galactosidase activity test showed that the increased extracellular rZZ-AP was not due to cell lysis. Further analysis suggested a significant interaction effect among the three chemicals for the enhancement of extracellular production. Ultrastructural analysis indicated that the enhancement may be due to the influence of sucrose, glycine, and Triton X-100 on the periplasmic osmolality, permeability, or integrity of the cell wall, respectively. This proposed approach presents a simple strategy to enhance the extracellular secretion of recombinant proteins in the E. coli system at the process of cell cultivation.

  3. STUDI KOMPARASI SIFAT FOTOKATALIS DAN AGLOMERITAS NANOPARTIKEL TIO2 SEBAGAI PENGARUH DISPERSANT ETILEN GLIKOL DAN TRITON X 100 DALAM DIRT-FREE PAINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Sawitri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian untuk mengetahui pengaruh variasi dispersant terhadap stabilitas fotokatalis dan aglomeritas nanopartikel TiO2 sebagai optimasi dirt-free paint, yaitu bahan komposit cat yang mempunyai sifat anti noda dan mampu membersihkan dirinya sendiri (self-cleaning dengan bantuan cahaya dan air. Dispersant yang digunakan Etilen Glikol dan Triton X 100. Komposisi massa TiO2 2% massa cat, dengan perbandingan anatase : rutile sebesar 90:10. Pengujian yang dilakukan meliputi uji DSC, XRD, FTIR, uji self-cleaning, dan SEM-EDX. Dari uji self-cleaning dengan dua macam pengotor, diperoleh hasil bahwa untuk pengotor lumpur, sampel terbaik adalah sampel dengan dispersant Etilen Glikol, dengan selisih luas pengotor 35,77%. Untuk pengotor pewarna makanan, sampel TiO2 dengan dispersant Triton X 100 memiliki selisih luas pengotor 17,64%. Hasil uji SEM-EDX menunjukkan ukuran partikel TiO2 rata-rata untuk cat tanpa dispersant adalah 132.02 nm, dan dengan dispersant Etilen Glikol menjadi 118.54 nm. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa bahan dispersant dapat menimbulkan sifat self cleaning, serta mampu mendispersikan TiO2 di dalam cat dengan baik.

  4. Affinity partitioning of malate dehydrogenase with triton X-100modified by cibacron blue F3G-A%三嗪染料修饰曲通X-100亲和分离苹果酸脱氢酶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨梅; 唐江涛; 李步海; 唐尹萍

    2011-01-01

    三嗪染料(Cibacmn blue F3G-A)的蒽醌部分结构类似于腺嘌呤,可以用于亲和分离以NAD+(NADP+)和FAD为辅酶的脱氢酶.三嗪染料通过亲核取代反应修饰曲通X-100,形成的三嗪染料-曲通X-100与成相聚合物吐温80、磷酸钾盐构成液-固亲和萃取体系.从猪心肌匀浆液纯化苹果酸脱氢酶的条件:三嗪染料-曲通X-100浓度为1.2%(W/V),吐温舳浓度9%(V/V),猪心肌匀浆液0.25 mL(2.5%),pH8.0,加入成相磷酸钾终浓度1.6 mol/L,形成液固两相,固相酶活力平均收得率为81.01%,纯化倍数为4.93.固相30℃保温溶解,加入成相盐磷酸钾,终浓度为0.7mol/L,二次成相.低盐浓度条件下,近80%的酶反萃回液相,简化了苹果酸脱氢酶后续加工工艺.%Due to the structure of anthraquinone of triazine-dye( Cibacron blue F3G-A,short as Cb)similar as adenine.Cb could be used to purify enzymes whose coenzyme was NAD+( NADP+)or FAD with affinity partitioning method. Triton X-100 modified by Cb through nucleophilic substitution reaction,Tween 80 and potassium phosphate constituted the liquid-solid affinity partitioning system. The optimal malate dehydrogenase( short as MDH) purification system from porcine cardiac muscle homogenate condition consists of triton X-100 modified by Cb 1.2% ( W/V) .phase-forming polymer Tween 80 9% ( V/V) .porcine cardiac muscle homogenate 0.25 mL(2.5% ) .and the final concentration of phase-forming potassium phosphate 1.6 mol/L.pH 8.0. The enzyme recovery in solid-state(Tween 80 phase)was 81.01% .and the purification fold was 4.93. After the solid-state dissolved by incubation at 30℃ ,and then the concentration of potassium phosphate adjusted to 0.7 mol/L, the dissolved solid-state re-forms the liquid-solid two phase system with the enzyme recovery of near 80%in salt aqueous phase,which simplified the following processing of MDH.

  5. Preparation of Mg2Al Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheets from Triton X-100 Hexagonal Lyotropic Liquid Crystal and Their Application as Drug Carriers%Triton X-100六角液晶相中制备镁铝层状双金属氢氧化物纳米片及其药物载体应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵继宽; 谢艳芳; 徐洁; 侯万国

    2015-01-01

    A hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) was constructed with nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 and mixed magnesium chloride/aluminum chloride aqueous solutions. Layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets (L-LDHs) were prepared using the LLC as a microreactor. A nanohybrid material of L-LDHs intercalated with a model anionic drug, diclofenac sodium (DS;DS/L-LDHs) was synthesized using an ion-exchange method. The drug-release profile of DS/L-LDH was investigated under moderate conditions, i.e., 37.0 °C and pH 7.2. The results were compared with those for common LDH flaky particles (S-LDHs) synthesized using a traditional solution coprecipitation method. The crystal ine structures, specific surface areas, and morphologies of these LDHs and DS/LDHs nanohybrids were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and N2 adsorption-desorption. The results show that the L-LDH particles are less thick, and have larger specific surface areas and higher DS-loading capacities than the S-LDH particles. Drug release by the DS/L-LDH nanohybrid was clearly lower than that by the DS/S-LDH nanohybrid. This indicates that the L-LDH nanosheets are more suitable for use as drug carriers than the S-LDHs. Drug release by the DS/L-LDH nanohybrid can be described using a pesudo-second-order kinetic model, and drug diffusion through the LDH particles is the rate-limiting step. LLC can be used as a template for morphology-control ed synthesis of LDHs.%以Triton X-100六角相溶致液晶作微反应器,采用共沉淀法制备了镁铝层状双金属氢氧化物(LDHs)纳米薄片(L-LDHs).以双氯芬酸钠(DS)为药物模型分子,采用离子交换法制备了DS插层LDHs (DS/L-LDHs)纳米杂化物,在37.0°C、pH=7.2的缓冲溶液中,考察了纳米杂化物的药物释放性能,并与传统溶液共沉淀法制备的镁铝LDHs (S-LDHs)纳

  6. Solid Substrate Room Temperature Phosphorimetry for the Determination of Trace Mercury Based on the Reaction between Alkaline Phosphatase and Mercury Using Triton X-100 as a Sensitizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiaming; LI Feiming; LIN Shaoqin; LI Zhiming; CHEN Yayu; LIN Huiqing; HUANG Lichai; CAI Jingping; CHEN Xuejuan

    2009-01-01

    A new solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry(SSRTP)for the determination of trace mercury has been established,using Triton X-100 as a sensitizer.The regression equation of working curve was △Ip=blank reagent and the test solution,respectively),and correlation coefficient(r)was 0.9984.The RSD valus of the determination of 0.016 and 8.0 agospot 1 Hg2+ were 4.1% and 1.7%(n=8),respectively,indicating that the method had good repeatability.The limit of detection(LOD)calculated by 3Sb/k was 7.0 zg-spot 1 Hg2+(correprecision,which was applied to determination of trace mercury in water samples with the result being agreed very well with that of dithizone extraction spectrophotometry.

  7. Comparative proteomics of Staphylococcus aureus and the response of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive strains to Triton X-100

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordwell, Stuart J; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Cole, Rebecca T

    2002-01-01

    profiles of S. aureus strains COL (methicillin-resistant) and 8325 (methicillin-sensitive). Reference mapping via this approach identified 377 proteins that corresponded to 266 distinct ORFs. Amongst these identified proteins were 14 potential virulence factors. The production of 41 'hypothetical' proteins...... was confirmed, and eight of these appeared to be unique to S. aureus. Strain COL displayed 12 protein spots, which included alkaline-shock protein 23 (Asp23) and cold-shock proteins CspABC, which either were not present in strain 8325 or were present at a significantly lower intensity in this strain....... Comparative maps were used to characterize the S. aureus response to treatment with Triton X-100 (TX-100), a detergent that has been shown to reduce methicillin resistance independently of an interaction with the mecA-encoded penicillin-binding protein 2a. In response to growth of the bacteria in the presence...

  8. Obtaining Soluble Folded Proteins from Inclusion Bodies Using Sarkosyl, Triton X-100, and CHAPS: Application to LB and M9 Minimal Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massiah, Michael A; Wright, Katharine M; Du, Haijuan

    2016-04-01

    This unit describes a straightforward and efficient method of using sarkosyl to solubilize and recover difficult recombinant proteins, such as GST- and His6 -tagged fusion proteins, that are overexpressed in E. coli. This protocol is especially useful for rescuing recombinant proteins overexpressed in M9 minimal medium. Sarkosyl added to lysis buffers helps with both protein solubility and cell lysis. Higher percentage sarkosyl (up to 10%) can extract >95% of soluble protein from inclusion bodies. In the case of sarkosyl-solubilized GST-fusion proteins, batch-mode affinity purification requires addition of a specific ratio of Triton X-100 and CHAPS, while sarkosyl-solubilized His6 -tagged fusion proteins can be directly purified on Ni(2+) resin columns. Proteins purified by this method could be widely used in biological assays, structure analysis and mass spectrum assay.

  9. Two-step preparation of nano-scaled magnetic chitosan particles using Triton X-100 reversed-phase water-in-oil microemulsion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhengkun; Jiang, Feihong [College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Lee, Tung-Ching, E-mail: lee@aesop.rutgers.edu [Department of Food Science, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Yue, Tianli, E-mail: yuetl305@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2013-12-25

    Highlights: •A new two-step route for nano-scaled magnetic chitosan particles preparation. •Triton X-100 reversed-phase microemulsion system was used for chitosan coating. •Narrow size distribution of magnetic chitosan nanoparticles was achieved. •Quantitative evaluation of recoverability for the magnetic chitosan nanoparticles. -- Abstract: A new two-step route for the preparation of nano-scaled magnetic chitosan particles has been developed, different from reported one-step in situ preparation and two-step preparation method of reversed-phase suspension, Triton X-100 reversed-phase water-in-oil microemulsion encapsulation method was employed in coating the pre-prepared Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with chitosan. The resultant magnetic chitosan particles owned a narrow size distribution ranging from 50 to 92 nm. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) indicated that the chitosan coating procedure did not change the spinal structure of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles. The results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated that the chitosan was coated on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and its average mass content was ∼50%. The saturated magnetization of the magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/chitosan nanoparticles reached 18.62 emu/g, meanwhile, the nanoparticles showed the characteristics of superparamagnetism. The magnetic chitosan nanoparticles showed a high recoverability of 99.99% in 10 min when pH exceeded 4. The results suggested that the as-prepared magnetic chitosan particles were nano-scaled with a narrow size distribution and a high recoverability.

  10. Solubilization, purification, and reconstitution of alpha 2 beta 1 isozyme of Na+/K+ -ATPase from caveolae of pulmonary smooth muscle plasma membrane: comparative studies with DHPC, C12E8, and Triton X-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Biswarup; Chakraborti, Tapati; Kar, Pulak; Dey, Kuntal; Chakraborti, Sajal

    2009-03-01

    We identified alpha(2), alpha(1), and beta(1) isoforms of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in caveolae vesicles of bovine pulmonary smooth muscle plasma membrane. The biochemical and biophysical characteristics of the alpha(2)beta(1) isozyme of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase from caveolae vesicles were studied during solubilization and purification using the detergents 1,2-heptanoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DHPC), poly(oxy-ethylene)8-lauryl ether (C(12)E(8)), and Triton X-100, and reconstitution with the phospholipid dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC). DHPC was determined to be superior to C(12)E(8), whereas C(12)E(8) was better than Triton X-100 in the active enzyme yields and specific activity. Fluorescence studies with DHPC-purified alpha(2)beta(1) isozyme of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase elicited higher E1Na-E2 K transition compared with that of the C(12)E(8)- and Triton X-100-purified enzyme. The rate of Na(+) efflux in DHPC-DOPC-reconstituted isozyme was higher compared to the C(12)E(8)-DOPC- and Triton X100-DOPC-reconstituted enzyme. Circular dichroism analysis suggests that the DHPC-purified alpha(2)beta(1) isozyme of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase possessed more organized secondary structure compared to the C(12)E(8)- and Triton X-100-purified isozyme.

  11. DNA Extraction from Formalin-fixed and Paraffin-embedded Tissues by Triton X-100 for Effective Amplification of EGFR Gene by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-feng; DU Zhen-wu; WU Mei; ZHANG Yu-cheng; JIANG Yang; ZHANG Gui-zhen

    2012-01-01

    For first-line non-small-cell lung cancer(NSCLC) therapy,detecting mutation status of the epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR) gene constitutes a prudent test to identify patients who are most likely to benefit from EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor(TKI) therapy.Now,the material for detecting EGFR gene mutation status mainly comes from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded(FFPE) tissues.DNA extraction from FFPE and the amplification of EGFR gene by polymerase chain reaction(PCR) are two key steps for detecting EGFR gene mutation.We showed a simple method of DNA extraction from FFPE tissues for the effective amplification of EGFR gene.Extracting DNA from the FFPE tissues of NSCLC patients with 1% Triton X-100(pH=10.0) was performed by heating at 95 C for 30min.Meanwhile,a commercial kit was used to extract DNA from the same FFPE tissues of NSCLC patients for comparison.DNA extracted products were used as template for amplifying the exons 18,.19,20 and 21 of EGFR by PCR for different amplified fragments.Results show that DNA fragment size extracted from FFPE tissues with 1%Triton X was about 250-500 base pairs(bp).However,DNA fragment size extracted from FFPE tissues via commercial kit was about from several hundreds to several thousands bp.The DNA yield extracted from FFPE tissues with 1% Triton X was larger than that via commercial kit.For about 500 bp fragment,four exons of EGFR could not be amplified more efficiently from extracted DNA with 1% Triton X than with commercial kit.However,for about 200 bp fragment.This simple and non-laborious protocol could successfully be used to extract DNA from FFPE tissue for the amplification of EGFR gene by PCR,further screening of EGFR gene mutation and facilitating the molecular analysis of a large number of FFPE tissues from NSCLC patients.

  12. Estabilización y desestabilización por adsorción sobre coloides modelo de Triton X-100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-Cano, M. S.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The colloidal stability of polystyrene particles with different surface functional groups (sulfate and carboxyl has been studied after adsorption of Triton X-100. The coverage degree and the medium pH were the main factors in this study. Three different types of colloidal stabilization were found, which can be clasified as a function of the relationship between the atractive interaction energy (VA, Van der Waals type and the steric interaction energy (VS, repulsive type: electrostatic (VS = 0, electrosteric (VS < ⎥VA⎥, and steric (VS > ⎥VA⎥. The main difference between these stabilization types is the response against the electrolyte concentration: the first and second cases are affected by electrolyte addition, while the third one does not.

    Se ha estudiado la estabilidad coloidal de partículas de poliestireno con diferente funcionalidad superficial (sulfato y carboxilo después de la adsorción de Triton X-100. El grado de recubrimiento y el pH del medio fueron variables fundamentales en el estudio. Se han encontrado tres tipos diferentes de estabilización coloidal que pueden clasificarse en función de la relación entre la energía de interacción atractiva de van der Waals (VA y la energía de interacción repulsiva de origen estérico (VS: electrostático (VS = 0, electroestérico (VS < ⎥VA⎥ y estérico (VS >⎥VA⎥. La diferencia fundamental entre estos tres tipos de estabilización es la respuesta frente a la concentración de electrolito: los dos primeros son sensibles a la adición del mismo mientras que el último no lo es. Adicionalmente se han encontrado fenómenos de desestabilización, no predichos por la teoría DLVO extendida, los cuales dependen de la funcionalidad superficial, del grado de recubrimiento y del pH del medio de dispersión.

  13. The catalytic efficiency of lipase in a novel water-in-[Bmim][PF6] microemulsion stabilized by both AOT and Triton X-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Luyan; Li, Ying; Zou, Feixue; Lu, Lu; Zhao, Yin; Huang, Xirong; Qu, Yinbo

    2012-04-01

    In the water-in-[Bmim][PF(6)] microemulsion stabilized by both AOT and Triton X-100, the lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl butyrate (p-NPB) was investigated to evaluate the catalytic efficiency of lipase in this novel microemulsion. The structural parameters of the microemulsion and the conditions of the enzymatic reaction affect the catalytic activity of lipase, especially the concentration of Tris-HCl buffer. Under optimum conditions, the catalytic activity of lipase in the present microemulsion is much higher than that in H(2)O saturated [Bmim][PF(6)]. When the partitioning of the substrate in the microemulsion is taken into account, the catalytic efficiency of lipase in this novel microemulsion is 14.3 times that in H(2)O saturated [Bmim][PF(6)] due to the significant decrease of the Michaelis constant in the microemulsion. Due to the large interface, high water activity, and probably the activating effect of the imidazolium cation in the water pool, the present microemulsion is demonstrated to be a promising medium for the lipase-catalyzed hydrolytic reaction. To demonstrate an important biocatalytic application in the IL-based microemulsion, the lipase-catalyzed synthesis of the flavoring agent benzyl acetate via transesterification of vinyl acetate with benzyl alcohol was also studied in the medium. Due to the high dispersion of lipase, large interface and removal of the byproduct, a maximum yield of 94% was obtained, indicating that the novel microemulsion is really important and useful.

  14. Effects of Benzalkonium Chloride, Proxel LV, P3 Hypochloran, Triton X-100 and DOWFAX 63N10 on anaerobic digestion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, German Antonio Enriquez; Fotidis, Ioannis A; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Kjellberg, Kasper; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the individual and synergistic toxicity of the following xenobiotics: Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC), Proxel LV (PRX), P3 Hypochloran (HPC), Triton X-100 (TRX), and DOWFAX 63N10 (DWF), on anaerobic digestion (AD) process, was assessed. The experiments were performed in batch and continuous (up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB) reactors with biochemical-industrial wastewater, as substrate. In batch experiments, half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for the tested xenobiotics were found to be 13.1, 1003, 311.5 and 24.3 mg L(-1) for BKC, PRX, DWF and TRX, respectively while HPC did not affect the AD process. Furthermore, the xenobiotics mixture tested did not present any synergistic inhibitory effect on the AD process. In continuous experiments, BKC and xenobiotics' mixture induced even stronger (more than 85%) of inhibition, expressed as IC50, compared to the levels observed from the batch reactors. Oppositely, TRX showed no inhibition in continuous mode, while inhibition was detected at batch mode.

  15. Enrichment of perforate septal pore caps from the basidiomycetous fungus Rhizoctonia solani by combined use of French press, isopycnic centrifugation, and Triton X-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel, Kenneth G A; van Peer, Arend F; Wösten, Han A B; Verkleij, Arie J; Boekhout, Teun; Müller, Wally H

    2007-12-01

    Septal pore caps occur in many filamentous basidiomycetes located at both sides of the dolipore septum and are at their base connected to the endoplasmic reticulum. The septal pore cap ultrastructure has been described extensively by the use of electron microscopy, but its composition and function are not yet known. To enable biochemical and functional analyses in the future, we here describe an enrichment method for perforate septal pore caps from Rhizoctonia solani. Our method is based on the combined use of French press and isopycnic centrifugation, using a discontinuous sucrose gradient followed by a treatment with Triton X-100. Enrichment was monitored by the use of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Using the same isolation method, smaller septal pore caps were isolated from two other basidiomycetes as well. Furthermore, we showed pore-occluding material co-purified with the septal pore caps. This observation supports the hypothesis that septal pore caps play a key role in the plugging process of the septal pores in filamentous basidiomycetes.

  16. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Copper, Nickel, and Zinc Using 1-(2-Thiazolylazo)-2-Naphthol in the Presence of Triton X-100 Using Chemometric Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Kah Hin; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Abas, Mhd. Radzi; Misran, Misni; Mohd, Mustafa Ali [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2009-12-15

    Multivariate models were developed for the simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of copper (II), nickel (II) and zinc (II) in water with 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol as chromogenic reagent in the presence of Triton X-100. To overcome the drawback of spectral interferences, principal component regression (PCR) and partial least square (PLS) multivariate calibration approaches were applied. Performances were validated with several test sets, and their results were then compared. In general, no significant difference in analytical performance between PLS and PCR models. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) using three components for Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} were 0.018, 0.010, 0.011 ppm, respectively. Figures of merit such as sensitivity, analytical sensitivity, limit of detection (LOD) were also estimated. High reliability was achieved when the proposed procedure was applied to simultaneous determination of Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} in synthetic mixture and tap water.

  17. 超声波联合曲拉通X-100制备猪去细胞的主动脉支架%Preparation of porcine thoracic aorta acellular tissue scaffold by ultrasound wave combined with TritonX-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永生; 莫绪明; 朱建宝; 彭卫; 何晓敏; 束亚琴

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨超声波联合曲拉通X-100制备猪升主动脉去细胞支架的方法及效果.方法 从体质量相近的中华实验猪制备新鲜主动脉标本280份,随机分为4组:空白对照组、曲拉通X-100(Triton X-100)和SDS(十二烷基磺酸钠)组、曲拉通X-100组、超声波联合曲拉通X-100组,通过组织学及电镜观察、生物力学性能测定、免疫组织化学检测Ln和Fn的蛋白表达变化等分析比较各组去细胞的效果.结果 超声波联合曲拉通X-100组可完全去除动脉内膜细胞,组织形态、生物力学等保持良好.层粘连蛋白(Ln)和纤维连接蛋白(Fn)的阳性面积×平均吸光度值分别是0.01470±0.001 60、0.01340±0.000 29,明显优于传统的化学去细胞方法.结论 超声波联合曲拉通X-100组去细胞效果优于传统化学去污剂,是较理想的制备猪动脉去细胞支架的方法.%Objective To investigate the method for preparation of thoracic aorta acellular tissue scaffold by ultrasound wave combined with TritonX-100. Methods Two hundred and eighty fresh thoracic aorta specimens from China experiment swine with similar body weight were divided into 4 groups:fresh thoracic aorta group, decellularisation group with ultrasound wave and TritonX-100, decellularisation group with SDS and TritonX-100, and decellularisation group with TritonX-100. The effect of decellularisation was compared by histology, scanning electron microscopy, heat shrinkage temperature, mechanics performance. As biomarkers of extracellular matrix,laminin (Ln) and fibronectin (Fn) on the processed tissue speci-mens were stained with immunohistochemical methods. Results In the acellular scaffold group by ultra-sound wave with TritonX-100,cells were removed thoroughly, and tissue structure and biomechanics were normal;The average positive staining area of Ln or Fn x the average A value was 0.0147±0.0016 and 0.013 40±0.000 29 respectively. Conclusion The method of acellular tissue scaffold

  18. Separation of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution Using Triton X-114 Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunagiri Appusamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the interaction energy between Triton X-114 surfactant + methylene blue or water and methylene blue + water was investigated using Hartree-Fock (HF theory with 6-31G* basis set. The results of structures and interaction energies show that these complexes have good physical and chemical interactions at atom and molecular levels. However, the Triton X-114 surfactant + methylene blue complex shows stronger molecular interaction compared to other complexes systems. The order of the interaction energy is 4303.472023 (Triton X-114 surfactant + water > -1222.962 (methylene blue + water > -3573.28 (Triton X-114 surfactant + methylene blue kJ·mole−1. Subsequently, the cloud point extraction was carried out for 15 ppm of methylene blue in a mixture at 313.15 and 323.15 K over the surfactant concentration range from 0.01 M to 0.1 M. From the measured data, the excess molar volume was calculated for both phases. The results show a positive deviation in the dilute phase and a negative deviation in the surfactant rich phase. It is confirmed that the interaction between Triton X-114 and methylene blue is stronger than other complex systems due to the presence of chemical and structural orientation. The concentration of dyes and surfactant in the feed mixture and temperature effect in both phases has been studied. In addition, the thermodynamics feasibility and efficiency of the process have also been investigated.

  19. Cloud point extraction of iron(III) and vanadium(V) using 8-quinolinol derivatives and Triton X-100 and determination of 10(-7)moldm(-3) level iron(III) in riverine water reference by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Akira; Ito, Hiromi; Kanai, Chikako; Imura, Hisanori; Ohashi, Kousaburo

    2005-01-30

    The cloud point extraction behavior of iron(III) and vanadium(V) using 8-quinolinol derivatives (HA) such as 8-quinolinol (HQ), 2-methyl-8-quinolinol (HMQ), 5-butyloxymethyl-8-quinolinol (HO(4)Q), 5-hexyloxymethyl-8-quinolinol (HO(6)Q), and 2-methyl-5-octyloxymethyl-8-quinolinol (HMO(8)Q) and Triton X-100 solution was investigated. Iron(III) was extracted with HA and 4% (v/v) Triton X-100 in the pH range of 1.70-5.44. Above pH 4.0, more than 95% of iron(III) was extracted with HQ, HMQ, and HMO(8)Q. Vanadium(V) was also extracted with HA and 4% (v/v) Triton X-100 in the pH range of 2.07-5.00, and the extractability increased in the following order of HMQ atomic absorption spectroscopy. When 1.25 x 10(-3)M HMQ and 1% (v/v) Triton X-100 were used, the found values showed a good agreement with the certified ones within the 2% of the R.S.D. Moreover, the effect of an alkyl group on the solubility of 5-alkyloxymethyl-8-quinolinol and 2-methyl-5-alkyloxymethyl-8-quinolinol in 4% (v/v) Triton X-100 at 25 degrees C was also investigated.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FLUOROCARBON-MODIFIED POLYACRYLAMIDE/SURFACTANT AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huai-tian Bu; Zhen-zhong Yang; Yun-xiang Zhang

    2003-01-01

    The interaction between surfactants and fluorocarbon-modified polyacrylamide (FC-PAM) in aqueous solutions was evaluated by theological means and fluorescence spectroscopy and was found to be strong regardless of the surfactant's nature. Two representative surfactants, anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and nonionic Triton X-100, were used. The origin of the interaction and its dependence on the surfactant concentration were discussed.

  1. Monitoring corrosion and corrosion control of iron in HCl by non-ionic surfactants of the TRITON-X series - Part II. Temperature effect, activation energies and thermodynamics of adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Mohammed A., E-mail: maaismail@yahoo.co [Materials and Corrosion Lab (MCL), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taif University, 888 Hawiya (Saudi Arabia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ain shams University, 11566 Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt); Ahmed, M.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, 888 Hawiya (Saudi Arabia); Arida, H.A. [Materials and Corrosion Lab (MCL), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taif University, 888 Hawiya (Saudi Arabia); Arslan, Taner [Department of Chemistry, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey); Saracoglu, Murat [Faculty of Education, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Kandemirli, Fatma [Department of Chemistry, Nigde University, 41000 Nigde (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: TX-305 exhibits inhibiting properties for iron corrosion more than TX-165 and TX 100. Inhibition efficiency increases with temperature, suggesting chemical adsorption. The three tested surfactants act as mixed-type inhibitors with cathodic predominance. Validation of corrosion rates measured by Tafel extrapolation method is confirmed. - Abstract: The inhibition characteristics of non-ionic surfactants of the TRITON-X series, namely TRITON-X-100 (TX-100), TRITON-X-165 (TX-165) and TRITON-X-305 (TX-305), on the corrosion of iron was studied in 1.0 M HCl solutions as a function of inhibitor concentration (0.005-0.075 g L{sup -1}) and solution temperature (278-338 K). Measurements were conducted based on Tafel extrapolation method. Electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM), a non-destructive corrosion measurement technique that can directly give values of corrosion current without prior knowledge of Tafel constants, is also presented. Experimental corrosion rates determined by the Tafel extrapolation method were compared with corrosion rates obtained by the EFM technique and an independent method of chemical analysis. The chemical method of confirmation of the corrosion rates involved determination of the dissolved cation, using ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry). The aim was to confirm validation of corrosion rates measured by the Tafel extrapolation method. Results obtained showed that, in all cases, the inhibition efficiency increased with increase in temperature, suggesting that chemical adsorption occurs. The adsorptive behaviour of the three surfactants followed Temkin-type isotherm. The standard free energies of adsorption decreased with temperature, reflecting better inhibition performance. These findings confirm chemisorption of the tested inhibitors. Thermodynamic activation functions of the dissolution process were also calculated as a function of each inhibitor concentration. All the results obtained from

  2. Effects of surfactants and salt on Henry's constant of n-hexane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunping; Chen, Fayuan; Luo, Shenglian; Xie, Gengxin; Zeng, Guangming; Fan, Changzheng

    2010-03-15

    n-Hexane biological removal is intrinsically limited by its hydrophobic nature and low bioavailability. The addition of surfactants could enhance the transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and change the gas-liquid equilibrium of VOCs. In this paper, the effects of four surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), tert-octylphenoxypoly-ethoxyethanol (Triton X-100), polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80), and sodium nitrate on apparent Henry's constant of n-hexane in surfactant solutions were investigated. The apparent Henry's constants were significantly reduced when surfactants concentrations exceeded their critical micelle concentrations (cmc's). On a cmc basis, the anionic surfactant SDS was found to have the greatest effect on the apparent Henry's constant with CTAB succeeding, then followed by Triton X-100 and Tween 80. However, the apparent Henry's constant of n-hexane decreased even more rapidly when Triton X-100, a nonionic surfactant, was added than when the ionic surfactant of SDS or CTAB was applied under identical mass concentration and other conditions. These results suggest that Triton X-100 have the biggest solubilization of n-hexane among the four surfactants. Sodium nitrate slightly decreased the apparent Henry's constant of n-hexane in surfactant solutions, and could be considered as a cosolvent in the surfactant-(n-hexane) solution. In addition, the relationship between apparent Henry's constant and surfactant concentration was further developed.

  3. Removal of crystal violet dye from aqueous solution using triton X-114 surfactant via cloud point extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunagiri Appusamy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the cloud point extraction (CPE was carried out for the removal of crystal violet dye from aqueous solution using triton X-114 surfactant. Density, refractive index and viscosity of pure components and two different phases of the mixture were measured, and the corresponding excess molar volume was calculated. Most of the dye molecules get solubilized in the coacervate phase, leaving a dye free dilute phase. This experiment was conducted for different sets of surfactant and solute concentration in order to find out the cloud point temperature and their influencing factors such as extraction efficiency, phase volume ratio, distribution coefficient and pre-concentration factor. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters like change in Gibbs-free energy (ΔG0, the change in enthalpy (ΔH0 and the change in entropy (ΔS0 were analyzed and found that cloud point extraction with surfactant was a more feasible process in the removal of dyes from aqueous solution.

  4. Electrophoretic separations in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchips using mixtures of ionic, nonionic and zwitterionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qian; Noblitt, Scott D; Henry, Charles S

    2012-09-01

    The use of surfactant mixtures to affect both EOF and separation selectivity in electrophoresis with PDMS substrates is reported, and capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection is introduced for EOF measurement on PDMS microchips. First, the EOF was measured for two nonionic surfactants (Tween 20 and Triton X-100), mixed ionic/nonionic surfactant systems (SDS/Tween 20 and SDS/Triton X-100), and finally for the first time, mixed zwitterionic/nonionic surfactant systems (TDAPS/Tween 20 and TDAPS/Triton X-100). EOF for the nonionic surfactants decreased with increasing surfactant concentration. The addition of SDS or TDAPS to a nonionic surfactant increased EOF. After establishing the EOF behavior, the separation of model catecholamines was explored to show the impact on separations. Similar analyte resolution with greater peak heights was achieved with mixed surfactant systems containing Tween 20 and TDAPS relative to the single surfactant system. Finally, the detection of catecholamine release from PC12 cells by stimulation with 80 mM K(+) was performed to demonstrate the usefulness of mixed surfactant systems to provide resolution of biological compounds in complex samples.

  5. An Investigation of CNT Cytotoxicity by Using Surfactants in Different Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Neeraj; Thakur, Rajesh; Bhanjana, Gaurav; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

    2011-12-01

    This account reports a comparative analysis on dispersion of multiwalled and single walled carbon nanotubes with different surfactants like—Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 80, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Dispersion of CNTs has been characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, electron microscopy and probe microscopy. An optimum CNT-to-surfactant ratio has been determined for each surfactant. Surfactant concentration in different ratio is found to deteriorate the quality of nanotube dispersion. Electron microscopy analysis of a high-surfactant sample concentration enables us to construct a plausible mechanism for increase or decrease in CNT dispersion at high surfactant concentration.

  6. Interactions between Surfactants in Solution and Electrospun Protein Fibers: Effects on Release Behavior and Fiber Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; García-Díaz, María; Jessen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    ), a cationic surfactant (benzalkonium chloride), and a neutral surfactant (Triton X-100) were studied. The anionic surfactants increased the insulin release in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the neutral surfactant had no significant effect on the release. Interestingly, only minute amounts...... of insulin were released from the fibers when benzalkonium chloride was present. The FSP-Ins fibers appeared dense after incubation with this cationic surfactant, whereas high fiber porosity was observed after incubation with anionic or neutral surfactants. Contact angle measurements and staining...

  7. Investigation of extractive microbial transformation in nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yingying; Qian, Chen; Wang, Zhilong; Xu, Jian-He; Yang, Rude; Qi, Hanshi

    2010-01-01

    Extractive microbial transformation of L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) in nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 micelle aqueous solution was investigated by response surface methodology. Based on the Box-Behnken design, a mathematical model was developed for the predication of mutual interactions between benzaldehyde, Triton X-100, and glucose on L-PAC production. It indicated that the negative or positive effect of nonionic surfactant strongly depended on the substrate concentration. The model predicted that the optimal concentration of benzaldehyde, Triton X-100, and glucose was 1.2 ml, 15 g, and 2.76 g per 100 ml, respectively. Under the optimal condition, the maximum L-PAC production was 27.6 mM, which was verified by a time course of extractive microbial transformation. A discrete fed-batch process for verification of cell activity was also presented.

  8. Catalytic Spectrophotometric Determination of Trace Vanadium Based on Oxidation of Arsenazo Ⅲ with Bichromate by Using Triton X-100 to Enhance Its Effect%重铬酸钾氧化偶氮胂Ⅲ动力学光度法测定痕量硒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周之荣; 周瑜芬; 李桂艳

    2007-01-01

    A catalytic spectrophotometry for the determination of trace vanadium(Ⅴ) based on its catalytic effect on discoloring reaction of oxidation of arsenazo Ⅲ (AsA Ⅲ) with potassium bichromate in a weak acid medium is described, and the addition of Triton X- 100 can further increase the sensitivity of the reaction and its catalytic extent is linear with the content of V(Ⅴ). The reaction rate is monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in absorbance of AsA Ⅲ at 550 nm after a fixed time (8 min). The calibration graph is linear in the range of 0.0~20.0μg/L vanadium (Ⅴ) and the detection limit of the method is 0.15μg/L. Combined with ion-exchange resin separation. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of V(Ⅴ)in food samples with the relative standard deviation of 1.18%~4.00% and the recovery of 97.5%~ 102.5%. The results are in good agreement with those provided by AAS method. The method has also been applied to the determination of V(Ⅴ) in human hair, plant and tea samples, and the results are in agreement with certified values.%基于稀HCl介质中,在非离子表面活性剂Triton X-100存在时,痕量钒(Ⅴ)催化重铬酸钾氧化偶氮胂Ⅲ的褪色反应,建立了测定痕量钒(Ⅴ)的催化动力学光度法.方法检出限为0.15μg/L,线性范围为0.0~20.0μg/L.结合离子交换树脂分离,实现了食品中痕量钒(Ⅴ)的测定,加标回收率为97.5%~102.5%,样品测定的相对标准偏差(RSD)为1.18%~4.00%.用于测定人发、植物、茶叶样品中的痕量钒(Ⅴ),结果满意.

  9. Properties of aqueous solutions of nonionic surfactants, Triton X-114 and Tween 80, at temperatures from 293 to 318 K: Spectroscopic and ultrasonic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczyk, Katarzyna; Taraba, Anna

    2017-02-01

    The speed of sound, density and refractive index of aqueous solutions of the nonionic surfactants, p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl) phenoxypoly(ethyleneglycol) Triton X-114 (TX114) and polysorbate 80, Tween 80, have been measured over the entire range of concentration at 293, 298, 303, 308, 313 and 318 K under atmospheric pressure. Steady state fluorescence measurements have been also made using pyrene as a probe. From the experimental data the quantities such as critical micelle concentration (CMC), apparent dielectric constant, hydration number, isentropic compressibility, apparent specific adiabatic compressibility of a solute, intermolecular free length, acoustic impedance and molar sound number were determined. The variation of these parameters with concentration and temperature was discussed in terms of intermolecular interactions in the solution of a given surfactant.

  10. APPLICATION OF TRITON X-100 COATED POLY VINYL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ... of Cu(II), Fe(II) and Zn(II) ions based on the uptake of their complexes with ... Poly vinyl chloride high molecular weight was purchased from Fluka .... 7.0 and then the charge intensity of the functional groups of solid materials played a crucial.

  11. Mobilization of arsenic from contaminated sediment by anionic and nonionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chuan; Peng, Xianjia

    2017-06-01

    The increasing manufacture of surfactants and their wide application in industry, agriculture and household detergents have resulted in large amounts of surfactant residuals being discharged into water and distributed into sediment. Surfactants have the potential to enhance arsenic mobility, leading to risks to the environment and even human beings. In this study, batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate arsenic mobilization from contaminated sediment by the commercial anionic surfactants sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium laureth sulfate (AES) and nonionic surfactants phenyl-polyethylene glycol (Triton X-100) and polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate (Tween-80). The ability of surfactants to mobilize arsenic followed the order AES>SDBS>SDS≈Triton X-100>Tween 80. Arsenic mobilization by AES and Triton X-100 increased greatly with the increase of surfactant concentration and pH, while arsenic release by SDBS, SDS and Tween-80 slightly increased. The divalent ion Ca(2+) caused greater reduction of arsenic mobilization than Na(+). Sequential extraction experiments showed that the main fraction of arsenic mobilized was the specifically adsorbed fraction. Solid phase extraction showed that arsenate (As(V)) was the main species mobilized by surfactants, accounting for 65.05%-77.68% of the total mobilized arsenic. The mobilization of arsenic was positively correlated with the mobilization of iron species. The main fraction of mobilized arsenic was the dissolved fraction, accounting for 70% of total mobilized arsenic. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Monitoring corrosion and corrosion control of iron in HCl by non-ionic surfactants of the TRITON-X series - Part III. Immersion time effects and theoretical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Mohammed A., E-mail: maaismail@yahoo.co [Materials and Corrosion Lab (MCL), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taif University, 888 Hawaiya, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, 11566 Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt); Ahmed, M.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, 888 Hawaiya, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Arida, H.A. [Materials and Corrosion Lab (MCL), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taif University, 888 Hawaiya, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Kandemirli, Fatma [Nigde University, Department of Chemistry, 51240 Nigde (Turkey); Saracoglu, Murat [Faculty of Education, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Arslan, Taner [Department of Chemistry, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey); Basaran, Murat A. [Nigde University, Department of Mathematics, 51240 Nigde (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    Graphical abstract: . Display Omitted Research highlights: The inhibition effect of TX-100, TX-165 and TX-305 on iron corrosion in 1.0 M HCl was studied. TX-305 inhibited iron corrosion more effectively than TX-100 and TX-165. In most cases, inhibition efficiency increased with time during the first 60 min of immersion, then decreased. Calculated quantum chemical parameters confirmed the experimental inhibition efficiencies of the tested surfactants. - Abstract: The inhibition performance of three selected non-ionic surfactants of the TRITON-X series, namely TRITONX-100 (TX-100), TRITON-X-165 (TX-165) and TRITON-X-305 (TX-305), on the corrosion of iron was studied in 1.0 M HCl solutions as a function of inhibitor concentration (0.01-0.20 g L{sup -1}) and immersion time (0.0-8 h) at 298 K. Measurements were conducted based on Tafel polarization, LPR and impedance studies. At high frequencies, the impedance spectrum showed a depressed capacitive loop in the complex impedance plane, whose diameter is a function of the immersion time and the type and concentration of the introduced surfactant. In all cases, an inductive loop was observed in the low frequency and this could be attributed to the adsorption behavior. The inhibition efficiency increased with immersion time, reached a maximum and then decreased. This was attributed to the orientation change of adsorbed surfactant molecules. TX-305 inhibited iron corrosion more effectively than TX-100 and TX-165. The frontier orbital energies, the energy gap between frontier orbitals, dipole moments ({mu}), charges on the C and O atoms, the polarizabilities, and the quantum chemical descriptors were calculated. The quantum chemical calculation results inferred that for the HOMO representing the condensed Fukui function for an electrophilic attack (f{sub k}{sup +}), the contributions belong to the phenyl group and the oxygen atom attached to the phenyl group for each tested surfactant. Quantitative structure

  13. Perstraction of Intracellular Pigments through Submerged Fermentation of Talaromyces spp. in a Surfactant Rich Media: A Novel Approach for Enhanced Pigment Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Morales-Oyervides

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A high percentage of the pigments produced by Talaromyces spp. remains inside the cell, which could lead to a high product concentration inhibition. To overcome this issue an extractive fermentation process, perstraction, was suggested, which involves the extraction of the intracellular products out of the cell by using a two-phase system during the fermentation. The present work studied the effect of various surfactants on secretion of intracellular pigments produced by Talaromyces spp. in submerged fermentation. Surfactants used were: non-ionic surfactants (Tween 80, Span 20 and Triton X-100 and a polyethylene glycerol polymer 8000, at different concentrations (5, 20, 35 g/L. The highest extracellular pigment yield (16 OD500nm was reached using Triton X-100 (35 g/L, which was 44% higher than the control (no surfactant added. The effect of addition time of the selected surfactant was further studied. The highest extracellular pigment concentration (22 OD500nm was achieved when the surfactant was added at 120 h of fermentation. Kinetics of extracellular and intracellular pigments were examined. Total pigment at the end of the fermentation using Triton X-100 was 27.7% higher than the control, confirming that the use of surfactants partially alleviated the product inhibition during the pigment production culture.

  14. Removal of 226Ra and 228Ra from TENORM sludge waste using surfactants solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attallah, M F; Hamed, Mostafa M; El Afifi, E M; Aly, H F

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using surfactants as extracting agent for the removal of radium species from TENORM sludge produced from petroleum industry is evaluated. In this investigation cationic and nonionic surfactants were used as extracting agents for the removal of radium radionuclides from the sludge waste. Two surfactants namely cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Triton X-100 (TX100) were investigated as the extracting agents. Different parameters affecting the removal of both (226)Ra and (228)Ra by the two surfactants as well as their admixture were studied by the batch technique. These parameters include effect of shaking time, surfactants concentration and temperature as well as the effect of surfactants admixture. It was found that, higher solution temperature improves the removal efficiency of radium species. Combined extraction of nonionic and cationic surfactants produces synergistic effect in removal both (226)Ra and (228)Ra, where the removals reached 84% and 80% for (226)Ra and (228)Ra, respectively, were obtained using surfactants admixture.

  15. Alteration in cell surface properties of Burkholderia spp. during surfactant-aided biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Sagarika; Mukherji, Suparna [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India). Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering (CESE)

    2012-04-15

    Chemical surfactants may impact microbial cell surface properties, i.e., cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and cell surface charge, and may thus affect the uptake of components from non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). This work explored the impact of Triton X-100, Igepal CA 630, and Tween 80 (at twice the critical micelle concentration, CMC) on the cell surface characteristics of Burkholderia cultures, Burkholderia cepacia (ES1, aliphatic degrader) and Burkholderia multivorans (NG1, aromatic degrader), when grown on a six-component model NAPL. In the presence of Triton X-100, NAPL biodegradation was enhanced from 21% to 60% in B. cepacia and from 18% to 53% in B. multivorans. CSH based on water contact angle (50-52 ) was in the same range for both strains while zeta potential at neutral pH was -38 and -31 mV for B. cepacia and B. multivorans, respectively. In the presence of Triton X-100, their CSH increased to greater than 75 and the zeta potential decreased. This induced a change in the mode of uptake and initiated aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation by B. multivorans and increased the rate of aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation in B. cepacia. Igepal CA 630 and Tween 80 also altered the cell surface properties. For B. cepacia grown in the presence of Triton X-100 at two and five times its CMC, CSH increased significantly in the log growth phase. Growth in the presence of the chemical surfactants also affected the abundance of chemical functional groups on the cell surface. Cell surface changes had maximum impact on NAPL degradation in the presence of emulsifying surfactants, Triton X-100 and Igepal CA630.

  16. Solubilization and degradation of perchloroethylene (PCE) in cationic and nonionic surfactant solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sivaram Harendra; Cumaraswamy Vipulanandan

    2011-01-01

    Solubilization of perchloroethylene (PCE) in a nonionic (Triton X-100) and a cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)) surfactant solutions and the degradation of surfactant solubilized PCE using fine to nanosize Fe and bi-metallic Fe-Ni particles were investigated.Micelle partition coefficients (Km) and molar solubility ratio (MSR) for PCE in 10 g/L of surfactant solutions have been quantified and the solubility of PCE (100 mg/L in water) in the surfactant solutions increased by about ten fold.Of the two surfactants studied,Triton X-100 solubilized the higher amount of PCE per gram of surfactant.To degrade solubilized PCE,both iron and bimetallic Fe-Ni particles were used in continuously stirred batch reactors.The iron and bi-metallic particles were synthesized using the solution method and the particles were characterized using the SEM,EDS,TEM and XRD.The PCE solubilized up to 500 mg/L in both surfactant solutions were totally degraded at various rates by 200 g/L of bi-metallic Fe-Ni particles in less than 20 hr,which is the highest concentration of PCE degraded in the shortest time compared to data in the literature.The degradations of PCE solubilized in surfactant solutions were represented by nonlinear kinetic relationships which depended on the type of surfactant used for solubilizing the PCE.

  17. The effect of selected surfactants on the structure of a bicellar system (DMPC/DHPC) studied by SAXS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Maciej; Domka, Ludwik; Jurga, Stefan

    2007-11-01

    The stabilizing or disturbing effect of different surfactants on the bicellar phase of phospholipids significantly depends on their type. The effect of different surfactants on the bicellar structure made of a mixture of phospholipids 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-choline (DMPC/DHPC) has been studied by the small angle scattering of synchrotron radiation. The study has been performed for three surfactants: dodecyldimethyl-(hexyloxymethyl)ammonium chloride, n-undecylammonium chloride and t-octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-100) introduced into a bicellar solution of DMPC/DHPC (2.8:1). The bicellar phase has been disturbed in the shortest time in the presence of dodecyldimethyl-(hexyloxymethyl)ammonium chloride in this system a transition from the bicellar to lamellar structure has been directly visible. The changes have been less pronounced in the presence of undecylammonium chloride and practically not noted in the presence of Triton X-100.

  18. Influence of nonionic surfactant on the solubilization and biodegradation of phenanthrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-gang; LIU Xiang; LONG Tao; YU Gang; PENG She; ZHENG Liu

    2003-01-01

    Phenanthrene was solubilized in two different nonionic surfactants, Tween80 and Triton X-100. The bioavailability of phenanthrene to the bacteria isolated from the petroleum contaminated soils was studied based on the rotary flasks experiments. The results showed that the concentration of nonionic surfactants above the critical micelle concentration(CMC) can increase the solubility of phenanthrene in water and were innoxious to the phenanthrene-degrading bacteria; phenanthrene solubilized in the micelles of Tween80 was bioavailable and biodegradable. The research demonstrated the potential of surfactant-enhanced bioremediation of soils contaminated by hydrophobic organic compounds( HOCs).

  19. Surfactant-enhanced remediation of a trichloroethene-contaminated aquifer. 2. Transport of TCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, D.; Smith, J.A.; Imbrigiotta, T.E.; Mclellan, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Field studies were conducted under an induced gradient in a trichloroethene (TCE)-contaminated aquifer at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ, to study (a) the rate-limited desorption of TCE from aquifer sediments to water and (b) the effect of a surfactant (Triton X-100) on the desorption and transport of TCE. Clean water was injected into the contaminated aquifer for 206 day. Triton X-100 was added for a 36-day period (days 36-71 from the start of clean water injection). The effect of Triton X-100 on the desorption and transport of TCE in the field was examined by observing the concentrations of these two solutes in four monitoring wells 3-9 m from the injection wells. These data show a small but discernible increase in the TCE concentration in two of the wells corresponding approximately to the time when surfactant reaches the wells; in the other two monitoring wells, the increase in TCE concentration is negligible. A solute transport model that assumes local sorption equilibrium and used a laboratory-derived distribution coefficient could not adequately describe TCE desorption and transport observed in the aquifer. Two model formulations that accounted for rate-limited sorption - two-site and multisite models - fit the data well. TCE concentrations after surfactant injection were underpredicted by the models unless mass transfer rate was increased to account for the effect of surfactant on the rate of TCE desorption. The concentration data from the two wells and the model analysis suggest that the rate of TCE desorption is increased (by approximately 30%) as a result of Triton X-100 injection.Field studies were conducted under an induced gradient in a trichloroethene (TCE)-contaminated aquifer at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ, to study (a) the rate-limited desorption of TCE from aquifer sediments to water and (b) the effect of a surfactant (Triton X-100) on the desorption and transport of TCE. Clean water was injected into the contaminated aquifer for 206 day. Triton X-100 was added

  20. Colloidal particles derived from a complex of phosphotungstic Acid and ethoxylated surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Maura A; Smith, Thomas W; Croucher, Melvin; Langner, Andreas; Miri, Massoud; Klymachyov, Alex; Kaplan, Sam; Tshudy, Dwight

    2002-09-01

    Stable, colloidal sols of submicron size were prepared by titration of aqueous solutions of alkylene oxide surfactants with phosphotungstic acid, H(3)PW(12)O(40) (PTA), followed by neutralization with ammonium or potassium hydroxide. The stoichiometry of the complex between phosphotungstic acid and the ethoxylated surfactant was determined by (1)H and (31)P NMR and was dependent upon the degree of ethoxylation. For example, in the ethoxylated octylphenol having 9-10 ethylene oxide units, Triton X-100, the mole ratio of surfactant to PTA was 4.5. In the ethoxylated octylphenol having 70 ethylene oxide units, Triton X-705, the mole ratio of surfactant to PTA was 1. Prior to nucleation of particles, phosphotungstic acid forms an apparent yellow charge transfer complex with ethoxylated alkylphenol surfactants, typified by Triton X-405. This complex is characterized by an absorption spectrum that is the sum of the spectra of Triton X-405 and PTA with a very weak shoulder at 400-500 nm. Particles were nearly monodisperse and their size was dependent on the nonionic surfactant employed, the heteropolyacid, and the rate of addition of heteropolyacid solution.

  1. Water solubility enhancements of pyrene by single and mixed surfactant solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Water solubility enhancements of pyrene by both single-surfactant and mixed-surfactant solutions were compared andevaluated. The solubility of pyrene in water was greatly enhanced by each of Triton X-100 (TX100), Triton X-405 (TX405), Brij 35 and SDS, in which the water solubility enhancements increased with increasing surfactant concentrations. The extent of solubility enhancements at surfactant concentrations below the CMC is the order of TX100 > Brij 35 > TX405 > SDS; the sequence at surfactantconcentrations above the CMC is TX100 > Brij 35 > SDS > TX405. Pyrene was solubilized synergistically by anionic-nonionic mixed surfactant solutions, especially at low surfactant concentrations. The synergistic power of the mixed surfactants is SDS-TX405 > SDS-Brij 35 > SDS-TX100. The synergism as noted is attributed to increasing Kmc and/or decreasing the CMC of the mixed surfactan solution. For SDS-TX405 and SDS-Brij 35 mixed surfactant solutions, an increase in Kmc is coupled with a decrease in the CMC; for SDS-TX100, only a decreased in the CMC value is noted. Mixed-surfactant solutions may improve the performance of the surfactant-enhanced remediation (SER) of soils by increasing the bioavailability and biodegradation of non-aqueous-phase organic pollutants and reducing the level of surfactant pollution and remediation expenses.

  2. Polydiacetylene sensor interaction with food sanitizers and surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yueyuan; Northcutt, Julie; Hanks, Tim; Miller, Ian; Pennington, Bill; Jelinek, Raz; Han, Inyee; Dawson, Paul

    2017-04-15

    Polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles are of interest as biosensors, particularly for pathogenic bacteria. As part of a food monitoring system, interaction with food sanitizers/surfactants was investigated. PDA vesicles were prepared by inkjet-printing, photopolymerized and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The optical response of PDA vesicles at various concentrations verses a fixed sanitizer/surfactant concentration was determined using a two variable factorial design. Sanitizer/surfactant response at various concentrations over time was also measured. Results indicated that only Vigilquat and TritonX-100 interacted with PDA vesicles giving visible colour change out of 8 sanitizers/surfactants tested. PDA vesicle concentration, sanitizer/surfactant concentration, and time all had a significant (P<0.0001) effect on colour change. As they are highly sensitive to the presence of Vigilquat and TritonX-100, PDA sensors could be used to detect chemical residues as well as for detection of various contaminants in the food industry.

  3. Effect of nonionic surfactant on wetting behavior of an evaporating drop under a reduced pressure environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefiane, Khellil

    2004-04-15

    The evaporation of sessile drops at reduced pressure is investigated. The evaporation of water droplets on aluminum and PTFE surfaces at reduced pressure was compared. It was found that water droplets on an aluminum surface exhibit a 'depinning jump' at subatmospheric pressures. This is when a pinned droplet suddenly depins, with an increase in contact angle and a simultaneous decrease in the base width. The evaporation of sessile water droplets with a nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) added to an aluminum surface was then studied. The initial contact angle exhibited a minimum at 0.001 wt% Triton X-100. A maximum in the evaporation rate was also observed at the same concentration. Droplets with low surfactant concentrations are found to exhibit the 'depinning jump.' It is thought that the local concentration of the surfactant causes a gradient of surface tension. The balance at the contact angle is dictated by complex phenomena, including surfactant diffusion and adsorption processes at interfaces. Due to the strong evaporation near the triple line, an accumulation of the surfactant will lead to a surface tension gradient along the interface. The gradient of surface tension will influence the wetting behavior (Marangoni effect). At low surfactant concentrations the contact line depins under the strong effect of surface tension gradient that develops spontaneously over the droplet interface due to surfactant accumulation near the triple line. The maximum evaporation rate corresponds to a minimum contact angle for a pinned droplet.

  4. Surfactant enhanced pyrene degradation in the rhizosphere of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Sardar Alam; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Tang, Xianjin; Shen, Chaofeng; Farooq, Muhammad; Chen, Yingxu

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of two non ionic surfactants (Tween 80 and Triton X-100), a biosurfactant (Lecithin), and randomly methylated-β-cyclodextrins (RAMEB) on the remediation of pyrene from soil planted with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Soils with pyrene concentration of about 243 mg kg(-1) was grown with tall fescue and were individually amended with 0, 200, 600, 1000, and 1500 mg kg(-1) of Tween 80, Triton X-100, biosurfactant, and RAMEB. The results show that all surfactants significantly increased plant biomass compared to unamended soil. Dehydrogenase activity was also stimulated as a result of surfactant addition. Only 3.9 and 3.2 % of pyrene was decreased in the uncovered and covered abiotic sterile control, suggesting that microbial degradation was the main removal mechanism of pyrene from soil. In the planted treatment receiving no surfactant, the remediation of pyrene was 45 % which is significantly higher than that of corresponding unplanted control soil, suggesting that the cultivation of tall fescue alone could enhance the overall remediation of pyrene in soil. All surfactants had significantly higher rates of pyrene remediation compared to the unamended planted soil. Generally, RAMEB displayed the highest remediation rates, i.e., 64.4-79.1 % followed by the Triton X-100, i.e., 60.1-74.8 %. The positive impact of surfactants on pyrene remediation could possibly be because of their capacities to increase its bioavailability in soil. The evidence from this study suggests that the addition of surfactants could enhance phytoremediation of PAHs polluted soil.

  5. Mathematical evaluation of activated carbon adsorption for surfactant recovery in a soil washing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chi K; Lee, Min W; Lee, Dae S; Woo, Seung H; Park, Jong M

    2008-12-15

    The performances of various soil washing processes, including surfactant recovery by selective adsorption, were evaluated using a mathematical model for partitioning a target compound and surfactant in water/sorbent system. Phenanthrene was selected as a representative hazardous organic compound and Triton X-100 as a surfactant. Two activated carbons that differed in size (Darco 20-40 mesh and >100 mesh sizes) were used in adsorption experiments. The adsorption isotherms of the chemicals were used in model simulations for various washing scenarios. The optimal process conditions were suggested to minimize the dosage of activated carbon and surfactant and the number of washings. We estimated that the requirement of surfactant could be reduced to 33% of surfactant requirements (from 265 to 86.6g) with a reuse step using 9.1g activated carbon (>100 mesh) to achieve 90% removal of phenanthrene (initially 100mg kg-soil(-1)) with a water/soil ratio of 10.

  6. Surfactant media for constant-current coulometry. Application for the determination of antioxidants in pharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziyatdinova, Guzel, E-mail: Ziyatdinovag@mail.ru [Analytical Chemistry Department, A.M. Butlerov Institute of Chemistry, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kremlyevskaya, 18, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Ziganshina, Endzhe; Budnikov, Herman [Analytical Chemistry Department, A.M. Butlerov Institute of Chemistry, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kremlyevskaya, 18, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Applicability of surfactants in constant-current coulometry is shown for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reactions of antioxidants with electrogenerated titrants in surfactant media are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water insoluble antioxidants can be determined in water media with addition of surfactants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coulometric determination of antioxidants in pharmaceutical dosage forms using surfactants media is developed. - Abstract: Effect of surfactant presence on electrochemical generation of titrants has been evaluated and discussed for the first time. Cationic (1-dodecylpyridinium and cetylpyridinium bromide), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate) and nonionic (Triton X100 and Brij{sup Registered-Sign} 35) surfactants as well as nonionic high molecular weight polymer (PEG 4000) do not react with the electrogenerated bromine, iodine and hexacyanoferrate(III) ions. The electrogenerated chlorine chemically interact with Triton X100 and Brij{sup Registered-Sign} 35. The allowable range of surfactants concentrations providing 100% current yield has been found. Chain-breaking low molecular weight antioxidants (ascorbic acid, rutin, {alpha}-tocopherol and retinol) were determined by reaction with the electrogenerated titrants in surfactant media. Nonionic and cationic surfactants can be used for the determination of antioxidants by reaction with the electrogenerated halogens. On contrary, cationic surfactants gives significantly overstated results of antioxidants determination with electrogenerated hexacyanoferrate(III) ions. The use of surfactants in coulometry of {alpha}-tocopherol and retinol provides their solubilization and allows to perform titration in water media. Simple, express and reliable coulometric approach for determination of {alpha}-tocopherol, rutin and ascorbic acid in pharmaceuticals using surfactant media has been developed. The relative standard deviation of the

  7. Influence of microbial and synthetic surfactant on the biodegradation of atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2014-02-01

    The present study reports the effect of surfactants (rhamnolipids and triton X-100) on biodegradation of atrazine herbicide by strain A6, belonging to the genus Acinetobacter. The strain A6 was able to degrade nearly 80 % of the 250-ppm atrazine after 6 days of growth. The bacterium degraded atrazine by de-alkylation process. Bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity as well as atrazine solubility increased in the presence of surfactant. However, addition of surfactant to the mineral salt media reduced the rate and extent of atrazine degradation by decreasing the bioavailability of herbicide. On the contrary, addition of surfactant to atrazine-contaminated soil increased the rate and extent of biodegradation by increasing the bioavailability of herbicide. As compared to triton X-100, rhamnolipids were more efficient in enhancing microbial degradation of atrazine as a significant amount of atrazine was removed from the soil by rhamnolipids. Surfactants added for the purpose of hastening microbial degradation may have an unintended inhibitory effect on herbicide degradation depending upon contiguous condition, thus highlighting the fact that surfactant must be judiciously used in bioremediation of herbicides.

  8. Influence of surfactant conditions on the structure of an upward bubbly channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Toshiyuki

    2005-11-01

    We investigated an upward bubbly channel flow and the effects of surfactant on its flow structure experimentally. 3-Pentanol and Triton X-100 are used as surfactants. By the addition of small amount of surfactant, bubble coalescences are prevented and mono-dispersed 1mm spherical bubbles are obtained. Under all of our experimental conditions, the added surfactants do not influence the single-phase turbulence. On the other hand, small amount of surfactant drastically changes the whole flow structure of bubbly flow. On the low concentration of 3-Pentanol (21-63ppm), bubbles strongly migrate towards the wall and these highly accumulated bubbles on the wall form crescent-like shaped horizontal bubble clusters of 10-40mm length. However, in 3-Pentanol solution of higher concentration (˜168ppm) or in the 2ppm Triton X-100 solution, the tendency of the lateral migration of bubbles is weaken and the bubbles are distributed uniformly in the channel. In the surfactant solution, the slip velocity on the bubble surface retards and the bubble rising velocity decreases (Marangoni effect). The change of boundary condition on the bubble surface affects not only drag force but shear-induced lift force. It is indicated that this change of shear-induced lift force greatly relates to the lateral migration of bubbles and the disaggregation of the bubble clusters. We also measured the turbulent properties using LDV and discuss the flow structure.

  9. The effects of surfactants on the lateral migration of bubbles and the bubble clustering phenomenon in a bubbly channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Shu; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2004-11-01

    The behaviors of bubbles in an upward channel flow are experimentally investigated. Two kinds of surfactant, 3-pentanol and Triton X-100 are added in the bubbly flow. Addition of surfactant prevents the bubble coalescence and mono-dispersed 1mm spherical bubbles were obtained, although these surfactants do not modify the single-phase turbulence statistics. At the condition of high Reynolds number (Re=8200) with 20-60ppm 3-Pentanol, bubbles migrated towards the wall. These bubbles highly accumulated near the wall and formed crescent like shaped horizontal bubble clusters of 10-40mm length. On the other hand, bubble clusters did not appear in the 2ppm Triton-X100 aqueous solution. By the addition of the small amount of Triton-X100, bubble coalescences were also preventable and the bubble size and its distribution became almost the same as in the case of 60ppm 3-Pentanol aqueous solution. However, the tendency of the lateral migration of bubbles towards the wall weakened and the bubbles did not accumulated near the wall. And this is the main reason of the disapperance of bubble cluster. We discuss this phenomenon, related to the lift force acting on bubbles and particles.

  10. 液固比对土壤洗涤去除多环芳烃效果的影响%Influence of Operating Parameters on Surfactant-enhanced Washing to Remedy PAHs Contaminated Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴威; 姜林; 陈家军; 彭胜

    2012-01-01

    液固比是影响土壤洗涤污染物去除率的重要因素.以Triton X-100和Tween-80为洗涤剂,采用洗涤去除率(R)、吸附损失率(Vs)和新定义的指标增溶百分比(SP)分析液固比对土壤洗涤去除目标多环芳烃效果的影响.结果表明,液固比对土壤洗涤去除多环芳烃效果影响显著.R随液固比增加呈非线性形式增大,液固比10∶1后R增长变缓.同一液固比时,洗涤去除率Triton X-100〉Tween-80.Vs随液固比增加显著减少,液固比10∶1后逐渐变缓.同一液固比时,吸附损失率Triton X-100%Liquid/solid ratio(L/S) is an important influencing factor on contaminant removal in soil washing.The impact of different liquid/solid ratio on washing performance with Triton X-100 and Tween-80 was studied respectively and evaluated through removal ratio(R),surfactant adsorption loss ratio(Vs) and solubilization percent(SP).The results presented that the performance of washing to remove PAHs in soil was significantly affected by liquid/solid ratio.PAH removal ratio was gradually increased with liquid/solid ratio increasing in the non-linear form,R presented nonlinear increasing until L/S=10∶1.Surfactant adsorption loss ratio was insignificantly decreased.At the same liquid/solid ratio,removal ratio of Triton X-100 is more than that of Tween-80.Vs presented drastic decreasing until L/S=10∶1,adsorption loss ratio of Triton X-100 is less than that of Tween-80.SP was decreased after maximum value is occurred at L/S=10∶1.Combining with R,Vsand SP,L/S=10∶1 should be an effective washing point,Triton X-100 should be a reasonable washing solution and SP is a more effective index to chose liquid/solid ratio.When Triton X-100 is as washing solution and L/S=10∶1,R,Vsand SP is 74.7%,23.47% and 48.99%,respectively.

  11. Fluorescence emission of pyrene in surfactant solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Lucas; Novo, Mercedes; Al-Soufi, Wajih

    2015-01-01

    The systematic description of the complex photophysical behaviour of pyrene in surfactant solutions in combination with a quantitative model for the surfactant concentrations reproduces with high accuracy the steady-state and the time resolved fluorescence intensity of pyrene in surfactant solutions near the cmc, both in the monomer and in the excimer emission bands. We present concise model equations that can be used for the analysis of the pyrene fluorescence intensity in order to estimate fundamental parameters of the pyrene-surfactant system, such as the binding equilibrium constant K of pyrene to a given surfactant micelle, the rate constant of excimer formation in micelles, and the equilibrium constant of pyrene-surfactant quenching. The values of the binding equilibrium constant K(TX100)=3300·10³ M⁻¹ and K(SDS)=190·10³ M⁻¹ for Triton X-100 (TX100) and SDS micelles, respectively, show that the partition of pyrene between bulk water and micelles cannot be ignored, even at relatively high surfactant concentrations above the cmc. We apply the model to the determination of the cmc from the pyrene fluorescence intensity, especially from the intensity ratio at two vibronic bands in the monomer emission or from the ratio of excimer to monomer emission intensity. We relate the finite width of the transition region below and above the cmc with the observed changes in the pyrene fluorescence in this region.

  12. Cytotoxic effect of organic solvents and surfactant agents on Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezz Eldin, Hayam Mohamed; Sarhan, Rania Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii is a protozoan parasite that may cause sight-threatening keratitis in some individuals. Its eradication is difficult because the trophozoites encyst making organisms highly resistant to anti-amoebic drugs. To test new anti-Acanthamoeba agents, usually having low water solubility, organic solvents and surfactant agents should be used. Therefore, the lethal effect of different concentrations of the solvents acetone, methanol, ethanol, and DMSO and surfactant agents Tween 20, Tween 80, and Triton X-100 was tested. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined against Acanthamoeba cysts. Results of the present study showed that the MIC for ethanol, methanol, acetone and DMSO was 25, 12.5, 12.5, and 10%, respectively and for Tween 20, Tween 80, and Triton X-100 was 0.25, 0.06, and 0.03%, respectively. There was no significant inhibitory effect on the multiplication of Acanthamoeba cysts as compared to parasite control when using the concentrations 3.12% for ethanol, 1.6% for methanol and acetone, 1.25% for DMSO, and 0.016% for Tween 20. On the other hand, both Tween 80 and Triton X-100 showed highly significant difference in comparison to parasite control almost among all the range of concentrations used in this study, and both showed lethal effect of 19 and 27.2%, respectively at their least concentration.

  13. 单一和混合表面活性剂对硫丹的增溶作用研究%Water Solubility Enhancement of Endosulfan by Single and Mixed Surfactant Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊佰炼; 张进忠

    2015-01-01

    研究了添加和不添加Na2SiO3两种情况下,单一和非/阴离子混合表面活性剂对硫丹的增溶作用。结果表明,不添加Na2SiO3时,单一表面活性剂中硫丹溶解度顺序为Tween 80>Triton X-100>SDS,与临界胶束浓度(CMCs)呈负相关。非、阴离子表面活性剂的质量比大于或等于4:1时,混合表面Tween 80/SDS和Triton X-100/SDS均对硫丹起协同增溶作用,Tween 80/SDS对硫丹的增溶能力强于Triton X-100/SDS。混合表面活性剂Tween 80/SDS和Triton X-100/SDS对硫丹的质量增溶比(WSR)分别与对应的单一非离子表面活性剂Tween 80和Triton X-100相差不大。添加Na2SiO3可提高单一和混合表面活性剂的增溶能力。Na2SiO3浓度为1000 mg·L-1的Tween 80和Tween 80/SDS溶液是硫丹良好的增溶剂。%The solubilization of endosulfan by single non-ionic surfactants and mixed anionic/non-ionic surfactants in the presence or ab-sence of Na2SiO3 was studied. The results showed that, in the absence of Na2SiO3, the solubilities of endosulfan followed a decreasing order of Tween 80, Triton X-100 and SDS, which were negatively correlated with critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of these sur-factants. When the mass ratio of anionic and nonionic surfactants was not less than 4:1, the mixed surfactants Tween 80/SDS and Triton X-100/SDS both could synergistically increase the solubility of endosulfan, and the solubilization capacity of the former was stronger than the latter. The weight solubilization ratio (WSR) of mixed surfactants, i.e. Tween 80/SDS and Triton X-100/SDS, were similar to those corresponding single non-ionic surfactant. The addition of Na2SiO3 could increase the solubility of endosulfan in mixed surfactant and single surfactants. Compared with other surfactants, Tween 80/SDS and Tween 80 in the presence of Na2SiO3 have good efficacies for the solubilization to endosulfan.

  14. Nonlinear water waves with soluble surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, Gary; Dowling, David; Schultz, William

    1998-11-01

    The hydrodynamic effects of surfactants have fascinated scientists for generations. This presentation describes an experimental investigation into the influence of a soluble surfactant on nonlinear capillary-gravity waves in the frequency range from 12 to 20 Hz. Waves were generated in a plexiglass wave tank (254 cm long, 30.5 cm wide, and 18 cm deep) with a triangular plunger wave maker. The tank was filled with carbon- and particulate-filtered water into which the soluble surfactant Triton-X-100® was added in known amounts. Wave slope was measured nonintrusively with a digital camera running at 225 fps by monitoring the position of light beams which passed up through the bottom of the tank, out through the wavy surface, and onto a white screen. Wave slope data were reduced to determine wave damping and the frequency content of the wave train. Both were influenced by the presence of the surfactant. Interestingly, a subharmonic wave occurring at one-sixth the paddle-driving frequency was found only when surfactant was present and the paddle was driven at amplitudes high enough to produce nonlinear waves in clean water. Although the origins of this subharmonic wave remain unclear, it appears to be a genuine manifestation of the combined effects of the surfactant and nonlinearity.

  15. Partitioning of non-ionic surfactants between water and non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) of chlorinated organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    KANG, S.; Jeong, H. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Due to the hydrophobic nature, chlorinated organic compounds penetrate soil and groundwater to form non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). At the sites contaminated with such NAPLs, thus, surfactants are applied to increase the aqueous solubility of chlorinated organics via micellar solubilization. However, a portion of surfactants can be partitioned into NAPL phases by forming reverse micelles within them. Consequently, lesser amounts of surfactants are available for the micellar solubilization of chlorinated organics in the aqueous phase. In this study, we investigated the partitioning behavior of non-ionic surfactants (Tween 20, Tween 40, Tween 80, and Triton X-100) between water and a NAPL phase consisting of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), or chloroform (CF). According to the experimental results, the partitioning of surfactants in the water-NAPL systems was found to follow linear or Langmuir-type isotherms. Regardless of type of surfactants, the partitioning loss of surfactants into NAPLs became greater with the more hydrophilic (i.e., the lower water-NAPL interfacial tension) chlorinated organics: PCE Tween 80 << Triton X-100, suggesting that the greater partitioning occurred with the more hydrophobic (i.e., the lower hydrophilic-lipophilic balance, HLB) surfactant. Consistent with this postulation, the surfactant partitioning into PCE-NAPLs showed the similar trend. In case of TCE-NAPLs, however, the more hydrophobic Tween 40 was partitioned to a less extent than Tween 20. Therefore, the specific interaction of a NAPL-surfactant pair as well as their individual properties should be considered when selecting an effective surfactant for the remediation of a NAPL-contaminated site.

  16. Adsorption of mixed cationic-nonionic surfactant and its effect on bentonite structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaxin; Zhao, Yan; Zhu, Yong; Wu, Huayong; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption of cationic-nonionic mixed surfactant onto bentonite and its effect on bentonite structure were investigated. The objective was to improve the understanding of surfactant behavior on clay mineral for its possible use in remediation technologies of soil and groundwater contaminated by toxic organic compounds. The cationic surfactant used was hexadecylpyridinium bromide (HDPB), and the nonionic surfactant was Triton X-100 (TX100). Adsorption of TX100 was enhanced significantly by the addition of HDPB, but this enhancement decreased with an increase in the fraction of the cationic surfactant. Part of HDPB was replaced by TX100 which decreased the adsorption of HDPB. However, the total adsorbed amount of the mixed surfactant was still increased substantially, indicating the synergistic effect between the cationic and nonionic surfactants. The surfactant-modified bentonite was characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric-derivative thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses. Surfactant intercalation was found to decrease the bentonite specific surface area, pore volume, and surface roughness and irregularities, as calculated by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The co-adsorption of the cationic and nonionic surfactants increased the ordering conformation of the adsorbed surfactants on bentonite, but decreased the thermal stability of the organobentonite system.

  17. Determination of some solubilization parameters with surfactants of egg-yolk lecithin multilamellar vesicles by static light-scattering measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Hobai, S; Hobai, St.; Fazakas, Zita

    2001-01-01

    Effective surfactant:phospholipid ratios (i.e. molar ratios in the mixed aggregates, vesicles or micelles) have been determined by static light-scattering for the interaction of egg-yolk lecithin (EYL) multilamellar vesicles (MLV) with Triton X-100 (TX-100), sodium deoxycholate (DOCNa) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMB). The suspension of MLV-EYL was mixed with appropriate volumes of surfactant solution and was left overnight to reaches thermodynamic equilibrium. Rectan-gular optic diffusion data were used to compute the solubilization parameters: total surfactant concentrations, at saturation and solubilization Dtsat and Dtsol respectively, and effective molar ratios, Resat and Resol respectively. From the Resat value ob-tained graphically for interaction of vesicles with TX-100 resulted that in vesicle bilayers a surfactant molecule is surrounded with seven phospholipid molecules and the Resol value suggests that in mixed micelles ten lipid molecules with about fifteen surfactant molecules coexist. T...

  18. Characterization of surfactant effects on the visible spectroscopy of lanthanide metal ion-triphenylmethane dye complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klopf, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    To better define the mechanism responsible for sensitization, the interactions of representative cationic, anionic, and nonionic surfactants with several lanthanide metal ion-triphenylmethane dye complexes, particularly the gadolinium (Gd/sup +3/)-Chromeazurol S (CAS) complex, were characterized. Only cationic surfactants induced sensitization when added to the Gd/sup +3/-CAS complex. Sensitization induced by cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) occurred at submicellar concentrations and was attributed to the formation of a 1:2:4 Gd/sup +3/-CAS-CPC ternary complex. Additional ternary complexes evidently form if excess CAS is present. Mechanisms are proposed for the sensitization of the reaction by quaternary compounds and by anionic surfactants. Although both micellar and submicellar concentrations were considered, adding the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 to the Gd/sup +3/-CAS complex had little effect.

  19. Perstraction of intracellular pigments by submerged cultivation of Monascus in nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Zhenqiang; Qi, Hanshi; Wang, Zhilong

    2012-04-01

    "Milking processing" describes the cultivation of microalgae in a water-organic solvent two-phase system that consists of simultaneous fermentation and secretion of intracellular product. It is usually limited by the conflict between the biocompatibility of the organic solvent to the microorganisms and the ability of the organic solvent to secret intracellular product into its extracellular broth. In the present work, submerged cultivation of Monascus in the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 micelle aqueous solution for pigment production is exploited, in which the fungus Monascus remains actively growing. Permeabilization of intracellular pigments across the cell membrane and extraction of the pigments to the nonionic surfactant micelles of its fermentation broth occur simultaneously. "Milking" the intracellular pigments in the submerged cultivation of Monascus is a perstraction process. The perstractive fermentation of intracellular pigments has the advantage of submerged cultivation by secretion of the intracellular pigments to its extracellular broth and the benefit of extractive microbial fermentation by solubilizing the pigments into nonionic surfactant micelles. It is shown as the marked increase of the extracellular pigment concentration by the submerged cultivation of Monascus in the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 micelle solution.

  20. Adsorption of mixed cationic-nonionic surfactant and its effect on bentonite structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaxin Zhang; Yan Zhao; Yong Zhu; Huayong Wu; Hongtao Wang; Wenjing Lu

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption of cationic-nordonic mixed surfactant onto bentonite and its effect on bentonite structure were investigated.The objective was to improve the understanding of surfactant behavior on clay mineral for its possible use in remediation technologies of soil and groundwater contaminated by toxic organic compounds.The cationic surfactant used was hexadecylpyridinium bromide(HDPB),and the nonionic suffactant was Triton X-100(TX100).Adsorption of TX100 was enhanced significantly by the addition of HDPB,but this enhancement decreased with an increase in the fraction of the cationic surfactant.Part of HDPB was replaced by TX100 which decreased the adsorption of HDPB.However,the total adsorbed amount of the mixed surfactant was still increased substantially,indicating the synergistic effect between the cationic and nonionic surfactants.The surfactant-modified bentonite was characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area measurement,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,and thermogravimetric-derivative thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses.Surfactant intercalation was found to decrease the bentonite specific surface area,pore volume,and surface roughness and irregularities,as calculated by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms.The co-adsorption of the cationic and nonionic surfactants increased the ordering conformation of the adsorbed surfactants on bentonite,but decreased the thermal stability of the organobentonite system.

  1. Arsenic retention and transport behavior in the presence of typical anionic and nonionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chuan; Wang, Xianliang; Peng, Xianjia

    2016-01-01

    The massive production and wide use of surfactants have resulted in a large amount of surfactant residuals being discharged into the environment, which could have an impact on arsenic behavior. In the present study, the influence of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and nonionic surfactant polyethylene glycol octylphenyl ether (Triton X-100) on arsenic behavior was investigated in batch and column tests. The presence of SDBS and Triton X-100 reduced arsenic retention onto ferrihydrite (FH), enhanced arsenic transport through FH coated sand (FH-sand) columns and promoted arsenic release from the FH surface. With coexisting surfactants in solution, the equilibrium adsorbed amount of arsenic on FH decreased by up to 29.7% and the adsorption rate decreased by up to 52.3%. Pre-coating with surfactants caused a decrease in the adsorbed amount and adsorption rate of arsenic by up to 15.1% and 58.3%, respectively. Because of the adsorption attenuation caused by surfactants, breakthrough of As(V) and As(III) with SDBS in columns packed with FH-sand was 23.8% and 14.3% faster than that in those without SDBS, respectively. In columns packed with SDBS-coated FH-sand, transport of arsenic was enhanced to a greater extent. Breakthrough of As(V) and As(III) was 52.4% and 43.8% faster and the cumulative retention amount was 44.5% and 57.3% less than that in pure FH-sand column systems, respectively. Mobilization of arsenic by surfactants increased with the increase of the initial adsorbed amount of arsenic. The cumulative release amount of As(V) and As(III) from the packed column reached 10.8% and 36.0%, respectively.

  2. Kinetics of degradation of surfactant-solubilized fluoranthene by a Sphingomonas paucimobilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willumsen, P.A. (National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Marine Ecology and Microbiology); Arvin, E. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering)

    1999-08-01

    To achieve a better quantitative understanding of the stimulating or inhibiting effect of surfactants on the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a biodegradation model describing solubilization, bioavailability, and biodegradation of crystalline fluoranthene is proposed and used to model experimental data. The degradation was investigated in batch systems containing the PAH-degrading bacterium Sphingomonas paucimobilis strain EPA505, the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100, and a fluoranthene-amended liquid mineral salts medium. Surfactant-enhanced biodegradation is complex; however, the biodegradation model predicted fluoranthene disappearance and the initial mineralization well. Surfactant-amendment did increase fluoranthene mineralization rates by strain EPA505; however, the increases were not proportional to the rates of fluoranthene solubilization. The surfactant clearly influenced the microbial PAH metabolism as indicated by a rapid accumulation of colored products and by a surfactant -related decreased in the overall extent of fluoranthene mineralization. Model estimations of the bioavailability of micelle-solubilized fluoranthene, the relatively fast fluoranthene disappearance, and the accumulation of extracellular compounds in the degradation system suggest that low availability of micellar fluoranthene is not the only factor controlling surfactant-enhanced biodegradation. Also factors such as the extent of accumulation and bioavailability of the PAH metabolites and the crystalline solubilization rate in the presence of surfactants may determine the overall effect of surfactant-enhanced biodegradation of high molecular weight PAHs.

  3. Pyrene removal from contaminated soil using electrokinetic process combined with surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Enayat Hashemi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyrene is one of the stable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that is considered as an important pollutants, because of extensive distribution in the environment and carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Among the various treatment techniques, electrokinetic method is an environmental- friendly process for organic and mineral pollutants adsorbed to soil with fine pore size the same as clay and low hydraulic conductivity soils. For improving the efficiency of pyrene removal from soil, soulobilization of pyrene from soil could be used by surfactants. Materials and Methods : In this study, clay soil was selected as model because of the specific properties. Combined method using surfactant and electrokinetic was applied for pyrene removal from soil. Experiments were designed using response surface methodology (RSM, and effect of three variables includes surfactant concentration, voltage and surfactant type were evaluated for pyrene removal from contaminated soil. Results: Pyrene removal using anionic surfactants(SDS and nonionic surfactants(TX100 as a solubilizing agents has high removal efficiency. In the optimum condition with 95% confidence coefficient, utilizing mixed surfactants of sodium dodecyl sulfate and triton X-100 with the same volume, induced of 18.54 volt and 6.53 percent surfactant concentration have 94.6% pyrene removal efficiency. Conclusion:: Results of this study shows that electrokinetic process combined with surfactant as solubilizing agent could be applied as an efficient method for treating the pyrene-contaminated soils.

  4. A conductometric investigation of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose/sodium dodecyl sulfate/nonionic surfactant systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Lidija B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactant mixtures are very often used in various cosmetic and pharmaceutical products because they commonly act in synergism and provide more favorable properties than the single surfactants. At the same time, the 9 presence of polymers in mixtures of surfactants may lead to molecular interactions thereby affecting product stability and activity. For these reasons it is very important to determine the surfactant interactions influence on 1micellization and mixed micellization, as well as polymer-surfactants mixed micelles interactions. In this work we examined self-aggregation of nonionic surfactants, polysorbate 20 (Tween 20, polyoxyethylene octylphenyl ether (Triton X100 and polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block copolymer (Pluronic F68 with ionic surfactant, sodium dodecylsulfate, in aqueous solution at 40ºC using conductometric titration method. It was found that concentration region for mixed micelle formation depends on nonionic surfactant characteristics and its concentration. Formation of surfactants mixed micelles in the presence of nonionic polymer, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, and their binding to polymer hydrophobic sites, were investigated too. Analysis of obtained results points to different kinds of interactions in investigated systems, which are crucial for their application. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010

  5. Aqueous Foams Stabilized by Hydrophilic Silica Nanoparticles via In-Situ Physisorption of Nonionic TX100 Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriatie Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the study of aqueous CO foam prepared 2 by a mixtures hydrophilic silica nanoparticles and non-ionic Triton X100, TX100, surfactant. The synergistic effects of the mixture on stabilizing the CO2 foam were inferred into few key parameters namely; particles and surfactant concentration, adsorption of surfactant onto the particles via surface tension and adsorption isotherm, foam lifetime and, the size of the bubbles produced. It was found that the adsorption behaviour of TX100 on silica surface exhibit a particular characteristics depend on the concentration of silica, high total surface area available leads to high adsorptionof surfactant molecules. The synergetic performance of silica/TX100 in stabilizing foam can be observed at low (0.01% and intermediate (0.1% concentration of TX100. Lower concentration required low silica concentration while the intermediate concentration required high silica fraction in the dispersion to stabilize the foam.

  6. Influence of operating parameters on surfactant-enhanced washing to remedy PAHs contaminated soil%工艺参数对表面活性剂洗涤修复PAHs污染土壤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴威; 陈家军; 彭胜

    2012-01-01

    Surfactant-enhanced(TritonX-100 and Tween-80) soil washing technology was applied to investigate the influence of stirring speed,washing time,surfactant concentration,liquid/solid ratio,temperature,and on-and-off mode on the final removal of PAHs from contaminated soil.The optimum operating parameters were gained through a series of beaker experiments.The optimum washing time is 30 and 60 min respectively with TritonX-100 and Tween-80 as surfactant.As far other process parameters,the optimum value is the same with TritonX-100 or Tween-80.The optimum values of stirring speed,surfactant concentration,liquid/solid ratio,temperature,and on-and-off mode are 250 r/min,5 g/L,room temperature and continuous stirring,respectively.The overall residual ratio is less than 10 % under the conditions of above obtained optimum parameter values,which is basically in compliance with the remediation goals for five target PAHs.Therefore,it is very reasonable and feasible to apply surfactant-enhanced soil washing to remedy PAHs contaminated soil.%采用土壤洗涤(soil-washing)技术,分别用TritonX-100和Tween-80为强化洗涤剂研究了搅拌强度、洗涤时间、表面活性剂浓度、液固比、温度和间歇搅拌6个工艺参数对PAHs污染土壤洗涤效果的影响。通过一系列烧杯搅拌实验得到最佳洗涤工艺参数。TritonX-100和Tween-80的最佳洗涤时间分别是30 min和60 min,其他工艺参数最佳条件均相同。分别是搅拌强度为250 r/min,表面活性剂浓度为5 g/L,液固比为10∶1,温度为室温和连续搅拌。在此最佳工艺参数条件下,污染土中PAHs的残留率〈10%,基本上满足目标污染物的修复目标。应用表面活性剂强化洗涤技术修复PAHs污染土壤是合理和可行的。

  7. Determination of antimony in rain water at the nanogram level with surfactant and brilliant green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, A.N.; Patel, K.S. [School of Studies in Chemistry, Pt. Ravishankar University, Raipur (India)

    1998-01-01

    A new, simple, selective and sensitive method for the spectrophotometric determination of antimony in rain water is described. It includes preconcentrating Sb with surfactants (i.e. cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and Triton X-100 (TX-100)) into toluene and allowing the extract to react with a dye, i.e. brilliant green (BG). The value of apparent molar absorptivity is 5.55 x 10{sup 5} L-mol{sup -1} . cm{sup -1} at {lambda}{sub max} = 620 nm; the detection limit is 3 ng/mL Sb in rain water at 3-fold preconcentration. (orig.) With 1 fig., 2 tabs., 7 refs.

  8. In vitro surfactant structure-toxicity relationships: implications for surfactant use in sexually transmitted infection prophylaxis and contraception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela S Inácio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The need for woman-controlled, cheap, safe, effective, easy-to-use and easy-to-store topical applications for prophylaxis against sexually transmitted infections (STIs makes surfactant-containing formulations an interesting option that requires a more fundamental knowledge concerning surfactant toxicology and structure-activity relationships. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report in vitro effects of surfactant concentration, exposure time and structure on the viability of mammalian cell types typically encountered in the vagina, namely, fully polarized and confluent epithelial cells, confluent but non-polarized epithelial-like cells, dendritic cells, and human sperm. Representatives of the different families of commercially available surfactants--nonionic (Triton X-100 and monolaurin, zwitterionic (DDPS, anionic (SDS, and cationic (C(nTAB (n = 10 to 16, C(12PB, and C(12BZK--were examined. Triton X-100, monolaurin, DDPS and SDS were toxic to all cell types at concentrations around their critical micelle concentration (CMC suggesting a non-selective mode of action involving cell membrane destabilization and/or destruction. All cationic surfactants were toxic at concentrations far below their CMC and showed significant differences in their toxicity toward polarized as compared with non-polarized cells. Their toxicity was also dependent on the chemical nature of the polar head group. Our results suggest an intracellular locus of action for cationic surfactants and show that their structure-activity relationships could be profitably exploited for STI prophylaxis in vaginal gel formulations. The therapeutic indices comparing polarized epithelial cell toxicity to sperm toxicity for all surfactants examined, except C(12PB and C(12BZK, does not justify their use as contraceptive agents. C(12PB and C(12BZK are shown to have a narrow therapeutic index recommending caution in their use in contraceptive formulations. CONCLUSIONS

  9. Desorption of two organophosphorous pesticides from soil with wastewater and surfactant solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Soriano, M C; Mingorance, M D; Peña, A

    2012-03-01

    A batch test was used to evaluate the extent of desorption of diazinon and dimethoate, preadsorbed on a calcareous agricultural soil, representative of the Mediterranean area. Urban wastewater from a secondary treatment and seven surfactant solutions, at concentrations ranging from 0.75 mg L(-1) to 10 gL(-1), were used. The surfactants assayed were cationic (hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HD)), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Aerosol 22 (A22) and Biopower (BP)), and nonionic (Tween 80 (TW), Triton X 100 (TX) and Glucopon 600 (G600)). Desorption of dimethoate was either not affected or only slightly by the nonionic and anionic surfactants tested, while desorption of diazinon from the soil was only enhanced by A22, BP and TW. This desorption increase correlated significantly with the surfactant concentration of the solution used for desorption and with the concurrent increase in the supernatant of the dissolved organic carbon, in particular that originating from the surfactant. This parameter did not vary with the use of SDS, G600 and TX. The cationic surfactant HD was retained on the soil surface, as confirmed by an increase in soil organic carbon, resulting in a fall in desorption rate for both pesticides. Comparing treatment by wastewater with control water, there was no difference in desorption rate for either pesticide. Mixed TW/anionic surfactant solutions either did not modify or slightly increased desorption of both pesticides in comparison with individual surfactant solutions.

  10. Adsorption Behavior and Mechanisms of Surfactants by Farmland Soils in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption of two nonionic surfactants polyethylene glycol tert-octylphenyl ether Triton X-100 (TX-100), polyoxyethylene lauryl ether(Brij35) and an anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate(SDBS) by two soils(S1, S2) of different natures and their respective organic-matter-extracted samples(S3, S4) were investigated. These adsorption isotherms show different adsorption stages of different types of surfactants by soils. The data fitted Langmuir equation very well. The adsorption maximum capacity(Q0) indicates that TX-100 and SDBS were in the sequence of S3〉S4〉S1〉S2 in adsorption, however, Brij35 was in the sequence of S4〉S3〉S1〉S2 in adsorption. And the adsorption amounts of the different surfactants by soils followed the order of TX-100〉Brij35〉SDBS. Meanwhile, the adsorption of the nonionic surfactants TX-100 and Brij35 decreased with the increase of their ethylene oxide(EO) numbers. The results indicate that both soil organic matter and mineral played important roles in the adsorption of surfactants, and the adsorption of the surfactants by soils was affected by the physicochemical properties and structures of the soils and surfactants, especially the mineral type and content of soil.

  11. Vapour-liquid equilibrium relationship between toluene and mixed surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Senlin; Li, Yingjie; Mo, Hong; Ning, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Micellar partitioning of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in surfactant solutions and its effects on vapour-liquid equilibrium is fundamental to the overall design and implementation ofsurfactant-enhanced remediation. Knowledge of the vapour-liquid equilibrium partitioning coefficients for VOCs, especially in contaminated soils and groundwater in which they exist, is required. Headspace experiments were performed to quantify the effect of three mixed surfactants, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTMAB) with tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB), sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) with Triton X-405 (TX405), and CTMAB with Triton X-100 (TX100), on the apparent Henry's constants (Hc) of toluene at temperatures ranging from 25 degrees C to 40 degrees C. The Hc values were significantly reduced in the presence of all three mixed surfactants at concentrations above their critical micelle concentrations (CMC). Mixed micellar partitioning, showing effects on the vapour-liquid equilibrium of toluene, was primarily responsible for the significant reduction of Hc in their mixed systems. The mixed surfactants CTMAB-TX100 had the greatest effect on Hc above the CMC, followed by SDS-TX405, then CTMAB-TBAB. Mixed systems of CTMAB-TX100 decreased Hc at concentrations significantly lower than the SDS-TX405 and CTMAB-TBAB concentrations, because of to the lower CMC of CTMAB-TX100. Vapour-liquid equilibrium data were also tested against the model (Hc = H/(1 + K(X - CMC)) that described the partitioning of VOCs in vapour-water-micelle phases. The correlation of Hc with mixed surfactant concentrations (X) and CMC can be utilized as an effective tool to predict the Hc by mixed surfactants.

  12. Fabrication of novel microstructures based on orientation-dependent adsorption of surfactant molecules in a TMAH solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Prem; Sato, K.; Gosalvez, M. A.; Tang, B.; Hida, H.; Shikida, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the orientation-dependent adsorption of surfactant molecules on the silicon surface during etching in surfactant-added tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) is investigated. Triton X-100 (C14H22O(C2H4O)n, n = 9-10) and 25 wt% TMAH are used as surfactant and main etchant, respectively. The crystallographic planes affected by the surfactant molecules are determined by analyzing the etching behavior of different mask patterns on Si{1 0 0} wafers and silicon hemispheres in pure and surfactant-added TMAH. Taken together, the shapes of the etched profiles and the analysis of the hemispherical etch rates confirm that thick and dense adsorbed surfactant layers are typically formed on both the exact and vicinal Si{1 1 0} surfaces. In addition, the results indicate that the adsorbed surfactant layer behaves as a permeable mask, partially slowing down the etch rate of the affected surface orientation/s and thus enforcing their appearance on the etching front. The peculiar etching properties of surfactant-added and surfactant-free TMAH are then utilized for the fabrication of advanced micromechanical structures with new shapes on Si{1 0 0} wafers and polydimethylsiloxane based on complex Si{1 0 0} molds.

  13. The reversed-flow gas chromatography technique as a tool for the study of the evaporation retardation of SO2 and (CH3)2S from water by soluble surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevastos, D; Kotsalos, E; Koliadima, A

    2017-02-01

    In the present work the evaporation retardation of SO2 and (CH3)2S (=DMS) from water by soluble surfactants was studied by the Reversed-Flow Gas Chromatography (R.F.G.C.) technique. Using suitable mathematical analysis, rate coefficients, kc, for the transfer of SO2 and DMS from pure or artificial sea water to the atmospheric environment were determined in the presence or the absence of surfactants. The efficiency of the three surfactants used (CTAB, TRITON X-100 and SDS) to retard the evaporation rate of SO2 and DMS from water was estimated by the decrease of the kc values in the presence of the three surfactants, compared to those in the absence of surfactants. The more efficient surfactant for the retardation evaporation of SO2 from both the pure and the artificial sea water was found to be the cationic CTAB surfactant, as the maximum decreases of the kc values were found to be 4.61×10(-3)cms(-1) (number of films, n=1) and 3.07×10(-3)cms(-1) (n=3), respectively. On the other hand, more efficient surfactant for the retardation evaporation of DMS from pure water was found to be the non-ionic TRITON X-100, in which the decrease of the kc value was estimated to be 18.20×10(-3)cms(-1) (n=3) and from artificial sea water the cationic CTAB surfactant in which the decrease of the kc value was found to be 8.24×10(-3)cms(-1) (n=3). Finally, the precision of the R.F.G.C. method in studying the retardation effect of various surfactants in the transfer of SO2 and DMS from the water body to the atmosphere is estimated (mean value 96.69%), and the experimental values of kc are compared with those given in the literature.

  14. Global Warming on Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, J. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; McDonald, S. W.; Person, M. J.; Olkin, C. B.; Dunham, E. J.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.; Buie, M. W.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; McConnochie, T. H.

    1998-01-01

    Triton, Neptune's largest moon, has been predicted to undergo significant seasonal changes that would reveal themselves as changes in its mean frost temperature. But whether this temperature should at the present time be increasing, decreasing or constant depends on a number of parameters (such as the thermal properties of the surface, and frost migration patterns) that are unknown. Here we report observations of a recent stellar occultation by Triton which, when combined with earlier results, show that Triton has undergone a period of global warming since 1989. Our most conservative estimates of the rate of temperature and surface-pressure increase during this period imply that the atmosphere is doubling in bulk every 10 years, significantly faster than predicted by any published frost model for Triton. Our result suggests that permanent polar caps on Triton play a c dominant role in regulating seasonal atmospheric changes. Similar processes should also be active on Pluto.

  15. Determination of the free energy of adsorption on carbon blacks of a nonionic surfactant from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, C.M.; Gonzalez-Martin, M.L.; Gomez-Serrano, V.; Bruque, J.M.; Labajos-Broncano, L.

    2000-04-18

    The adsorption of a nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) from aqueous solutions has been studied on six carbon blacks with very different specific surface areas. The surface area occupied per surfactant molecule on the carbon black surface and the free energy of adsorption have been evaluated from the adsorption isotherms. Also, the free energy of adsorption has been determined from the free energy of interaction between adsorbent and adsorbate through water. The results obtained from both methods are in good agreement. They indicate that adsorption progresses following two different processes: the first one deals with the direct interaction between carbon black surface and adsorbate molecules, and the second one mainly due to the interaction between surfactant molecules at the adsorbent-solution interphase.

  16. Enhanced desorption of phenanthrene from contaminated soil using anionic/nonionic mixed surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjun; Zhu, Lizhong

    2007-05-01

    A new approach using an anionic/nonionic mixed surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) with Triton X-100 (TX100), was utilized for the desorption of phenanthrene from an artificial contaminated natural soil in an aim to improve the efficiency of surfactant remediation technology. The experimental results showed that the presence of SDS not only reduced the sorption of TX100 onto the natural soil, but also enhanced the solubilization of TX100 for phenanthrene, both of which resulted in the distribution of phenanthrene in soil-water systems decreasing with increasing mole fraction of SDS in surfactant solutions. These results can be attributed to the formation of mixed micelles in surfactant solution and the corresponding decrease in the critical micelle concentration of TX100 in mixed solution. The batch desorption experiments showed that the desorption percentage of phenanthrene from the contaminated soil with mixed solution was greater than that with single TX100 solution and appeared to be positively related to the mole fraction of SDS in surfactant solution. Thus, the anionic/nonionic mixed surfactants are more effective for the desorption of phenanthrene from the contaminated soil than a single nonionic surfactant.

  17. Tuning cellulose nanocrystal gelation with polysaccharides and surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Cranston, Emily D; Ng, Robin; Pelton, Robert

    2014-03-18

    Gelation of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) dispersions was measured as a function of the presence of four nonionic polysaccharides. Addition of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), hydroxypropyl guar (HPG), or locust bean gum (LBG) to CNC dispersions induced the gelation of dilute CNC dispersions, whereas dextran (DEX) did not. These behaviors correlated with adsorption tendencies; HEC, HPG, and LBG adsorbed onto CNC-coated quartz crystal microbalance sensors, whereas DEX did not adsorb. We propose that the adsorbing polysaccharides greatly increased the effective volume fraction of dilute CNC dispersions, driving more of the nanocrystals into anisotropic domains. SDS and Triton X-100 addition disrupted HEC-CNC gels whereas CTAB did not. Surface plasmon resonance measurements with CNC-coated sensors showed that SDS and Triton X-100 partially removed adsorbed HEC, whereas CTAB did not. These behaviors illustrate the complexities associated with including CNC dispersions in formulated products: low CNC contents can induce spectacular changes in rheology; however, surfactants and soluble polymers may promote gel formation or induce CNC coagulation.

  18. Surfactant and nonlinear drop dynamics in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovsky, Joseph Charles

    2000-11-01

    Large amplitude drop dynamics in microgravity were conducted during the second United States Microgravity Laboratory mission carried onboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (20 October-5 November 1995). Centimeter- sized drops were statically deformed by acoustic radiation pressure and released to oscillate freely about a spherical equilibrium. Initial aspect ratios of up to 2.0 were achieved. Experiments using pure water and varying aqueous concentrations of Triton-X 100 and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were performed. The axisymmetric drop shape oscillations were fit using the degenerate spherical shape modes. The frequency and decay values of the fundamental quadrupole and fourth order shape mode were analyzed. Several large amplitude nonlinear oscillation dynamics were observed. Shape entrainment of the higher modes by the fundamental quadrupole mode occurred. Amplitude- dependent effects were observed. The nonlinear frequency shift, where the oscillation frequency is found to decrease with larger amplitudes, was largely unaffected by the presence of surfactants. The percentage of time spent in the prolate shape over one oscillation cycle was found to increase with oscillation amplitude. This prolate shape bias was also unaffected by the addition of surfactants. These amplitude-dependent effects indicate that the nonlinearities are a function of the bulk properties and not the surface properties. BSA was found to greatly enhance the surface viscoelastic properties by increasing the total damping of the oscillation, while Triton had only a small influence on damping. The surface concentration of BSA was found to be diffusion-controlled over the time of the experiments, while the Triton diffusion rate was very rapid. Using the experimental frequency and decay values, the suface viscoelastic properties of surface dilatational viscosity ( ks ) and surface shear viscosity ( ms ) were found for varying surfactant concentrations using the transcendental equation of Lu

  19. Dynamic contact angles on PTFE surface by aqueous surfactant solution in the absence and presence of electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Rajib Ghosh; Paria, Santanu

    2009-09-15

    This study presents the experimental results on dynamic contact angles of pure surfactants and surfactants with electrolyte solutions on PTFE (Teflon) surface. Dynamic advancing (theta(A)) and receding (theta(R)) contact angles measurements by the Wilhelmy plate technique were carried out for aqueous solution of three different surfactants Triton X-100 (TX-100), sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The same measurements in the presence of different electrolytes NaCl, Na(2)SO(4), and CaCl(2) for ionic surfactants (SDBS and CTAB) were also carried out to see the change in contact angle and wetting behavior. The presence of electrolytes changes the advancing contact angle as well as wetting properties of hydrophobic solid surface significantly even at very low surfactant concentration. Counter ion valency of the electrolyte is more important in reducing advancing contact angle on hydrophobic PTFE surface at very low concentration of ionic surfactants from CMC. Pure surfactants and ionic surfactants in the presence of electrolytes show a linear relationship between the adhesional tension and surface tension at air-water interface with different slope and intercept.

  20. Effect of Different Surfactants on the Interfacial Behavior of the n-Hexane-Water System in the Presence of Silica Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Nihar Ranjan; Rangera, Naveen; Singh, Jayant K

    2016-07-28

    This paper presents the effect of negatively charged silica nanoparticles (NPs) on the interfacial tension of the n-hexane-water system at variable concentrations of four different surfactants, viz., an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and two nonionic surfactants, Tween 20 and Triton X-100 (TX-100). The presence of negatively charged silica nanoparticles is found to have a different effect depending on the type of surfactant. In the case of ionic surfactants, SDS and CTAB, silica NPs reduce the interfacial tension of the system. On the contrary, for nonionic surfactants, Tween 20 and TX-100, silica NPs increase the interfacial tension. The increasing/decreasing nature of the interfacial tension in the presence of NPs is well supported by the calculated surface excess concentrations. The diffusion kinetic control (DKC) and statistical rate theory (SRT) models are used to understand the behavior of dynamic interfacial tension of the surfactant-NP-oil-water system. The DKC model is found to describe the studied surfactant-NP-oil-water systems more aptly.

  1. Enhanced production of erythritol and mannitol by Yarrowia lipolytica in media containing surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakicka, Magdalena; Rywińska, Anita; Cybulski, Krzysztof; Rymowicz, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    Various chemical compounds, including surfactants, when introduced to culture media may increase the permeability of cellular membranes and thereby affect the quantity of metabolites excreted by cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of detergents including Triton X-100, Span 20 and Tween 80 on erythritol production from glycerol by Yarrowia lipolytica Wratislavia K1 in a shake-flask experiment, batch and fed-batch cultures. When Span 20 was added to a fed-batch culture with glycerol as a carbon source (300gL(-1)), erythritol production increased by 15% compared to the culture without the surfactant where it reached 142gL(-1) after 5 days, which corresponded to 0.47gg(-1) yield and productivity of 1.1gL(-1)h(-1). Therefore, it was concluded that Span 20 considerably enhanced the production of this polyol from glycerol.

  2. Enhanced production of erythritol and mannitol by Yarrowia lipolytica in media containing surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rakicka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Various chemical compounds, including surfactants, when introduced to culture media may increase the permeability of cellular membranes and thereby affect the quantity of metabolites excreted by cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of detergents including Triton X-100, Span 20 and Tween 80 on erythritol production from glycerol by Yarrowia lipolytica Wratislavia K1 in a shake-flask experiment, batch and fed-batch cultures. When Span 20 was added to a fed-batch culture with glycerol as a carbon source (300 g L-1, erythritol production increased by 15% compared to the culture without the surfactant where it reached 142 g L-1 after 5 days, which corresponded to 0.47 g g-1 yield and productivity of 1.1 g L-1 h-1. Therefore, it was concluded that Span 20 considerably enhanced the production of this polyol from glycerol.

  3. Application of Optimized Vortex-Assisted Surfactant-Enhanced DLLME for Preconcentration of Thymol and Carvacrol, and Their Determination by HPLC-UV: Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Roosta, Mostafa; Khodadoust, Saeid; Daneshfar, Ali

    2015-08-01

    A novel vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (VASEDLLME-HPLC) was developed for the determination of thymol and carvacrol (phenolic compound). In this method, the extraction solvent (CHCl3) was dispersed into the aqueous samples via a vortex agitator and addition of the surfactant (Triton X-100). The preliminary experiments were undertaken to select the best extraction solvent and surfactant. The influences of effective variables were investigated using a Plackett-Burman 2(7-4) screening design and then, the significant variables were optimized by using a central composite design combined with desirability function. Working under optimum conditions specified as: 140 µL CHCl3, 0.08% (w/v, Triton X-100), 3 min extraction time, 6 min centrifugation at 4,500 rpm, pH 7, 0.0% (w/v) NaCl permit achievement of high and reasonable linear range over 0.005-4.0 mg L(-1) with R(2) = 0.9998 (n = 10). The separation of thymol and carvacrol was achieved in <14 min using a C18 column and an isocratic binary mobile phase acetonitrile-water (55:45, v/v) with a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). The VASEDLLME is applied for successful determination of carvacrol and thymol in different thyme and pharmaceutical samples with relative standard deviation <4.7% (n = 5).

  4. Adsorption Behavior and Mechanisms of Surfactants by Farmland Soils in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei-wei; KANG Chun-li; WANG Ting-ting; LI Yue-ming; ZHANG Ying-xin; WEN Xin; GUO Ping

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption of two nonionic surfactants polyethylene glycol tert-octylphenyl ether Triton X-100 (TX-100), polyoxyethylene lauryl ether(Brij35) and an anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate(SDBS) by two soils(S1, S2) of different natures and their respective organic-matter-extracted samples(S3, S4) were investigated. These adsorption isotherms show different adsorption stages of different types of surfactants by soils. The data fitted Langmuir equation very well. The adsorption maximum capacity(Q0) indicates that TX-100 and SDBS were in the sequence of S3>S4>S1>S2 in adsorption, however, Brij35 was in the sequence of S4>S3>S1>S2 in adsorption. And the adsorption amounts of the different surfactants by soils followed the order of TX-1 00>Brij35>SDBS. Meanwhile,the adsorption of the nonionic surfactants TX-100 and Brij35 decreased with the increase of their ethylene oxide(EO) numbers. The results indicate that both soil organic matter and mineral played important roles in the adsorption of suffactants, and the adsorption of the surfactants by soils was affected by the physicochemical properties and structures of the soils and suffactants, especially the mineral type and content of soil.

  5. Sono-electroanalysis of copper: enhanced detection and determination in the presence of surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Joanna Lorraine; Hignett, Geraldine; Melville, James L; Compton, Richard G

    2002-04-01

    Surfactant adsorption has been shown to have a passivating effect on the electrode surface during anodic stripping voltammetric measurements. In the present work the feasibility of sono-anodic stripping analysis for the determination of copper in aqueous media contaminated with surfactant has been studied at an unmodified bare glassy carbon electrode. We illustrate the deleterious effect of three common surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dodecyl pyridinium chloride (DPC) and Triton-X 100 (TX-100) on conventional electroanalysis. The analogous sono-electroanalytical response was investigated for each surfactant at ultrasound intensities above and below the cavitation threshold. The enhancement in the stripping signal observed is attributed to the increased mass transport due to acoustic streaming and above the cavitation threshold the intensity of cavitational events is significantly increased leading to shearing of adsorbed surfactant molecules from the surface. As a result accurate analyses for SDS concentrations up to 100 ppm are possible, with analytical signals visible in solutions of SDS and TX-100 of 1000 ppm. Analysis is reported in high concentration of surfactant with use of sono-solvent double extraction. The power of this technique is clearly illustrated by the ability to obtain accurate measurements of copper concentration from starting solutions containing 1000 ppm SDS or TX-100. This was also exemplified by analysis of the low concentration 0.3 microM Cu(II) solution giving a percentage recovery of 94% in the presence of 1000 ppm SDS or TX-100.

  6. Study on application of surfactants as the xanthan gum fermentation promoter%表面活性剂作为黄原胶发酵促进剂的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂兰; 张晓元; 陈晓燕; 朱希强; 凌沛学

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To improve the fermentation yield of xanthan gum by adding surfactants. Methods Six surfactants were tested as accelerants,and two were chosen to optimize the addition dosage,addition time and addition ratio respectively. Monofactorial experiments and orthogonal test were investigated to find out the combined effect of the two kinds of surfactants. Results Tween-20 and Triton X-100 were the best,and by adding 0.06% Triton X-100 in the beginning of fermentation,adding 0.09% Tween-20 at 48 h in the fermentation period,the yield of xanthan gum could be improved 42.0% . Conclusion Surfactants 'can promote xanthan gum production.%目的 通过加入表面活性剂,提高黄原胶发酵产量.方法 初步筛选6种常用的表面活性剂,优选两种优势互补的表面活性剂进行加入量、加入时间、加入比例的优化,采用单因素和正交试验得到最佳工艺参数.结果 吐温20、曲拉通X-100协同使用效果最好,发酵0h加入0.06%曲拉通X-100,48 h加入0.09%吐温20,黄原胶产量提高42.0%.结论 表面活性剂能提高黄原胶发酵产量.

  7. Impact of surfactants on the crystallization of aqueous suspensions of celecoxib amorphous solid dispersion spray dried particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Ormes, James D; Higgins, John D; Taylor, Lynne S

    2015-02-02

    Amorphous solid dispersions are frequently prepared by spray drying. It is important that the resultant spray dried particles do not crystallize during formulation, storage, and upon administration. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the impact of surfactants on the crystallization of celecoxib amorphous solid dispersions (ASD), suspended in aqueous media. Solid dispersions of celecoxib with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate were manufactured by spray drying, and aqueous suspensions were prepared by adding the particles to acidified media containing various surfactants. Nucleation induction times were evaluated for celecoxib in the presence and absence of surfactants. The impact of the surfactants on drug and polymer leaching from the solid dispersion particles was also evaluated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and Polysorbate 80 were found to promote crystallization from the ASD suspensions, while other surfactants including sodium taurocholate and Triton X100 were found to inhibit crystallization. The promotion or inhibition of crystallization was found to be related to the impact of the surfactant on the nucleation behavior of celecoxib, as well as the tendency to promote leaching of the drug from the ASD particle into the suspending medium. It was concluded that surfactant choice is critical to avoid failure of amorphous solid dispersions through crystallization of the drug.

  8. Utilizing surfactants to control the sorption, desorption, and biodegradation of phenanthrene in soil-water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haiwei; Zhou, Wenjun; Zhu, Lizhong

    2013-07-01

    An integrative technology including the surfactant enhanced sorption and subsequent desorption and biodegradation of phenanthrene in the soil-water system was introduced and tested. For slightly contaminated agricultural soils, cationic-nonionic mixed surfactant-enhanced sorption of organic contaminants onto soils could reduce their transfer to plants, therefore safe-guarding agricultural production. After planting, residual surfactants combined with added nonionic surfactant could also promote the desorption and biodegradation of residual phenanthrene, thus providing a cost-effective pollution remediation technology. Our results showed that the cationic-nonionic mixed surfactants dodecylpyridinium bromide (DDPB) and Triton X-100 (TX100) significantly enhanced soil retention of phenanthrene. The maximum sorption coefficient Kd of phenanthrene for contaminated soils treated by mixed surfactants was about 24.5 times that of soils without surfactant (Kd) and higher than the combined effects of DDPB and TX100 individually, which was about 16.7 and 1.5 times Kd, respectively. On the other hand, TX100 could effectively remove phenanthrene from contaminated soils treated by mixed surfactants, improving the bioavailability of organic pollutants. The desorption rates of phenanthrene from these treated soils were greater than 85% with TX100 concentration above 2000 mg/L and approached 100% with increasing TX100 concentration. The biodegradation rates of phenanthrene in the presence of surfactants reached over 95% in 30 days. The mixed surfactants promoted the biodegradation of phenanthrene to some extent in 10-22 days, and had no obvious impact on phenanthrene biodegradation at the end of the experiment. Results obtained from this study provide some insight for the production of safe agricultural products and a remediation scheme for soils slightly contaminated with organic pollutants.

  9. Surfactant mediated morphological tethering of Cu2O nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Poonam

    2015-01-01

    This communication describes a very simple and reproducible methodology to study the self-assembly of nanoparticles functionalized with a non-ionic tethering agent attached to the surface of the nanoparticle seeds. The synthesis starts with the [Cu(OH)4]2- species acting as a template, with varying concentration of the tethering agent Triton X-100 (TX100). The morphological alteration is systematically investigated. The effect of surfactant micelles, growth reaction time, and solution temperature has a tremendous impact on the morphology of the nanocrystals that govern the controlled synthesis of different shapes of nanostructures. The initial morphology of the nanocrystals is polyhedron in the absence of a tethering additive. The addition of TX100 suppresses the polymorph phase morphology and enhances the non-uniform spherical morphology of the nanocrystals. The surface modification effect enhances the morphological alteration, which potentially makes it applicable to various industrial uses such as water cleaning, hydrogen production, and third-generation solar cells.

  10. Biobased surfactant-like molecules from organic wastes: the effect of waste composition and composting process on surfactant properties and on the ability to solubilize Tetrachloroethene (PCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, Giorgia; Chen, Xiaosong; Jawitz, James W; Tambone, Fulvia; Genevini, Pierluigi; Faoro, Franco; Adani, Fabrizio

    2008-04-01

    In this work, four surfactant-like humic acids (HAs) obtained from garden lignocellulose wastes and kitchen food wastes mixed with garden-lignocellulose wastes, both before and after composting, were tested for surfactant properties and the ability to solubilize tetrachloroethene (PCE). The waste-derived HAs showed good surfactant properties, lowering the water surface tension from 74 mN m(-1) to 45.4 +/- 4.4 mN m(-1), with a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 1.54 +/- 1.68 g L(-1), which is lower than many synthetic ionic surfactants. CMC was affected by both waste origin and composting processes. The addition of food waste and composting reduced CMC by adding alkyl-C (measured by CP MAS 13C NMR) and N- and S-HA contents (amide molecules), so that a multistep regression was found [CMC = 24.6 - 0.189 alkyl C - 2.64 (N + S); R2 = 0.77, P < 0.10, n = 6]. The four HAs solubilized PCE at the rate of 0.18-0.47 g PCE/g aqueous biosurfactant. These results were much higher than those reported in the literature for a commercial HA (0.026 g/g), but they were in line with those measured in this work for nonionic surfactants such as Tween-80 (0.69 g/g) and Triton X-100 (1.08 g/g).

  11. Origin of Triton and Pluto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinnon, W.B. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA). Nuclear Medicine Div.)

    1984-09-27

    A simple hypothesis on the origin of Triton and Pluto is that Triton and Pluto are independent representatives of large outer Solar System planetesimals. Triton is simply captured, with potentially spectacular consequences that include runaway melting of interior ices and release to the surface of clathrated CH/sub 4/, CO and N/sub 2/. Condensed remnants of this proto-atmosphere could account for features in Triton's unique spectrum.

  12. Interactions between Surfactants in Solution and Electrospun Protein Fibers: Effects on Release Behavior and Fiber Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephansen, Karen; García-Díaz, María; Jessen, Flemming; Chronakis, Ioannis S; Nielsen, Hanne M

    2016-03-07

    Intermolecular interaction phenomena occurring between endogenous compounds, such as proteins and bile salts, and electrospun compounds are so far unreported, despite the exposure of fibers to such biorelevant compounds when applied for biomedical purposes, e.g., tissue engineering, wound healing, and drug delivery. In the present study, we present a systematic investigation of how surfactants and proteins, as physiologically relevant components, interact with insulin-loaded fish sarcoplasmic protein (FSP) electrospun fibers (FSP-Ins fibers) in solution and thereby affect fiber properties such as accessible surface hydrophilicity, physical stability, and release characteristics of an encapsulated drug. Interactions between insulin-loaded protein fibers and five anionic surfactants (sodium taurocholate, sodium taurodeoxycholate, sodium glycocholate, sodium glycodeoxycholate, and sodium dodecyl sulfate), a cationic surfactant (benzalkonium chloride), and a neutral surfactant (Triton X-100) were studied. The anionic surfactants increased the insulin release in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the neutral surfactant had no significant effect on the release. Interestingly, only minute amounts of insulin were released from the fibers when benzalkonium chloride was present. The FSP-Ins fibers appeared dense after incubation with this cationic surfactant, whereas high fiber porosity was observed after incubation with anionic or neutral surfactants. Contact angle measurements and staining with the hydrophobic dye 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid indicated that the FSP-Ins fibers were hydrophobic, and showed that the fiber surface properties were affected differently by the surfactants. Bovine serum albumin also affected insulin release in vitro, indicating that also proteins may affect the fiber performance in an in vivo setting.

  13. Triton Hodge Test: Improved Protocol for Modified Hodge Test for Enhanced Detection of NDM and Other Carbapenemase Producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasteran, Fernando; Gonzalez, Lisandro J; Albornoz, Ezequiel; Bahr, Guillermo; Vila, Alejandro J; Corso, Alejandra

    2016-03-01

    Accurate detection of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli is of utmost importance for the control of nosocomial spread and the initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The modified Hodge test (MHT), a carbapenem inactivation assay, has shown poor sensitivity in detecting the worldwide spread of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM). Recent studies demonstrated that NDM is a lipoprotein anchored to the outer membrane in Gram-negative bacteria, unlike all other known carbapenemases. Here we report that membrane anchoring of β-lactamases precludes detection of carbapenemase activity by the MHT. We also show that this limitation can be overcome by the addition of Triton X-100 during the test, which allows detection of NDM. We propose an improved version of the assay, called the Triton Hodge test (THT), which allows detection of membrane-bound carbapenemases with the addition of this nonionic surfactant. This test was challenged with a panel of 185 clinical isolates (145 carrying known carbapenemase-encoding genes and 40 carbapenemase nonproducers). The THT displayed test sensitivity of >90% against NDM-producing clinical isolates, while improving performance against other carbapenemases. Ertapenem provided the highest sensitivity (97 to 100%, depending on the type of carbapenemase), followed by meropenem (92.5 to 100%). Test specificity was not affected by the addition of Triton (87.5% and 92.5% with ertapenem and meropenem, respectively). This simple inexpensive test confers a large improvement to the sensitivity of the MHT for the detection of NDM and other carbapenemases. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Thermodynamics on the micellization of CPC/TX-100 mixed surfactant system in aqueous solutions of KCI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yung Cheol [Health and Environmental Research Institute, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Hwan [Korea University of Technology and Education, Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-15

    The Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) of the mixed surfactant system of CetylPyridinium Chloride (CPC) with Triton X-100 (TX-100) in aqueous solutions of KCI were determined by using the UV absorbance method from 15 .deg. C to 35 .deg. C. Thermodynamic parameters ({delta} G{sup o}{sub m}, {delta} H{sup o}{sub m}, and {delta} S{sup o}{sub m}), associated with the micelle formation of CPC/TX-100 mixed surfactant system, have been estimated from the temperature dependence of CMC values. The calculated values of {delta} G{sup o}{sub m} are all negative but the values of {delta} S{sup o}{sub m} are positive in the whole measured temperature region. On the other hand, the values of {delta} H{sup o}{sub m} are positive or negative, depending on the measured temperature.

  15. The effect of surfactants on the ozonation of o-cresol in aqueous solutions in a rotating packed contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Young; Ji, Yan-Shiun; Chen, Hua-Wei; Chou, Yiang-Chen; Chang, Ching-Yuan

    2010-02-01

    Steady-state dissolved ozone concentrations were maintained relatively constant for experiments on ozone dissolution conducted in the presence of various amounts of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and Triton X-100 (TX-100), an anionic surfactant and a nonionic surfactant, respectively. Ozonation in a rotating packed contactor has been shown to be feasible for achieving nearly complete decomposition of o-cresol within about 10 minutes of reaction time for most experiments conducted. The temporal decomposition behaviour of o-cresol in aqueous solution by ozonation was described by a two-step pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. Even though the presence of SDS and TX-100 slightly affected the decomposition rate constant of o-cresol by ozonation in the rotating packed contactor, the mineralization of total organic carbon was apparently reduced with the addition of SDS and TX-100.

  16. Surfactants decrease the toxicity of ZnO, TiO2 and Ni nanoparticles to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Jośko, Izabela; Skwarek, Ewa

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the study was the estimation of the effect of surfactants on the toxicity of ZnO, TiO2 and Ni nanoparticles (ENPs) towards Daphnia magna. The effect of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), triton X-100 (TX100) and 4-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (SDBS) was tested. The Daphtoxkit F test (conforming to OECD Guideline 202 and ISO 6341) was applied for the toxicity testing. Both the surfactants and the ENPs were toxic to D. magna. The addition of ENPs to a solution of the surfactants caused a significant reduction of toxicity of ENPs. The range of reduction of the toxicity of the ENPs depended on the kind of the ENPs and their concentration in the solution, and also on the kind of surfactant. For nano-ZnO the greatest reduction of toxicity was caused by CTAB, while for nano-TiO2 the largest drop of toxicity was observed after the addition of TX100. In the case of nano-Ni, the effect of the surfactants depended on its concentration. Most probably the reduction of toxicity of ENPs in the presence of the surfactants was related with the formation of ENPs aggregates that inhibited the availability of ENPs for D. magna.

  17. Influence of nonionic surfactant on electroless copper deposition%非离子型表面活性剂对化学沉铜的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余霞; 胡光辉; 潘湛昌; 庞文萍; 魏志钢; 肖楚民; 张晃初; 曾祥福

    2013-01-01

    Electroless copper plating was carried out with brass sheet as substrate. The basic bath composition and process conditions are as follows: CuSO4·5H2O 10 g/L, EDTA-2Na 40 g/L, NaOH 12 g/L, HCHO 10 mL/L, pH 13.0, temperature 35 ℃, and time 10 min. The effects of nonionic surfactants such as OP-10, Triton X-100, and Tween-80 on the starting time of copper deposition, deposition rate, ductility, and grain refinement of Cu coating were studied. The results showed that the three kinds of surfactant can reduce copper deposition rate. The ductility and grain refinement of copper coating are improved by Triton X-100 and OP-10 when their mass concentration is 1-9 mg/L, while the starting time of copper deposition is delayed. Tween-80 can reduce the deposition rate significantly but has little impact on the ductility of Cu coating. Compared to Triton X-100 and Tween-80, OP-10 is the favorable agent for ductility improvement of electroless Cu coating.%以黄铜片为基体进行化学镀铜,基础镀液组成和工艺条件为:CuSO4·5H2O 10 g/L,EDTA-2Na40 g/L,NaOH 12 g/L,HCHO 10 mL/L,pH 13.0,温度35℃,时间10 min.研究了非离子型表面活性剂OP-10、曲拉通X-100和吐温-80对起镀时间、沉积速率、铜镀层韧性和晶粒细化的影响.结果表明,3种表面活性剂都会降低铜的沉积速率.质量浓度为1 ~9 mg/L时,曲拉通X-100和OP-10都能使铜镀层的韧性改善和晶粒细化,同时延长起镀时间;吐温-80会显著降低铜的沉积速率,但对铜镀层韧性的影响不大.与曲拉通X-100和吐温-80相比,OP-10是较理想的沉铜韧性改善剂.

  18. Effect of surfactant on the electrochemical performance of graphene/iron oxide electrode for supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Shahram; Ahmadi, Fatemeh

    2015-09-01

    In this study, reduced graphene oxide- Fe3O4 (RGO-Fe3O4) nanocomposite is fabricated using simple electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method followed by an electrochemical reduction process. It is characterized using atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Fe3O4 nanoparticles with 20-50 nm in diameter are uniformly formed on RGO. Electrochemical properties of nanocomposite are characterized by cyclic voltammetery, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. According to the galvanostatic charge/discharge analysis, RGO-Fe3O4/SS presents specific capacitance (Cs) of 154 F g-1 at current density of 1 A g-1, which is higher than that of RGO/SS (81 F g-1) in Na2SO4 electrolyte. Also, the electrochemical behaviors show that addition of three kind of surfactant, i.e. sodium dodecyl sulphate, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, t-octyl phenoxy polyethoxyethanol (Triton X-100) to Na2SO4 aqueous solution can improve the Cs of RGO-Fe3O4/SS electrodes. RGO-Fe3O4/SS in Na2SO4 electrolyte containing Triton X-100 shows maximum Cs of 236 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 which retains 97% of initial capacitance after 500 cycles.

  19. Selective adsorption of nonionic surfactant on hexagonal mesoporous silicates (HMSs) in the presence of ionic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punyapalakul, Patiparn; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2006-10-01

    Selective adsorption of alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APnEOs) from synthetic textile wastewater was investigated using hexagonal mesoporous silicates (HMSs). HMSs are synthetic silicate that have uniform mesopores, large surface areas and uniform surface functional groups. Five different types of HMSs were synthesized by surfactant-templating methods, and three of them were grafted with organic surface functional groups, i.e., n-octyldimethyl-, 3-aminopropyltriethoxy-, and 3-mercaptopropyl-groups. Titanium-substituted HMS was also made in the same way as HMS. Adsorption capacities and selectivities of these HMSs for APnEOs were investigated in batch adsorption experiments either in single-solute APnEO solutions or in mixed solutions with ionic dyes. Triton X-100 was used as a model APnEO and either Basic Yellow 1 or Acid Blue 45 was used as cationic or anionic dyes, respectively. All the HMSs except 3-aminopropyltriethoxy-grafted HMS had higher adsorption capacities of Triton X-100 than powdered activated carbon. HMS and Ti-HMS had the highest BET surface areas and mesopore volumes measured by the nitrogen adsorption method, and thereby the highest adsorption capacities for Triton X-100. Surface charge was the most important attractive force between HMSs and dyes. FT-IR spectra proved that hydrophilic HMSs adsorbed both Basic Yellow 1 and Acid Blue 45 by hydrogen bonding. Acid-base titration experiments revealed that all the HMSs except 3-aminopropyltriethoxy-grafted HMS were negatively charged at neutral pH, whereas PAC and 3-aminopropyltriethoxy-grafted HMS were positively charged. Due to negative surface charge, the anionic dye (Acid Blue 45) was not adsorbed on the four HMSs, which proves high selectivities of these HMSs for Triton X-100 over Acid Blue 45. On the contrary, a small amount of cationic dye (Basic Yellow 1) was adsorbed on all HMSs, but 3-aminopropyltriethoxy-grafted HMS showed the lowest adsorption capacity for Basic Yellow 1 due to positive

  20. CCT curve of X100 pipeline steel%X100管线钢的 CCT曲线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘守显; 靳芳芳; 李钧正

    2014-01-01

    The law of phase transformation of X 100 pipeline steel during continuous cooling after rolling deformation was researched by using Gleeble-3500 thermal-mechanical simulator , and then dynamic CCT curve was set up by adopting dilatation and metallographic method .The results show that the microstructure of X 100 pipeline steel transforms from ferritic to bainitic gradually and the hardness turns out upward trend with the increase of cooling rate .%用Gleeble-3500热/力模拟试验机对X100管线钢进行热模拟试验,研究X100管线钢经轧制变形后连续冷却过程中的相变规律,采用膨胀法和金相法建立动态CCT曲线。结果表明,随着冷却速率的增大,X100管线钢的组织由铁素体逐步转变为贝氏体组织,硬度呈上升趋势。

  1. Novel coupling of surfactant assisted emulsification dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with spectrophotometric determination for ultra trace nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qingwen; Chen, Meihui; Kong, Lamei; Zhao, Xia; Guo, Jie; Wen, Xiaodong

    2013-03-01

    In this work, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was improved and the preconcentration method named as surfactant assisted emulsification dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (SAE-DLLME) was established for ultra trace nickel preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination. Non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) was used as emulsifier and Triton X-114 (TX-114) was investigated as comparison. Disperser solvent was substituted by surfactant, which could afford more effective emulsification and make the extraction relatively greener. The extraction was accomplished efficiently in only 1 min during manual shaking. Compared to traditional DLLME, the developed SAE-DLLME pretreatment was simple, rapid and effective. The improved extraction technique was firstly coupled with traditional spectrophotometer to improve the analytical performance and expand the application of spectrophotometric determination. The influence factors relevant to SAE-DLLME including extraction parameters and instrumental conditions, were studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) for nickel was 0.24 μg L-1, with sensitivity enhancement factor (EF) of 23.

  2. Surface tension of polytetrafluoroethylene and its wetting by aqueous solution of some surfactants and their mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mańko, Diana; Zdziennicka, Anna; Jańczuk, Bronisław

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the contact angle of aqueous solution of rhamnolipid (RL) mixture with n-octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (OGP), Triton X-100 (TX-100) or/and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDDS) on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were made. To this aim there was used a plate whose surface topography was analyzed by means of optical profilometry method. Additionally, plate surface chemistry was studied employing the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The obtained values of contact angle were discussed based on the PTFE surface tension (γSV) as well as the Lifshitz-van der Waals component of the water surface tension (γWLW). The contact angle of aqueous solution of several surfactants and their mixtures on PTFE was also considered on the basis of γSV and γWLW . It occured that by using the values of γSV , γWLW and surface tension of the aqueous solution of surfactants and their mixtures, the contact angle on PTFE can be predicted. It also occured that changes of adhesion tension of aqueous solutions of surfactants as a function of their concentration can be determined by the exponential function of the first or second order. Using such functions Gibbs surface excess concentration of surfactants at the PTFE-water interface, mole fraction of surfactant in the mixed monolayer and fraction of the area occupied by given surfactants in the monolayer were determined. Gibbs surface free energy of adsorption of a given surfactant in the presence of another one and adhesion work of the aqueous solution of surfactants to the PTFE surface were also evaluated.

  3. The effects of nonionic surfactants on the tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II)--tripropylamine electrochemiluminescence system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, S; Richter, M M

    2000-11-15

    The electrochemistry and electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of Ru(bpy)3(2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridyl) were studied in the presence of the nonionic surfactants Triton X-100, Thesit, and Nonidet P40. The anodic oxidation of Ru(bpy)3(2+) produces ECL in the presence of tri-n-propylamine in both aqueous and surfactant solutions. Increases in both ECL efficiency (> or =8-fold) and duration of the ECL signal were observed in surfactant media. A shift to lower energies of the Ru(bpy)3(2+) ECL emission by approximately 8 nm was also observed. The one-electron oxidation of Ru(bpy)3(2+) to Ru(bpy)3(3t) occurs at + 1.03 V vs Ag/AgCl in aqueous buffered (0.2 M potassium phosphate) solution as found by square wave voltammetry. This potential did not shift in surfactant systems, indicating that the redshifts in ECL emission are due to stabilization of ligand pi* orbitals in the metal-to-ligand charge-transfer excited state. These results are consistent with hydrophobic interactions between Ru(bpy)3(2+) and the nonionic surfactants.

  4. Effect of surfactants on surface activity and rheological properties of type I collagen at air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezwoń, Aleksandra; Góral, Ilona; Frączyk, Tomasz; Wojciechowski, Kamil

    2016-12-01

    We describe the effect of three synthetic surfactants (anionic - sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic - cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and nonionic - Triton X-100 (TX-100)) on surface properties of the type I calf skin collagen at the air/water interface in acidic solutions (pH 1.8). The protein concentration was fixed at 5×10(-6)molL(-1) and the surfactant concentration was varied in the range 5×10(-6)molL(-1)-1×10(-4)molL(-1), producing the protein/surfactant mixtures with molar ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20. An Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis (ADSA) method was used to determine the dynamic surface tension and surface dilatational moduli of the mixed adsorption layers. Two spectroscopic techniques: UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorimetry allowed us to determine the effect of the surfactants on the protein structure. The thermodynamic characteristic of the mixtures was studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Modification of the collagen structure by SDS at low surfactant/protein ratios has a positive effect on the mixture's surface activity with only minor deterioration of the rheological properties of the adsorbed layers. The collagen/CTAB mixtures do not show that pronounced improvement in surface activity, while rheological properties are significantly deteriorated. The mixtures with non-ionic TX-100 do not show any synergistic effects in surface activity.

  5. Effects of Oxygen Carrier, Surfactant and H2O2 on Fermentation of L-phenylalanine%氧载体、表面活性剂及H2O2对L-phe发酵影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁雪清; 施巧琴; 吴松刚

    2012-01-01

    用添加氧载体(油酸、豆油)、表面活性剂(Triton-X100)及H2O2的方法,改善L-苯丙氨酸发酵体系中的氧传递速率,以提高苯丙氨酸的产量.实验结果表明,在发酵0h添加1%的豆油、3%的油酸均可使产酸提高,分别可以使L-phe产量提高21.1%和39.5%;发酵0h同时加入3%油酸和0.05% Triton-X100时,提高产量78.95%;发酵12h添加0.075%H2O2,可以提高产苯丙氨酸产量18.42%.%Oxygen vectors (oleic acid, soybean oil), surfactant (Triton-X100) and H2O2 can effectively improve the oxygen transfer rate in the fermentation system, and increase the yield of phenylalanine. Experimental results showed that, adding 1% soybean oil and 3% oleic acid before fermentation could make the L-phe production increased by 21. 1% and 39. 5% respectively; while adding 3% oleic acid and 0. 05% Triton-XlOO at the same time could make L-phe production increased by 78. 95% ; adding 0. 075% H2O2 at 12 h fermentation could make L-phenylalanine production increased by 18. 4%.

  6. Activity, stability and kinetic parameters for -chymotrypsin catalysed reactions in AOT/isooctane reverse micelles with nonionic and zwitterionic mixed surfactants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Santosh Kumar Verma; Kallol K Ghosh

    2013-07-01

    Reverse micelles (RMs) of sodium 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulphosuccinate (AOT) in nonpolar organic solvents are widely known to have very high solubilization power for water. The method is applied to the hydrolysis of -nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA) catalysed by -chymotrypsin (-CT) in AOT/isooctane/buffer RMs. The increase in -CT activity and stability was an optimum at wo ([H2O]/[AOT]) = 10, z [Isooctane]/[AOT]) = 5. Three typical surfactants were selected based on their head group charges: a non-ionic surfactant Triton-X 100 and two zwitterionic sulphobetaine surfactants of the type CH2+1N+Me2 (CH2)3 SO$^{−}_{3}$ (n = 10; SB3-10, n = 16; SB3-16). The kinetic parameters (such as cat and M) of the -CT at 27°C were determined and compared in the absence and presence of three surfactants. The effect of chain length of zwitterionic surfactant (SB3-10 and SB3-16) on the enzymatic efficacy of -CT as a function of mixed surfactant addition has been investigated in AOT/isooctane RMs at pH 7.75.

  7. Affinity and fluorescent detection of surfactants/ssDNA and single-walled carbon nanotube%单链DNA/表面活性剂与单壁碳纳米管的亲合力及荧光检测性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周姣; 李娟萍; 聂钰洪; 李继山; 杨金凤

    2013-01-01

    研制一种基于单链DNA与单壁碳纳米管荧光变化的新型荧光探针用于表面活性剂物质的检测方法.考察了温度对探针稳定性的影响,通过观察实时荧光光谱变化来评估单壁碳纳米管与5种常见表面活性剂物质的亲和性,观察镁离子及pH对探针检测表面活性物质的影响,通过观察荧光发射光谱变化来考察加入不同浓度表面活性物质曲拉通X-100后荧光探针的荧光恢复情况.结果表明,在5~80℃的温度范围内,探针十分稳定;单壁碳纳米管与5种常见表面活性物质的亲和力由强至弱依次为曲拉通X-100、十二烷基苯磺酸钠、吐温-20、吐温-80、十二烷硫酸钠;荧光探针检测的最佳Mg2+浓度为10 mmol/L,pH为7.4;当加入不同浓度的表面活性剂物质曲拉通X-100时,探针体系的荧光逐渐得到恢复.%A new biosensor platform was explored for detection of surfactant based on fluorescence changes from single strand DNA (ssDNA) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs).Thermodynamics assay was performed to value the stability of probe.The affinities of SWNT to five common surfactants (SDS, DBS,Triton X-100,Tween-20 and Tween-80) were investigated by real-time fluorescence method.The effects of Mg2+ and pH on the fluorescence intensity of self-assembled quenched sensor were performed.The fluorescent emission spectra were used to measure the responses of self-assembled quenched fluorescent of ssDNA/SWNTs to different concentration surfactant(Triton X-100).The FAM-DNA wrapped SWNTs probe was stable in a wide temperature range (5 ℃ to 80 ℃).The binding strength of surfactants and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) on SWNTs surfaces was shown as follows:Triton X-100>DBS>Tween-20>Tween-80>ssDNA>SDS,and the optimized reaction conditions included pH 7.4 and l0 mmol/L Mg2+.The fluorescence of FAM-ssDNA wrapped SWNTs was proportionally recovered as a result of adding different concentrations of Triton X-100

  8. Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of phenanthrene in surfactant solution containing TiO{sub 2} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yanlin, E-mail: zhangyl@scnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou (China); Sino-Forest Applied Research Centre for Pearl River Delta Environment and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Wong, J.W.C. [Sino-Forest Applied Research Centre for Pearl River Delta Environment and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Liu Peihong [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou (China); Yuan Min [Research Resources Center, South China Normal University, Guangzhou (China)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} Degradation of phenanthrene in surfactant solution and the role of surfactant have been elucidated. {yields} Possible pathway of phenanthrene degradation in surfactant solution is proposed. {yields} The degradation of phenanthrene follows pseudo-second-order kinetics. {yields} It is proved that applying the surfactants as solubilizing agents to remove contaminants from soils followed by photocatalytic degradation is a promising strategy for soil remediation. - Abstract: Photocatalytic degradation of phenanthrene (PHE) over TiO{sub 2} in aqueous solution containing nonionic surfactant micelles was investigated. All photocatalytic experiments were conducted using a 253.7 nm mercury monochromatic ultraviolet lamp in a photocatalytic reactor. The surfactant micelles could provide a nonaqueous 'cage' to result in a higher degradation rate of PHE than in an aqueous solution, but the higher Triton X-100 concentration (more than 2 g/L) lowered the degradation ratio of PHE because the additional surfactant micelles hindered the movement of micelles containing PHE so as to reduce their adsorption onto titania. Pseudo-second-order kinetics was observed for the photocatalytic degradation of PHE. Alkaline solution environment was beneficial to the photocatalytic degradation of PHE. PHE degradation could mainly be attributed to the formation of hydroxyl radicals as evident from the comparison of degradation efficiencies when O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) were applied as oxidants or hydroxyl radical scavenger. Based on the GC/MS analysis of the intermediates, the possible pathways of the photocatalytic degradation of PHE were proposed.

  9. Reassessing the origin of Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, E.; Brasser, R.; Gomes, R.

    2011-07-01

    The origin of Neptune's large, circular but retrograde satellite Triton has remained largely unexplained. There is an apparent consensus that its origin lies in it being captured, but until recently no successful capture mechanism has been found. Agnor and Hamilton (Agnor, C.B., Hamilton, D.P. [2006]. Nature 441, 192-194) demonstrated that the disruption of a trans-neptunian binary object which had Triton as a member, and which underwent a very close encounter with Neptune, was an effective mechanism to capture Triton while its former partner continued on a hyperbolic orbit. The subsequent evolution of Triton's post-capture orbit to its current one could have proceeded through gravitational tides (Correia, A.C.M. [2009]. Astrophys. J. 704, L1-L4), during which time Triton was most likely semi-molten (McKinnon, W.B. [1984]. Nature 311, 355-358). However, to date, no study has been performed that considered both the capture and the subsequent tidal evolution. Thus it is attempted here with the use of numerical simulations. The study by Agnor and Hamilton (Agnor, C.B., Hamilton, D.P. [2006]. Nature 441, 192-194) is repeated in the framework of the Nice model (Tsiganis, K., Gomes, R., Morbidelli, A., Levison, H.F. [2005]. Nature 435, 459-461) to determine the post-capture orbit of Triton. After capture Triton is then subjected to tidal evolution using the model of Mignard (Mignard, F. [1979]. Moon Planets 20, 301-315; Mignard, F. [1980]. Moon Planets 23, 185-201). The perturbations from the Sun and the figure of Neptune are included. The perturbations from the Sun acting on Triton just after its capture cause it to spend a long time in its high-eccentricity phase, usually of the order of 10 Myr, while the typical time to circularise to its current orbit is some 200 Myr, consistent with earlier studies. The current orbit of Triton is consistent with an origin through binary capture and tidal evolution, even though the model prefers Triton to be closer to Neptune than it

  10. Fluorophotometric determination of critical micelle concentration (CMC) of ionic and non-ionic surfactants with carbon dots via Stokes shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavkush Bhaisare, Mukesh; Pandey, Sunil; Shahnawaz Khan, M; Talib, Abou; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2015-01-01

    A new and facile method for the determination of critical micelle concentration (CMC) of ionic and non-ionic surfactants is proposed in this article. Carbon dots exhibited substantial fluorescence and therefore enhanced the sensitivity of this evaluation. Understanding the formation of surfactant micelles is vital for the applications of biomedicine such as drug fabrication and smart molecular vehicles in delivering therapeutic dosage to various molecular sites. The fluorescence property of carbon dots was utilized for the first time to estimate the critical micelle concentration of surfactants. The central concept of the approach is based on the Stokes shift determination of a system composed of constant amount of carbon dots with varying concentrations of ionic and non-ionic surfactants. The synthesized carbon dots were characterized by FTIR, TEM, XRD, Raman, UV, and fluorescence spectroscope. The carbon dots were excited at 280 nm so as to obtain maximum emission for the Stokes shift measurement. The CMC value of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Triton X-100, dodecyldimethyl(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide (SB-12) evaluated by this approach was found to be 0.98, 7.3, 0.19, and 3.5mM, respectively. The signals of spectra were assigned and explained in terms of both electron transitions between specific molecular orbital and the interaction with solvent.

  11. Diameters of Triton and Pluto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, D.; Cruikshank, D.P. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA). Inst. for Astronomy); Brown, R.H. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA). Hawaii Inst. of Geophysics)

    1982-12-02

    Upper limits are reported to the thermal IR emission from Triton, the major satellite of Neptune, and Pluto, the outermost planet, that permit significant upper limits to be set on their diameters and also demonstrate that both are high albedo objects. These results exclude the possibility that Triton is the largest planetary satellite and are consistent with the small size of Pluto deduced from other data.

  12. Opposite effects of EGTA and neutral surfactants on the loss of chicken pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Cabello, J C; Arpa, F; Agapito, M T; Recio, J M

    1990-01-01

    The effects of some general purpose drugs on the deactivation and activity measurement of the chicken pineal gland enzyme serotonin N-acetyl transferase (EC 2.3.1.5.) were studied. The drugs used were EGTA and two neutral surfactants, Nonidet P40 and Triton X-100. Enzyme activity showed significant variations ranging from 2.8 +/- 1.3 nmol/gland/h when Nonidet P40 was added to the homogenate buffer, to 31.8 +/- 1.7 nmol/gland/h when EGTA was present. This striking variation seemed to be caused by the ability of these compounds to modify the rate of NAT deactivation acting either as accelerating agents, as in the case of the detergents or as braking agent, as in the case of EGTA.

  13. Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of phenanthrene in surfactant solution containing TiO2 particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanlin; Wong, J W C; Liu, Peihong; Yuan, Min

    2011-07-15

    Photocatalytic degradation of phenanthrene (PHE) over TiO(2) in aqueous solution containing nonionic surfactant micelles was investigated. All photocatalytic experiments were conducted using a 253.7 nm mercury monochromatic ultraviolet lamp in a photocatalytic reactor. The surfactant micelles could provide a nonaqueous "cage" to result in a higher degradation rate of PHE than in an aqueous solution, but the higher Triton X-100 concentration (more than 2 g/L) lowered the degradation ratio of PHE because the additional surfactant micelles hindered the movement of micelles containing PHE so as to reduce their adsorption onto titania. Pseudo-second-order kinetics was observed for the photocatalytic degradation of PHE. Alkaline solution environment was beneficial to the photocatalytic degradation of PHE. PHE degradation could mainly be attributed to the formation of hydroxyl radicals as evident from the comparison of degradation efficiencies when O(2), H(2)O(2) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) were applied as oxidants or hydroxyl radical scavenger. Based on the GC/MS analysis of the intermediates, the possible pathways of the photocatalytic degradation of PHE were proposed.

  14. Surfactant effect on persistence of oxadiazolyl 3(2H)-pyridazinones against Pseudaletia separata walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingchun; Wu, Jihua; Kong, Yuping; Liu, Manhui; Cao, Song

    2007-01-01

    The photodynamic decomposition of two new insect-growth inhibitors (IGRs), 2-tert-butyl-5-[5'-aryl-2'-(1',3',4'-oxadiazolyl)methoxy]-3(2H)-pyridazinones (OPB) and its 4-chloro substituted derivative (OPC), and effect of surfactants on persistence of their bioactivity were taken into investigation. Both chemicals were significantly induced to photolysis by ultraviolet light at 365 nm wavelength and their inhibitory activities against Pseudaletia separata larvae decreased with the increasing irradiation time. However, irradiation at 254 nm wavelength didn't cause their photodegradation. Triton X-100 and Succinic-sulfonie acidic sodium but not Tween 60 possessed strong capability to slow down the decomposition and obviously prolonged the half life of OPC in laboratory and field whilst effects of the three surfactants almost did not preserve the inhibitory activity of OPB. Data suggested that electron-withdrawing halogen (-Cl) on the pi electron system in planar benzene-oxadialyl structures might reduce the efficiency of OPC on ultraviolet (UV) photoabsorption, and its hydrophobic interaction with the surfactants might be beneficial for forming stable micellar solubilization, thus sustaining the chemical's bioactivity.

  15. Surfactant effect on the bubble motions and bubbly flow structures in a vertical channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Shu; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki; Fukuta, Masato; Matsumoto, Yoichiro [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)], E-mail: takagi@mach.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2009-12-15

    It is well known that a small amount of surfactant can drastically change the motion of a single bubble and this causes a dramatic change of the whole bubbly flow structure. In our previous studies using upward vertical channel flows, it was shown that surfactant influences the shear-induced lift and the lateral migration of a bubble, which causes bubble accumulation and clustering near the wall. In this paper, the dependence of surfactant concentration on the motions of a 1 mm bubble rising through the laminar shear flow is investigated using 1-, 3-Pentanol and Triton X-100. The results are compared with the numerical ones, which show quantitative agreement on the lift and drag forces. Furthermore, we analyze the experimental data for the condition of bubble clustering in upward channel flows with the consideration of contaminant level in tap water. The results indicate that lower contaminant level and higher shear rate cause the significant bubble migration toward the wall, which leads to the formation of bubble clusters. (invited paper)

  16. INVITED PAPER: Surfactant effect on the bubble motions and bubbly flow structures in a vertical channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Shu; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki; Fukuta, Masato; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2009-12-01

    It is well known that a small amount of surfactant can drastically change the motion of a single bubble and this causes a dramatic change of the whole bubbly flow structure. In our previous studies using upward vertical channel flows, it was shown that surfactant influences the shear-induced lift and the lateral migration of a bubble, which causes bubble accumulation and clustering near the wall. In this paper, the dependence of surfactant concentration on the motions of a 1 mm bubble rising through the laminar shear flow is investigated using 1-, 3-Pentanol and Triton X-100. The results are compared with the numerical ones, which show quantitative agreement on the lift and drag forces. Furthermore, we analyze the experimental data for the condition of bubble clustering in upward channel flows with the consideration of contaminant level in tap water. The results indicate that lower contaminant level and higher shear rate cause the significant bubble migration toward the wall, which leads to the formation of bubble clusters.

  17. Soil flushing of cresols contaminated soil: application of nonionic and ionic surfactants under different pH and concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitipour, Saeid; Narenjkar, Khadijeh; Sanati Farvash, Emad; Asghari, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the viability of soil flushing on the removal of cresols (meta-, ortho-, and para-cresols) from contaminated soil has been investigated. High production and distribution of cresols in the environment indicate their potential for a widespread exposure to humans. The presence of these compounds in soil could cause a significant threat to environment, as they are toxic and refractory in nature. Cresols are persistent chemicals which are classified by the United State Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) as Group C, possible human carcinogens. Soil flushing is one of the soil remediation technologies which could by applied for treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Flushing of the contaminated soil samples was carried out by using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and Triton X-100 surfactant solutions at the concentrations of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, and 0.4% (W/W). Three acidic, neutral, and alkaline environments were utilized by adjusting pH of the washing solutions at 3, 7 and 12 to evaluate the effect of washing environment in removing cresols. The results of this research denote that the highest removal efficiencies of 79.6% and 83.51% were achieved for m-cresol and total o- and p-cresols, respectively, under the alkaline environment of pH12 at 0.4% (W/W) SDS concentration. Regarding performance of Triton X-100, the removal efficiencies of 80.26% and 80.14% for the above cresols were attained under similar conditions. Hence, illustrating the effectiveness of surfactants in soil flushing remediation of cresols contaminated soil.

  18. Elution of Endosulfan from Contaminated Soil by Surfactants and Their Combination%表面活性剂及其组合洗脱污染土壤中的硫丹

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊佰炼; 郑国灿; 张进忠; 邢赜; 徐卫红

    2013-01-01

    The elution efficiency and dynamic characteristic of endosulfan from the contaminated soil were studied using non-ionic surfactants and anionic/non-ionic surfactants in the presence or absence of Na2SiO3 with batch experiment and parallel desorption experiment.The results showed that the elution percents of α-,β-endosulfan followed a decreasing order of Tween 80/SDS,Tween 80 and Triton X-100 in the absence of Na2SiO3,while that by Triton X-100/SDS at low concentration (100-500 mg·L-1) and high concentration (800-1000 mg·L-1) were lower and higher than those by the corresponding concentrations of Triton X-100,respectively.The elution efficiencies for four elution modes obviously increased in the presence of Na2SiO3,and the elution percents of α-,β-endosulfan followed a decreasing order of Tween 80/SDS,Tween 80,Triton X-100/SDS and Triton X-100,and that of α-endosulfan were as 1.17-2.73,1.87-4.02,1.85-6.56 and 1.87-2.85 times as that in the absence of Na2SiO3.The elution process of endosulfan could be described by a 4-parameter biphasic first-order kinetic model,and obviously showed a rapid elution phase and a slow elution phase.Both of the elution percent and elution rate ofβ-endosulfan were lower than those of α-endosulfan,which indicated that β-endosulfan was difficult to be eluted from soil.The addition of Na2SiO3 could increase the rate constants of rapid elution and slow elution,and decrease the slow elution percent.Compared with other elution modes,Tween 80/SDS in the presence of Na2SiO3 could elute endosulfan from soil more effectively and rapidly,and shown as a fine mixed eluent for endosulfan.%采用序批实验和并行解吸法,研究了添加和不添加Na2SiO3两种情况下,非离子表面活性剂和阴/非离子混合表面活性剂对污染老化土壤中α-、β-硫丹的洗脱效果与动力学特征.结果表明,不添加Na2SiO3时,α-、β-硫丹的洗脱率顺序为Tween 80/SDS> Tween 80> Triton X-100.Triton X-100/SDS在100~500

  19. Interaction Study and Reactivity of Zr(IV) -Substituted Wells-Dawson Polyoxometalate towards Hydrolysis of Peptide Bonds in Surfactant Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanten, Thomas; Shestakova, Pavletta; Van Den Bulck, Dries; Kirschhock, Christine; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N

    2016-03-01

    The interaction between the 1:2 Zr(IV) :Wells-Dawson complex, K15 H[Zr(α2 -P2 W17 O61 )2] (1), and a range of surfactants was studied in detail with the aim of developing metal-substituted POMs as potential artificial proteases for membrane proteins. The surfactants include the positively charged cetyl(trimethyl)ammonium bromide (CTAB), the negatively charged sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), the neutral Triton X-100 (TX-100), and zwitterionic 3-[dodecyl(dimethyl)ammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (Zw3-13) and 3-[dimethyl(3-{[(3α,5β,7α,12α)-3,7,12-trihydroxy-24-oxocholan-24-yl]amino}propyl)ammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS). A combination of multinuclear (1)H, (13)C, and (31) P NMR spectroscopy, (1)H diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy ((1)H DOSY), and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) was used to examine the interaction between 1 and each surfactant on the molecular level. Cationic surfactant CTAB caused precipitation of 1 due to strong electrostatic interactions, while the anionic SDS and neutral TX-100 surfactants did not exhibit any interaction at neutral pD. (1)H DOSY NMR spectroscopy indicated an interaction between 1 and zwitterionic surfactants Zw3-12 and CHAPS, which occurs via the positively charged ammonium group in the surfactant molecule. In the presence of anionic, neutral, and zwitterionic surfactants, 1 preserves its catalytic activity towards the hydrolysis of the peptide bond in the dipeptide glycyl-l-histidine (GH). The fastest hydrolysis was observed at pD 7.0 and could be rationalized by taking into account pD-dependent speciation of 1 and coordination properties of GH.

  20. Global Color Mosaic of Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Global color mosaic of Triton, taken in 1989 by Voyager 2 during its flyby of the Neptune system. Color was synthesized by combining high- resolution images taken through orange, violet, and ultraviolet filters; these images were displayed as red, green, and blue images and combined to create this color version. With a radius of 1,350 (839 mi), about 22% smaller than Earth's moon, Triton is by far the largest satellite of Neptune. It is one of only three objects in the Solar System known to have a nitrogen-dominated atmosphere (the others are Earth and Saturn's giant moon, Titan). Triton has the coldest surface known anywhere in the Solar System (38 K, about -391 degrees Farenheit); it is so cold that most of Triton's nitrogen is condensed as frost, making it the only satellite in the Solar System known to have a surface made mainly of nitrogen ice. The pinkish deposits constitute a vast south polar cap believed to contain methane ice, which would have reacted under sunlight to form pink or red compounds. The dark streaks overlying these pink ices are believed to be an icy and perhaps carbonaceous dust deposited from huge geyser-like plumes, some of which were found to be active during the Voyager 2 flyby. The bluish-green band visible in this image extends all the way around Triton near the equator; it may consist of relatively fresh nitrogen frost deposits. The greenish areas include what is called the cataloupe terrain, whose origin is unknown, and a set of 'cryovolcanic' landscapes apparently produced by icy-cold liquids (now frozen) erupted from Triton's interior.

  1. Temperature-dependent adsorption of surfactant molecules and associated crystallization kinetics of noncentrosymmetric Fe(IO{sub 3}){sub 3} nanorods in microemulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Kass, Moustafa [Université de Savoie, Laboratoire SYMME, BP 80439, 74944 Annecy Le Vieux Cedex (France); Ladj, Rachid [Université de Savoie, Laboratoire SYMME, BP 80439, 74944 Annecy Le Vieux Cedex (France); Université Lyon1, CNRS, UMR 5007, LAGEP, CPE, 43 bd 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Mugnier, Yannick, E-mail: Yannick.Mugnier@univ-savoie.fr [Université de Savoie, Laboratoire SYMME, BP 80439, 74944 Annecy Le Vieux Cedex (France); Le Dantec, Ronan [Université de Savoie, Laboratoire SYMME, BP 80439, 74944 Annecy Le Vieux Cedex (France); Hadji, Rachid [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS n°7198, Université de Lorraine, Nancy 1, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Marty, Jean-Christophe [Université de Savoie, Laboratoire SYMME, BP 80439, 74944 Annecy Le Vieux Cedex (France); Rouxel, Didier [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS n°7198, Université de Lorraine, Nancy 1, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Durand, Christiane [Université de Savoie, Laboratoire SYMME, BP 80439, 74944 Annecy Le Vieux Cedex (France); Fontvieille, Dominique [UMR CARRTEL (INRA/Université de Savoie), Laboratoire de Microbiologie Aquatique, BP 511, 74203 Thonon Cedex (France); Rogalska, Ewa [Structure et Réactivité des Systèmes Moléculaires Complexes, UMR 7565, Nancy Université, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy cedex (France); and others

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Crystallization of Fe(IO{sub 3}){sub 3} in microemulsions probed by hyper-Rayleigh scattering. • A faster growth and a better shape control of nanorods are obtained at 80 °C. • Different persistent cell deformations are related to the crystallization kinetics. • A temperature-dependent adsorption of surfactants on nanorods is suggested. - Abstract: Aggregation-induced crystallization of iron iodate nanorods within organic–inorganic aggregates of primary amorphous precursors is probed by time-dependent hyper-Rayleigh scattering measurements in Triton X-100 based-microemulsions. In the context of a growing interest of noncentrosymmetric oxide nanomaterials in multi-photon bioimaging, we demonstrate by a combination of X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy that an increase in the synthesis of temperature results in faster crystallization kinetics and in a better shape-control of the final Fe(IO{sub 3}){sub 3} nanorods. For initial microemulsions of fixed composition, room-temperature synthesis leads to bundles of 1–3 μm long nanorods, whereas shorter individual nanorods are obtained when the temperature is increased. Results are interpreted in terms of kinetically unfavorable mesoscale transformations due to the strong binding interactions with Triton molecules. The interplay between the nanorod crystallization kinetics and their corresponding unit cell deformation, evidenced by lattice parameter refinements, is attributed to a temperature-dependent adsorption of surfactants molecules at the organic–inorganic interface.

  2. Interactions of surfactants with a water treatment protein from Moringa oleifera seeds in solution studied by zeta-potential and light scattering measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwaambwa, Habauka M; Rennie, Adrian R

    2012-04-01

    Protein extracted from Moringa oleifera (MO) seeds has been advocated as a cheap and environmental friendly alternative to ionic flocculants for water purification. However, the nature and mechanism of its interaction with particles in water, as well as with dissolved surface-active molecules, are not well understood. In this article, we report studies of the protein and its interaction with four surfactants using dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta-potential and turbidity measurements. Zeta-potential measurements identified points of charge reversal and the turbidity and DLS measurements were used to characterize the microstructure and size of protein-surfactant complexes. From the points of charge reversal, it was estimated that 7 anions are required to neutralize the positive charges of each protein molecule at pH 7. For protein mixtures with sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyl di-acid sodium salt, the peak in turbidity corresponds to concentrations with a large change in zeta-potential. No turbidity was observed for protein mixtures with either the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 or the zwitterionic surfactant N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate. Changes of pH in the range 4-10 have little effect on the zeta-potential, turbidity, and the hydrodynamic radius reflecting the high isoelectric point of the protein. Addition of small amounts of salt has little effect on the size of protein in solution. These results are discussed in the context of the use of the MO protein in water treatment.

  3. A novel aqueous micellar two-phase system composed of surfactant and sorbitol for purification of pectinase enzyme from Psidium guajava and recycling phase components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of a surfactant and sorbitol was employed for the first time to purify pectinase from Psidium guajava. The influences of different parameters, including the type and concentration of the surfactant and the concentration and composition of the surfactant/sorbitol ratio, on the partitioning behavior and recovery of pectinase were investigated. Moreover, the effects of system pH and the crude load on purification fold and the yield of purified pectinase were studied. The experimental results indicated that the pectinase was partitioned into surfactant-rich top phase, and the impurities were partitioned into the sorbitol-rich bottom phase with the novel method involving an ATPS composed of 26% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 23% (w/w) sorbitol at 54.2% of the TLL crude load of 20% (w/w) at pH 6.0. The enzyme was successfully recovered by this method with a high purification factor of 15.2 and a yield of 98.3%, whereas the phase components were also recovered and recycled at rates above 96%. This study demonstrated that this novel ATPS method can be used as an efficient and economical alternative to the traditional ATPS for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme.

  4. Assessment of triton potential energy

    CERN Document Server

    Friar, J L

    1996-01-01

    An assessment is made of the dominant features contributing to the triton potential energy, with the objective of understanding qualitatively their origins and sensitivities. Relativistic effects, short-range repulsion, and OPEP dominance are discussed. A determination of the importance of various regions of nucleon-nucleon separation is made numerically.

  5. Assessment of Triton Potential Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friar, J. L.; Payne, G. L.

    1995-12-01

    An assessment is made of the dominant features contributing to the triton potential energy, with the objective of understanding qualitatively their origins and sensitivities. Relativistic effects, short-range repulsion, and OPEP dominance are discussed. A determination of the importance of various regions of nucleon-nucleon separation is made numerically.

  6. Surfactant-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites and their photocatalytic performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ju; Li, Hansheng; Muhammad, Sohail; Wu, Qin; Zhao, Yun; Jiao, Qingze

    2017-09-01

    Titanium dioxide/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (TiO2/RGO-X, X=S, T or C, was denoted sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, Triton X-100 and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, respectively) were synthesized using a one-step surfactant-assisted hydrothermal method. The characterization of phase structure and morphology of the as-obtained nanocomposites reveals that TiO2 in the TiO2/RGO-X exhibits the morphologies of nanoparticles, nanowires and array-like nanowires on the surface of RGO, respectively. Compared with the control TiO2/RGO nanocomposite, TiO2/RGO-X presents an excellent photocatalytic activity. With uniform array-like TiO2 nanowires on the surface of RGO, the TiO2/RGO-C shows a significant enhancement in the photocatalytic efficiency. Besides, a deeper insight into the growth mechanism of TiO2/RGO nanocomposites is put forward. This work indicates that the surfactant-assisted hydrothermal method is an effective approach to improve the structure, morphology and photocatalytic performance of TiO2/RGO composites. Moreover, the surfactants with various types can interact with the precursors of TiO2 and RGO in different ways.

  7. Spectrophotometric study of the effects of surfactants and ethanol on the acidity constants of fluorescein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Ghasemi, Jahan B.; Saaidpour, Saadi; Mohajeri, Ali

    2008-12-01

    In the present paper, a sensitive, fast and suitable method for the calculation of p Ka values of fluorescein is proposed. The effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and Triton X-100 (TX-100) as a surface-active agent on the acidic and basic forms, and the spectral properties of fluorescein were studied by the spectrophotometric method. The study was performed in sub-micelle surfactant concentration, and absorption spectra at 300-550 nm intervals were recorded. Stepwise acidity constants of fluorescein at pH range 1.50-10.00 and at constant ionic strength 0.1 M and 25 °C were determined using DATAN program using pH-spectrophotometric titration data. The method is efficient, however the component spectra showed intensive overlapping. The calculated acidity constants of fluorescein in water at ionic strength 0.1 are p Ka1 = 2.20, p Ka2 = 4.30 and p Ka3 = 6.43. The acidity constants of the dye in ethanol-water solution were studied by the same procedure. Effect of surfactants and ethanol on acidity constants and pure spectrum of each component are also discussed.

  8. Enhanced removal of a human norovirus surrogate from fresh vegetables and fruits by a combination of surfactants and sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predmore, Ashley; Li, Jianrong

    2011-07-01

    Fruits and vegetables are major vehicles for transmission of food-borne enteric viruses since they are easily contaminated at pre- and postharvest stages and they undergo little or no processing. However, commonly used sanitizers are relatively ineffective for removing human norovirus surrogates from fresh produce. In this study, we systematically evaluated the effectiveness of surfactants on removal of a human norovirus surrogate, murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), from fresh produce. We showed that a panel of surfactants, including sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Nonidet P-40 (NP-40), Triton X-100, and polysorbates, significantly enhanced the removal of viruses from fresh fruits and vegetables. While tap water alone and chlorine solution (200 ppm) gave only <1.2-log reductions in virus titer in all fresh produce, a solution containing 50 ppm of surfactant was able to achieve a 3-log reduction in virus titer in strawberries and an approximately 2-log reduction in virus titer in lettuce, cabbage, and raspberries. Moreover, a reduction of approximately 3 logs was observed in all the tested fresh produce after sanitization with a solution containing a combination of 50 ppm of each surfactant and 200 ppm of chlorine. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the combination of a surfactant with a commonly used sanitizer enhanced the efficiency in removing viruses from fresh produce by approximately 100 times. Since SDS is an FDA-approved food additive and polysorbates are recognized by the FDA as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) products, implementation of this novel sanitization strategy would be a feasible approach for efficient reduction of the virus load in fresh produce.

  9. Immobilization of lipase from Candida rugosa into copolymer hydrogels of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-itaconic acid synthesized in the presence of surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milašinović Nikola Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the problems of free enzyme application as catalysts in chemical reactions, i.e. high costs of isolation and purification processes, high sensitivity to process conditions, insufficient enzyme stability etc., a different immobilization techniques are to be used. Immobilization to/within solid support improves enzyme stability decreasing its denaturation. This paper deals with hydrogels of N-isopropylacrylamide and itaconic acid with incorporated nonionic surfactants (Triton X-100, Brij 30 and Tween 80 synthesized in distilled water at room temperature by free radical polymerization. These hydrogels were used as supports for immobilization of enzyme, lipase from Candida rugosa by post-entrapment method. The aim was to investigate the effect of the nonionic surfactants on the lipase binding capacity, as well as on its hydrolytic activity. In order to characterize the obtained hydrogels FT-IR analysis has been performed. Further, the swelling behaviour of these samples in buffer solution of pH 6.80 has been investigated. The dynamic - mechanical properties of hydrogels and detailed have been studied, too. The immobilized lipase showed somewhat reduced hydrolytic activity, as compared to the activity of free lipase as well as in comparison to the lipase immobilized to the reference sample (sample synthesized under the same polymerization conditions, but in the absence of surfactants. It was concluded that the addition of surfactants increased the hydrogel mesh size. The surfactant addition did not affect the dynamic - mechanical properties of the investigated hydrogels. The largest percentage of specific activity and yield of activity were presented by the reference sample, too. It is obvious that the absence of surfactants charged groups has no influence on the lipase binding capacity, and the obtained activity yields are to be expected.

  10. Differential modulation in binding of ketoprofen to bovine serum albumin in the presence and absence of surfactants: spectroscopic and calorimetric insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Pinaki P; Kishore, Nand

    2013-07-01

    Surfactants have long been implicated in the unique static and dynamic effect on the structure and function of serum albumins. However, there is very little information on the mode of interactions of drugs to serum albumins in presence of surfactants. The importance of such studies lay in the fact that apart from binding to serum albumins, surfactants are known to radically influence the solvents' micro environment and protein structure. Thus, we have studied the binding of the racemic form of ketoprofen with bovine serum albumin at pH 7.4 in the presence and absence of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, and NaCl. The structural studies of ketoprofen with bovine serum albumin as investigated by circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a significant stabilization of bovine serum albumin. However, the combined presence of the surfactants, NaCl and ketoprofen, demonstrated an extremely erratic behavior in terms of stabilization. Further the values of Stern-Volmer and dynamic quenching constant suggested the binding site of ketoprofen to be scattered in the region of domain I B and II A, close to Trp 134. The results of differential scanning calorimetry revealed that the binding of ketoprofen to bovine serum albumin leads to its temperature-dependent separation into two units. The binding parameters of bovine serum albumin obtained from isothermal titration calorimetry in the combined presence of ketoprofen and surfactants/NaCl correlate well with the differential scanning calorimetry studies further confirming the localization of ketoprofen in domain I B and II A. In the combined presence of surfactants, NaCl and ketoprofen, the binding of ketoprofen to bovine serum albumin exhibited altered binding parameters far different from the binding of ketoprofen alone. Overall, the experimental findings strongly indicated positive as well as negative modulation in the binding of ketoprofen to bovine serum albumin in the presence of

  11. New mechanism of γ-H2AX generation: Surfactant-induced actin disruption causes deoxyribonuclease I translocation to the nucleus and forms DNA double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoxu; Yang, Gang; Toyooka, Tatsushi; Ibuki, Yuko

    2015-12-01

    We previously showed that nonionic surfactants, nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs), induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX, forming γ-H2AX. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism of γ-H2AX generation by an NPEO with 15 ethylene oxide units (NPEO(15)). In MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells, NPEO(15) treatment induced γ-H2AX in a dose-dependent manner. EDTA and ZnCl2, two inhibitors of deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I), inhibited both the γ-H2AX and DNA double-strand breaks induced by NPEO(15). NPEO(15) disrupted filamentous actin and released free DNase I as detected by cell fractionation analysis. Based on immunofluorescence staining of DNase I and monitoring DNase I-GFP localization, DNase I was translocated from the cytosol to the nucleus of cells after treatment with NPEO(15). This translocation did not occur with the common DNA damage inducers ultraviolet B irradiation and hydrogen peroxide. Other surfactants, Tween 20, Triton X-100 and Nonidet P-40, also generated γ-H2AX. These results show that γ-H2AX induction by surfactants including NPEOs, occurs via a new mechanism involving release of free DNase I with actin disruption. This mechanism is distinct from the process of γ-H2AX generation caused by direct chemically induced DNA damage.

  12. Partitioning of hexachlorobenzene in a kaolin/humic acid/surfactant/water system: combined effect of surfactant and soil organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jinzhong; Wang, Lingling; Lu, Xiaohua; Lin, Yusuo; Zhang, Shengtian

    2011-11-30

    Understanding the combined effect of soil organic matter (SOM) and surfactants on the partitioning of hydrophobic organic compounds in soil/water systems is important to predict the effectiveness of surfactant-enhanced remediation (SER). In the present study we investigate the partitioning of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) within a humic acid (HA)-coated kaolin/Triton X-100 (TX100)/water system, with special emphasis on the interaction between TX100 and HA, and their combined effect on HCB sorption. HA firstly enhanced then suppressed TX100 sorption to kaolin as the amounts of HA increased, while the addition of TX100 led to a consistent reduction in HA sorption. In the HA-coated kaolin/TX100/water system, TX100 played a primary role in enhancing desorption of HCB, while the role could be suppressed and then enhanced as HA coating amounts increased. Only at HA coating above 2.4%, dissolved HA outcompeted clay-bound HA for HCB partitioning, resulting in dissolved HA enhanced desorption. The presence of dissolved HA at these conditions further promoted the effectiveness of TX100 enhanced desorption. Despite a reduced TX100 sorption to clay was achieved due to the presence of dissolved HA, the effect on HCB desorption was comparatively slight. A reliable cumulative influence of HA and TX100 on HCB desorption was observed, although HCB desorption by HA/TX100 mixed was less than the sum of HA and TX100 individually. Our study suggests that for soils of high organic contents, the combined effect of SOM and surfactants on HOCs desorption can be applied to improve the performance of SER. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of presence of benzene ring in surfactant hydrophobic chain on the transformation towards one dimensional aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah A. Khalil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of wormlike micelle and the following significant changes in rheological properties suffer misunderstanding from both theoretical and fundamental aspects. Recently, we have introduced a theory for interpreting such important phenomenon which is referred to as critical intermolecular forces (CIF. The theory has stated that the hydrophobic effect is the main factor for the formation of worm-like aggregates. Therefore, it seems interesting to check out the validity of this new physical insight through investigating the presence of benzene ring as less hydrophobic group in contrast to that of alkyl in surfactant tail. The mixture of anionic sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate (SDBS and cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB shows a high dynamic viscosity peak at the ratio of 80/20 of 3 wt.% CTAB/SDBS indicating the formation of wormlike micelles. The thermodynamic properties have been evaluated for this mixture exhibiting good agreement with the rheological changes. Interestingly, the results show the presence of benzene ring (in SDBS causing a negative effect towards the formation of one dimensional aggregate in contrast to previous results which support the proposed CIF theory. The presence of nonionic surfactant TritonX-100 in binary and ternary systems of SDBS and CTAB prohibits the formation of wormlike micelles.

  14. Remediation of a hexachlorobenzene-contaminated soil by surfactant-enhanced electrokinetics coupled with microscale Pd/Fe PRB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jinzhong; Li, Zhirong; Lu, Xiaohua; Yuan, Songhu

    2010-12-15

    Treatment of soils contaminated with chlorinated hydrophobic organic compounds (CHOCs) remains a challenge for environmental scientists worldwide. In this study surfactant-enhanced electrokinetics (SEEK) was coupled with permeable reactive barrier (PRB) composed of microscale Pd/Fe to treat a hexachlorobenzene (HCB)-contaminated soil. A nonionic surfactant, Triton X-100 (TX-100), was selected as the solubility-enhancing agent. Five bench-scale tests were conducted to investigate the performance of EK-PRB on HCB removal from soils. Results showed that the HCB removal was generally increased by a factor of 4 by EK coupled with PRB compared with EK alone (60% versus 13%). In the EK-PRB system, HCB was removed from soil through several sequential processes: the movement driven by electroosmotic flow (EOF) in the anode column, the complete adsorption/degradation by the reactive Pd/Fe particles in PRB, and the consequent movement by EOF and probable electrochemical reactions in the cathode column. TX-100 was supposed to be a superior enhancement agent for HCB removal, not only in the EOF movement process but also in the Pd/Fe degradation process. This study indicates that the combination of SEEK and Pd/Fe PRB is efficient and promising to remove CHOCs from contaminated soils.

  15. Adsorption and corrosion inhibition behavior of hydroxyethyl cellulose and synergistic surfactants additives for carbon steel in 1M HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobin, Mohammad; Rizvi, Marziya

    2017-01-20

    The inhibitory effect of hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) on A1020 carbon steel corrosion in 1M HCl solution was evaluated at different concentrations and temperatures using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), UV-vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and quantum chemical analysis. Inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increase in concentration of HEC but decreased with increasing temperature. Inhibitory effect of HEC mixed with minimal concentration of surfactants, triton X 100 (TX), cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was also evaluated. HEC gets adsorbed onto the mild steel surface via mixed type adsorption. Ea, ΔH, ΔS and ΔG⁰ads, the thermodynamic and activation parameters, were calculated and discussed. Adsorption of inhibitor on the steel/solution interface follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm. EIS suggests formation of protective layer over the carbon steel surface. Results of different experimental techniques pertaining to the inhibitory effect of HEC and HEC mixed with surfactants are in good agreement with theoretical quantum chemical investigation.

  16. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile for purification of polygalacturonase enzyme from Durio zibethinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Yazid; Azmira, Farhana; Hussin, Muhaini; Sarker, Zaidul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Polygalacturonase is one of the important enzymes used in various industries such as food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, pulp and paper. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile was employed for the first time to purify polygalacturonase from Durio zibethinus. The influences of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, concentrations of acetonitrile and composition of surfactant/acetonitrile on partitioning behavior and recovery of polygalacturonase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of pH of system and crude load on purification fold and yield of purified polygalacturonase were studied. The results of the experiment indicated the polygalacturonase was partitioned into surfactant top rich phase with impurities being partitioned into acetonitrile bottom rich phase in the novel method of liquid/liquid process composed of 23% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 19% (w/w) acetonitrile, at 55.6% of TLL (tie line length) crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 6.0. Recovery and recycling of components also was measured in each successive step of liquid/liquid extraction process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the method with a high purification factor of 14.3 and yield of 97.3% while phase components were also recovered and recycled above 95%. This study demonstrated that the novel method of liquid/liquid extraction process can be used as an efficient and economical extraction method rather than the traditional methods of extraction for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme.

  17. A Surfactant-Induced Functional Modulation of a Global Virulence Regulator from Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhendu Mandal

    Full Text Available Triton X-100 (TX-100, a useful non-ionic surfactant, reduced the methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus significantly. Many S. aureus proteins were expressed in the presence of TX-100. SarA, one of the TX-100-induced proteins, acts as a global virulence regulator in S. aureus. To understand the effects of TX-100 on the structure, and function of SarA, a recombinant S. aureus SarA (rSarA and its derivative (C9W have been investigated in the presence of varying concentrations of this surfactant using various probes. Our data have revealed that both rSarA and C9W bind to the cognate DNA with nearly similar affinity in the absence of TX-100. Interestingly, their DNA binding activities have been significantly increased in the presence of pre-micellar concentration of TX-100. The increase of TX-100 concentrations to micellar or post-micellar concentration did not greatly enhance their activities further. TX-100 molecules have altered the secondary and tertiary structures of both proteins to some extents. Size of the rSarA-TX-100 complex appears to be intermediate to those of rSarA and TX-100. Additional analyses show a relatively moderate interaction between C9W and TX-100. Binding of TX-100 to C9W has, however, occurred by a cooperative pathway particularly at micellar and higher concentrations of this surfactant. Taken together, TX-100-induced structural alteration of rSarA and C9W might be responsible for their increased DNA binding activity. As TX-100 has stabilized the somewhat weaker SarA-DNA complex effectively, it could be used to study its structure in the future.

  18. Comparative proteomics of Staphylococcus aureus and the response of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive strains to Triton X-100

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordwell, Stuart J; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Cole, Rebecca T;

    2002-01-01

    Proteomics is a powerful tool for analysing differences in gene expression between bacterial strains with alternate phenotypes. Staphylococcus aureus strains are grouped on the basis of their sensitivity to methicillin. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was combined with MS to compare the protein...... profiles of S. aureus strains COL (methicillin-resistant) and 8325 (methicillin-sensitive). Reference mapping via this approach identified 377 proteins that corresponded to 266 distinct ORFs. Amongst these identified proteins were 14 potential virulence factors. The production of 41 'hypothetical' proteins...... was confirmed, and eight of these appeared to be unique to S. aureus. Strain COL displayed 12 protein spots, which included alkaline-shock protein 23 (Asp23) and cold-shock proteins CspABC, which either were not present in strain 8325 or were present at a significantly lower intensity in this strain...

  19. Development of a home-made extraction device for vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction with lighter than water organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Wen-ting; Zhou, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Dong-Hui

    2013-07-26

    We have developed a novel vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction using the low density solvent for the determination of eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in water samples. The key point of this method is the application of a special home-made extraction device. The influence parameters relevant to this method were systemically investigated and the optimum conditions were as follow: 35μL of toluene was used as extraction solvent and 0.2mmol L-1 Triton X-100 was chosen as the surfactant to enhance the emulsification. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detections (LODs) of the method was ranged between 0.01 and 0.05μgL(-1) and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.9-8.1%. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.1-50.0μgL(-1), with the correlation coefficients (r) varying from 0.9949 to 0.9991. Finally, the developed method has been successfully applied to the determination of eight organophosphorus pesticides in river, reservoir and well water samples with recoveries between 82.1% and 98.7%.

  20. Surfactant-enhanced spectrofluorimetric determination of total aflatoxins from wheat samples after magnetic solid-phase extraction using modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafi, Mohammad Hanif; Allahyari, Mehdi; Pourghazi, Kamyar; Amoli-Diva, Mitra; Taherimaslak, Zohreh

    2015-07-01

    The extraction and preconcentration of total aflatoxins (including aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2) using magnetic nanoparticles based solid phase extraction (MSPE) followed by surfactant-enhanced spectrofluorimetric detection was proposed. Ethylene glycol bis-mercaptoacetate modified silica coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles as an efficient antibody-free adsorbent was successfully applied to extract aflatoxins from wheat samples. High surface area and strong magnetization properties of magnetic nanoparticles were utilized to achieve high enrichment factor (97), and satisfactory recoveries (92-105%) using only 100 mg of the adsorbent. Furthermore, the fast separation time (less than 10 min) avoids many time-consuming cartridge loading or column-passing procedures accompany with the conventional SPE. In determination step, signal enhancement was performed by formation of Triton X-100 micelles around the analytes in 15% (v/v) acetonitrile-water which dramatically increase the sensitivity of the method. Main factors affecting the extraction efficiency and signal enhancement of the analytes including pH of sample solution, desorption conditions, extraction time, sample volume, adsorbent amount, surfactant concentration and volume and time of micelle formation were evaluated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, wide linear range of 0.1-50 ng mL-1 with low detection limit of 0.03 ng mL-1 were obtained. The developed method was successfully applied to the extraction and preconcentration of aflatoxins in three commercially available wheat samples and the results were compared with the official AOAC method.

  1. Surfactant-enhanced spectrofluorimetric determination of total aflatoxins from wheat samples after magnetic solid-phase extraction using modified Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafi, Mohammad Hanif; Allahyari, Mehdi; Pourghazi, Kamyar; Amoli-Diva, Mitra; Taherimaslak, Zohreh

    2015-07-01

    The extraction and preconcentration of total aflatoxins (including aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2) using magnetic nanoparticles based solid phase extraction (MSPE) followed by surfactant-enhanced spectrofluorimetric detection was proposed. Ethylene glycol bis-mercaptoacetate modified silica coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles as an efficient antibody-free adsorbent was successfully applied to extract aflatoxins from wheat samples. High surface area and strong magnetization properties of magnetic nanoparticles were utilized to achieve high enrichment factor (97), and satisfactory recoveries (92-105%) using only 100mg of the adsorbent. Furthermore, the fast separation time (less than 10 min) avoids many time-consuming cartridge loading or column-passing procedures accompany with the conventional SPE. In determination step, signal enhancement was performed by formation of Triton X-100 micelles around the analytes in 15% (v/v) acetonitrile-water which dramatically increase the sensitivity of the method. Main factors affecting the extraction efficiency and signal enhancement of the analytes including pH of sample solution, desorption conditions, extraction time, sample volume, adsorbent amount, surfactant concentration and volume and time of micelle formation were evaluated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, wide linear range of 0.1-50 ng mL(-1) with low detection limit of 0.03 ng mL(-1) were obtained. The developed method was successfully applied to the extraction and preconcentration of aflatoxins in three commercially available wheat samples and the results were compared with the official AOAC method.

  2. Comparison of several ethanol productions using xylanase, inorganic salts, surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Lu, Jie; Yang, Rui-feng; Song, Wen-jing; Li, Hai-ming; Wang, Hai-song; Zhou, Jing-hui

    2017-03-01

    Liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment is an effective and environmentally friendly method to produce bioethanol with lignocellulosic materials. Corn stover was pretreated with liquid hot water (LHW) and then subjected to semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (S-SSF) to obtain high ethanol concentration and yield. The present study aimed to confirm the effect of several additives on the fermentation digestibility of unwashed WIS of corn stover pretreated with LHW. So we also investigated the process, such as enzyme addition, inorganic salts, surfactant and different loading Triton. Results show that high ethanol concentration is necessary to add xylanase in the stage of saccharification. The ethanol concentration increased mainly with magnesium ion on fermentation. Comparing with Tween 80, Span 80 and Polyethylene glycol, Triton is the best surfactant. In contrast to using xylanase and Triton respectively, optimization can make up the lack of stamina and improve effect of single inorganic salts.

  3. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Xylitol for the Purification of Lipase from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) Seeds and Recycling of Phase Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2015-06-17

    Lipase is one of the more important enzymes used in various industries such as the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, and pulp and paper sectors. A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of surfactant and xylitol was employed for the first time to purify lipase from Cucurbita moschata. The influence of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, and the composition of the surfactant/xylitol mixtures on the partitioning behavior and recovery of lipase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of system pH and crude load on the degree of purification and yield of the purified lipase were studied. The results indicated that the lipase was partitioned into the top surfactant rich phase while the impurities partitioned into the bottom xylitol-rich phase using an aqueous two phase system composed of 24% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 20% (w/w) xylitol, at 56.2% of tie line length (TLL), (TTL is one of the important parameters in this study and it is determined from a bimodal curve in which the tie-line connects two nodes on the bimodal, that represent concentration of phase components in the top and bottom phases) and a crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 8.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the proposed method with a high purification factor of 16.4 and yield of 97.4% while over 97% of the phase components were also recovered and recycled. This study demonstrated that the proposed novel aqueous two phase system method is more efficient and economical than the traditional aqueous two phase system method for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme lipase.

  4. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Xylitol for the Purification of Lipase from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Seeds and Recycling of Phase Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Amid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipase is one of the more important enzymes used in various industries such as the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, and pulp and paper sectors. A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of surfactant and xylitol was employed for the first time to purify lipase from Cucurbita moschata. The influence of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, and the composition of the surfactant/xylitol mixtures on the partitioning behavior and recovery of lipase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of system pH and crude load on the degree of purification and yield of the purified lipase were studied. The results indicated that the lipase was partitioned into the top surfactant rich phase while the impurities partitioned into the bottom xylitol-rich phase using an aqueous two phase system composed of 24% (w/w Triton X-100 and 20% (w/w xylitol, at 56.2% of tie line length (TLL, (TTL is one of the important parameters in this study and it is determined from a bimodal curve in which the tie-line connects two nodes on the bimodal, that represent concentration of phase components in the top and bottom phases and a crude load of 25% (w/w at pH 8.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the proposed method with a high purification factor of 16.4 and yield of 97.4% while over 97% of the phase components were also recovered and recycled. This study demonstrated that the proposed novel aqueous two phase system method is more efficient and economical than the traditional aqueous two phase system method for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme lipase.

  5. Inhibitory effect of xanthan gum and synergistic surfactant additives for mild steel corrosion in 1M HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobin, Mohammad; Rizvi, Marziya

    2016-01-20

    Natural polymer xanthan gum (XG) was investigated as eco friendly corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1M HCl at 30 °C, 40 °C, 50 °C and 60 °C, respectively. The inhibition studies were performed using gravimetric analysis, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), quantum chemical calculations, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-visible spectrophotometry. XG significantly reduces the corrosion rates of mild steel. The inhibition efficiency (IE) of the XG increased with increase in concentration, but decreased with temperature; the maximum IE of 74.24% was obtained at concentration of 1000 ppm at 30 °C. The inhibiting action of XG is synergistically enhanced on addition of very small amount of surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) and Triton X-100 (TX). The effect of SDS is more pronounced than other surfactants. Potentiodynamic polarization studies confirm XG as a mixed type inhibitor. Results of weight loss measurements are in good agreement of the results of electrochemical measurements. The UV-visible spectroscopic results indicate the formation of complex between XG and Fe(2+) ions during corrosion reaction. Mechanism of inhibition was also investigated by calculating the thermodynamic and activation parameters like ΔG(0), Ea, ΔH and ΔS. The adsorption of inhibitor on mild steel surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. SEM micrographs show a clearly different morphology in presence of XG and XG-surfactant additives and confirmed the existence of an adsorbed protective film on the mild steel surface.

  6. Application of disorganized monolayer films on gold electrodes to the prevention of surfactant inhibition of the voltammetric detection of trace metals via anodic stripping of underpotential deposits: detection of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Grégoire; Arrigan, Damien W M

    2003-01-15

    Development of an approach to prevention of electrode surface fouling by surfactants in samples is demonstrated. Spontaneously adsorbed monolayer systems employing short alkyl chains and bulky end groups are used to form porous disorganized monolayers on gold electrodes. Detection of copper by stripping of underpotential deposits formed at electrodes modified with disorganized films of mercaptoethanesulfonate (MES), mercaptopropanesulfonate, mercaptoacetic acid, and mercaptopropanoic acid was possible, and to a much lesser extent at aminoethanethiol and L-cysteine films. Use of short deposition times in conjunction with linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry allowed detection of Cu2+ ions down to 1 x 10(-6) M in sulfuric acid solution, using underpotential deposition as the deposition step of the procedure. Calibration graphs were linear in the concentration range (1-80) x 10(-6) M Cu2+ using 15-s deposition at 0.00 V versus Ag/AgCl. The surfactants Tween 20, Tween 80, and Triton X-100 were found to have no affect on detection of Cu2+ ions in the calibration curve concentration range using MES-modified gold electrodes, whereas at unmodified gold electrodes very severe attenuation of the detection capability was manifested. The average slope for all calibration curves at the MES-modified electrode in the absence and presence of the surfactants at two different concentration levels was 0.0710 +/- 0.0024 microA microM(-1); in contrast, the slope of the calibration line at uncoated gold electrodes in the presence of surfactant was 0.0268 microA microM(-1). These results indicate the excellent ability of a disorganized, porous monolayer for prevention of fouling of the electrode surface by the surfactants.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of pharmaceutical surfactant templated mesoporous silica: Its application to controlled delivery of duloxetine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Ganesh; Pushparaj, Hemalatha; Peng, Mei Mei; Muthiahpillai, Palanichamy [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanseo University, Seosan-si 356 706 (Korea, Republic of); Udhumansha, Ubaidulla [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanseo University, Seosan-si 356 706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pharmaceutics, C.L. Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Chennai (India); Jang, Hyun Tae, E-mail: htjang@hanseo.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanseo University, Seosan-si 356 706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Usefulness of dual pharmaceutical surfactants in silica synthesis was evaluated. • Effects of concentration of secondary template (Tween-40) were studied. • Effects of fixed solvothermal condition on mesostructure formation were studied. • Duloxetine drug loading capability was studied. • Sustained release of duloxetine was evaluated. - Abstract: A new group of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were synthesized using combination pharmaceutical surfactants, Triton X-100 and Tween-40 as template and loaded with duloxetine hydrochloride (DX), for improving the sustained release of DX and patterns with high drug loading. Agglomerated spherical silica MSNs were synthesized by sol–gel and solvothermal methods. The calcined and drug loaded MSNs were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Braunner–Emmett–Teller (BET), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), diffuse reflectance ultraviolet–visible (DRS-UV–vis) spectroscopy. MSNs with high surface area and pore volume were selected and studied for their DX loading and release. The selected MSNs can accommodate a maximum of 34% DX within it. About 90% was released at 200 h and hence, the synthesized MSNs were capable of engulfing DX and sustain its release. Further form the Ritger and Peppas, Higuchi model for mechanism drug release from all the MSN matrices follows anomalous transport or Non-Fickian diffusion with the ‘r’ and ‘n’ value 0.9 and 0.45 < n < 1, respectively. So, from this study it could be concluded that the MSNs synthesized using pharmaceutical templates were better choice of reservoir for the controlled delivery of drug which requires sustained release.

  8. Investigation of electrokinetic and electrorheological properties of polyindole prepared in the presence of a surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, H. Ibrahim, E-mail: hiunal@gazi.edu.tr [Gazi University, Chemistry Department, Smart Materials Research Lab., Ankara (Turkey); Sahan, Bekir; Erol, Ozlem [Gazi University, Chemistry Department, Smart Materials Research Lab., Ankara (Turkey)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aggregated morphology was determined for PIN, spherical and porous hollows and everniae form morphologies were recorded for SPIN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PIN/SO and SPIN/SO systems showed almost similar electrokinetic attitudes and a typical shear thinning non-Newtonian viscoelastic behavior, vibration damping capability at elevated frequencies, and enhanced storage moduli with increasing temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-linear recoverable viscoelastic manner was revealed from the creep-recovery experiments under external electric field. - Abstract: In this study, synthesis of polyindole (PIN) was carried out without and with the presence of a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant (SPIN), using FeCl{sub 3} as an oxidizing agent. The synthesized materials were subjected to various characterizations techniques namely: particle size, magnetic susceptibility, elemental analysis, density, conductivity, dielectric constant, FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, TGA, XRD, and SEM. Characterization results revealed the successful preparation of the homopolymers of PIN and SPIN. Zeta ({zeta})-potentials of the samples were measured in aqueous and non-aqueous (silicone oil, SO) media. Electrokinetic properties of PIN and SPIN in aqueous media were determined by {zeta}-potential measurements in the presence of various electrolytes (NaCl, BaCl{sub 2}, AlCl{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and surfactants (cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, SDS, and Triton X-100). Besides, the effect of pH onto {zeta}-potentials of the materials was also examined. The suspensions prepared in SO were subjected to external electric field strength and their electrorheological (ER) properties were investigated. Then the effects of shear rate, frequency, and temperature onto ER activities of the suspensions were examined. Further, creep and creep-recovery tests were applied to the PIN/SO and SPIN/SO suspension systems and reversible non-linear viscoelastic

  9. Controlling Synthesis of PbS Nanostructures in Surfactant Solutions%表面活性剂溶液中硫化铅纳米结构的可控生长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于雪莲; 曹传堂; 曹传宝; 朱鹤孙

    2005-01-01

    应用软模板法成功制备了半导体硫化铅树枝状纳米结构.此反应是在非离子表面活性剂Triton X-100存在下进行的,具有条件温和,操作简单等优点.对反应过程中硫化铅各向异性生长的影响因素进行系统的阐述,通过简单地控制反应时间及表面活性剂的加入量就可得到纳米棒、纳米分枝结构以及立方结构.考虑到形貌对半导体性能有重要影响,这一实验结果的取得应具有很高的实际应用价值.%PbS dendritic nanostructures have been successfully synthesized by a facile method from solutions containing a nonionic surfactant, Triton X-100 ( t-octyl-( OCH2CH2 ) xOH ,x = 9,10) under the ambient pressure. The anisotropic structural evolution of semiconductor PbS nanocrystals and the systematically elucidated key growth parameters for their shape control were studied. Through simply programming growth parameters such as aging time and capping molecules in the initial scheme, desired architecture of building blocks including nanorods, nanodendrities and nanocubes can be consistently obtained. Considering that the size and morphology of such semiconductors very strongly affect their applications, there will be significant advances that can be applied to the nanoscale devices.

  10. Construction of the X100 operational trial pipeline at Spadeadam, Cumbria, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millwood, N. A. [BMT Fleet Technology Ltd, Leicestershire, (United Kingdom); Johnson, J.; Hudson, M. [BP Explorations Operating CO Ltd, Sunbury-on-Thames, (United Kingdom); Armstrong, K. [GL Noble Denton Ltd, Spadeadam, (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Intermediate field construction trials using grade X100 steel pipeline have been carried out recently to demonstrate the manufacturers' ability to build large diameter high strength steel pipelines. This paper reports the construction of an X100 operational trial pipeline for BP and focuses on the studies of the performance of the girth welding systems used. The mainline welding on X100 pipe was performed using a single tandem wire GMAW. All-weld tensile testing, Charpy impact testing, CTOD testing using SENB specimens and hardness testing were completed to monitor the integrity of the metal welds. The tie-in was performed using a vertical-up mechanized FCAW system and a vertical-down STT root pass. Weld procedure qualification testing on the tie-in was carried out as well. AUT was carried out on all the mainline girth welds using a phased-array system. The results demonstrated that the operational trial succeeded in testing the girth welds at a design factor of 0.8.

  11. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: Role of tween 80 and triton X in ascitic fluid cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient with alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver, portal hypertension with hepatic encephalopathy and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP was admitted in an obtunded condition. Attempts at delineating the aetiology of the SBP using conventional cultures as well as automated systems were not successful. The use of non-anionic surfactant agents such as Tween 80-incorporated blood agar and Triton X treatment of the specimens facilitated the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae from the ascitic fluid, which otherwise would have been concluded to represent culture-negative neutrocytic ascites. Thus, the use of the aforementioned agents could be explored in elucidating the aetiology of body cavity infections when conventional methods fail.

  12. Navy Officials Justified the MQ-4C Triton Procurement Quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-16

    Naval Air Systems Command internal controls over Triton quantity requirements were effective as they applied to the audit objectives, because Navy...Visit us at www.dodig.mil September 16, 2015 Objective This is the first in a series of audits on the Navy MQ-4C Triton (Triton) Unmanned Aircraft...System (UAS) Program. Our overall objective for the series of audits was to determine whether the Navy effectively managed the Triton UAS

  13. Malignant triton tumor (MTT) of the neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristine Bjørndal; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2006-01-01

    Malignant Triton Tumor (MTT) is a rare, malignant periphere nerve sheath tumor with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. One third of described MTT's were located at the head and neck region. One third of these are associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. MTT most often appears in the third decade...

  14. A Search for Hemispheric Asymmetry on Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, C. M.; Storrs, A. D.

    2004-12-01

    We will present reconstructed images of Neptune's largest satellite Triton as part of an investigation of hemispheric asymmetry. The images we observed from the Hubble Space Telescope in July of 1997, using the Wide Field/Planetary Camera. The images were taken in several filters: F439W, F555W, and F791W. Image restoration was performed using the MISTRAL program (Mugnier, Fusco, and Conan 2003). We present the ratio between the filters to determine if there is any hemispheric color asymmetry at this time. The photometry of Triton appears normal in this data although Hicks and Buratti (2004) observe Triton to be anomalously red in August of 1997. References: Hicks, M.D., and Buratti, B.J. (2004): "The Spectral Variability of Triton from 1997-2000", Icarus 171 pp. 210-218 Mugnier, L.M., T. Fusco, and J.-M. Conan, 2003. "MISTRAL: a Myopic Edge-Preserving Image Restoration Method. Applicaton to Astronomical Adaptive Optics Corrected Long-Exposure Images." JOSA A (submitted)

  15. Enhanced production and characterization of a solvent stable amylase from solvent tolerant Bacillus tequilensis RG-01: thermostable and surfactant resistant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Soni; Shukla, Neha; Mishra, Pooja; Gaur, Rajeeva

    2014-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains isolated from the soil samples in the presence of cyclohexane were screened for amylase production. Among them, culture RG-01 was adjudged as the best amylase producer and was identified as Bacillus tequilensis from MTCC, Chandigarh. The isolate showed maximum amylase production (8100 U/mL) in the presence of starch, peptone, and Ca(2+) ions at 55°C pH 7.0 within 24 h of incubation. The enzyme was stable in the presence of n-dodecane, isooctane, n-decane, xylene, toluene, n-hexane, n-butanol, and cyclohexane, respectively. The presence of benzene, methanol, and ethanol marginally reduced the amylase stability, respectively. The enzyme was showed it 100% activity at 55°C and pH 7.0 with 119% and 127% stability at 55°C and pH 7.0, respectively. The enzyme was also stable in the presence of SDS, Tween-40, Tween-60, and Tween-80 (1%) and was found stimulatory effect, respectively. Only Triton-X-100 showed a moderate inhibitory effect (5%) on amylase activity. This isolate (Bacillus tequilensis RG-01) may be useful in several industrial applications owing to its thermotolerant and organic solvents and surfactants resistance characteristics.

  16. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of norfloxacin in aqueous Bi2WO6 dispersions containing nonionic surfactant under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lin; Wang, Jiajia; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Yani; Deng, Yaocheng; Zhou, Yaoyu; Tang, Jing; Wang, Jingjing; Guo, Zhi

    2016-04-05

    Photocatalytic degradation is an alternative method to remove pharmaceutical compounds in water, however it is hard to achieve efficient rate because of the poor solubility of pharmaceutical compounds in water. This study investigated the photodegradation of norfloxacin in a nonionic surfactant Triton-X100 (TX100)/Bi2WO6 dispersion under visible light irradiation (400-750nm). It was found that the degradation of poorly soluble NOF can be strongly enhanced with the addition of TX100. TX100 was adsorbed strongly on Bi2WO6 surface and accelerated NOF photodegradation at the critical micelle concentration (CMC=0.25mM). Higher TX100 concentration (>0.25mM) lowered the degradation rate. In the presence of TX100, the degradation rate reached the maximum value when the pH value was 8.06. FTIR analyses demonstrated that the adsorbed NOF on the catalyst was completely degraded after 2h irradiation. According to the intermediates identified by HPLC/MS/MS, three possible degradation pathways were proposed to include addition of hydroxyl radical to quinolone ring, elimination of piperazynilic ring in fluoroquinolone molecules, and replacement of F atoms on the aromatic ring by hydroxyl radicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Purification and Characterization of Surfactant-Stable Protease from Bacillus Licheniformis: A Potential Additive for Laundry Detergent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Mardina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study purified and characterized the protease from Bacillus licheniformis that was cultured in skim latex serum fortified media. Ammonium sulphate precipitation and ion exchange chromatograph was employed in purification steps with the enzyme activity increase to 2.28 fold of purification compare to the crude enzyme. Assessment of the purified protein by SDS PAGE showed a single band with molecular mass of about 47 kDa. The enzyme was stable at temperature range of 35 oC to 65 oC and also at pH 6.0 and 7.0 for 60 min. The presence of Mn2+ and Ca2+ ions in the produced protease stimulated strongly the activity of the enzyme by 176.65% and 119.07% respectively, while inhibitory effects were found in the presence of Cu2+, Zn2+, Mg2+, and EDTA. The enzyme exhibited their stability toward surfactants (Triton X100, Tween 20, SDS, solvents (acetone, chloroform, hexane and toluene, oxidizing agent (H2O2 and Tesco Everyday Value® detergent with the residual activity around 80%. It also demonstrated the removal activity of blood stain completely with supplementation of the 7 mg/ml detergent solution. The established characteristics of the enzyme indicated their potentiality for detergent application.

  18. Enhanced production of Monacolin K by addition of precursors and surfactants in submerged fermentation of Monascus purpureus 9901.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yuan-Long; Lu, Li-Ping; Zhang, Bo-Bo; Xu, Gan-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The main problem in Monacolin K (MK) production by submerged fermentation of Monascus purpureus is low productivity. In this study, on one hand, addition of precursors was used to activate the biosynthesis of MK. When 4.0 g/L of sodium citrate was supplemented at the 48th H of the fermentation, the final MK production reached to 1,658.9 ± 28.5 mg/L after 20 day of fermentation, which was improved by 52.6% compared with that of the control. On the other hand, addition of surfactants could increase the permeability of cell membrane, thus driving more intracellular metabolites secreted into the fermentation broth and alleviating the product inhibition. When 40.0 g/L of Triton X-100 was added at the beginning of the fermentation, the final MK production reached to 2,026.0 ± 30.4 mg/L after 20 day of fermentation, which was improved by 84.9% compared with that of the control. These results are helpful to provide some new insights into the biosynthetic regulation on MK production; the approach can be applied to other fungal fermentation processes for enhancing production of useful metabolites.

  19. Enhanced Production and Characterization of a Solvent Stable Amylase from Solvent Tolerant Bacillus tequilensis RG-01: Thermostable and Surfactant Resistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Tiwari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten bacterial strains isolated from the soil samples in the presence of cyclohexane were screened for amylase production. Among them, culture RG-01 was adjudged as the best amylase producer and was identified as Bacillus tequilensis from MTCC, Chandigarh. The isolate showed maximum amylase production (8100 U/mL in the presence of starch, peptone, and Ca2+ ions at 55°C pH 7.0 within 24 h of incubation. The enzyme was stable in the presence of n-dodecane, isooctane, n-decane, xylene, toluene, n-hexane, n-butanol, and cyclohexane, respectively. The presence of benzene, methanol, and ethanol marginally reduced the amylase stability, respectively. The enzyme was showed it 100% activity at 55°C and pH 7.0 with 119% and 127% stability at 55°C and pH 7.0, respectively. The enzyme was also stable in the presence of SDS, Tween-40, Tween-60, and Tween-80 (1% and was found stimulatory effect, respectively. Only Triton-X-100 showed a moderate inhibitory effect (5% on amylase activity. This isolate (Bacillus tequilensis RG-01 may be useful in several industrial applications owing to its thermotolerant and organic solvents and surfactants resistance characteristics.

  20. MQ-4C Triton Unmanned Aircraft System (MQ-4C Triton)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    10% of the total production quantity due to the establishment of an initial production base for the system and an orderly and efficient increase in...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-373 MQ-4C Triton Unmanned Aircraft System (MQ-4C Triton) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget...12 Cost and Funding 14 Low Rate Initial Production 24 Foreign Military Sales 25 Nuclear Costs 25 Unit Cost 26 Cost Variance

  1. 表面活性剂对土壤中多氯联苯的洗脱研究%Washing Polychlorinated Biphenyls from Contaminated Soils by Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛; 王斯佳; 马慧; 杨晓瑛; 朱宝余

    2012-01-01

    Experiment was done in laboratory to wash polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated soil using 4 kinds of surfactants such as Triton X-100, Tween-80, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecylbenene sulfate(SDBS). Results showed that washing efficiency of SDS was the best in experimental conditions when single anionic surfactant was applied. The best solid-liquid ratio was 1 : 20, and two or three time elution was necessary to get better elution efficiency, but elution time didn't affect elution effect obviously. Anionic -nonionic mixed surfactants not only increased the solubilization of PCBs, but also reduced the sorption onto soils. When SDS-Tween-80 mixed surfactants were applied at 7 000 mg/L, in the best mass ratio conditions of 5 '. 5,97.89% PCBs was washed out from the laboratory contaminated soil after 3 times elution.%采用实验室配置的PCBs污染土壤,以曲拉通X-100、吐温-80、SDS、SDBS 4种表面活性剂进行洗脱试验研究.结果表明:对于单一表面活性剂,SDS对污染土壤中多氯联苯的洗脱效果最好;采用1∶20的固液比,进行2~3次洗脱,洗脱率可达50%以上;洗脱时间对洗脱效果影响不大;SDS-吐温-80混合表面活性剂对多氯联苯有协同增溶作用,且在土壤上的吸附损失较小,SDS和吐温-80的最佳质量比为5∶5,在此条件下,浓度为7 000 mg/L的混合表面活性剂对多氯联苯污染土壤进行3次洗脱,洗脱率可高达97.89%.

  2. The Effect of Surfactant Micelles on the Dissociation Constants and the Colour-changing Points and Ranges of Acid-base Indicators%胶束对酸碱指示剂离解平衡和变色点及变色范围的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凡; 刘静; 张元勤; 李晓燕

    2001-01-01

    探讨了十六烷基三甲基溴化铵(CTMAB)、十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)和TritonX-1003种胶束对酸碱指示剂百里香酚蓝和溴百里香酚蓝离解反应的离解常数的影响,进而研究了以上3种胶束对指示剂变色点和变色范围的影响,实验结果表明,选择适当的胶束溶液作为滴定介质,不仅可以扩大酸碱指示剂的应用范围,而且还大大提高了测量的准确度。%The effect of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB), sodiumdodecyl sulfate(SDS) and poly(oxyethylene)(9.5) p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethyl) (Triton X-100) on the dissociation constants of thymol blue and thymol blue bromide, and the color-changing point and color-changing range were studied. The experimental results indicated that the application range of acid-base indicators became wider and the titration accuracy was increased when an appropriate surfactant micellar solution was chosen as a titration medium.

  3. Switchable Surfactants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yingxin Liu; Philip G. Jessop; Michael Cunningham; Charles A. Eckert; Charles L. Liotta

    2006-01-01

    .... We report that long-chain alkyl amidine compounds can be reversibly transformed into charged surfactants by exposure to an atmosphere of carbon dioxide, thereby stabilizing water/alkane emulsions...

  4. Role of surfactant derived intermediates in the efficacy and mechanism for radiation chemical degradation of a hydrophobic azo dye, 1-phenylazo-2-naphthol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Laboni [Radiation & Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Chatterjee, Suchandra [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Naik, Devidas B. [Radiation & Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Adhikari, Soumyakanti, E-mail: asoumya@barc.gov.in [Radiation & Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Demonstration of the role of surfactant in the degradation of the hydrophobic dye. • First direct observation of the formation of “hydrazyl radical-parent” adduct. • Similar products obtained in the reaction of e{sup −}{sub aq} and ·OH radical in TX-100 medium. • Significant reduction in cytotoxicity of irradiated dye in aqueous–organic medium. • New mechanistic pathway could be delineated. - Abstract: A combined methodology involving gamma and pulse radiolysis, product analysis and toxicity studies has been adopted to comprehend the degradation process of a model hydrophobic azo dye, 1-phenylazo-2-naphthol, emphasizing the role of the surfactant, which is an integral part of textile waste. Two new and important findings are underlined in this article. The first is the direct attestation of the hydrazyl radical-parent adduct, formed in the reaction of the dye with e{sup −}{sub aq} followed by protonation and subsequent addition to the unreacted dye molecule. This has been confirmed from concentration dependent studies. Secondly, we have clearly shown that in the reaction of hydroxyl radical with the dye in Triton X-100 media, the initially produced TX radicals cause reductive degradation of the dye. Identification and detailed analysis of HPLC and GCMS data reveals that similar products are formed in both the reactions of e{sup −}{sub aq} and ·OH radicals. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of 10{sup −4} mol dm{sup −3} dye was found to be reduced significantly after irradiation. Thus, the present study not only depicts new pathways for the degradation of hydrophobic azo dye, but also demonstrates the role of a surfactant in the entire process.

  5. Essential mechanisms in the triton binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenburg, R.A.; Chulick, G.S.; Machleidt, R.; Picklesimer, A.; Thaler, R.M.

    1988-03-01

    The recent successful prediction of the triton binding energy, E/sub t/, with the static Bonn potential is examined. Modified versions of the potential are introduced to isolate separately the effects of the deuteron D-state admixture and the /sup 1/S/sub 0/ scattering length on E/sub t/. Within this model study we find a monotonic relation between E/sub t/ and the /sup 1/S/sub 0/ scattering length and a strict linear dependence of E/sub t/ on the D-state admixture, in accordance with general well-known trends and earlier separable-potential model studies. The mechanism through which the weaker tensor force (lower D-state admixture) leads to a stronger binding of the triton is investigated by the introduction and study of effective energy-dependent central potentials

  6. Erosion Behaviour of API X100 Pipeline Steel at Various Impact Angles and Particle Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Okonkwo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Erosion is the gradual removal of material due to solid particle impingement and results in a failure of pipeline materials. In this study, a series of erosion tests were carried out to investigate the influence of particle speed and impact angle on the erosion mechanism of API X100 pipeline steel. A dry erosion machine was used as the test equipment, while the particle speed ranged from 20 to 80 m/s and impact angles of 30° and 90° were used as test parameters. The eroded API X100 steel surface was characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The weight loss and erosion rate were also investigated. The results showed that at a 90° impact angle, a ploughing mechanism was occurring on the tested specimens, while material removal through low-angle cutting was the dominant mechanism at lower impact angles. Embedment of alumina particles on the target steel surface, micro-cutting, and low-angle cutting were observed at low impact angles. Therefore, the scratches, cuttings, and severe ploughings observed on some failed oil and gas pipelines could be attributed to the erosion mechanism.

  7. Mesic retardation and the triton binding energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenburg, R.A.; Chulick, G.S.; Machleidt, R.; Picklesimer, A.; Thaler, R.M.

    1988-09-01

    The relationship between the apparently successful result for the triton binding energy obtained from the static Bonn potentials and the underlying meson theory is investigated. The triton binding is shown to be strongly dependent upon mesic retardation and associated explicit energy dependences in the meson theory of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Because it is a much closer representation of the full interaction than are its energy-independent counterparts, the energy-dependent one-boson-exchange potential representation of the Bonn interaction is used to gauge the implications of the full interaction. This one-boson-exchange potential, with or without corrections to adapt it for use in conjunction with nonrelativistic (Schroedinger) three-body equations, predicts a triton binding of only approx.6.7 MeV, as compared to a result of about 8.4 MeV obtained with the energy-independent potentials. This difference is traced to the combination of the explicit energy-dependence and the implicit energy dependence introduced through the tensor force, especially in the /sup 3/S/sub 1/ partial wave. This provides a new perspective on the success of the static Bonn potentials relative to other realistic potentials and relative to the meson-theoretic framework. Implications, especially with regard to the need for investigations of consistent three-body forces, are discussed.

  8. Mesic retardation and the triton binding energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, R. A.; Chulick, G. S.; Machleidt, R.; Picklesimer, A.; Thaler, R. M.

    1988-09-01

    The relationship between the apparently successful result for the triton binding energy obtained from the static Bonn potentials and the underlying meson theory is investigated. The triton binding is shown to be strongly dependent upon mesic retardation and associated explicit energy dependences in the meson theory of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Because it is a much closer representation of the full interaction than are its energy-independent counterparts, the energy-dependent one-boson-exchange potential representation of the Bonn interaction is used to gauge the implications of the full interaction. This one-boson-exchange potential, with or without corrections to adapt it for use in conjunction with nonrelativistic (Schrödinger) three-body equations, predicts a triton binding of only ~6.7 MeV, as compared to a result of about 8.4 MeV obtained with the energy-independent potentials. This difference is traced to the combination of the explicit energy-dependence and the implicit energy dependence introduced through the tensor force, especially in the 3S1 partial wave. This provides a new perspective on the success of the static Bonn potentials relative to other realistic potentials and relative to the meson-theoretic framework. Implications, especially with regard to the need for investigations of consistent three-body forces, are discussed.

  9. Chemical investigation of Titan and Triton tholins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Gene D.; Thompson, W. R.; Heinrich, Michael; Khare, Bishun N.; Sagan, Carl

    1994-01-01

    We report chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses of both Titan and Triton tholins, organic solids made from the plasma irradiation of 0.9:0.1 and 0.999:0.001 N2/CH4 gas mixtures, respectively. The lower CH4 mixing ratio leads to a nitrogen-richer tholin (N/C greater than 1), probably including nitrogen heterocyclic compounds. Unlike Titan tholin, bulk Triton tholin is poor in nitriles. From high-pressure liquid chromatography, ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy, and molecular weight estimation by gel filtration chromatography, we conclude that (1) several H2O-soluble fractions, each with distinct UV and IR spectral signatures, are present, (2) these fractions are not identical in the two tholins, (3) the H2O-soluble fractions of Titan tholins do not contain significant amounts of nitriles, despite the major role of nitriles in bulk Titan tholin, and (4) the H2O-soluble fractions of both tholins are mainly molcules containing about 10 to 50 (C + N) atoms. We report yields of amino acids upon hydrolysis of Titan and Triton tholins. Titan tholin is largely insoluble in the putative hydrocarbon lakes or oceans on Titan, but can yield the H2O-soluble species investigated here upon contact with transient (e.g., impact-generated) liquid water.

  10. Plastic and damage behaviour of a high strength X100 pipeline steel: Experiments and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, B. [Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris, Paristech, CNRS UMR 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France); Luu, T.T. [Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris, Paristech, CNRS UMR 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France); Applied Mechanics Division, IFP, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Perrin, G. [Applied Mechanics Division, IFP, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Pineau, A. [Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris, Paristech, CNRS UMR 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France); Besson, J. [Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris, Paristech, CNRS UMR 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France)], E-mail: jacques.besson@ensmp.fr

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this work is to develop a constitutive model integrating anisotropic behaviour and ductile damage for a X100 pipeline steel. The model is based on a set of experiments on various smooth, notched and cracked specimens and on a careful fractographic examination of the damage mechanisms. The model is based on an extension of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model which includes plastic anisotropy. Provided brittle delamination is not triggered, the developed model can accurately describe the plastic and damage behaviour of the material. The model is then used as a numerical tool to investigate the effect of plastic anisotropy and delamination on ductile crack extension. It is shown in particular that it is not possible to obtain a unified description of rupture properties for notched and cracked specimens tested along different directions without accounting for plastic anisotropy.

  11. Evaluating the Passivation of Corrosion of API-X100 Steel with Cyclic Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyan, Faysal Fayez; Alfantazi, Akram

    2017-10-01

    In this research, cyclic voltammetry, in oxygen-free low bicarbonate-carbonate solutions, was used to study the corrosion reactions of a high-strength steel, API-X100. With cycles of different scan ranges, the effects of cycling, transpassivation, and cathodic reduction on the electrochemistry of the passive films were analyzed. It was found that carbonate in higher concentrations reduces the anodic activity and the cathodic reactions of the surface. Bicarbonate in small concentrations in solutions that contained low carbonate concentrations catalyzed dissolution and disrupted the formation of the passive films, in reference to the measured anodic currents. From the experiments, there was electrochemical evidence that with more cycles, the passive films were growing thicker, the transpassivation deteriorated the passive films, and during the cathodic reduction, the dissolution was occurring at lower potentials to facilitate later the passivation at higher potentials.

  12. Microstructure Evolution of Grade X100 Pipeline under Plastic Deformation Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Qi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of plastic deformation on the microstructure evolution of grade X100 pipeline were investigated by SEM, TEM and EBSD tests. The result shows that quasipolygon ferrite deforms firstly under plastic strain initial stage, then both acicular ferrite and granular bainite change remarkably with the value of plastic strain increase. When the tension stress reaches the tensile strength, microcracks nucleate around the inclusion and M/A constitute, expand with the plastic deformation increases, and finally cracks connection causes the crack penetration until the expiration. Furthermore, the microscopic orientation concentrates in {110} 〈111〉 direction before the deformation, while crystal orientation in {110} and {112} direction enhanced after the deformation.

  13. Effect of coiling temperature on microstructure and properties of X100 pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Shixia, E-mail: dongchuke@163.com [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Xiaoyong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an Shiyou University, Xi' an 710065 (China); Zhang, Jianxun [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Feng, Yaorong [CNPC Tubular Goods Research Institute, Xi' an 710077 (China); Ma, Jing [Xi' an Aeronautical Polytechnic Institute, Xi' an 710089 (China); Gao, Huilin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an Shiyou University, Xi' an 710065 (China)

    2016-06-01

    Multiphase structure of bainite and M/A(martensite/austenite constituent) can be obtained through coiling continuous-HOP (Heating On-line Partitioning) technology, resulting in excellent deformability for X100 pipeline steel. The microstructure and properties of the steel at different coiling temperatures were investigated by means of mechanical properties test, microscopic analysis and X-ray diffraction method. The results show that with the increase of coiling temperature, the strength decreases and the ductility increases because of the widening of bainite laths, the decrease of bainite content and dislocation density. However, because of the formation of martensite, the precipitation of carbides and the decrease of retained austenite at high coiling temperatures, the strength increases and the ductility decreases. Low yield ratio, high uniform elongation and high strain hardening exponent can be achieved at appropriate coiling temperatures through coiling continuous-HOP technology, which endows the steel with good ductility and excellent deformability.

  14. Triton College and General Motors: The Partnership Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonte, Richard; Magnesen, Vernon

    1983-01-01

    The cooperative training program between Illinois's Triton College and General Motors is described. Illustrates the mutual benefits of this problem and recommends that other colleges follow suit. (NJ)

  15. Triton genos figuerne: Khora, Différance og gentagelsen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Christian Bundgaard

    2001-01-01

    En tematiske undersøgelse af "Triton genos figurerne" hos Søren Kierkegaard og Jacques Derrida med Platon som klide......En tematiske undersøgelse af "Triton genos figurerne" hos Søren Kierkegaard og Jacques Derrida med Platon som klide...

  16. Biodegradation of aflatoxin B1 in contaminated rice straw by Pleurotus ostreatus MTCC 142 and Pleurotus ostreatus GHBBF10 in the presence of metal salts and surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arijit; Bhattacharya, Sourav; Palaniswamy, Muthusamy; Angayarkanni, Jayaraman

    2014-08-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic fungal metabolite having carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic effects on human and animal health. Accidental feeding of aflatoxin-contaminated rice straw may be detrimental for ruminant livestock and can lead to transmission of this toxin or its metabolites into the milk of dairy cattle. White-rot basidiomycetous fungus Pleurotus ostreatus produces ligninolytic enzymes like laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP). These extracellular enzymes have been reported to degrade many environmentally hazardous compounds. The present study examines the ability of P. ostreatus strains to degrade AFB1 in rice straw in the presence of metal salts and surfactants. Laccase and MnP activities were determined spectrophotometrically. The efficiency of AFB1 degradation was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. Highest degradation was recorded for both P. ostreatus MTCC 142 (89.14 %) and P. ostreatus GHBBF10 (91.76 %) at 0.5 µg mL(-1) initial concentration of AFB1. Enhanced degradation was noted for P. ostreatus MTCC 142 in the presence of Cu(2+) and Triton X-100, at toxin concentration of 5 µg mL(-1). P. ostreatus GHBBF10 showed highest degradation in the presence of Zn(2+) and Tween 80. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis revealed the formation of hydrated, decarbonylated and O-dealkylated products. The present findings suggested that supplementation of AFB1-contaminated rice straw by certain metal salts and surfactants can improve the enzymatic degradation of this mycotoxin by P. ostreatus strains.

  17. Relationship between Microstructure and HIC Susceptibility of X60 and X100 Pipeline Steels%X60和X100钢显微组织与HIC性能的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢宋乐; 柳伟; 王婷婷; 张翼; 王学敏; 路民旭

    2015-01-01

    采用NACE标准对X60和X100两种管线钢进行氢致开裂(HIC)试验,并通过金相显微镜和扫描电镜观察显微组织及夹杂物对两种管线钢氢致开裂性能的影响.结果表明,与X60钢相比,X100钢对HIC更为敏感,其裂纹数量远多于X60钢.X60钢在珠光体/铁素体界面上形成细裂纹,在铁的碳化物和Al-O-Ti夹杂物处形成粗裂纹.X100钢在贝氏体组织上形成细裂纹,在贝氏体组织和夹杂物的共同作用下形成粗裂纹.由于X100钢晶粒尺寸小,由夹杂物作为氢陷阱形成的粗裂纹宽度远小于X60钢中的.除了铁的碳化物和钙化的Al-O-Ti夹杂物,X100钢裂纹中出现更加复杂的Mn-Ca-Mg-Si-O-S多元素复合夹杂,钼元素的富集物对裂纹的扩展影响不显著.

  18. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  19. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Buoyancy Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Buoyancy Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  20. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Relative Humidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Relative Humidity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  1. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Relative Humidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Relative Humidity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  2. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Relative Humidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Relative Humidity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  3. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Wind Stress

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Wind Stress data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  4. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, ADCP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) water currents data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian...

  5. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Evaporation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Evaporation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  6. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  7. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Air Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Air Temperature data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  8. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  9. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, ADCP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) water currents data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA...

  10. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Evaporation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Evaporation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  11. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Evaporation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Evaporation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/),...

  12. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Salinity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/),...

  13. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  14. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Heat Content

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Heat Content data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  15. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Wind Stress

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Wind Stress data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  16. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Position

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Position data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/),...

  17. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Temperature data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  18. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Position

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Position data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/),...

  19. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Temperature data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/),...

  20. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Incoming Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  1. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Currents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Currents data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/),...

  2. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, ADCP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) water currents data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA...

  3. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, ADCP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) water currents data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian...

  4. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Incoming Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  5. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Air Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Air Temperature data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  6. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Incoming Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  7. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Buoyancy Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Buoyancy Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  8. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Heat Content

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Heat Content data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  9. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Temperature data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  10. Enhancement of intestinal absorption of poorly absorbed hydrophilic compounds by simultaneous use of mucolytic agent and non-ionic surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuka, Shinya; Kitazawa, Takeo; Morita, Takahiro; Horikiri, Yuji; Yoshino, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    The effect of co-administration of a mucolytic agent with a penetration enhancer was assessed on the intestinal absorption of poorly absorbed hydrophilic compounds. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran with average molecular weight of ca. 4.4 kDa (FD-4) was used as a model compound, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was used as a mucolytic agent. Sodium caprate (C10), tartaric acid (TA), sodium taurodeoxycholate (TDC), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), p-t-octyl phenol polyoxyethylene-9.5 (Triton X-100, TX-100) were selected as penetration enhancers with different mechanisms of action. Various dosing solutions containing a penetration enhancer in the absence or in the presence of NAC were directly administered into the exposed rat jejunum, and the bioavailability of FD-4 up to 2 h was determined. The extent of improvement by co-administration was highly dependent on the penetration enhancer species applied. The observed enhancement was thought to result from the mucolytic activity of NAC, which can reduce the mucus viscosity and facilitate the penetration of FD-4 to mucosal membrane. Among the combinations tested, the simultaneous administration of NAC and TX-100 provided the highest enhancement (22.5-fold) of intestinal FD-4 absorption compared to the control. Although the detailed mechanism for the observed drastic improvement is unclear, one possible reason was thought to be due to the improved diffusivity of TX-100 micellar system in the mucus layer. All these results suggest that the combination of a mucolytic agent and a non-ionic surfactant may have potential as an enhancing system for peroral delivery of poorly absorbed hydrophilic compounds like protein and peptide drugs.

  11. Flow Behaviour of Alkali, Surfactant, and Xanthan Solutions Used for Enhanced Oil Recovery Fluidité des solutions d'alcali, de tensio-actif et de xanthane utilisées pour la récupération assistée du pétrole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr-El-Din H. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to examine the effects of various alkalis, surfactants and brines on the viscosity of dilute aqueous solutions of two xanthan materials containing medium and high pyruvate content, over a wide range of parameters. The effect of alkalis on the flow curves of xanthan solutions depended on alkali type and concentration, shear rate and pyruvate content of xanthan. Strong alkalis caused partial degradation of the xanthan molecules. As a result, a fast and significant reduction in apparent viscosity occurred, especially with the high pyruvate xanthan. This drop was only noticeable at low shear rates. Buffered alkalis were less detrimental to the viscosity of xanthan solutions. Triton X-100 up to 10 wt% had no significant effect on the flow curves of both xanthan materials. Neodol 25-3S caused noticeable changes only in the flow curves of the high pyruvate xanthan. Triton X-100 up to 10 wt% in the presence of alkali had no significant effect on the flow curves of either xanthan material. The addition of anionic surfactants at low concentrations slightly decreased the viscosity of alkali/xanthan solutions. A significant viscosity enhancement was observed at higher surfactant concentrations over a narrow range of alkali concentrations. This behaviour was only observed with anionic surfactants and was due to the formation of surfactant aggregates. The effect of sodium chloride on the apparent viscosity of xanthan solutions depended on polymer concentration and the pyruvate content of xanthan. Only the high pyruvate polymer at high polymer concentrations (= 1 wtO/o showed a dramatic increase in the apparent viscosity upon the addition of sodium chloride. At low polymer concentrations, calcium chloride had a more detrimental effect on the viscosity of the high pyruvate xanthan than sodium chloride. Une étude expérimentale a été effectuée pour examiner les effets de divers alcalis, tensioactifs et saumures sur la

  12. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhanon, James R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Zifer, Thomas; Jamison, Gregory M.; Loy, Douglas A.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Long, Timothy M.; Wheeler, David R.; Staiger, Chad L.

    2006-04-04

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments and the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  13. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-09-29

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  14. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-24

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  15. Triton burnup measurements in KSTAR using a neutron activation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jungmin; Cheon, MunSeong; Kim, Jun Young; Rhee, T.; Kim, Junghee; Shi, Yue-Jiang; Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of the time-integrated triton burnup for deuterium plasma in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) have been performed following the simultaneous detection of the d-d and d-t neutrons. The d-d neutrons were measured using a 3He proportional counter, fission chamber, and activated indium sample, whereas the d-t neutrons were detected using activated silicon and copper samples. The triton burnup ratio from KSTAR discharges is found to be in the range 0.01%-0.50% depending on the plasma conditions. The measured burnup ratio is compared with the prompt loss fraction of tritons calculated with the Lorentz orbit code and the classical slowing-down time. The burnup ratio is found to increase as plasma current and classical slowing-down time increase.

  16. MALIGNANT TRITON TUMOR NERVUS SURALIS YANG BERASAL DARI PLEXYFORM NEUROFIBROMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Maharini Rahayu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tumor ganas yang berasal dari saraf tepi atau tumor dengan diferensiasi elemen-elemen selubung saraf disebut sebagai malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST. Sebuah varian dari MPNST yang memperlihatkan pembentukan otot lurik disebut sebagai malignant Triton tumor. Diagnosis malignant Triton tumor harus memenuhi kriteria diagnosis MPNST dan dibuktikan adanya diferensiasi rhabdomyoblas. Kasus ini dibahas oleh karena insidennya jarang, yaitu kurang dari 5% dari keseluruhan tumor ganas jaringan lunak. Pasien adalah seorang wanita, 40 tahun, dengan nodul pada cruris dan siku kanan. Pemeriksaan mikroskopis dengan pulasan  hematoxylin eosin  pada cruris menunjukkan gambaran yang khas untuk MPNST, serta terlihat sebaran sel-sel rhabdomyoblas yang positif terhadap pengecatan Desmin dan S-100. Tumor pada siku dan nervus suralis menunjukkan gambaran plexyform neurofibroma. Berdasarkan histopatologi konvensional dan imunohistokimia, kasus disimpulkan sebagai malignant Triton tumor nervus suralis yang berasal dari plexyform neurofibroma.[MEDICINA 2013;44:135-140

  17. Methane on Triton and Pluto - New CCD spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apt, J.; Carleton, N. P.; Mackay, C. D.

    1983-01-01

    Spectra of Triton and of Pluto from 4553-9558 A at 25 A resolution are presented. Both spectra show the methane absorption near 8900 A; its equivalent width was 16 times greater on Pluto than on Triton at the time of the observations. This is the first published observation of the 8900 A feature in Triton's spectrum. The previously reported 27 m-amagat abundance of the Pluto atmosphere ignored contributions due to methane ice and should therefore be regarded as an upper limit. The observations of the Pluto spectrum discussed here show sharp structure in the 8900 and 8600 A bands; the case for an atmosphere on Pluto may turn on whether new laboratory measurements show that such structure is present in methane ice.

  18. Configuration space Faddeev calculations. I. Triton ground state properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, G. L.; Friar, J. L.; Gibson, B. F.; Afnan, I. R.

    1980-08-01

    The formulation of Faddeev-type equations in configuration space is discussed. Numerical solutions are obtained using splines and the method of orthogonal collocation. Triton observables and wave-function probabilities are calculated for s-wave NN interaction models of Malfliet and Tjon and the tensor force model of Reid. Comparison with previously published triton results is made; our full five-channel results for the Reid soft-core potential are in excellent agreement with those obtained by Afnan and Birrell using separable expansion methods. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE 3H, Faddeev calculations configuration space.

  19. Configuration space Faddeev calculations. I. Triton ground-state properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, G.L.; Friar, J.L.; Gibson, B.F.; Afnan, I.R.

    1980-08-01

    The formulation of Faddeev-type equations in configuration space is discussed. Numerical solutions are obtained using splines and the method of orthogonal collocation. Triton observables and wave-function probabilities are calculated for s-wave NN interaction models of Malfliet and Tjon and the tensor force model of Reid. Comparison with previously published triton results is made; our full five-channel results for the Reid soft-core potential are in excellent agreement with those obtained by Afnan and Birrell using separable expansion methods.

  20. NOTE: The Shape of Triton from Limb Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P. C.

    2000-12-01

    Limb profiles from Voyager 2 images of Triton show it to be an ellipsoid of axes 1354.6, 1352.8, and 1352.4 km (±0.9 km). Topography on the limbs suggests no large provinces such as "continents" with relief over a kilometer. The shape solution is not accurate enough to constrain Triton's moments of inertia. The apparently relaxed shape is consistent with the youthful geologic features and supports interpretations that atmospheric distortion suggested by occultation data is due to atmospheric phenomena rather than physical body distortions.

  1. Effect of surfactants on the performance of tubular and spherical micromotors – a comparative study†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Samuel; Chokmaviroj, Sarocha; Ruiz-Molina, Daniel; Baeza, Alejandro; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2014-01-01

    The development of artificial micromotors is one of the greatest challenges of modern nanotechnology. Even though many kinds of motors have been published in recent times, systematic studies on the influence of components of the fuel solution are widely missing. Therefore, the autonomous movement of Pt-microtubes and Pt-covered silica particles is comparatively observed in the presence and absence of surfactants in the medium. One representative of each of the three main surfactant classes – anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), cationic (benzalkonium chloride, BACl) and non-ionic (Triton X) – has been chosen and studied. PMID:25364501

  2. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of norfloxacin in aqueous Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} dispersions containing nonionic surfactant under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lin, E-mail: tanglin@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Wang, Jiajia [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zeng, Guangming, E-mail: zgming@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Liu, Yani; Deng, Yaocheng; Zhou, Yaoyu; Tang, Jing; Wang, Jingjing; Guo, Zhi [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • TX100 strongly enhanced the adsorption and photodegradation of NOF in Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} dispersions under visible light irradiation (400–750 nm). • Cu{sup 2+} (10 mM) significantly suppressed the photocatalytic degradation of NOF. • FT-IR demonstrated that the NOF adsorbed on Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} was completely degraded. • Three possible photocatalytic degradation pathways of NOF were proposed, according to the HPLC/MS/MS analysis. - Abstract: Photocatalytic degradation is an alternative method to remove pharmaceutical compounds in water, however it is hard to achieve efficient rate because of the poor solubility of pharmaceutical compounds in water. This study investigated the photodegradation of norfloxacin in a nonionic surfactant Triton-X100 (TX100)/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} dispersion under visible light irradiation (400–750 nm). It was found that the degradation of poorly soluble NOF can be strongly enhanced with the addition of TX100. TX100 was adsorbed strongly on Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} surface and accelerated NOF photodegradation at the critical micelle concentration (CMC = 0.25 mM). Higher TX100 concentration (>0.25 mM) lowered the degradation rate. In the presence of TX100, the degradation rate reached the maximum value when the pH value was 8.06. FTIR analyses demonstrated that the adsorbed NOF on the catalyst was completely degraded after 2 h irradiation. According to the intermediates identified by HPLC/MS/MS, three possible degradation pathways were proposed to include addition of hydroxyl radical to quinolone ring, elimination of piperazynilic ring in fluoroquinolone molecules, and replacement of F atoms on the aromatic ring by hydroxyl radicals.

  3. Water with low concentration of surfactant in dispersed solvent-assisted emulsion dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of fungicides in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wan-Chi; Chu, Shang-Ping; Kong, Po-Hsin; Huang, Chun-Kai; Chen, Jung-Hsuan; Chen, Pai-Shan; Huang, Shang-Da

    2014-09-17

    A sample preparation method, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction assisted by an emulsion with low concentration of a surfactant in water and dispersed solvent coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, was developed for the analysis of the fungicides cyprodinil, procymidone, fludioxonil, flusilazole, benalaxyl, and tebuconazole in wine. A microsyringe was used to withdraw and discharge a mixture of extraction solvent and 240 μL of an aqueous solution of Triton X-100 (the dispersed agent) four times within 10 s to form a cloudy emulsion in the syringe. This emulsion was then injected into a 5 mL wine sample spiked with all of the above fungicides. The total extraction time was approximately 0.5 min. Under optimum conditions using 1-octanol (12 μL) as extraction solvent, the linear range of the method in analysis of all six fungicides was 0.05-100 μg L(-1), and the limit of detection ranged from 0.013 to 0.155 μg L(-1). The absolute recoveries (n = 3) and relative recoveries (n = 3) were 30-83 and 81-108% for white wine at 0.5, 5, and 5 μg L(-1), and 30-92 and 81-110% for red wine, respectively. The intraday (n = 7) and interday (n = 6) relative standard deviations ranged from 4.4 to 8.8% and from 4.3 to 11.2% at 0.5 μg L(-1), respectively. The method achieved high enrichment factors. It is an alternative sample preparation technique with good performance.

  4. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Wind data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/), and...

  5. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Position

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Position data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/), and...

  6. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Evaporation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Evaporation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/),...

  7. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Salinity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/), and...

  8. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Temperature data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/),...

  9. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Salinity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/), and...

  10. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Wind data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/), and...

  11. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Position

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Position data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/), and...

  12. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Heat Content

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Heat Content data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/),...

  13. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Wind data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/), and...

  14. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Wind data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/), and...

  15. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Currents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Currents data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/), and...

  16. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Currents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Currents data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/), and...

  17. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Wind Stress

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Wind Stress data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/),...

  18. Replanteamiento de la Estrategia 100x100 a partir de un Índice de Desarrollo Humano para Localidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Zamudio-Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un índice para medir el desarrollo humano. Se toman como bases conceptuales los principios de Amartya Sen y, como forma operativa, una métrica estadística. Comparamos los resultados de un conjunto de municipios con el índice propuesto, contra los municipios incluidos en la denominada Estrategia 100x100. La selección indica que la estrategia debe ser modificada y que el índice propuesto se relaciona mejor con otros índices sociales actualmente usados. Nuestra metodología es muy general para construir un índice y puede ser usada para obtener medidas de otras características sociales.

  19. Preparation of TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposite with non-ionic surfactants via sol-gel process and their photocatalytic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Nandanwar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents that the TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposite particles were prepared from using TTIP precursor for titania and TEOS precursor for silica, by using a sol-gel method at low temperature in acidic pH with various templates: poly(ethylene glycol (PEG and Triton X-100 (TX-100. The properties of resulting Ti/Si nanocomposites materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy; Photo-Luminescence spectra and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR techniques. The results show that the TS cores were uniformly coated by Triton X-100 exhibited regular morphology and having spherical nanoparticles. XRD result showed that TS:TX having smaller crystallite size than the TS:TX nanocomposite particles and in both samples only include anatase phase. The UV–Vis spectrum of as-synthesized samples shows absorption in the visible range. The PL emission intensity of TS:TX nanocomposite was slightly decreased compared with TS:PEG nanocomposite due to decrease in recombination rate. From FTIR results metal oxide stretching was confirmed in both the samples. The photocatalytic activity of samples was tested for degradation of methylene blue (MB solutions. The results clearly showed that TS coated Triton X-100 sample exhibited higher activity than that of TS:PEG under UV irradiation, due to the low recombination rate of photo-generated electrons and holes.

  20. Surfactants in tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Biresaw, Girma

    2014-01-01

    Surface science and tribology play very critical roles in many industries. Manufacture and use of almost all consumer and industrial products rely on the application of advanced surface and tribological knowledge. The fourth in a series, Surfactants in Tribology, Volume 4 provides an update on research and development activities connecting surfactants and tribological phenomena. Written by renowned subject matter experts, the book demonstrates how improved design of surfactants can be harnessed to control tribological phenomena. Profusely illustrated and copiously referenced, the chapters also

  1. POLYMERIC SURFACTANT STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.M. Saville; J.W. White

    2001-01-01

    Polymeric surfactants are amongst the most widespread of all polymers. In nature, proteins and polysaccharides cause self organization as a result of this surfactancy; in industry, polymeric surfactants play key roles in the food, explosives and surface coatings sectors. The generation of useful nano- and micro-structures in films and emulsions as a result of polymer amphiphilicity and the application of mechanical stress is discussed. The use of X-ray and neutron small angle scattering and reflectivity to measure these structures and their dynamic properties will be described. New results on linear and dendritic polymer surfactants are presented.

  2. Dendrimer-surfactant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yiyun; Zhao, Libo; Li, Tianfu

    2014-04-28

    In this article, we reviewed the interactions between dendrimers and surfactants with particular focus on the interaction mechanisms and physicochemical properties of the yielding dendrimer-surfactant aggregates. In order to provide insight into the behavior of dendrimers in biological systems, the interactions of dendrimers with bio-surfactants such as phospholipids in bulk solutions, in solid-supported bilayers and at the interface of phases or solid-states were discussed. Applications of the dendrimer-surfactant aggregates as templates to guide the synthesis of nanoparticles and in drug or gene delivery were also mentioned.

  3. Surfactant Sector Needs Urgent Readjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Hongzhou

    2007-01-01

    @@ Surfactant industrial system has been basically established After 50 years' development, China has already established a surfactant industrial system with a relatively complete product portfolio and can produce 4714 varieties of surfactants in cationic,anionic, nonionic and amphoteric categories.

  4. Simulation of triton burn-up in JET plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughlin, M.J.; Balet, B.; Jarvis, O.N.; Stubberfield, P.M. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    This paper presents the first triton burn-up calculations for JET plasmas using the transport code TRANSP. Four hot ion H-mode deuterium plasmas are studied. For these discharges, the 2.5 MeV emission rises rapidly and then collapses abruptly. This phenomenon is not fully understood but in each case the collapse phase is associated with a large impurity influx known as the ``carbon bloom``. The peak 14 MeV emission occurs at this time, somewhat later than that of the 2.5 MeV neutron peak. The present results give a clear indication that there are no significant departures from classical slowing down and spatial diffusion for tritons in JET plasmas. (authors). 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Relativistic calculation of the triton binding energy and its implications

    CERN Document Server

    Stadler, A; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz

    1996-01-01

    First results for the triton binding energy obtained from the relativistic spectator or Gross equation are reported. The Dirac structure of the nucleons is taken into account. Numerical results are presented for a family of realistic OBE models with off-shell scalar couplings. It is shown that these off-shell couplings improve both the fits to the two-body data and the predictions for the binding energy.

  6. A NEPtune/Triton Vision Mission Using Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienstock, B.; Atkinson, D. H.; Baines, K.; Mahaffy, P.; Atreya, S.; Stern, A.; Steffes, P.; Wright, M.; Ball Collaboration; Boeing Collaboration

    2005-08-01

    The giant planets of the outer solar system divide into two distinct classes: the ``Gas Giants" Jupiter and Saturn, and the ``Ice Giants" Uranus and Neptune. While the Gas Giants primarily comprise hydrogen and helium, the Ice Giants appear fundamentally different, containing significant amounts of the heavier elements including oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur. Comparisons of the internal structure and overall composition of the Gas and Ice Giants will yield valuable insights into the processes that formed our solar system and possibly extrasolar systems. By 2012 detailed studies of the chemical and physical properties of Jupiter and Saturn will have been completed by the Pioneer, Voyager, Galileo, Cassini, and Juno missions. A Neptune Orbiter with Probes mission would deliver the corresponding key data for an Ice Giant. Such a mission to study Triton, Nereid, the other icy satellites of Neptune, Neptune's system of rings, and the deep Neptune atmosphere to pressures ranging from several hundred bars to possibly several kilobars has been studied. Power and propulsion would be provided using nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technologies. This ambitious mission requires a number of technical issues be investigated and resolved, including: (1) developing a reasonable mission design that allows proper targeting and timing of the entry probe(s) while offering adequate opportunities for Triton, small icy satellite, and ring science, (2) giant-planet atmospheric probe thermal protection system (TPS) design, (3) deep probe design including pressure vessel, seals, windows, penetrations and inlets, (4) deep probe telecommunications through Neptune's dense and absorbing atmosphere, 5) Triton lander design to conduct extended surface science, and (6) defining an appropriate suite of science instruments for the Orbiter, Probes and Landers to explore the depths of the Neptune atmosphere, magnetic field, Triton, and the icy satellites utilizing the ample mass and power

  7. SURFACTANTS IN LUBRICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surfactants are one of the most widely applied materials by consumers and industry. The application areas for surfactants span from everyday mundane tasks such as cleaning, to highly complex processes involving the formulation of pharmaceuticals, foods, pesticides, lubricants, etc. Even though sur...

  8. Dynamic covalent surfactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minkenberg, C.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis the development of surfactant aggregates with fast exchange dynamics between the aggregated and non-aggregated state is described. Dynamic surfactant exchange plays an important role in natural systems, for instance in cell signaling, cell division, and uptake and release of cargo. Re

  9. The Triton from the Reid93 Potential in the UPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, B. F.; Afnan, I. R.

    2013-08-01

    The unitary pole approximation (UPA) provides an effective means to construct a rank one separable potential for calculations in which one requires a simple representation of the deuteron and/or triton ground-state wave function. By construction the deuteron wave function and the 1S0 anti-bound state wave function of the original potential are reproduced. We report results for the corresponding triton ground state. We choose to utilize the realistic Reid93 potential for this purpose. The Reid93 potential, generated by the Nijmegen group, is a Reid-like, partial-wave local potential that produces a χ2 representation of the nucleon-nucleon ( NN) scattering data that is as precise as an NN partial-wave analysis. Results for properties of 2H and 3H from the UPA are compared with those for the original potential. To further illustrate the precision of the method, results for properties of the deuteron and triton from the UPA are also compared with those for the original Reid68 potential.

  10. Psychoanalytic and musical ambiguity: the tritone in gee, officer krupke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee Nagel, Julie

    2010-02-01

    The poignant and timeless Broadway musical West Side Story is viewed from the standpoint of taking musical forms as psychoanalytic data. The musical configuration of notes called the tritone (or diabolus in musica) is taken as a sonic metaphor expressing ambiguity both in musical vocabulary and in mental life. The tritone, which historically and harmonically represents instability, is heard throughout the score and emphasizes the intrapsychic, interpersonal, and social dramas that unfold within and between the two gangs in West Side Story. Particular emphasis is given to the comic but exceedingly sober song Gee, Officer Krupke. Bernstein's sensitivity to the ambiguity and tension inherent in the tritone in West Side Story is conceptualized as an intersection of music theory and theories of mind; this perspective holds implications for clinical practice and transports psychoanalytic concepts from the couch to the Broadway stage and into the community to address the complexities of love, hate, aggression, prejudice, and violence. Ultimately, West Side Story cross-pollinates music and theater, as well as music and psychoanalytic concepts.

  11. Pitch jnd and the tritone paradox: The linguistic nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Kourosh

    2002-11-01

    Previous research has shown a connection between absolute pitch (the ability to name a specific pitch in the absence of any reference) and native competence in a tone language (Deutsch, 1990). In tone languages, tone is one of the features which determines the lexical meaning of a word. This study investigates the relationship between native competence in a tone language and the just noticeable difference of pitch. Furthermore, the tritone paradox studies have shown that subjects hear two tritones (with bell-shaped spectral envelopes) as either ascending or descending depending on their linguistic backgrounds (Deutsch, 1987). It is hypothesized that the native speakers of tone languages have a higher JND for pitch, and hear the two tones of the tritone paradox as ascending, whereas, native speakers of nontone languages hear them as descending. This study will indicate the importance of early musical training for the development of acute tone sensitivity. It will also underline the importance of language and culture in the way it shapes our musical understanding. The significance of this study will be in the areas of music education and pedagogy.

  12. Surfactants in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanković, Tomislav; Hrenović, Jasna

    2010-03-01

    Surfactants are a diverse group of chemicals that are best known for their wide use in detergents and other cleaning products. After use, residual surfactants are discharged into sewage systems or directly into surface waters, and most of them end up dispersed in different environmental compartments such as soil, water or sediment. The toxic effects of surfactants on various aquatic organisms are well known. In general, surfactants are present in the environment at levels below toxicity and in Croatia below the national limit. Most surfactants are readily biodegradable and their amount is greatly reduced with secondary treatment in wastewater treatment plants. The highest concern is the release of untreated wastewater or wastewater that has undergone primary treatment alone. The discharge of wastewater polluted with massive quantities of surfactants could have serious effects on the ecosystem. Future studies of surfactant toxicities and biodegradation are necessary to withdraw highly toxic and non-biodegradable compounds from commercial use and replace them with more environmentally friendly ones.

  13. Pulmonary surfactant and lung transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, Michiel Elardus

    1997-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant lowers the surface tension at the air-water interface inside the alveolus. This is achieved by adsorption of surfactant phospholipids at the air-water interface, a process controlled by surfactant-associated proteins, such as SP-A. In this way, surfactant prevents collapse of th

  14. Separation process for lanthanides based on solvation properties of non ionic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draye, M.; Favre-Reguillon, A.; Foos, J.; Cote, G

    2004-07-01

    In the present study, cloud-point extraction is used with a lipophilic chelating agent (8-hydroxyquinoline) to extract and separate lanthanum (III) and gadolinium (III) from an aqueous solution. The methodology used is based on the formation of lanthanide (III) organic complexes that are soluble in a micellar phase of non-ionic surfactant. The lanthanide (III) complexes are then extracted into the surfactant-rich phase at a temperature above the cloud-point temperature. The cloud-point temperature, the structure of the lipophilic part of the nonionic surfactant and the chelating agent - metal molar ratio are identified as factors determining the extraction efficiency and selectivity. With Triton X-114, high selectivity and decontamination factor for Gd(III) is observed indicating that micelle mediated extraction involving cloud-point extraction is promising for the specific separation of actinide ions from nuclear waste solution. (authors)

  15. Metathesis depolymerizable surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Gregory M.; Wheeler, David R.; Loy, Douglas A.; Simmons, Blake A.; Long, Timothy M.; McElhanon, James R.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Staiger, Chad L.

    2008-04-15

    A class of surfactant molecules whose structure includes regularly spaced unsaturation in the tail group and thus, can be readily decomposed by ring-closing metathesis, and particularly by the action of a transition metal catalyst, to form small molecule products. These small molecules are designed to have increased volatility and/or enhanced solubility as compared to the original surfactant molecule and are thus easily removed by solvent extraction or vacuum extraction at low temperature. By producing easily removable decomposition products, the surfactant molecules become particularly desirable as template structures for preparing meso- and microstructural materials with tailored properties.

  16. Development of Wuchereria bancrofti in Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) exposed in the larval instar to sublethal dosages of insecticides and one insect growth regulator and their influence on reproduction of filaria-infected mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, A I; Husseiny, I M; Soliman, B A; Soliman, M A; el-Kady, M A

    1997-12-01

    The effects of exposure of Culex pipiens larvae to sublethel concentrations of larvicides on uptake, development of Wuchereria bancrofti, survival rate and reproduction of filaria-infected mosquitoes were investigated. Fourth instar larvae of Cx. pipiens were exposed to LC40 of the surfactant Triton X-100, the insect growth regulator DPX alone or combined with LC10 of the surfactant and permethrin alone or combined with LC10 of the surfactant. Adults that survived insecticide treatments and controls were infected by allowing them to feed on microfilaremic volunteers. Significant reduction in the uptake of microfilaria was observed in groups treated with Triton X-100 alone or combined either with permethrin or DPX when compared to control. The overall infection and infective rates were significantly reduced in mosquitoes treated with Triton X-100 either alone or combined with permethrin. Treatment with Triton X-100 and DPX prolonged the extrinsic incubation period (EIP) and retarded the development of filarial larvae, while permethrin either alone or combined with Triton X-100 and DPX combined with Triton X-100 shortened the EIP. All larvicides reduced the number of infective larvae (L3)/mosquito and induced deformities among he different parasite stages, especially in mosquitoes treated with combination of permethrin and Triton X-100 or mixture of DPX and Triton X-100 where 36% and 54.9% respectively of L3S were deformed. In treated mosquitoes, a low percentage of L3S was detected in the head and proboscis region while the majority was trapped in the thoracic region. The survival rates of mosquitoes were reduced in cases treated with permethrin, DPX and Triton X-100 while treatment with mixture of DPX and Triton X-100 induced higher rate of mortalities when compared to control. Egg production of filaria- infected Cx. pipiens was significantly reduced in mosquitoes treated with DPX and Triton X-100. It was observed that the addition of Triton X-100 to DPX or to

  17. Effects of 『Persicae Semen』 on the Hyperlipidemia Rats Induced by Triton WR-1339

    OpenAIRE

    Dae-In Kang; Kyeong-Sun Soh; Chan-Gil Jeong; Kwang-Ho Kim

    2004-01-01

    Objective : In order to study effects of 「Persicae Semen」 on the hyperlipidemia rats induced by Triton WR, we have made hyperlipidemia rats by administering Triton WR-1339 for 3 days, then have administered. The results were summerized as follows : 1. The Total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, Free fatty acid, phospholipid and CRF(Cardiak Risk Factor) by hypercholesteremic rats injected by Triton WR-1339 of the herb-Acupuncture group were decreased as compared with those of the ...

  18. Characterization of impregnated GDC nano structures and their functionality in LSM based cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemensø, Trine; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2012-01-01

    Porous composite cathodes of LSM–YSZ (lanthanum strontium manganite and yttria stabilized zirconia) were impregnated with GDC (gadolinia doped ceria) nano particles. The impregnation process was varied using none or different surfactants (Triton X-45, Triton X-100, P123), and the quantity of impr...

  19. Neuroprotection of Grape Seed Extract and Pyridoxine against Triton-Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba M. Abdou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Triton WR-1339 administration causes neurotoxicity. Natural products and herbal extracts can attenuate cerebral injury. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 against triton-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-five adult male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 140–145 g, were divided into five groups: control, triton, grape seed extract + triton, grape seed extract + triton + vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 + triton. The hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out. Alteration in iNOS mRNA gene expression was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis. In addition, qualitative DNA fragmentation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Triton-treatment caused significant disturbances in the hematological parameters, the neurological functions, and the antioxidant profile. Also, triton significantly increased the iNOS mRNA expression and DNA damage. Our results showed that grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 could attenuate all the examined parameters. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against triton-induced neurological damage because of their antioxidative and antiapoptotic capacities.

  20. Phosphine oxide surfactants revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubenrauch, Cosima; Preisig, Natalie; Laughlin, Robert G

    2016-04-01

    This review summarizes everything we currently know about the nonionic surfactants alkyl dimethyl (C(n)DMPO) and alkyl diethyl (C(n)DEPO) phosphine oxide (PO surfactants). The review starts with the synthesis and the general properties (Section 2) of these compounds and continues with their interfacial properties (Section 3) such as surface tension, surface rheology, interfacial tension and adsorption at solid surfaces. We discuss studies on thin liquid films and foams stabilized by PO surfactants (Section 4) as well as studies on their self-assembly into lyotropic liquid crystals and microemulsions, respectively (Section 5). We aim at encouraging colleagues from both academia and industry to take on board PO surfactants whenever possible and feasible because of their broad variety of excellent properties.

  1. Surfactant-Amino Acid and Surfactant-Surfactant Interactions in Aqueous Medium: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Nisar Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    An overview of surfactant-amino acid interactions mainly in aqueous medium has been discussed. Main emphasis has been on the solution thermodynamics and solute-solvent interactions. Almost all available data on the topic has been presented in a lucid and simple way. Conventional surfactants have been discussed as amphiphiles forming micelles and amino acids as additives and their effect on the various physicochemical properties of these conventional surfactants. Surfactant-surfactant interactions in aqueous medium, various mixed surfactant models, are also highlighted to assess their interactions in aqueous medium. Finally, their applied part has been taken into consideration to interpret their possible uses.

  2. Triton Electric Form Factor at Low-Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Sadeghi, H

    2009-01-01

    Making use of the Effective Field Theory(EFT) expansion recently developed by the authors, we compute the charge form factor of triton up to next-to-next-to-leading order (N$^2$LO). The three-nucleon forces(3NF) is required for renormalization of the three-nucleon system and it effects are predicted for process and is qualitatively supported by available experimental data. We also show that, by including higher order corrections, the calculated charge form factor and charge radius of $^3$H are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data and the realistic Argonne $v_{18}$ two-nucleon and Urbana IX potential models calculations. This method makes possible a high precision few-body calculations in nuclear physics. Our result converges order by order in low energy expansion and also cut-off independent.

  3. Measurements of energetic confined alphas and tritons on TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medley, S.S.; Duong, H.H.; McChesney, J.M. [and others

    1995-08-01

    In a collaboration involving General Atomics, the A. F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, and the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, the energy distribution of the fast-confined alpha particles in DT experiments on TFIR is being measured by active neutral particle analysis using the ablation cloud surrounding an injected impurity pellet as the neutralizer. Recent papers reported the first measurements of the energy distribution fast confined alpha particles and examined the influence of magnetic field ripple and sawtooth oscillations on the behavior of the alpha energy spectra and radial density distributions. This paper focuses on alpha and triton measurements in the core of quiescent TFTR discharges where the expected classical slowing down and pitch angle scattering effects are not complicated by stochastic ripple diffusion and sawtooth activity.

  4. Sizing up surfactant synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, SeungHye; Mallampalli, Rama K

    2014-08-01

    Phosphatidylcholine is generated through de novo synthesis and remodeling involving a lysophospholipid. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, research from the Shimizu lab (Harayama et al., 2014) demonstrates the highly selective enzymatic behavior of lysophospholipid acyltransferases. The authors present an enzymatic model for phosphatidylcholine molecular species diversification that impacts surfactant formation.

  5. Effect of surfactants on the morphology of FeSe films fabricated from a single source precursor by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raja Azadar Hussain; Amin Badshah; Naghma Haider; Malik Dilshad Khan; Bhajan Lal

    2015-03-01

    This article presents the fabrication of FeSe thin films from a single source precursor namely (1-(2-fluorobenzoyl)-3-(4-ferrocenyl-3-methylphenyl)selenourea (MeP2F)) by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD). All the films were prepared via similar experimental conditions (temperature, flow rate, concentration, solvent system and reactor type) except the use of three different concentrations of two different surfactants i.e., triton and span. Seven thin films were characterized with PXRD, SEM, AFM, EDS and EDS mapping. The mechanism of the interaction of surfactant with MeP2F was determined with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

  6. Triton burnup study using scintillating fiber detector on JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harano, Hideki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1997-09-01

    The DT fusion reactor cannot be realized without knowing how the fusion-produced 3.5 MeV {alpha} particles behave. The {alpha} particles` behavior can be simulated using the 1 MeV triton. To investigate the 1 MeV triton`s behavior, a new type of directional 14 MeV neutron detector, scintillating fiber (Sci-Fi) detector has been developed and installed on JT-60U in the cooperation with LANL as part of a US-Japan collaboration. The most remarkable feature of the Sci-Fi detector is that the plastic scintillating fibers are employed for the neutron sensor head. The Sci-Fi detector measures and extracts the DT neutrons from the fusion radiation field in high time resolution (10 ms) and wide dynamic range (3 decades). Triton burnup analysis code TBURN has been made in order to analyze the time evolution of DT neutron emission rate obtained by the Sci-Fi detector. The TBURN calculations reproduced the measurements fairly well, and the validity of the calculation model that the slowing down of the 1 MeV triton was classical was confirmed. The Sci-Fi detector`s directionality indicated the tendency that the DT neutron emission profile became more and more peaked with the time progress. In this study, in order to examine the effect of the toroidal field ripple on the triton burnup, R{sub p}-scan and n{sub e}-scan experiments have been performed. The R{sub p}-scan experiment indicates that the triton`s transport was increased as the ripple amplitude over the triton became larger. In the n{sub e}-scan experiment, the DT neutron emission showed the characteristic changes after the gas puffing injection. It was theoretically confirmed that the gas puffing was effective for the collisionality scan. (J.P.N.) 127 refs.

  7. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Net Shortwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Net Shortwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  8. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Sigma-Theta

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Sigma-Theta (Potential Density Anomaly) data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  9. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Sensible Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Sensible Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  10. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Buoyancy Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Buoyancy Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  11. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Incoming Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  12. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Relative Humidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Relative Humidity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  13. Effects of sawtooth crashes on beam ions and fusion product tritons in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, F.B.; Hone, M.A.; Jarvis, O.N.; Loughlin, M.J.; Sadler, G. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Adams, J.M.; Bond, D.S.; Watkins, N. [UKAEA Harwell Lab. (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Div.; Howarth, P.J.A. [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    The effect of a sawtooth crash on the radial distribution of the slowing down fusion product tritons and on beams ions, is examined with measurements of the 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV neutron emission line-integrals before and after sawtooth crashes. In deuterium discharges, the 14 MeV neutron production was wholly attributable to burnup of the 1 MeV fusion product tritons from d-d fusion. The local emissivity of 14 MeV neutrons, and hence of the profile of thermalizing tritons, is shown to be only weakly affected by crashes in the discharges studied. This is in contradiction with the apparent behaviour of injected beam ions as deduced from a study of the considerable changes in local emissivity of the 2.5 MeV neutrons. Nevertheless, the behaviour of the fusion product tritons is consistent with the scaling of the beam injected deuterium. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  14. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Total Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Total Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  15. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Potential Density Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Potential Density Anomaly (sigma-theta) data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  16. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Heat Flux Due To Rain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Heat Flux Due To Rain data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  17. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Heat Flux Due To Rain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Heat Flux Due To Rain data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  18. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Heat Flux Due To Rain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Heat Flux Due To Rain data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  19. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Heat Flux Due To Rain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Heat Flux Due To Rain data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  20. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Downgoing Shortwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Downgoing Shortwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  1. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Evaporation Minus Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Evaporation Minus Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  2. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Air Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Air Temperature data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  3. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Downgoing Shortwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Downgoing Shortwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  4. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Downgoing Shortwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Downgoing Shortwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  5. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Evaporation Minus Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Evaporation Minus Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  6. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Evaporation Minus Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Evaporation Minus Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  7. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Latent Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Latent Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  8. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Net Shortwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Net Shortwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  9. Malignant triton tumour of the sinonasal tract: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmajeed Zakzouk

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Malignant triton tumour is a rare malignancy of the sinonasal tract. Otolaryngologists should be aware of this disease. The optimal treatment should include radical resection of the tumour.

  10. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Downgoing Shortwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Downgoing Shortwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  11. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Evaporation Minus Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Evaporation Minus Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  12. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Sensible Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Sensible Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  13. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Net Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Net Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  14. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Latent Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Latent Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  15. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Net Shortwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Net Shortwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  16. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Net Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Net Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  17. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Total Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Total Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  18. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  19. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Barometric (Air) Pressure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Barometric (Air) Pressure data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  20. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Barometric (Air) Pressure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Barometric (Air) Pressure data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  1. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Barometric (Air) Pressure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Barometric (Air) Pressure data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  2. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Sea Surface Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Sea Surface Salinity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  3. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Net Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Net Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  4. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Net Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Net Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  5. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Latent Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Latent Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  6. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Potential Density Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Potential Density Anomaly (sigma-theta) data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  7. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  8. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Sigma-Theta

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Sigma-Theta (Potential Density Anomaly) data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  9. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Potential Density Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Potential Density Anomaly (sigma-theta) data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  10. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 20C Isotherm Depth

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly 20C Isotherm Depth data (the depth at which the ocean temperature is 20C) from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean,...

  11. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Sigma-Theta

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Sigma-Theta (Potential Density Anomaly) data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  12. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Latent Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Latent Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  13. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  14. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Total Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Total Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  15. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Sea Surface Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Sea Surface Salinity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  16. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Sigma-Theta

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Sigma-Theta (Potential Density Anomaly) data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  17. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Total Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Total Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  18. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Barometric (Air) Pressure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Barometric (Air) Pressure data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  19. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 20C Isotherm Depth

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly 20C Isotherm Depth data (the depth at which the ocean temperature is 20C) from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean,...

  20. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Net Shortwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Net Shortwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  1. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Sea Surface Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Sea Surface Salinity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  2. MICROBIAL SURFACTANTS. I. GLYCOLIPIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirog T. Р.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The review is devoted to surface-active glycolipids. The general characteristics, the physiological role of the rhamnolipids, trehalose lipids, sophorolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids and their traditional producers — the representatives of the genera Pseudozyma, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus and Candida are given. The detailed analysis of the chemical structure, the stages of the biosynthesis and the regulation of some low molecular glycolipids are done. The own experimental data concerning the synthesis intensification, the physiological role and the practical use of Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactants, which are a complex of the glyco-, phospho-, amino- and neutral lipids (glycolipids of all strains are presented by trehalose mycolates are summarized. It was found that R. erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, A. calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactants have protective, antimicrobial and antiadhesive properties. It was shown that R. erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, A. calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactants preparation of cultural liquid intensified the degradation of oil in water due to the activation of the natural petroleum-oxidizing microflora.

  3. MICROBIAL SURFACTANTS. II. LIPOPEPTIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Pirog

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The classification and the chemical structure of the lipopeptides and their producers (bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas are given. The role of the lipopeptides in cells motility, biofilm formation, metal binding and xenobiotics degradation and their action on the cells of pro- and eukaryotes is summarized. The stages of the nonribosomal lipopeptides synthesis and the role of two-component (GacA/GacS, ComA/ComP and the quorum system regulation of this process are shown. The potential of lactic acid bacteria and marine microorganisms as alternative surfactants producers (glycolipids, lipopeptides, phospholipids and fatty acids, glycolipopeptides are discussed. Their productivity and advantages over traditional producers are given as well. The properties of surfactants synthesized by lactic acid bacteria (the reduction of the surface tension, the critical micelle concentration, the stability in a wide range of pH, the temperature, the biological activity are summarized. Surfactants of nonpathogenic probiotic bacteria could be used as effective antimicrobial agents and antiadhesive and marine producers which able to synthesize unique metabolites that are not produced by other microorganisms.

  4. Composition, Physical State, and Distribution of Ices at the Surface of Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBergh, Catherine; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Owen, Tobias C.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Roush, Ted L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of near-infrared observations of the icy surface of Triton, recorded on 1995 September 7, with the cooled grating spectrometer CGS4 at the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (Mauna Kea, HI). This analysis was performed in two steps. The step consisted of identifying the molecules composing Triton's surface by comparing the observations with laboratory transmission spectra (direct spectral analysis ); this also gives information on the physical state of the components.

  5. Surfactants at the Design Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajka, Adam; Hazell, Gavin; Eastoe, Julian

    2015-08-04

    This article analyzes how the individual structural elements of surfactant molecules affect surface properties, in particular, the point of reference defined by the limiting surface tension at the aqueous cmc, γcmc. Particular emphasis is given to how the chemical nature and structure of the hydrophobic tails influence γcmc. By comparing the three different classes of surfactants, fluorocarbon, silicone, and hydrocarbon, a generalized surface packing index is introduced which is independent of the chemical nature of the surfactants. This parameter ϕcmc represents the volume fraction of surfactant chain fragments in a surface film at the aqueous cmc. It is shown that ϕcmc is a useful index for understanding the limiting surface tension of surfactants and can be useful for designing new superefficient surfactants.

  6. Catalytic Spectrophotometric Determination of Ultratrace Amounts of Silver with Solubilizing Effect of Nonionic Surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO,Xiao-Jun(郭效军); DENG,Qi-Liang(邓启良); PENG,Bo(彭波); GAO,Jin-Zhang(高锦章); KANG,Jing-Wan(康敬万)

    2002-01-01

    The synthesis and analytical properties of 4,4'-bis(antipyrinyl 4-diazoamino) biphenyl (BAPDAB) were described for the first time. A catalytic kinetic method for the determination of silver was proposed. In the presence of Triton X-100 as a solubilizing agent and 2,2'-dipyridyl as an activator, silver has a very strong catalytic effect on oxidative decoloration of BAPDAB by persulfate in acetic acid medium. The reaction was followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease of absorbance of BAPDAB at 478 nm and 50 ℃. The calibration graphs are of good linearity in the range of 8.0 ×10-10-1.0 × 10-6 mol/L by a fixed time method. The limit of detection is down to 5.0 × 10-10 mol/L. The catalytic reaction is pseudo-first-order with respect to silver, which in real samples was determined with satisfactory results.

  7. BINDING ISOTHERMS SURFACTANT-PROTEINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Irina Moater

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between surfactants and proteins shows some similarities with interactions between surfactants and polymers, but the hydrophobic amphoteric nature of proteins and their secondary and tertiary structure components make them different from conventional polymer systems. Many studies from the past about surfactant - proteins bonding used the dialysis techniques. Other techniques used to determine the binding isotherm, included ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation, potentiometry, ion-selective electrode method and surface tension. High affinity isotherms which are typical of an anionic surfactant - protein bonding, exhibit an initial increase steep followed by a slow growth region and then a vertical growth above a certain concentration. This isotherm is typical of ionic surfactant to protein binding. Often the high affinity initial bond appears at very low concentrations of surfactant and therefore in some protein-surfactant systems, the exact shape of the isotherm in this region may be missing. The surfactant - protein binding is influenced by a number of variables such as the nature and chain length of surfactant, pH, ionic strength, temperature, nature of this protein and additives.

  8. Interaction of nonionic surfactant AEO9 with ionic surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-guo; YIN Hong

    2005-01-01

    The interaction in two mixtures of a nonionic surfactant AEO9 (C12H25O(CH2CH2O)9H) and different ionic surfactants was investigated. The two mixtures were AEO9/sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and AEO9/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at molar fraction of AEO9, αAEO9 =0.5. The surface properties of the surfactants, critical micelle concentration (CMC),effectiveness of surface tension reduction (γCMC), maximum surface excess concentration (Гmax) and minimum area per molecule at the air/solution interface (Amin) were determined for both individual surfactants and their mixtures. The significant deviations from ideal behavior (attractive interactions) of the nonionic/ionic surfactant mixtures were determined. Mixtures of both AEO9/SDS and AEO9/CTAB exhibited synergism in surface tension reduction efficiency and mixed micelle formation, but neither exhibited synergism in surface tension reduction effectiveness.

  9. Study of surfactant-added TMAH for applications in DRIE and wet etching-based micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, B.; Shikida, M.; Sato, K.; Pal, P.; Amakawa, H.; Hida, H.; Fukuzawa, K.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, etching anisotropy is evaluated for a number of different crystallographic orientations of silicon in a 0.1 vol% Triton-X-100 added 25 wt% tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution using a silicon hemisphere. The research is primarily aimed at developing advanced applications of wet etching in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The etching process is carried out at different temperatures in the range of 61-81 °C. The etching results of silicon hemisphere and different shapes of three-dimensional structures in {1 0 0}- and {1 1 0}-Si surfaces are analyzed. Significantly important anisotropy, different from a traditional etchant (e.g. pure KOH and TMAH), is investigated to extend the applications of the wet etching process in silicon bulk micromachining. The similar etching behavior of exact and vicinal {1 1 0} and {1 1 1} planes in TMAH + Triton is utilized selectively to remove the scalloping from deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) etched profiles. The direct application of the present research is demonstrated by fabricating a cylindrical lens with highly smooth etched surface finish. The smoothness of a micro-lens at different locations is measured qualitatively by a scanning electron microscope and quantitatively by an atomic force microscope. The present paper provides a simple and effective fabrication method of the silicon micro-lens for optical MEMS applications.

  10. Novel strategy involving surfactant-polymer combinations for enhanced stability of aqueous teflon dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukesh; Bharatiya, Bhavesh; Mehta, Krupali; Shukla, Atindra; Shah, Dinesh O

    2014-06-24

    Among various polymers, the Teflon surface possesses extreme hydrophobicity (low surface energy), which is of great interest to both industry and academia. In this report, we discuss the stability of aqueous Teflon dispersions (particle size range of 100-3000 nm) formulated by a novel strategy that involves distinct combinations of surfactant and polymer mixtures for dispersion stabilization. As a first step, the hydrophobic Teflon particles were wetted using a range of surfactants (ionic, Triton, Brij, Tween, and Pluronic series) bearing different hydrophobic-lipophilic balance (HLB) and further characterized by contact angle and liquid penetration in packed powder measurements. The interaction between hydrophobic chains of surfactants and the Teflon particle surface is the driving force resulting in wetting of the Teflon particle surface. Further, these wetted particles in aqueous solutions were mixed with various polymers, for example, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC). The rate of sedimentation for the final dispersions was measured using a pan suspended into the dispersion from a transducer recording the increase in weight with time. A significant stability was noticed for Teflon particles suspended in surfactant + polymer mixtures, which was linearly proportional to the concentration of added polymer. The observed phenomenon can be possibly explained by molecular interactions between the hydrophobic chains of surfactant molecules and polar groups in the polymer architecture. Brij-O10 + HEC mixture was found to be the best surfactant-polymer combination for decreasing the sedimentation of the Teflon particles in the final dispersion. As measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS), the hydrodynamic volume of the Teflon particles increases up to ∼55% in the final formulation. These dispersions could be further explored for various technological applications such as

  11. ADSORPTION OF SURFACTANT ON CLAYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surfactants used to enhance remediation of soils by soil washing are often lost in the process. Neither the amount nor the cause of this loss is known. It is assumed that clays present in the soil are responsible for the loss of the surfactant. In this papere, adsorption prope...

  12. Surfactant monitoring by foam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Ken I.

    1997-01-01

    A device for monitoring the presence or absence of active surfactant or other surface active agents in a solution or flowing stream based on the formation of foam or bubbles is presented. The device detects the formation of foam with a light beam or conductivity measurement. The height or density of the foam can be correlated to the concentration of the active surfactant present.

  13. Surfactant adsorption kinetics in microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Birte; Maes, Florine; Akoury, Elias; Semin, Benoît; Gruner, Philipp; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-10-01

    Emulsions are metastable dispersions. Their lifetimes are directly related to the dynamics of surfactants. We design a microfluidic method to measure the kinetics of adsorption of surfactants to the droplet interface, a key process involved in foaming, emulsification, and droplet coarsening. The method is based on the pH decay in the droplet as a direct measurement of the adsorption of a carboxylic acid surfactant to the interface. From the kinetic measurement of the bulk equilibration of the pH, we fully determine the adsorption process of the surfactant. The small droplet size and the convection during the droplet flow ensure that the transport of surfactant through the bulk is not limiting the kinetics of adsorption. To validate our measurements, we show that the adsorption process determines the timescale required to stabilize droplets against coalescence, and we show that the interface should be covered at more than 90% to prevent coalescence. We therefore quantitatively link the process of adsorption/desorption, the stabilization of emulsions, and the kinetics of solute partitioning—here through ion exchange—unraveling the timescales governing these processes. Our method can be further generalized to other surfactants, including nonionic surfactants, by making use of fluorophore-surfactant interactions.

  14. Innovation in surfactant therapy II: surfactant administration by aerosolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillow, J Jane; Minocchieri, S

    2012-01-01

    Instilled bolus surfactant is the only approved surfactant treatment for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. However, recent trends towards increased utilization of noninvasive respiratory support for preterm infants with surfactant deficiency have created a demand for a similarly noninvasive means of administering exogenous surfactant. Past approaches to surfactant nebulization met with varying success due to inefficient aerosol devices resulting in low intrapulmonary delivery doses of surfactant with variable clinical effectiveness. The recent development of vibrating membrane nebulizers, coupled with appropriate positioning of the interface device, indicates that efficient delivery of aerosolized surfactant is now a realistic goal in infants. Evidence of clinical effect despite low total administered dose in pilot studies, together with suggestions of enhanced homogeneity of pulmonary distribution indicate that this therapy may be applied in a cost-effective manner, with minimal patient handling and disruption. These studies need to be subjected to appropriately designed randomized controlled trials. Further work is also required to determine the optimum delivery route (mask, intranasal prong, nasopharyngeal or laryngeal), dosing amount and redosing interval.

  15. Effects of 『Persicae Semen』 on the Hyperlipidemia Rats Induced by Triton WR-1339

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-In Kang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : In order to study effects of 「Persicae Semen」 on the hyperlipidemia rats induced by Triton WR, we have made hyperlipidemia rats by administering Triton WR-1339 for 3 days, then have administered. The results were summerized as follows : 1. The Total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, Free fatty acid, phospholipid and CRF(Cardiak Risk Factor by hypercholesteremic rats injected by Triton WR-1339 of the herb-Acupuncture group were decreased as compared with those of the control group, especialy hypercholesteremic rats injected by Triton WR-1339 of the herb-Acupuncture + Acupuncture group were some more decreased as compared with those of the control group 2. The HDL-cholesterol by hypercholesteremic rats injected by Trion WR -1339 of the herb-Acupuncture group were increased as compeared those of control group, especialy hypercholesteremic rats injected by Triton WR-1339 of the herb-Acupuncture + Acupuncture group were some more increased as compared with those of the control group According to the above results, Persicae Semen showed inhibition on decrease of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and phosholipid contents as well as inhibition on increase of HDL-cholesterol contents in hyperlipidemia

  16. Interaction of nonionic surfactant AEO9 with ionic surfactants*

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The interaction in two mixtures of a nonionic surfactant AEO9 (C12H25O(CH2CH2O)9H) and different ionic surfactants was investigated. The two mixtures were AEO9/sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and AEO9/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at molar fraction of AEO9, α AEO9=0.5. The surface properties of the surfactants, critical micelle concentration (CMC), effectiveness of surface tension reduction (γ CMC), maximum surface excess concentration (Γ max) and minimum area per...

  17. Surfactant enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, J.H.; Scamehorn, J.F.

    1989-10-01

    Surfactant-enhanced waterflooding is a novel EOR method aimed to improve the volumetric sweep efficiencies in reservoirs. The technique depends upon the ability to induce phase changes in surfactant solutions by mixing with surfactants of opposite charge or with salts of appropriate type. One surfactant or salt solution is injected into the reservoir. It is followed later by injection of another surfactant or salt solution. The sequence of injections is arranged so that the two solutions do not mix until they are into the permeable regions well away from the well bore. When they mix at this point, by design they form a precipitate or gel-like coacervate phase, plugging this permeable region, forcing flow through less permeable regions of the reservoir, improving sweep efficiency. The selectivity of the plugging process is demonstrated by achieving permeability reductions in the high permeable regions of Berea sandstone cores. Strategies were set to obtain a better control over the plug placement and the stability of plugs. A numerical simulator has been developed to investigate the potential increases in oil production of model systems. Furthermore, the hardness tolerance of anionic surfactant solutions is shown to be enhanced by addition of monovalent electrolyte or nonionic surfactants. 34 refs., 32 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. MICROBIAL SURFACTANTS IN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Pirog

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It was shown literature and own experimental data concerning the use of microbial surface active glycolipids (rhamno-, sophoro- and trehalose lipids and lipopeptides for water and soil purification from oil and other hydrocarbons, removing toxic heavy metals (Cu2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, degradation of complex pollution (oil and other hydrocarbons with heavy metals, and the role of microbial surfactants in phytoremediation processes. The factors that limit the use of microbial surfactants in environmental technologies are discussed. Thus, at certain concentrations biosurfactant can exhibit antimicrobial properties and inhibit microorganisms destructing xenobiotics. Microbial biodegradability of surfactants may also reduce the effectiveness of bioremediation. Development of effective technologies using microbial surfactants should include the following steps: monitoring of contaminated sites to determine the nature of pollution and analysis of the autochthonous microbiota; determining the mode of surfactant introduction (exogenous addition of stimulation of surfactant synthesis by autochthonous microbiota; establishing an optimal concentration of surfactant to prevent exhibition of antimicrobial properties and rapid biodegradation; research both in laboratory and field conditions.

  19. Electrokinetic investigation of surfactant adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellmann, C; Synytska, A; Caspari, A; Drechsler, A; Grundke, K

    2007-05-15

    Fuerstenau [D.W. Fuerstenau, in: M.L. Hair (Ed.), Dekker, New York, 1971, p. 143] has already discussed the role of hydrocarbon chain of surfactants, the effect of alkyl chain length, chain structure and the pH of the solution on the adsorption process of surfactants. Later Kosmulski [M. Kosmulski, Chemical Properties of Material Surfaces, Surfactant Science Series, vol. 102, Dekker, New York, Basel, 2001] included the effect of surfactant concentration, equilibration time, temperature and electrolyte in his approaches. Certainly, the character of the head groups of the surfactant and the properties of the adsorbent surface are the basis for the adsorption process. Different surfactants and adsorbents cause different adsorption mechanisms described firstly by Rosen [M.J. Rosen, Surfactants and Interfacial Phenomena, second ed., Wiley, New York, 1989]. These adsorption mechanisms and their influencing factors were studied by electrokinetic investigations. Here only changes of the charges at the surfaces could be detected. To control the results of electrokinetic investigations they were compared with results from ellipsometric measurements. In the case of surfactant adsorption the chain length was vitally important. It could be shown by the adsorption of alkyl trimethyl ammonium bromides onto polymer films spin coated at wafer surfaces. The influence of the chain length depending on surface properties of the polymer film was studied. Streaming potential measurements were applied for these investigations. The obtained results enabled us to calculate the molar cohesive free energy per mol of CH2-group in the alkaline chain of the surfactant if all other specific adsorption effects were neglected.

  20. Malignant Triton tumor: a rare cause of sciatic pain and foot drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Maribel R; Sousa, Alexandre M P; Couto, Roberto J A; Oliveira, Marco M B; Moura, João L M; Vilela, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are very rare and are frequently localized in the buttocks, thigh, arm, or paraspinal region; one variant is the malignant Triton tumor, with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation. The authors present a challenging differential diagnosis of a sciatic pain and foot drop in a woman with history of lumbar disk herniation, which was found to be caused by a Triton tumor of the sciatic nerve. She underwent surgical excision, followed by radiation and chemotherapy. Malignant Triton tumor cases have rarely been described and reported in the literature. The recommended treatment is radical excision followed by high-dose radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The prognosis, although poor, depends on the location, grade, and completeness of surgical margins.

  1. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Detergent Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Jelen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Detergent surfactantscan be found in wastewater in relevant concentrations. Most of them are known as ready degradable under aerobic conditions, as required by European legislation. Far fewer surfactants have been tested so far for biodegradability under anaerobic conditions. The natural environment is predominantly aerobic, but there are some environmental compartments such as river sediments, sub-surface soil layer and anaerobic sludge digesters of wastewater treatment plants which have strictly anaerobic conditions. This review gives an overview on anaerobic biodegradation processes, the methods for testing anaerobic biodegradability, and the anaerobic biodegradability of different detergent surfactant types (anionic, nonionic, cationic, amphoteric surfactants.

  2. Studies on the mechanism of enhancement of carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity by Triton WR 1339.

    OpenAIRE

    de Ferreyra, E. C.; de Toranzo, E. G.; de Fenos, O. M.; Castro, J A

    1981-01-01

    Pretreatment of rats with Triton WR 1339 significantly enhanced the intensity of CC14-induced liver necrosis. Previous workers suggested that this effect might be due to enhancement by Triton WR 1339 of cellular degradative processes. This pretreatment, however, also enhanced the intensity of covalent binding of [14C]CC14 metabolites to microsomal protein at 3 or 6 h, but not 1 h after its administration. This effect is not due to changes of microsomal P-450 content or increased activity of m...

  3. Treatment with exogenous surfactant stimulates endogenous surfactant synthesis in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, JEH; Carnielli, VP; Janssen, DJ; Wattimena, JLD; Hop, WC; Sauer, PJ; Zimmermann, LJI

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) with exogenous surfactant has greatly improved clinical outcome. Some infants require multiple doses, and it has not been studied whether these large amounts of exogenous surfactant disturb endogenous surfactant metabol

  4. Electrochemical Oscillations Induced by Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟俊红; 贺占博

    2003-01-01

    A new type of electrochemical oscillation induced by surfactant was observed in experiments. The electrochemical system is a Daniell cell with a copper rod in CuSO4 aqueous and an aluminum rod in Al(NO3)3 aqueous as electrodes. The surfactants are CTAB, TX-100, SLS. The addition of trace surfactant solution by a micro-syringe made the original monotonously changing electrochemical system produce obvious periodic phenomena. At the mean time, the copper ion selective electrode and Hg2SO4 reference electrode were used to monitor the copper electrode reaction and determine its rate constant k of first order reaction. According to the experimental results of electrode reaction kinetics, the possible mechanism was found to be the polarization induced from the directional adsorption of trace surfactant on the electrode surface. That is the electrochemical oscillations.

  5. Persurf, a New Method to Improve Surfactant Delivery: A Study in Surfactant Depleted Rats

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Exogenous surfactant is not very effective in adults with ARDS, since surfactant does not reach atelectatic alveoli. Perfluorocarbons (PFC) can recruit atelectatic areas but do not replace impaired endogenous surfactant. A surfactant-PFC-mixture could combine benefits of both therapies. The aim of the proof-of-principal-study was to produce a PFC-in-surfactant emulsion (Persurf) and to test in surfactant depleted Wistar rats whether Persurf achieves I.) a more homogenous pulmonary di...

  6. Development of a flight qualified 100 x 100 mm MCP UV detector using advanced cross strip anodes and associated ASIC electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerga, John; McPhate, Jason; Tremsin, Anton; Siegmund, Oswald; Raffanti, Rick; Cumming, Harley; Seljak, Andrej; Virta, Vihtori; Varner, Gary

    2016-07-01

    Photon counting microchannel plate (MCP) imagers have been the detector of choice for most UV astronomical missions over the last three decades (e.g. EUVE, FUSE, COS on Hubble etc.) and been mentioned for instruments on future large telescopes in space such as LUVOIR14. Using cross strip anodes, improvements in the MCP laboratory readout technology have resulted in better spatial resolution (x10), temporal resolution (x 1000) and output event rate (x100), all the while operating at lower gain (x10) resulting in lower high voltage requirements and longer MCP lifetimes. A crossed strip anode MCP readout starts with a set of orthogonal conducting strips (e.g. 80 x 80), typically spaced at a 635 micron pitch onto which charge clouds from MCP amplified events land. Each strip has its own charge sensitive amplifier that is sampled continuously by a dedicated analog to digital converter (ADC). All of the ADC digital output lines are fed into a field programmable gate array (FGPA) which can detect charge events landing on the strips, measure the peak amplitudes of those charge events and calculate their spatial centroid along with their time of arrival (X,Y,T) and pass this information to a downstream computer. Laboratory versions of these electronics have demonstrated < 20 microns FWHM spatial resolution, count rates on the order of 2 MHz, and temporal resolution of 1ns. In 2012 our group at U.C. Berkeley, along with our partners at the U. Hawaii, received a NASA Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) grant to raise the TRL of a cross strip detector from 4 to 6 by replacing most of the 19" rack mounted, high powered electronics with application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) which will lower the power, mass, and volume requirements of the detector electronics. We were also tasked to design and fabricate a "standard" 50mm square active area MCP detector incorporating these electronics that can be environmentally qualified for flight (temperature, vacuum, vibration

  7. Hydrogen storage performances of LaMg{sub 11}Ni + x wt% Ni (x = 100, 200) alloys prepared by mechanical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanghuan, E-mail: zhangyh59@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Integrated Exploitation of Baiyun Obo Multi-Metal Resources, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Department of Functional Material Research, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Haitao [Key Laboratory of Integrated Exploitation of Baiyun Obo Multi-Metal Resources, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Department of Functional Material Research, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhai, Tingting; Yang, Tai; Yuan, Zeming; Zhao, Dongliang [Department of Functional Material Research, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Amorphous and nanostructured alloys were prepared by mechanical milling. • The maximum discharge capacity of ball milled alloys reaches to 1053.5 mA h/g. • The addition of Ni significantly increases the discharge capacity. • Increasing milling time reduces the kinetic performances of ball milled alloys. - Abstract: In order to improve the hydrogen storage performances of Mg-based materials, LaMg{sub 11}Ni alloy was prepared by vacuum induction melting. Then the nanocrystalline/amorphous LaMg{sub 11}Ni + x wt% Ni (x = 100, 200) hydrogen storage alloys were synthesized by ball milling technology. The structure characterizations of the alloys were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical hydrogen storage characteristics were tested by using programmed control battery testing system. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization curves and potential-step curves were also plotted by an electrochemical workstation (PARSTAT 2273). The results indicate that the as-milled alloys exhibit a nanocrystalline and amorphous structure, and the amorphization degree of the alloys visibly increases with extending milling time. Prolonging the milling duration markedly enhances the electrochemical discharge capacity and cyclic stability of the alloys. The electrochemical kinetics, including high rate discharge ability (HRD), charge transfer rate, limiting current density (I{sub L}), hydrogen diffusion coefficient (D), monotonously decrease with milling time prolonging.

  8. Hydrogen storage thermodynamics and kinetics of LaMg{sub 11}Ni + x wt.% Ni (x = 100, 200) alloys synthesized by mechanical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanghuan; Jia, Zhichao [Inner Mongolia Univ. of Science and Technology, Baotou (China). Key Lab. of Integrated Exploitation of Baiyun Obo Multi-Metal Resources; Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing (China). Dept. of Functional Material Research; Yuan, Zeming; Qi, Yan; Zhao, Dongliang [Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing (China). Dept. of Functional Material Research; Hou, Zhonghui [Inner Mongolia Univ. of Science and Technology, Baotou (China). Key Lab. of Integrated Exploitation of Baiyun Obo Multi-Metal Resources

    2016-04-15

    LaMg{sub 11}Ni + x wt.% Ni (x = 100, 200) composite hydrogen storage alloys with a nanocrystalline/amorphous structure were synthesized using ball milling technology. The effects of Ni content and milling time on hydrogen storage thermodynamics and dynamics of the alloys were investigated systematically. The hydrogen desorption properties were assessed using a Sieverts apparatus and differential scanning calorimetry. The thermodynamic parameters for the hydrogen absorption and desorption were calculated using the Van't Hoff equation. The hydrogen desorption activation energies of the hydrogenated alloys were also estimated by Arrhenius and Kissinger methods. Results indicate that the amount of Ni added has no effect on the thermodynamics of the alloys, but it significantly improves their absorption and desorption kinetics. Furthermore, the milling time has a great influence on the hydrogen storage properties. To be specific, the hydrogen absorption capacities reach the maximum values with the variation of milling time, and the hydrogen desorption activation energy obviously decreases with increasing milling time.

  9. 高强度X100管线钢的塑性和损伤特性:试验和模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Tanguy; 乔林锁; 高志国

    2015-01-01

    本研究的目的是开发X100管线钢各向异性和韧性损伤综合构成模型,模型是基于一系列不同光洁度、不同开槽和不同裂纹试样的试验及详细检测断口损伤机理和Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman模型(诱导塑性的各向异性)的扩展得出的,为防止出现脆性分层,开发的模型可以精确描述材料的塑性和损伤特性,模型可作为工业工具来研究塑性各向异性和分层对韧性裂纹扩展的影响。从细节上统一描述开槽和裂纹试样沿不同方向试验并不考虑塑性各向异性的断裂特性是不可能的。

  10. A study of X100 pipeline steel passivation in mildly alkaline bicarbonate solutions using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy under potentiodynamic conditions and Mott-Schottky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadala, Ibrahim M.; Alfantazi, Akram

    2015-12-01

    The key steps involved in X100 pipeline steel passivation in bicarbonate-based simulated soil solutions from the pre-passive to transpassive potential regions have been analyzed here using a step-wise anodizing-electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) routine. Pre-passive steps involve parallel dissolution-adsorption in early stages followed by clear diffusion-adsorption control shortly before iron hydroxide formation. Aggressive NS4 chlorides/sulfate promote steel dissolution whilst inhibiting diffusion in pre-passive steps. Diffusive and adsorptive effects remain during iron hydroxide formation, but withdraw shortly thereafter during its removal and the development of the stable iron carbonate passive layer. Passive layer protectiveness is evaluated using EIS fitting, current density analysis, and correlations with semiconductive parameters, consistently revealing improved robustness in colder, bicarbonate-rich, chloride/sulfate-free conditions. Ferrous oxide formation at higher potentials results in markedly lower impedances with disordered behavior, and the involvement of the iron(III) valence state is observed in Mott-Schottky tests exclusively for 75 °C conditions.

  11. Biomimicry of surfactant protein C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nathan J; Johansson, Jan; Barron, Annelise E

    2008-10-01

    Since the widespread use of exogenous lung surfactant to treat neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, premature infant survival and respiratory morbidity have dramatically improved. Despite the effectiveness of the animal-derived surfactant preparations, there still remain some concerns and difficulties associated with their use. This has prompted investigation into the creation of synthetic surfactant preparations. However, to date, no clinically used synthetic formulation is as effective as the natural material. This is largely because the previous synthetic formulations lacked analogues of the hydrophobic proteins of the lung surfactant system, SP-B and SP-C, which are critical functional constituents. As a result, recent investigation has turned toward the development of a new generation of synthetic, biomimetic surfactants that contain synthetic phospholipids along with a mimic of the hydrophobic protein portion of lung surfactant. In this Account, we detail our efforts in creating accurate mimics of SP-C for use in a synthetic surfactant replacement therapy. Despite SP-C's seemingly simple structure, the predominantly helical protein is extraordinarily challenging to work with given its extreme hydrophobicity and structural instability, which greatly complicates the creation of an effective SP-C analogue. Drawing inspiration from Nature, two promising biomimetic approaches have led to the creation of rationally designed biopolymers that recapitulate many of SP-C's molecular features. The first approach utilizes detailed SP-C structure-activity relationships and amino acid folding propensities to create a peptide-based analogue, SP-C33. In SP-C33, the problematic and metastable polyvaline helix is replaced with a structurally stable polyleucine helix and includes a well-placed positive charge to prevent aggregation. SP-C33 is structurally stable and eliminates the association propensity of the native protein. The second approach follows the same design

  12. The triton with long-range chiral N3LO three nucleon forces

    CERN Document Server

    Skibinski, R; Topolnicki, K; Witala, H; Epelbaum, E; Gloeckle, W; Krebs, H; Nogga, A; Kamada, H

    2011-01-01

    Long-range contributions to the three-nucleon force that have been recently worked out in chiral effective field theory at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order are for the first time included in the triton and the doublet nucleon-deuteron scattering length calculations. The strengths of the two short-range terms available at this order in the chiral expansion are determined from the triton binding energy and the neutron-deuteron doublet scattering length. The structure of the resulting three-nucleon force is explored and effects for the two-nucleon correlation function in the triton are investigated. Expectation values of the individual contributions to the three-nucleon force in the triton are found to be in the range from a few 100 keV to about 1 MeV. Our study demonstrates that the very complicated operator structure of the novel chiral three-nucleon forces can be successively implemented in three-nucleon Faddeev calculations.

  13. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Wind Stress

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Wind Stress data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/),...

  14. Ice Mineralogy Across and Into the Surfaces of Pluto, Triton, and Eris

    CERN Document Server

    Tegler, S C; Olkin, C B; Young, L A; Romanishin, W; Cornelison, D M; Khodadadkouchaki, R

    2012-01-01

    We present three near-infrared spectra of Pluto taken with the IRTF and SpeX, an optical spectrum of Triton taken with the MMT and the Red Channel Spectrograph, and previously published spectra of Pluto, Triton, and Eris. We combine these observations with a two-phase Hapke model, and gain insight into the ice mineralogy on Pluto, Triton, and Eris. Specifically, we measure the methane-nitrogen mixing ratio across and into the surfaces of these icy dwarf planets. In addition, we present a laboratory experiment that demonstrates it is essential to model methane bands in spectra of icy dwarf planets with two methane phases - one highly-diluted by nitrogen and the other rich in methane. For Pluto, we find bulk, hemisphere-averaged, methane abundances of 9.1 \\pm 0.5%, 7.1 \\pm 0.4%, and 8.2 \\pm 0.3% for sub-Earth longitudes of 10\\degree, 125\\degree, and 257\\degree. Application of the Wilcoxon rank sum test to our measurements finds these small differences are statistically significant. For Triton, we find bulk, hem...

  15. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 20C Isotherm Depth

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day 20C Isotherm Depth data (the depth at which the ocean temperature is 20C) from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/),...

  16. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 20C Isotherm Depth

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily 20C Isotherm Depth data (the depth at which the ocean temperature is 20C) from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/),...

  17. Detection of CO in Triton's atmosphere and the nature of surface-atmosphere interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Lellouch, E; Sicardy, B; Ferron, S; Käufl, H -U

    2010-01-01

    Triton possesses a thin atmosphere, primarily composed of nitrogen, sustained by the sublimation of surface ices. The goal is to determine the composition of Triton's atmosphere and to constrain the nature of surface-atmosphere interactions. We perform high-resolution spectroscopic observations in the 2.32-2.37 $\\mu$m range, using CRIRES at the VLT. From this first spectroscopic detection of Triton's atmosphere in the infrared, we report (i) the first observation of gaseous methane since its discovery in the ultraviolet by Voyager in 1989 and (ii) the first ever detection of gaseous CO in the satellite. The CO atmospheric abundance is remarkably similar to its surface abundance, and appears to be controlled by a thin, CO-enriched, surface veneer resulting from seasonal transport and/or atmospheric escape. The CH$_4$ partial pressure is several times larger than inferred from Voyager. This confirms that Triton's atmosphere is seasonally variable and is best interpreted by the warming of CH$_4$-rich icy grains ...

  18. Comparative planetary nitrogen atmospheres: Density and thermal structures of Pluto and Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Zhu, Xun

    2017-07-01

    Both atmospheres of Pluto and Neptune's largest satellite Triton have cold surfaces with surface gravitational accelerations and atmospheric surface pressures of comparable magnitude. To study their atmospheres we have updated Zhu et al. (2014) model for Pluto's atmosphere by adopting Voigt line profiles in the radiation module with the latest spectral database and extended the model to Triton's atmosphere by including additional parameterized heating due to the magnetospheric electron transport and energy deposition. The CH4 mixing ratio profiles play central roles in differentiating the atmospheres of Pluto and Triton. On Pluto the surface CH4 mole fraction is in the range of 0.3-0.8%, sufficiently high to ensure that it is well mixed in the lower atmosphere and not subject to photochemical destruction. Near the exobase CH4 attains comparable density to N2 due to gravitational diffusive separation and escapes at 500 times the N2 rate (= 1 × 1023 N2 s-1). In Triton's atmosphere, the surface CH4 mole fraction is on the order of 0.015%, sufficiently low to ensure that it is photochemically destroyed irreversibly in the lower atmosphere and that N2 remains the major species, even at the exobase. With solar EUV power only, Triton's upper thermosphere is too cold and magnetospheric heating, approximately comparable to the solar EUV power, is needed to bring the N2 tangential column number density in the 500-800 km range up to values derived from the Voyager 2 UVS observations (Broadfoot et al., 1989). Due to their cold exobase temperatures relative to the gravitational potential energy wells that N2 resides in, atmospheric escape from Triton and Pluto is not dominated by N2 Jeans escape but by CH4 from Pluto and H, C, N and H2 from Triton. The atmospheric thermal structure near the exobase is sensitive to the atmospheric escape rate only when it is significantly greater than 2 × 1027 amu s-1, above which enhanced Jeans escape and larger radial velocity adiabatically

  19. Surfactant for pediatric acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Douglas F; Chess, Patricia R; Notter, Robert H

    2008-06-01

    This article reviews exogenous surfactant therapy and its use in mitigating acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in infants, children, and adults. Biophysical and animal research documenting surfactant dysfunction in ALI/ARDS is described, and the scientific rationale for treatment with exogenous surfactant is discussed. Major emphasis is placed on reviewing clinical studies of surfactant therapy in pediatric and adult patients who have ALI/ARDS. Particular advantages from surfactant therapy in direct pulmonary forms of these syndromes are described. Also discussed are additional factors affecting the efficacy of exogenous surfactants in ALI/ARDS.

  20. Cloud point extraction of vanadium in pharmaceutical formulations, dialysate and parenteral solutions using 8-hydroxyquinoline and nonionic surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sumaira, E-mail: skhanzai@gmail.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem G., E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Baig, Jameel A., E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Young Welfare Society Mughalabad, Near Akri, Taluka Faiz Ganj, District Khairpur Sindh (Pakistan); Kolachi, Nida F., E-mail: nidafatima6@gmail.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan I., E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Wadhwa, Sham Kumar [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Q., E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam A. [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Shah, Faheem, E-mail: shah_ceac@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)

    2010-10-15

    A cloud point extraction (CPE) method has been developed for the determination of trace quantity of vanadium ions in pharmaceutical formulations (PF), dialysate (DS) and parenteral solutions (PS). The CPE of vanadium (V) using 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine) as complexing reagent and mediated by nonionic surfactant (Triton X-114) was investigated. The parameters that affect the extraction efficiency of CPE, such as pH of sample solution, concentration of oxine and Triton X-114, equilibration temperature and time period for shaking were investigated in detail. The validity of CPE of V was checked by standard addition method in real samples. The extracted surfactant-rich phase was diluted with nitric acid in ethanol, prior to subjecting electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Under these conditions, the preconcentration of 50 mL sample solutions, allowed raising an enrichment factor of 125-fold. The lower limit of detection obtained under the optimal conditions was 42 ng/L. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of trace quantity of V in various pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory results. The concentration ranges of V in PF, DS and PS samples were found in the range of 10.5-15.2, 0.65-1.32 and 1.76-6.93 {mu}g/L, respectively.

  1. Ice Mineralogy across and into the Surfaces of Pluto, Triton, and Eris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegler, S. C.; Grundy, W. M.; Olkin, C. B.; Young, L. A.; Romanishin, W.; Cornelison, D. M.; Khodadadkouchaki, R.

    2012-05-01

    We present three near-infrared spectra of Pluto taken with the Infrared Telescope Facility and SpeX, an optical spectrum of Triton taken with the MMT and the Red Channel Spectrograph, and previously published spectra of Pluto, Triton, and Eris. We combine these observations with a two-phase Hapke model and gain insight into the ice mineralogy on Pluto, Triton, and Eris. Specifically, we measure the methane-nitrogen mixing ratio across and into the surfaces of these icy dwarf planets. In addition, we present a laboratory experiment that demonstrates it is essential to model methane bands in spectra of icy dwarf planets with two methane phases—one highly diluted by nitrogen and the other rich in methane. For Pluto, we find bulk, hemisphere-averaged, methane abundances of 9.1% ± 0.5%, 7.1% ± 0.4%, and 8.2% ± 0.3% for sub-Earth longitudes of 10°, 125°, and 257°. Application of the Wilcoxon rank sum test to our measurements finds these small differences are statistically significant. For Triton, we find bulk, hemisphere-averaged, methane abundances of 5.0% ± 0.1% and 5.3% ± 0.4% for sub-Earth longitudes of 138° and 314°. Application of the Wilcoxon rank sum test to our measurements finds the differences are not statistically significant. For Eris, we find a bulk, hemisphere-averaged, methane abundance of 10% ± 2%. Pluto, Triton, and Eris do not exhibit a trend in methane-nitrogen mixing ratio with depth into their surfaces over the few centimeter range probed by these observations. This result is contrary to the expectation that since visible light penetrates deeper into a nitrogen-rich surface than the depths from which thermal emission emerges, net radiative heating at depth would drive preferential sublimation of nitrogen leading to an increase in the methane abundance with depth.

  2. Investigation on the microstructure and toughness of coarse grained heat affected zone in X-100 multi-phase pipeline steel with high Nb content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Yang [School of Mat. Sci. and Eng., University of Sci. and Tech., Beijing (China); Shang, Chengjia, E-mail: cjshang@ustb.edu.cn [School of Mat. Sci. and Eng., University of Sci. and Tech., Beijing (China); Wenjin, Nie [School of Mat. Sci. and Eng., University of Sci. and Tech., Beijing (China); Jiangsu Shagang Group, Zhangjiagang 215625 (China); Subramanian, Sundaresa [Department of Mat. Sci. and Eng., McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada)

    2012-12-15

    Effect of increasing heat input on microstructure evolution and impact toughness of coarse grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ) in high Nb X-100 multi-phase pipeline steel was investigated by means of Gleeble simulator, optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD). Charpy impact test confirmed the optimum toughness of CGHAZ was achieved at heat input of 20 kJ/cm, equivalent to the excellent toughness of the base plate. Observations performed by OM, SEM and EBSD show that the microstructure of CGHAZ varies dramatically with heat input without a noticeable changing in prior austenite grain size, and the optimum toughness achieved at the heat input of 20 kJ/cm is related to the cumulative contribution of its well-refined martensite/austenite (M/A) constituent and the highest density of high angle boundaries. Analysis on crystallography shows that high angle boundaries are mainly the boundaries between the products from different Bain groups produced from the fcc to bcc coherent transformation within prior austenite grain, and the density of high angle boundary is controlled by the configuration of Bain groups within the crystallographic packet in each austenite grain. With the ideal configuration, the density of high angle boundary can be optimized to be beneficial to keep high toughness in CGHAZ, together with well-refined M/A constituent. This indicates that in addition to M/A refinement, the characteristic in crystallography of the crystallographic packet (the configuration of Bain groups within it) is related to the mechanical properties of CGHAZ and should be controlled to be optimum.

  3. Surfactant recovery from water using foam fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tharapiwattananon, N.; Osuwan, S. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand); Scamehorn, J.F. [Inst. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of foam fractionation to recover surfactant from water. A simple continuous mode foam fractionation was used and three surfactants were studied (two anionic and one cationic). The effects of air flow rate, foam height, liquid height, liquid feed surfactant concentration, and sparger porosity were studied. This technique was shown to be effective in either surfactant recovery or the reduction of surfactant concentration in water to acceptable levels. As an example of the effectiveness of this technique, the cetylpyridinium chloride concentration in water can be reduced by 90% in one stage with a liquid residence time of 375 minutes. The surfactant concentration in the collapsed foam is 21.5 times the feed concentration. This cationic surfactant was easier to remove from water by foam fractionation than the anionic surfactants studied.

  4. Synthesis of carbohydrate-based surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemberton, Jeanne E.; Polt, Robin L.; Maier, Raina M.

    2016-11-22

    The present invention provides carbohydrate-based surfactants and methods for producing the same. Methods for producing carbohydrate-based surfactants include using a glycosylation promoter to link a carbohydrate or its derivative to a hydrophobic compound.

  5. Effects of Concentration and Conformation of Surfactants on Phase Separation of Surfactant-Water-Oil Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁银权; 邹宪武; 刘昊阳

    2004-01-01

    The effects of surfactants on the phase separation of surfactant-water-oil systems have been investigated by using discontinuous molecular dynamic simulations. The phase separation speed and equilibrium configuration are dependent on the surfactant concentration and conformation. The equilibrium concentration of surfactants at the interface remains constant. With the increasing surfactant concentration, the equilibrium configuration crosses over from the disperse phase to the bicontinuous one. The crossover concentration is estimated. The conformation of the surfactant has little effect on the equilibrium concentration of surfactants at the interface,while it affects the equilibrium configuration after phase separation.

  6. Complex Formation Between Polyelectrolytes and Ionic Surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The interaction between polyelectrolyte and ionic surfactant is of great importance in different areas of chemistry and biology. In this paper we present a theory of polyelectrolyte ionic-surfactant solutions. The new theory successfully explains the cooperative transition observed experimentally, in which the condensed counterions are replaced by ionic-surfactants. The transition is found to occur at surfactant densities much lower than those for a similar transition in non-ionic polymer-sur...

  7. Binding of cationic surfactants to humic substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishiguro, M.; Tan, W.; Koopal, L.K.

    2007-01-01

    Commercial surfactants are introduced into the environment either through waste products or site-specific contamination. The amphiphilic nature of both surfactants and humic substances (HS) leads to their mutual attraction especially when surfactant and HS are oppositely charged. Binding of the cati

  8. Surfactant analysis in oil-containing fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronsveld, J.; Faber, M.J. (Koninklijke Shell Exploratie en Produktie Laboratorium, Rijswijk (Netherlands))

    The total surfactant concentration in aqueous phase samples can be analysed with a potentiometric titration. In enhanced oil recovery research, however, the surfactant is produced not only in aqueous phase samples but also in oleic phase samples. The oleic constituents in the oliec phase samples interfere in the surfactant analysis and, therefore, the titration method has been adapted. (orig.).

  9. Surfactant adsorption to soil components and soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishiguro, Munehide; Koopal, Luuk K.

    2016-01-01

    Soils are complex and widely varying mixtures of organic matter and inorganic materials; adsorption of surfactants to soils is therefore related to the soil composition. We first discuss the properties of surfactants, including the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surfactant adsorption on

  10. Persurf, a new method to improve surfactant delivery: a study in surfactant depleted rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Burkhardt

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Exogenous surfactant is not very effective in adults with ARDS, since surfactant does not reach atelectatic alveoli. Perfluorocarbons (PFC can recruit atelectatic areas but do not replace impaired endogenous surfactant. A surfactant-PFC-mixture could combine benefits of both therapies. The aim of the proof-of-principal-study was to produce a PFC-in-surfactant emulsion (Persurf and to test in surfactant depleted Wistar rats whether Persurf achieves I. a more homogenous pulmonary distribution and II. a more homogenous recruitment of alveoli when compared with surfactant or PFC alone. METHODS: Three different PFC were mixed with surfactant and phospholipid concentration in the emulsion was measured. After surfactant depletion, animals either received 30 ml/kg of PF5080, 100 mg/kg of stained (green dye Curosurf™ or 30 ml/kg of Persurf. Lungs were fixated after 1 hour of ventilation and alveolar aeration and surfactant distribution was estimated by a stereological approach. RESULTS: Persurf contained 3 mg/ml phospholipids and was stable for more than 48 hours. Persurf-administration improved oxygenation. Histological evaluation revealed a more homogenous surfactant distribution and alveolar inflation when compared with surfactant treated animals. CONCLUSIONS: In surfactant depleted rats administration of PFC-in-surfactant emulsion leads to a more homogenous distribution and aeration of the lung than surfactant alone.

  11. The asymptotic D-state to S-state ratio of triton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hossen Sadeghi; Reza Pourimani; Hassan Khalili

    2013-11-01

    At low energies, an effective field theory (EFT) with only contact interactions as well as three-body forces allow a detailed analysis of renormalization in a non-perturbative context and uncovers novel asymptotic behaviour. Triton as a three-body system, based on the EFT have been previously shown to provide representative binding energies, charge radii, S-wave scattering amplitude and asymptotic normalization constants for the 3H bound state system. Herein, EFT predictions of the asymptotic D-state to S-state ratio of triton are calculated to more fully evaluate the adequacy of the EFT model. Manifestly model-independent calculations can be carried out to high orders, leading to high precision.

  12. Vaccination of mice against Taenia taeniaeformis using antigen fractions partitioned with Triton X-114.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnieder, T; Bøgh, H O; Lightowlers, M W; Rickard, M D

    1996-01-01

    Taenia taeniaeformis oncosphere and metacestode antigens were fractioned using Triton X-114 into insoluble, aqueous and detergent rich fractions. These fractions were analysed in SDS-PAGE and immunoblots and used in vaccination trials against infection with T. taeniaeformis in mice. Qualitative differences were apparent in the spectrum of antigens partitioning into the different detergent phases but host-prospective antigens were present in all three fractions. The presence of individual antigenic components in the phases did not correlate with the degree of protection afforded by these fractions in the vaccination trials. Host protective immunogenicity of T. taeniaeformis oncosphere and metacestode extracts may be due to multiple protective antigens which partition into the different Triton X-114 fractions.

  13. Experimental investigation of thermophysical properties, entropy generation and convective heat transfer for a nitrogen-doped graphene nanofluid in a laminar flow regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrali, Mohammad; Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Rosen, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene (NDG) nanofluids are prepared using a two-step method in an aqueous solution of 0.025. wt% Triton X-100 as a surfactant with various nanosheets at several concentrations (0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06. wt%). The results are reported of experiments on the thermal conductivity...

  14. Characterization of coal water slurry prepared for PRB coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Yi; Akshay Gopan; Richard L. Axelbaum

    2014-01-01

    Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, which accounts for over 40% of the coal consumed for power generation in the United States, was investigated for preparation of coal water slurry ( CWS). The static stability and rheology of the CWS were characterized as a function of loading. The coal loading was varied from 30% to 50% and both ionic ( sodium polystyrene sulphonate (PSS)) and nonionic (Triton X-100) surfactants were employed as additives. The addition of PSS to PRB slurries was found to yield poor static stability. On the other hand, Triton X-100 was found to be an effective surfactant, reducing the sedimentation by more than 50% compared to the one without surfactant in 45% CWS. Adding Triton X-100 reduces the viscosity of the CWS for coal loadings of 30% and 40% . Although the viscosities for coal loading of 42. 5% and 45% are higher when Triton X-100 is added, the static stability is significantly better than for samples without surfactant. The highest coal loading for PRB slurry with acceptable viscosity for pumping is 42. 5% .

  15. Physical properties of botanical surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lillian Espíndola; Schiedeck, Gustavo

    2017-08-24

    Some vegetal species have saponins in their composition with great potential to be used as natural surfactants in organic crops. This work aims to evaluate some surfactants physical properties of Quillaja brasiliensis and Agave angustifolia, based on different methods of preparation and concentration. The vegetal samples were prepared by drying and grinding, frozen and after chopped or used fresh and chopped. The neutral bar soap was used as a positive control. The drying and grinding of samples were the preparation method that resulted in higher foam column height in both species but Q. brasiliensis was superior to A. angustifolia in all comparisons and foam index was 2756 and 1017 respectively. Critical micelle concentration of Q. brasiliensis was 0.39% with the superficial tension of 54.40mNm(-1) while neutral bar soap was 0.15% with 34.96mNm(-1). Aspects such as genetic characteristics of the species, environmental conditions, and analytical methods make it difficult to compare the results with other studies, but Q. brasiliensis powder has potential to be explored as a natural surfactant in organic farming. Not only the surfactants physical properties of botanical saponins should be taken into account but also its effect on insects and diseases control when decided using them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Interactions of Ovalbumin with Ionic Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xia; YAN Hui; GUO Rong

    2008-01-01

    The interactions of ovalbumin (OVA) with one anionic surfactant,sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS),and two cationic surfactants,dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB),in water have been studied through fluorescence and UV-Vis spectroscopies and transmission electronic microscopy,combined with the measurement of conductivity.OVA can increase the critical micelle concentrations (cmc) of SDS and CTAB but has little effect on that of DTAB.The interaction between surfactant monomer and OVA is greater than that between surfactant micelles and OVA.Moreover,SDS can make OVA unfolded while cationic surfactants cannot.

  17. Surfactant gene polymorphisms and interstitial lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelidis Panagiotis

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, which is present in the alveolar lining fluid and is essential for normal lung function. Alterations in surfactant composition have been reported in several interstitial lung diseases (ILDs. Furthermore, a mutation in the surfactant protein C gene that results in complete absence of the protein has been shown to be associated with familial ILD. The role of surfactant in lung disease is therefore drawing increasing attention following the elucidation of the genetic basis underlying its surface expression and the proof of surfactant abnormalities in ILD.

  18. Solid methane on Triton and Pluto - 3- to 4-micron spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John R.; Buie, Marc W.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.

    1990-01-01

    Methane has been identified in the Pluto/Charon system on the basis of absorption features in the reflectance spectrum at 1.5 and 2.3 microns; attention is presently given to observations of a 3.25 micron-centered deep absorption feature in Triton and Pluto/Charon system reflectance spectra. This absorption may indicate the presence of solid methane, constituting either the dominant surface species or a mixture with a highly transparent substance, such as N2 frost.

  19. Triton-B catalyzed, efficient and solvent-free approach for the synthesis of dithiocarbamates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf Zaidi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel one-pot, solvent-free method for the synthesis of dithiocarbamates was developed through the reaction of corresponding alkyl halides, amines and carbon disulfide employing catalytic amount of benzyl trimethyl ammonium hydroxide (Triton-B. The reaction conditions are milder with extremely simple work-up procedures than the reported methods, afforded high yields (82-98% of the desired products.

  20. A rare case of retroperitoneal malignant triton tumor invading renal vein and small intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijović Žaklina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malignant Triton tumor is a very rare malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation. Most of those tumors occur in patients with von Recklinghausen’s disease or as a late complication of irradiation and commonly seen in the head, neck, extremities and trunk. Case report. We reported retroperitoneal malignant Triton tumor in a 57-year-old female patient. Skin lesions were not present, and there was no family history of neurofibromatosis or previous irradiation. The presented case is one of a few recorded in the specialized literature that occurs in the retroperitoneal space in sporadic form. In this case, tumor consisted of a multilobular mass was in close relation with the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava and involved the renal vein with gross invasion of the small intestine. The patient underwent total resection of the tumor and left nefrectomy was performed. The small intestine 10 cm in length was also resected and end-to-end anastomosis was conducted. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged from the hospital ten days after the surgery. Conclusion. Diagnostically, it is crucial to recognize this uncommon histological variant because malignant Triton tumor has a worse prognosis than classic malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor does. The use of the immunohistochemistry is essential in making the correct diagnosis. Only appropriate pathological evaluation supported by immunostaining with S-100 protein and desmin confirmed the diagnosis. Aggressive surgical management treatment improves the prognosis of such cases with adjuvant radiotherapy.

  1. An anionic surfactant for EOR applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagir, Muhammad; Tan, Isa M.; Mushtaq, Muhammad

    2014-10-01

    This work is to investigate the new anionic surfactants for the Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) application. Sulfonated anionic surfactant was produced by attaching SO3 to an ethoxylated alcohol to increase the performance of the surfactant. Methallyl chloride and ethoxylated alcohol was reacted followed by the reaction with sodium bisulfite to produce anionic sulfonated surfactant in 80.3 % yield. The sulfonation reaction parameters such as reactants mole ratio, reaction temperature and catalyst amount were optimized. The generation and stability of foam from the synthesized surfactant is also tested and results are reported. The synthesized novel surfactant was further investigated for the effect on the CO2 mobility in porous media and the findings are presented here. This in house developed surfactant has a great potential for CO2- EOR applications.

  2. Near-Infrared Spectral Monitoring of Triton with IRTF/SpeX II: Spatial Distribution and Evolution of Ices

    CERN Document Server

    Grundy, W M; Stansberry, J A; Buie, M W; Olkin, C B; Young, E F

    2009-01-01

    This report arises from an ongoing program to monitor Neptune's largest moon Triton spectroscopically in the 0.8 to 2.4 micron range using IRTF/SpeX. Our objective is to search for changes on Triton's surface as witnessed by changes in the infrared absorption bands of its surface ices N2, CH4, H2O, CO, and CO2. We have recorded infrared spectra of Triton on 53 nights over the ten apparitions from 2000 through 2009. The data generally confirm our previously reported diurnal spectral variations of the ice absorption bands (Grundy & Young 2004). Nitrogen ice shows a large amplitude variation, with much stronger absorption on Triton's Neptune-facing hemisphere. We present evidence for seasonal evolution of Triton's N2 ice: the 2.15 micron absorption band appears to be diminishing, especially on the Neptune-facing hemisphere. Although it is mostly dissolved in N2 ice, Triton's CH4 ice shows a very different longitudinal variation from the N2 ice, challenging assumptions of how the two ices behave. Unlike Trito...

  3. 抗变形X100管线钢模拟焊接热影响区的组织与韧性研究%MICROSTRUCTURE AND TOUGHNESS OF THE SIMULATED WELDING HEAT AFFECTED ZONE IN X100 PIPELINE STEEL WITH HIGH DEFORMATION RESISTANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂文金; 尚成嘉; 由洋; 张晓兵; Sundaresa Subramanian

    2012-01-01

    A single welding thermal-cycles with different heat inputs (8, 16, 20, 25, 30 and 50 kJ/cm) were simulated by Gleeble 3800 to study the correlation of toughness, hardness and microstructure in heat affect zone (HAZ) of the X100 pipeline steel with multi-phases and 0.10%Nb (mass fraction). The microstructures of the CGHAZ in HAZ were characterized by means of OM, SEM and EBSD, and mechanical properties were tested. The results show that for a low heat input of less than 20 kJ/cm, the microstructure is lath bainite or acicular ferrite structure with high-density of large-angle boundaries (>15°), which exhibits good Charpy impact toughness. However, for a large heat input over 25 kJ/cm, the uniformity of prior austenite grains becomes worse, the M/A constituents and the granular bainite (GB) are coarsening, and the amount of large-angle boundaries decreases with the increase of heat input. The results of the instrumented Charpy impacttest and the observation of fracture surfaces on the specimens indicate that the cracks are induced near the coarse M/A constituents and the large—angle boundaries can remarkably restrict crack propagations. Therefore, in order to ensure a strong match between the HAZ and the base metal, and the resistance to hydrogen induced delayed damage because of high hardness of HAZ, the heat input energy should be about between 15 and 20 kJ/cm.%采用Gleeble-3800热模拟机研究了多相抗变形X100高Nb含量管线钢的焊接性能,利用金相显微技术(OM)、扫描电镜(SEM)、电子背散射衍射(EBSD)对模拟焊接热影响区的组织进行了表征,结合示波冲击及微观硬度实验结果分析了影响模拟焊接热影响粗晶区(CGHAZ)的低温韧性及热影响区硬度与组织之间的关系.研究表明,高Nb抗变形X100管线钢单道次焊接热输入小于20kJ/cm时的CGHAZ具有较高韧性,形成大角晶界密度较高的板条贝氏体或针状铁素体;焊接热输入大于等于25kJ/cm会导致CGHAZ晶

  4. ICE MINERALOGY ACROSS AND INTO THE SURFACES OF PLUTO, TRITON, AND ERIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegler, S. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Grundy, W. M. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Olkin, C. B.; Young, L. A. [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Romanishin, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Cornelison, D. M. [Department of Physics, Astronomy, and Materials Science, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO 65897 (United States); Khodadadkouchaki, R., E-mail: Stephen.Tegler@nau.edu, E-mail: W.Grundy@lowell.edu, E-mail: colkin@boulder.swri.edu, E-mail: layoung@boulder.swri.edu, E-mail: wjr@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: DavidCornelison@MissouriState.edu [Department of Physics, California State University, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)

    2012-05-20

    We present three near-infrared spectra of Pluto taken with the Infrared Telescope Facility and SpeX, an optical spectrum of Triton taken with the MMT and the Red Channel Spectrograph, and previously published spectra of Pluto, Triton, and Eris. We combine these observations with a two-phase Hapke model and gain insight into the ice mineralogy on Pluto, Triton, and Eris. Specifically, we measure the methane-nitrogen mixing ratio across and into the surfaces of these icy dwarf planets. In addition, we present a laboratory experiment that demonstrates it is essential to model methane bands in spectra of icy dwarf planets with two methane phases-one highly diluted by nitrogen and the other rich in methane. For Pluto, we find bulk, hemisphere-averaged, methane abundances of 9.1% {+-} 0.5%, 7.1% {+-} 0.4%, and 8.2% {+-} 0.3% for sub-Earth longitudes of 10 Degree-Sign , 125 Degree-Sign , and 257 Degree-Sign . Application of the Wilcoxon rank sum test to our measurements finds these small differences are statistically significant. For Triton, we find bulk, hemisphere-averaged, methane abundances of 5.0% {+-} 0.1% and 5.3% {+-} 0.4% for sub-Earth longitudes of 138 Degree-Sign and 314 Degree-Sign . Application of the Wilcoxon rank sum test to our measurements finds the differences are not statistically significant. For Eris, we find a bulk, hemisphere-averaged, methane abundance of 10% {+-} 2%. Pluto, Triton, and Eris do not exhibit a trend in methane-nitrogen mixing ratio with depth into their surfaces over the few centimeter range probed by these observations. This result is contrary to the expectation that since visible light penetrates deeper into a nitrogen-rich surface than the depths from which thermal emission emerges, net radiative heating at depth would drive preferential sublimation of nitrogen leading to an increase in the methane abundance with depth.

  5. Adsorption of dimeric surfactants in lamellar silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcerzak, Mateusz; Pietralik, Zuzanna [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Domka, Ludwik [Department of Metalorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznań (Poland); Skrzypczak, Andrzej [Institute of Chemical Technology, Poznań University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, 60-965 Poznań (Poland); Kozak, Maciej, E-mail: mkozak@amu.edu.pl [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The intercalation of dimeric surfactants changed the morphology of MMT samples. • XRD indicated structures formed by surfactant molecules in interlayer space. • The four-step thermal decomposition of dimeric surfactant, confirms intercalation. - Abstract: The adsorption of different types of cationic surfactants in lamellar silicates changes their surface character from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. This study was undertaken to obtain lamellar silicates modified by a series of novel dimeric (gemini) surfactants of different length alkyl chains and to characterise these organophilised materials. Synthetic sodium montmorillonite SOMASIF® ME 100 (M) and enriched bentonite of natural origin (Nanoclay – hydrophilic bentonite®) were organophilised with dimeric (gemini) surfactants (1,1′-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(alkoxymethyl)imidazolium dichlorides). As a result of surfactant molecule adsorption in interlamellar space, the d-spacing (d{sub 001}) increased from 0.97 nm (for the anhydrous structure) to 2.04 nm. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the modified systems reveals bands assigned to the stretching vibrations of the CH{sub 2} and CH{sub 3} groups and the scissoring vibrations of the NH group from the structure of the dimeric surfactants. Thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) studies imply a four-stage process of surfactant decomposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images provide information on the influence of dimeric surfactant intercalation into the silicate structures. Particles of the modified systems show a tendency toward the formation of irregularly shaped agglomerates.

  6. Suspended nanoparticles in surfactant media as a microextraction technique for simultaneous separation and preconcentration of cobalt, nickel and copper ions for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Shakerian, Farid; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji

    2013-03-15

    The aim of this study was to describe a new method of microextraction based on the suspension of alumina nanoparticles in the surfactant media for simultaneous separation and preconcentration of the ultra-traces of cobalt, nickel and copper ions. In this technique, the alumina nanoparticles were suspended in the non-ionic surfactant solution of Triton X-114. The analytes in the sample solution were adsorbed onto the nanoparticles. After the phase separation based on the cloud point of the mixture at 40 °C, the nanoparticles settled down in the surfactant rich phase. Then 120 μL of nitric acid (3.0 mol L(-1)) was added to the surfactant rich phase which caused desorption of the analytes. Finally, the liquid phase was separated by centrifugation from the nanoparticles and was used for the quantification of the analytes by the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The parameters affecting the extraction and detection processes were optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions (i.e. pH∼8, Triton X-114, 0.05% (v/v); temperature 40 °C), a sample volume of 25 mL resulted in the enhancement factors of 198, 205 and 206 and detection limits (defined as 3Sb/m) of 2.5, 2.8 and 2.6 ng L(-1) for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) respectively. The sorbent showed high capacity for these metal ions (30-40 mg g(-1) sorbent). The method was successfully applied to the determination of the analytes in natural water samples.

  7. Surfactants in tribology, v.3

    CERN Document Server

    Biresaw, Girma

    2013-01-01

    The manufacture and use of almost every consumer and industrial product rely on application of advanced knowledge in surface science and tribology. These two disciplines are of critical importance in major economic sectors, such as mining, agriculture, manufacturing (including metals, plastics, wood, computers, MEMS, NEMS, appliances), construction, transportation, and medical instruments, transplants, and diagnostic devices. An up-to-date reference with contributions by experts in surface science and tribology, Surfactants in Tribology, Volume 3 discusses some of the underlying tribological a

  8. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Detergent Surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    Erich Jelen; Ute Merrettig-Bruns

    2009-01-01

    Detergent surfactantscan be found in wastewater in relevant concentrations. Most of them are known as ready degradable under aerobic conditions, as required by European legislation. Far fewer surfactants have been tested so far for biodegradability under anaerobic conditions. The natural environment is predominantly aerobic, but there are some environmental compartments such as river sediments, sub-surface soil layer and anaerobic sludge digesters of wastewater treatment plants which have str...

  9. Tidal interaction: A possible explanation for geysers and other fluid phenomena in the Neptune-Triton system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, W. D.; Wood, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Discovery of geyser-like plumes on the surface of Triton was a highlight of Voyager 2's passage through the Neptune planetary system. Remarkable as these observations were, they were not entirely without precedent. Considering the confirmed predictions for the 1979 Voyager Jovian passage, it was logical to consider other solar system bodies beside Io where tidal effects could be a significant factor in surface processes. It was our intuition that the Neptune-Triton gravitational bond acting at high inclination to the Neptune equator and the fact that Neptune was a fluid body was significant oblateness would produce tidal and mechanical forces that could be transformed into thermal energy vented on Triton's surface. Prior to the Voyager flyby, others have noted that capture and evolution of Triton's orbit from extreme eccentricity to near circular state today would have resulted in significant tidal heating, but these analysts disregard current day forces. Our calculations indicate that the time varying forces between Neptune-Triton fall midway between those exerted in the Earth-Moon and Jupiter-Io systems, and considering the low level of other energy inputs, this source of internal energy should not be ignored when seeking an explanation for surface activity. In each planet-satellite case, residual or steady-state eccentricity causes time-varying stresses on internal satellite strata. In the case of Jupiter the residual eccentricity is due largely to Galilean satellite interactions, particularly Io-Europa, but in the case of Neptune-Triton, it is the effect of Triton's inclined orbit about an oblate primary.

  10. Surfactant inhibition in acute respiratory failure : consequences for exogenous surfactant therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.P. Eijking (Eric)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is characterized by immaturity of the lung, resulting in relative or absolute absence of pulmonary surfactant. Worldwide, neonates suffering from RDS have been treated successfully with exogenous surfactant preparations. Currently, exogeno

  11. Cationic versus anionic surfactant in tuning the structure and interaction of nanoparticle, protein, and surfactant complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehan, Sumit; Aswal, Vinod K; Kohlbrecher, Joachim

    2014-08-26

    The structure and interaction in complexes of anionic Ludox HS40 silica nanoparticle, anionic bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein, and cationic dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) surfactant have been studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The results are compared with similar complexes having anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant (Mehan, S; Chinchalikar, A. J.; Kumar, S.; Aswal, V. K.; Schweins, R. Langmuir 2013, 29, 11290). In both cases (DTAB and SDS), the structure in nanoparticle-protein-surfactant complexes is predominantly determined by the interactions of the individual two-component systems. The nanoparticle-surfactant (mediated through protein-surfactant complex) and protein-surfactant interactions for DTAB, but nanoparticle-protein (mediated through protein-surfactant complex) and protein-surfactant interactions for SDS, are found to be responsible for the resultant structure of nanoparticle-protein-surfactant complexes. Irrespective of the charge on the surfactant, the cooperative binding of surfactant with protein leads to micellelike clusters of surfactant formed along the unfolded protein chain. The adsorption of these protein-surfactant complexes for DTAB on oppositely charged nanoparticles gives rise to the protein-surfactant complex-mediated aggregation of nanoparticles (similar to that of DTAB surfactant). It is unlike that of depletion-induced aggregation of nanoparticles with nonadsorption of protein-surfactant complexes for SDS in similarly charged nanoparticle systems (similar to that of protein alone). The modifications in nanoparticle aggregation as well as unfolding of protein in these systems as compared to the corresponding two-component systems have also been examined by selectively contrast matching the constituents.

  12. Surfactant-enhanced cellulose nanocrystal Pickering emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Ballinger, Sarah; Pelton, Robert; Cranston, Emily D

    2015-02-01

    The effect of surfactants on the properties of Pickering emulsions stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) was investigated. Electrophoretic mobility, interfacial tension, confocal microscopy and three-phase contact angle measurements were used to elucidate the interactions between anionic CNCs and cationic alkyl ammonium surfactants didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Both surfactants were found to adsorb onto CNCs with concentration-dependent morphology. At low concentrations, individual surfactant molecules adsorbed with alkyl tails pointing outward leading to hydrophobic CNCs. At higher concentrations, above the surfactant's apparent critical micelle concentration, surfactant aggregate morphologies on CNCs were inferred and the hydrophobicity of CNCs decreased. DMAB, which has two alkyl tails, rendered the CNCs more hydrophobic than CTAB which has only a single alkyl tail, at all surfactant concentrations. The change in CNC wettability from surfactant adsorption was directly linked to emulsion properties; adding surfactant increased the emulsion stability, decreased the droplet size, and controlled the internal phase of CNC Pickering emulsions. More specifically, a double transitional phase inversion, from oil-in-water to water-in-oil and back to oil-in-water, was observed for emulsions with CNCs and increasing amounts of DMAB (the more hydrophobic surfactant). With CNCs and CTAB, no phase inversion was induced. This work represents the first report of CNC Pickering emulsions with surfactants as well as the first CNC Pickering emulsions that can be phase inverted. The ability to surface modify CNCs in situ and tailor emulsions by adding surfactants may extend the potential of CNCs to new liquid formulations and extruded/spray-dried materials.

  13. Study on Treatment of Radioactive Wastewater Containing Activated Products by Micellar-Enhanced Ultrafiltration Process%含活化产物放射性废水的胶束强化超滤处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔劲松; 王晓伟; 姚青旭

    2012-01-01

    Experiments of removing nickel from simulated radioactive wastewater containing activated products by micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration which using odecylbenzene sulfonate(SDBS) and polyoxyethylene octyl phenyl ether (TritonX-100) as surfactants were carried out. Results showed that rejection efficiency of nickel was affected by the mole ratio of TritonX-100/SDBS, surfactants concentration and pH. Nickel rejection ratio could reach 95% when the mole ratio of TritonX-100/SDBS was 0.1 and feedwater pH was adjusted above 9.0.%以含活化腐蚀产物废水中镍(Ni)为去除对象,采用十二烷基苯磺酸钠( SDBS)和辛基酚聚氧乙烯醚( TritonX-100)复配形成胶束,研究胶束强化超滤(MEUF)处理含活化腐蚀产物废水的效果.结果表明:TritonX-1 00和SDBS复配的MEUF过程对含活化腐蚀产物废水中Ni2+的截留效果受到复配比、表面活性剂用量和pH的影响.保持复配比为0.1,在pH大于9.0时,MEUF对Ni2+的截留率可达95%.

  14. Solubilization of Hydrophobic Dyes in Surfactant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Tehrani-Bagha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of surfactants for solubilization of hydrophobic organic dyes (mainly solvent and disperse dyes has been reviewed. The effect of parameters such as the chemical structures of the surfactant and the dye, addition of salt and of polyelectrolytes, pH, and temperature on dye solubilization has been discussed. Surfactant self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution and below the concentration where this occurs—the critical micelle concentration (CMC—there is no solubilization. Above the CMC, the amount of solubilized dye increases linearly with the increase in surfactant concentration. It is demonstrated that different surfactants work best for different dyes. In general, nonionic surfactants have higher solubilization power than anionic and cationic surfactants. It is likely that the reason for the good performance of nonionic surfactants is that they allow dyes to be accommodated not only in the inner, hydrocarbon part of the micelle but also in the headgroup shell. It is demonstrated that the location of a dye in a surfactant micelle can be assessed from the absorption spectrum of the dye-containing micellar solution.

  15. Using biologically soft surfactants for dust suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachenko, N.G.; Kolodiichak, V.K.; Motrii, A.E.; Severin, V.D.

    1982-07-01

    This article discusses environmental aspects of using surfactants in coal mines for dust suppression. Surfactants for underground black coal mines in the USSR are divided into three classes: so-called soft surfactants with a decomposition period from 1 to 3 days, hard surfactants with decomposition exceeding a month and an intermediary group. The decomposition process is analyzed; the role played by fermentation is stressed. Environmental effects of surfactant decomposition are evaluated. Selected surfactants tested in Soviet laboratories are described. The results of experimental use of diethanolamide as a surfactant for water injection in coal seams are evaluated. Wetting time amounts to 1 s when a 0.2% concentration is used. When surfactant concentration in water is reduced to 0.05% wetting time does not change; when concentration decreases to 0.025% wetting time increases to 3 s. Surfactant efficiency is investigated under operational conditions in a Donbass mine. Specifications of the working face, mining system and air pollution caused by a shearer loader are discussed. When diethanolamide is used dust suppression efficiency ranges from 86.4 to 90.4%. During the tests diethanolamide concentration in water was 0.05%.

  16. Remediation using trace element humate surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Taylor, Steven Cheney; Bruhn, Debra Fox

    2016-08-30

    A method of remediation at a remediation site having one or more undesirable conditions in which one or more soil characteristics, preferably soil pH and/or elemental concentrations, are measured at a remediation site. A trace element humate surfactant composition is prepared comprising a humate solution, element solution and at least one surfactant. The prepared trace element humate surfactant composition is then dispensed onto the remediation site whereby the trace element humate surfactant composition will reduce the amount of undesirable compounds by promoting growth of native species activity. By promoting native species activity, remediation occurs quickly and environmental impact is minimal.

  17. Surfactant nebulisation : lung function, surfactant distribution and pulmonary blood flow distribution in lung lavaged rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Peter H.; Heikamp, A; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Surfactant nebulisation is a promising alternative to surfactant instillation in newborns with the respiratory distress syndrome. Although less surfactant is deposited in the lung, it improves gas exchange, probably due to a superior distribution. We hypothesize that a more uniform distri

  18. Biophysical inhibition of pulmonary surfactant function by polymeric nanoparticles: role of surfactant protein B and C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Ruppert, Clemens; Schmehl, Thomas; Günther, Andreas; Seeger, Werner

    2014-11-01

    The current study investigated the mechanisms involved in the process of biophysical inhibition of pulmonary surfactant by polymeric nanoparticles (NP). The minimal surface tension of diverse synthetic surfactants was monitored in the presence of bare and surface-decorated (i.e. poloxamer 407) sub-100 nm poly(lactide) NP. Moreover, the influence of NP on surfactant composition (i.e. surfactant protein (SP) content) was studied. Dose-elevations of SP advanced the biophysical activity of the tested surfactant preparation. Surfactant-associated protein C supplemented phospholipid mixtures (PLM-C) were shown to be more susceptible to biophysical inactivation by bare NP than phospholipid mixture supplemented with surfactant protein B (PLM-B) and PLM-B/C. Surfactant function was hindered owing to a drastic depletion of the SP content upon contact with bare NP. By contrast, surface-modified NP were capable of circumventing unwanted surfactant inhibition. Surfactant constitution influences the extent of biophysical inhibition by polymeric NP. Steric shielding of the NP surface minimizes unwanted NP-surfactant interactions, which represents an option for the development of surfactant-compatible nanomedicines.

  19. Surfactant nebulisation : lung function, surfactant distribution and pulmonary blood flow distribution in lung lavaged rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Peter H.; Heikamp, A; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Surfactant nebulisation is a promising alternative to surfactant instillation in newborns with the respiratory distress syndrome. Although less surfactant is deposited in the lung, it improves gas exchange, probably due to a superior distribution. We hypothesize that a more uniform distri

  20. Three-Body Bound States and The Triton Charge Radius; Perturbative Corrections to Next-to-next-to-leading order in Pionless Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, Jared

    2015-01-01

    In the three-body system of ${}^3\\mathrm{H}$ we show how perturbative corrections can be added to the leading ordering triton vertex function. Using this new scheme we calculate the triton charge form factor and use it to extract the triton charge radius to next-to-leading-order, yielding a prediction of 1.58~fm. We show that a new counter-term will be needed to predict the triton charge radius at next-to-next-to-leading order.

  1. Retroperitoneal "triton" tumor. Report of a case and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios Acosta José Martín

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The triton tumor was described in 1932 by Masson, as a peripheral nerve sheath malignancy with rabdomioblástica differentiation. The retroperitoneal location is extremely rare, only nine cases have been reported in children. The clinical picture depends on the size of the tumor and the organs involved, their retroperitoneal location is usually asymptomatic. The mainstay of treatment is the surgical excision of the tumor. We report the case of a child with retroperitoneal location of the tumor. A complete resection of it was performed. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. He is currently under control. There is no evidence of relapse.

  2. Production of {sup 48}V in a nuclear reactor via secondary tritons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siri, S. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Gerencia de Capacitacion, Quimica Nuclear y Ciencias de la Salud, Ezeiza, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cohen, I.M. [Univ. Tecnologica Nacional, Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-07-01

    The production of {sup 48}V in a nuclear reactor, induced on titanium by tritons generated from the {sup 6}Li(n, t){sup 4} He reaction, and eventually {sup 7}Li(n, n't){sup 4}He, is described. Samples of lithium titanate were irradiated for an irradiation cycle (120 h) in the RA-3 reactor, belonging to Ezeiza Atomic Centre. After a radiochemical separation, the characteristic radiations from {sup 48}V were identified in the gamma ray spectra of the vanadium fractions. (orig.)

  3. Squash preparation of a malignant triton tumor in a rare location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaram Sandhya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST are rare malignant mesenchymal neoplasms of neural origin. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors arising in a cranial nerve are rare with only a few cases being reported in literature. An MPNST with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation is also known as malignant triton tumor (MTT. MTT has a worse prognosis than the classic MPNST. The cytomorphological patterns of these tumors are insufficiently documented in literature. We present here the cytohistological features of an MPNST with focal rhabdomyomatous differentiation arising in the trigeminal nerve, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry.

  4. Solid methane on Triton and Pluto - 3- to 4-micron spectrophotometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J.R.; Buie, M.W.; Bjoraker, G.L. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA) Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (USA) NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Methane has been identified in the Pluto/Charon system on the basis of absorption features in the reflectance spectrum at 1.5 and 2.3 microns; attention is presently given to observations of a 3.25 micron-centered deep absorption feature in Triton and Pluto/Charon system reflectance spectra. This absorption may indicate the presence of solid methane, constituting either the dominant surface species or a mixture with a highly transparent substance, such as N2 frost. 35 refs.

  5. Hypolipidemic action of chrysin on Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in female C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Stéfani Zarzecki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone is a flavonoid, natural component of traditional medicinal herbs, present in honey, propolis and many plant extracts. The objective of this study was to investigate the hypolipidemic properties of chrysin on Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in female C57BL/6 mice. Triton WR-1339 was administered intraperitoneally (400 mg/kg to overnight-fasted mice to develop acute hyperlipidemia. Chrysin was administered orally (10 mg/kg 30 min before Triton WR-1339. At 24 h after Triton WR-1339 injection, blood samples were collected to measure plasma lipid levels. The hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, carbonyl content, non-protein sulfhydryl (NPSH and ascorbic acid (AA levels, as well as catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity were recorded. Chrysin administration significantly decreased total cholesterol levels. In addition, it partially decreased non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglycerides levels in plasma of hyperlipidaemic mice. In addition chrysin administration prevented the increase on TBARS levels and prevented the decrease in SOD activity induced by Triton WR-1339. These findings indicated that chrysin was able to decrease plasma lipids concentration and that its antioxidant properties was, at least in part, involved in the hypolipidaemic action of chrysin.

  6. Hemolysis by surfactants--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaargadoo-Catin, Magalie; Ali-Cherif, Anaïs; Pougnas, Jean-Luc; Perrin, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    An overview of the use of surfactants for erythrocyte lysis and their cell membrane action mechanisms is given. Erythrocyte membrane characteristics and its association with the cell cytoskeleton are presented in order to complete understanding of the erythrocyte membrane distortion. Cell homeostasis disturbances caused by surfactants might induce changes starting from shape modification to cell lysis. Two main mechanisms are hypothesized in literature which are osmotic lysis and lysis by solubilization even if the boundary between them is not clearly defined. Another specific mechanism based on the formation of membrane pores is suggested in the particular case of saponins. The lytic potency of a surfactant is related to its affinity for the membrane and the modification of the lipid membrane curvature. This is to be related to the surfactant shape defined by its hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties but also by experimental conditions. As a consequence, prediction of the hemolytic potency of a given surfactant is challenging. Several studies are focused on the relation between surfactant erythrolytic potency and their physico-chemical parameters such as the critical micellar concentration (CMC), the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB), the surfactant membrane/water partition coefficient (K) or the packing parameter (P). The CMC is one of the most important factors considered even if a lytic activity cut-off effect points out that the only consideration of CMC not enough predictive. The relation K.CMC must be considered in addition to the CMC to predict the surfactant lytic capacity within the same family of non ionic surfactant. Those surfactant structure/lytic activity studies demonstrate the requirement to take into account a combination of physico-chemical parameters to understand and foresee surfactant lytic potency.

  7. Structured fluids polymers, colloids, surfactants

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Thomas A

    2010-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, the study of liquids containing polymers, surfactants, or colloidal particles has developed from a loose assembly of facts into a coherent discipline with substantial predictive power. These liquids expand our conception of what condensed matter can do. Such structured-fluid phenomena dominate the physical environment within living cells. This book teaches how to think of these fluids from a unified point of view showing the far-reaching effects ofthermal fluctuations in producing forces and motions. Keeping mathematics to a minimum, the book seeks the simplest expl

  8. Innovation in surfactant therapy I: surfactant lavage and surfactant administration by fluid bolus using minimally invasive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargaville, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Innovation in the field of exogenous surfactant therapy continues more than two decades after the drug became commercially available. One such innovation, lung lavage using dilute surfactant, has been investigated in both laboratory and clinical settings as a treatment for meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Studies in animal models of MAS have affirmed that dilute surfactant lavage can remove meconium from the lung, with resultant improvement in lung function. In human infants both non-randomised studies and two randomised controlled trials have demonstrated a potential benefit of dilute surfactant lavage over standard care. The largest clinical trial, performed by our research group in infants with severe MAS, found that lung lavage using two 15-ml/kg aliquots of dilute surfactant did not reduce the duration of respiratory support, but did appear to reduce the composite outcome of death or need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. A further trial of lavage therapy is planned to more precisely define the effect on survival. Innovative approaches to surfactant therapy have also extended to the preterm infant, for whom the more widespread use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has meant delaying or avoiding administration of surfactant. In an effort to circumvent this problem, less invasive techniques of bolus surfactant therapy have been trialled, including instillation directly into the pharynx, via laryngeal mask and via brief tracheal catheterisation. In a recent clinical trial, instillation of surfactant into the trachea using a flexible feeding tube was found to reduce the need for subsequent intubation. We have developed an alternative method of brief tracheal catheterisation in which surfactant is delivered via a semi-rigid vascular catheter inserted through the vocal cords under direct vision. In studies to date, this technique has been relatively easy to perform, and resulted in rapid improvement in lung function and reduced need for

  9. SCALE Continuous-Energy Monte Carlo Depletion with Parallel KENO in TRITON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goluoglu, Sedat [ORNL; Bekar, Kursat B [ORNL; Wiarda, Dorothea [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The TRITON sequence of the SCALE code system is a powerful and robust tool for performing multigroup (MG) reactor physics analysis using either the 2-D deterministic solver NEWT or the 3-D Monte Carlo transport code KENO. However, as with all MG codes, the accuracy of the results depends on the accuracy of the MG cross sections that are generated and/or used. While SCALE resonance self-shielding modules provide rigorous resonance self-shielding, they are based on 1-D models and therefore 2-D or 3-D effects such as heterogeneity of the lattice structures may render final MG cross sections inaccurate. Another potential drawback to MG Monte Carlo depletion is the need to perform resonance self-shielding calculations at each depletion step for each fuel segment that is being depleted. The CPU time and memory required for self-shielding calculations can often eclipse the resources needed for the Monte Carlo transport. This summary presents the results of the new continuous-energy (CE) calculation mode in TRITON. With the new capability, accurate reactor physics analyses can be performed for all types of systems using the SCALE Monte Carlo code KENO as the CE transport solver. In addition, transport calculations can be performed in parallel mode on multiple processors.

  10. Comparison of fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for deuterons, tritons and helions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Kyle; Friedberg, Wallace; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji

    2012-02-01

    Secondary radiation in aircraft and spacecraft includes deuterons, tritons and helions. Two sets of fluence-to-effective dose conversion coefficients for isotropic exposure to these particles were compared: one used the particle and heavy ion transport code system (PHITS) radiation transport code coupled with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference phantoms (PHITS-ICRP) and the other the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) radiation transport code coupled with modified BodyBuilder™ phantoms (MCNPX-BB). Also, two sets of fluence-to-effective dose equivalent conversion coefficients calculated using the PHITS-ICRP combination were compared: one used quality factors based on linear energy transfer; the other used quality factors based on lineal energy (y). Finally, PHITS-ICRP effective dose coefficients were compared with PHITS-ICRP effective dose equivalent coefficients. The PHITS-ICRP and MCNPX-BB effective dose coefficients were similar, except at high energies, where MCNPX-BB coefficients were higher. For helions, at most energies effective dose coefficients were much greater than effective dose equivalent coefficients. For deuterons and tritons, coefficients were similar when their radiation weighting factor was set to 2.

  11. Resolving Acetylated and Phosphorylated Proteins by Neutral Urea Triton-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, NUT-PAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehl, Christopher J.; Deng, Xiexiong; Liu, Mengyu; Hovde, Stacy; Xu, Xinjing; Kuo, Min-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Protein acetylation and phosphorylation can be key modifications that regulate both normal and pathological protein functions. Current gel systems used to analyze modified proteins require either expensive reagents or time–consuming second dimension electrophoresis. In this manuscript, we present a neutral pH gel system that allows the analysis of acetylated and phosphorylated proteins. This neutral pH urea Triton-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system, or NUT-PAGE, separates proteins based on their charge at pH 7 and generates discrete bands from each acetylated and phosphorylated species. In addition, the gel is composed of common and inexpensive laboratory reagents, and requires only a single dimension of electrophoresis. We are able to demonstrate the effectiveness of this system by analyzing phosphorylated species of an acidic protein, α-synuclein, and both acetylated and phosphorylated species of a basic protein, histone H3. NUT-PAGE thus provides a cost-effective alternative to resolving acetylated and phosphorylated proteins, and potentially proteins with other post-translational modifications that alter net charge. Method Summary Here we present a single-dimension neutral pH urea Triton-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (NUT-PAGE) system affording high-resolution separation of acetylated and phosphorylated proteins. PMID:25109292

  12. Surfactant Adsorption: A Revised Physical Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, Marc R.; Hagen, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Many physical chemistry lab courses include an experiment in which students measure surface tension as a function of surfactant concentration. In the traditional experiment, the data are fit to the Gibbs isotherm to determine the molar area for the surfactant, and the critical micelle concentration is used to calculate the Gibbs energy of micelle…

  13. Surfactant effects on soil aggregate tensile strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known regarding a soil aggregate's tensile strength response to surfactants that may be applied to alleviate soil water repellency. Two laboratory investigations were performed to determine surfactant effects on the tensile strength of 1) Ap horizons of nine wettable, agricultural soils co...

  14. Metathesis depolymerization for removable surfactant templates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zifer, Thomas (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Wheeler, David Roger; Rahimian, Kamayar; McElhanon, James Ross (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Long, Timothy Michael; Jamison, Gregory Marks; Loy, Douglas Anson (Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, NM); Kline, Steven R. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD); Simmons, Blake Alexander (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-03-01

    Current methodologies for the production of meso- and nanoporous materials include the use of a surfactant to produce a self-assembled template around which the material is formed. However, post-production surfactant removal often requires centrifugation, calcination, and/or solvent washing which can damage the initially formed material architecture(s). Surfactants that can be disassembled into easily removable fragments following material preparation would minimize processing damage to the material structure, facilitating formation of templated hybrid architectures. Herein, we describe the design and synthesis of novel cationic and anionic surfactants with regularly spaced unsaturation in their hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails and the first application of ring closing metathesis depolymerization to surfactant degradation resulting in the mild, facile decomposition of these new compounds to produce relatively volatile nonsurface active remnants.

  15. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Surfactant Flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandersen, Sara Bülow

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is being increasingly applied in the oil industry and several different technologies have emerged during, the last decades in order to optimize oil recovery after conventional recovery methods have been applied. Surfactant flooding is an EOR technique in which the phase...... both for complex surfactant systems as well as for oil and brine systems. It is widely accepted that an increase in oil recovery can be obtained through flooding, whether it is simple waterflooding, waterflooding where the salinity has been modified by the addition or removal of specific ions (socalled...... “smart” waterflooding) or surfactant flooding. High pressure experiments have been carried out in this work on a surfactant system (surfactant/ oil/ brine) and on oil/ seawater systems (oil/ brine). The high pressure experiments were carried out on a DBR JEFRI PVT cell, where a glass window allows...

  16. Fibrinogen stability under surfactant interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Natalia; Barbosa, Leandro R S; Itri, Rosangela; Ruso, Juan M

    2011-10-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), circular dichroism (CD), difference spectroscopy (UV-vis), Raman spectroscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements have been performed in the present work to provide a quantitatively comprehensive physicochemical description of the complexation between bovine fibrinogen and the sodium perfluorooctanoate, sodium octanoate, and sodium dodecanoate in glycine buffer (pH 8.5). It has been found that sodium octanoate and dodecanoate act as fibrinogen destabilizer. Meanwhile, sodium perfluorooctanoate acts as a structure stabilizer at low molar concentration and as a destabilizer at high molar concentration. Fibrinogen's secondary structure is affected by all three studied surfactants (decrease in α-helix and an increase in β-sheet content) to a different extent. DSC and UV-vis revealed the existence of intermediate states in the thermal unfolding process of fibrinogen. In addition, SAXS data analysis showed that pure fibrinogen adopts a paired-dimer structure in solution. Such a structure is unaltered by sodium octanoate and perfluoroctanoate. However, interaction of sodium dodecanoate with the fibrinogen affects the protein conformation leading to a complex formation. Taken together, all results evidence that both surfactant hydrophobicity and tail length mediate the fibrinogen stability upon interaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Surfactant replacement therapy--economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejaver, R K; al Hifzi, I; Aldussari, S

    2001-06-01

    Surfactant replacement is an effective treatment for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. (RDS). As widespread use of surfactant is becoming a reality, it is important to assess the economic implications of this new form of therapy. A comparison study was carried out at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Northwest Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Among 75 infants who received surfactant for RDS and similar number who were managed during time period just before the surfactant was available, but by set criteria would have made them eligible for surfactant. All other management modalities except surfactant were the same for all these babies. Based on the intensity of monitoring and nursing care required by the baby, the level of care was divided as: Level IIIA, IIIB, Level II, Level I. The cost per day per bed for each level was calculated, taking into account the use of hospital immovable equipment, personal salaries of nursing, medical, ancillary staff, overheads and maintenance, depreciation and replacement costs. Medications used, procedures done, TPN, oxygen, were all added to individual patient's total expenditure. 75 infants in the Surfactant group had 62 survivors. They spent a total of 4300 days in hospital. (av 69.35) Out of which 970 d (av 15.65 per patient) were ventilated days. There were 56 survivors in the non-surfactant group of 75. They had spent a total of 5023 days in the hospital (av 89.69/patient) out of which 1490 were ventilated days (av 26.60 d). Including the cost of surfactant (two doses), cost of hospital stay for each infant taking the average figures of stay would be SR 118, 009.75 per surfactant treated baby and SR 164, 070.70 per non-surfactant treated baby. The difference of 46,061 SR is 39.03% more in non-surfactant group. One Saudi rial = 8 Rs (approx at the time study was carried out.) Medical care cost varies from place to place. However, it is definitely cost-effective where surfactant is concerned. Quality adjusted

  18. Surfactant-soil interactions during surfactant-amended remediation of contaminated soils by hydrophobic organic compounds: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laha, Shonali; Tansel, Berrin; Ussawarujikulchai, Achara

    2009-01-01

    Surfactants are amphiphilic molecules that reduce aqueous surface tension and increase the solubility of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs). Surfactant-amended remediation of HOC-contaminated soils and aquifers has received significant attention as an effective treatment strategy - similar in concept to using soaps and detergents as washing agents to remove grease from soiled fabrics. The proposed mechanisms involved in surfactant-amended remediation include: lowering of interfacial tension, surfactant solubilization of HOCs, and the phase transfer of HOC from soil-sorbed to pseudo-aqueous phase. However, as with any proposed chemical countermeasures, there is a concern regarding the fate of the added surfactant. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding nonionic micelle-forming surfactant sorption onto soil, and serves as an introduction to research on that topic. Surfactant sorption onto soil appears to increase with increasing surfactant concentration until the onset of micellization. Sorbed-phase surfactant may account for the majority of added surfactant in surfactant-amended remediation applications, and this may result in increased HOC partitioning onto soil until HOC solubilization by micellar phase surfactant successfully competes with increased HOC sorption on surfactant-modified soil. This review provides discussion of equilibrium partitioning theory to account for the distribution of HOCs between soil, aqueous phase, sorbed surfactant, and micellar surfactant phases, as well as recently developed models for surfactant sorption onto soil. HOC partitioning is characterized by apparent soil-water distribution coefficients in the presence of surfactant.

  19. Different effects of surfactant proteins B and C - implications for development of synthetic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curstedt, Tore; Johansson, Jan

    2010-06-01

    Treatment of premature newborn rabbits with synthetic surfactants containing a surfactant protein C analogue in a simple phospholipid mixture gives similar tidal volumes as treatment with poractant alfa (Curosurf(R)) but ventilation with a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is needed for this synthetic surfactant to stabilize the alveoli at end-expiration. The effect on lung gas volumes seems to depend on the structure of the peptide since treatment with a synthetic surfactant containing the 21-residue peptide (LysLeu(4))(4)Lys (KL(4)) gives low lung gas volumes in experiments also performed with PEEP. Surfactant preparations containing both surfactant proteins B and C or their analogues prevent alveolar collapse at end-expiration even if ventilated without PEEP. Treatment of premature newborn rabbits with different natural surfactants indicates that both the lipid composition and the proteins are important in order to stabilize the alveoli at end-expiration. Synthetic surfactants containing two peptides may be able to replace natural surfactants within the near future but more trials need to be performed before any conclusion can be drawn about the ideal composition of this new generation of synthetic surfactants.

  20. Exogenous Pulmonary Surfactant as a Vehicle for Antimicrobials: Assessment of Surfactant-Antibacterial Interactions In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Birkun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to its unique surface-active properties, an exogenous pulmonary surfactant may become a promising drug delivery agent, in particular, acting as a vehicle for antibiotics in topical treatment of pneumonia. The purpose of this study was to assess a mutual influence of natural surfactant preparation and three antibiotics (amikacin, cefepime, and colistimethate sodium in vitro and to identify appropriate combination(s for subsequent in vivo investigations of experimental surfactant/antibiotic mixtures. Influence of antibiotics on surface-active properties of exogenous surfactant was assessed using the modified Pattle method. Effects of exogenous surfactant on antibacterial activity of antimicrobials against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated using conventional microbiologic procedures. Addition of amikacin or cefepime to surfactant had no significant influence on surface-active properties of the latter. Obvious reduction of surface-active properties was confirmed for surfactant/colistimethate composition. When suspended with antibiotics, surfactant either had no impact on their antimicrobial activity (amikacin or exerted mild to moderate influence (reduction of cefepime bactericidal activity and increase of colistimethate bacteriostatic activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Considering favorable compatibility profile, the surfactant/amikacin combination is advisable for subsequent investigation of joint surfactant/antibacterial therapy in animals with bacterial pneumonia.

  1. PELATIHAN LARI INTERVAL 8 X 100 M, LEBIH BAIK DARI PELATIHAN LARI INTERVAL 4 X 200 M DAN 2 X 400 M DALAM MENINGKATKAN KECEPATAN LARI 400 M SISWA SMK NEGERI 5 DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Ayu Juliasih

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the increase of speed of the 400 m running obtained from a training of interval running of 800 m distance programmed  in three types of models and to find out which one of the three training models gave the greatest improvement of speed. The three models of training were interval sprint of 8 x 100 meters, 4 x 200 meters, and 2 x 400 meters, carried out in 4 sets, 3 times a week, for a 6 week duration. This study was an experimental study using the Randomized Pre and Post Test Group Design. The study subjects comprised 24 students of SMK Negeri 5 Denpasar, who were divided into 3 groups of 8 students each. Group 1 was assigned to 8 x 100 m run, group 2 to 4 x 200 m run, and group 3 to 2 x 400 m run training, respectively. The data were analyzed accordingly with the test of T-Paired, One-way Anova, and LSD. The result of the T-Paired test on each group before anf after training showed a significant mprovement of the running speed (p<0.05. Therefore, indicating an improvement of 400 m running speed was achieved in each group. The One-Way Anova test showed a significant difference was found among the three groups in the increase of running speed obtained after training (p<0.05. The LSD test showed there was a significant difference of the increase of running speed between Group 1 and 2, and between Group 1 and 3 (p<0.05. There was no significant difference of speed found between Group 2 and 3 (p>0.05. Therefore, the training of interval 8 x 100 meters run was more effective in increasing the running speed as compared with interval 4 x 200 meters and 2 x 400 meters run, respectively, among the students of SMK 5 Denpasar.

  2. Tunable, antibacterial activity of silicone polyether surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Madiha F; Zepeda-Velazquez, Laura; Brook, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Silicone surfactants are used in a variety of applications, however, limited data is available on the relationship between surfactant structure and biological activity. A series of seven nonionic, silicone polyether surfactants with known structures was tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli BL21. The compounds varied in their hydrophobic head, comprised of branched silicone structures with 3-10 siloxane linkages and, in two cases, phenyl substitution, and hydrophilic tail of 8-44 poly(ethylene glycol) units. The surfactants were tested at three concentrations: below, at, and above their Critical Micelle Concentrations (CMC) against 5 concentrations of E. coli BL21 in a three-step assay comprised of a 14-24h turbidometric screen, a live-dead stain and viable colony counts. The bacterial concentration had little effect on antibacterial activity. For most of the surfactants, antibacterial activity was higher at concentrations above the CMC. Surfactants with smaller silicone head groups had as much as 4 times the bioactivity of surfactants with larger groups, with the smallest hydrophobe exhibiting potency equivalent to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Smaller PEG chains were similarly associated with higher potency. These data link lower micelle stability and enhanced permeability of smaller silicone head groups to antibacterial activity. The results demonstrate that simple manipulation of nonionic silicone polyether structure leads to significant changes in antibacterial activity.

  3. A study of surfactant-assisted waterflooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scamehorn, J F; Harwell, J H

    1990-09-01

    In surfactant-assisted waterflooding, a surfactant slug is injected into a reservoir, followed by a brine spacer, followed by second surfactant slug. The charge on the surfactant in the first slug has opposite sign to that in the second slug. When the two slugs mix in the reservoir, a precipitate or coacervate is formed which plugs the permeable region of the reservoir. Subsequently injected water or brine is forced through the low permeability region of the reservoir, increasing sweep efficiency of the waterflood, compared to a waterflood not using surfactants. In this part of the work, two major tasks are performed. First, core floods are performed with oil present to demonstrate the improvement in incremental oil production, as well as permeability modification. Second, a reservoir simulation model will be proposed to further delineate the optimum strategy for implementation of the surfactant-assisted waterflooding, as well as indicate the reservoir types for which it would be most effective. Surfactants utilized were sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyl pyridinium chloride. 44 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Surfactants tailored by the class Actinobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes H Kügler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gloablly, the drive towards the establishment of a bio-based economy has resulted in an increased need for bio-based applications. This, in turn, has served as a driving force for the discovery and application of novel biosurfactants. The class Actinobacteria represents a vast group of microorganisms with the ability to produce a diverse range of secondary metabolites, including surfactants. Understanding the extensive nature of the biosurfactants produced by actinobacterial strains can assist in finding novel biosurfactants with new potential applications. This review therefore presents a comprehensive overview of the knowledge available on actinobacterial surfactants, the chemical structures that have been completely or partly elucidated, as well as the identity of the biosurfactant-producing strains. Producer strains of not yet elucidated compounds are discussed, as well as the original habitats of all the producer strains, which seems to indicate that biosurfactant production is environmentally driven. Methodology applied in the isolation, purification and structural elucidation of the different types of surface active compounds, as well as surfactant activity tests, are also discussed. Overall, actinobacterial surfactants can be summarized to include the dominantly occurring trehalose-comprising surfactants, other non-trehalose containing glycolipids, lipopeptides and the more rare actinobacterial surfactants. The lack of structural information on a large proportion of actinobacterial surfactants should be considered as a driving force to further explore the abundance and diversity of these compounds. This would allow for a better understanding of actinobacterial surface active compounds and their potential for biotechnological application.

  5. Influence of surfactants in forced dynamic dewetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Franziska; Fell, Daniela; Truszkowska, Dorota; Weirich, Marcel; Anyfantakis, Manos; Nguyen, Thi-Huong; Wagner, Manfred; Auernhammer, Günter K; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-09-20

    In this work we show that the forced dynamic dewetting of surfactant solutions depends sensitively on the surfactant concentration. To measure this effect, a hydrophobic rotating cylinder was horizontally half immersed in aqueous surfactant solutions. Dynamic contact angles were measured optically by extrapolating the contour of the meniscus to the contact line. Anionic (sodium 1-decanesulfonate, S-1DeS), cationic (cetyl trimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) and nonionic surfactants (C4E1, C8E3 and C12E5) with critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) spanning four orders of magnitude were used. The receding contact angle in water decreased with increasing velocity. This decrease was strongly enhanced when adding surfactant, even at surfactant concentrations of 10% of the critical micelle concentration. Plots of the receding contact angle-versus-velocity almost superimpose when being plotted at the same relative concentration (concentration/CMC). Thus the rescaled concentration is the dominating property for dynamic dewetting. The charge of the surfactants did not play a role, thus excluding electrostatic effects. The change in contact angle can be interpreted by local surface tension gradients, i.e. Marangoni stresses, close to the three-phase contact line. The decrease of dynamic contact angles with velocity follows two regimes. Despite the existence of Marangoni stresses close to the contact line, for a dewetting velocity above 1-10 mm s(-1) the hydrodynamic theory is able to describe the experimental results for all surfactant concentrations. At slower velocities an additional steep decrease of the contact angle with velocity was observed. Particle tracking velocimetry showed that the flow profiles do not differ with and without surfactant on a scales >100 μm.

  6. Triton X-114 cloud point extraction to subfractionate blood plasma proteins for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Flemming; Wulff, Tune

    2015-01-01

    A simple and reproducible procedure for enrichment of a plasma protein subfraction suitable for two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2DE) was developed, using a Triton X-114-based cloud point extraction (CPE). Appropriate conditions for such a CPE procedure were found by SDS...

  7. Surfactant-Assisted Coal Liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1993-01-01

    Obtaining liquid fuels from coal which are economically competitive with those obtained from petroleum based sources is a significant challenge for the researcher as well as the chemical industry. Presently, the economics of coal liquefaction are not favorable because of relatively intense processing conditions (temperatures of 430 degrees C and pressures of 2200 psig), use of a costly catalyst, and a low quality product slate of relatively high boiling fractions. The economics could be made more favorable by achieving adequate coal conversions at less intense processing conditions and improving the product slate. A study has been carried out to examine the effect of a surfactant in reducing particle agglomeration and improving hydrodynamics in the coal liquefaction reactor to increase coal conversions...

  8. The triton and three-nucleon force in nuclear lattice simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Borasoy, B; Lee, D; Meißner, Ulf G

    2006-01-01

    We study the triton and three-nucleon force at lowest chiral order in pionless effective field theory both in the Hamiltonian and Euclidean nuclear lattice formalism. In the case of the Euclidean lattice formalism, we derive the exact few-body worldline amplitudes corresponding to the standard many-body lattice action. This will be useful for setting low-energy coefficients in future nuclear lattice simulations. We work in the Wigner SU(4)-symmetric limit where the S-wave scattering lengths {1}S{0} and {3}S{1} are equal. By comparing with continuum results, we demonstrate for the first time that the nuclear lattice formalism can be used to study few-body nucleon systems.

  9. Deuteron and triton production with high energy sulphur and lead beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bearden, I G; Boissevain, J G; Christiansen, P H L; Conin, L; Dodd, J; Erazmus, B; Esumi, S C; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Ferenc, D; Franz, A; Gaardhøje, J J; Hansen, A G; Hansen, O; Hardtke, D; van Hecke, H; Holzer, E B; Humanic, T J; Hummel, P; Jacak, B V; Kaimi, K; Kaneta, M; Kohama, T; Kopytine, M L; Leltchouk, M; Ljubicic, A; Lörstad, B; Martin, L; Medvedev, A; Murray, M; Ohnishi, H; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Piuz, François; Pluta, J; Polychronakos, V; Potekhin, M V; Poulard, G; Reichhold, D M; Sakaguchi, A; Schmidt-Sørensen, J; Simon-Gillo, J; Sondheim, W E; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Sumi, Y; Willis, W J; Wolf, K; Xu, N; Zachary, D S

    2002-01-01

    Proton and deuteron production has been observed in S+S and S+Pb collisions at 200 A GeV and in Pb+Pb reactions at 158 A GeV at the CERN SPS accelerator. For Pb+Pb triton production was also measured. The p and d spectra as well as the p and t spectra were observed in similar rapidity ranges and over similar ranges of transverse momenta per nucleon, making it possible to interpret the cross sections of the composite particles in terms of coalescence mechanisms. Volumes of homogeneity were extracted and compared to pion-pair HBT interferometry results. Special attention is given to the dependence on transverse mass, centrality and rapidity. (29 refs).

  10. Tumores ósseos raros da calota craniana: sarcoma de Ewing e tumor de Triton

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Ana Cláudia Ferreira; Machado Márcio Martins; Carvalho Cláudio Sobral de; Figueiredo Marco Antônio Junqueira; Albertotti César José; Cerri Giovanni Guido

    2002-01-01

    O sarcoma de Ewing e o tumor de Triton representam dois tumores ósseos raros da calota craniana, os quais possuem clínica e aspecto imagenológico inespecíficos. Entretanto, os métodos de imagem são importantes para a detecção das lesões durante a investigação diagnóstica, para a avaliação da extensão das lesões ósseas, do possível acometimento de partes moles e do parênquima encefálico, e avaliação de recorrência local e/ou metástases a distância. A confirmação diagnóstica é determinada pela ...

  11. Triton charge radius to next-to-next-to-leading order in pionless effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasse, Jared

    2017-02-01

    The triton point charge radius is calculated to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in pionless effective field theory ( EFT (π / )) , yielding a prediction of 1.14 ±0.19 fm (leading order), 1.59 ±0.08 fm (next-to leading order), and 1.62 ±0.03 fm (NNLO) in agreement with the current experimental extraction of 1.5978 ±0.040 fm [Angeli and Marinova, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 99, 69 (2013)], 10.1016/j.adt.2011.12.006. The error at NNLO is due to cutoff variation (˜1 % ) within a reasonable range of calculated cutoffs and from a EFT (π / ) error estimate (˜1.5 % ). In addition new techniques are introduced to add perturbative corrections to bound- and scattering state calculations for short-range effective field theories, but with a focus on their use in EFT (π / ) .

  12. ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF SUAEDA MARITIMA (L. DUMORTIER STEM IN TRITON INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinder mann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the hypolipidemic effect of Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier stem extracts in triton induced hyperlipidemia. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier were administered at dose 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg/day orally, respectively. Simultaneous administrations of stem extracts of Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier significantly prevent the rise in serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL whereas significant increases in the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL in both secretary and excretory phase. The Suaeda maritima (L. Dumortier methanol extract of stem at dose 300mg/kg body weight orally showed significant antihyperlipidemic activity which may be due to the presence of triterpenoids and sterols found in the preliminary phytochemical screening.

  13. Gemini surfactants from natural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lourdes; Pinazo, Aurora; Pons, Ramon; Infante, Mrosa

    2014-03-01

    In this review, we report the most important contributions in the structure, synthesis, physicochemical (surface adsorption, aggregation and phase behaviour) and biological properties (toxicity, antimicrobial activity and biodegradation) of Gemini natural amino acid-based surfactants, and some potential applications, with an emphasis on the use of these surfactants as non-viral delivery system agents. Gemini surfactants derived from basic (Arg, Lys), neutral (Ser, Ala, Sar), acid (Asp) and sulphur containing amino acids (Cys) as polar head groups, and Geminis with amino acids/peptides in the spacer chain are reviewed.

  14. Liquid-liquid extraction for surfactant-contaminant separation and surfactant reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, M.A. [Surbec Environmental, Norman, OK (United States); Sabatini, D.A.; Harwell, J.H. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction was investigated for use with surfactant enhanced subsurface remediation. A surfactant liquid-liquid extraction model (SLLEM) was developed for batch equilibrium conditions based on contaminant partitioning between micellar, water, and solvent phases. The accuracy of this fundamental model was corroborated with experimental results (using naphthalene and phenanthrene as contaminants and squalane as the extracting solvent). The SLLEM model was then expanded to nonequilibrium conditions. The effectiveness of this nonequilibrium model was corroborated with experimental results from continuous flow hollow fiber membrane systems. The validated models were used to conduct a sensitivity analysis evaluating the effects of surfactants on the removal of the contaminants in liquid-liquid extraction systems. In addition, liquid-liquid extraction is compared to air stripping for surfactant-contaminant separation. Finally, conclusions are drawn as to the impact of surfactants on liquid-liquid extraction processes, and the significance of these impacts on the optimization of surfactant-enhanced subsurface remediation.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Zirconia Nanocrystallites by Cationic Surfactant and Anionic Surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Study on nanomaterials has attracted great interests in recent years. In this article,zirconia nanocrystallites of different structures have been successfully synthesized via hydrothermal methods with cationic surfactant (CTAB) and anionic surfactant (SDS), respectively. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC-TG), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-vis) and N2 adsorption-desorption analyses are used for their structure characteristics. The results show that the cationic surfactant has a distinctive direction effect on the formation of zirconia nanocrystallites, while the anionic surfactant has a self-assembly synergistic effect on them. The sample synthesized with the cationic surfactant presents good dispersion with the main phase of tetragonal zirconia, and the average nanocryst al size is around 15nm after calcination at 500 ℃. While the sample synthesized with the anionic surfactant exhibits a worm-like mesoporous structure with pure tetragonal phase after calcination at 500 ℃ and with good thermal stability.

  16. Studies on the electrocapillary curves of anionic surfactants in presence of non-ionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bembi, R; Goyal, R N; Malik, W U

    1976-09-01

    Polyoxyethylated non-ionic surfactants such as Tween 20, Tween 40, Nonidet P40 and Nonex 501 have been supposed to be associated with cationic characteristics. Studies on the effect of these surfactants on the electrocapillary curves of the anionic surfactants Aerosol IB, Manaxol OT and sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), show that the electrocapillary maxima shift towards positive potentials. The order of adsorption of the anionic surfactants is SLS > Manaxol OT > Aerosol IB while the shift in maxima is in the order Aerosol IB ~ Manaxol OT > SLS which confirms association of cationic characteristics with the micelles of these non-ionic surfactants. The magnitude of the shift in electrocapillary maxima is Nonex 501 > Nonidet P40 > Tween 20 > Tween 40 which may be the order of magnitude of the positive charge carried by these non-ionic surfactants.

  17. Synthesis of novel quaternary ammonium surfactants containing adamantane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wei Guo; Xing Zhong; Hua Zhu; Li Juan Feng; Ying De Cui

    2012-01-01

    A series of novel quaternary ammonium surfactants containing adamantane were designed and synthesized from 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid.The structures of target surfactants were confirmed by 1H NMR,elements analysis and FTIR.Surface properties of these surfactants were investigated.Due to the lipophilicity of adamantane,the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and C20 values of the synthesized quaternary ammonium surfactants are lower than that of conventional quaternary ammonium surfactants.

  18. Enhancing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporating nanosilicate platelets in gel electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Jian-Ging; Wang, Chun-Chieh [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Chiu, Chih-Wei [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227 (China); Lin, Jiang-Jen [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Lin, King-Fu [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Ho, Kuo-Chuan [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Two kinds of gel-type dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), composed of two types of electrolytes, were constructed and the respective cell performance was evaluated in this study. One electrolyte, TEOS-Triton X-100 gel, was based on a hybrid organic/inorganic gel electrolyte made by the sol-gel method and the other was based on poly(vinyidene fluoride-co-hexafluoro propylene) (PVDF-HFP) copolymer. TEOS-Triton X-100 gel was based on the reticulate structure of silica, formed by hydrolysis, and condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), while its organic subphase was a mixture of surfactant (Triton X-100) and ionic liquid electrolytes. Both DSSC gel-type electrolytes were composed of iodine, 1-propy-3-methyl-imidazolium iodide, and 3-methoxypropionitrile to create the redox couple of I{sub 3}{sup -}/I{sup -}. Based on the results obtained from the I-V characteristics, it was found that the optimal iodine concentrations for the TEOS-Triton X-100 gel electrolyte and PVDF-HFP gel electrolyte are 0.05 M and 0.1 M, respectively. Although the increase in the iodine concentration could enhance the short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}), a further increase in the iodine concentration would reduce the J{sub SC} due to increased dark current. Therefore, the concentration of I{sub 2} is a significant factor in determining the performance of DSSCs. In order to enhance cell performance, the addition of nanosilicate platelets (NSPs) in the above-mentioned gel electrolytes was investigated. By incorporating NSP-Triton X-100 into the electrolytes, the J{sub SC} of the cells increased due to the decrease of diffusion resistance, while the open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) remained almost the same. As the loading of the NSP-Triton X-100 in the TEOS-Triton X-100 gel electrolyte increased to 0.5 wt%, the J{sub SC} and the conversion efficiency increased from 8.5 to 12 mA/cm{sup 2} and from 3.6% to 4.7%, respectively. However, the J{sub SC} decreased as the loading of NSP-Triton X-100

  19. Enhancing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporating nanosilicate platelets in gel electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yi-Hsuan

    2009-10-01

    Two kinds of gel-type dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), composed of two types of electrolytes, were constructed and the respective cell performance was evaluated in this study. One electrolyte, TEOS-Triton X-100 gel, was based on a hybrid organic/inorganic gel electrolyte made by the sol-gel method and the other was based on poly(vinyidene fluoride-co-hexafluoro propylene) (PVDF-HFP) copolymer. TEOS-Triton X-100 gel was based on the reticulate structure of silica, formed by hydrolysis, and condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), while its organic subphase was a mixture of surfactant (Triton X-100) and ionic liquid electrolytes. Both DSSC gel-type electrolytes were composed of iodine, 1-propy-3-methyl-imidazolium iodide, and 3-methoxypropionitrile to create the redox couple of I3 -/I-. Based on the results obtained from the I-V characteristics, it was found that the optimal iodine concentrations for the TEOS-Triton X-100 gel electrolyte and PVDF-HFP gel electrolyte are 0.05 M and 0.1 M, respectively. Although the increase in the iodine concentration could enhance the short-circuit current density (JSC), a further increase in the iodine concentration would reduce the JSC due to increased dark current. Therefore, the concentration of I2 is a significant factor in determining the performance of DSSCs. In order to enhance cell performance, the addition of nanosilicate platelets (NSPs) in the above-mentioned gel electrolytes was investigated. By incorporating NSP-Triton X-100 into the electrolytes, the JSC of the cells increased due to the decrease of diffusion resistance, while the open circuit voltage (VOC) remained almost the same. As the loading of the NSP-Triton X-100 in the TEOS-Triton X-100 gel electrolyte increased to 0.5 wt%, the JSC and the conversion efficiency increased from 8.5 to 12 mA/cm2 and from 3.6% to 4.7%, respectively. However, the JSC decreased as the loading of NSP-Triton X-100 exceeded 0.5 wt%. At higher NSP-Triton X-100 loading, NSPs acted as

  20. Lung surfactant levels are regulated by Ig-Hepta/GPR116 by monitoring surfactant protein D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Fukuzawa

    Full Text Available Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins, which is secreted from the alveolar type II epithelial cell and coats the surface of alveoli as a thin layer. It plays a crucial role in the prevention of alveolar collapse through its ability to reduce surface tension. Under normal conditions, surfactant homeostasis is maintained by balancing its release and the uptake by the type II cell for recycling and the internalization by alveolar macrophages for degradation. Little is known about how the surfactant pool is monitored and regulated. Here we show, by an analysis of gene-targeted mice exhibiting massive accumulation of surfactant, that Ig-Hepta/GPR116, an orphan receptor, is expressed on the type II cell and sensing the amount of surfactant by monitoring one of its protein components, surfactant protein D, and its deletion results in a pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and emphysema-like pathology. By a coexpression experiment with Sp-D and the extracellular region of Ig-Hepta/GPR116 followed by immunoprecipitation, we identified Sp-D as the ligand of Ig-Hepta/GPR116. Analyses of surfactant metabolism in Ig-Hepta(+/+ and Ig-Hepta(-/- mice by using radioactive tracers indicated that the Ig-Hepta/GPR116 signaling system exerts attenuating effects on (i balanced synthesis of surfactant lipids and proteins and (ii surfactant secretion, and (iii a stimulating effect on recycling (uptake in response to elevated levels of Sp-D in alveolar space.