Sample records for surfactant-free emulsion copolymerization

  1. Preparation and physicochemical properties of surfactant-free emulsions using electrolytic-reduction ion water containing lithium magnesium sodium silicate. (United States)

    Okajima, Masahiro; Wada, Yuko; Hosoya, Takashi; Hino, Fumio; Kitahara, Yoshiyasu; Shimokawa, Ken-ichi; Ishii, Fumiyoshi


    Surfactant-free emulsions by adding jojoba oil, squalane, olive oil, or glyceryl trioctanoate (medium chain fatty acid triglycerides, MCT) to electrolytic-reduction ion water containing lithium magnesium sodium silicate (GE-100) were prepared, and their physiochemical properties (thixotropy, zeta potential, and mean particle diameter) were evaluated. At an oil concentration of 10%, the zeta potential was ‒22.3 ‒ ‒26.8 mV, showing no marked differences among the emulsions of various types of oil, but the mean particle diameters in the olive oil emulsion (327 nm) and MCT emulsion (295 nm) were smaller than those in the other oil emulsions (452-471 nm). In addition, measurement of the hysteresis loop area of each type of emulsion revealed extremely high thixotropy of the emulsion containing MCT at a low concentration and the olive emulsion. Based on these results, since surfactants and antiseptic agents markedly damage sensitive skin tissue such as that with atopic dermatitis, surfactant- and antiseptic-free emulsions are expected to be new bases for drugs for external use.

  2. Preparation of Inert Polystyrene Latex Particles as MicroRNA Delivery Vectors by Surfactant-Free RAFT Emulsion Polymerization. (United States)

    Poon, Cheuk Ka; Tang, Owen; Chen, Xin-Ming; Pham, Binh T T; Gody, Guillaume; Pollock, Carol A; Hawkett, Brian S; Perrier, Sébastien


    We present the preparation of 11 nm polyacrylamide-stabilized polystyrene latex particles for conjugation to a microRNA model by surfactant-free RAFT emulsion polymerization. Our synthetic strategy involved the preparation of amphiphilic polyacrylamide-block-polystyrene copolymers, which were able to self-assemble into polymeric micelles and "grow" into polystyrene latex particles. The surface of these sterically stabilized particles was postmodified with a disulfide-bearing linker for the attachment of the microRNA model, which can be released from the latex particles under reducing conditions. These nanoparticles offer the advantage of ease of preparation via a scaleable process, and the versatility of their synthesis makes them adaptable to a range of applications.

  3. Vinyl Ester Oligomer Crosslinked Porous Polymers Prepared via Surfactant-Free High Internal Phase Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhu


    Full Text Available Using vinyl ester resin (VER containing styrene (or methyl methacrylate and vinyl ester oligomer (VEO as external phase, Pickering high internal phase emulsions (Pickering HIPEs having internal phase volume fraction of up to 95 vol% were prepared with copolymer particles as sole stabilizer. Polymerizing the external phase of these Pickering HIPEs led to porous polymers (poly-Pickering-HIPEs. Compared to the polystyrene- (PS- based poly-Pickering-HIPEs which were prepared with mixture of styrene and divinylbenzene (DVB as crosslinker, the poly-Pickering-HIPEs herein showed much higher elastic modulus and toughness. The elastic modulus of these poly-Pickering-HIPEs increased with increasing the VEO concentration in the external phase, while it decreased with increasing internal phase volume fraction. Increasing VEO concentration in the external phase also resulted in a decrease in the average void diameter as well as a narrow void diameter distribution of the resulting poly-Pickering-HIPEs. In addition, there were many small pores in the voids surface caused by the volume contraction of VER during the polymerization, which suggests a new method to fabricate porous polymers having a well-defined hierarchical pore structure.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuying; GUO Tianying; HAO Guangjie; SONG Maodao; Zhang Banghua


    Polymer nanoparticles were prepared in the methyl methacrylate (MMA)/buty lmethacrylate (BA) emulsion copolymerization process by a modified microemulsion copolymerization method. 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate(HEMA), acrylate (AA) and methyl acrylate (MAA) were used as reactive cosurfactants. With this process high polymer: surfactant weight ratios (40:1 or greater),relatively concentrated (~30wt. %) latexes and small (~60nm) particle diameters were obtained.Properties of the latexes were characterized by TEM, DSC, dynamic light scattering, and IR spectroscopy.

  5. Preparation of hybrid thiol-acrylate emulsion-templated porous polymers by interfacial copolymerization of high internal phase emulsions. (United States)

    Langford, Caitlin R; Johnson, David W; Cameron, Neil R


    Emulsion-templated highly porous polymers (polyHIPEs), containing distinct regions differing in composition, morphology, and/or properties, are prepared by the simultaneous polymerization of two high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) contained within the same mould. The HIPEs are placed together in the mould and subjected to thiol-acrylate photopolymerization. The resulting polyHIPE material is found to contain two distinct semicircular regions, reflecting the composition of each HIPE. The original interface between the two emulsions becomes a copolymerized band between 100 and 300 μm wide, which is found to be mechanically robust. The separate polyHIPE layers are distinguished from one another by their differing average void diameter, chemical composition, and extent of contraction upon drying.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan-xiong Li; Fei-fei Jin; Ben-wen Cao; Xiao-fei Wang


    2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-Octafluoropentyl acrylate was grafted onto silk fiber in a two-step heterogeneous system through the vinyl bonds of acryloyloxyethyl isocyanate modified on the silk. The grafted copolymer was analyzed by FTIR and WAXD, and the results revealed that the fluoroacrylate was successfully grafted onto silk fiber and the crystalline structure of silk fibroin with β-sheet structure was not changed after graft copolymerization. The FT-IR corrected method was used to simulate the grafting yield onto silk compared with the weight increasing method. The results obtained from these two methods were roughly consistent. The influence of the initiator concentration, monomer concentration, react time and temperature on the graft yield was also investigated. The experimental data of thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) showed that the thermal stability of the modified silk fibers was improved due to the introduction of fluoroacrylate. In comparison with the untreated silk fibers, the water repellence of the modified silk fibers was also improved.

  7. Surrogate Models for Online Monitoring and Process Troubleshooting of NBR Emulsion Copolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Mouli R. Madhuranthakam


    Full Text Available Chemical processes with complex reaction mechanisms generally lead to dynamic models which, while beneficial for predicting and capturing the detailed process behavior, are not readily amenable for direct use in online applications related to process operation, optimisation, control, and troubleshooting. Surrogate models can help overcome this problem. In this research article, the first part focuses on obtaining surrogate models for emulsion copolymerization of nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR, which is usually produced in a train of continuous stirred tank reactors. The predictions and/or profiles for several performance characteristics such as conversion, number of polymer particles, copolymer composition, and weight-average molecular weight, obtained using surrogate models are compared with those obtained using the detailed mechanistic model. In the second part of this article, optimal flow profiles based on dynamic optimisation using the surrogate models are obtained for the production of NBR emulsions with the objective of minimising the off-specification product generated during grade transitions.

  8. Preparation of sulphonate-containing core/shell latex particles via seeded emulsion copolymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Shuai Wang; Wei Deng; Yun Shen Chen; Cheng You Kan


    In this study,P(St-MAA)seed latex particles were first prepared via soap-free emulsion polymerization of styrene(St)and methacrylic acid(MAA),then the seed particles were allowed to swell with St at room temperature,and the P(St-MAA)/P(St-NaSS)core/shell latex particles were then synthesized via seeded emulsion copolymerization of St and sodium styrene sulphonate(NaSS)using AIBN as initiator in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide(BAA,water-soluble crosslinker).Results showed that the polymerization could be carried out smoothly when the ratio of BAA to total monomers was less than 3 mol%,the narrow dispersed P(St-MAA)seed particles with the diameter of 150 nm and the P(St-MAA)/P(St-NaSS)core/shell latexes with the particle size of about 200 nm were synthesized.When the 25/75 mole ratio of NaSS/(St+MAA)and 2 mol% of BAA were used in the seeded emulsion polymerization,the resulted P(St-MAA)/P(St-NaSS)latex product showed a low weight loss after water extraction,and the NaSS unit content in the whole particle and in the shell reached 11.7 mol% and 34.6 mol%,respectively.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOTianying; SONGMoudao; 等


    The semibatch emulsifier-free emulsion copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and butyl acrylate(BA) in the presence of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate(HEMA) initiated by K2S2O8(PSP) was studied.The latex particles can maintain an appreciable stability during the emulsifier-free emulsion copolymerization of MMA and BA in the presence of HEMA.The average particle diameter increase with an increase of total solids content,HEMA content,PSP content,ionic strength of the system and monomer feed rate,and decrease with the monomer feed ration from 3/1 (MMA/BA:molar ration).to 1/3.The stability of this reaction system is improved by adding HEMA as nonionic comonomer,High solids content (50%) latex with monodisperse particle can be obtained using this process.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao-gen Zhang; Zhi-xue Weng; Zhi-ming Huang; Zu-ren Pan


    A series of new water-soluble bifunctional comonomers having both carboxyl and alkyl polyoxyethylene groups, such as sodium mono(ethyl polyoxyethylene) maleate (ZE series) with various molecular weights of polyoxyethylene ethyl ether, were synthesized and characterized. The effects of the structural factor, the amount and feeding mode of the comonomers, the initiator concentration and polymerization temperature on the stability of emulsifier-free emulsion copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and butyl acrylate (BA) in the presence of a small amount of ZE with potassium persulfate as initiator were investigated. Stable, almost monodispersed MMA/BA/ZE emulsifier-free latex particles were prepared.

  11. Influences of Electrolytes on the Soap-free Emulsion Copolymerization of St-MMA-AA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Long LI; Cheng You KAN; Yi DU; Ze Ping LI


    Monodisperse functional polymer microspheres with different particle size and with clean surface were prepared by batch soap-free emulsion polymerization of styrene, methyl methacrylate and acrylic acid in the presence of salts, and the influences of type and amount of electrolytes on polymerization process and particle morphology were investigated. Results showed that there was a critical concentration for different electrolyte to make polymerization process and the resultant emulsion stable, and the particle size increased with the increase of electrolyte concentration. The effect of metal ions was Ca2+>>K+>Na+>Li+, and the effect of haloids was Br->Cl->F-.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wenjun; YU Zaizhang; LI Bogeng; PAN Zuren


    The seeded semicontinuous emulsion multi-copolymerization of butyl acrylate (BA),2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2EHA), methyl methacrylate (MMA), 2-hydroxyl propyl acrylate(HOPA) and acrylic acid (AA) was used to prepare the acrylic latexes with high-solidcontent. The effects of monomer emulsion feed rates (Ra) and (R/E)E values, the ratio ofemulsifier amount between the initial charge (R) and the addition monomer emulsion (E) ,on the polymerization reaction features, the viscosities, surface tensions,particle sizes andparticle sizes distributions of latexes,Tg and the insoluble fractions of films, the 180° peelstrength, tack and holding power of pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) tapes, preparedfrom the latexes, were studied. Experimental study shows that the grafting and cross-linking fraction in the PSA tapes must be controlled within a suitable range to keep thebalance of the 180° peel strength, tack and holding power.

  13. pH-sensitive wax emulsion copolymerization with acrylamide hydrogel using gamma irradiation for dye removal (United States)

    Ghobashy, Mohamed Mohamady; Elhady, Mohamed., A.


    Emulsion polymerization is an efficient method for the production of new wax-hydrogel matrices of cetyl alcohol: stearic acid wax and acrylamide hydrogel using triethylamine (TEA) as an emulsifier. A cross-linking reaction occurred when a mixture of wax-hydrogel solution was irradiated with gamma rays at a dose of 20 kGy. The gelation percentage of the matrices (CtOH-StA/PAAm) was 86%, which indicates that a sufficiently high conversion occurred in these new wax-hydrogel matrices. The ability of PAAm and CtOH-StA/PAAm as an adsorbent for dye removal was investigated. The removal of three reactive dyes, namely Remazol Red (RR), Amido Black (AB), and Toluidine Blue (TB), from aqueous solutions depends on the pH of the dye solution. Removal efficiency was investigated by UV spectrophotometry, and the results showed the affinity of the wax hydrogel to adsorb TB was 98% after 320 min. Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance spectra confirmed the cross-linking process involved between the chains of wax and hydrogel; furthermore, scanning electron microscopy images showed that the wax and hydrogel were completely miscible to form a single matrix. Swelling measurements showed the high affinity of adsorbed dyes from aqueous solutions at different pH values to the wax-hydrogel network; the highest swelling values of 13.05 and 8.24 (g/g) were observed at pH 10 and 6, respectively

  14. Microchannel emulsification using gelatin and surfactant-free coacervate microencapsulation. (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kei; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Shono, Atsushi; Satoh, Kazumi


    In this study, we investigated the use of microchannel (MC) emulsifications in producing monodisperse gelatin/acacia complex coacervate microcapsules of soybean oil. This is considered to be a novel method for preparing monodisperse O/W and W/O emulsions. Generally, surfactants are necessary for MC emulsification, but they can also inhibit the coacervation process. In this study, we investigated a surfactant-free system. First, MC emulsification using gelatin was compared with that using decaglycerol monolaurate. The results demonstrated the potential use of gelatin for MC emulsification. MC emulsification experiments conducted over a range of conditions revealed that the pH of the continuous phase should be maintained above the isoelectric point of the gelatin. A high concentration of gelatin was found to inhibit the production of irregular-sized droplets. Low-bloom gelatin was found to be suitable for obtaining monodisperse emulsions. Finally, surfactant-free monodisperse droplets prepared by MC emulsification were microencapsulated with coacervate. The microcapsules produced by this technique were observed with a confocal laser scanning microscope. Average diameters of the inner cores and outer shells were 37.8 and 51.5 microm; their relative standard deviations were 4.9 and 8.4%.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-zhang Chen; Zhao-xia Guo; Jian Yu; Mao-sheng Zhan


    Functionalized PS/SiO2 composite nanoparticles bearing sulfonic groups on the surface were successfully synthesized via emulsion copolymerization using a polymerizable emulsifier α olefin solfonate(AOS).As demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy,well-defined core-shell PS/SiO2 composite nanoparticles with a diameter of 50 nm were obtained.Sulfonic groups introduced onto the surface of the composite nanoparticles were quantified by FTIR,and can be controlled to some extent via a two-stage procedure.

  16. Tailored synthesis of amine N-halamine copolymerized polystyrene with capability of killing bacteria. (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Bao, Sarina; Zhao, Yue; Zhao, Tianyi; Xiao, Linghan; Gao, Ge; Chokto, Harnoode; Dong, Alideertu


    Novel amine N-halamine copolymerized polystyrene (ANHCPS) nanostructures were controllably fabricated as potent antibiotics by using the surfactant-free emulsion copolymerization for killing pathogenic bacteria. The morphology and size of the ANHCPS were well tailored by tuning reaction conditions such as monomer molar ratio, temperature, and copolymerization time. Effect of chlorination aging time on the oxidative chlorine content in the ANHCPS was established, and the oxidative chlorine content was determined by the modified iodometric/thiosulfate technique. Antibacterial behavior of the ANHCPS on bacterial strain was evaluated using Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli as model pathogenic bacteria via the plate counting technique, inhibition zone study, and time-kill assay. Antimicrobial results illustrated that the ANHCPS possessed superior antibacterial capability of killing pathogenic bacteria. The destruction induced by the ANHCPS on bacterial surface structure was proven by using SEM technique. The effect of the oxidative chlorine content and morphology/size on the antimicrobial capability was constructed as well. This study provides us a novel approach for controllably synthesizing amine N-halamine polymers, and making them the potent candidates for killing bacteria or even the control of microorganism contamination.

  17. A Novel Surfactant-free Microemulsion System:Ethanol/Furaldehyde/H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Peng; HOU Wan-Guo


    In general,a microemuision consists of oil,water,surfactant(s)and possibly cosurfactant(s).In this paper,a novel surfactant-free microemulsion(SFME)is reported,which is composed of furaldehyde(oil phase),water and ethanol without a traditional surfactant of the amphiphilic molecular structure.The phase behavior of this ternary system was studied finding that there is a single-phase microemulsion region and a two-phase region in the ternary diagram.The electrical conductivity measurement was undertaken to investigate the microregion of the single-phase microemulsion region.On the basis of the percolation theory,the single-phase microemulsion region was subdi-vided into three different microregions:furaldehyde-in-water(O/W),bicontinuous region and water-in-furaldehyde(W/O),which were confirmed by freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy(FF-TEM)observations.The sizes of the microemulsion droplets are in the range of 30-80 nm.Some surfactant-free emulsions(SFE)reported are O/W type and turbid,the significant apparent characteristic of SFME reported here is transparent,different from the SFE.The stability change of the SFME was not evidently observed after storage at room temperature for 22 months up to now.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹亚峰; 杨锦宗; 刘兆丽


    The effect of oleates as emulsifiers on graft copolymerization of starch with acrylamide (AM) and acrylic acid (AA) in the inverse emulsion system is studied in this paper . The effect of the kinds of emulsifiers,the proportion of mixed emulsifiers, the dosage of emulsifiers as well as the preparation methods of water-in-oil emulsion on monomer conversion, grafting ratio, and specific viscidity is discussed. The result indicates that calcium oleate or magnesium oleate as the emulsifier is better than sodium oleate or potassium oleate, and the mixture of oleic acid and its salt is better than any single compound. It is also concluded that monomer conversion reaches 99.7 % and grafting ratio reaches 98.4% when m(oleic acid)/m (oleate sodium) is 60/40, m(starch)/m (monomers) is 1/1 (among the monomers m (AM)/m (AA) is 4/1), v(oil phase)/v(waterphase) is 1.2/1, initiator concentration is 2.4×10-4mol·L-1, reaction temperature is 45-50℃,and reaction time is 6 hours. When mixed emulsifers concentration is 6%, the intrinsic viscidity reaches 1100ml·g-1.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Well-defined nonionic hydrophilic ω-acryloyl poly(ethylene oxide) macromonomer (PEO-A) has been prepared by living anionic polymerization of ethylene oxide with diphenyl methyl potassium as the initiator and acryloyl chloride as the reaction terminating agent. The polymer was characterized by FTIR and SEC. The emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and n-butyl acrylate (BA) containing various concentrations of PEO-A was studied. In all cases stable emulsion coplymerizations of MMA and BA were obtained. The stabilizing effect was found to be dependent on the molecular weight and the feed amount of the macromonomer.

  20. Selective absorption of water from different oil–water emulsions with Psy-cl-poly(AAm) synthesized using irradiation copolymerization method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B S Kaith; Kiran Kumar


    The present paper deals with the functionalization of psyllium with acrylamide under the influence of gamma radiation using hexamethylene tetramine as a crosslinker. The polymer synthesized was characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The superabsorbent was then used further for the selective absorption of water from different oil–water emulsions.

  1. Emulsion homo-and copolymerization of 1-octene catalyzed by palladium (Ⅱ)-α-diimine%钯的二亚胺催化剂催化1-辛烯乳液聚合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑛琦; 闫新华; 石艳; 付志峰; 杨万泰


    以钯的二亚胺为催化剂,在乳液体系中催化1-辛烯均聚合及1-辛烯与丙烯酸甲酯(MA)共聚合.通过光散射分析仪、差示扫描量热仪、凝胶渗透色谱仪、核磁共振谱仪测定了聚合物的粒径、熔点、相对分子质量,表征了其结构.结果表明:该催化剂在乳液体系中可以催化1-辛烯均聚合及1-辛烯与MA的共聚合;聚合物相对分子质量可达2.30×104以上,且相对分子质量分布(1.0~2.0)较窄,共聚物中MA与1-辛烯的摩尔比高达1.0∶4.5;均聚物的支化度(81.8个/1000C)和共聚物的支化度(112.8个/1000 C)均较高;共聚物为半结晶型共聚物,其玻璃化转变温度为-57℃,熔点为83 ℃.%Homopolymerization of 1-octene and copolymerization of 1-octene with methyl acrylate (MA) were carried out in emulsion systems by using palladium( II )-a-diimine as catalyst. The particle diameter, melting point, relative molecular mass and structure of the polymers were studied by light scattering, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance ('H-NMR). The results indicate that the catalyst can catalyze homopolymerization of 1-octene and copolymerization of 1-octene and MA in emulsion systems. The resultant polymers have relative molecular mass up to 2.30X104 and narrow relative molecular mass distribution in the range of 1.0-2.0. The molar ratio of MA to 1-octene in the copolymer reaches 1.0 : 4.5. The degree of branching is relatively high, 81.8/1 000 C in the homopolymer and 112.8/1 000 C in the eopolymer. The copolymer is a semi crystalline one with glass transformation temperature of -57℃. and melting point of 83℃.

  2. Kinetics Model of Graft Co-Polymerization of Acrylamide onto Mechanically-Activated Starch in Inverse Emulsion%反相乳液法mSt-g-AM接枝共聚反应的动力学模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢新玲; 童张法; 黄祖强; 张友全


    The graft co-polymerization reaction mechanism of acrylamide and mechanically-activated starch in an inverse emulsion system was investigated. The effects of concentrations of initiator (with ammonium persulfate as the initiator), monomer, starch, and emulsifier on the reaction rate of graft co-polymerization (Rg) were determined. The kinetic model was studied and modified to fit the experimental results. The results show that the relationship between R g and the concentration of components in the polymerization system can be expressed for all of the four components by the following equation:Rg∞[mSt]1.24 [I]0.76 [M]1.54 [E]0.33 , which is consistent with the kinetic equation from theoretical studies:Rp∞[mSt]0.5~1 [I]0.5~1 [M]1~1.5 [E]0.6 . It can be concluded that the graft co-polymerization reaction of hydrophilic monomer onto starch in inverse emulsion follows the mechanism of free radical polymerization. Unimolecular and bimolecular termination of free radicals are both presented in the reaction process. The relation between the grafted monomer and the reacted monomer is:1/X=1+K1[M]0.5/[Mst]0.5+K2[Mst]0.5[I]0.5/[M]+K3[I]0.5/[Mst]0.5 .%采用反相乳液法进行淀粉与丙烯酰胺接枝共聚反应的机理研究,考察以过硫酸铵引发机械活化淀粉(mSt)与丙烯酰胺(AM)接枝共聚反应速率Rg与引发剂浓度[I]、乳化剂浓度[E]、单体浓度[M]和淀粉浓度[mSt]的关系,推导并验证该反应体系的动力学模型及反应机理。结果表明,本实验得出的动力学关系式为:Rg∞[mSt]1.24[I]0.76[M]1.54[E]0.33,与理论推导出的动力学关系式:Rp∞[mSt]0.5~1[I]0.5~1[M]1~1.5[E]0.6基本一致,机械活化淀粉与丙烯酰胺在反相乳液中进行接枝共聚反应符合自由基聚合机理;在聚合过程中,引发剂分解副反应、诱导分解及“笼壁效应”导致引发效率降低,单基终止和双基终止反应同时存在;推导出共聚物消耗单体量与参加反

  3. Aqueous preparation of surfactant-free copper selenide nanowires. (United States)

    Chen, Xinqi; Li, Zhen; Yang, Jianping; Sun, Qiao; Dou, Shixue


    Uniform surfactant-free copper selenide (Cu2-xSe) nanowires were prepared via an aqueous route. The effects of reaction parameters such as Cu/Se precursor ratio, Se/NaOH ratio, and reaction time on the formation of nanowires were comprehensively investigated. The results show that Cu2-xSe nanowires were formed through the assembling of CuSe nanoplates, accompanied by their self-redox reactions. The resultant Cu2-xSe nanowires were explored as a potential thermoelectric candidate in comparison with commercial copper selenide powder. Both synthetic and commercial samples have a similar performance and their figures of merit are 0.29 and 0.38 at 750K, respectively.

  4. Multilayered composite microgels synthesized by surfactant-free seeded polymerization. (United States)

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Yamagata, Tomoyo; Murai, Masaki


    We report on a simple and rapid method to produce multilayered composite microgels. Thermosensitive microgels were synthesized by aqueous free radical precipitation polymerization using N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) as a monomer. Using the microgels as cores, surfactant-free seeded polymerization of an oil-soluble monomer, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), was carried out at 70 °C, where the microgels were highly deswollen in water. All of the oil-soluble monomers were polymerized, and the resultant polymers were attached on the pre-existing microgel cores, resulting in hard shell formation. It is worth mentioning that secondary particles of oil-soluble monomers have never been formed during the polymerization. The composite microgels were characterized by electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. In particular, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements revealed that the surface of the composite microgels was composed of a hydrogel layer, although microgel cores were covered by polyGMA shell. The mechanism of the trilayered composite microgel formation will be discussed.

  5. The Emulsifier-Minor Emulsion Copolymerization and Properties of Hydrophobically-Modified Polyacrylamides%疏水改性聚丙烯酰胺的微皂乳液聚合及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳婵; 于冬梅; 郑耀臣; 辛志荣


    The hydrophobically associating water-soluble copolymers of P(AM/α-MSt) [ P(acrylamide/alpha methyl styrene)] were prepared by emulsifier-minor emulsion copolymerization and using potassium persulfate (KPS) as initiator. The effects of initiator and α-MSt content, monomer concentration, and reaction time on the viscosity and yield were investigated. The optimum reaction conditions were determined. The structure of the copolymer was characterized and verified by FTIR spectra. The association action and aggregation morphology were characterizated by scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and viscosity determination. What's more,the copoly-mer's properties of aqueous solution were studied. Results show that the copolymer's intrinsic viscosity is 1 175. 1 mL/g,and the solution maintains 55.2% of apparent viscosity at 90 ℃ ;the retention ratio of apparent viscosity in 18 g/L CaCl2 solution is 82. 8%.%采用微皂乳液聚合法,以过硫酸钾为引发剂,在水溶液中引发丙烯酰胺(AM)与α-甲基苯乙烯(α-MSt)自由基聚合制备疏水缔合水溶性共聚物P(AM/α-MSt).探讨单体浓度、引发剂及疏水单体用量和反应时间对共聚物收率及表观黏度的影响.经红外光谱仪、扫描电镜和表观黏度计等对P(AM/α-MSt)的结构、疏水缔合作用及分子聚集形态进行表征.结果表明:P(AM/α-MSt)溶液的特性黏度η=1 175.1 mL/g,温度为90℃时表观黏度保留率为55.2%;在18 g/L的CaCl2溶液中P(AM/α-MSt)的表观黏度保留率可达82.8%.

  6. A simple route for making surfactant free lead sulfide (PbS) quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Firoz; Kumar, Neetesh; Dutta, Viresh, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Surfactant free PbS NCs were successfully synthesised using CoSP technique. • The technique eliminates the requirements of washing to remove the ligands. • Grinding using mortar and pestle creates well separated PbS QDs. • Surfactant free PbS NCs are stable and do not show any degradation with time. - Abstract: An efficient, cost effective and less time consuming method suitable for mass production of surfactant free quantum dots (QDs) of lead sulfide (PbS) is reported. PbS nanocrystals (NCs) are first synthesised by continuous spray pyrolysis (CoSP) technique and de-agglomeration into PbS quantum dots (QDs) is achieved by vigorous mechanical grinding using mortar and pestle. Lead acetate and thiourea were used as the precursor materials for preparation of surfactant free PbS NCs. The broadening in XRD peaks of ground NCs as compared to as synthesized PbS NCs clearly indicated the reduction in particle size to be QDs of PbS. The TEM images also showed that ground PbS NCs were nearly spherical in shape having an average diameter in the range of 4–6 nm. The shift in optical gap from 0.41 eV to 1.47 eV supported the QD formation.

  7. Surfactant-free Preparation of Highly Stable Zwitterionic Poly(amido amine) Nanogels with Minimal Cytotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkelenkamp, A.E.; Jansman, M.M.T.; Roelofs-Haarhuis, H.M.; Engbersen, J.F.J.; Paulusse, J.M.J.


    Narrowly dispersed zwitterionic poly(amido amine) (PAA) nanogels with a diameter of approximately 100 nm were prepared by a high-yielding and surfactant-free, inverse nanoprecipitation of PAA polymers. The resulting, negatively charged, nanogels (PAA-NG1) were functionalized with N,N-dimethylethylen

  8. Micellar Copolymerization:the State of the Arts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yu-jun


    Over the past two decades, hydrophobically modified water-soluble polymers (HMWSPs),particularly hydrophobically associating polyacrylamides (HAPAMs), have attracted increased interest owing to their practical and fundamental importance[1]. This system usually consists of a hydrophilic backbone with a small proportion (generally less than 2 mol %) of hydrophobic pendent groups. When dissolved in aqueous solutions, the apolar moieties tend to exclude water and are held together by intra- and intermolecular hydrophobic associations. This leads to a transitional network structure that induces a substantial increase in solution viscosity. Such viscosity-building ability is further elevated upon adding salt or increasing temperature due to the enhanced polarity.Additionally, the dynamic associating junctions can be ruptured upon high shear stress, but re-formed when the force ceases. All these unique properties enable HAPAMs attractiveness to various industrial uses in which the control of fluid theology is required.However, it is a great challenge to synthesize HAPAMs since acrylamide and hydrophobic comonomers are mutually incompatible. After attempts using heterogeneous, inverse emulsion,microemulsion, and precipitation copolymerization processes, the commonly accepted method is micellar free radical copolymerization in which an appropriate surfactant is used to solubilize the hydrophobic comonomer[2].In this paper, the sate of the arts for micellar copolymerization is comprehensively reviewed:1. the mechanism of micellar copolymerization;2. parameters affecting micellar copolymerization, including:(1) nature and level of hydrophobic comonomer;(2) nature and content of surfactant used;(3) initiator and temperature.3. structural characteristics of HAPAMs prepared via micellar copolymerization;4. properties of HAPAMs prepared via micellar copolymerization:(1) dilute solution properties;(2) semi-dilute solution properties.5. applications of micellar copolymerization

  9. Graphene electroanalysis: inhibitory effects in the stripping voltammetry of cadmium with surfactant free graphene. (United States)

    Brownson, Dale A C; Lacombe, Alexandre C; Kampouris, Dimitrios K; Banks, Craig E


    We explore the use of surfactant free graphene towards the electroanalytical sensing of cadmium(II) ions via anodic stripping voltammetry. In line with literature methodologies, we modify an electrode substrate which exhibits relatively fast electron transfer with commercially available graphene which is free from surfactants. Surprisingly, we find that graphene reduces the analytical performance and hence inhibits the electrochemical detection of cadmium(II) ions, with calibration plots in model aqueous solutions revealing no advantages of employing graphene in this analytical context.

  10. Surfactant-free nickel-silver core@shell nanoparticles in mesoporous SBA-15 for chemoselective hydrogenation of dimethyl oxalate. (United States)

    Li, Molly Meng-Jung; Ye, Linmin; Zheng, Jianwei; Fang, Huihuang; Kroner, Anna; Yuan, Youzhu; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman


    Surfactant-free bimetallic Ni@Ag nanoparticles in mesoporous silica, SBA-15 prepared by simple wet co-impregnation catalyse hydrogenation of dimethyl oxalate to methyl glycolate or ethylene glycol in high yield.

  11. The research of emulsion-type acrylic copolymerization adhesive of paper-plastic lamination%乳液型丙烯酸酯纸塑复膜胶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘炳增; 陶莉俊; 马建学


    本实验采用种子乳液半连续预乳化工艺合成复膜胶乳液。主要研究了阴、非离子乳化剂复配比例及用量、单体种类、聚合物玻璃化温度、交联剂等对乳液复膜胶性能的影响。该复膜胶乳液具有制备工艺简单,合成过程稳定,不污染环境等优点。主要应用于聚丙烯(PP)或聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯(PET)薄膜与纸张的复合,粘接强度高,满足了油墨与纸张分离的效果,印刷无气泡、变色等现象发生。%in this paper ,the paper-plastic lamination emulsion adhesive was prepared by seeding pre-emulsion polymeriza- tion. The effects of anionic and nonionic emulsifier matching, monomer types, polymer glass transition temperature, crosslinking agent on adhesive peel strength was investigated. The adhesive emulsion has a simple preparation and the synthesis process is sta- ble, not pollute the environment, mainly used in polypropylene (PP) or polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film and paper lamina- tion. High peel strength,meeting the effects of the separation of ink and paper. No bubbles, discoloration, and other phenomenon.

  12. Soap-free emulsion copolymerization of polyvinyl acetate/maleic acid/ butyl acrylate%醋酸乙烯酯/马来酸/丙烯酸丁酯无皂共聚乳液研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐俊; 俞马宏


    The copolymer of polyvinyl acetate/maleic acid/butyl acrylate was prepared by emulsifier-free emulsion process.Analysis method of TEM was used to characterize the particle size and the morphology and studied the particle growth mechanicm.The influence of the proportion of monomers and the pH value on conversion rate,water absorption, tensile strength and stability of the emulsion was studied.The results indicated that when the contents of maleic acid and butyl acrylate were 3% and 8% of amount of mixed monomers,respectively,and the pH value was of 6 the copolymer emulsion showed the best performance.%采用无皂乳液聚合方法合成聚醋酸乙烯酯/马来酸/丙烯酸丁酯乳液以透射电镜观察乳胶粒的表面形态并测量粒径,对乳胶粒的增长机理进行了分析以转化率、吸水性、拉伸强度和乳液的稳定性为主要指标考查了共聚单体用量、pH等因素对乳液性能的影响结果表明,马来酸占总单体量的3%,丙烯酸丁酯占8%,pH为6时共聚乳液具有良好的性能.

  13. Study on preparation of soap-free styrene-acrylate emulsion by water-soluble monomer copolymerization%水溶性单体共聚法制备无皂苯丙乳液的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宏科; 李婧


    以苯乙烯(St)、丙烯酸(AA)、甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)和丙烯酸丁酯(BA)为共聚单体,制备了无皂苯丙乳液;然后以AA含量、中和度、引发剂含量和软/硬单体配比等为试验因素,以乳液稳定性和粒径为考核指标,采用单因素试验法优选出制备无皂苯丙乳液的最佳工艺条件.结果表明:当ω(引发剂)=1.2%和ω(AA)=4.5%(均相对于单体总质量而言)、中和度为0.8、m(BA)∶m(St+MMA)=4∶6和反应温度为78℃时,可制得粒径为纳米级的高固含量稳定乳液.%With styrene(St),acrylic acid(AA),methyl methacrylate(MMA) and butyl acrylate(BA) as comonomers,a soap-free St-acrylate emulsion was prepared. Then,with AA contents,neutralisation degree,initiator contents and soft monomer/hard monomer ratios as experimental factors,emulsion stability and particle size as evaluation indices, the optimal process conditions of preparing soap-free St-acrylate emulsion were preferred by single-factor experiment.The results showed that the stable emulsion with nano-level size and high solid content was prepared when mass fractions of initiator and AA were 1.2% and 4.5% in total monomers respectively, neutralisation degree was 0.8,mass ratio of m(BA):m(St+MMA) was 4:6 and reaction temperature was 78 ℃.

  14. Uniform biodegradable hydrogel microspheres fabricated by a surfactant-free electric-field-assisted method. (United States)

    Choy, Young Bin; Choi, Hyungsoo; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin


    Uniform biodegradable hydrogel microspheres (HMS) with precisely controlled size have been fabricated using an electric-field-assisted precision particle fabrication technique. Particle agglomeration was prevented by charging the hydrogel drops and allowing Coulomb repulsion to separate them. As a result, surfactant-free and non-toxic particle fabrication was possible and the resulting microspheres were most suitable for biomedical and food-related applications. Due to the size uniformity, the present HMS may serve as a convenient yet most accurate vehicle for controlled delivery of therapeutic agents and other active ingredients.

  15. The Growth of Latex Particles during the VAc/BA Copolymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Shaoxiong; LIN Jindong; WANG Juan; ZHANG Xinya; CHEN Huanqin


    The semi-continuous seeded emulsion copolymerization of vinyl acetate and butyl acrylate was carried out with hydroxyethyl cellulose as a colloid stabilizer. The morphology of the latex particle and the relationship between the reaction time and the average particle diameter and/or the conversion ratio during the polymerization were investigated. The experimental results show that the morphology of the latex particle possesses the stable steric construction. In the seeded polymerization, the average particle diameter of latex decreased while the conversion ratio increased. At the second term of the emulsion copolymerization (the growth stage of particle size), the latex particle average diameter increased with copolymerization continuously, but the instantaneous conversation ratio was not large, so it was very necessary to properly prolong the time during the holding temperature stage.

  16. Surfactant-free synthesis of biodegradable, biocompatible, and stimuli-responsive cationic nanogel particles. (United States)

    Urakami, Hiromitsu; Hentschel, Jens; Seetho, Kellie; Zeng, Hanxiang; Chawla, Kanika; Guan, Zhibin


    Nanogels have attracted much attention lately because of their many potential applications, including as nanocarriers for drug and gene delivery. Most nanogels reported previously, however, are not biodegradable, and their synthesis often requires the use of surfactants. Herein we report a surfactant-free method for the preparation of biodegradable, biocompatible, and stimuli-responsive cationic nanogels. The nanogels were synthesized by simply coaservating linear polymer precursors in mixed solvents followed by in situ cross-linking with homobifunctional cross-linkers. The versatility of this approach has been demonstrated by employing two different polymers and various cross-linkers to prepare nanogel particles with diameters ranging from 170 to 220 nm. Specifically, disulfide-containing tetralysine (TetK)- and oligoethylenimine (OEI)-based prepolymers were prepared and the subsequent nanogels were formed by covalently cross-linking the polymer coacervate phase. Nanogel particles are responsive to pH changes, increasing in size and zeta-potential with concomitant lowering of solution pH. Furthermore, as revealed by AFM imaging, nanogel particles were degradable in the presence of glutathione at concentrations similar to those in intracellular environment (10 mM). Both the nanogel and the polymer precursors were determined to exhibit minimal cytotoxicity against fibroblast 3T3 cells by flow cytometric analyses and fluorescent imaging. This study demonstrates a new surfactant-free method for preparing biodegradable, biocompatible, and stimuli-responsive nanogels as potential nanocarriers for the delivery of drugs and genes.

  17. Surfactant-free dispersion of Montan wax and Montan resin; Tensidfreie Dispersion von Montanwachs und Montanharz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, R.; Naundorf, W. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Abraham, J. [ROMONTA GmbH, Amsdorf (Germany)


    The purpose of this research project was the surfactant-free dispersion of lignite wax products in water in order to avoid the use of expensive surfactants that are employed in conventional process methods and some of which are harmful to the environment, and in some cases also impair the useful properties of the dispersed system. Based on experimental investigations, the wet grinding process at low temperatures below the melting point of the lignite wax products was developed. The products are surfactant-free watery dispersions of lignite wax or lignite resin. The new dispersed systems can be produced at low cost and have very good properties of use. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel der Forschung war die tensidfreie Dispergierung von Montanwachsprodukten in Wasser, um die in herkoemmlicher Verfahrensweise einzusetzenden teuren und teilweise umweltschaedlichen Tenside einzusparen, die in einigen Faellen auch die Anwendungseigenschaften des dispersen Systems beeintraechtigen. Auf der Basis von experimentellen Untersuchungen wurde das Nassmahlverfahren bei tiefen Temperaturen unter dem Schmelzpunkt der Montanwachsprodukte entwickelt. Die Produkte sind tensidfreie waessrige Dispersionen aus Montanwachs oder Montanharz. Die neuen dispersen Systeme sind kostenguenstig herstellbar und haben sehr gute Anwendungseigenschaften. (orig.)

  18. Norfloxacin release from surfactant-free nanoparticles of poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, J.K. [Chosun College of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea); Jeong, Y.I. [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea); Jang, M.K. [Suncheon National University, Suncheon (Korea); Lee, C.H. [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul (Korea); Nah, J.W. [Suncheon National University, Suncheon (Korea)


    We have prepared the surfactant-free nanoparticles of poly(DL- lactide-co-glycolide)(PLGA) by dialysis method and their physicochemical properties such as particle size and drug contents were investigated against various solvent. The size of PLGA nanoparticles prepared by using dimethylacetamide (DMAc), dimethylformamide (DMF), and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) was smaller than that from acetone. Also, the order of drug contents was DMAc>DMF>DMSO=acetone. These phenomena could be expected from the fact that solvent affects the size of nanoparticles and drug contents. The PLGA nanoparticles have a good spherical shapes as observed from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Also, surfactant-free nanoparticles entrapping norfloxacin (NFx) have a good drug loading capacity without free-drug on the surface of nanoparticles confirmed by the analysis of X-ray powder diffraction. Release kinetics of NFx used as a model drug was governed not only by drug contents but also by particle size. Also, the biodegradation rate of PLGA nanoparticles prepared from DMF was faster than that prepared from acetone, indicating that the biodegradation of PLGA nanoparticles is size-dependent. (author). 25 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  19. 机械活化淀粉接枝丙烯酰胺/丙烯酸反相乳液聚合动力学*%Kinetics of graft co-polymerization of acrylamide/acrylic onto mechanically-activated starch in inverse emulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢新玲; 童张法; 李丽琴; 黄祖强; 张友全; 赵秋菊


    淀粉接枝共聚物是一种新型功能性材料。以机械活化淀粉(mSt)为接枝母体,丙烯酰胺(AM)和丙烯酸(AA)为接枝单体,研究了在淀粉/单体/乳化剂/油/水反相乳液体系中引发机械活化淀粉与丙烯酰胺/丙烯酸接枝共聚反应的动力学,考察了引发剂浓度[I]、单体浓度[M]、淀粉乳浓度[mSt]和乳化剂浓度[E]等因素对表观聚合速率Rp 的影响。结果表明,在本文考察范围内动力学关系式为 Rp ∝[mSt ]1.5[M]1.7[I]0.9[E]0.92,单体浓度和淀粉乳液浓度对聚合反应速率影响显著,聚合反应速率随体系温度升高而加快,在45~60℃范围内,聚合反应的表观活化能为89.5 kJ/mol,聚合过程中单基终止与双基终止反应同时存在。%The graft copolymer of strach was a new kind of functional material.The kinetics of graft co-poly-merization of in the inverse emulsion system,mechanically-activated starch(mSt)/monomer/emulsifier/oil/wa-ter,were investigated with mechanically-activated starch and acrylamide(AM)/acrylic(AA)as the raw materi-al.The rate orders of graft co-polymerization with respect to the concentrations of initiator,monomer,starch, and emulsifier were determined.The results show that the dependence of the polymerization rate RP on the components concentration in the polymerization system can be expressed for all four components by the follow-ing equation:RP∝[mSt]1.5 [M]1.7 [I]0.9 [E]0.92 .The influences of concentrations of starch and monomer on the rate orders of graft co-polymerization are predominant in four factors.The overall activation energy for the pol-ymerization process was 89.5 kJ/mol,and the unimolecular and bimolecular terminations of free radicals are concomitant presence in the reaction process.

  20. 无规共聚型高分子乳化剂的合成及其在乳液中的应用%Synthesis of Random Copolymeric Emulsifier and Application in Emulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜秀花; 季永新; 何婷


    用自由基聚合法合成了无规共聚物聚苯乙烯/丙烯酸丁酯/甲基丙烯酸二甲氨基乙酯,以氯乙酸甲酯为季铵化试剂与聚合物进行季铵化反应,得到了无规型高分子乳化剂.用傅里叶变换红外光谱(FT-IR)、核磁共振氢谱(1H NMR)等对高分子乳化剂的结构进行了表征,差示扫描量热仪(DSC)测定了高分子乳化剂的玻璃化温度.将所得的高分子乳化剂用于苯丙乳液聚合中,探讨了乳化剂含量对乳液性能的影响.结果表明:得到的高分子乳化剂是无规共聚物,玻璃化温度为29.48℃;用4%(占单体总量)的乳化剂合成的乳液性能较好,单体转化率为97.5%,聚合所得乳液粒径分布窄,平均粒径为33.95 nm,乳液涂膜性能较好.%A random polymeric was synthesized via free radical polymerization,which was then converted into emulsifier by quarternizing with methyl chloroacetate. Fourier trransform infrared spectroscopy ( FT -IR) ,nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR),gel permeation chromatography (GPC),differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC ) analysis were used to characterize the composition and Tg of the emulsifier. A styrene -acrylic emulsion was synthesized at the presence of the obtained polymeric emulsifier,and the influence of the content of emulsifier on the performance of latexes was discussed and reported. The results indicated that the emulsifier was a random copolymer with glass transition temperature of 29. 48℃ ,the latex obtained with 4% emulsifier (weight of the total monomers) showed good properties; monomer conversation 97. 5% ,narrow particle size distribution and Z - average diameter of emulsion particles 33. 95 nm. The latex film provided excellent comprehensive properties.

  1. Sulfonated macro-RAFT agents for the surfactant-free synthesis of cerium oxide-based hybrid latexes. (United States)

    Garnier, Jérôme; Warnant, Jérôme; Lacroix-Desmazes, Patrick; Dufils, Pierre-Emmanuel; Vinas, Jérôme; van Herk, Alex


    Three types of amphiphatic macro-RAFT agents were employed as compatibilizers to promote the polymerization reaction at the surface of nanoceria for the synthesis of CeO2-based hybrid latexes. Macro-RAFT copolymers and terpolymers were first synthesized employing various combinations of butyl acrylate as a hydrophobic monomer and acrylic acid (AA) and/or 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) as hydrophilic monomers. After characterizing the adsorption of these macro-RAFT agents at the cerium oxide surface by UV-visible spectrometry, emulsion copolymerization reactions of styrene and methyl acrylate were then carried out in the presence of the surface-modified nanoceria. Dynamic Light Scattering and cryo-Transmission Electron Microscopy were employed to confirm the hybrid structure of the final CeO2/polymer latexes, and proved that the presence of acrylic acid units in amphiphatic macro-RAFT agents enabled an efficient formation of hybrid structures, while the presence of AMPS units, when combined with AA units, resulted in a better distribution of cerium oxide nanoclusters between latex particles.

  2. InP nanowires from surfactant-free thermolysis of single molecule precursors. (United States)

    Banerjee, Chiranjib; Hughes, David L; Bochmann, Manfred; Nann, Thomas


    Indium phosphide nanofibres were grown from a single-molecule precursor, [(PhCH(2))(2)InP(SiMe(3))(2)](2), using hot injection techniques by a solution-liquid-solid (SLS) process, under "surfactant-free" conditions and without the use of protic additives. The fibres are 85-95 nm in diameter and grow from In metal droplets of 100 nm diameter. The length of the nanofibres is a function of the precursor injection temperature (rather than the growth temperature) and can be varied from 6000 nm at 210 °C to 1000 nm at 310 °C. The indium metal tip can be readily removed under mild, non-etching conditions by treatment with thiophenol-P(SiMe(3))(3) mixtures.

  3. Scalable nanomanufacturing of surfactant-free carbon nanotube inks for spray coatings with high conductivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colin Preston[1; Da Song[1; Jaiqi Dai[1; Zois Tsinas[2; John Bavier[3; John Cumings[1; Vince Ballarotto[3; Liangbing Hu[1


    Spray-coated carbon nanotube films offer a simple and printable solution for fabricating low cost, lightweight, and flexible thin-film electronics. However, current nanotube spray inks require either a disruptive surfactant or destructive surface functionalization to stabilize dispersions at the cost of the electrical properties of the deposited film. We demonstrate that high-purity few-walled carbon nanotubes may be stabilized in isopropanol after surface functionalization and that optimizing the ink stability dramatically enhances the conductivity of subsequent spray-coated thin films. We consequently report a surfactant-free carbon nanotube ink for spray-coated thin films with conductivities reaching 2,100 S/cm. Zeta-potential measurements, used to quantify the nanotube ink dispersion quality, directly demonstrate a positive correlation with the spray- coated film conductivity, which is the key metric for high-performance printed electronics.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫翠娥; 黄锦霞; 封麟先


    以苯乙烯(St)、甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)为主单体,丙烯酸(AA)为功能单体进行了无皂乳液批量共聚合。用电导滴定法测定了羧基在胶乳中的分布,讨论了功能单体AA浓度、引发剂APS含量、体系pH值、聚合温度及St/MMA比例对胶乳中-COOH分布的影响。结果表明,随AA浓度增大,表面羧基百分比减小、而包埋百分比增大、胶粒表面羧基密度增大。引发剂APS浓度、MMA比例及聚合温度的提高,不利于羧基分布在乳胶粒表面,胶粒表面羧基密度减小。体系pH值增大,有利于羧基位于胶粒表面,表面羧基密度有所增加。%The emulsifier-free emulsion copolymerization and styrene (St) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the presence of functional monomer acrylic acid (AA) was carried out in batch process. The distribution of -COOH in the latex was determined by coductometric titration and the densityof surface -COOH was computed. Effects of concentration of AA and APS, pH value, polymerization temperature (T) and molar ratio of MMA on the distribution of -COOH and density of surface -COOH were investigated. The results show that percent of buried -COOH(Bp) and density of surface -COOH(Dc) increases, percent of surface -COOH(Sp) decreases with increasing[AA]; increasing the pH value will benefit -COOH being located on the surface of latex particle and Dc increases; increasing [APS], T and molar ratio of MMA will not benefit -COOH being distributed on the surface of latex and Dc decreases.

  5. Surfactant-Free Shape Control of Gold Nanoparticles Enabled by Unified Theoretical Framework of Nanocrystal Synthesis. (United States)

    Wall, Matthew A; Harmsen, Stefan; Pal, Soumik; Zhang, Lihua; Arianna, Gianluca; Lombardi, John R; Drain, Charles Michael; Kircher, Moritz F


    Gold nanoparticles have unique properties that are highly dependent on their shape and size. Synthetic methods that enable precise control over nanoparticle morphology currently require shape-directing agents such as surfactants or polymers that force growth in a particular direction by adsorbing to specific crystal facets. These auxiliary reagents passivate the nanoparticles' surface, and thus decrease their performance in applications like catalysis and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Here, a surfactant- and polymer-free approach to achieving high-performance gold nanoparticles is reported. A theoretical framework to elucidate the growth mechanism of nanoparticles in surfactant-free media is developed and it is applied to identify strategies for shape-controlled syntheses. Using the results of the analyses, a simple, green-chemistry synthesis of the four most commonly used morphologies: nanostars, nanospheres, nanorods, and nanoplates is designed. The nanoparticles synthesized by this method outperform analogous particles with surfactant and polymer coatings in both catalysis and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Gao; Tengjiao Hu; Yubao Zhang; Pei Li; Chi Wu


    The adsorption of linear poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) chains on surfactant-free polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles was used as a model system to study the hydrophobic adsorption of polymer on the surface, because the hydrophobility of PNIPAM can be continuously varied by a small temperature change. The adsorption was investigated by a combination of static and dynamic laser light scattering (LLS)measurements. In static LLS, the absolute excess scattered light intensity led to the amount of PNIPAM adsorbed on the surface. In dynamic LLS, the hydrodynamic thickness of the adsorbed PNIPAM layer was accurately measured. For a given particle concentration, the adsorption increases as the PNIPAM concentration and the incubation temperature increase. The average density of the adsorbed PNIPAM layer is reciprocally proportional to the number of the PNIPAM chains on the surface, revealing a simple scaling of the chain density distribution. The adsorption follows the Langmuir's isotherm. The enthalpy change estimated from the adsorption at 25℃ and 30℃ is slightly positive, indicating that the adsorption involves the coil-to-globule transition of the chains on the surface.

  7. Surfactant free fractions of metallic and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes via optimised gel chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukaszczuk, Pawel, E-mail: [West Pomeranian University of Technology, Institute of Chemical and Environment Engineering, ul. Pulaskiego 10, 70-322 Szczecin (Poland); Ruemmeli, Mark H.; Knupfer, Martin [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Kalenczuk, Ryszard J.; Borowiak-Palen, Ewa [West Pomeranian University of Technology, Institute of Chemical and Environment Engineering, ul. Pulaskiego 10, 70-322 Szczecin (Poland)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The application of gel permeation chromatography technique in a field of SWCNT separation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-commercial agarose gel used as a column filling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Purification route is presented, quality and quantity estimation is shown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Process is ready for high-scale separation of SWCNTs. -- Abstract: We report the procedure of sorting/purification of carbon nanotubes by electronic type using chromatographic column with sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and sodium deoxycholate (DOC) solutions as the eluents. The non-commercial agarose gel in different concentrations has been tested in the process. It was found that in optimal gel concentration the fractionation resulted in {approx}96.2% yield of semiconducting species. Importantly, to get surfactant-free fractions the post-separation purification procedure has been carried out. The UV-vis-NIR and Raman spectroscopy have been utilised for the samples analysis. High resolution transmission microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis allowed to study the sample morphology and purity, respectively.

  8. Surfactant-free coating of thiols on gold nanoparticles using sonochemistry: a study of competing processes. (United States)

    Pallipurath, Anuradha; Nicoletti, Olivia; Skelton, Jonathan M; Mahajan, Sumeet; Midgley, Paul A; Elliott, Stephen R


    A method for the surfactant-free coating of gold nanoparticles with thiols using sonochemistry is presented. The gold nanoparticles were prepared by a modified Zsigmondy method, affording good control over the particle-size distribution, and the thiol coating was performed by the sonication of a biphasic system consisting of a nanoparticle suspension in water and thiols in toluene. The effects of two important reaction parameters on the particle morphology, viz. sonication time and thiol concentration, were investigated in detail using transmission electron microscopy. The effect of the thiol chain length was also studied. We show that the morphology of the coated particles is determined through a competition between two opposing effects: particle fusion, due to the sonication conditions, and digestive ripening, due to the action of the thiols. Additionally, we illustrate the utility of our technique for various applications, including surface-enhanced Raman scattering from bound molecules, and further functionalization using a thiol-exchange reaction. Our technique paves the way for an efficient synthesis of thiol-coated AuNPs of different shapes and sizes, suitable for a range of diverse applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of coalescing agents in water-borne latex emulsions using an environment sensitive fluorescent probe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raja, T.N.; Brouwer, A.M.; Biemans, K.; Nabuurs, T.; Tennebroek, R.


    In this paper we report the determination of partitioning of coalescing agents (organic co-solvents) in water-borne latex emulsions by means of a fluorescence method. An environment-sensitive fluorescent probe 1 was copolymerized via emulsion polymerization. The presence of organic co-solvents insid

  10. Pickering interfacial catalysis for biphasic systems: from emulsion design to green reactions. (United States)

    Pera-Titus, Marc; Leclercq, Loïc; Clacens, Jean-Marc; De Campo, Floryan; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique


    Pickering emulsions are surfactant-free dispersions of two immiscible fluids that are kinetically stabilized by colloidal particles. For ecological reasons, these systems have undergone a resurgence of interest to mitigate the use of synthetic surfactants and solvents. Moreover, the use of colloidal particles as stabilizers provides emulsions with original properties compared to surfactant-stabilized emulsions, microemulsions, and micellar systems. Despite these specific advantages, the application of Pickering emulsions to catalysis has been rarely explored. This Minireview describes very recent examples of hybrid and composite amphiphilic materials for the design of interfacial catalysts in Pickering emulsions with special emphasis on their assets and challenges for industrially relevant biphasic reactions in fine chemistry, biofuel upgrading, and depollution.

  11. Enhanced recovery and dissolution of griseofulvin nanoparticles from surfactant-free nanocomposite microparticles incorporating wet-milled swellable dispersants. (United States)

    Bhakay, Anagha; Azad, Mohammad; Vizzotti, Emanuel; Dave, Rajesh N; Bilgili, Ecevit


    Nanocomposite microparticles (NCMPs) incorporating drug nanoparticles and wet-milled swellable dispersant particles were investigated as a surfactant-free drug delivery vehicle with the goal of enhancing the nanoparticle recovery and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. Superdisintegrants were used as inexpensive, model, swellable dispersant particles by incorporating them into NCMP structure with or without wet-stirred media milling along with the drug. Suspensions of griseofulvin (GF, model drug) along with various dispersants produced by wet-milling were coated onto Pharmatose® to prepare NCMPs in a fluidized bed process. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC, polymer) alone and with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, surfactant) was used as base-line stabilizer/dispersant during milling. Croscarmellose sodium (CCS, superdisintegrant) and Mannitol were used as additional dispersants to prepare surfactant-free NCMPs. Nanoparticle recovery during redispersion and dissolution of the various GF-laden NCMPs were examined. Suspensions prepared by co-milling GF/HPC/CCS or milling GF/HPC/SDS were stable after 30 h of storage. After drying, due to its extensive swelling capacity, incorporation of wet-milled CCS in the NCMPs caused effective breakage of the NCMP structure and bursting of nanoparticle clusters, ultimately leading to fast recovery of the GF nanoparticles. Optimized wet co-milling and incorporation of CCS in NCMP structure led to superior dispersant performance over incorporation of unmilled CCS or physically mixed unmilled CCS with NCMPs. The enhanced redispersion correlated well with the fast GF dissolution from the NCMPs containing either CCS particles or SDS. Overall, swellable dispersant (CCS) particles, preferably in multimodal size distribution, enable a surfactant-free formulation for fast recovery/dissolution of the GF nanoparticles.

  12. Starch Modification by Graft Copolymerization of Acrylonitrile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞贤; 李莉; 茹宗玲; 张黎明; 高建平; 田汝川


    The graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) onto starch under the initiation of potassium permanganate was investigated. The effect of various reaction conditions on the graft copolymerization was studied. The relationships between the grafting rate and the initiator concentration of potassium permanganate, monomer acrylonitrile and backbone starch, as well as reaction temperature were established. The oxidation reaction of starch with manganic ions and valence changes of manganic ions during the graft copolymerization were discussed. The results show that manganic ion Mn7+ underwent a series of valence changes during the graft copolymerization: Mn(Ⅶ) → Mn(Ⅳ) → Mn(Ⅲ) → Mn(Ⅱ). The grafting rate of the graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto starch is also given.

  13. Template-less surfactant-free hydrothermal synthesis NiO nanoflowers and their photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    KAUST Repository

    Qurashi, Ahsanulhaq


    A facile direct surfactant-free template-less hydrothermal method is employed for the growth of high surface-area NiO nanoflowers made up of complex and assembled nanosheets network.Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that each nanosheet is about 50-60nm thick. Detailed structural analysis reveals single-crystalline nature of NiO nanoflowers with cubic crystal structure. The optical absorption bands in the wavelength range of 350-800nm illustrated in terms of ligand field theory. The photoelectrochemical (PEC), water splitting performance on the NiO nanoflowers were also investigated. © 2015 Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC.

  14. Facile Fabrication of Large Area Polystyrene Colloidal Crystal Monolayer via Surfactant-free Langmuir-Blodgett Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Wei-dong; L(U) Zhi-cheng; JI Nan; WANG Chun-xu; ZHAO Bing; ZHANG Jun-hu


    A facile and novel method for the production of a large area of well-ordered polystyrene(PS) colloidal crystal monolayer was established using the surfactant-free Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The hydrophobic property(film-forming ability) of PS spheres was improved by a thermo-rheology treatment before LB assembly, and a large film was obtained. In contrast to the traditional LB technique, no surfactant was needed in this method, which could eliminate the additional contamination of surfactants in the preparation process and provided the products with versatile applications in nanosphere lithography(NSL) for biosensor, surface plasmon resonance, and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  15. Surfactant-free, low band gap conjugated polymer nanoparticles and polymer:fullerene nanohybrids with potential for organic photovoltaics. (United States)

    Wang, Suxiao; Singh, Amita; Walsh, Nichola; Redmond, Gareth


    Stable, aqueous dispersions of nanoparticles based on the low band gap polymers poly [2,7-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene)-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (APFO-3) and poly [N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) were prepared, using a flexible, surfactant-free reprecipitation method, and characterized by a variety of optical techniques. Light scattering measurements indicated average nanoparticle hydrodynamic diameters of approximately 40 nm. The particles presented wide-bandwidth absorption and photoluminescence excitation spectra with high absorption cross-sections on the order of 10(-12) cm(2). Nanoparticle emission spectra were significantly red-shifted, with decreased emission quantum yields and lifetimes, consistent with increased inter-polymer chain interactions in the condensed phase. Single particle photoluminescence studies highlighted the multi-chromophoric nature of the polymer nanoparticles and confirmed their favorable photostabilities. When the nanoparticles were doped with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), the correspondence of photoluminescence emission quenching, quantum yield decreases, emission lifetime shortening, and increased non-radiative rates with increasing PCBM concentration suggested efficient photo-induced donor-to-acceptor charge transfer between the conjugated polymers and the fullerene dopants co-localized in the nanoparticle cores. Taken together, the data suggest that these surfactant-free hybrid nanomaterials may be useful for integration with future nanostructured organic photovoltaics technologies.

  16. Size control of laser-fabricated surfactant-free gold nanoparticles with highly diluted electrolytes and their subsequent bioconjugation. (United States)

    Rehbock, Christoph; Merk, Vivian; Gamrad, Lisa; Streubel, René; Barcikowski, Stephan


    Size control of laser-fabricated surfactant-free gold nanoparticles is a challenging endeavor. In this work, we show that size control can be achieved by adding ions with low salinity during synthesis. In addition, this approach offers the opportunity to fundamentally study ion interactions with bare nanoparticle surfaces and can help to elucidate the nanoparticle formation mechanism. The studies were carried out in a flow-through reactor and in the presence of NaCl, NaBr and sodium phosphate buffer at minimal ionic strengths. A significant size quenching effect at ionic strengths from 1-50 μM was found, which allowed surfactant-free nanoparticle size control with average diameters of 6-30 nm. This effect went along with low polydispersity and minimal aggregation tendencies and was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM, SEM and analytical disk centrifugation. Our findings indicate that size quenching originates from an anionic electrostatic stabilization depending on the nanoparticle surface area, which may be caused by specific ion adsorption. By subsequent delayed bioconjugation in liquid-flow using bovine serum albumin as a stabilizing agent, nano-bioconjugates with good stability in cell culture media were obtained, which are applicable in toxicology and cell biology.

  17. An Underwater Superoleophobic Sepiolite Fibrous Membrane (SFM) for Oil­‐in­‐water Emulsion Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Pinjiang


    Separating oil/water emulsions is significant for the ecosystem and the petroleum and processing industry. To this end, we prepared an underwater superoleophobic membrane inspired by unique wettability of the fish scales. This membrane was fabricated by a facile vacuum filtration process of sepiolite nanofibers and chitosan, and after the cross-linking via glutaraldehyde, a self-standing membrane was obtained. The as-prepared membrane exhibited excellent capability of separating both the surfactant-free and surfactant-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions with high efficiency. This sepiolite fibrous membrane offers a convenient, reliable and efficient way for the large-scale de-emulsification process.

  18. Large-Scale Surfactant-Free Synthesis of p-Type SnTe Nanoparticles for Thermoelectric Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Han


    Full Text Available A facile one-pot aqueous solution method has been developed for the fast and straightforward synthesis of SnTe nanoparticles in more than ten gram quantities per batch. The synthesis involves boiling an alkaline Na2SnO2 solution and a NaHTe solution for short time scales, in which the NaOH concentration and reaction duration play vital roles in controlling the phase purity and particle size, respectively. Spark plasma sintering of the SnTe nanoparticles produces nanostructured compacts that have a comparable thermoelectric performance to bulk counterparts synthesised by more time- and energy-intensive methods. This approach, combining an energy-efficient, surfactant-free solution synthesis with spark plasma sintering, provides a simple, rapid, and inexpensive route to p-type SnTe nanostructured materials.

  19. A Novel Surfactant-free Microemulsion System: N,N-Dimethyl Formamide/Furaldehyde/H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Generally, a microemulsion consists of oil, water, surfactant and sometimes cosurfactant. Herein, for the first time to our knowledge, a novel surfactant-free microemulsion (SFME), consisting of furaldehyde (oil phase), water and N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) without the amphiphilic molecular structure of traditional surfactant is re-ported. The phase behavior of the ternary system was investigated, finding that a single-phase microemulsion region and a two-phase region were formed. The electrical conductivity measurement was employed to investigate the sin-gle-phase microemulsion region. On the basis of the percolation theory, the single-phase microemulsion region was identified to consist of three different microregions: furaldehyde-in-water (O/W), bicontinuous region and water-in-furaldehyde (W/O), which were further proved by freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM) observations. The diameter of the microemulsion spherical droplets is in the range of 40-70 nm.

  20. Fabrication of Biphase BiVO4 Particles with Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance via a Surfactant-Free Hydrothermal Route (United States)

    Qian, Hongzhi; Lai, Min; Huang, Xiaogu; Wang, Wei; Xu, Chaoqi; Yong, Haibo; Wen, Yan; Zhou, Yingjie


    Biphase bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) particles have been synthesized using a surfactant-free hydrothermal strategy. Biphase BiVO4 were formed at pH=3, 5 and 7 with a bandgap between 2.28eV and 2.86eV, which are those of monoclinic and tetragonal phases, respectively. Photocatalytic tests on the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation showed that biphase BiVO4 with both monoclinic and tetragonal structures synthesized at pH=3 achieved enhanced photocatalytic performance in comparison with pure monoclinic and tetragonal phases, which was attributed to the heterostructures leading to low recombination rate of electron-hole pairs.

  1. Surfactant-Free Solvothermal Method for Synthesis of Mesoporous Nanocrystalline TiO2 Microspheres with Tailored Pore Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Zhang


    Full Text Available TiO2 mesoporous microspheres self-assembled from nanoparticles were synthesized by a surfactant-free solvothermal route. The TiO2 precursors were fabricated by tetrabutyl titanate, glacial acetic acid, and urea in the ethanol solution at 140°C for 20 h, and TiO2 mesoporous microspheres were obtained by a postcalcination at temperatures of 450°C for promoting TiO2 crystallization and the removal of residual organics. The phase structure, morphology, and pore nature were characterized by XRD, SEM, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements. The as-prepared TiO2 microspheres are in anatase phase, with 2-3 μm in diameter, and narrow pore distribution range is 3-4 nm. The adjustments of the synthetic parameters lead to the formation of the mesoporous TiO2 microspheres with tuned pore size distributions and morphology.

  2. PDMS-modified poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)s as water-borne coatings based on surfactant-free latexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunbas, I.D.; Wouters, M.E.L.; Benthem, R.A.T.M. van; Koning, C.E.; Noordover, B.A.J.


    In this work, two series of PDMS-modified poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)s (PSMA) were prepared by the partial imidization of their anhydride groups with mono-functional, amine-terminated polydimethyl siloxanes (PDMS-NH2) with two different molecular weights. Subsequently, surfactant-free artific

  3. Lipid emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robins, Margaret M.


    Full Text Available Emulsions are liquid-liquid mixtures with one liquid contained as droplets within the other. The droplets are typically 1mm in diameter, and the properties of the emulsions are very dependent on the droplet structure, which is stabilised by surface-active emulsifier molecules. Most food emulsions are made from the raw ingredients using an homogenisation process to form small droplets. The paper describes methods of measuring droplet size and emulsion stability, and discusses the physical origin of emulsion texture, flavour and appearance.Las emulsiones son mezclas líquido-líquido con un líquido contenido en forma de gotas dentro de otro líquido. Las gotas tienen normalmente 1 mm de diámetro y las propiedades de las emulsiones dependen en gran medida de la estructura de la gota, la cual está estabilizada por las moléculas emulsionantes. La mayoría de las emulsiones alimenticias están constituidas a partir de materias primas usando un proceso de homogeneización que permite formar gotas pequeñas. El artículo describe métodos de medida del tamaño de gota y estabilidad de las emulsiones, y discute el origen físico de la textura, flavor y apariencia de la emulsión.

  4. Modeling of a fluidized bed reactor for the ethylene-propylene copolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Guillermo Cadavid Estrada


    Full Text Available A mathematical model for the ethylene - propylene copolymerization with a Ziegler - Natta catalyst in a gas phase fludized bed reactor is presented. The model includes a two active site kinetic model with spontaneous transfer reactions and site deactivation. Also, it is studied and simulated the growth of a polymeric particle which is exposed to an outside atmosphere (monomers concentrations and temperature that represent the emulsion phase conditions of the reactor. Particle growth model is the basis for the study of the sizes distribution into the reactor. Two phase model of Kunii-Levenspiel is the basis for the modelling and simulation of the fluid bed reactor, the models developed consider two extreme cases for the gas mixed grade in emulsion phase (perfectly mixed and plug flow. The solution of the models includes mass (for the two monomers and energy balances, coupled with the particle growth and residence time distribution models.

  5. Polylactide-based microspheres prepared using solid-state copolymerized chitosan and d,l-lactide. (United States)

    Demina, T S; Akopova, T A; Vladimirov, L V; Zelenetskii, A N; Markvicheva, E A; Grandfils, Ch


    Amphiphilic chitosan-g-poly(d,l-lactide) copolymers have been manufactured via solid-state mechanochemical copolymerization and tailored to design polyester-based microspheres for tissue engineering. A single-step solid-state reactive blending (SSRB) using low-temperature co-extrusion has been used to prepare these copolymers. These materials have been valorized to stabilize microspheres processed by an oil/water emulsion evaporation technique. Introduction of the copolymers either in water or in the oil phase of the emulsion allowed to replace a non-degradable emulsifier typically used for microparticle preparation. To enhance cell adhesion, these copolymers were also tailored to bring amino-saccharide positively charged segments to the microbead surface. Size distribution, surface morphology, and total microparticle yield have been studied and optimized as a function of the copolymer composition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Poly(vinyl chloride) composite emulsion resins modified by polyurethane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolei ZHANG; Mingwang PAN; Shengnan XING; Jingsheng LI


    An ionomer-type of polyurethane (PU) emul-sion was prepared from toluene diisocyanate (TDI), polypropylene glycol (PPG) and dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA) following a self-emulsification process. The modified poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) emulsion resin was obtained by in situ emulsion copolymerization using the PU as seeds in an autoclave. The effects of PU molecular weight on the mechanical properties and thermal stability of the PU/PVC materials were investigated. The composite latex particles and composite materials were determined and characterized using a laser particle size analyzer, transmission electron microscopy or scanning electron microscopy. The study results showed that the PU/PVC hybrid emulsion particles possess a core/shell structure. When the general mechanical properties of the composite materials increase, the thermal stabilities decrease a little. The tough fractures on the surface of the PU/PVC composite sample following impact are quite obvious.

  7. Control of the composition of Pt-Ni electrocatalysts in surfactant-free synthesis using neat N-formylpiperidine (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Tsao, Kai-Chieh; Pan, Yung-Tin; Yang, Hong


    This paper describes the facile and surfactant-free synthesis of faceted Pt-Ni alloy nanoparticle electrocatalysts using neat N-formylpiperidine as a new type of solvent. Unlike the widely-used colloidal synthesis based on long-carbon chain surfactants, nanoparticles made in neat N-formylpiperidine possess a directly accessible surface for electrocatalytic reactions, making it a very attractive alternative solvent. The area-specific oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity is much higher than the commercial Pt/C catalyst reference and reaches a maximum of 1.12 mA cm-2 for the Pt-Ni alloy nanoparticles. We observed that the freshly formed Pt-Ni alloy could have controllable bulk and near surface compositions under the same initial reaction conditions and precursor ratio. The change in the composition could be attributed to the effect of CO on the formation of uniform nuclei at the initial stage, and a different deposition rate between Pt and Ni metals during the growth. The well-defined Pt-Ni nanoparticle catalysts show strong composition-dependent catalytic behavior in ORR, highlighting the important role of controlling the growth kinetics in the preparation of active Pt-Ni ORR catalysts.This paper describes the facile and surfactant-free synthesis of faceted Pt-Ni alloy nanoparticle electrocatalysts using neat N-formylpiperidine as a new type of solvent. Unlike the widely-used colloidal synthesis based on long-carbon chain surfactants, nanoparticles made in neat N-formylpiperidine possess a directly accessible surface for electrocatalytic reactions, making it a very attractive alternative solvent. The area-specific oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity is much higher than the commercial Pt/C catalyst reference and reaches a maximum of 1.12 mA cm-2 for the Pt-Ni alloy nanoparticles. We observed that the freshly formed Pt-Ni alloy could have controllable bulk and near surface compositions under the same initial reaction conditions and precursor ratio. The change

  8. Influence of Steam Injection and Water-in-Oil Emulsions on Diesel Fuel Combustion Performance (United States)

    Sung, Meagan

    Water injection can be an effective strategy for reducing NOx because water's high specific heat allows it to absorb heat and lower system temperatures. Introducing water as an emulsion can potentially be more effective at reducing emissions than steam injection due to physical properties (such as microexplosions) that can improve atomization and increase mixing. Unfortunately, the immiscibility of emulsions makes them difficult to work with so they must be mixed properly. In this effort, a method for adequately mixing surfactant-free emulsions was established and verified using high speed cinematography. As the water to fuel mass ratio (W/F) increased, emulsion atomization tests showed little change in droplet size and spray angle, but a shorter overall breakup point. Dual-wavelength planar laser induced fluorescence (D-PLIF) patternation showed an increase in water near the center of the spray. Steam injection flames saw little change in reaction stability, but emulsion flames experienced significant losses in stability that limited reaction operability at higher W/F. Emulsions were more effective at reducing NOx than steam injection, likely because of liquid water's latent heat of vaporization and the strategic injection of water into the flame core. OH* chemiluminescence showed a decrease in heat release for both methods, though the decrease was greater for emulsions. Both methods saw decreases in flame length for W/F 0.15. Lastly, flame imaging showed a shift towards a redder appearance with the addition or more water, as well as a reduction in flame flares.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of gold graphene composite with dyes as model substrates for decolorization: a surfactant free laser ablation approach. (United States)

    Sai Siddhardha, R S; Lakshman Kumar, V; Kaniyoor, Adarsh; Sai Muthukumar, V; Ramaprabhu, S; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, A M; Ramamurthy, Sai Sathish


    A facile surfactant free laser ablation mediated synthesis (LAMS) of gold-graphene composite is reported here. The material was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, powdered X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Zeta potential measurements and UV-Visible spectroscopic techniques. The as-synthesized gold-graphene composite was effectively utilized as catalyst for decolorization of 4 important textile and laser dyes. The integration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with high surface area graphene has enhanced the catalytic activity of AuNPs. This enhanced activity is attributed to the synergistic interplay of pristine gold's electronic relay and π-π stacking of graphene with the dyes. This is evident when the Rhodamine B (RB) reduction rate of the composite is nearly twice faster than that of commercial citrate capped AuNPs of similar size. In case of Methylene blue (MB) the rate of reduction is 17,000 times faster than uncatalyzed reaction. This synthetic method opens door to laser ablation based fabrication of metal catalysts on graphene for improved performance without the aid of linkers and surfactants.

  10. Temporal deterioration in thermal performance of screen mesh wick straight heat pipe using surfactant free aqueous nanofluids (United States)

    Bhullar, Bhupinder Singh; Gangacharyulu, D.; Das, Sarit K.


    The study investigates the temporal performance of heat pipe using surfactant free Al2O3/De-ionised water nanofluids. The nanofluids prone to agglomeration and sedimentation with time are expected to influence the performance of heat pipe. Specially fabricated heat pipe is made to accommodate vapor velocity fluctuation through the vapor core and the end cap brazing effects. The heat pipe filled up to 40 % of the evaporator volume is tested at increasing volume concentration (0.005, 0.05, 0.5, 1 vol%) of Al2O3/De-ionised water nanofluid. The thermal performance of heat pipe is tested at three watt loads of heat input (12, 32, 72 W) and after successive durations (0, 3, 6, 9 months) from the date of manufacturing with non operational time span. The results are compared after successive time intervals and with deionised water as working fluid. Despite higher thermal performance of heat pipe observed using nanofluids as working fluids, consistency and reliability in heat pipe operating characteristics has been observed at high watt load heat input of 72 W as compared to low watt heat of 12 W. The thermal performance improvement of heat pipe using the nanofluid resulted due to nano-coating of Al2O3 nanoparticles on the mesh, resulting in localized high vapor pressure caused by the subsequent intermittent accelerated flow, reduction of contact angle and enhancement in boiling limit.

  11. Surfactant-free (CdSe and CdSe-CdTe) semiconducting nanoparticle mixed MEH-PPV thin films (United States)

    Verma, Deepak; Dutta, V.


    Hybrid absorbing layers of poly (2-methoxy, 5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenyl vinylene) (MEH-PPV)) having surfactant-free CdSe and CdTe-CdSe nanoparticles that have been spin coated on glass substrates. The absorbance and photoluminescence spectra on these hybrid thin films have shown the role of the dispersion science of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. 1HNMR spectra of the polymer mixed nanoparticle solutions have established the chemical interaction between MEH-PPV and nanoparticles. It confirms the relative shift and broadening in the peak located at δ  =  3.96 ppm, known as the alkoxy site for MEH-PPV. Cyclic voltammetry measurements on these hybrid thin films have shown the proper charge transfer compatibility between the MEH-PPV and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO)-free nanoparticles. The nanoparticles of the CdTe and CdSe mixed MEH-PPV hybrid layer confirm the better charge transfer in comparison to CdTe—MEH-PPV thin films. The study will help in establishing the parameters required to prepare hybrid absorber thin films for solar cell application.

  12. Fabrication of surfactant-free quercetin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles: evaluation of hepatoprotective efficacy by nuclear scintigraphy (United States)

    Ganguly, Soumya; Gaonkar, Raghuvir H.; Sinha, Samarendu; Gupta, Amit; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar; Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Sachdeva, Satbir S.; Ganguly, Shantanu; Debnath, Mita C.


    The purpose of this study was to develop surfactant-free quercetin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (Qr-NPs) and investigate the hepatoprotective efficacy of the product non-invasively by nuclear scintigraphy. The nanoparticles were prepared using PLGA by dialysis method and ranged in size between 50 and 250 nm with a narrow range of distribution. They were found to arrive at the fenestra of liver sinusoidal epithelium for accumulation. The sizes of nanoparticles (batch S1) were optimal to reach the target and offer enough protection of the hepatocytes degenerated by CCl4 intoxication as determined by various biochemical and histopathological tests. In vitro studies exhibited the cytotoxic effect of the formulation against HepG2 cell line. The hepatoprotective efficacy of Qr-NPs evaluated non-invasively by nuclear scintigraphic technique using 99mTc-labelled sulphur colloid revealed abnormality in liver at the area of decreased uptake in rats of CCl4-treated group, which disappeared in Qr-NP-treated group. In dynamic studies with 99mTc-mebrofenin, excretion was severely impaired in CCl4-treated group but was moderate in drug-treated group, proving the recovery of animals from damage.

  13. Surfactant free synthesis of CdS nanospheres, microstructural analysis, chemical bonding, optical properties and photocatalytic activities (United States)

    Ganesh, R. Sankar; Sharma, Sanjeev K.; Durgadevi, E.; Navaneethan, M.; Binitha, H. S.; Ponnusamy, S.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.; Hayakawa, Y.; Kim, Deuk Young


    The surfactant free cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanospheres were synthesized by the chemical method in a single step. The uniform shape of CdS spheres was controlled by the variation of concentration of thioacetamide (C2H5NS). The cubic phase of CdS nanopowder was determined from XRD analysis, which closely matched to the standard card. The spherical grains of CdS powder were confirmed from the microstructural analysis. The concentration of thioacetamide (TAA) played a vital role in the formation of nanospheres. The bandgap of CdS nanospheres decreased from 2.44 to 2.22 eV as the mole concentration of C2H5NS increased from 0.05 M to 2.0 M. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of the stretching bond of Cdsbnd S. The dominant PL peak of purely and uniformed CdS nanospheres was observed at 528 nm due to S vacancies or surface defects. The prepared photocatalyst demonstrated the superior visible light photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB). The highest degradation (96%) of MB was achieved within 180 min. Therefore, CdS nanospheres grown in the single step by the chemical method has a remarkable enhancement in the degradation of pollutants under irradiation of visible light.

  14. Optimization of a surfactant free polyol method for the synthesis of platinum-cobalt electrocatalysts using Taguchi design of experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grolleau, C. [Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique (LACCO), Universite de Poitiers, 40 av Recteur Pineau, F-86000 Poitiers (France); ST Microelectronics Tours, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-37100 Tours (France); Coutanceau, C.; Leger, J.-M. [Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique (LACCO), Universite de Poitiers, 40 av Recteur Pineau, F-86000 Poitiers (France); Pierre, F. [ST Microelectronics Tours, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-37100 Tours (France)


    A design of experiments (derived from the Taguchi method) was implemented to optimize experimental conditions of a surfactant free polyol method for the synthesis of PtCo electrocatalysts. Considered responses were the active surface area and the catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction. Metallic salt concentration, pH, temperature ramp, addition order of reactants and particle cleaning step were chosen as main parameters according to considerations coming from literature and previous experiments. Matrix models describing the behaviour of the synthesis system was elaborated taking into account the effects of each considered parameter and their interactions. From this model, an optimized PtCo/C catalyst, in terms of active surface area and activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction, was synthesized. Both the measured values of the active surface area and the electrocatalytic activity are in very good agreement with the calculated ones from the matrix model. Furthermore, actions of parameters and interactions between parameters can be better understood using this method. (author)

  15. Surfactant-Free Solid Dispersions of Hydrophobic Drugs in an Amorphous Sugar Matrix Dried from an Organic Solvent. (United States)

    Takeda, Koji; Gotoda, Yuto; Hirota, Daichi; Hidaka, Fumihiro; Sato, Tomo; Matsuura, Tsutashi; Imanaka, Hiroyuki; Ishida, Naoyuki; Imamura, Koreyoshi


    The technique for homogeneously dispersing hydrophobic drugs in a water-soluble solid matrix (solid dispersion) is a subject that has been extensively investigated in the pharmaceutical industry. Herein, a novel technique for dispersing a solid, without the need to use a surfactant, is reported. A freeze-dried amorphous sugar sample was dissolved in an organic solvent, which contained a soluble model hydrophobic component. The suspension of the sugar and the model hydrophobic component was vacuum foam dried to give a solid powder. Four types of sugars and methanol were used as representative sugars and the organic medium. Four model drugs (indomethacin, ibuprofen, gliclazide, and nifedipine) were employed. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses indicated that the sugar and model drug (100:1) did not undergo segregation during the drying process. The dissolution of the hydrophobic drugs in water from the solid dispersion was then evaluated, and the results indicated that the Cmax and AUC0-60 min of the hydrophobic drug in water were increased when the surfactant-free solid dispersion was used. Palatinose and/or α-maltose were superior to the other tested carbohydrates in increasing Cmax and AUC0-60 min for all tested model drugs, and the model drug with a lower water solubility tended to exhibit a greater extent of over-dissolution.

  16. Synthetic Polymers at Interfaces: Monodisperse Emulsions Multiple Emulsions and Liquid Marbles (United States)

    Sun, Guanqing

    from surfactant-free emulsion polymerization were proved to be effective liquid marble stabilizers. The influence of drying conditions on the properties of liquid marbles was investigated through a macroscopic way. The pH value of the particle dispersion, which influences the protonation states of the particles before freeze-drying, has a profound influence on the property of the stabilized liquid marbles. A brief comment to the future of work of these investigated systems is delivered in the last part.

  17. Facile fabrication of Pickering emulsion polymerized polystyrene/laponite composite nanoparticles and their electrorheology. (United States)

    Kim, Young Jae; Liu, Ying Dan; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Park, Soo-Jin


    Polystyrene (PS)/laponite composite nanoparticles were fabricated using a surfactant-free Pickering emulsion polymerization method, in which emulsions of styrene dispersed in water were stabilized by hydrophilic laponite modified with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. The PS/laponite nanoparticles, of which their surface was covered compactly by laponite clay platelets, were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed their chemical composition, crystallographic structure, and thermal properties and weight loss percentage of the laponite located on the surface of the PS particle, respectively. When an external electrical field was applied, the chain-like structure of the laponite coated nano-sized PS particle exhibiting electrorheological characteristics was observed by optical microscopy. The electrorheological performance of the bulk properties was also examined using a rotational rheometer equipped with a high voltage generator.

  18. Sulfonate-containing Copolymers Prepared by Semi-Continuous Emulsion Copolymerizaiton of Styrene and Sodium Styrene Sulfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiming HUANG; Wei XIE; Chengyou KAN; Yajie LI; Deshan LIU


    @@ 1Introduction Soap-free emulsion copolymerization of styrene (St) and sodium sulfonate styrene (NaSS) could yield homodisperse sulfonate-containing particles with clean surface. But the incorporation of NaSS could never be increased beyond 2.6 % by weight in the conventional batch and seeded emulsion copolymerization in the absence of emulsifier because large amounts of soluble polyelectrolyte would unstablize the reaction system if excessive amount of NaSS was used[1]. In our work, semi-continuous copolymerizations were carried out in the presence of mixed emulsifiers, and a new method to purify the latex polymer was developed. The influences of the NaSS mole ratio in the total monomers and the monomer addition time on the S content in the purified copolymer were investigated by elemental analysis.

  19. Superparamagnetic polymer emulsion particles from a soap-free seeded emulsion polymerization and their application for lipase immobilization. (United States)

    Cui, Yanjun; Chen, Xia; Li, Yanfeng; Liu, Xiao; Lei, Lin; Zhang, Yakui; Qian, Jiayu


    Using emulsion copolymer of styrene (St), glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) as seed latexes, the superparamagnetic polymer emulsion particles were prepared by seeded emulsion copolymerization of butyl methacrylate (BMA), vinyl acetate (VAc) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of the seed latexes and superparamagnetic Fe3O4/SiOx nanoparticles (or Fe3O4-APTS nanoparticles) through a two-step process, without addition of any emulsifier. The magnetic emulsion particles named P(St-GMA-HEMA)/P(BMA-VAc) were characterized by transmission electron microscope and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results showed that the magnetic emulsion particles held a structure with a thinner shell (around 100 nm) and a bigger cavity (around 200 nm), and possessed a certain level of magnetic response. The resulting magnetic emulsion particles were employed in the immobilization of lipase by two strategies to immobilized lipase onto the resulting magnetic composites directly (S-1) or using glutaraldehyde as a coupling agent (S-2), thus, experimental data showed that the thermal stability and reusability of immobilized lipase based on S-2 were higher than that of S-1.

  20. Preparation of Surfactant-free Core-Shell Poly(lactic acid) / Calcium Phosphate Hybrid Particles and Their Drug Release Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuno, T; Hirao, K [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan); Nagata, F; Ohji, T; Kato, K, E-mail: [Advanced Manufacturing Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98, Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya, 463-8510 (Japan)


    We propose surfactant-free core-shell poly(lactic acid) (PLA) / calcium phosphate (CaP) hybrid particles as drug delivery carriers. These particles were prepared by biomineralization process using ultrasonic irradiation, and their drug release profiles were investigated. Drug release rate was earlier when particles were prepared by PLA with a low molecular weight, and/or by Ca(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}. Also, these were shown good protein adsorption. This work indicates that these particles have sustained-release ability without initial burst and can do targeting capability by biomolecule conjugation.

  1. Surfactant-free synthesis of octahedral ZnO/ZnFe2O4 heterostructure with ultrahigh and selective adsorption capacity of malachite green


    Jue Liu; Min Zeng; Ronghai Yu


    A new octahedral ZnO/ZnFe2O4 heterostructure has been fabricated through a facile surfactant-free solvothermal method followed by thermal treatment. It exhibits a record-high adsorption capacity (up to 4983.0 mg·g−1) of malachite green (MG), which is a potentially harmful dye in prevalence and should be removed from wastewater and other aqueous solutions before discharging into the environment. The octahedral ZnO/ZnFe2O4 heterostructure also demonstrates strong selective adsorption towards MG...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Shan; Shao-lin Mu; Bing-wei Mao; Yong-fang Li


    The electrochemical copolymerization of aniline and N,N,N'-trimethylthionin (azure B) in aqueous solutions has been carried out using the potential sweep method. The optimum conditions for the coelectrodeposition are that the pH value and the temperature of the electrolytic solution are controlled at 5.57 and 30℃, respectively, and the scan potential range is set between -0.25 and 1.10 V (versus SCE). The copolymerization rate of aniline and azure B is about 3 times larger than that of aniline in the absence of azure B. The copolymerization of aniline and azure B was verified from the results of visible spectra during electrolysis, FTIR spectra and the atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the polymers. The in situ visible spectrum for the electrolysis of the solution containing aniline and azure B is different from that of the respective aniline and azure B. The FTIR spectrum of the copolymer is not a superposition of that of polyaniline and poly(azure B). The AFM image of the copolymer is different from those of polyaniline and poly(azure B) and is not a mixture of individual polymers. The conductivity of the copolymer synthesized at pH 5.57 is four orders of magnitude higher than that of polyaniline synthesized under the same conditions, but in the absence of azure B. The electrochemical properties of the copolymer are mainly attributed to polyaniline, but the copolymer has a better electrochemical reversibility and a much faster charge transfer than those of polyaniline.``

  3. Mathematical Simulation of High-Conversion Binary Copolymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiangWei; QinJiguang


    A new model for mathematical simulation of high-conversion binary copolymerization was established by combination of the concept of the three stage polymerization model (TSPM) proposed by Qin et al. for bulk free radical homopolymerization with the North equation to describe high-conversion copolymerization reaction exhibiting a strong gel effect, and the mathematical expressions of this new model were derived. Like TSPM, the new model also assmnes that the whole course of binary copolymerization can be divided into three different stages: low conversion, gel effect and glass effect stages. In addition, the reaction rate constants and the initiator efficiency at each copolymerization stage do not vary with conversion. Based on the expressions derived, a plot method for determining the overall rate constants and critical conversions was proposed. The literature data on conversion history for styrene (St)-methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA)-MMA copolymerizations were treated to examine the model, which shows that the model is satisfactory.

  4. Facile one-pot surfactant-free synthesis of uniform Pd6Co nanocrystals on 3D graphene as an efficient electrocatalyst toward formic acid oxidation (United States)

    Zhang, Lian Ying; Zhao, Zhi Liang; Yuan, Weiyong; Li, Chang Ming


    Ultrasmall and uniform Pd6Co nanocrystals were deposited on 3D graphene by a facile one-pot surfactant-free route for a catalyst toward formic acid oxidation, showing a much higher electrocatalytic activity, larger peak current density and better stability than Pd/3DG, Pd/C as well as commercial Pd-C, and thus offering great potential for an efficient anode catalyst toward high performance direct formic acid fuel cells.Ultrasmall and uniform Pd6Co nanocrystals were deposited on 3D graphene by a facile one-pot surfactant-free route for a catalyst toward formic acid oxidation, showing a much higher electrocatalytic activity, larger peak current density and better stability than Pd/3DG, Pd/C as well as commercial Pd-C, and thus offering great potential for an efficient anode catalyst toward high performance direct formic acid fuel cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section and supplementary figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08512h

  5. Morphologically tuned 3D/1D rutile TiO2 hierarchical hybrid microarchitectures engineered by one-step surfactant free hydrothermal method (United States)

    Maria John, Maria Angelin Sinthiya; Ramamurthi, K.; Sethuraman, K.; Ramesh Babu, R.


    Present investigation reports on the surfactant free hydrothermal synthesize of the morphologically tuned hierarchical hybrid rutile titanium oxide (TiO2) microarchitectures showing three dimensional microflower structures and cook pine tree like structures on the one dimensional nanorods formed over TiO2 seed layer coated glass substrates by tuning growth temperature. TiO2 seed layer of ∼100 nm thick was coated on the glass substrates employing sol-gel spin coating method and then rutile TiO2 microarchitectures were synthesized on the TiO2 seed layer by one-step surfactant free hydrothermal method. Deposited samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy techniques. Influence of the growth temperature on the crystallinity, morphology and optical properties along with the growth mechanism to achieve hierarchical microarchitectures was investigated. Present work revealed that the structural, morphological and optical properties of the TiO2 hierarchical microarchitectures strongly depend on the growth temperature. Further we proposed a model for the cause to effect possible morphological changes of rutile TiO2 microarchitectures as a function of growth temperatures on the TiO2 seeded glass substrates.

  6. High temperature structural, polymeric foams from high internal emulsion polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoisington, M.A.; Duke, J.R.; Apen, P.G.


    In 1982, a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) polymerization process to manufacture microcellular, polymeric foam systems was patented by Unilever. This patent discloses a polymerization process that occurs in a water-in-oil emulsion in which the water represents at least 76% of the emulsion by volume. The oil phase consists of vinyl monomers such as styrene and acrylates that are crosslinked by divinyl monomers during polymerization. After polymerization and drying to remove the water phase, the result is a crosslinked polymer foam with an open cell microstructure that is homogeneous throughout in terms of morphology, density, and mechanical properties. Since 1982, numerous patents have examined various HIPE polymerized foam processing techniques and applications that include absorbents for body fluids, cleaning materials, and ion exchange systems. All the published HIPE polymerized foams have concentrated on materials for low temperature applications. Copolymerization of styrene with maleic anhydride and N-substituted maleimides to produce heat resistant thermoplastics has been studied extensively. These investigations have shown that styrene will free radically copolymerize with N-substituted maleimides to create an alternating thermoplastic copolymer with a Tg of approximately 200{degrees}C. However, there are many difficulties in attempting the maleimide styrene copolymerization in a HIPE such as lower polymerization temperatures, maleimide solubility difficulties in both styrene and water, and difficulty obtaining a stable HIPE with a styrene/maleimide oil phase. This work describes the preparation of copolymer foams from N-ethylmaleimide and Bis(3-ethyl-5-methyl-4-maleimide-phenyl)methane with styrene based monomers and crosslinking agents.

  7. Partitioning of Laponite Clay Platelets in Pickering Emulsion Polymerization. (United States)

    Brunier, Barthélémy; Sheibat-Othman, Nida; Chevalier, Yves; Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie


    Partitioning of laponite disklike clay platelets between polymer particles and bulk aqueous phase was investigated in Pickering surfactant-free emulsion polymerization of styrene. Adsorption of laponite clay platelets plays an important role in the stabilization of this system, influencing the particle size and the number of particles, and, hence, the reaction rate. Adsorption isotherms show that, while the laponite clay platelets are almost fully exfoliated in water, they form multilayers on the surface of the polymer particles by the end of polymerization, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This observation is supported by quartz crystal microbalance, conductivity, and TEM measurements, which reveal interactions between the clay and polystyrene, as a function of the ionic strength. The strong adsorption of clay platelets leaves a low residual concentration in the aqueous phase that cannot cause further nucleation of polymer particles, as demonstrated during seeded emulsion polymerization experiments in the presence of a high excess of clay. A Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)-type model for laponite adsorption on polystyrene particles matches the adsorption isotherms.

  8. Detection of coalescing agents in water-borne latex emulsions using an environment sensitive fluorescent probe. (United States)

    Raja, Tanzeela Nazir; Brouwer, Albert M; Biemans, Koen; Nabuurs, Tijs; Tennebroek, Ronald


    In this paper we report the determination of partitioning of coalescing agents (organic co-solvents) in water-borne latex emulsions by means of a fluorescence method. An environment-sensitive fluorescent probe was copolymerized via emulsion polymerization. The presence of organic co-solvents inside the polymer particles is revealed by the photophysical properties of the probe. In particular, the position of the fluorescence emission maximum of co-polymerized can be used to measure the amount of coalescing agent present in the polymer particles. The spectral shifts are shown to be due to the softening of the matrix, rather than to solvation of the probe by the added co-solvent.

  9. Kinetics and thermodynamics of living copolymerization processes. (United States)

    Gaspard, Pierre


    Theoretical advances are reported on the kinetics and thermodynamics of free and template-directed living copolymerizations. Until recently, the kinetic theory of these processes had only been established in the fully irreversible regime, in which the attachment rates are only considered. However, the entropy production is infinite in this regime and the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium cannot be investigated. For this purpose, the detachment rates should also be included. Inspite of this complication, the kinetics can be exactly solved in the regimes of steady growth and depolymerization. In this way, analytical expressions are obtained for the mean growth velocity, the statistical properties of the copolymer sequences, as well as the thermodynamic entropy production. The results apply to DNA replication, transcription and translation, allowing us to understand important aspects of molecular evolution.This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Kinetics and thermodynamics of living copolymerization processes (United States)

    Gaspard, Pierre


    Theoretical advances are reported on the kinetics and thermodynamics of free and template-directed living copolymerizations. Until recently, the kinetic theory of these processes had only been established in the fully irreversible regime, in which the attachment rates are only considered. However, the entropy production is infinite in this regime and the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium cannot be investigated. For this purpose, the detachment rates should also be included. Inspite of this complication, the kinetics can be exactly solved in the regimes of steady growth and depolymerization. In this way, analytical expressions are obtained for the mean growth velocity, the statistical properties of the copolymer sequences, as well as the thermodynamic entropy production. The results apply to DNA replication, transcription and translation, allowing us to understand important aspects of molecular evolution. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'.

  11. Copolymerization on Selective Substrates: Experimental Test and Computer Simulations. (United States)

    Kozhunova, Elena Yu; Gavrilov, Alexey A; Zaremski, Mikhail Yu; Chertovich, Alexander V


    We explore the influence of a selective substrate on the composition and sequence statistics during the free radical copolymerization. In particular, we study the radical copolymerization of styrene and acrylic acid in bulk and in silica pores of different sizes. We show that the substrate affects both polymer composition and sequence statistics. We use dissipative particle dynamics simulations to study the polymerization process in detail, trying to pinpoint the parameters responsible for the observed differences in the polymer chain composition and sequences. The magnitude of the observed effect depends on the fraction of adsorbed monomer units, which cannot be described in the framework of the copolymerization theories based on the terminal unit model.

  12. Surfactant-free synthesis of octahedral ZnO/ZnFe2O4 heterostructure with ultrahigh and selective adsorption capacity of malachite green (United States)

    Liu, Jue; Zeng, Min; Yu, Ronghai


    A new octahedral ZnO/ZnFe2O4 heterostructure has been fabricated through a facile surfactant-free solvothermal method followed by thermal treatment. It exhibits a record-high adsorption capacity (up to 4983.0 mg·g-1) of malachite green (MG), which is a potentially harmful dye in prevalence and should be removed from wastewater and other aqueous solutions before discharging into the environment. The octahedral ZnO/ZnFe2O4 heterostructure also demonstrates strong selective adsorption towards MG from two kinds of mixed solutions: MG/methyl orange (MO) and MG/rhodamine B (RhB) mixtures, indicating its promise in water treatment.

  13. Surfactant-free synthesis of sub-stoichiometry tungsten oxide nanoparticles and their use as anode buffer layers in organic solar cells (United States)

    Brütsch, Lennart; Czolk, Jens; Popescu, Radian; Gerthsen, Dagmar; Colsmann, Alexander; Feldmann, Claus


    A surfactant-free synthesis of small-sized tungsten trioxide is presented. Nanoparticles with an average size of 4.6 ± 1.5 nm are prepared via hot-injection techniques in ethanol. Due to the reducing properties of ethanol, a sub-stoichiometry composition WO3-x (x∼0.4) is obtained. The partial reduction of W+VI to W+V becomes visible in the bluish color of suspensions and powder samples and in optical spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The nanoparticles are further characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Due to their small size, their high colloidal stability and the absence of surfactants, layers from the as-prepared WO3-x nanoparticles are ideally suited to form anode buffer layers in organic solar cells. Exemplary solar cells show good power conversion efficiency of 6.3%.

  14. Spray drying of drug-swellable dispersant suspensions for preparation of fast-dissolving, high drug-loaded, surfactant-free nanocomposites. (United States)

    Azad, Mohammad; Arteaga, Colby; Abdelmalek, Beshoy; Davé, Rajesh; Bilgili, Ecevit


    Bioavailability of a poorly soluble drug can be improved by preparing a drug nanosuspension and subsequently drying it into nanocomposite microparticles (NCMPs). Unfortunately, drug nanoparticles aggregate during milling and drying, causing incomplete recovery and slow dissolution. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of various classes of dispersants on drug dissolution from drug NCMPs, with the ultimate goal of enhancing the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs via high drug nanoparticle loaded, surfactant-free NCMPs. Precursor suspensions of griseofulvin (GF, model drug) nanoparticles in the presence of various dispersants were prepared via wet stirred media milling and spray dried to form the NCMPs. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC, polymer) alone and with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, surfactant) was used as a base-line stabilizer/dispersant during milling. Two swellable crosslinked polymers, croscarmellose sodium (CCS) and sodium starch glycolate (SSG), and a conventional soluble matrix former, Mannitol, were used in addition to HPC. Besides being used as-received, CCS was also wet co-milled with GF for two different durations to examine the impact of CCS particle size. Laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV spectroscopy, NCMP redispersion and dissolution tests were used for characterization. The results show that incorporation of CCS/SSG, preferably wet-milled to a wide particle size distribution, into the spray-dried NCMPs resulted in fast release and dispersion of drug nanoparticle clusters. The swellable dispersants were superior to Mannitol in dissolution enhancement, and could achieve fast release comparable to SDS, demonstrating the feasibility of spray drying to prepare high drug-loaded, surfactant-free nanocomposites.

  15. Copolymerization Kinetics of Ethylene Oxide and Propylene Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹红; 陈志荣


    The copolymerization kinetics of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide in an atomizing-circulation reactorunder semi-continuous operation is studied which is of great importance for molecular designation. The kineticparameters are obtained by numerical optimization of the kinetic model.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu-ren Pan; Zhi-xue Weng; Zhi-ming Huang


    This paper provides a summarized review on the kinetics of vinyl chloride homopolymerization in the absence and presence of chain transfer agents, of VC/DAP(diallyl phthalate) copolymerization with chain extension and/or slightly crosslinking functions, and of vinylidene chloride/VC random copolymerization.Models of rate, degree of polymerization or molecular weight, copolymer composition, gel fraction and crosslinking density were proposed and interpreted mechanistically.

  17. Modeling of continuous free-radical butadiene-styrene copolymerization process by the Monte Carlo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Mikhailova


    Full Text Available In the paper the algorithm of modeling of continuous low-temperature free-radical butadiene-styrene copolymerization process in emulsion based on the Monte-Carlo method is offered. This process is the cornerstone of industrial production butadiene – styrene synthetic rubber which is the most widespread large-capacity rubber of general purpose. Imitation of growth of each macromolecule of the formed copolymer and tracking of the processes happening to it is the basis of algorithm of modeling. Modeling is carried out taking into account residence-time distribution of particles in system that gives the chance to research the process proceeding in the battery of consistently connected polymerization reactors. At the same time each polymerization reactor represents the continuous stirred tank reactor. Since the process is continuous, it is considered continuous addition of portions to the reaction mixture in the first reactor of battery. The constructed model allows to research molecular-weight and viscous characteristics of the formed copolymerization product, to predict the mass content of butadiene and styrene in copolymer, to carry out calculation of molecular-weight distribution of the received product at any moment of conducting process. According to the results of computational experiments analyzed the influence of mode of the process of the regulator introduced during the maintaining on change of characteristics of the formed butadiene-styrene copolymer. As the considered process takes place with participation of monomers of two types, besides listed the model allows to research compositional heterogeneity of the received product that is to carry out calculation of composite distribution and distribution of macromolecules for the size and structure. On the basis of the proposed algorithm created the software tool that allows you to keep track of changes in the characteristics of the resulting product in the dynamics.

  18. Thermodynamically Stable Pickering Emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacanna, S.; Kegel, W.K.; Philipse, A.P.


    We show that under appropriate conditions, mixtures of oil, water, and nanoparticles form thermodynamically stable oil-in-water emulsions with monodisperse droplet diameters in the range of 30–150 nm. This observation challenges current wisdom that so-called Pickering emulsions are at most metastabl

  19. Synthesis of Cationic PEM Emulsion and Application in Waste Water Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-bin; LI Min; FANG Yi; SONG Hong; LUO Juan; XU Cheng-yin; WAN Chang-xiu


    Cationic polymer as a kind of flocculant is widely applied in purification treatment of waste water. Because it has positive charge group, it is able to connect strongly the suspended matters, short cellulose and other microparticles. The research on synthesis of cationic polymer and application in treatment of waste water is very universal abroad. But domestic research on those is not general. The technology of synthesis of PEM is simple, and the production cost is low. It is easy to apply in treatment of waste water.Synthesis of PEM Emulsion FlocculantSome distilled water, PVA(poly(vinyl alcohol)), EA(ethyl acrylate), and K2S2O8(potassium persulfate) were put into reaction vessel. Kept stirring up under nitrogen. When heated the solution to 40℃, dropped the water solution of MTA[(2-methacryloxylethyl)trimethyl ammonium].Maintained the temperature at 70℃, reacted about 7-8 hours. Then got the PEM emulsion. Changed the ratio of EA and MTA. Obtained a series of PEM emulsions.Stability and Convertibility of PEM EmulsionThe test results showed that when the EA/MTA was 85/15, the PEM emulsion was most stable.When the total monomer quantity was 35%, the convertibility of PEM emulsion was the highest,i.e.98.6%.The MTA Copolymerization Ratio and Morphology of PEM EmulsionWhen the monomers EA/MTA=85/15 and total monomer quantity was 35%, the MTA copolymerization ratio of PEM emulsion was 95.15%(the highest), and the PEM emulsion was some microspheres with 100-180nm of diameter.The Test Results of PEM Emulsion in Treatment of Waste Water The PEM emulsion flocculant was applied in treatment of waste water of paper mill, and measured the precipitation time(t) and transmittancy(T). The test results were showed in table 1. The optimum value of PEM which was able to make the waste water of paper mill into clear water was 0.008%.

  20. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique


    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  1. Tuning the critical solution temperature of polymers by copolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Bernhard; Chudoba, Richard; Dzubiella, Joachim, E-mail: [Institut für Weiche Materie und Funktionale Materialien, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Heyda, Jan [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, 166 28 Praha 6 (Czech Republic)


    We study statistical copolymerization effects on the upper critical solution temperature (CST) of generic homopolymers by means of coarse-grained Langevin dynamics computer simulations and mean-field theory. Our systematic investigation reveals that the CST can change monotonically or non-monotonically with copolymerization, as observed in experimental studies, depending on the degree of non-additivity of the monomer (A-B) cross-interactions. The simulation findings are confirmed and qualitatively explained by a combination of a two-component Flory-de Gennes model for polymer collapse and a simple thermodynamic expansion approach. Our findings provide some rationale behind the effects of copolymerization and may be helpful for tuning CST behavior of polymers in soft material design.

  2. Microfluidic Synthesis Enables Dense and Uniform Loading of Surfactant-Free PtSn Nanocrystals on Carbon Supports for Enhanced Ethanol Oxidation. (United States)

    Wu, Fuxiang; Zhang, Dongtang; Peng, Manhua; Yu, Zhihui; Wang, Xiayan; Guo, Guangsheng; Sun, Yugang


    Developing new synthetic methods for carbon supported catalysts with improved performance is of fundamental importance in advancing proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology. Continuous-flow, microfluidic reactions in capillary tube reactors are described, which are capable of synthesizing surfactant-free, ultrafine PtSn alloyed nanoparticles (NPs) on various carbon supports (for example, commercial carbon black particles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene sheets). The PtSn NPs are highly crystalline with sizes smaller than 2 nm, and they are highly dispersed on the carbon supports with high loadings up to 33 wt%. These characteristics make the as-synthesized carbon-supported PtSn NPs more efficient than state of the art commercial Pt/C catalysts applied to the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). Significantly enhanced mass catalytic activity (two-times that of Pt/C) and improved stability are obtained. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Surfactant-free synthesis of hyperbranched monoclinic bismuth vanadate and its applications in photocatalysis, gas sensing, and lithium-ion batteries. (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Xie, Yi; Zhu, Xi; Yan, Si; Wang, Sunxi


    Hyperbranched monoclinic BiVO(4) (h-BiVO(4)) has been synthesized on a large scale and with good uniformity by a surfactant-free hydrothermal route. h-BiVO(4) consists of four trunks with branches distributed on opposite sides. From observation of the intermediates at an early stage of the reaction process, it can be seen that during formation h-BiVO(4) has different growth rates along the a, b, and c axes. Based on crystal structure analysis and experimental results, h-BiVO(4) shows preferential growth along the [100] direction, and subsequently, along the [010] and [001] directions. As-synthesized h-BiVO(4) exhibits excellent photocatalytic ability in the photodegradation reaction of an aqueous solution of RB under visible light. Electrochemical measurements predict that h-BiVO(4) possesses high sensitivity to formaldehyde and ethanol gases, favorable discharge capacity, and capacity retention, which indicate potential applications in the fields of sensing devices and lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Surfactant-Free Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Fe-Doped ZnO Nanostars as Photocatalyst for Degradation of Tropaeolin O in Water under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsz-Lung Kwong


    Full Text Available Iron-doped zinc oxide nanostar was synthesized by the microwave-assisted surfactant-free hydrolysis method. The as-synthesized Fe-doped ZnO nanostars catalyst was fully characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, and diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy (UV-DRA. The photocatalytic activity of the photocatalyst was investigated for the photocatalytic degradation of Tropaeolin O under visible light irradiation. It is observed that the doping of Fe ions enhances the absorption of the visible light and thus the photocatalytic degradation rate of Tropaeolin O would increase. Despite the Taguchi orthogonal experimental design method, the photocatalytic conversion could be achieved at 99.8% in the Fe-doped ZnO catalyzed photodegradation reaction under the optimal reaction conditions of catalyst loading (30 mg, temperature (60°C, light distance (0 cm, initial pH (pH = 9, and irradiation time (3 h. The Fe-doped ZnO photocatalyst can also be easily recovered and directly reused for eight cycles with over 70% conversion.

  5. Facile preparation of an immobilized surfactant-free palladium nanocatalyst for metal hydride trapping: a novel sensing platform for TXRF analysis. (United States)

    Romero, V; Costas-Mora, I; Lavilla, I; Bendicho, C


    In this work, a simple route for the synthesis of surfactant-free immobilized palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) and their use as effective nanocatalysts for metal hydride decomposition is described. A mixture of ethanol : water was used as the reducing agent. Ethanol was added in a large excess to reduce the ionic Pd and stabilize the obtained Pd NPs. Ethanol is adsorbed on the surface of Pd allowing steric stabilization. Freshly prepared Pd NPs were immobilized onto quartz substrates modified with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane. Pd interacts with the thiol group of the alkoxysilane that is adsorbed on the surface of NPs without the dissociation of the S-H bond. Different parameters affecting the synthesis of Pd NPs and their immobilization onto quartz substrates were evaluated. A comprehensive characterization of the synthesized Pd NPs was carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), whereas total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry was applied in order to evaluate their catalytic activity for solid-gas reactions. Immobilized Pd NPs were applied as nanocatalysts for the dissociative chemisorption of arsine at room temperature, yielding the formation of As-Pd bonds. Quartz substrates coated with nanosized Pd could be used as novel sensing platforms for total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis. Arsenic can be detected in situ in natural water with a limit of detection of 0.08 μg L(-1).

  6. Study on Copolymerization of Rare Earth-Carboxylic Acid Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Guanmin(邱关明); Zhang Ming(张明); Yan Chang hao(严长浩); Zhou Lanxiang(周兰香); Dai Shaojun(戴少俊); Okamo to Hiroshi


    Complex of rare earth with carboxylic acid was prepared by precipita tion and direct method. It was copolymerized with such monomers as acrylic acid and other ones to synthesize ionomer of rare earth and organic polymer with different rare earth contents. Its glass-transition temperature and heat stability were analyzed by TG and DTA. Infra-red detector was used to show its structure. The effect of rare earth complex prepared by different methods on copolymerization and properties of copolymers was also discussed.

  7. Copolymerization of Styrene with Dodecyl Methacrylate and Octadecyl Methacrylate


    Vidović, Elvira; SARIĆ, Karla; JANOVIĆ, Zvonimir


    Styrene (Sty) was copolymerized with dodecyl methacrylate (DDMA) and with octadecyl methacrylate (ODMA) in toluene solution using 2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) as a free radical initiator over a wide composition and conversion range. The copolymer composi-tion was determined from NMR spectra. The copolymerization reactivity ratios were found to be r1 = 0.52 (Sty) and r2 = 0.42 (DDMA) for the Sty-DDMA system, and r1 = 0.58 (Sty) and r2 = 0.45 (ODMA) for the Sty-ODMA system, showing a te...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Jianyie; Sun Yishi


    In this work, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to study the copolymerization kinetics of N-vinyl pyrrolidone-methyl methacrylate (VPMMA) at high conversion. Through computer simulation,copolymerization rate equation based on the free volume theory, diffusion theory and modified MH model was established. The activation energy of copolymerization was also estimated.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHangFuyao; ZhangYifeng; 等


    Acrylonitrile(AN) and maleic anhydride(MA) copolymer has been synthesized by radical polymerization using ammonium persulfate and sodium bisulfite as initiator.The pervaporation properties of the copolymeric membranes prepared have been investigated for the first time. The dependences of pervaporation characteristics on coplymer composition,feed concentration and operating temperature have been studied.In order to improve the separation properties of the copolymeric membranes,the membranes were hydrolyzed with 10 wt% soldium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide aqueous solution.The hydrolyzed membranes containing more than 0.069MA mol fraction showed higher tensile strength and separation properties than the original membranes.

  10. Stabilization of emulsions using polymeric surfactants based on inulin. (United States)

    Tadros, Th F; Vandamme, A; Levecke, B; Booten, K; Stevens, C V


    The use of polymeric surfactants for stabilization of emulsions is described. A brief account of general classification and description of polymeric surfactants is given. This is followed by a description of the adsorption and conformation of polymeric surfactants at interfaces. The theoretical approaches for studying polymer adsorption are briefly described. This is followed by a section on the experimental techniques that can be applied to study adsorption and conformation of polymers at the interface. Examples are given to illustrate the experimental techniques. A section is devoted to the interaction between droplets containing adsorbed polymer layers (steric stabilization). The last section gives results on oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions stabilised with a novel graft copolymeric surfactant based on inulin that has been modified by introducing alkyl groups. Two oils were used, namely Isopar M (isoparaffinic oil) and cyclomethicone. Emulsions prepared using the inulin-based surfactant have large droplets, but this could be significantly reduced by addition of a cosurfactant in the oil phase, namely Span 20. The stability of the emulsions was investigated in water, in 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2 mol dm(-3) NaCl and in 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2 mol dm(-3) MgSO(4). These emulsions were stable for more than 1 year up to 50 degrees C in NaCl concentrations up to 2 mol dm(-3) and 1 mol dm(-3) MgSO(4). This high stability in high electrolyte concentrations could be attributed to the nature of the hydrophilic (stabilizing) polyfructose chain. This was confirmed using cloud point measurements, which showed high hydration of the polyfructose chain in such high electrolyte concentrations. This ensured the long-term physical stability resulting from the strong steric repulsion between the polyfructose chains.

  11. Emulsions inside Gargamelle

    CERN Multimedia


    A feasibility test was made with a 2.5 litre emulsion stack installed within the chamber. The stack was contained in a thermally insulated aluminium alloy pressure vessel (photo). See Annual Report 1978 p. 79 Fig. 5.

  12. Magnetoresistive emulsion analyzer. (United States)

    Lin, Gungun; Baraban, Larysa; Han, Luyang; Karnaushenko, Daniil; Makarov, Denys; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Schmidt, Oliver G


    We realize a magnetoresistive emulsion analyzer capable of detection, multiparametric analysis and sorting of ferrofluid-containing nanoliter-droplets. The operation of the device in a cytometric mode provides high throughput and quantitative information about the dimensions and magnetic content of the emulsion. Our method offers important complementarity to conventional optical approaches involving ferrofluids, and paves the way to the development of novel compact tools for diagnostics and nanomedicine including drug design and screening.

  13. Fundamental Study of Emulsions Stabilized by Soft and Rigid Particles. (United States)

    Li, Zifu; Harbottle, David; Pensini, Erica; Ngai, To; Richtering, Walter; Xu, Zhenghe


    Two distinct uniform hybrid particles, with similar hydrodynamic diameters and comparable zeta potentials, were prepared by copolymerizing N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) and styrene. These particles differed in their styrene to NIPAM (S/N) mass ratios of 1 and 8 and are referred to as S/N 1 and S/N 8, respectively. Particle S/N 1 exhibited a typical behavior of soft particles; that is, the particles shrank in bulk aqueous solutions when the temperature was increased. As a result, S/N 1 particles were interfacially active. In contrast, particle S/N 8 appeared to be rigid in response to temperature changes. In this case, the particles showed a negligible interfacial activity. Interfacial shear rheology tests revealed the increased rigidity of the particle-stabilized film formed at the heptane-water interface by S/N 1 than S/N 8 particles. As a result, S/N 1 particles were shown to be better emulsion stabilizers and emulsify a larger amount of heptane, as compared with S/N 8 particles. The current investigation confirmed a better performance of emulsion stabilization by soft particles (S/N 1) than by rigid particles (S/N 8), reinforcing the importance of controlling softness or deformability of particles for the purpose of stabilizing emulsions.

  14. Facile preparation of an immobilized surfactant-free palladium nanocatalyst for metal hydride trapping: a novel sensing platform for TXRF analysis (United States)

    Romero, V.; Costas-Mora, I.; Lavilla, I.; Bendicho, C.


    In this work, a simple route for the synthesis of surfactant-free immobilized palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) and their use as effective nanocatalysts for metal hydride decomposition is described. A mixture of ethanol : water was used as the reducing agent. Ethanol was added in a large excess to reduce the ionic Pd and stabilize the obtained Pd NPs. Ethanol is adsorbed on the surface of Pd allowing steric stabilization. Freshly prepared Pd NPs were immobilized onto quartz substrates modified with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane. Pd interacts with the thiol group of the alkoxysilane that is adsorbed on the surface of NPs without the dissociation of the S-H bond. Different parameters affecting the synthesis of Pd NPs and their immobilization onto quartz substrates were evaluated. A comprehensive characterization of the synthesized Pd NPs was carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), whereas total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry was applied in order to evaluate their catalytic activity for solid-gas reactions. Immobilized Pd NPs were applied as nanocatalysts for the dissociative chemisorption of arsine at room temperature, yielding the formation of As-Pd bonds. Quartz substrates coated with nanosized Pd could be used as novel sensing platforms for total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis. Arsenic can be detected in situ in natural water with a limit of detection of 0.08 μg L-1.In this work, a simple route for the synthesis of surfactant-free immobilized palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) and their use as effective nanocatalysts for metal hydride decomposition is described. A mixture of ethanol : water was used as the reducing agent. Ethanol was added in a large excess to reduce the ionic Pd and stabilize the obtained Pd NPs. Ethanol is adsorbed on the surface of Pd allowing steric stabilization. Freshly prepared Pd NPs were immobilized onto quartz substrates modified with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane. Pd interacts with the thiol

  15. From nanoplates to microtubes and microrods: a surfactant-free rolling mechanism for facile fabrication and morphology evolution of Ag2S films. (United States)

    Li, Da-Peng; Zheng, Zhi; Lei, Yan; Yang, Feng-Ling; Ge, Su-Xiang; Zhang, Yi-Dong; Huang, Bao-Jun; Gao, Yuan-Hao; Wong, Ka-Wai; Lau, Woon-Ming


    By a simple and facile wet-chemistry technique without any surfactant, various shapes of Ag(2)S crystals--including leaflike pentagonal nanoplates, crinkly nanoscrolls, hexagonal prismlike microtubes, and microrods--were fabricated in situ on a large-area silver-foil surface separately. Detailed experiments revealed that the Ag(2)S nanoplates were formed just by immersing the silver foil in a sulfur/ethanol solution at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, and they subsequently rolled into nanoscrolls and further grew into microtubes and microrods under solvothermal conditions. Inspired by the natural curling of a piece of foliage, we proposed a surfactant-free rolling mechanism to interpret the observed morphological evolution from lamellar to tubular structures. Based on these simple, practical, and green chemical synthetic routes, we can easily synthesize lamellar, scrolled, tubular, and clubbed Ag(2)S crystals by simply adjusting the reaction temperature, pressure, and time. It is very interesting to note that the current rolling process is quite different from the previous reported rolling mechanism that highly depends on the surfactants; we revealed that the lamellar Ag(2)S could be rolled into tubular structures without using any surfactant or other chemical additives, just like the natural rolling process of a piece of foliage. Therefore, this morphology-controlled synthetic route of Ag(2)S crystals may provide new insight into the synthesis of metal sulfide semiconducting micro-/nanocrystals with desired morphologies for further industrial applications. The optical properties of the pentagonal Ag(2)S nanoplates/film were also investigated by UV/Vis and photoluminescence (PL) techniques, which showed large blue-shift of the corresponding UV/Vis and PL spectra.

  16. Development and properties of surfactant-free water-dispersible Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals: a material for low-cost photovoltaics. (United States)

    Kush, Priya; Ujjain, Sanjeev Kumar; Mehra, Navin Chand; Jha, Pika; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Deka, Sasanka


    A simple, yet novel hydrothermal method has been developed to synthesize surfactant-free Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystal ink in water. The environmentally friendly, 2-4 nm ultrafine particles are stable in water for several weeks. Detailed X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of single-crystalline-kesterite-phase Cu2ZnSnS4. Elemental mapping by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry corroborated the presence of all four elements in a stoichiometric ratio with minor sulfur deficiency. Finally, Raman spectroscopy ruled out the possible presence of impurities of ZnS, Cu2SnS3, SnS, SnS2, Cu(2-x)S, or Sn2S3, which often interfere with the XRD and optical spectra of Cu2ZnSnS4. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of the as-synthesized samples confirmed that the oxidation states of the four elements match those of the bulk sample. Optical absorption analyses of thin film and solution samples showed high absorption efficiency (>10(4) cm(-1)) across the visible and near-infrared spectral regions and a band gap E(g) of 1.75 eV for the as-synthesized sample. A non-ohmic asymmetric rectifying response was observed in the I-V measurement at room temperature. The nonlinearity was more pronounced for this p-type semiconductor when the resistance was measured against temperature in the range 180-400 K, which was detected in the hot-point probe measurement.

  17. Surfactant-free synthesis, luminescent properties, and drug-release properties of LaF3 and LaCO3F hollow microspheres. (United States)

    Lv, Ruichan; Gai, Shili; Dai, Yunlu; He, Fei; Niu, Na; Yang, Piaoping


    Uniform LaF3 and LaCO3F hollow microspheres were successfully synthesized through a surfactant-free route by employing La(OH)CO3 colloidal microspheres as a sacrificial template and NaBF4 as the fluorine source. The synthetic process consists of two steps: the preparation of a La(OH)CO3 precursor via a facile urea-based precipitation and the following formation of lanthanide fluoride hollow microspheres under aqueous conditions at low temperature (50 °C) and short reaction time (3 h), without using any surfactant and catalyst. The formation of hollow spheres with controlled size can be assigned to the Kirkendall effect. It is found that the phase and structure of the products can be simply tuned by changing the pH values of the solution. Time-dependent experiments were employed to study the possible formation process. N2 adsorption/desorption results indicate the mesoporous nature of LaF3 hollow spheres. Yb(3+)/Er(3+) (Ho(3+)) and Yb(3+)/Tm(3+)-doped LaF3 hollow spheres exhibit characteristic up-conversion (UC) emissions of Er(3+) (Ho(3+)) and Tm(3+) under 980 nm laser-diode excitation, and Ce(3+)/Tb(3+)-doped LaF3 and LaCO3F emit bright yellow-green and near-white light under UV irradiation, respectively. In particular, LaF3:Yb/Er and LaCO3F:Ce/Tb hollow microspheres exhibit obvious sustained and pH-dependent doxorubicin release properties. The luminescent properties of the carriers allow them to be tracked or monitored during the release or therapy process, suggesting their high potential in the biomedical field.

  18. Emulsions for interfacial filtration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillet, Anne Mary; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Souza, Caroline Ann; Welk, Margaret Ellen; Hartenberger, Joel David; Brooks, Carlton, F.


    We have investigated a novel emulsion interfacial filter that is applicable for a wide range of materials, from nano-particles to cells and bacteria. This technology uses the interface between the two immiscible phases as the active surface area for adsorption of targeted materials. We showed that emulsion interfaces can effectively collect and trap materials from aqueous solution. We tested two aqueous systems, a bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution and coal bed methane produced water (CBMPW). Using a pendant drop technique to monitor the interfacial tension, we demonstrated that materials in both samples were adsorbed to the liquid-liquid interface, and did not readily desorb. A prototype system was built to test the emulsion interfacial filter concept. For the BSA system, a protein assay showed a progressive decrease in the residual BSA concentration as the sample was processed. Based on the initial prototype operation, we propose an improved system design.

  19. Development of High Sensitivity Nuclear Emulsion and Fine Grained Emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahara, H.; Asada, T. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Naka, T. [Institute of Advanced Research, Nagoya University (Japan); Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)


    Nuclear emulsion is a particle detector having high spacial resolution and angular resolution. It became useful for large statistics experiment thanks to the development of automatic scanning system. In 2010, a facility for emulsion production was introduced and R and D of nuclear emulsion began at Nagoya university. In this paper, we present results of development of the high sensitivity emulsion and fine grained emulsion for dark matter search experiment. Improvement of sensitivity is achieved by raising density of silver halide crystals and doping well-adjusted amount of chemicals. Production of fine grained emulsion was difficult because of unexpected crystal condensation. By mixing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to gelatin as a binder, we succeeded in making a stable fine grained emulsion.

  20. Polar-Nonpolar Radical Copolymerization under Li+ Catalysis (United States)


    description of our copolymerization results. The polyisobutylene (b- PIB ) that is produced by homopolymerization of IB in an inert solvent such as 1,2...the linear polyisobutylene (l- PIB ) produced under the usual cationic initiation. The difference is clear in spectral (NMR) and physical (DSC, TGA...HPLC) properties. A detailed 2D-NMR examination of b- PIB obtained from ordinary IB and several isotopically labeled versions of IB revealed that its

  1. Dynamic optimization of a mma with vac copolymerization


    Lima, Nádson Murilo Nascimento; Liñan, Lamia Zuñiga; Maciel Filho,Rubens; Manenti, Flavio; Manca, Davide; Embiruçu, Marcelo


    p. 1377-1382. Increasing worldwide market competitiveness and reduced profit margins are pressing chemical and process industries to move towards a predictive control approach, based on first-principles mathematical models, as well as plant dynamic optimization. In this perspective, the paper focuses on the development of a nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) to manage the copolymerization process of methyl methacrylate (MMA) with vinyl acetate (VAc), consisting of a j...

  2. Blood compatibility of polyurethane surface grafted copolymerization with sulfobetaine monomer. (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Rongbing, Bian; Ling, Tong; Jian, Shen; Sicong, Lin


    Surface modification is an effective way to improve the hemocompatibility and remain bulk properties of biomaterials. Recently, polymer tailed with zwitterions was found having good blood compatibility. In this study, the grafting copolymerization of sulfobetaine onto polyurethane surface was obtained through two steps. In the first step, polyurethane film coupled with vinyl groups was obtained through the reaction between the carboxyl group of acrylic acid (AA) and the NH-urethane group of polyurethane by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC). In the second step, sulfobetaine was grafted copolymerization on the surface using AIBN as an initiator. The reaction process was monitored with ATR-IR spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra. The wettability of films was investigated by water contact angle measurement. The blood compatibility of the grafted films was evaluated by platelet adhesion in platelet rich plasma (PRP) and protein absorption in bovine fibrinogen (BFG). Low platelet adhesion was observed on the grafted films incubated in PRP for 1 and 3 h, respectively. The protein absorption was reduced on the grafted films after incubated in bovine fibrinogen for 2 h. All of these results revealed that the improved blood compatibility was obtained by grafting copolymerization with zwitterionic monomer of sulfobetaine onto polyurethane film. In addition, introducing vinyl groups onto surface through DCC and AA is a novel method to functionalize polyurethane for further modification.

  3. Applied radiation physics: The use of x-rays for the structural characterization of aqueous emulsions and the development of new insect sterilization protocols (United States)

    Brar, Ramaninder K.

    X-rays have great potential of applications in a wide variety of fields. This dissertation presents the use of x-rays for the structural characterization of aqueous emulsions and for insect sterilization. The stabilization of hydrophobic colloids, such as oil droplets, in water has attracted scientist for a variety of scientific, pharmaceutical and industrial applications. Several studies have been done to understand the stability of oil-in-water emulsions. The work of Pashley and his coworkers has demonstrated that the removal of dissolved gasses from water enhances the dispersion of hydrophobic oil in water and these surfactant-free emulsions do not lose their stability when the previously removed gasses are reintroduced. However, very little is known about the structure and stability of these emulsions over time or even to what extent they form. The formation of a stable emulsion in the complete absence of a surfactant could provide an alternative approach to a physiologically safe drug carrier. In this dissertation we demonstrate the formation of stabilized surfactant-free degassed emulsions of hydrocarbons - hexane, heptane and octane and silicone oil in ultra-pure water. The enhancement of dispersion of oil droplets by degassing was large for highly hydrophobic silicone oil. Turbidity measurements and small angle x-ray scattering results show that the uniformly dispersed oil droplets weakly aggregate over a period of several hours. Gentle perturbation re-generates the dispersion to nearly initial conditions. The control of insect species for the protection of crops, livestock, and prevention of disease, such as dengue fever and malaria, is a high priority in today's global economy. Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), a method of insect extermination without the use of pesticides, has proven very effective in eradicating certain dipteran insect populations. However, when standard sterilization methods developed for dipterans are applied to mosquito populations

  4. Pickering emulsion templated interfacial atom transfer radical polymerization for microencapsulation. (United States)

    Li, Jian; Hitchcock, Adam P; Stöver, Harald D H


    This Article describes a new microencapsulation method based on a Pickering emulsion templated interfacial atom transfer radical polymerization (PETI-ATRP). Cationic LUDOX CL nanoparticles were coated electrostatically with an anionic polymeric ATRP initiator, poly(sodium styrene sulfonate-co-2-(2-bromoisobutyryloxy)ethyl methacrylate) (PSB), prepared by radical copolymerization of sodium styrene sulfonate and 2-(2-bromoisobutyryloxy)ethyl methacrylate (BIEM). The resulting PSB-modified CL particles were surface active and could be used to stabilize oil-in-water Pickering emulsions. ATRP of water-soluble cross-linking monomers, confined to the oil-water interface by the surface-bound PSB, then led to nanoparticle/polymer composite shells. This method allowed encapsulation of core solvents (xylene, hexadecane, perfluoroheptane) with different solubility parameters. The microcapsule (MC) wall chemistry could accommodate different monomers, demonstrating the versatility of this method. Double-walled MCs were formed by sequentially carrying out PETI-ATRP and in situ polymerization of encapsulated monomers. The double-walled structure was verified by both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM).

  5. Study on Alternating Copolymerization of Polyester-amides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Wen-liang; LI Jian-mei; ZHU Fang-liang


    The preparing methods, choice of catalysts and reaction kinetics of one of the monomers, diesteramide(DEA), of polyester-amides were investigated in details. The chemical structure of DEA was analyzed. And the Polyester-amides (PEA) were obtained by melt copolymerization with DEA. It is shown that DEA can be synthesized by DMT and hexamethylene diamine with the catalyst EX - 1 or EX - 2. The relationship between reaction rate of synthesizing monomer and concentration of hexamethylene diamine is first order kinetic relation.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shicai; YE Mu; LU Lizhen; CHEN Jie


    The graft copolymerization of acrylamide onto polypropylene (PP) film was carried out by using a capacitively coupled rf plasma apparatus with external plate electrodes. The relationship between the surface structure of the Ar plasma-treated PP films and the extent of grafting of acrylamide on the films was studied through observing the effects of discharge power and exposure time on the relative content of free-radical on the film surface. Meanwhile, the wettability and surface energy of the PP film were measured.

  7. Rheology of unstable mineral emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Dunja S.


    Full Text Available In this paper, the rheology of mineral oils and their unstable water emulsion were investigated. The oil samples were domestic crude oil UA, its fractions UA1, UA4 and blend semi-product UP1, while the concentration of oil in water emulsions was in the range from 1 up to 30%. The results were analyzed based on shear stress. The oil samples UA, UA1 and UP1 are Newtonian fluids, while UA4 is pseudoplastic fluid. The samples UA and UA4 show higher value of shear stress (83.75 Pa, 297 Pa, then other two samples UA1 and UP1 (18.41 Pa, 17.52 Pa. Rheology of investigated oils due to its complex chemical composition should be analyzed as a simultaneous effect of all their components. Therefore, structural composition of the oils was determined, namely content of paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics and asphaltenes. All samples contain paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics but only oils UA and UA4 contain asphaltenes as well. All investigated emulsions except 30% EUA4 are Newtonian fluids. The EUA4 30% emulsion shows pseudoplastic behaviour, and it is the only 30% emulsion among investigated ones that achieves lower shear stress then its oil. The characteristics of oil samples that could have an influence on their properties and their emulsion rheology, were determined. These characteristics are: neutralization number, interfacial tension, dielectric constant, and emulsivity. Oil samples UA and UA4 have significantly higher values of neutralization number, dielectric constants, and emulsivity. The sample UA has the lowest value of interface tension and the greatest emulsivity, indicating that this oil, among all investigated, has the highest preference for building emulsion. This could be the reason why 20% and 30% emulsions of the oil UA achieve the highest shear stress among all investigated emulsions.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chuanfu; LI Xuefen; LI Zhifen


    In this paper the Ce(Ⅳ) salt initiated graft copolymerization of acrylamide onto the film of polyester-polyether block copolymer irradiated by UV-ray was reported. The UV-irradiation of the film and its graft process have been investigated by UV spectrum, ESR and ESCA and the influence of other factors on the graft copolymerization has been discussed.

  9. Programmed emulsions for sodium reduction in emulsion based foods. (United States)

    Chiu, Natalie; Hewson, Louise; Fisk, Ian; Wolf, Bettina


    In this research a microstructure approach to reduce sodium levels in emulsion based foods is presented. If successful, this strategy will enable reduction of sodium without affecting consumer satisfaction with regard to salty taste. The microstructure approach comprised of entrapment of sodium in the internal aqueous phase of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions. These were designed to destabilise during oral processing when in contact with the salivary enzyme amylase in combination with the mechanical manipulation of the emulsion between the tongue and palate. Oral destabilisation was achieved through breakdown of the emulsion that was stabilised with a commercially modified octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-starch. Microstructure breakdown and salt release was evaluated utilising in vitro, in vivo and sensory methods. For control emulsions, stabilised with orally inert proteins, no loss of structure and no release of sodium from the internal aqueous phase was found. The OSA-starch microstructure breakdown took the initial form of oil droplet coalescence. It is hypothesised that during this coalescence process sodium from the internalised aqueous phase is partially released and is therefore available for perception. Indeed, programmed emulsions showed an enhancement in saltiness perception; a 23.7% reduction in sodium could be achieved without compromise in salty taste (p sodium reduction in liquid and semi-liquid emulsion based foods.

  10. Electrochemical synthesis of ultrafast and gram-scale surfactant-free tellurium nanowires by gas-solid transformation and their applications as supercapacitor electrodes for p-doping of graphene transistors. (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Wei; Yaghoubi, Alireza; Chan, Tsung-Cheng; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Liu, Wei-Ting; Liao, Chien-Neng; Lu, Shih-Yuan; Chen, Lih-Juann; Chueh, Yu-Lun


    We herein report a gas-solid transformation mechanism for the surfactant-free synthesis of Te NWs at room temperature by electrolysis of bulk Bi2Te3 using H2Te gas. Te NWs, with an average diameter below 20 nm, grow along the [001] direction due to the unique spiral chains in the crystal structure and show an enhanced Raman scattering effect, a broad absorption band over the range of 350-750 nm and an emission band over the range of 400-700 nm in the photoluminescence spectrum. In terms of device applications, we demonstrate how Te NWs can be directly applied as a p-type dopant source in order to shift the Dirac point in ambipolar field effect graphene transistors. Finally, the favorable capacitive properties of Te NWs are established as supercapacitor electrodes with negligible internal resistance and excellent electrochemical reversibility and a specific capacitance of 24 F g(-1).

  11. Hyperbranched PEG by random copolymerization of ethylene oxide and glycidol. (United States)

    Wilms, Daniel; Schömer, Martina; Wurm, Frederik; Hermanns, M Iris; Kirkpatrick, C James; Frey, Holger


    The synthesis of hyperbranched poly(ethylene glycol) (hbPEG) in one step was realized by random copolymerization of ethylene oxide and glycidol, leading to a biocompatible, amorphous material with multiple hydroxyl functionalities. A series of copolymers with moderate polydispersity ($\\overline {M} _{{\\rm w}} /\\overline {M} _{{\\rm n}} $ < 1.8) was obtained with varying glycidol content (3-40 mol-%) and molecular weights up to 49 800 g mol(-1) . The randomly branched structure of the copolymers was confirmed by (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy and thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry). MTS assay demonstrated low cell toxicity of the hyperbranched PEG, comparable to the highly established linear PEG.

  12. Radiation initiated copolymerization of allyl alcohol with acrylonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solpan, Dilek; Guven, Olgun [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry


    Copolymerization of allyl alcohol (AA) with acrylonitrile (AN) initiated by {gamma}-rays has been investigated to determine the respective reactivity ratios. Three different experimental techniques, namely Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultraviolet (UV/vis) and elemental analysis (EA) have been used for the determination of copolymer compositions. Fineman-Ross (FR), Kelen-Tudos (KT), Non-Linear Least Square (NLLS) Analysis and Q-e methods have been applied to the three sets of experimental data. It has been concluded that data obtained from elemental analysis as applied to the Non-Linear Least Square approach gave the most reliable reactivity ratios as 2.09 and 0.40 for acrylonitrile and allyl alcohol, respectively. (Author).

  13. Radiation initiated copolymerization of allyl alcohol with acrylonitrile (United States)

    Şolpan, Dilek; Güven, Olgun


    Copolymerization of allyl alcohol (AA) with acrylonitrile (AN) initiated by γ-rays has been investigated to determine the respective reactivity ratios. Three different experimental techniques, namely Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultraviolet (UV/vis) and elemental analysis (EA) have been used for the determination of copolymer compositions. Fineman-Ross (FR), Kelen-Tüdös (KT), Non-Linear Least Square (NLLS) Analysis and Q-e methods have been applied to the three sets of experimental data. It has been concluded that data obtained from elemental analysis as applied to the Non-Linear Least Square approach gave the most reliable reactivity ratios as 2.09 and 0.40 for acrylonitrile and allyl alcohol, respectively.

  14. Invertase immobilization onto radiation-induced graft copolymerized polyethylene pellets (United States)

    de Queiroz, Alvaro Antonio Alencar; Vitolo, Michele; de Oliveira, Rômulo Cesar; Higa, Olga Zazuco


    The graft copolymer poly(ethylene-g-acrylic acid) (LDPE-g-AA) was prepared by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of acrylic acid onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) pellets, and characterized by infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of the grafted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was established. Invertase was immobilized onto the graft polymer and the thermodynamic parameters of the soluble and immobilized enzyme were determined. The Michaelis constant, Km, and the maximum reaction velocity, Vmax, were determined for the free and the immobilized invertase. The Michaelis constant, Km was larger for the immobilized invertase than for the free enzyme, whereas Vmax was smaller for the immobilized invertase. The thermal stability of the immobilized invertase was higher than that of the free enzyme.

  15. Kinetic theory and thermodynamics of template-directed copolymerization (United States)

    Gaspard, Pierre


    Template-directed copolymerization is the fundamental process for the replication, transcription, and translation of genetic information. The copy of the template sequence is grown by the attachment of monomers with a molecular machine. The long-time kinetics of such processes is exactly solvable in terms of iterated function systems. This method determines the effects of sequence heterogeneity and replication errors on the growth of the copy and the statistical properties of its sequence. In particular, a transition can occur between linear and sublinear growth in time of the copy. In the linear regime, the local growth velocity along the template may have a fractal distribution. Furthermore, the growth can be driven around equilibrium by the entropic effect of replication errors in an adverse free-energy landscape.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yanhui; QIU Kunyuan; FENG Xinde VOONG Sing-tuh


    Polyethers could form hydroperoxide under air-oxidation or photo-oxidation in the presence of H2O2. The scission of ether linkage induced by moderate oxidation was prevented by controlling the reaction time and hydroperoxide concentration. The oxidation rate was affected by the end groups of polyethers. The decreasing order of oxidation rate for various poly(tetramethylene ether) glycol derivatives having different end groups are as follows: poly(tetramethylene ether) glycol (PTMG)> poly(tetramethylene ether)acetate (PTMGAC) > poly(tetramethylene ether) phenyl carbamate (PTMGPC). The urethane end groups in PTMGPC increase the resistance toward oxidation. Polyether hydroperoxide reacts with ferrous ion or N,N-dimethyl toluidine (DMT) to form polymericoxy radical which then initiates the graft copolymerization of vinyl monomers at low temperature,and was devoid of homopolymerization. The copolymer after separation and purification was proved to be a graft one by IR analysis and elemental analysis.

  17. Kinetics and thermodynamics of first-order Markov chain copolymerization (United States)

    Gaspard, P.; Andrieux, D.


    We report a theoretical study of stochastic processes modeling the growth of first-order Markov copolymers, as well as the reversed reaction of depolymerization. These processes are ruled by kinetic equations describing both the attachment and detachment of monomers. Exact solutions are obtained for these kinetic equations in the steady regimes of multicomponent copolymerization and depolymerization. Thermodynamic equilibrium is identified as the state at which the growth velocity is vanishing on average and where detailed balance is satisfied. Away from equilibrium, the analytical expression of the thermodynamic entropy production is deduced in terms of the Shannon disorder per monomer in the copolymer sequence. The Mayo-Lewis equation is recovered in the fully irreversible growth regime. The theory also applies to Bernoullian chains in the case where the attachment and detachment rates only depend on the reacting monomer.

  18. Algorithm and application of Monte Carlo simulation for multi-dispersive copolymerization system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌君; 沈之荃; 陈万里


    A Monte Carlo algorithm has been established for multi-dispersive copolymerization system, based on the experimental data of copolymer molecular weight and dispersion via GPC measurement. The program simulates the insertion of every monomer unit and records the structure and microscopical sequence of every chain in various lengths. It has been applied successfully for the ring-opening copolymerization of 2,2-dimethyltrimethylene carbonate (DTC) with (-caprolactone (ε-CL). The simulation coincides with the experimental results and provides microscopical data of triad fractions, lengths of homopolymer segments, etc., which are difficult to obtain by experiments. The algorithm presents also a uniform frame for copolymerization studies under other complicated mechanisms.

  19. RAFT Copolymerization of Glycidyl Methacrylate and N,N-Dimethylaminoethyl Methacrylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹俊; 张丽芬; 潘向强; 程振平; 朱秀林


    In this work, copolymerization of two functional monomers, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), was firstly carried out via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization successfully. The copolymerization kinetics was investigated under the molar ratio of n[GMA+DMAEMA]o/n[AIBN]o/n[CPDN]o=300/1/3 at 60℃. The copolymerization showed typical "living" features such as first-order polymerization kinetics, linear increase of molecular weight with monomer conversion and narrow molecular weight distribution. The reactivity ratios of GMA and DMAEMA were calculated by the extended Kelen-Tudos linearization methods. The epoxy group of the copolymer PGMA-co-PDMAEMA remained intact under the conditions of RAFT copolymerization and could easily be post-modified by ethylenedia- mine. Moreover, the modified copolymer could be used as a gene carrier.

  20. Emulsion stability: determination from turbidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, S.R.; Fogler, H.S.


    The relationship between particle size and concentration and turbidity has been developed for a polydispersed system. The stability of acoustically prepared emulsions of C36H74 in water were determined from turbidimetry and found to be in agreement with the stability determined by the freezing method. The turbidimetry method can be used for determining the stability of various emulsions easily and inexpensively. 11 references.

  1. P-chiral phosphine-sulfonate/palladium-catalyzed asymmetric copolymerization of vinyl acetate with carbon monoxide. (United States)

    Nakamura, Akifumi; Kageyama, Takeharu; Goto, Hiroki; Carrow, Brad P; Ito, Shingo; Nozaki, Kyoko


    Utilization of palladium catalysts bearing a P-chiral phosphine-sulfonate ligand enabled asymmetric copolymerization of vinyl acetate with carbon monoxide. The obtained γ-polyketones have head-to-tail and isotactic polymer structures. The origin of the regio- and stereoregularities was elucidated by stoichiometric reactions of acylpalladium complexes with vinyl acetate. The present report for the first time demonstrates successful asymmetric coordination-insertion (co)polymerization of vinyl acetate.

  2. Put the breaks on wastewater emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alther, G. [Biomin, Inc., Ferndale, MI (United States)


    Emulsions in wastewater pose a vexing problem for facilities attempting to recycle water and stay in compliance with permissible discharge limits. But the challenges are no less formidable for routine maintenance. The removal of emulsions, a major constituent of which are fats, oils and greases (FOGs), is necessary to prevent them from depositing on pipes and fouling filtration media. Some of the havoc caused by emulsions can be avoided if emulsions are broken and removed from wastewater streams. Successful emulsion breaking requires a basic understanding of emulsions, their chemical composition, and the technologies required to remove them from water. The paper discusses emulsion basics and emulsion breaking, including counteracting emulsions, testing procedures, physical separation methods, removal strategies, bentonite-based powders, and post-polishing.

  3. Effects of stereochemistry and copolymerization on the LCST of PNIPAm (United States)

    de Oliveira, Tiago E.; Mukherji, Debashish; Kremer, Kurt; Netz, Paulo A.


    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) is a smart polymer that presents a lower critical transition temperature (LCST) of 305 K. Interestingly, this transition point falls within the range of the human body temperature, making PNIPAm a highly suitable candidate for bio-medical applications. However, it is sometimes desirable to have a rather flexible tuning of the LCST of these polymers to further increase their range of applications. In this work, we use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study the LCST of PNIPAm-based (co-)polymers. We study different molecular architectures where the polymer sequences are tuned either by modifying its stereochemistry or by the co-polymerization of PNIPAm with acrylamide (Am) units. Our analysis connects global polymer conformations with the microscopic intermolecular interactions. These findings suggest that the collapse of a PNIPAm chain upon heating is dependent on the hydration structure around the monomers, which is strongly dependent on the tacticity and the presence of more hydrophilic acrylamide monomers. Our results are found to be in good agreement with the existing experimental data.

  4. Temperature-responsive copolymeric hydrogel systems synthetized by ionizing radiation (United States)

    López-Barriguete, Jesús Eduardo; Bucio, Emilio


    Eight different systems of hydrogel copolymers with diverse temperature responsiveness were prepared to elaborate membranes for their biomedical application. The hydrogels were synthesized using poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL), which have a low critical solution temperature (LCST) close to that of the human body temperature. The networks were synthesized using gamma radiation at a dose rate of 11.2 kGy h-1, and dose of 50 kGy. The LCST of each system was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The effect of using hydrophilic monomers of acrylic acid (AAc), methacrylic acid (MAAc), dimethyl acrylamide (DMAAm), and hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) for the copolymerization on the critical point was evaluated. Five viable systems were obtained, with the best hydrogel being that of poly(NIPAAm-co-DMAAm), which an LCST at 39.8 °C. All the samples were characterized by FTIR-ATR, DSC, TGA, X-Ray Diffraction, and SEM. The proportion of monomers during the formation of the copolymers was decisive in the displacement of the LCST.

  5. Microfluidic Production of Multiple Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran T. Vladisavljević


    Full Text Available Microfluidic devices are promising tools for the production of monodispersed tuneable complex emulsions. This review highlights the advantages of microfluidics for the fabrication of emulsions and presents an overview of the microfluidic emulsification methods including two-step and single-step methods for the fabrication of high-order multiple emulsions (double, triple, quadruple and quintuple and emulsions with multiple and/or multi-distinct inner cores. The microfluidic methods for the formation of multiple emulsion drops with ultra-thin middle phase, multi-compartment jets, and Janus and ternary drops composed of two or three distinct surface regions are also presented. Different configurations of microfluidic drop makers are covered, such as co-flow, T-junctions and flow focusing (both planar and three-dimensional (3D. Furthermore, surface modifications of microfluidic channels and different modes of droplet generation are summarized. Non-confined microfluidic geometries used for buoyancy-driven drop generation and membrane integrated microfluidics are also discussed. The review includes parallelization and drop splitting strategies for scaling up microfluidic emulsification. The productivity of a single drop maker is typically <1 mL/h; thus, more than 1000 drop makers are needed to achieve commercially relevant droplet throughputs of >1 L/h, which requires combining drop makers into twodimensional (2D and 3D assemblies fed from a single set of inlet ports through a network of distribution and collection channels.

  6. Synthesis of soft shell poly(styrene) colloids for filtration experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinge, Mogens

    Separating a solid from a liquid is an important unit operation in many different industries e.g. mining, chemical, pharmaceutical and food industries. Solid liquid separation can roughly be divided into three groups. 1) Separation by gravity forces e.g. sedimentation, centrifugation, 2) Separation...... of the core-shell colloids on the filtration dewatering behavior. The third and final series has been chosen to investigate the effect from a non-ionic water swollen material. The model colloids from series one and two were synthesized by a free-radicale surfactant-free emulsion co-polymerization process...... of acrylic acid monomer added to the synthesis. Further it was shown that it is possible to increase the PS core diameter by increasing the ionic strength of the synthesis solution. The model colloids from series three were synthesized by a two step free-radical surfactant-free emulsion polymerization (SFEP...

  7. Anisotropic nanoparticles with controllable morphologies from non-cross-linked seeded emulsion polymerization. (United States)

    Niu, Qun; Pan, Mingwang; Yuan, Jinfeng; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Xiaomei; Yu, Haifeng


    A simple and elegant approach to fabricate anisotropic P(VC-co-AAEM)/PS nanoparticles with controllable morphologies via emulsifier-free seeded emulsion polymerization is presented. Non-cross-linked P(VC-co-AAEM) seeds with hydrophilic surface are first synthesized through copolymerization of vinyl chloride (VC) and acetoacetoxyethyl methacrylate (AAEM), which are used to prepare P(VC-co-AAEM)/PS NPs with multiple bulges by SEP of styrene. Electron microscopy observation indicates that the content of AAEM in seeds is crucial to control the phase separation and morphology of the composite NPs. Moreover, the thermodynamic immiscibility between PVC and PS is the driving force for the formation of PS bulges onto the P(VC-co-AAEM) seeds. The resultant anisotropic NPs with non-cross-linked feature may promisingly serve as compatibilizers for further polymer processing. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Some peculiarities of bitumen emulsion modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Batyrbayev


    Full Text Available Polymer modification of bitumen emulsions obtained from bitumen of domestic production with the use of several commercial emulsifiers was studied. The influence of the polymer modifier concentration on bitumen emulsion physical-mechanical properties was considered. Possibility of obtaining of modified bitumen emulsion with high impact resistance was shown.

  9. Emulsion properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Vereijken, J.M.; Merck, K.B.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.


    Emulsions were made with sunflower protein isolate (SI), helianthinin, and sunflower albumins (SFAs). Emulsion formation and stabilization were studied as a function of pH and ionic strength and after heat treatment of the proteins. The emulsions were characterized with respect to average droplet si

  10. Boiling heat transfer in dilute emulsions

    CERN Document Server

    Roesle, Matthew Lind


    Boiling Heat Transfer in Dilute Emulsions synthesizes recent advances and established understanding on the subject of boiling in dilute emulsions. Experimental results from various sources are collected and analyzed, including contemporary experiments that correlate visualization with heat transfer data. Published models of boiling heat transfer in dilute emulsions, and their implementation, are described and assessed against experimental data.

  11. Microfluidic methods to study emulsion formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijlwijk, Kelly


    Emulsions are dispersions of one liquid in another that are commonly used in various products, and methods such as high-pressure homogenisers and colloid mills are used to form emulsions. The size and size distribution of emulsion droplets are important for the final product properties and thus need

  12. Bio-Functional, Lanthanide-Labeled Polymer Particles by Seeded Emulsion Polymerization and their Characterization by Novel ICP-MS Detection. (United States)

    Thickett, Stuart C; Abdelrahman, Ahmed I; Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry; Baranov, Vladimir; Winnik, Mitchell A


    We present the synthesis and characterization of monodisperse, sub-micron poly(styrene) (PS) particles loaded with up to and including 10(7) lanthanide (Ln) ions per particle. These particles have been synthesized by seeded emulsion polymerization with a mixture of monomer and a pre-formed Ln complex, and analyzed on a particle-by-particle basis by a unique inductively coupled plasma mass cytometer. Seed particles were prepared by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization (SFEP) to obtain large particle sizes in aqueous media. Extensive surface acid functionality was introduced using the acid-functional initiator ACVA, either during seed latex synthesis or in the second stage of polymerization. The loading of particles with three different Ln ions (Eu, Tb, and Ho) has proven to be close to 100 % efficient on an individual and combined basis. Covalent attachment of metal-tagged peptides and proteins such as Neutravidin to the particle surface was shown to be successful and the number of bound species can be readily determined. We believe these particles can serve as precursors for multiplexed, bead-based bio-assays utilizing mass cytometric detection.

  13. The effect of oil components on the physicochemical properties and drug delivery of emulsions: tocol emulsion versus lipid emulsion. (United States)

    Hung, Chi-Feng; Fang, Chia-Lang; Liao, Mei-Hui; Fang, Jia-You


    An emulsion system composed of vitamin E, coconut oil, soybean phosphatidylcholine, non-ionic surfactants, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives (referred to as the tocol emulsion) was characterized in terms of its physicochemical properties, drug release, in vivo efficacy, toxicity, and stability. Systems without vitamin E (referred to as the lipid emulsion) and without any oils (referred to as the aqueous micelle system) were prepared for comparison. A lipophilic antioxidant, resveratrol, was used as the model drug for emulsion loading. The incorporation of Brij 35 and PEG derivatives reduced the vesicle diameter to tocol emulsion>lipid emulsion. Treatment of resveratrol dramatically reduced the intimal hyperplasia of the injured vascular wall in rats. There was no significant difference in this reduction when resveratrol was delivered by either emulsion or the aqueous micelle system. The percentages of erythrocyte hemolysis by the emulsions and aqueous micelle system were approximately 0 and approximately 10%, respectively. Vitamin E prevented the aggregation of emulsion vesicles. The mean vesicle size of the tocol emulsion remained unchanged during 30 days at 37 degrees C. The lipid emulsion and aqueous micelle system, respectively, showed 11- and 16-fold increases in vesicle size after 30 days of storage.

  14. Double emulsions as fat replacers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppermann, Anika


    The use of double (w1/o/w2) emulsions, in which part of the oil is replaced by small water droplets, is a promising strategy to reduce oil content in food products. For successful applications, (1) significant levels of fat reduction (i.e. significant amounts of water inside the oil droplets) have

  15. Food enrichment with marine phospholipid emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    . The main objective of this study was to explore the possibilities of using marine PL for food enrichment. In order to achieve the objective, the study was divided into 4 stages: i) evaluation of physico-chemical properties of marine PL emulsions, ii) evaluation of hydrolytic and oxidative stability...... of marine PL emulsions, iii) evaluation of non-enzymatic browning reactions in marine PL emulsions, iv) evaluation of sensory properties and oxidative stability of yoghurt enriched with marine PL. The obtained results showed that marine PL have good emulsifying properties and it was feasible to prepare...... marine PL emulsions with and without addition of fish oil. The oxidative stability of marine PL emulsions was significantly influenced by the chemical composition of marine PL used for emulsions preparation. For instance, emulsions with good oxidative stability could be obtained when using raw materials...

  16. Algorithm and application of Monte Carlo simulation for multi-dispersive copolymerization system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌君; 沈之荃; 陈万里


    A Monte Carlo algorithm has been established for multi-dispersive copolymerization system, based on the experimental data of copolymer molecular weight and dispersion via GPC measurement. The program simulates the insertion of every monomer unit and records the structure and microscopical sequence of every chain in various lengths. It has been applied successfully for the ring-opening copolymerization of 2,2-dimethyltrimethylene carbonate (DTC) with δ-caprolactone (δ-CL). The simulation coincides with the experimental results and provides microscopical data of triad fractions, lengths of homopolymer segments, etc., which are difficult to obtain by experiments. The algorithm presents also a uniform frame for copolymerization studies under other complicated mechanisms.

  17. Statistical Ring Opening Metathesis Copolymerization of Norbornene and Cyclopentene by Grubbs’ 1st-Generation Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana Nikovia


    Full Text Available Statistical copolymers of norbornene (NBE with cyclopentene (CP were prepared by ring-opening metathesis polymerization, employing the 1st-generation Grubbs’ catalyst, in the presence or absence of triphenylphosphine, PPh3. The reactivity ratios were estimated using the Finemann-Ross, inverted Finemann-Ross, and Kelen-Tüdos graphical methods, along with the computer program COPOINT, which evaluates the parameters of binary copolymerizations from comonomer/copolymer composition data by integrating a given copolymerization equation in its differential form. Structural parameters of the copolymers were obtained by calculating the dyad sequence fractions and the mean sequence length, which were derived using the monomer reactivity ratios. The kinetics of thermal decomposition of the copolymers along with the respective homopolymers was studied by thermogravimetric analysis within the framework of the Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Kissinger methodologies. Finally, the effect of triphenylphosphine on the kinetics of copolymerization, the reactivity ratios, and the kinetics of thermal decomposition were examined.

  18. Eco-Friendly Superwetting Material for Highly Effective Separations of Oil/Water Mixtures and Oil-in-Water Emulsions (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Feng; Yang, Sheng-Yi; Kuo, Shiao-Wei


    Because the treatment of oily wastewater, generated from many industrial processes, has become an increasing environmental concern, the search continues for simple, inexpensive, eco-friendly, and readily scalable processes for fabricating novel materials capable of effective oil/water separation. In this study we prepared an eco-friendly superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-modified cotton that mediated extremely efficient separations of mixtures of oil/water and oil/corrosive solutions. This PVP-modified cotton exhibited excellent antifouling properties and could be used to separate oil/water mixtures continuously for up to 20 h. Moreover, the compressed PVP-modified cotton could separate both surfactant-free and -stabilized oil-in-water emulsions with fluxes of up to 23,500 L m−2 h−1 bar−1—a level one to two orders of magnitude higher than that possible when using traditional ultrafiltration membranes having similar rejection properties. The high performance of our PVP-modified cotton and its green, low-energy, cost-effective preparation suggest its great potential for practical applications. PMID:28216617

  19. Graft Copolymerization of Acrylic Acid onto Fungal Cell Wall Structural Polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Acrylic acid was graft-copolymerized onto Rhi. oryzae's cell wall structural polysacchaxide directly and efficiently in aqueous solution with ceric ammonium nitrate as initiator. The maximal grafting percentage of 135.5% was obtained under the condition of [Ce4+]=5mmol.L-1, [AA]=1mol.L-1, T=60°C and t=3h. Graft copolymerization was suggested to proceed through free radical reaction mechanism. Grafting occurred primarily on chitosan. Acrylic acid was also attempted to be grafted onto Asp. niger cell wall structural polysaccharide, and only 44.2% of grafting percentage was resulted.

  20. Mechanical properties of products of thermocatalytic and radiolytic styrene - acrylonitrile copolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadalla, A.M.; Derini, M.A.E.


    The mechanical properties of styrene (S)-acrylonitrile (AN) mixtures, ranging from 20 to 80 wt % S, polymerized by thermocatalytic and radiolytic techniques were studied. Maximum compressive and tensile strength was obtained for the mixture containing 60 wt % styrene. The hardness increased with styrene concentration up to 40 wt % and then remained nearly constant. Radiolytic copolymerization gave stronger copolymers than thermal copolymerization since irradiation enhances crosslinking. For the same composition, as the dose increases, the strength increases to a maximum and then decreases due to competing rates of crosslinking and degradation. 5 figures.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen-guo Wang; Kai Tang


    Poly(ethylene terephthalate)-polycaprolactone block copolymer (PCL-b-PET) is a polyester with improved biodegradability. In the present paper, a new direct copolymerization method of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) and bishydroxyethylene terephthalate (BHET) in the presence of Ti(OBu)4 was proposed for the synthesis of PCL-b-PET. The PCL-b-PET copolymer was characterized by IR, GPC and 1H-NMR techniques, and the effects of synthesis conditions, such as temperature, reaction time and concentration of catalyst on the copolymerization were discussed.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Kunyuan; SONG Ye


    Functional monomers having phenylcarbarnoyl and p-tolylcarbamoyl were synthesized. Binary initiation system consisted of Ce4+ andthese functional monomers could initiate acrylamide polymerization.It was found that acrylamide could graft copolymerize onto macromolecules having these functional monomers units. The formation of graft copolymer has been verified by its percentage of water absorption,contact angle with water, XPS and SEM photographs. The reaction mechanism was proposed and the main reactive site of graft copolymerization initiated by Ce4+ would take place predominantly at the functional pendant group.

  3. Kinetic Treatment for Copolymerization of Styrene or Methyl Methacrylate with N-phenylmaleimide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单国荣; 翁志学; 黄志明; 潘祖仁


    Shirota's kinetic model and our kinetic model were used to treat the kinetic data of styrene (St) and N-phenylmaleimide (PMI) copolymerization in which chaxge-transfer complex (CTC) was formed. The results obtained by Shirota's kinetic model were disagreed with the experiments and the experimental phenomena could not be explained. The kinetic data of all feed fractions can be treated with our kinetic model, and the experimental phenomena can be explained from the propagation constants and reactivity ratios. Our kinetic model is also suitable for the kinetic data of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and PMI copolymerization in which CTC can not be formed.

  4. A new approach in copolymerization: Monte Carlo method for the reactivity ratios calculation in copolymerization of furfuryl acrylate with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zaldívar


    Full Text Available Copolymers of furfuryl acrylate (A with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (H were prepared by free radical copolymerization in DMF solution at 50°C, using 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as initiator. The reactivity ratios of both monomers were calculated according to the general copolymerization equation using the Fineman-Röss and Kelen-Tüdos 1inearization methods, as well as the Tidwell-Mortimer non linear least-squares treatment and the Monte Carlo random method. The reactivity ratios obtained were rA = 0.93 and rH = 1.42. Similar results were obtained by both, the Monte Carlo and the non-linear least squares methods. The microstructure of copolymer chains based on the first order Markov statistics is described.

  5. Emulsion Polymerization of Tung Oil-Based Latexes with Asolectin as a Biorenewable Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Johns


    Full Text Available Bio-based vesicles, with potential application in drug delivery and/or catalyst encapsulation, have been prepared by the free radical emulsion co-polymerization of tung oil, divinylbenzene (DVB, n-butyl methacrylate (BMA, and asolectin in a xylene/water mixture. The free radical polymerization was initiated by di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP at 100 °C in a convection oven. Molecular weights of approximately 11,000 Da were measured by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight (Maldi-TOF for tung oil-asolectin copolymers, verifying that significant polymerization occurs under the cure conditions employed. The cure of the co-monomer mixture employed in this work was monitored by Dielectric Analysis (DEA, while changes in the Raman spectrum of all co-monomers before and after the cure, along with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis, have been used to verify the need of a post-cure step and completion of the polymerization reaction. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM images of the emulsion after polymerization indicate that vesicles were formed, and vesicle size distribution of samples prepared with different amounts of tung oil were determined using a Zetasizer.

  6. On the Viscosity of Emulsions

    CERN Document Server

    Kroy, K; Djabourov, M; Kroy, Klaus; Capron, Isabelle; Djabourov, Madeleine


    Combining direct computations with invariance arguments, Taylor's constitutive equation for an emulsion can be extrapolated to high shear rates. We show that the resulting expression is consistent with the rigorous limits of small drop deformation and that it bears a strong similarity to an a priori unrelated rheological quantity, namely the dynamic (frequency dependent) linear shear response. More precisely, within a large parameter region the nonlinear steady-state shear viscosity is obtained from the real part of the complex dynamic viscosity, while the first normal stress difference is obtained from its imaginary part. Our experiments with a droplet phase of a binary polymer solution (alginate/caseinate) can be interpreted by an emulsion analogy. They indicate that the predicted similarity rule generalizes to the case of moderately viscoelastic constituents that obey the Cox-Merz rule.

  7. High internal phase emulsions stabilized solely by whey protein isolate-low methoxyl pectin complexes: effect of pH and polymer concentration. (United States)

    Wijaya, Wahyu; Van der Meeren, Paul; Wijaya, Christofora Hanny; Patel, Ashok R


    In recent years, there has been significant progress in edible emulsion technology especially with respect to creating and stabilizing surfactant-free emulsion systems for food applications. In this paper, we demonstrate the fabrication of high internal phase emulsions (HIPE) (φoil = 0.82) stabilized using colloidal complexes of non-gelling biopolymers (at concentrations as low as 0.3 wt%). The colloidal complexes were pre-formed by combining whey protein isolate (WPI) and low-methoxyl pectin (LMP) at three different pH values (i.e. pH 3.5, 4.5, 5.5) and used further for fabricating stable HIPEs. In addition to the effect of pH, the influence of total biopolymer concentration on the formation and properties of HIPEs was also evaluated. Depending on the total concentration of biopolymers used, the WPI-LMP complexes (formed at pH 4.5) showed a Z-average diameter in the range of 250-350 nm. It was found that the formation of HIPEs was strongly influenced by the pH of the colloidal complexes. At a pH close to the isoelectric point of WPI (≈pH 4.8) and WPI-LMP complexes (≈pH 3.4), severe aggregation of colloidal particles occurred, resulting in poor formation and stability of HIPEs. On comparing the stabilization behaviour of the complexes with the uncomplexed protein, it was noticed that the former provided comparatively better stabilization to the HIPEs against coalescence at pH 4.5 and 5.5. Based on the rheological data (low amplitude oscillatory shear rheology and flow measurements), all HIPE samples showed viscoelastic and shear-thinning behaviour. We believe that such viscoelastic gel-like systems could find potential commercial applications in the development of label-friendly novel food products with interesting textures.

  8. Mechanism of alternating copolymerization of methyl methacrylate with styrene in the presence of diethylaluminum chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubov, V.P.; Lachinov, M.B.; Ignatova, E.V.; Georgiev, G.S.; Golubev, V.B.; Kabanov, V.A.


    A kinetic study of the propagation mechanism of the alternating copolymerization of styrene (St) with methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the presence of a complexing agent (diethylaluminum chloride, DEAC) in bulk and in tetrachloroethylene solutions at a molar ratio DEAC/MMA = 0.5 has been carried out. It has been shown that the copolymerization is a chain radical process characterized by a short active-center lifetime, bimolecular termination, and high rate of chain transfer to the complexed MMA. A kinetic scheme has been proposed for the propagation mechanism of alternating copolymerization in the presence of a complexing agent not requiring independent measurements of the equilibrium constant of complexation. It has been found that spontaneous and uv-initiated copolymerizations in the system have different mechanisms of initiation and a common mechanism of propagation. The propagation proceeds by addition of single monomers as well as donor-acceptor complexes of the comonomers to the propagation radicals, with the first mechanism being predominant. Inclusion of the monomers in the complex leads to an increase of the St reactivity and to a decrease of the MMA reactivity in propagation to the corresponding macroradicals in comparison with the reactivity of the free monomers. A number of kinetic and statistical parameters of the propagation reaction have been calculated.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yanhui; QIU Kunyuan; FENG Xinde


    A new method of graft copolymerization of acrylamide (AAM) on poly(ether-urethane) (PEU)which was prepared from poly(tetramethylene ether) glycol (PTMG), 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and ethylene diamine or butanediol extender was investigated. Hydroperoxide group was first introduced onto the surface of PEU through photo-oxidation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, then it was reacted with ferrous ion or N,N-dimethyl toluidine (DMT) to initiate AAM graft copolymerization on PEU surface. The graft reaction could be carried out effectively at low temperature. The formation of graft copolymer has been verified by its water absorption % and the scanning electron microscopy photographs. Some model compounds of PEU soft segment and hard segment were synthesized in order to clarify the site of graft reaction. The results of oxidation and graft copolymerization of model compounds showed that this graft copolymerization possesses higher selectivity, and it takes place predominately at the polyether segments, because the ether linkage in soft segment is very sensitive to oxidation and can form hydroperoxide easily. Thus,the grafting site appears to be at a-carbon of the ether linkage.

  10. Self-breaking retarded acid emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherubel, G.A.


    A subterranean formation is acidized with an acid-in-oil emulsion consisting of an aqueous acidizing solution, an oil, an alkyl C/sub 8/ to C/sub 18/ primary fatty amine, and at least one diethanolamide of at least one C/sub 8/ to C/sub 18/ fatty acid. The present invention is an improved acid-in-oil acidizing emulsion, and acidizing method such as an emulsion, the emulsion being of the type containing an effective amount of at least one C/sub 8/ to C/sub 18/ primary amine as a cationic surfactant to increase the normal reaction. The diethanolamine is a nonionic surfactant which causes the emulsion to break as the acidizing capacity of the emulsion becomes substantially depleted, i.e., spent, on the formation. 41 claims.

  11. Pickering emulsions for skin decontamination. (United States)

    Salerno, Alicia; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Rolland, Pauline; Chevalier, Yves; Josse, Denis; Briançon, Stéphanie


    This study aimed at developing innovative systems for skin decontamination. Pickering emulsions, i.e. solid-stabilized emulsions, containing silica (S-PE) or Fuller's earth (FE-PE) were formulated. Their efficiency for skin decontamination was evaluated, in vitro, 45min after an exposure to VX, one of the most highly toxic chemical warfare agents. Pickering emulsions were compared to FE (FE-W) and silica (S-W) aqueous suspensions. PE containing an oil with a similar hydrophobicity to VX should promote its extraction. All the formulations reduced significantly the amount of VX quantified on and into the skin compared to the control. Wiping the skin surface with a pad already allowed removing more than half of VX. FE-W was the less efficient (85% of VX removed). The other formulations (FE-PE, S-PE and S-W) resulted in more than 90% of the quantity of VX removed. The charge of particles was the most influential factor. The low pH of formulations containing silica favored electrostatic interactions of VX with particles explaining the better elimination from the skin surface. Formulations containing FE had basic pH, and weak interactions with VX did not improve the skin decontamination. However, these low interactions between VX and FE promote the transfer of VX into the oil droplets in the FE-PE.

  12. Impact of acoustic cavitation on food emulsions. (United States)

    Krasulya, Olga; Bogush, Vladimir; Trishina, Victoria; Potoroko, Irina; Khmelev, Sergey; Sivashanmugam, Palani; Anandan, Sambandam


    The work explores the experimental and theoretical aspects of emulsification capability of ultrasound to deliver stable emulsions of sunflower oil in water and meat sausages. In order to determine optimal parameters for direct ultrasonic emulsification of food emulsions, a model was developed based on the stability of emulsion droplets in acoustic cavitation field. The study is further extended to investigate the ultrasound induced changes to the inherent properties of raw materials under the experimental conditions of sono-emulsification.

  13. An overview of Preparation, Evaluation and Applications of Multiple Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Prajapati


    Full Text Available Multiple emulsions are also known as emulsions of emulsions, liquid membrane system or double emulsion. Multiple emulsions are polydispersed systems where both oil in water & water in oil emulsions exist simultaneously. This review focuses on preparation, characterization and potential applications of multiple emulsions. Multiple emulsions can be classified as water-in oil-in water (W/O/W or oil-in-water-in-oil (O/W/O emulsions. This review described five methods to prepare multiple emulsions viz. two-step emulsification method, modified two-step emulsification method, phase inversion method, membrane emulsification & micro channel emulsification method. The Multiple emulsion is characterized by average globule size & size distribution, area of interfaces, number of globules, rheological evaluation, zeta potential, percentage drug entrapment, In-vitro drug release. Multiple emulsions have been proposed to have numerous uses including their use as prolonged drug delivery system.

  14. How emulsions composition and structure affect sensory perception of low-viscosity model emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Wijk, de R.A.; Zoet, F.D.; Nixdorf, R.R.; Aken, van G.A.


    The oral residence time of low-viscosity emulsions, like milk, is relatively short. Despite this short residence time, people can easily perceive differences between these emulsions. Our research is dedicated to unravel the oral behaviour of emulsions in relation to sensory perception. The aim of

  15. How emulsions composition and structure affect sensory perception of low-viscosity model emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Wijk, de R.A.; Zoet, F.D.; Nixdorf, R.R.; Aken, van G.A.


    The oral residence time of low-viscosity emulsions, like milk, is relatively short. Despite this short residence time, people can easily perceive differences between these emulsions. Our research is dedicated to unravel the oral behaviour of emulsions in relation to sensory perception. The aim of th

  16. Electronically Stabilized Copoly(Styrene-Acrylic Acid Submicrocapsules Prepared by Miniemulsion Copolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkwan Kim


    Full Text Available This work reports the preparation and characterization of poly(styrene-acrylic acid (St/AA submicrocapsules by using the miniemulsion copolymerization method. AA was introduced to miniemulsion polymerization of St to increase the zeta potential and the resulting electrostatic stability of St/AA submicrocapsules. Phytoncide oil was adopted as the core model material. Miniemulsion copolymerization of St and AA was conducted at a fixed monomer concentration (0.172 mol with a varying monomer feed ratio [AA]/[St] (0.2, 0.25, 0.33, 0.5, and 1.0. Concentrations of initiator (azobisisobutyronitrile; 1.0 × 10−3, 2.0 × 10−3, 3.0 × 10−3, and 4.0 × 10−3 mol/mol of monomer and surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; 0.6 × 10−3, 1.0 × 10−3, and 1.4 × 10−3 mol were also controlled to optimize the miniemulsion copolymerization of St and AA. Dynamic light scattering and microscopic analyses confirmed the optimum condition of miniemulsion copolymerization of St and AA. Long-term colloidal stability of aqueous St/AA submicrocapsule suspension was evaluated by using TurbiscanTM Lab. In this work, the optimum condition for miniemulsion copolymerization of St and AA was determined ([AA]/[St] = 0.33; [SDS] = 1.0 × 10−3 mol; [AIBN] = 2.0 × 10−3 mol/mol of monomer. St/AA submicrocapsules prepared at the optimum condition (392.6 nm and −55.2 mV of mean particle size and zeta potential, respectively showed almost no variations in backscattering intensity (stable colloids without aggregation.

  17. Enhancing both the mechanical and chemical properties of paper sheet by graft co-polymerization with acrylonitrile/methyl methacrylate


    H.M. Abd El Salam; Sayyh, S.M.; Kamal, E.H.M.


    The chemical graft copolymerization reaction of acrylonitrile (AN) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) binary mixture onto paper sheet was performed. The effect of initiator concentration, monomer concentration and temperature on the reaction rate was studied. The reaction rate equation of the graft copolymerization reaction is found to be RP = K2 [Initiator]0.795[Monomer]2.007. The apparent activation energy (Ea) of the copolymerization reaction is found to be 75.01 kJ/mol. The infrared characteri...

  18. Preparation of CO₂/N₂-triggered reversibly coagulatable and redispersible polyacrylate latexes by emulsion polymerization using a polymeric surfactant. (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Yu, Guoqiang; Wang, Wen-Jun; Li, Bo-Geng; Zhu, Shiping


    We report here a novel approach for making reversibly coagulatable and redispersible polyacrylate latexes by emulsion (co)polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) using a polymeric surfactant, poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)(10) -block-poly(methyl methacrylate)(14) . The surfactant was protonated with HCl prior to use. The resulted PMMA latexes were readily coagulated with trace amount of caustic soda. The coagulated latex particles, after washing with deionized water, could be redispersed into fresh water to form stable latexes again by CO(2) bubbling with ultrasonication. The recovered latexes could then be coagulated by N(2) bubbling with gentle heating. These coagulation and redispersion processes were repeatable by the CO(2) /N(2) bubbling.

  19. Kinetics of crosslinking in emulsion polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghielmi, A.; Fiorentino, S.; Morbidelli, M. [Universitaetstrasse Zuerich (Switzerland)] [and others


    A mathematical model for evaluating the chain length distribution of nonlinear polymers produced in emulsions is presented. The heterogeneous emulsion polymerization process is described. The aim of the analysis is the distribution of active polymer chains and pairs of chains with a given growth time in latex particles in state.

  20. Metallic nanoshells on porphyrin-stabilized emulsions (United States)

    Wang, Haorong; Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A; Medforth, Craig J


    Metal nanostructures formed by photocatalytic interfacial synthesis using a porphyrin-stabilized emulsion template and the method for making the nanostructures. Catalyst-seeded emulsion droplets are employed as templates for hollow-nanoshell growth. The hollow metal nanospheres may be formed with or without inclusions of other materials.

  1. Suppression of Ostwald ripening in active emulsions (United States)

    Zwicker, David; Hyman, Anthony A.; Jülicher, Frank


    Emulsions consisting of droplets immersed in a fluid are typically unstable since they coarsen over time. One important coarsening process is Ostwald ripening, which is driven by the surface tension of the droplets. Stability of emulsions is relevant not only in complex fluids but also in biological cells, which contain liquidlike compartments, e.g., germ granules, Cajal bodies, and centrosomes. Such cellular systems are driven away from equilibrium, e.g., by chemical reactions, and thus can be called active emulsions. In this paper, we study such active emulsions by developing a coarse-grained description of the droplet dynamics, which we analyze for two different chemical reaction schemes. We first consider the simple case of first-order reactions, which leads to stable, monodisperse emulsions in which Ostwald ripening is suppressed within a range of chemical reaction rates. We then consider autocatalytic droplets, which catalyze the production of their own droplet material. Spontaneous nucleation of autocatalytic droplets is strongly suppressed and their emulsions are typically unstable. We show that autocatalytic droplets can be nucleated reliably and their emulsions stabilized by the help of chemically active cores, which catalyze the production of droplet material. In summary, different reaction schemes and catalytic cores can be used to stabilize emulsions and to control their properties.

  2. Altering Emulsion Stability with Heterogeneous Surface Wettability (United States)

    Meng, Qiang; Zhang, Yali; Li, Jiang; Lammertink, Rob G. H.; Chen, Haosheng; Tsai, Peichun Amy


    Emulsions–liquid droplets dispersed in another immiscible liquid–are widely used in a broad spectrum of applications, including food, personal care, agrochemical, and pharmaceutical products. Emulsions are also commonly present in natural crude oil, hampering the production and quality of petroleum fuels. The stability of emulsions plays a crucial role in their applications, but controlling the stability without external driving forces has been proven to be difficult. Here we show how heterogeneous surface wettability can alter the stability and dynamics of oil-in-water emulsions, generated by a co-flow microfluidic device. We designed a useful methodology that can modify a micro-capillary of desired heterogeneous wettability (e.g., alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions) without changing the hydraulic diameter. We subsequently investigated the effects of flow rates and heterogeneous wettability on the emulsion morphology and motion. The experimental data revealed a universal critical timescale of advective emulsions, above which the microfluidic emulsions remain stable and intact, whereas below they become adhesive or inverse. A simple theoretical model based on a force balance can be used to explain this critical transition of emulsion dynamics, depending on the droplet size and the Capillary number–the ratio of viscous to surface effects. These results give insight into how to control the stability and dynamics of emulsions in microfluidics with flow velocity and different wettability.

  3. Self-breaking retarded acid emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherubel, G.A.


    An acid-in-oil acidizing emulsion, and acidizing method use an emulsion of the type containing an effective amount of at least one C8 to C18 primary amine as a cationic surfactant to increase the normal reaction time of the acid with an acid soluble formation. The composition and method aspects are both affected by the inclusion in the emulsion of an effective amount of a nonionic surfactant. Specifically, the emulsion resides in a composition for acidizing a subterranean formation, the composition being of the acidizing solution-in-oil emulsion type containing an effective amount of an alkyl C8 to C18 primary amine to reduce the normal reaction rate of the emulsion, and an effective amount of at least one diethanolamide of at least one C8 to C18 fatty acid so that the emulsion substantially completely breaks when the acidizing capacity of the emulsion becomes substantially spent as a result of reaction with such a formation. 19 claims.

  4. Polymerization in emulsion microdroplet reactors (United States)

    Carroll, Nick J.

    The goal of this research project is to utilize emulsion droplets as chemical reactors for execution of complex polymerization chemistries to develop unique and functional particle materials. Emulsions are dispersions of immiscible fluids where one fluid usually exists in the form of drops. Not surprisingly, if a liquid-to-solid chemical reaction proceeds to completion within these drops, the resultant solid particles will possess the shape and relative size distribution of the drops. The two immiscible liquid phases required for emulsion polymerization provide unique and complex chemical and physical environments suitable for the engineering of novel materials. The development of novel non-ionic fluorosurfactants allows fluorocarbon oils to be used as the continuous phase in a water-free emulsion. Such emulsions enable the encapsulation of almost any hydrocarbon compound in droplets that may be used as separate compartments for water-sensitive syntheses. Here, we exemplify the promise of this approach by suspension polymerization of polyurethanes (PU), in which the liquid precursor is emulsified into droplets that are then converted 1:1 into polymer particles. The stability of the droplets against coalescence upon removal of the continuous phase by evaporation confirms the formation of solid PU particles. These results prove that the water-free environment of fluorocarbon based emulsions enables high conversion. We produce monodisperse, cross-linked, and fluorescently labeled PU-latexes with controllable mesh size through microfluidic emulsification in a simple one-step process. A novel method for the fabrication of monodisperse mesoporous silica particles is presented. It is based on the formation of well-defined equally sized emulsion droplets using a microfluidic approach. The droplets contain the silica precursor/surfactant solution and are suspended in hexadecane as the continuous oil phase. The solvent is then expelled from the droplets, leading to

  5. Superheated emulsions: neutronics and thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d`Errico, F. [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Costruzioni Meccaniche e Nucleari]|[Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). School of Medicine; Curzio, G. [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Costruzioni Meccaniche e Nucleari; Nath, R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). School of Medicine; Apfel, R.E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Dietz, E.; Guldbakke, S.; Siebert, B.R.L. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Egger, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Gualdrini, G.F. [ENEA, Bologna (Italy)


    The results of some recent theoretical and experimental investigations on the physics of superheated emulsions are presented. Computational fluid thermodynamics allowed for a detailed description of the temporal and spatial history of the energy deposition process by a charged particle in a superheated liquid. Despite the assumptions it is based upon, this model gives information in agreement with experimental data on bubble nucleation. The experimental findings concern the role of interfacial reactions between drops and emulsifier, the existence of inhibition temperatures for the detector`s response, and the progressive sensitisation to protons. (author).

  6. Aging mechanism in model Pickering emulsion (United States)

    Fouilloux, Sarah; Malloggi, Florent; Daillant, Jean; Thill, Antoine

    We study the stability of a model Pickering emulsion system. A special counter-flow microfluidics set-up was used to prepare monodisperse Pickering emulsions, with oil droplets in water. The wettability of the monodisperse silica nanoparticles (NPs) could be tuned by surface grafting and the surface coverage of the droplets was controlled using the microfluidics setup. A surface coverage as low as 23$\\%$ is enough to stabilize the emulsions and we evidence a new regime of Pickering emulsion stability where the surface coverage of emulsion droplets of constant size increases in time, in coexistence with a large amount of dispersed phase. Our results demonstrate that the previously observed limited coalescence regime where surface coverage tends to control the average size of the final droplets must be put in a broader perspective.

  7. Food enrichment with marine phospholipid emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    Many studies have shown that marine phospholipids (PL) provide more advantages than fish oil. They seem to have better bioavailability, better resistance towards oxidation and higher content of eicosapentaenoic acids and docosahexaenoic acids than fish oil, which essentially contains triglycerides...... marine PL emulsions with and without addition of fish oil. The oxidative stability of marine PL emulsions was significantly influenced by the chemical composition of marine PL used for emulsions preparation. For instance, emulsions with good oxidative stability could be obtained when using raw materials...... with high purity, low fish oil content and high PL, cholesterol and α-tocopherol content. In addition, non-enzymatic browning reactions may also affect the oxidative stability of the marine PL emulsion. These reactions included Strecker degradation and pyrrolization, and their occurrence were due...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroko Sato; Hiroshi Tsuji; Hitoshi Sasaki; Shinichi Ikemura; Yasuhito Gotoh; Junzo Ishikawa; Sei-ichi Nishimoto


    The copolymerization of styrene (St) and acrylonitrile (AN) complexed with CuCl2 monomer by a free radical mechanism was performed using benzoyl peroxide as an initiator at 65℃ under N2 atmosphere for 150 min. The rate of polymerization (Rp) was found to increase linearly with the concentration (in mol/L) of CuCl2, AN and St through scaling relations. The activation energy of the copolymerization process in the presence and absence of CuCl2 was found to be 46.5 kJ/mol and 102 kJ/mol, respectively. The viscosity average molecular weight of the copolymer and the kp2/kt ratio were determired to further assess the accelerating effect of CuCl2 on the copolymerization process. The copolymerization process in the presence of CuCl2 has a radical complex mechanism.

  9. “Living”/controlled radical copolymerization of N-phenylmaleimide and styrene using Fréchet-type dendritic initiators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Youliang(赵优良); JIANG; Jing(姜静); LIU; Hongwei(刘宏伟); CHEN; Chuanfu(陈传福); XI; Fu(习复)


    Polyarylether dendrons as macroinitiators for the "living"/controlled free radical copolymerization of N-phenylmaleimide (PhMI) and styrene (St) have been demonstrated. The copolymerization was carried out in bulk or anisole with CuBr/bipy catalyst at 100-130℃. It is found that the resulting copolymers possess predetermined molecular weights and narrower polydispersities (1.18 < Mw / Mn < 1.32). The effects of reaction temperature and monomer feed on the copolymerization kinetics were investigated in detail. By using the Fineman-Ross method, the apparent monomer reactivity ratios for the atom transfer radical copolymerization of PhMI and St were determined to be rPhMI = 0.0207, and rSt = 0.0484, respectively.

  10. Sequential elution of multiply and singly phosphorylated peptides with polar-copolymerized mixed-mode RP18/SCX material. (United States)

    Li, Xiuling; Guo, Zhimou; Sheng, Qianying; Xue, Xingya; Liang, Xinmiao


    Novel polar-copolymerized mixed-mode RP18/SCX material was developed for feasible phosphopeptide enrichment, in which multiply and singly phosphorylated peptides could be sequentially eluted and separated with high selectivity.

  11. Monomer reactivity ratios for fluoroacrylate and butyl methacrylate in miniemulsion copolymerizations initiated by potassium persulphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Hua Zhang; Zhen Huan Luo; Xiao Li Zhan; Feng Qiu Chen


    Miniemulsion copolymerization of butyl mathacrylate(BMA)with fluoroacrylate(HFMA,TFMA)was carded out at 70℃ by employing potassium persulphate(KPS)as initiator.Copolymer compositions at low conversion levels were determined by 1H NMR spectra techniques.The reactivity ratios were evaluated by employing Kellen-Tudos(K-T)methods,which yields the apparent reactivity ratios,rBMA=0.74,rHFMA=0.87 and rBMA=0.73,rTFMA=0.75,respectively,and Q-and e-values of HFMA and TFMA were calculated by the Alfrey-Price method.The results show that HFMA and TFMA are more active than BMA,and the cross-propagation rate constant is greater than the self-propagation one in these two copolymerizations.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The copolymerization of dibenzofuran(DBF)and 3-methylthiophene(MET)was successfully achieved electrochemically by direct anodic oxidation of the monomer mixtures in boron trifluoride dietbyl etherate.The effects of applied polymerization potential and the monomer concentration ratios on the copolymerization were investigated by linear sweep voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry(CV).The structure of copolymer films were investigated by UV-Vis,infrared spectroscopy,thermal analysis.As-formed novel copolymers own both the advantages of poly(3-methylthiophene)and poly(dibenzofuran),that is,good redox activity,good thermal stability.Fluorescence spectra suggested that emission spectrum of copolymer films was blue-shifted in contrast to that of PDBF film.

  13. EPR investigation on radiation-induced graft copolymerization of styrene onto polyethylene: Energy transfer effects (United States)

    Salih, M. A.; Buttafava, A.; Ravasio, U.; Mariani, M.; Faucitano, A.


    In this paper, energy transfer phenomena concerning the in-source graft copolymerization of styrene onto LDPE were investigated through the EPR analysis of the radical intermediates. The model solution experiments have shown a substantial deviation of the experimental G (radicals) values with respect to the additivity law, which reflect the negative effect of the styrene monomer concentration on the initiation rate of the graft copolymerization. The EPR measurements performed on polyethylene- co-styrene graft copolymers of various composition following low-temperature vacuum gamma irradiation have confirmed the decrease of the total radical yields with increasing the styrene concentration. The effect was partly attributed to the heterogeneity of the graft copolymer matrix and to the lack of molecular mobility in the solid state at low temperature, which prevents the attainment of the favourable geometrical configurations in intermolecular energy and charge transfer events.

  14. Aluminum pigment encapsulated by in situ copolymerization of styrene and maleic acid (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Ye, Hongqi; Tang, Xinde


    To improve its anticorrosion property, aluminum pigment was encapsulated by in situ copolymerization of styrene (St) and maleic acid (MA). It was found that the conversion of monomers (C), the percentage of grafting (PG) and the grafting efficiency (GE) could attain 92%, 12%, 25%, respectively, when m(BPO)/ m(St + MA) = 10% and m(St + MA)/ m(Al) = 10%. The optimum condition for protection factor was studied according to an orthogonal testing. When m(St + MA)/ m(Al) was 20%, the encapsulated aluminum pigment simultaneously showed good anticorrosion property and luster. FTIR, SEM and particle size analysis indicated that aluminum pigment had been successfully encapsulated with styrene-maleic acid copolymer by in situ copolymerization, which remarkably improved its anticorrosion property and the chelate complex formed between SMA and Al(III) was possibly the actual corrosion inhibitor.

  15. Zirconium oxocluster/polymer hybrid nanoparticles prepared by photoactivated miniemulsion copolymerization (United States)

    Benedetti, Cesare; Flouda, Paraskevi; Antonello, Alice; Rosenauer, Christine; Pérez-Pla, Francisco F.; Landfester, Katharina; Gross, Silvia; Muñoz-Espí, Rafael


    The photoactivated free radical miniemulsion copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and the zirconium oxocluster Zr4O2(methacrylate)12 is used as an effective and fast preparation method for polymer/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles. The oxoclusters, covalently anchored to the polymer network, act as metal-organic cross-linkers, thus improving the thermomechanical properties of the resulting hybrid nanoparticles. Benzoin carbonyl organic compounds were used as photoinitiators. The obtained materials are compared in terms of cross-linking, effectiveness of cluster incorporation, and size distribution with the analogous nanoparticles produced by using conventional thermally induced free radical miniemulsion copolymerization. The kinetics of the polymerization process in the absence and in the presence of the oxocluster is also investigated.

  16. In-situ copolymerization of aniline with alkyl amine by APS:Kinetics and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Rashid; Shams Qamar Usmani; Suhail Sabir


    The kinetic study of in-situ copolymerization of aniline with o-and p-methylaniline by ammonium persulfate (APS) has been carried out.UV-vis spectroscopic method was used to investigate the course of copolymerization.Structural characterization was studied by FT-IR spectral analysis.The electronic spectra of the copolymers poly(aniline-co-p-toluidine) and poly(aniline-co-o-tolnidine) show blue shift.The shift has been observed in the bands corresponding to π→π* transition as well as in the exciton transition.The increase in absorbance recorded during the reaction for different concentration of aniline,o-and p-toluidine at various intervals of time of polymerization reaction indicates a growth in the polymer formation.The resulting first-order rateconstant was used to calculate the rate of copolymer formation using the rate equation-d[A]/dt=kcn.

  17. Fabrication of microarray of gel-immobilized compounds on a chip by copolymerization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliskov, A. V.; Timofeev, E. N.; Surzhikov, S. A.; Drobyshev, A. L.; Shick, V. V.; Mirzabekov, A. D.; Biochip Technology Center; Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology; Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology


    The manufacturing of microchips containing oligonucleotides and proteins immobilized within gel pads, ranging in size from 10 x 10 to 100 x 100 {mu}m, is described. The microchips are produced by photo- or persulfate-induced copolymerization of unsaturated derivatives of biomolecules with acrylamide-bisacrylamide mixture. Oligonucleotides containing 5'-allyl or 5'-butenediol units were synthesized using standard phosphoramidite chemistry. Acryloyl residues were attached to a protein by a twostep procedure. Photopolymerization was induced by illumination of the monomer solution containing initiator with UV light through the mask. The mask was applied directly over the monomer solution or projected through a microscope. Alternatively, copolymerization was carried out in drops of aqueous solution of monomers containing ammonium persulfate. Drops with different allyl-oligonucleotides were distributed on a glass slide, and the polymerization was induced by diffusion of N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) from a hexane solution that covered the aqueous drops.

  18. Selective Release of anti–TB Drugs Complex from Smart Copolymeric Bioactive nano–carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Arredondo–Peñaranda


    Full Text Available Smart nano–copolymeric matrices have been employed to load and release anti tuberculosis (anti – TB drugs combinated complexes of Ethambutol (EMB, Isoniazid (INH, Rifampicin (RMP and Pyrazinamide (PZA. Copolymeric nanocarriers were synthesized using a microemulsion polymerization method previously reported. These nanocarriers can show selective swelling–collapse response under changes in local environments such a temperature, pH, solvent composition and electrical stimuli. The employ of these kinds of systems permits a controlled and selective delivery and release on specific human tissues. High Performance Liquid Chromatography technique was used to allow the detection of combinated mixtures of different active principles of anti–TB drugs using an acetonitrile mobile phase at 0.5 mL/min of flow rate whit a Spherisorb ODS2, C18 column. The results obtained suggest that the employ of smart nanohydrogels is a novel method in several tuberculosis therapies.

  19. Preparation of polystyrene/silica nanocomposites by radical copolymerization of styrene with silica macromonomer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A two-stage process has been developed to generate the silica-based macromonomer through surface-modification of silica with polymerizable vinyl groups. The silica surfaces were treated with excess 2,4-toluene diisocynate (TDI), after which the residual isocyanate groups were converted into polymerizable vinyl groups by reaction with hydroxypropylacrylate (HPA). Thus, polystyrene/silica nanocomposites were prepared by conventional radical copolymerization of styrene with silica macromonomer. The main effecting factors, such as ratios of styrene to the macromonomer, together with polymerization time on the copolymerization were studied in detail. FTIR, DSC and TGA were utilized to characterize the nanocomposites. Experimental results revealed that the silica nanoparticles act as cross-linking points in the polystytene/silica nanocomposites, and the glass transition temperatures of the nanocomposites are higher than that of the corresponding pure polystyrene. The glass transition temperatures of nanocomposites increased with the increasing of silica contents, which were further ascertained by DSC.

  20. Arresting relaxation in Pickering Emulsions (United States)

    Atherton, Tim; Burke, Chris


    Pickering emulsions consist of droplets of one fluid dispersed in a host fluid and stabilized by colloidal particles absorbed at the fluid-fluid interface. Everyday materials such as crude oil and food products like salad dressing are examples of these materials. Particles can stabilize non spherical droplet shapes in these emulsions through the following sequence: first, an isolated droplet is deformed, e.g. by an electric field, increasing the surface area above the equilibrium value; additional particles are then adsorbed to the interface reducing the surface tension. The droplet is then allowed to relax toward a sphere. If more particles were adsorbed than can be accommodated by the surface area of the spherical ground state, relaxation of the droplet is arrested at some non-spherical shape. Because the energetic cost of removing adsorbed colloids exceeds the interfacial driving force, these configurations can remain stable over long timescales. In this presentation, we present a computational study of the ordering present in anisotropic droplets produced through the mechanism of arrested relaxation and discuss the interplay between the geometry of the droplet, the dynamical process that produced it, and the structure of the defects observed.

  1. Copolymerization of Carbon–carbon Double-bond Monomer (Styrene with Cyclic Monomer (Tetrahydrofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Fouad


    Full Text Available We reported in this work that the cationic copolymerization in one step takes place between carbon–carbon double-bond monomer styrene with cyclic monomer tetrahydrofuran. The comonomers studied belong to different families: vinylic and cyclic ether. The reaction is initiated with maghnite-H+ an acid exchanged montmorillonite as acid solid ecocatalyst. Maghnite-H+ is already used as catalyst for polymerization of many vinylic and heterocyclic monomers. The oxonium ion of tetrahydrofuran and carbonium ion of styrene propagated the reaction of copolymerization. The acetic anhydride is essential for the maintenance of the ring opening of tetrahydrofuran and the entry in copolymerization. The temperature was kept constant at 40°C in oil bath heating for 6 hours. A typical reaction product was analyzed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and IR and the formation of the copolymer was confirmed. The reaction was proved by matched with analysis. The maghnite-H+ allowed us to obtain extremely pure copolymer in good yield by following a simples operational conditions. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 29th October 2012; Revised: 29th November 2012; Accepted: 29th November 2012[How to Cite: S. Fouad, M.I. Ferrahi, M. Belbachir. (2012. Copolymerization of Carbon–carbon Double-bond Monomer (Styrene with Cyclic Monomer (Tetrahydrofuran. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 165-171. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4074.165-171][How to Link / DOI: ] | View in 

  2. Copolymerization preparation of cationic cyclodextrin chiral stationary phases for drug enantioseparation in chromatography




    Authors: Ren-Qi Wang, Teng-Teng Ong, Ke Huang, Weihua Tang & Siu-Choon Ng ### Abstract We described a facile and effective protocol wherein radical copolymerization is employed to covalently bond cationic β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) onto silica particles with extended linkage, resulting in a chiral stationary phase (IMPCSP) that can be used for the enantioseparation of racemic drugs in both high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). Start...

  3. Graftig Copolymerization of Hydrophilic Monomers Onto Alginate for Modification it,s Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadeghi


    Full Text Available In this research, we synthesize of a graft copolymer based on alginate via simultaneously graft copolymerization acrylamide (AAm and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPS onto alginate backbones. The polymerization reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium and in the presence of ammonium persulfate (APS as an initiator. Infrared spectroscopy and TGA thermal analysis were carried out to confirm the chemical structure of the copolymer. A proposed mechanism for hydrogel formation was suggested.

  4. Gelation in free-radical crosslinking copolymerization; fast transient fluorescence study


    Ö. Pekcan; D. Kaya


    The fast transient fluorescence (FTRF) technique was used to study the sol-gel phase transition in free-radical crosslinking copolymerization (FCC) in two different monomeric systems. Pyrene (Py) was used as a fluorescence probe for the in situ polymerization experiments. The fluorescence lifetimes of Py from its decay traces were measured and used to monitor the gelation process. Monomer consumption profiles were determined during gelation process using Stern-Volmer model. Gelations...

  5. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.


    emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  6. Causes of formation and characteristics of water-fuel emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    П. Ф. Максютинський


    Full Text Available Considered are the causes of formation and characteristics of water-fuel emulsions in fuel tanks of aircrafts - dispersion and stability (time of water emulsion fallout Determined is distribution of emulsion water in fuel according to microdrops size caused by mechanical dispersion. It is shown that water-fuel emulsion formed by ultrasonic dispersion is similar to that formed by condensation

  7. The research about microscopic structure of emulsion membrane in O/W emulsion by NMR and its influence to emulsion stability. (United States)

    Xie, Yiqiao; Chen, Jisheng; Zhang, Shu; Fan, Kaiyan; Chen, Gang; Zhuang, Zerong; Zeng, Mingying; Chen, De; Lu, Longgui; Yang, Linlin; Yang, Fan


    This paper discussed the influence of microstructure of emulsion membrane on O/W emulsion stability. O/W emulsions were emulsified with equal dosage of egg yolk lecithin and increasing dosage of co-emulsifier (oleic acid or HS15). The average particle size and centrifugal stability constant of emulsion, as well as interfacial tension between oil and water phase were determined. The microstructure of emulsion membrane had been studied by (1)H/(13)C NMR, meanwhile the emulsion droplets were visually presented with TEM and IFM. With increasing dosage of co-emulsifier, emulsions showed two stable states, under which the signal intensity of characteristic group (orient to lipophilic core) of egg yolk lecithin disappeared in NMR of emulsions, but that (orient to aqueous phase) of co-emulsifiers only had some reduction at the second stable state. At the two stable states, the emulsion membranes were neater in TEM and emulsion droplets were rounder in IFM. Furthermore, the average particle size of emulsions at the second stable state was bigger than that at the first stable state. Egg yolk lecithin and co-emulsifier respectively arranged into monolayer and bilayer emulsion membrane at the two stable states. The microstructure of emulsion membrane was related to the stability of emulsion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cobaltoporphyrin-Catalyzed CO 2 /Epoxide Copolymerization: Selectivity Control by Molecular Design

    KAUST Repository

    Anderson, Carly E.


    A series of cobalt(III) chloride porphyrin complexes of the general formula 5,10,15,20-tetra(p-alkoxy)phenylporphyrin cobalt chloride (4b-e) and the related 5,10,15,20-tetra(p-nitro)phenylporphyrin cobalt chloride (4f) are presented and their reactivity toward propylene oxide (PO)/CO 2 coupling/copolymerization is explored. While the nitro-substituted complex (4f), in conjunction with an onium salt, shows moderate activity toward cyclization, the 4b-e/onium systems show superior copolymerization activity in comparison to tetraphenylporphyrin Co(III) chloride (4a) with high selectivity and conversion to poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC). A comprehensive copolymerization behavior study of the alkoxy-substituted porphyrin complexes 4b-e in terms of reaction temperature and CO 2 pressure is presented. Complexes bearing longer alkoxy-substituents demonstrate the highest polymerization activity and molecular weights, however all substituted catalyst systems display a reduced tolerance to increased temperature with respect to PPC formation. Studies of the resulting polymer microstructures show excellent head-to-tail epoxide incorporation and near perfectly alternating poly(carbonate) character at lower polymerization temperatures. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  9. Copolymerization of ε-caprolactone with Epichlorohydrin by a Green Catalyst, Maghnite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelghani Bouchama


    Full Text Available Most of the cationic initiators used in the synthesis of copolymers are expensive. They may be poisoned by products of the reaction or impurities present in the monomer feed, and contain heavy metals, such as chromium, mercury, antimony, etc., that presents environmental disposal problems for the user. Maghnite is a montmorillonite sheet silicate clay that is exchanged with protons to produce Maghnite-H+ (Mag-H+. This non-toxic and cheaper cationic catalyst was used for the copolymerization of ε-caprolactone (CL with epichlorohydrin (ECH. The effects of the amounts of Mag-H+ and the temperature on the synthesis of poly (ε-caprolactone-co-epichlorohydrin were studied. Increasing Maghnite-H+ proportion and temperature produced the increase in copolymerization yield. The copolymer obtained was characterized by 1H-NMR and IR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2012 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.Received: 24th September 2011, Revised: 12nd December 2011; Accepted: 9th January 2012[How to Cite: A. Bouchama, M.I. Ferrahi, and M. Belbachir. (2012. Copolymerization of ε-caprolactone with Epichlorohydrin by a Green Catalyst, Maghnite. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (1: 43-48.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1211.43-48][How to Link / DOI: ] | View in 

  10. Squalene and squalane emulsions as adjuvants. (United States)

    Allison, A C


    Microfluidized squalene or squalane emulsions are efficient adjuvants, eliciting both humoral and cellular immune responses. Microfluidization stabilizes the emulsions and allows sterilization by terminal filtration. The emulsions are stable for years at ambient temperature and can be frozen. Antigens are added after emulsification so that conformational epitopes are not lost by denaturation and to facilitate manufacture. A Pluronic block copolymer can be added to the squalane or squalene emulsion. Soluble antigens administered in such emulsions generate cytotoxic T lymphocytes able to lyse target cells expressing the antigen in a genetically restricted fashion. Optionally a relatively nontoxic analog of muramyl dipeptide (MDP) or another immunomodulator can be added; however, the dose of MDP must be restricted to avoid systemic side effects in humans. Squalene or squalane emulsions without copolymers or MDP have very little toxicity and elicit potent antibody responses to several antigens in nonhuman primates. They could be used to improve a wide range of vaccines. Squalene or squalane emulsions have been administered in human cancer vaccines, with mild side effects and evidence of efficacy, in terms of both immune responses and antitumor activity.

  11. Downhole emulsion breaker injection into the lift gas stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerlef, D.L.; Sindelar, S.T.; McLelland, W.G.; Blumer, D.J.


    A program is in operation at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska which injects emulsion breaker downhole with lift gas to enhance production. This paper addresses the reasons emulsions can limit production in a gas lifted well and the benefits that can be realized by breaking the emulsion downhole. A discussion of the simple but effective produced fluids emulsion screening test and the field implementation of downhole emulsion breaker in wells at Prudhoe Bay are included in this paper.

  12. Non-aqueous Isorefractive Pickering Emulsions


    Thompson, K. L.; Lane, J.A.; Derry, M.J.; Armes, S. P.


    Non-aqueous Pickering emulsions of 16–240 μm diameter have been prepared using diblock copolymer worms with ethylene glycol as the droplet phase and an n-alkane as the continuous phase. Initial studies using n-dodecane resulted in stable emulsions that were significantly less turbid than conventional water-in-oil emulsions. This is attributed to the rather similar refractive indices of the latter two phases. By utilizing n-tetradecane as an alternative oil that almost precisely matches the re...

  13. 丙烯酸酯改性水性聚氨酯复合乳液的研究进展%Research progress of acrylate-modified waterborne polyurethane composite emulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施建刚; 田呈呈; 杨少艳; 赵振河


    综介绍了丙烯酸酯改性水性聚氨酯的几种改性制备方法及其优缺点,其中包括:物理共混改性,交联共混改性,接枝共聚改性,核-壳结构乳液聚合改性,互穿网络法改性等。综述了国内外的研究现状及今后研究发展方向。%The preparation methods and their relative merits of the acrylate-modified waterborne polyurethanes were given, including the physical blending,blend crosslinking,graft copolymerization,core-shell emulsion polymerization modifying and interpenetration network modifying.The domestic and foreign research status was summarized and the further development direction was pointed out for the research of acrylate-modified waterborne polyurethane emulsions.

  14. Use of olive oil-in-water gelled emulsions in model turkey breast emulsions (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, M.; Öztürk, B.


    Today, gelled emulsion systems offer a novel possibility in lipid modification of meat products. In this study, we aimed to investigate the quality characteristics of model turkey emulsions that were prepared with olive oil-in-water gelled emulsion (GE) as partial or total beef fat replacer. The results indicated that while most of the GE treatments showed equivalent emulsion characteristics in terms of emulsion stability, water-holding capacity and cook yield, utilization of 100% GE as the lipid source could increase total expressible fluid of the model turkey emulsion and thus negatively affect the quality. Utilization of GE was effective in total fat reduction, as the model turkey emulsions formulated with more than 50% GE had significantly lower fat content compared to full-beef fat control model emulsion. However, beef fat replacement with GE produced considerable changes in colour parameters. Finally, it was concluded that utilization of GE as a partial beef fat replacer has good potential to enhance stability and reduce total fat in turkey meat emulsion products.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available There are many developed strategies in the emulsion stability evaluation, for purpose of determining the life circle of emulsions. Most of them are based on the reological properties of the emulsions. There are very few which relay on the direct emulsion observations. In this paper we present the developed method for the emulsion stability evaluation by the direct observation of optical properties. As the stability quantification measure we propose the fractal dimension approach. The method is based on the measure of the emulsion transmittance properties, which are directly dependent on the emulsion stability at the moment of measurement. As the test emulsion the oil in the water emulsion was used. The system is classified as the stable emulsion and our intention was to find the moment when the emulsion starts to break. The emulsion transmittance properties were measured using an acquisition system, consisting of a CCD camera and a fast PC configuration equipped with the capturing software. The fractal dimensions were determined by the so called box counting method. The experimental emulsions were measured continuously within the period of 1200 h, from the moment of the emulsion creation. The changes of fractal dimensions were observed which indicates that the emulsion changed its state and therefore the stability during the time. Three regions of the emulsion life circle were divided according to the fractal dimensions measurement, which can be connected with the stable, unstable, and meta-stable states of the emulsion life circle. In the end, the model of the emulsion behavior was developed for the purpose of quantifying the changes in the experimental emulsion.

  16. Size determinations of colloidal fat emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Klaus, Katrin; Steiniger, Frank


    Size and size distributions of colloidal dispersions are of crucial importance for their performance and safety. In the present study, commercially available fat emulsions (Lipofundin N, Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem) were analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction with adequate...

  17. NEWS: Nuclear Emulsions for WIMP Search

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksandrov, A; Asada, T; Bender, D; Bodnarchuk, I; Buonaura, A; Buontempo, S; Chernyavskii, M; Chukanov, A; Consiglio, L; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; De Serio, M; Di Crescenzo, A; Di Marco, N; Dmitrievski, S; Dzhatdoev, T; Fini, R A; Furuya, S; Galati, G; Gentile, V; Gorbunov, S; Gornushkin, Y; Guler, A M; Ichiki, H; Kamiscioglu, C; Kamiscioglu, M; Katsuragawa, T; Kimura, M; Konovalova, N; Kuge, K; Lauria, A; Loverre, P; Machii, S; Managadze, A; Monacelli, P; Montesi, M C; Naka, T; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Pastore, A; Podgrudkov, D; Polukhina, N; Pupilli, F; Roganova, T; Rosa, G; Sato, O; Shchedrina, T; Simone, S; Sirignano, C; Sotnikov, A; Starkov, N; Strolin, P; Tawara, Y; Tioukov, V; Umemoto, A; Vladymyrov, M; Yoshimoto, M; Zemskova, S


    Nowadays there is compelling evidence for the existence of dark matter in the Universe. A general consensus has been expressed on the need for a directional sensitive detector to confirm, with a complementary approach, the candidates found in conventional searches and to finally extend their sensitivity beyond the limit of neutrino-induced background. We propose here the use of a detector based on nuclear emulsions to measure the direction of WIMP-induced nuclear recoils. The production of nuclear emulsion films with nanometric grains is established. Several measurement campaigns have demonstrated the capability of detecting sub-micrometric tracks left by low energy ions in such emulsion films. Innovative analysis technologies with fully automated optical microscopes have made it possible to achieve the track reconstruction for path lengths down to one hundred nanometers and there are good prospects to further exceed this limit. The detector concept we propose foresees the use of a bulk of nuclear emulsion fi...

  18. Emulsifier for water-in-oil emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weete, J.D.; Griffith, G.L.


    This patent describes a water-in-oil emulsion. It comprises: a continuous oil phase, a discontinuous aqueous phase, and an emulsion stabilizing amount of a thermally altered lecithin composition which has been prepare by heating lecithin at a temperature in the range of from about 100{degrees}C, to about 250{degrees}C, for a period of time ranging from about 15 to about 480 minutes.

  19. Surfactant-enhanced cellulose nanocrystal Pickering emulsions. (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Ballinger, Sarah; Pelton, Robert; Cranston, Emily D


    The effect of surfactants on the properties of Pickering emulsions stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) was investigated. Electrophoretic mobility, interfacial tension, confocal microscopy and three-phase contact angle measurements were used to elucidate the interactions between anionic CNCs and cationic alkyl ammonium surfactants didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Both surfactants were found to adsorb onto CNCs with concentration-dependent morphology. At low concentrations, individual surfactant molecules adsorbed with alkyl tails pointing outward leading to hydrophobic CNCs. At higher concentrations, above the surfactant's apparent critical micelle concentration, surfactant aggregate morphologies on CNCs were inferred and the hydrophobicity of CNCs decreased. DMAB, which has two alkyl tails, rendered the CNCs more hydrophobic than CTAB which has only a single alkyl tail, at all surfactant concentrations. The change in CNC wettability from surfactant adsorption was directly linked to emulsion properties; adding surfactant increased the emulsion stability, decreased the droplet size, and controlled the internal phase of CNC Pickering emulsions. More specifically, a double transitional phase inversion, from oil-in-water to water-in-oil and back to oil-in-water, was observed for emulsions with CNCs and increasing amounts of DMAB (the more hydrophobic surfactant). With CNCs and CTAB, no phase inversion was induced. This work represents the first report of CNC Pickering emulsions with surfactants as well as the first CNC Pickering emulsions that can be phase inverted. The ability to surface modify CNCs in situ and tailor emulsions by adding surfactants may extend the potential of CNCs to new liquid formulations and extruded/spray-dried materials.

  20. Hexagonal phase based gel-emulsion (O/H1 gel-emulsion): formation and rheology. (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Mydul; Aramaki, Kenji


    The formation, stability, and rheological behavior of a hexagonal phase based gel-emulsion (O/H1 gel-emulsion) have been studied in water/C12EO8/hydrocarbon oil systems. A partial phase behavior study indicates that the oil nature has no effect on the phase sequences in the ternary phase diagram of water/C12EO8/oil systems but the domain size of the phases or the oil solubilization capacity considerably changes with oil nature. Excess oil is in equilibrium with the hexagonal phase (H1) in the ternary phase diagram in the H1+O region. The O/H1 gel-emulsion was prepared (formation) and kept at 25 degrees C to check stability. It has been found that the formation and stability of the O/H1 gel-emulsion depends on the oil nature. After 2 min observation (formation), the results show that short chain linear hydrocarbon oils (heptane, octane) are more apt to form a O/H1 gel-emulsion compared to long chain linear hydrocarbon oils (tetradecane, hexadecane), though the stability is not good enough in either system, that is, oil separates within 24 h. Nevertheless, the formation and stability of the O/H1 gel-emulsion is appreciably increased in squalane and liquid paraffin. It is surmised that the high transition temperature of the H1+O phase and the presence of a bicontinuous cubic phase (V1) might hamper the formation of a gel-emulsion. It has been pointed out that the solubilization of oil in the H1 phase could be related to emulsion stability. On the other hand, the oil nature has little or no effect on the formation and stability of a cubic phase based gel-emulsion (O/I1 gel-emulsion). From rheological measurements, it has found that the rheogram of the O/H1 gel-emulsion indicates gel-type structure and shows shear thinning behavior similar to the case of the O/I1 gel-emulsion. Rheological data infer that the O/I1 gel-emulsion is more viscous than the O/H1 gel-emulsion at room temperature but the O/H1 gel-emulsion shows consistency at elevated temperature.

  1. Intravenous lipid emulsion in clinical toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald Sarah


    Full Text Available Abstract Intravenous lipid emulsion is an established, effective treatment for local anesthetic-induced cardiovascular collapse. The predominant theory for its mechanism of action is that by creating an expanded, intravascular lipid phase, equilibria are established that drive the offending drug from target tissues into the newly formed 'lipid sink'. Based on this hypothesis, lipid emulsion has been considered a candidate for generic reversal of toxicity caused by overdose of any lipophilic drug. Recent case reports of successful resuscitation suggest the efficacy of lipid emulsion infusion for treating non-local anesthetic overdoses across a wide spectrum of drugs: beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, parasiticides, herbicides and several varieties of psychotropic agents. Lipid emulsion therapy is gaining acceptance in emergency rooms and other critical care settings as a possible treatment for lipophilic drug toxicity. While protocols exist for administration of lipid emulsion in the setting of local anesthetic toxicity, no optimal regimen has been established for treatment of acute non-local anesthetic poisonings. Future studies will shape the evolving recommendations for lipid emulsion in the setting of non-local anesthetic drug overdose.

  2. Microemulsion systems applied to breakdown petroleum emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuma de Castro Dantas, Tereza; Avelino Dantas Neto, Afonso; Ferreira Moura, Everlane [Deptos de Quimica e Eng. Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario s/n, 59072.970, Natal/RN Campinas (Brazil)


    Microemulsion systems obtained using commercial surfactants with demulsifier and emulsion prevention properties have been employed to break down Brazilian crude water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. These crude oils were supplied by the Brazilian oil company-PETROBRAS-and were characterized by the different Balance sheet of Sediment and Water (BSW) values of 48%, 36%, and 32%. The microemulsion systems formed in this study were composed of an aqueous phase (HCl 5.2% solution); an oil phase (toluene); a cosurfactant/surfactant (C/S) phase (isopropyl alcohol (C)/surfactants (S) with a ratio C/S of 9.0). The microemulsion efficiency to break down oil emulsions was evaluated by a direct contact method between the microemulsions and crude (W/O) emulsions. The Scheffe net statistical planning for mixtures was used to relate the component mass fractions to the relative breakdown of petroleum emulsions. The best composition of the microemulsion system for the complete breakdown of oil emulsions with high BSW values had the lowest C/S phase percentage.

  3. Conditions for equilibrium solid-stabilized emulsions. (United States)

    Kraft, Daniela J; de Folter, Julius W J; Luigjes, Bob; Castillo, Sonja I R; Sacanna, Stefano; Philipse, Albert P; Kegel, Willem K


    Particular types of solid-stabilized emulsions can be thermodynamically stable as evidenced by their spontaneous formation and monodisperse droplet size, which only depends on system parameters. Here, we investigate the generality of these equilibrium solid-stabilized emulsions with respect to the basic constituents: aqueous phase with ions, oil, and stabilizing particles. From systematic variations of these constituents, we identify general conditions for the spontaneous formation of monodisperse solid-stabilized emulsions droplets. We conclude that emulsion stability is achieved by a combination of solid particles as well as amphiphilic ions adsorbed at the droplet surface, and low interfacial tensions of the bare oil-water interface of order 10 mN/m or below. Furthermore, preferential wetting of the colloidal particles by the oil phase is necessary for thermodynamic stability. We demonstrate the sufficiency of these basic requirements by extending the observed thermodynamic stability to emulsions of different compositions. Our findings point to a new class of colloid-stabilized meso-emulsions with a potentially high impact on industrial emulsification processes due to the associated large energy savings.

  4. Palm oil anionic surfactants based emulsion breaker (Case study of emulsions breaker at Semanggi Field production wells) (United States)

    Muhpidah; Hambali, E.; Suryani, A.; Kartika, I. A.


    The presence of emulsion in oil production process is undesirable. The emulsion will increase the production costs, transportation and costs related to emulsion separation process between water and oil. The development of palm oil-based surfactant as an emulsion breaker needs to be conducted given the availability of abundant raw materials in Indonesia and as an alternative to petroleum-based surfactant. The purpose of this study is to produce palm oil-based emulsion breaker, assessing the effect of additive application to the emulsion breaker and analyze the performance of the emulsion breaker. This research was conducted by formulating palm oil anionic surfactant in water formation with the addition of co-surfactant additive and co-solvent. Palm oil anionic surfactant-based emulsion breaker with 0.5% concentration in water can reduce 50% of emulsions with the interfacial tension (IFT) of 2.33x10-2 dyne/cm. The addition of co-solvent (toluene: xylene) is able to remove the emulsion formed with a lower IFT namely 10-3 dyne / cm. The resulting emulsion breaker is capable to remove the emulsion between water and oil. The performance test of emulsion breaker show that the emulsion is able to maintain its performance at reservoir temperature with no indicate of plugging and the value generated incremental oil recovery values is 13%.

  5. Control of Grafting Density and Distribution in Graft Polymers by Living Ring-Opening Metathesis Copolymerization. (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Pin; Chang, Alice B; Chen, Hsiang-Yun; Liberman-Martin, Allegra L; Bates, Christopher M; Voegtle, Matthew J; Bauer, Christina A; Grubbs, Robert H


    Control over polymer sequence and architecture is crucial to both understanding structure-property relationships and designing functional materials. In pursuit of these goals, we developed a new synthetic approach that enables facile manipulation of the density and distribution of grafts in polymers via living ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). Discrete endo,exo-norbornenyl dialkylesters (dimethyl DME, diethyl DEE, di-n-butyl DBE) were strategically designed to copolymerize with a norbornene-functionalized polystyrene (PS), polylactide (PLA), or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) macromonomer mediated by the third-generation metathesis catalyst (G3). The small-molecule diesters act as diluents that increase the average distance between grafted side chains, generating polymers with variable grafting density. The grafting density (number of side chains/number of norbornene backbone repeats) could be straightforwardly controlled by the macromonomer/diluent feed ratio. To gain insight into the copolymer sequence and architecture, self-propagation and cross-propagation rate constants were determined according to a terminal copolymerization model. These kinetic analyses suggest that copolymerizing a macromonomer/diluent pair with evenly matched self-propagation rate constants favors randomly distributed side chains. As the disparity between macromonomer and diluent homopolymerization rates increases, the reactivity ratios depart from unity, leading to an increase in gradient tendency. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, an array of monodisperse polymers (PLA(x)-ran-DME(1-x))n bearing variable grafting densities (x = 1.0, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25) and total backbone degrees of polymerization (n = 167, 133, 100, 67, 33) were synthesized. The approach disclosed in this work therefore constitutes a powerful strategy for the synthesis of polymers spanning the linear-to-bottlebrush regimes with controlled grafting density and side chain distribution, molecular

  6. 丙烯酸树脂改性水性硝化纤维乳液的制备及性能研究%Synthesis and properties of waterborne nitrocellulose emulsion modified by acrylic resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏秀霞; 赵擎霄; 宋洁; 刘宪文


    In this paper,waterborne nitrocellulose emulsion was modified in two ways,acrylic acid resin blending modification and acrylic acid resin graft copolymerization modification. Structure and properties of the emulsion and film were characterized by FT-IR,TGA,Surface water contact angle detection and SEM etc.The results showed that the stability of the emul-sion,water resistance and thermal stability of the film were improved by these two kinds of modification methods.The improvement of graft copolymerization modification to the com-prehensive properties of the coating film is more remarkable than the result of blend modifi-cation.%采用丙烯酸树脂共混与丙烯酸树脂接枝共聚两种方法改性水性硝化纤维乳液,通过红外光谱,热重分析,表面水接触角,透射电子显微镜检测等手段对所得乳液和涂膜结构与性能进行表征。结果表明,两种改性方法都提高了乳液的稳定性、涂膜耐水性及热稳定性等综合性能。通过对比分析发现接枝共聚改性对涂膜的综合性能的提高更显著。

  7. Stability of emulsion from bio-oil and diesel oil and combustion experimental study of emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaji, Huang; Zhaoping, Zhong; Baosheng, Jin; Bin, Li; Yu, Sun [Thermal Engineering Research Institute, Southeast University (China)


    This paper presents a study of the stability of an emulsion from bio-oil and diesel oil through an experimental combustion study. The emulsion was prepared using emulsifiers Span-80 and Tween-80 and bio-oil and diesel oil. This paper studies and analyses combustion, gaseous pollutants characteristics, and the effect of the HLB value and volume fraction of bio-oil on the stability of the emulsion. One of the major study conclusions was that the combustion temperature and the concentration of SO2, NOX and CO of emulsion are lower than those of diesel oil if equal flue gas oxygen is presumed. To conclude, emulsion could be used as an alternative oil fuel, however some questions such as: higher viscosity, higher exhaust heat loss, and very low acidity need more attention and more study in future research.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shuwen; YANG Yukun


    A series of polyacrylate emulsions were blended with tackifier resin emulsions such as modified rosin emulsion, C5 resin and C9 resin emulsion. The miscibility of the polyacrylates and tackifier resins was investigated by means of SEM and visual observation. The phase diagrams of the miscibility change systematically with the polarity of polyacrylates and tackifier resins. The influence of the content of the tackifier resins on the adhesion properties of the polyacrylate emulsions were also studied. The results show that the 180℃ peel strength is improved as the amount of the tackifier resin increases and comes to a maximum at a specific content. The ball tack property decreases slightly and the hold strength changes complicatedly as the tackifier resin increases.

  9. Preparation of Cationic Fluorocarbon Emulsion and Properties of Emulsion in Gelatin%明胶作用下阳离子氟碳乳液的制备及乳液性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王之坤; 李刚辉; 古永红


    The cationic fluorocarbon emulsion (CFE) was prepared by the reaction of gelatin, styrene, methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate), hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate, methyl methacrylate dimethyl amino ethyl ester, whole fluoroalkyl acrylate ph, through the free radicals copolymerization. Through the DLS, AFM, FT-IR, TGA and contact angle, the CFE emulsion membrane surface morphology, structure characteristics, thermal stability and wettability were studied; the application effect of CFE used as paper surface sizing agent was investigated by contact angle analysis. The results showed that the content of gelatin is 1%, CFE emulsion is stable, latex particle size 120 nm and contact angle is up to 126°. The film has good hydrophobic property.%在明胶作用下,以苯乙烯、丙烯酸甲酯、丙烯酸丁酯、丙烯酸羟乙酯、甲基丙烯酸二甲氨基乙酯、全氟烷基乙基丙烯酸酯为原料,通过自由基共聚制备了阳离子氟碳乳液(CFE),通过粒径、AFM、FT-IR、热重、接触角测量仪等分别研究了CFE的乳胶膜表面形貌、结构特征、润湿性等;通过接触角法考察了CFE作为纸张表面施胶剂的应用效果。结果表明,在明胶添加量为1%时,CFE乳液稳定,乳液粒径120nm,水在纸张表面的接触角可达126°,涂膜具有良好的疏水性能.

  10. Graft copolymerization onto polybutadiene: Cross-linking and thermal degradation of vinyl polymers and copolymers (United States)

    Jiang, Dayue (David)

    This work consists of three parts. In Part I, the graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate, methyl acrylate, methacylic acid and acrylic acid onto polybutadiene and its copolymers by benzoyl peroxide, BPO, or 2, 2'azobis(2-methylpropionitrile), AIBN, initiation were explored. The results show that these monomers can be grafted onto butadiene region of butadiene-containing polymers. The extent of both graft copolymerization and homopolymerization are dependent on the time and temperature of the reaction and the concentration of all of the reactants. One must specify the monomer, initiator and solvent for the efficient graft copolymerization. The methyl methacrylate adds directly to the radical sites which are formed on the backbone by the interaction of the polymer and the primary radical form the initiator, while for the other three monomers, the graft copolymerization occurs by addition of macro-radical to the double bonds. In Part II, the cross-linking of polybutadiene, butadiene-styrene copolymers, and polystyrene by irradiation, thermal and chemical processes, and Friedel-Crafts chemistry and the effect of cross-linking on the thermal stability were investigated. The proof of cross-linking of the polymer comes from the insolubility of the product after the cross-linking reaction and is characterized by gel content and swelling ratio. The results show that the thermal stability of the polymer can be improved by cross-linking. In Part III, the thermal degradation of three vinyl polymers, poly(vinylsulfonic acid) and its sodium salt and poly(vinylphosphonic acid) were studied by combination technique: TGA/FTIR. The results show that TGA/FTIR combined with analysis of residues provides an excellent opportunity to understand the degradation pathway of the compounds. The observation of foaming indicates that the char which is formed contains carbon as well as the inorganic salts which have been observed. The carbon is in a partially graphitized form. The salts

  11. Homo- and Copolymerization of Ethylene and Norbornene with Anilido–Imine Chromium Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Pei


    Full Text Available A series of anilido–imine chromium complexes have been used as precursors to catalyze homo- and copolymerization of ethylene and norbornene. The chromium complexes activated with methylalumoxane (MAO exhibit good activities for homopolymerization of ethylene (E to produce linear polyethylene and moderate activities for norbornene (N polymerization to afford vinyl-type polynorbornene. Ethylene–norbornene copolymers with high incorporation of norbornene can be also produced by these catalysts. 13C NMR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analyses show that the copolymers are random products, and –NNN– and –EEE– units can be observed in the microstructure of the copolymers.

  12. Chemoselective Alternating Copolymerization of Limonene Dioxide and Carbon Dioxide: A New Highly Functional Aliphatic Epoxy Polycarbonate. (United States)

    Li, Chunliang; Sablong, Rafaël J; Koning, Cor E


    The alternating copolymerization of biorenewable limonene dioxide with carbon dioxide (CO2 ) catalyzed by a zinc β-diiminate complex is reported. The chemoselective reaction results in linear amorphous polycarbonates that carry pendent methyloxiranes and exhibit glass transition temperatures (Tg ) up to 135 °C. These polycarbonates can be efficiently modified by thiols or carboxylic acids in combination with lithium hydroxide or tetrabutylphosphonium bromide as catalysts, respectively, without destruction of the main chain. Moreover, polycarbonates bearing pendent cyclic carbonates can be quantitatively prepared by CO2 insertion catalyzed by lithium bromide.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Pure Acrylic Emulsion Modified with Silane Coupling Agent%硅烷偶联剂改性丙烯酸酯乳液的合成及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚楠; 魏铭


    针对纯丙乳液耐水性差的问题,将阴离子、非离子、反应型乳化剂进行复配,分别引入γ -(甲基丙烯酰氧)丙基三甲氧基硅烷和乙烯基三甲氧基硅烷2种硅烷偶联剂,制备了四元共聚的具有交联结构的纯丙乳液,通过FT- IR、TEM对乳胶粒的结构进行了表征.结果表明:2种偶联剂的最合适用量都为1%,乳液最低吸水率为1.4%,吸水率降低效果明显.%In connection of the poor water resistance of pure acrylic emulsion, a crosslinkable quadri co-polymerized acrylic emulsion was prepared by use of γ - methacryloxy propyl trimethoxysilane and vinyl trim-ethoxysilane as silane coupling agents and compound surfactants of anionic, nonionic and reactive emulsifier. The structure of emulsion was characterized by FTTR, TEM. The results showed that the proper level of two kind of coupling agents were 1 % , the minimum water absorption of emulsion was down to 1. 4% .

  14. Synthesis of polymer latex particles decorated with organically-modified laponite clay platelets via emulsion polymerization. (United States)

    Herrera, Norma Negrete; Persoz, Stéphanie; Putaux, Jean-Luc; David, Laurent; Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie


    We report a new route to colloidal nanocomposites consisting of polymer latex particles covered with Laponite clay nanoplatelets. These composite particles are prepared by seeded emulsion (co)polymerization of styrene and butyl acrylate from Laponite clay suspensions previously functionalized by ion exchange using either a free radical initiator: 2,2-azobis (2-methylpropionamidine) hydrochloride (AIBA) or a cationic vinyl monomer: 2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (MADQUAT). The successful intercalation of the cationic reactive molecules was confirmed by elemental analysis, FTIR, 13C solid-state NMR and WAXD. The organically-modified clays were dispersed into water with the help of tetrasodium pyrophosphate and an anionic surfactant. stable latexes, produced under different experimental conditions, were successfully obtained from the clay suspensions. Cryo-TEM images of the resulting latexes showed spherical composite particles with diameters in the 50-250 nm range with clay sheets located on their surface. This paper reports on the effect of the processing conditions on the particle morphology and latex stability, and describes the mechanism of formation of the nanocomposite particles.

  15. Enhancing saltiness in emulsion based foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lad Mita


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of enhancing saltiness perception in emulsions and a liquid food formulated with the emulsions (ambient vegetable soup through increasing salt concentration in the continuous phase while retaining the fat content of the (aqueous continuous product was evaluated. This was accomplished by increasing the droplet phase volume using duplex emulsion technology. Viscosity and droplet size distribution was measured. Saltiness evaluation was based on simple paired comparison testing (2-Alternate Forced Choice tests, BS ISO 5495:2007. Results Single and duplex emulsions and emulsion-based products had comparable mean oil droplet diameters (25 to 30 μm; however, viscosity of the duplex emulsion systems was considerably higher. Sensory assessment of saltiness of emulsion pairs (2AFC indicated duplex technology enhanced saltiness perception compared to a single emulsion product at the same salt content (6.3 g/100 g in both simple emulsions and the formulated food product (P = 0.0596 and 0.0004 respectively although assessors noted the increased viscosity of the duplex systems. The formulated food product also contained pea starch particles which may have aided product mixing with saliva and thus accelerated tastant transport to the taste buds. Lowering salt content in the duplex systems (to levels of aqueous phase salt concentration similar to the level in the single systems resulted in duplex systems being perceived as less salty than the single system. It appears that the higher viscosity of the duplex systems could not be “overruled” by enhanced mixing through increased droplet phase volume at lowered salt content. Conclusions The results showed that salt reduction may be possible despite the added technology of duplex systems increasing the overall measured viscosity of the product. The changes in viscosity behavior impact mouthfeel, which may be exploitable in addition to the contribution towards salt


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lun-han Ding; Yue Li; Yan Jiang; Zhe Cao; Jia-xian Huang


    Methacrylic acid first was neutralized with an aqueous solution of NaOH to pH = 6.0~7.0, vinylene carbonate (VCA) was added to the solution, then monomers were copolymerized in paraffin oil by means of reverse-phase suspension polymerization and hydrophilic copolymeric supports were prepared. The properties of the supports were determined using trypsin and results show that the amount of enzymes coupled to the supports and the specific activity of immobilized trypsin are related to the content of VCA structure units, reaction time and concentration of enzyme solution, etc.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tong; LUO Bin; LI Shanjun; CHU Guobei


    The initiation mechanism of the copolymerization of 2-vinylnaphthalene with maleic anhydride was studied under irradiation of 365 nm. The excited complex was formed from ( 1 ) the local excitation of 2-vinylnaphthalene followed by the charge-transfer interaction with maleic anhydride and ( 2 ) the excitation of the ground state charge-transfer complex, and then it collapsed to 1,4-tetramethylene biradical for initiation. A 1:1 alternating copolymer was formed in different monomer feeds. Addition of benzophenone could greatly enhance the rate of copolymerization through energy-transfer mechanism.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jiyauddin *, A. Fadli , J. C. Wei , A. Jawad , A. D. Samer , M. Kaleemullah, S. Budiasih, S. Rasha , M. R. Rasny , Y. K. Sung , A. H. Junainah , H. Todo and Y. Eddy


    Full Text Available Nano-emulsions consist of fine oil-in-water or water-in-oil dispersions, having droplets covering the size range of 10 - 600 nm. The aim of this study is to formulate nano-emulsion of Clindamycin by using Emulsion Phase Inversion method and olive oil as the oil phase. Pseudo ternary phase diagram was first developed by using distilled water, olive oil and mixture of surfactants (Tween®80 and Span®20 at a ratio of 1:1. Then, appearance test and microscopic examination were done for all the pre-formulation. Three potential pre-formulation were then selected and incorporated with the Clindamycin Phosphate and Methyl Paraben. The mean droplet size and stability studies were done for these three formulations. Clindamycin Nano-emulsions were not obtained using the Emulsion Phase Inversion (EPI method in this study, whereby the mean droplet sizes were in micro-range. However, out of all the three formulations which undergone extensive studies which include the heating-cooling cycle, whereby the formulation F8 and F17 were found to be physically stable. Significant differences were identified on the pH value and viscosity measurement for all the three formulations which undergone the heating-cooling cycle; except for the pH in F17. Furthermore, the formulation F8 had the smallest droplet size of 0.92 µm. Future research on this topic is needed to reduce the droplet size of the formulation.

  19. Tuneable Rheological Properties of Fluorinated Pickering Emulsions (United States)

    Chacon Orellana, Laura Andreina; Riechers, Birte; Caen, Ouriel; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    Pickering emulsions are an appealing approach to stabilize liquid-liquid dispersions without surfactants. Recently, amphiphilic silica nanoparticles have been proposed as an alternative to surfactants for droplet microfluidics applications, where aqueous drops are stabilized in fluorinated oils. This system, proved to be effective in preventing the leakage of resorufin, a model dye that was known to leak in surfactant-stabilized drops. The overall capabilities of droplet-based microfluidics technology is highly dependent on the dynamic properties of droplets, interfaces and emulsions. Therefore, fluorinated pickering emulsions dynamic properties need to be characterized, understood and controlled to be used as a substitute of already broadly studied emulsions for droplet microfluidics applications. In this study, fluorinated pickering emulsions have been found to behave as a Herschel Bulkley fluid, representing a challenge for common microfluidic operations as re-injection and sorting of droplets. We found that this behavior is controlled by the interaction between the interfacial properties of the particle-laden interface and the bulk properties of the two phases

  20. High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive (United States)

    Ruhe, Thomas C.; Rao, Pilaka P.


    An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

  1. [Effect of emulsion on chromatographic process]. (United States)

    Jiang, Yulei; Li, Xi


    The types and features of concentration wave of the chromatographic process in which the mobile phase was emulsion were studied theoretically by the method of characteristics and the concept of multi mobile phase chromatography. When the mobile phase is an emulsion, solute is partitioned between the inner and outer phases of the emulsion as well as simultaneously adsorbed on the stationary phase resulting in the great difference of concentration profiles from the case in which the mobile phase is homogenous. The various profiles and mechanisms of concentration wave of the chromatographic process in which the partition relationship between the inner and outer phases of the emulsion and the adsorption isotherm on the stationary phase were both Langmuir-like were analyzed and discussed with corresponding examples, and the comparison with the case in which the mobile phase is homogenous is also done. It is shown that the chromatographic progress with emulsion is more complicated and multiple. The existence of multi mobile phases may sharpen simple wave to be shock wave or diffuse shock wave to be simple wave.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA, M1) and methyl methacrylate (MMA, M2) in cyclohexanone was studied. The multiple experiments of solution copolymerization with low conversion were carried out at two sensitive composition feed points at 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140℃, respectively. The composition of the copolymers was analyzed by 1H-NMR. The reactivity ratios which were estimated by the Error-inVariable Method (EVM) of Mayo-Lewis equation were found to be r1 = 0.328, r2 = 1.781for 60℃; 0.375, 1.709 for 80℃; 0.406, 1.654 for 100℃; 0.439, 1.540 for 120℃ and 0.455,1.400 for 140℃, and the 95% joint confidence intervals of the reactivity ratios were also determined. According to r1 and r2, Arrhenius relations and the activity energy difference between the homo- and cross-propagation were calculated.

  3. Organostibine mediated controlled/living random copolymerization of styrene and methyl methacrylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The first example of organostibine mediated controlled/living random copolymerization of styrene(St) and methyl methacrylate(MMA) was achieved by heating a solution of St/MMA/organostibine mediator at 100 °C or St/MMA/organostibine mediator/AIBN with various monomer feed ratios at 60 °C.The addition of AIBN significantly decreased the reaction temperature and enhanced the rate of copolymerization.The structure of poly(St-co-MMA) was verified by 1H NMR.The reactivity ratios at 60 °C were determined by the extended Kelen-Tüds method to be YSt = 0.40 and YMMA = 0.44.The ln([M]0/[M]) increased linearly with increasing reaction time.The number-average molecular weights of poly(St-co-MMA) increased linearly with conversion.Poly(St-co-MMA) with expected number-average molecular weight and low polydispersity index was formed.The living characteristic was further confirmed by chain-extension of poly(St-co-MMA) to form poly(St-co-MMA)-b-PMMA.

  4. Homogeneous Modification of Sugarcane Bagasse by Graft Copolymerization in Ionic Liquid for Oil Absorption Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jie Chen


    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse, lignocellulosic residue from the sugar industry, is an abundant and renewable bioresource on the earth. The application of ionic liquids in sugarcane bagasse biorefinery is gaining increasing interest. The homogeneous modification of sugarcane bagasse by free radical initiated graft copolymerization of acrylate monomers using 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride as solvent was performed. A variety of sugarcane bagasse graft copolymers with different weight percent gain were prepared via adjusting the monomer dosage. FT-IR studies confirmed the success in attaching the poly(acrylate side chains onto sugarcane bagasse. Oil absorbency studies suggested that the sugarcane bagasse graft copolymers were potential biobased materials for effective treatment of ester-based oils. SEM studies showed that the sugarcane bagasse graft copolymers displayed a dense morphology structure. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the thermal stability of sugarcane bagasse decreased after the homogeneous modification by the graft copolymerization. The present study provides an alternative strategy to convert sugarcane bagasse into a value-added functional biobased material.

  5. Reversion of pH-induced physiological drug resistance: a novel function of copolymeric nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutian Li

    Full Text Available AIMS: The extracellular pH of cancer cells is lower than the intracellular pH. Weakly basic anticancer drugs will be protonated extracellularly and display a decreased intracellular concentration. In this study, we show that copolymeric nanoparticles (NPs are able to overcome this "pH-induced physiological drug resistance" (PIPDR by delivering drugs to the cancer cells via endocytosis rather than passive diffussion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As a model nanoparticle, Tetradrine (Tet, Pka 7.80 was incorporated into mPEG-PCL. The effectiveness of free Tet and Tet-NPs were compared at different extracellular pHs (pH values 6.8 and 7.4, respectively by MTT assay, morphological observation and apoptotic analysis in vitro and on a murine model by tumor volume measurement, PET-CT scanning and side effect evaluation in vivo. RESULTS: The cytotoxicity of free Tet decreased prominently (P<0.05 when the extracellular pH decreased from 7.4 to 6.8. Meanwhile, the cytotoxicity of Tet-NPs was not significantly influenced by reduced pH. In vivo experiment also revealed that Tet-NPs reversed PIPDR more effectively than other existing methods and with much less side effects. CONCLUSION: The reversion of PIPDR is a new discovered mechanism of copolymeric NPs. This study emphasized the importance of cancer microenvironmental factors in anticancer drug resistance and revealed the superiority of nanoscale drug carrier from a different aspect.

  6. Preparation of multihollow P(St-MAA) particles by sequence soap-free/soap emulsion polymerization and followed by stepwise alkali/acid posttreatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Long Li; Cheng You Kan; Ze Ping Li; Yi Du; Yan Nan Cui


    The effects of ionic emulsifier, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfate (SDBS), on the formation of the multihollow structures in sub-micron sized polymer particles produced by alkali/acid posttreatment were investigated.The original latex particles with narrow size distribution were synthesized by a new sequence emulsifier-free/emulsifier emulsion copolymerization of styrene (St) and methacrylic acid (MAA).Results indicated that the pore size decreased and the pore number increased with the increase of SDBS amount, and the morphology of the posttreated latex particles was also significantly influenced by the introducing time of SDBS in the preparation of the original latex particles, and a suitable introducing time was 3 h of polymerization.

  7. Tuning Amphiphilicity of Particles for Controllable Pickering Emulsion


    Zhen Wang; Yapei Wang


    Pickering emulsions with the use of particles as emulsifiers have been extensively used in scientific research and industrial production due to their edge in biocompatibility and stability compared with traditional emulsions. The control over Pickering emulsion stability and type plays a significant role in these applications. Among the present methods to build controllable Pickering emulsions, tuning the amphiphilicity of particles is comparatively effective and has attracted enormous attent...

  8. Detection of low energy antimatter with emulsions

    CERN Document Server

    Aghion, S; Ariga, T; Bollani, M; Cas, E Dei; Ereditato, A; Evans, C; Ferragut, R; Giammarchi, M; Pistillo, C; Romé, M; Sala, S; Scampoli, P


    Emulsion detectors feature a very high position resolution and consequently represent an ideal device when particle detection is required at the micrometric scale. This is the case of quantum interferometry studies with antimatter, where micrometric fringes have to be measured. In this framework, we designed and realized a new emulsion based detector characterized by a gel enriched in terms of silver bromide crystal contents poured on a glass plate. We tested the sensitivity of such a detector to low energy positrons in the range 10-20 keV. The obtained results prove that nuclear emulsions are highly efficient at detecting positrons at these energies. This achievement paves the way to perform matter-wave interferometry with positrons using this technology.

  9. Multi-body coalescence in Pickering emulsions (United States)

    Wu, Tong; Wang, Haitao; Jing, Benxin; Liu, Fang; Burns, Peter C.; Na, Chongzheng


    Particle-stabilized Pickering emulsions have shown unusual behaviours such as the formation of non-spherical droplets and the sudden halt of coalescence between individual droplets. Here we report another unusual behaviour of Pickering emulsions—the simultaneous coalescence of multiple droplets in a single event. Using latex particles, silica particles and carbon nanotubes as model stabilizers, we show that multi-body coalescence can occur in both water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions. The number of droplets involved in the nth coalscence event equals four times the corresponding number of the tetrahedral sequence in close packing. Furthermore, coalescence is promoted by repulsive latex and silica particles but inhibited by attractive carbon nanotubes. The revelation of multi-body coalescence is expected to help better understand Pickering emulsions in natural systems and improve their designs in engineering applications.

  10. Optical diffusers based on silicone emulsions (United States)

    Wang, Jui-Hao; Lien, Shui-Yang; Ho, Jeng-Rong; Shih, Teng-Kai; Chen, Chia-Fu; Chen, Chien-Chung; Whang, Wha-Tzong


    The present study provides an experimental approach for fabricating optical diffuser films based on silicone emulsions. The silicone emulsion consisting of silicone polymer (Sylgard 184) and NaCl aq. solution was used as the optical material of diffusers, wherein NaCl aq. solution was severed as surfactant to stabilize the emulsions. After stirring mechanically, microscaled water drop with various sizes distributed randomly in silicone polymer, wherein water drop was used as scattering diffusion particles. To modulate the volume of NaCl aq. solution, the diffusing performance of diffusers could be change by different amount drop particles. Thereafter, an optical examination was carried out to characterize optical properties, transmittance, and light diffusivity of volumetric diffuser films.

  11. Forces acting in quasi 2d emulsions (United States)

    Orellana, Carlos; Lowensohn, Janna; Weeks, Eric

    We study the forces in a quasi two dimensional emulsion system. Our samples are oil-in-water emulsions confined between two close-spaced parallel plates, so that the oil droplets are deformed into pancake shapes. By means of microscopy, we measure the droplet positions and their deformation, which we can relate to the contact forces due to surface tension. We improve over prior work in our lab, achieving a better force resolution. We use this result to measure and calibrate the viscous forces acting in our system, which fully determine all the forces on the droplets. Our results can be applied to study static configurations of emulsion, as well as faster flows.

  12. Storage stability of marine phospholipids emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline Pascale

    Marine phospholipids (MPL) are believed to provide more advantages than fish oil from the same source. They are considered to have a better bioavailability, a better resistance towards oxidation and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic...... of secondary volatile compounds by Solid Phase Microextraction at several time intervals at 2°C storage. Preliminary results showed that marine phospholipids emulsion has a good oxidative stability....... acids (DHA) than oily triglycerides (fish oil). Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the feasibility of using marine phospholipids emulsions as delivery system through investigation of the physical, oxidative and hydrolytic stability of MPL emulsions with or without addition of fish oil...

  13. The role of electrostatics in saliva-induced emulsion flocculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silletti, Erika; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Norde, Willem; Van Aken, George A.

    Upon consumption food emulsions undergo different processes, including mixing with saliva. It has been shown that whole saliva induces emulsion flocculation [van Aken, G. A., Vingerhoeds, M. H., & de Hoog, E. H. A. (2005). Colloidal behaviour of food emulsions under oral conditions. In E. Dickinson

  14. The role of electrostatistics in saliva-induced emulsion flocculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silletti, E.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Norde, W.; Aken, van G.A.


    Upon consumption food emulsions undergo different processes, including mixing with saliva. It has been shown that whole saliva induces emulsion flocculation [van Aken, G. A., Vingerhoeds, M. H., & de Hoog, E. H. A. (2005). Colloidal behaviour of food emulsions under oral conditions. In E.

  15. Formula for emulsifier for production of emulsion fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simakawa, K.; Arai, T.; Oseki, O.; Tega, K.; Wakidzaka, A.


    Patent for an emulsifier for preparation of emulsion fuels type v/m (formula provided). This particular formula is utilized to derive emulsion fuels from kerosene, light and heavy oils, etc. The emulsions have water drops of even size and a high thermal stability. When these fuels are used, formation of soot and nitrogen oxides is reduced.

  16. Physico-chemical Properties of Marine Phospholipid Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.


    and the stability of their emulsions. Physical stability was investigated through particle size distribution (PSD), zeta potential, microscopy inspection and emulsion separation (ES); while the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of emulsions were investigated through peroxide value (PV) and free fatty acids value...

  17. The role of electrostatics in saliva-induced emulsion flocculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silletti, Erika; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Norde, Willem; Van Aken, George A.


    Upon consumption food emulsions undergo different processes, including mixing with saliva. It has been shown that whole saliva induces emulsion flocculation [van Aken, G. A., Vingerhoeds, M. H., & de Hoog, E. H. A. (2005). Colloidal behaviour of food emulsions under oral conditions. In E. Dickinson

  18. The role of electrostatistics in saliva-induced emulsion flocculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silletti, E.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Norde, W.; Aken, van G.A.


    Upon consumption food emulsions undergo different processes, including mixing with saliva. It has been shown that whole saliva induces emulsion flocculation [van Aken, G. A., Vingerhoeds, M. H., & de Hoog, E. H. A. (2005). Colloidal behaviour of food emulsions under oral conditions. In E. Dickin


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢绍杰; 孙希明


    Amphoteric p olyacrylamide was prepared first by the copolymerization of acrylamide with sodi um-acrylate and then through Mannich reaction.The copolymerization was carried o ut with a redox initiation system using the method of inverse emulsion polymeriz ation.In this paper the reaction conditions and factors that affect emulsion sta bility were studied.Experiments show that a stable latex can be obtained under t he following conditions:anionic degree is five percent,the ratio among acrylamid e,formaldehyde and dimethylamine is 1:1:1.2,reaction temperature is 45 ℃,reac tion time lasts four hours,and pH equals 5.0.The amphoteric copolymer has a high er molecular weight and cationic degree,so it is an ideal filler retention and d rainage aid in paper making.%采用氧化还原引发体系,丙烯酰胺与丙烯酸钠共聚后,经Mannich改性,在反相乳液中制备了两性聚丙烯酰胺.对其反应条件及乳液稳定性进行了研究,结果表明,当合成阴离子度为5%,采用丙烯酰胺:甲醛:二甲胺(mol)= 1:1:1.2,反应温度为45 ℃,反应时间为4 h和pH=5.0的条件下,可获得分子量及阳离子度较高,同时稳定性较好的胶乳产品.在造纸工业中,它是一种理想的助留助滤剂.

  20. Size determinations of colloidal fat emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Klaus, Katrin; Steiniger, Frank


    Size and size distributions of colloidal dispersions are of crucial importance for their performance and safety. In the present study, commercially available fat emulsions (Lipofundin N, Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem) were analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction with adequate...... but a slightly smaller size was indicated by all methods for Lipidem. Sub-micron resolution was best in the Coulter LS but the fraction of larger particles in the upper nm-range was presumably underestimated. The emulsions could be analyzed in a highly reproducible manner by asymmetrical flow field...

  1. Treatment of cocaine overdose with lipid emulsion. (United States)

    Jakkala-Saibaba, R; Morgan, P G; Morton, G L


    We describe the management and recovery of a 28-year-old man following a history of overdose by nasal inhalation of cocaine. The patient was presented in a comatose state suffering from seizures and marked cardiovascularly instability. Intravenous lipid emulsion was administered following initial resuscitation and tracheal intubation, as a means of treating persistent cardiac arrhythmias and profound hypotension. Following lipid emulsion therapy, the patient's life-threatening cardiovascular parameters rapidly improved and he recovered well without any side effects, thus being discharged within 2 days. © 2011 The Authors. Anaesthesia © 2011 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  2. RAFT Polymerization of Styrene and Maleimide in the Presence of Fluoroalcohol: Hydrogen Bonding Effects with Classical Alternating Copolymerization as Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjun Yao


    Full Text Available The impacts of hydrogen bonding on polymerization behavior has been of interest for a long time; however, universality and in-depth understanding are still lacking. For the first time, the effect of hydrogen bonding on the classical alternating-type copolymerization of styrene and maleimide was explored. N-phenylmaleimide (N-PMI/styrene was chosen as a model monomer pair in the presence of hydrogen bonding donor solvent 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP, which interacted with N-PMI via hydrogen bonding. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT technique was used to guarantee the “living” polymerization and thus the homogeneity of chain compositions. In comparison with the polymerization in nonhydrogen bonding donor solvent (toluene, the copolymerization in HFIP exhibited a high rate and a slight deviation from alternating copolymerization tendency. The reactivity ratios of N-PMI and St were revealed to be 0.078 and 0.068, respectively, while the reactivity ratios in toluene were 0.026 and 0.050. These interesting results were reasonably explained by using computer simulations, wherein the steric repulsion and electron induction by the hydrogen bonding between HFIP and NPMI were revealed. This work first elucidated the hydrogen bonding interaction in the classical alternating-type copolymerization, which will enrich the research on hydrogen bonding-induced polymerizations.

  3. RAFT copolymerization of itaconic anhydride and 2-methoxyethyl acrylate: a multifunctional scaffold for preparation of “clickable” gold nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Kasama, Takeshi; Jankova, Katja Atanasova


    RAFT copolymerization of 2-methoxyethyl acrylate and itaconic anhydride – a monomer derived from renewable resources – is carried out in a controlled fashion. The copolymer allows preparation of gold nanoparticles with abundant surficial carboxyl and alkyne functional groups that are dendronized ...... via Cu(i)-mediated “click” reaction....

  4. Lipid emulsion therapy: non-nutritive uses of lipid emulsions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toxicity.1 However, the non-nutritive therapeutic roles of lipid emulsions have ... solving the toxicity associated with previous intravenous fat solutions.2 ..... Hu ZY, Peng XY, Liu F, et al. Emulsified ... prostaglandin metabolism. Chest. 1991 ...

  5. Application of pork fat diacylglycerols in meat emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miklos, Rikke; Xu, Xuebing; Lametsch, René


    and binding properties were investigated in meat emulsions prepared with lard substituted with different amounts of DAGs derived from the lard. In emulsions prepared with DAGs the percentage of total expressible fluid decreased from 28.2% in products prepared with lard to 11.8% in emulsions prepared with 100......% DAGs. The fat separation decreased from 10.9% to 7.8% when 10% of DAGs were applied and no fat separation was observed for emulsions prepared with 50% and 100% DAGs. Emulsions containing DAGs were more elastic and solid reflected in a significant increase in Young's modulus and the maximum hardness...

  6. Performance of automatic scanning microscope for nuclear emulsion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Güler, A. Murat, E-mail: [Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Altınok, Özgür [Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)


    The impressive improvements in scanning technology and methods let nuclear emulsion to be used as a target in recent large experiments. We report the performance of an automatic scanning microscope for nuclear emulsion experiments. After successful calibration and alignment of the system, we have reached 99% tracking efficiency for the minimum ionizing tracks that penetrating through the emulsions films. The automatic scanning system is successfully used for the scanning of emulsion films in the OPERA experiment and plan to use for the next generation of nuclear emulsion experiments.

  7. Na-caseinate/oil/water systems: emulsion morphology diagrams. (United States)

    Tan, Hui Lin; McGrath, Kathryn M


    The concentrated (dispersed phase 50-70 wt%) composition space of Na-caseinate, a family of milk proteins, stabilised emulsions was investigated for three different oils: soybean oil, palm olein and tetradecane with pH 6.8 phosphate buffer continuous phase. The variation of emulsion stability and microstructure were explored using static light scattering, diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance, cryo-scanning electron microscopy, rheology and the time varying macroscopic phase separation of the emulsions. For soybean oil and palm olein a rich diversity of emulsion microstructures and stabilities are realised. Five emulsion domains, each having a different microstructure and macroscopic stability have been identified within the composition space probed. For the lowest concentrations of emulsifier bridging flocculation is evident and emulsions are of low stability. Increasing Na-caseinate concentration leads to an increased stability and the existence of distinct individual oil droplets, visualised using cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Further increases in Na-caseinate concentration reduce emulsion stability due to depletion flocculation. Na-caseinate self-assembly is then initiated. At sufficiently high Na-caseinate and/or oil concentrations the continuous phase of the emulsion is a three-dimensional protein network and emulsion stability is again enhanced. At the limits of the emulsion composition space a gel-like paste is formed. The diversity of emulsion microstructure is reduced when tetradecane is the discrete phase. Na-caseinate self-assembly is limited and there is no evidence for formation of a protein network.

  8. How does oil type determine emulsion characteristics in concentrated Na-caseinate emulsions? (United States)

    Tan, Hui Lin; McGrath, Kathryn M


    Macroscopic properties and ensemble average diffusion of concentrated (dispersed phase 50-60 wt%) Na-caseinate-stabilised emulsions for three different oils (soybean oil, palm olein and tetradecane) were explored. On a volume fraction basis, pulsed gradient stimulated echo (PGSTE)-NMR data show that droplet dynamics for all three systems are similar within a region of the emulsion morphology diagram. The exact limits of the emulsion space depend however on which oil is considered. The reduced solubility of tetradecane in water, and Na-caseinate in tetradecane, result in the stabilisation of flocs during formulation. Floc formation is not observed when soybean oil or palm olein is used under identical emulsion formulation conditions. Linear rheology experiments provide indirect evidence that the local structure and the properties of the thin film interfacial domain of tetradecane emulsions vary from those of soybean oil and palm olein emulsions. Collectively these data indicate that protein/oil interactions within a system dominate over specific oil droplet structure and size distribution, which are similar in the three systems.

  9. CMS emulsion pictures during LS1

    CERN Multimedia

    Di Ferdinando, Donato


    These images were taken at the CMS experimental cavern during Long Shutdown 1, installing pinhole cameras at different points of the cavern and exposing them for days. The development of the film was done by Donato di Ferdinando from INFN Bologna. A pinhole camera is a light-tight box where a small hole is made (diameter of the order of microns); a light-sensitive material is set in the back of the hole. As sensitive material a nuclear emulsion film from the OPERA experiment was used. It is a special photographic emulsion optimized (silver grains enriched) for the detection of charged particles. A very large amount of nuclear emulsions where used in Opera experiment, at the Gran Sasso Underground Labs; nuclear emulsions must detect the charged tau-leptons emerging from the interaction between the "oscillated" tau-neutrino coming from the pure muon-neutrino beam produced at CERN (the CNGS beam). The oscillations theory of neutrino expects that muon neutrinos oscillate to tau-neutrinos and due to this behavior ...

  10. Emulsion flocculation induced by saliva and mucin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Blijdenstein, T.B.J.; Zoet, F.D.; Aken, van G.A.


    Upon consumption of emulsions, mixing with saliva occurs. This article shows that whole saliva and a model mucin (pig gastric mucin, PGM) are able to induce extensive droplet flocculation. Saliva samples collected from several subjects at different times of the day always showed flocculation. Howeve

  11. Altering Emulsion Stability with Heterogeneous Surface Wettability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Qiang; Zhang, Yali; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Chen, Haosheng; Tsai, Peichun Amy


    Emulsions–liquid droplets dispersed in another immiscible liquid–are widely used in a broad spectrum of applications, including food, personal care, agrochemical, and pharmaceutical products. Emulsions are also commonly present in natural crude oil, hampering the production and quality of petroleum

  12. Immune modulation by parenteral lipid emulsions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanten, G.J.A.; Calder, P.C.


    Total parenteral nutrition is the final option for nutritional support of patients with severe intestinal failure. Lipid emulsions constitute the main source of fuel calories and fatty acids (FAs) in parenteral nutrition formulations. However, adverse effects on patient outcomes have been attributed

  13. Histidine residues in the peptide D-Lys(6)-GnRH: potential for copolymerization in polymeric nanoparticles. (United States)

    Kafka, Alexandra P; Kleffmann, Torsten; Rades, Thomas; McDowell, Arlene


    Poly(ethylcyanoacrylate) (PECA) nanoparticles containing the bioactive d-Lys(6)-GnRH were manufactured by an in situ interfacial polymerization process using a w/o-microemulsion template containing the peptide in the dispersed aqueous pseudophase of the microemulsion. Polymeric nanoparticles were characterized using PCS, RP-HPLC (bulk level) and MALDI TOF mass spectrometry (molecular level). The peptide d-Lys(6)-GnRH was reactive with the alkylcyanoacrylate monomer, resulting in some of the peptide copolymerizing with the monomer. MALDI TOF/TOF (tandem) analysis revealed that the histidine residue in position 2 of d-Lys(6)-GnRH interacts covalently in the polymerization process. A reaction mechanism for this nucleophilic interference is suggested. The copolymerization reaction appeared to occur within seconds after the addition of the monomer to the microemulsion. The surface charge of resulting nanoparticles was less negative (-3 mV) compared with the zeta potential of empty nanoparticles (-27.5 mV). The copolymerization yielded high entrapment rates of 95 +/- 4% of peptide, but showed limited release ( approximately 11%) of free peptide over 5 days. A separate experiment demonstrated that the addition of d-Lys(6)-GnRH to preformed empty PECA nanoparticles (ex situ) also yielded fractions of copolymerized peptide suggesting a certain proportion of polymer remains available for copolymerization possibly through an unzipping depolymerization/repolymerization process. Therefore, the reactivity of histidine residues in bioactives needs to be considered whenever using the bioactive in situ or ex situ with polymeric PECA nanoparticles.

  14. Design of highly active binary catalyst systems for CO2/epoxide copolymerization: polymer selectivity, enantioselectivity, and stereochemistry control. (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Bing; Shi, Lei; Wang, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Ying-Ju; Peng, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Li, Bo


    Asymmetric, regio- and stereoselective alternating copolymerization of CO(2) and racemic aliphatic epoxides proceeds effectively under mild temperature and pressure by using a binary catalyst system of a chiral tetradentate Schiff base cobalt complex [SalenCo(III)X] as the electrophile in conjunction with an ionic organic ammonium salt or a sterically hindered strong organic base as the nucleophile. The substituent groups on the aromatic rings, chiral diamine backbone, and axial X group of the electrophile, as well as the nucleophilicity, leaving ability, and coordination ability of the nucleophile, all significantly affect the catalyst activity, polymer selectivity, enantioselectivity, and stereochemistry. A bulky chiral cyclohexenediimine backbone complex [SalcyCo(III)X] with an axial X group of poor leaving ability as the electrophile, combined with a bulky nuclephile with poor leaving ability and low coordination ability, is an ideal binary catalyst system for the copolymerization of CO(2) and a racemic aliphatic epoxide to selectively produce polycarbonates with relatively high enantioselectivity, >95% head-to-tail connectivity, and >99% carbonate linkages. A fast copolymerization of CO(2) and epoxides was observed when the concentration of the electrophile or/and the nucleophile was increased, and the number of polycarbonate chains was proportional to the concentration of the nucleophile. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, in combination with a kinetic study, showed that the copolymerization involved the coordination activation of the monomer by the electrophile and polymer chain growth predominately occurring in the nucleophile. Both the enantiomorphic site effect resulting from the chiral electrophile and the polymer chain end effect mainly from the bulky nucleophile cooperatively control the stereochemistry of the CO(2)/epoxide copolymerization.

  15. Characteristics and behavior of emulsion at nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonda, K.; Nemoto, T.; Oka, K.


    The characteristics and behavior of the emulsion formed in mixer-settlers during nuclear fuel reprocessing were studied with the dissolver solution of spent fuel burned up to 28,000 MWd/MTU and a palladium colloidal solution, respectively. The emulsion was observed to be oil in water where nonsoluble residues of spent fuel were condensed as emulsifiers. Emulsion formed at interfaces in the settler showed electric conductivity due to continuity of the aqueous phase of the emulsion and viscosity due to the creamy state of the emulsion. The higher the palladium particle concentration was, the larger the amount of emulsion formed. This result agreed well with experience obtained in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant operation that both nonsoluble residues and emulsion formation increased remarkably on fuels in which burnup exceeded 20 000 MWd/MTU.

  16. Physical Stability of Whippable Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Merete Bøgelund

    is a prevalent problem causing deteriorated products. Increased viscosity is a consequence of aggregation of dispersed fat globules, which is referred to as physical instability. The aim of the project was to obtain detailed knowledge of the destabilization mechanisms in whippable emulsions by understanding...... on physical stability of whippable emulsions. Addition of LACTEM increased emulsion viscosity considerably at 20 °C, but low viscosity could almost be entirely regained by cooling the emulsions to 5 °C under appliance of shear. GMS did not induce fat globule aggregation in emulsions which remained low viscous...... was enhanced when GMU was added in combination with LACTEM. Physical stability of whippable emulsions was also influenced by concentrations of proteins and stabilizers, and type of dispersed fat phase. Factors related to the dispersed fat phase with effect on emulsion stability was solid fat content, broadness...

  17. Copolymerization of Ethylene with Dicyclopentadiene Using a Constrained Geometry Cyclopentadienyl-phenoxytitanium Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The copolymerization of ethylene with dicyclopentadiene ( DCP ) in the presence of a constrained geometry tetramethylcyclopentadi-enyl-phenoxytitanium catalyst [ 2,4 -t Bu2 -6 - ( 2,3,4,5 -Me4 -Cp ) -PhO ] TiCl2, combined with Al( iBu)3/Ph3C+ B( C6F5 )-4 cocatalyst system was studied. The copolymers that were formed were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), SEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The results of the analysis indicate that the copolymers of ethylene with dicyclopentadiene are amorphous and display two or more melting temperatures in their DSC diagams. Moreover, the morphologies of the copolymers are quite different from that of polyethylenes.

  18. Copolymerization of Ethylene and Vinyl Amino Acidic Ester Catalyzed by Titanium and Zirconium Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang


    Full Text Available A series of titanium and zirconium complexes with ligands based on di-isopropyl phosphorus-phenylamine and their derivatives were synthesized and characterized. These catalysts were utilized to catalyze the copolymerization of ethylene with N-acetyl-O-(dec-9-enyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester with high catalytic activity of 6.63 × 104 g P (mol Ti−1 h−1 after activation by methylaluminoxane (MAO. The effects of ligand structure, metal atoms (Ti, Zr and polymerization conditions were investigated in detail. The obtained polymers were characterized by 13C-NMR, DSC, FT-IR, and GPC. The results showed that the obtained copolymer had a high comonomer incorporation rate of 2.56 mol % within the copolymer chain. The melting temperature of the copolymer was up to 138.9 °C, higher than that of the obtained homopolyethylene.

  19. Structural and behavioral characteristics of radiolytically synthesized polyacrylic acid-polyacrylonitrile copolymeric hydrogels (United States)

    Bera, Anuradha; Misra, R. K.; Singh, Shailendra K.


    Copolymeric hydrogels of polyacrylic acid (PAA) - polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was radiolytically synthesized from their respective monomers with trimethyloltrimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as the crosslinker wherein both polymerization and crosslinking could be achieved in a single step reaction using 60Co γ-radiation under varying doses and dose rates. The formation of the hydrogels was confirmed by their FT-IR analysis, while their thermal degradation patterns were investigated through thermogravimetric analysis in both the dry and swelled state. The water sorption studies showed rapid swelling behavior of these hydrogels, where swelling (%EWC) was found to be strongly dependent on the ratio of the two monomers in the hydrogels and the swelling kinetics dependent on the dose rates of hydrogel synthesis. These radiolytically synthesized hydrogels responded to electrical stimulus both in terms of the bending speed as well as bending angle under an applied voltage. The nature of the deformation was reversible and can be controlled through switching the voltage on and off.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-sheng Qin; Li-jie Chen; Xian-hong Wang; Xiao-jiang Zhao; Fo-song Wang


    Cobalt porphyrin complexes (TPPComx) (TPP =5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-porphyrin; X =halide) in combination with bis(triphenylphosphine) iminium chloride (PPNC1) were used for the copolymerization of cyclohexene oxide and CO2.The highest turnover frequency of 67.2 h-1 was achieved after 13 h at 20℃,and the obtained poly(1,2-cyclohexylene carbonate) (PCHC) showed number average molecular weight (Mn) of 10 × 103.Though the obtained PCHC showed atactic structure,the m-centered tetrads content reached 58.1% at CO2 pressure of 1.0 MPa,and decreased to 51.9% at CO2 pressure of 6.0 MPa,indicating that it was inclined to form atactic polymer at high CO2 pressure.

  1. Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of binary monomer mixture containing acrylonitrile onto polyethylene films (United States)

    Choi, Seong-Ho; Nho, Young Chang


    Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN)/acrylic acid (AA), acrylonitrile (AN)/methacrylic acid (MA), and acrylonitrile (AN)/glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto pre-irradiated polyethylene (PE) films were studied. The effect of reaction conditions such as solvents, additives, and monomer composition on the grafting yields was investigated. The extent of grafting was found to increase with increasing sulfuric acid concentration when sulfuric acid as an additive was added to the grafting solution. In AN/AA mixture, the proportion of acrylonitrile in the copolymer increased with an increasing AN component in feed monomers. On the other hand, in AN/MA mixture, acrylonitrile component in copolymer was very slight in spite of the increase AN component in feed monomers. In the AN/GMA mixture, the proportion of acrylonitrile in the copolymer increased with increasing acrylonitrile component in AN/GMA feed monomer.

  2. Enzymatic ring-opening copolymerization of trimethylene carbonate and ethylene ethyl phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG; Jun; (冯俊); ZHUO; Renxi; (卓仁禧); HE; Feng; (贺枫)


    Enzymatic ring-opening copolymerization of trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and ethylene ethyl phosphate (EEP) are performed in bulk at 100℃ using porcine pancreas lipase (PPL) or candida rugosa lipase (CL) as catalyst. The factors affecting the yield and molecular weights such as catalyst concentration, polymerization time and monomer feed ratio are investigated. The random copolymers obtained have molecular weight ranging from 3200 to 10200. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the copolymers decreases from 28 to 41.7℃, with the increase of the EEP content in the feed from zero to 5∶10. Degradation tests show that the degradability of the copolymers is improved by introduction of the EEP unit into the copolymer chain.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Singh Singha


    Full Text Available The present study deals with the surface modification of Agave americana L. fiber through graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate under pressure in the presence of ceric ammonium nitrate as redox initiator. The various reaction parameters such as reaction time, pressure, concentration of nitric acid, initiator, and monomer, etc. were optimized to have the maximum graft yield of 13.6%. The grafted fibers were then subjected to the evaluation of different physico-chemical properties such as swelling behavior, solubility, moisture absorption under different humidity levels, resistance to acids and bases, etc. It was observed that swelling behavior, solubility behavior, and moisture absorbance decreased with increase in grafting, whereas resistance to acids and bases increased with grafting. The fibers grafted under the optimized conditions were then characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and x-ray diffraction techniques.

  4. Improved detection of amylase activity by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with copolymerized starch. (United States)

    Martínez, T F; Alarcón, F J; Díaz-López, M; Moyano, F J


    An improved method, based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for detection of amylase activity is described. This method will allow better characterization of certain amylases than that obtained by the Davis technique. The main features of the technique are: (i) identification of amylase bands and molecular mass determination are possible in the same gel; (ii) the hydrolysis of copolymerized substrate during electrophoretic separation is prevented using very low temperatures instead of inactivating agents such as chelating agents; and (iii) the technique is applicable to reveal amylase activity in a wide range of biological samples. The method is not useful for enzymes sensitive to SDS and for high molecular mass amylases.

  5. Showing Emulsion Properties with Common Dairy Foods (United States)

    Bravo-Diaz, Carlos; Gonzalez-Romero, Elisa


    Foods are mixtures of different chemical compounds, and the quality we sense (taste, texture, color, etc.) are all manifestations of its chemical properties. Some of them can be visualized with the aid of simple, safe and inexpensive experiments using dairy products that can be found in any kitchen and using almost exclusively kitchen utensils. In this paper we propose some of them related with food emulsions. Food emulsions cover an extremely wide area of daily-life applications such as milk, sauces, dressings and beverages. Experimentation with some culinary recipes to prepare them and the analyisis of the observed results is close to ideal subject for the introduction of chemical principles, allowing to discuss about the nature and composition of foods, the effects of additives, etc. At the same time it allows to get insights into the scientific reasons that underlie on the recipes (something that it is not usually found in most cookbooks). For example, when making an emulsion like mayonnaise, why the egg yolks and water are the first materials in the bowl , and the oil is added to them rather than in the other way around? How you can "rescue" separate emulsions (mayonnaise)? Which parameters affect emulsion stability? Since safety, in its broad sense, is the first requisite for any food, concerns about food exist throughout the world and the more we are aware of our everyday life, the more likely we will be to deal productively with the consequences. On the other hand, understanding what foods are and how cooking works destroys no delightful mystery of the art of cuisine, instead the mystery expands.

  6. Synthesis of Fluorinated Polyacrylate Emulsion and Water -Repelling Capability of Fluorocarbon Paint and Coating Made of the Emulsion%氟代聚丙烯酸酯乳液的合成及其用于氟碳涂料的防水性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁姣姣; 安秋凤; 吴婧; 雷宁


    A kind of quaternary irregularly - copolymerized fluorinated polyacrylate emulsion (abridged as FSHC) was prepared by emulsion copolymerization of perfluoroalkylethyl acrylate (FA) , octadecyl methacrylate (SMA) , 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate (HPA) and 4 - chloromethyl styrene (CMS) in the presence of anionic/ nonionic surfactants as the mixed emulsifier and ( NH4)2S2O8 as the initiator. As-synthesized FSHC emulsion was then used to prepare water - borne paint and coating with desired water-repelling capability. The chemical structure of as - synthesized FSHC emulsion was analyzed by infrared spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and its size distribution and Zeta potential were determined with a nanoscale particle analyzer and a Zeta potential analyzer. Moreover, the chemical states of typical elements on the surface of the coating made of FSHC emulsion were analyzed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the water contact angle of the coating was measured with a contact angle meter. It was found that as - synthesized FSHC emulsion had anticipated chemical structure, and its average size and Zeta potential were 146.2 nm and -21.2 mV. Besides, the coating made of FSHC emulsion contained a large amount of F on the surface, due to transfer of F-containing groups to the coating surface. As a result, as-obtained fluorocarbon coating had excellent water-repelling capability. Moreover, the paint and coating made of FSHC emulsion had good water resistance, showing a water contact angle of 128.6° .%为了制备一种廉价且具有优异防水性的水性涂料,用氟碳乳液,以阴/非离子复合表面活性剂为乳化剂,过硫酸铵为引发剂,通过乳液聚合法制得了全氟烷基乙基丙烯酸酯(FA)-甲基丙烯酸十八醇酯(SMA)-丙烯酸羟丙酯(HPA)-对氯甲基苯乙烯(CMS)四元无规共聚氟代聚丙烯酸酯乳液(FSHC),采用红外光谱仪(IR),核磁共振氢谱(1H-NMR),纳米粒度仪及Zeta电位分析仪,光电

  7. Stability of Concentrated Olive Oil-in-water Emulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Hsiao-Wei; MISRAN Mi-sni


    The stability of olive oil-in-water(o/w)emulsion stabilized with sucrose fatty acid ester(SFAE)was evaluated through an accelerated ageing test.The stability of the emulsion in this study was examined by the appearance of any phase separation in the emulsion,mean droplet size and rbeological properties over one month.The effect of accelerated ageing at 45 μ on the emulsion rheological properties was investigated using an amplitude sweep test,a frequency sweep test and a viscometry test.The rheological properties of the emulsion were examined at the one day,one week and one month of storage time.Among the series of emulsions prepared,the emulsion with 2 :8 of water to oil ratio(by weight)is the most stable one,which did not show any of phase separation.The amplitude sweep result shows that there was no significant change of the critical strain of the emulsion throughout one month of storage time.The dynamic properties as well as the steady flow behavior of the emulsion also show no significant changes for over one month of storage time.The mean droplet size of the emulsion remained stable around 2.5 μn within the period of investigation.

  8. A Comparative Study of the Physicochemical Properties of a Virgin Coconut Oil Emulsion and Commercial Food Supplement Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Phing Khor


    Full Text Available Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO. In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4. C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV, which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.

  9. A comparative study of the physicochemical properties of a virgin coconut oil emulsion and commercial food supplement emulsions. (United States)

    Khor, Yih Phing; Koh, Soo Peng; Long, Kamariah; Long, Shariah; Ahmad, Sharifah Zarah Syed; Tan, Chin Ping


    Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4). C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV), which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.

  10. A study of hydrate formation and dissociation from high water cut emulsions and the impact on emulsion inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaves, D.P.; Boxall, J.A.; Mulligan, J.; Dendy Sloan, E.; Koh, C.A. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Center for Hydrate Research


    The challenges facing the petroleum industry regarding clathrate hydrate formation were discussed, with particular reference to the costly and dangerous pipeline blocking plugs that form upon hydrate accumulation and agglomeration. Although a variety of inhibitors are used to prevent hydrate plug formation, they are not designed for high water content production. As oil and gas are produced from less profitable or older wells, there is a greater probability of higher water cuts. Therefore, this study focused on methane hydrate formation and dissociation from these high water content (greater than 60 per cent volume) emulsions of water-in-oil (W/O) and oil-in-water (O/W). At high water cuts, the system can quickly agglomerate with hydrate formation, while dissociation can lead to a significant change in the emulsion type. Although inhibition can be costly at high water cuts, it must be considered because of the risk of immediate agglomeration and plug formation with hydrates. In this study, the hydrate formation and dissociation from W/O emulsions destabilized the emulsion, with the final emulsion formulation favouring a water continuous state following re-emulsification. After dissociation, the W/O emulsion formed a multiple o/W/O emulsion or inverted at even higher water cuts, forming an O/W emulsion with 68 per cent water volume. In contrast, hydrate formation and dissociation from O/W emulsions with more than 71 per cent water volume stablized the O/W emulsion. 24 refs., 13 figs.

  11. Evidence for Marginal Stability in Emulsions (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Jorjadze, Ivane; Pontani, Lea-Laetitia; Wyart, Matthieu; Brujic, Jasna


    We report the first measurements of the effect of pressure on vibrational modes in emulsions, which serve as a model for soft frictionless spheres at zero temperature. As a function of the applied pressure, we find that the density of states D (ω ) exhibits a low-frequency cutoff ω*, which scales linearly with the number of extra contacts per particle δ z . Moreover, for ω Soft Matter 10, 5628 (2014); S. Franz, G. Parisi, P. Urbani, and F. Zamponi, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 14539 (2015)]. Finally, the degree of localization of the softest low frequency modes increases with compression, as shown by the participation ratio as well as their spatial configurations. Overall, our observations show that emulsions are marginally stable and display non-plane-wave modes up to vanishing frequencies.

  12. Recent advances in heavy oil emulsion treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabros, T.; Hamza, H.A. [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Devon, AB (Canada)


    The challenge of removing emulsified water and dispersed fine solids can be addressed by using a combination of mechanical and thermal treatments assisted by the addition of surfactants and solvent. This paper presented some new developments in the characterization and treatment of heavy oil emulsions. These included the optimization of surfactant (demulsifier) selection and the influence of solvent composition on emulsion stability. The paper discussed reasons for different degrees of decontamination with surfactants and solvent treatment. A new method of determining the droplet size distribution, based on the theory of hindered settling was also presented. It was concluded that the proposed method of determining the size distribution of emulsified water droplets based on examination of hindered settling process in combination with analytical data on water content in the diluted bitumen as a function of time is useful for opaque systems in which standard techniques such as microscopy and light scattering fail. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Entropically Driven Colloidal Assembly in Emulsions (United States)

    Lin, Keng-Hui; Lai, Liang-Jie; Chen, Hui


    Using the techniques developed by Manoharan [1], we encapsulate small numbers of colloidal microspheres and polymers in oil-in-water emulsion droplets, remove the oil and generate colloidal clusters covered with polymers. We observe two types of arrangement in the clusters. The first kind is the same as the type reported in [1] of which the clusters are formed without polymer. The second kind is the same as the structure reported in [2] of which the clusters are formed by binary colloidal microspheres. The polymers we put in the emulsions induce depletion interactions between colloidal particles. We will show that two types of structures are from the interplay between the depletion interactions and surface tension. [1] Manoharan, Elsesser, Pine, Science 301, 483(2003). [2] Cho et al. JACS 127, 15968 (2005).

  14. Physical Stability of Whippable Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Merete Bøgelund

    the impact of ingredient composition, with focus on low-molecular-weight (LMW) emulsifiers. Three monoglyceride-based LMW-emulsifiers were selected: Lactic acid ester of saturated monoglyceride (LACTEM), unsaturated monoglyceride (GMU), and saturated monoglyceride (GMS). LMW-emulsifiers had major impact...... on physical stability of whippable emulsions. Addition of LACTEM increased emulsion viscosity considerably at 20 °C, but low viscosity could almost be entirely regained by cooling the emulsions to 5 °C under appliance of shear. GMS did not induce fat globule aggregation in emulsions which remained low viscous...... despite appliance of shear and temperature changes from 5 to 20 °C. Globule aggregation induced by LACTEM was impeded when used in combination with GMS. On the contrary, GMU induced very dense fat globule networks in emulsions which transformed emulsions into very firm solid-like pastes. This effect...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanghui Ma; Fangling Gong; Guohua Hu; Dongxia Hao; Rong Liu; Renwei Wang


    Multi-scale structures involved in emulsion and microsphere complex systems are presented and discussed. The stability and spatio-temporal structures of emulsions, as well as nano-structures formed on the surface of microspheres after polymerization, are affected by the molecular emulsifier/stabilizer structures and the adsorbed emulsifier/stabilizer nano-structures on the oil/water interface. The broad size distribution and variation of surface features of droplets are responsible for variations of the adsorbed emulsifier/stabilizer structures and the stability of the emulsions.On the other hand, preparation of a uniformly sized emulsion and employment of a combined emulsifier/stabilizer system can preserve the stability of the emulsions and microspheres. The above phenomena should be modeled by a multiscale method, in order to maintain the stability of individual emulsion systems and realize the desired nano-structures of microspheres by choosing adequate emulsifier/stabilizer and experimental parameters.

  16. Emulsions Containing Perfluorocarbon Support Cell Cultures (United States)

    Ju, Lu-Kwang; Lee, Jaw Fang; Armiger, William B.


    Addition of emulsion containing perfluorocarbon liquid to aqueous cell-culture medium increases capacity of medium to support mammalian cells. FC-40 Fluorinert (or equivalent) - increases average density of medium so approximately equal to that of cells. Cells stay suspended in medium without mechanical stirring, which damages them. Increases density enough to prevent cells from setting, and increases viscosity of medium so oxygen bubbled through it and nutrients stirred in with less damage to delicate cells.

  17. Vegetable oil based emulsions in milk


    Veronika Mikulcová; Iva Hauerlandová; Leona Buňková


    Milk and dairy products represent an important part of functional food in the market. Based on their positive health and nutritional benefits, they have gained popularity and their consumption as well as production is on the rise in the last few decades. As a result of this trend, milk-based products are being used for the delivery of bioactive food ingredients. This study is devoted to the formulation of stable emulsions containing grape seed oil dispersed with several emulsifiers (Tween 80,...

  18. Omega-3s in food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte


    There is an increasing interest in the use of healthy long chain omega-3 oils in foods. Incorporation of omega-3 oils into foods decreases their oxidative stability and therefore precautions need to be taken to avoid lipid oxidation. This review summarises the major factors to take into considera...... into consideration when developing food emulsions enriched with omega-3 oils and examples on how oxidation can be reduced in products such as mayonnaise, spreads, milk, yoghurt are also given....

  19. Silica-grafted diethylzinc and a silsesquioxane-based zinc alkyl complex as catalysts for the alternating oxirane-carbon dioxide copolymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchateau, Robbert; van Meerendonkt, Wouter J.; Huijser, Saskia; Staal, Bastiaan B. P.; van Schilt, Marcus A.; Gerritsen, Gijsbert; Meetsma, Auke; Koning, Cor E.; Kemmere, Maartje F.; Keurentjes, Jos T. F.


    A novel zinc silsesquioxane complex ([(c-C5H9)(7)Si7O11(OSiMePh2)](2)Zn4Me4 (1)) has been used as a model compound for silica-grafted zinc catalysts in the copolymerization of cyclohexene oxide and CO2. Complex 1 exists as a dimer in the solid state and is moderately active in the copolymerization,

  20. Application of Et3NHCl-AlCl3 Ionic Liquid as an Initiator in Cationic Copolymerization of 1, 3-Pentadiene with Styrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yuan WANG; Hui SUN; Juan LI; Dong JIANG; Li Yi DAI


    The random copolymer poly (1, 3-pentadiene-co-styrene) formed through cationic copolymerization using the triethylamine hydrochloride and hydrous aluminium chloride (Et3NHC1-A1C13) room temperature ionic liquid as initiating agent in toluene was analyzed using IR spectra in conjunction with gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The room temperature ionic liquid was found to have high initiatic activity for copolymerization.

  1. Simple and double emulsions via electrospray (United States)

    Barrero, Antonio; Loscertales, Ignacio G.


    Generation of nanoemulsions is of great interest in medical and pharmaceutical applications; drug delivery or antiviral emulsions are typical examples. The use of electrosprays for dispersing liquids inside liquid insulator baths have been recently reported, (Barrero et al. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 272, 104, 2004). Capsules, nanotubes and coaxial nanofibers have been obtained from electrified coaxial jets (Loscertales et al. Science 295, n. 5560, 1695, 2002; J. American Chem. Soc. 126, 5376, 2004). Here we present a method for making double emulsions (both water-oil-water and o/w/o) based on the generation of compound electrosprays inside insulator liquid baths. Basically, a conducting liquid injected throughout a capillary needle is electroatomized in cone-jet mode inside a dielectric liquid bath. A third insulating liquid is injected inside the Taylor cone to form a second meniscus. Then, a steady coaxial jet, in which the insulating liquid is coated by the conducting one, develops. A double emulsion forms as a result of the jet breaking up into compound droplets electrically charged. Experimental results carried out with glycerine and different oils in a bath of heptane are reported.

  2. Reactivity of vinyl ethers and vinyl ribosides in UV-initiated free radical copolymerization with acceptor monomers. (United States)

    Pichavant, Loic; Guillermain, Céline; Coqueret, Xavier


    The reactivity of various vinyl ethers and vinyloxy derivatives of ribose in the presence of diethyl fumarate or diethyl maleate was investigated for evaluating the potential of donor-acceptor-type copolymerization applied to unsaturated monomers derived from renewable feedstock. The photochemically induced polymerization of model monomer blends in the bulk state was monitored by infrared spectroscopy. The method allowed us to examine the influence of monomer pair structure on the kinetic profiles. The simultaneous consumption of both monomers was observed, supporting an alternating copolymerization mechanism. A lower reactivity of the blends containing maleates compared with fumarates was confirmed. The obtained kinetic data revealed a general correlation between the initial polymerization rate and the Hansen parameter δ(H) associated with the H-bonding aptitude of the donor monomer.

  3. Synthesis of Polyketone by Copolymerization of Styrene and CO Using Carbon Nanotube-Complex Pd2+Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭锦棠; 肖淼; 王海霞; 胡光


    The dipping method was devised to deposit Pd onto carbon nanotube as supported catalyst (Pd/CNT) for the copolymerization of carbon monoxide (CO) and styrene(ST) towards the formation of polyketone (PK). The Pd/CNT was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The construction and crystallization property of PK were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) and XRD, respectively. The catalyst showed excellent activity and reusability in promoting the fabrication of PK. It can be recycled 14 times with the highest total catalytic activity of 4 239.64 gPK/(gPd·h) at Pd content of 8.63wt%. The results indicate that the prepared catalyst is effective to catalyze the copolymerization of CO and styrene.

  4. Emulsifier development for high-concentrated reverse emulsions


    Kovalenko, I. L.; V.P. Kuprin


    The reverse emulsions have found broad application in ore mining industry as matrixes of emulsion explosive substances and boring washing waters. The defining characteristic of reverse emulsions of industrial explosive substances is the high stability and immunity to crystallization. Aim: The aim of this work is to assess the mechanism of emulsifiers effect like SMO and some PIBSA-derivatives, that are most abundantly used in world practice, and also to develop an effective domestic emulsifie...

  5. Characterization and stability studies of emulsion systems containing pumice


    Marilene Estanqueiro; Jaime Conceição; Maria Helena Amaral; Delfim Santos; João Baptista Silva; José Manuel Sousa Lobo


    Emulsions are the most common form of skin care products. However, these systems may exhibit some instability. Therefore, when developing emulsions for topical application it is interesting to verify whether they have suitable physical and mechanical characteristics and further assess their stability. The aim of this work was to study the stability of emulsion systems, which varied in the proportion of the emulsifying agent cetearyl alcohol (and) sodium lauryl sulfate (and) sodium cetearyl su...

  6. Antioxidant efficacy of caffeates in emulsions and the effect of tocopherols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Aleman, M.; Durand, E.


    was evaluated from three parameters measured over time: peroxide value (PV), secondary volatile oxidation products and tocopherol concentrations. The results demonstrate the efficacy of caffeates in simple emulsions and food emulsions. Furthermore, the two different simple emulsion systems reveal possible...

  7. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of aliphatic polyesters via copolymerization of lactone, dialkyl diester, and diol. (United States)

    Jiang, Zhaozhong


    Candida antarctica lipase (CALB) has been successfully used as catalyst for copolymerization of dialkyl diester with diol and lactone to form aliphatic polyesters. The polymerization reactions were performed using a two stage process: first stage oligomerization under low vacuum followed by second stage polymerization under high vacuum. Use of the two-stage process is required to obtain products with high molecular weights at high yields for the following reasons: (i) the first stage reaction ensures that the monomer loss via evaporation is minimized to maintain 1:1 diester to diol stoichiometric ratio, and the monomers are converted to nonvolatile oligomers; (ii) use of high vacuum during the second stage accelerates equilibrium transesterification reactions to transform the oligomers to high molecular weight polymers. Thus, terpolymers of omega-pentadecalactone (PDL), diethyl succinate (DES), and 1,4-butanediol (BD) with a M w of whole product (nonfractionated) up to 77000 and M w/ M n between 1.7 and 4.0 were synthesized in high yields (e.g., 95% isolated yield). A desirable reaction temperature for the copolymerizations was found to be around 95 degrees C. At 1:1:1 PDL/DES/BD monomer molar ratio, the resultant terpolymers contained equal moles of PDL, succinate, and butylene repeat units in the polymer chains. (1)H and (13)C NMR analyses were used to determine the polyester microstructures. The synthesized PDL-DES-BD terpolymers possessed near random structures with all possible combinations of PDL, succinate, and butylene units via ester linkages in the polymer backbone. Furthermore, thermal stability and crystallinity of a pure PDL-DES-BD terpolymer with 1:1:1 PDL to succinate to butylene unit ratio and M w of 85400 were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The copolyester was found to be a semicrystalline material with a T g of -34 degrees C and a T m of 64 degrees C, which degrades in a single weight loss

  8. CAMELOT: A machine learning approach for coarse-grained simulations of aggregation of block-copolymeric protein sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruff, Kiersten M. [Computational and Systems Biology Program and Center for Biological Systems Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130-4899 (United States); Harmon, Tyler S. [Department of Physics and Center for Biological Systems Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130-4899 (United States); Pappu, Rohit V., E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Center for Biological Systems Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, CB 1097, St. Louis, Missouri 63130-4899 (United States)


    We report the development and deployment of a coarse-graining method that is well suited for computer simulations of aggregation and phase separation of protein sequences with block-copolymeric architectures. Our algorithm, named CAMELOT for Coarse-grained simulations Aided by MachinE Learning Optimization and Training, leverages information from converged all atom simulations that is used to determine a suitable resolution and parameterize the coarse-grained model. To parameterize a system-specific coarse-grained model, we use a combination of Boltzmann inversion, non-linear regression, and a Gaussian process Bayesian optimization approach. The accuracy of the coarse-grained model is demonstrated through direct comparisons to results from all atom simulations. We demonstrate the utility of our coarse-graining approach using the block-copolymeric sequence from the exon 1 encoded sequence of the huntingtin protein. This sequence comprises of 17 residues from the N-terminal end of huntingtin (N17) followed by a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract. Simulations based on the CAMELOT approach are used to show that the adsorption and unfolding of the wild type N17 and its sequence variants on the surface of polyQ tracts engender a patchy colloid like architecture that promotes the formation of linear aggregates. These results provide a plausible explanation for experimental observations, which show that N17 accelerates the formation of linear aggregates in block-copolymeric N17-polyQ sequences. The CAMELOT approach is versatile and is generalizable for simulating the aggregation and phase behavior of a range of block-copolymeric protein sequences.

  9. Synthesis of copolymerized porous organic frameworks with high gas storage capabilities at both high and low pressures. (United States)

    Pei, Cuiying; Ben, Teng; Li, Yanqiang; Qiu, Shilun


    A series of copolymerized porous organic frameworks (C-POFs) were synthesized with monomers of tetrakis(4-bromophenyl)methane and tris(4-bromophenyl)amine in different ratios by a Yamamoto-type Ullmann cross-coupling reaction. These C-POFs exhibit high physicochemical stability, large surface areas and excellent H2, CH4 and CO2 adsorption properties both at low and high pressures.

  10. Cationic Ring Opening Copolymerization of 1,3-Dioxolane with Styrene by Montmorillonite Maghnite-H+Catalyst


    Nabil Hamam; Mohammed Issam Ferrahi; Mohammed Belbachir


    In the present work, the copolymerization of 1,3-Dioxolane (DXL) with Styrene (St) catalyzed by Maghnite-H+ a montmorillonite sheet silicate clay exchanged with protons, was investigated. The cationic ring opening polymerization was initiated by Maghnite-H+ in bulk. The copolymer obtained was characterized by 1H-NMR, DSC and IR spectroscopy. The studies done, such as the effect of the amount of catalyser on the syntheses of poly (DXL -co- Styrene).

  11. Cationic Ring Opening Copolymerization of 1,3-Dioxolane with Styrene by Montmorillonite Maghnite-H+Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Hamam


    Full Text Available In the present work, the copolymerization of 1,3-Dioxolane (DXL with Styrene (St catalyzed by Maghnite-H+ a montmorillonite sheet silicate clay exchanged with protons, was investigated. The cationic ring opening polymerization was initiated by Maghnite-H+ in bulk. The copolymer obtained was characterized by 1H-NMR, DSC and IR spectroscopy. The studies done, such as the effect of the amount of catalyser on the syntheses of poly (DXL -co- Styrene.

  12. Synthesis of copolymerized porous organic frameworks with high gas storage capabilities at both high and low pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Pei, Cuiying


    A series of copolymerized porous organic frameworks (C-POFs) were synthesized with monomers of tetrakis(4-bromophenyl)methane and tris(4-bromophenyl)amine in different ratios by a Yamamoto-type Ullmann cross-coupling reaction. These C-POFs exhibit high physicochemical stability, large surface areas and excellent H2, CH4 and CO 2 adsorption properties both at low and high pressures. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ruinian; LIANG Wenzhong


    The radical copolymerizations of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl 4-piperidinyl methacrylate (TMPM) with styrene in various solvents have been studied. The monomer reactivity ratios r1 and r2 were determined. It is observed that in all of these reaction systems, there are appreciable solvent effects on both r1 and r2, which can be correlated to the difference in chemical shifts of olefinic protons of TMPM. And the variance of the copolymer microstructure in various media was discussed.

  14. The choice of homogenisation equipment affects lipid oxidation in emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard


    in emulsions has been shown to be affected by the emulsification conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of homogenisation equipment (microfluidizer vs. two-stage valve homogeniser) on lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared with two different milk proteins....... Emulsions were prepared at pH 7 with similar droplet sizes. Results showed that the oxidative stability of emulsions prepared with sodium caseinate was not influenced by the type of homogeniser used. In contrast, the type of homogenisation equipment significantly influenced lipid oxidation when whey protein...

  15. Squalene Emulsions for Parenteral Vaccine and Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B. Fox


    Full Text Available Squalene is a linear triterpene that is extensively utilized as a principal component of parenteral emulsions for drug and vaccine delivery. In this review, the chemical structure and sources of squalene are presented. Moreover, the physicochemical and biological properties of squalene-containing emulsions are evaluated in the context of parenteral formulations. Historical and current parenteral emulsion products containing squalene or squalane are discussed. The safety of squalene-based products is also addressed. Finally, analytica techniques for characterization of squalene emulsions are examined.

  16. Interaction between a perfluorocarbon emulsion and radiographic contrast media. (United States)

    Franke, Ralf-Peter; Reuter, Peter; Röhlke, Wolfgang; Matschke, Klaus; Keller, Steffi; Klosterhalfen, Bernd; Mittermayer, Christian; Mrowietz, Christoph; Jung, Friedrich


    This study evaluated specially designed perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions as blood substitutes in case of induced ischemia of the left heart ventricle in healthy farm pigs. Two hundred ml of perfluorocarbon emulsion were infused while 200 ml of blood were simultaneously drawn. Radiographic contrast media were given to aid placement of balloon catheters in the left coronary artery. Histopathological analysis showed that right heart failure caused the deaths of both pigs. Particles (up to>3 micro) of foreign body materials obstructed capillaries of all organs analyzed (heart, lung, liver, kidneys and spleen). Laboratory investigation showed severe interference between the PFC emulsion and radiographic contrast media, resulting in the deterioration of the PFC emulsion. The strongest interference occurred when PFC emulsion and Accupaque interacted; particle size started at an initial 311 nm and went up to >3 micro within seconds. Great care must be taken when PFC emulsions are used in combination with x-ray contrast media. None of the described radiographic contrast media should be used within 48 hours prior to the use of this PFC emulsion. Also, the use of these contrast media should be avoided for a certain period of time after using PFC emulsion. The mechanisms of elimination of PFC emulsions from the circulation are not completely understood and has yet to be evaluated.

  17. Performance evaluation of organic emulsion liquid membrane on phenol removal

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Y S; Hashim, M A


    The percentage removal of phenol from aqueous solution by emulsion liquid membrane and emulsion leakage was investigated experimentally for various parameters such as membrane:internal phase ratio, membrane:external phase ratio, emulsification speed, emulsification time, carrier concentration, surfactant concentration and internal agent concentration. These parameters strongly influence the percentage removal of phenol and emulsion leakage. Under optimum membrane properties, the percentage removal of phenol was as high as 98.33%, with emulsion leakage of 1.25%. It was also found that the necessity of carrier for enhancing phenol removal was strongly dependent on the internal agent concentration.

  18. Mathematical Approach in Rheological Characterizing of Asphalt Emulsion Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Hwan Cho


    Full Text Available Three different emulsion residues, such as SS1HP, HFE90, and SS-1VH (trackless, and a base asphalt binder (PG 64-22 are compared to characterize rheological properties by using DSR test. In order to capture the emulsion properties, different frequencies (from 1 to 100 rad/sec at a 10% constant shear rate and temperatures (from −45°C to 75°C with 15°C increments were applied. Then, a master curve for shear modulus was plotted for each emulsion. The transition of the HFE90 emulsion from viscous to elastic behavior occurs at lower temperatures, compared to the other materials. This emulsion is known for performing in a wider temperature range as shown in the results. The trackless emulsion presents an elastic behavior at intermediate temperatures. This product is known as having very fast setting and high resistance to shear stresses. The trackless emulsion presents the highest viscous and elastic modulus, followed by the PG 64-22 binder, SS1HP, and HFE90 emulsion. Shear strength test results show a behavior between trackless emulsion and SS1HP similar to the frequency sweep test results performed by DSR.

  19. POE-PEG-POE triblock copolymeric microspheres containing protein. I. Preparation and characterization. (United States)

    Yang, Y Y; Wan, J P; Chung, T S; Pallathadka, P K; Ng, S; Heller, J


    Poly(ortho ester) (POE)-poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) triblock copolymers (POE-PEG-POE) with different PEG contents were synthesised as carriers for controlled protein delivery. POE-PEG-POE microspheres containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) were prepared using a double-emulsion (water-in-oil-in-water) process. In this first paper of a two-part series, we report the fundamentals of the fabrication and characterization of POE-PEG-POE microspheres. Because the triblock copolymer is more hydrophilic than neat poly(ortho ester), the triblock copolymer yields a more stable first emulsion (water-in-oil) and a greater BSA encapsulation efficiency (90% vs. 30%). No BSA is found on POE-PEG-POE microsphere surfaces measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, while uniform BSA distributions are observed within the microspheres by confocal microscopy. SEM pictures show that an increase in PEG content results in microspheres with a denser cross-section because of a more stable first emulsion and better affinity between the copolymer and water. POE-PEG(20%)-POE suffers significant swelling during the fabrication process and yields the biggest microspheres. However, the POE-PEG(30%)-POE microspheres are much smaller since the dissolution loss of POE-PEG(30%)-POE in the external water phase may be much higher than that of POE-PEG(20%)-POE. The salt concentration in the external water phase significantly affects the morphology of the resultant microspheres. Microspheres with a dense wall are produced when using pure water as the external water phase. Polymer concentration has less impact on BSA encapsulation efficiency but has a considerable effect on microsphere size and morphology. Increasing the concentration of the polyvinyl alcohol emulsifier does not cause an obvious decrease in microsphere size. However, increased BSA loading results in bigger microspheres.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Hong; Bai-xiang Li; Yue-sheng Li


    Novel copolymerization of ethylene with substituted allenes (CH2=C=CH-R,1:R =n-butyl,2:R =n-octyl)using bis(β-enaminoketonato)titanium catalysts [PhN=C(R2)CHC(R1)O]2TiCl2 (1a:R1 =CF3,R2 =CH3; 1b:R1 =Ph,R2 =CF3) has been investigated.In the presence of modified methylaluminoxane,these catalysts can copolymerize ethylene with substituted allenes,affording copolymers with unimodal molecular weight distributions and homogeneous compositions.By varying the reaction conditions,the comonomer incorporation can be tuned in the range of 0-3.6 mol%.1H-NMR spectra reveal that the copolymerization proceeds through 1,2-insertion fashion of allene comonomer exclusively,and the regioselective nature maintains under various reaction conditions.The retained intra-chain double bond can be converted into the epoxy group under mild conditions.

  1. Comparison of Polymer Networks Synthesized by Conventional Free Radical and RAFT Copolymerization Processes in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Pérez-Salinas


    Full Text Available There is a debate in the literature on whether or not polymer networks synthesized by reversible deactivation radical polymerization (RDRP processes, such as reversible addition-fragmentation radical transfer (RAFT copolymerization of vinyl/divinyl monomers, are less heterogeneous than those synthesized by conventional free radical copolymerization (FRP. In this contribution, the syntheses by FRP and RAFT of hydrogels based on 2-hydroxyethylene methacrylate (HEMA and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2, using Krytox 157 FSL as the dispersing agent, and the properties of the materials produced, are compared. The materials were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, swelling index (SI, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Studies on ciprofloxacin loading and release rate from hydrogels were also carried out. The combined results show that the hydrogels synthesized by FRP and RAFT are significantly different, with apparently less heterogeneity present in the materials synthesized by RAFT copolymerization. A ratio of experimental (Mcexp to theoretical (Mctheo molecular weight between crosslinks was established as a quantitative tool to assess the degree of heterogeneity of a polymer network.

  2. Metal-Free Alternating Copolymerization of CO2with Epoxides: Fulfilling “Green” Synthesis and Activity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Dongyue


    Polycarbonates were successfully synthesized for the first time through the anionic copolymerization of epoxides with CO2, under metal-free conditions. Using an approach based on the activation of epoxides by Lewis acids and of CO, by appropriate cations, well-defined alternating copolymers made of CO, and propylene oxide (PO) or cyclohexene oxide (CHO) were indeed obtained. Triethyl borane was the Lewis acid chosen to activate the epoxides, and onium halides or onium alkoxides involving either ammonium, phosphonium, or phosphazenium cations were selected to initiate the copolymerization. In the case of PO, the carbonate content of the poly(propylene carbonate) formed was in the range of 92-99% and turnover numbers (TON) were close to 500; in the case of CHO perfectly alternating poly(cyclohexene carbonate) were obtained and TON values were close to 4000. The advantages of such a copolymerization system are manifold: (i) no need for multistep catalyst/ligand synthesis as in previous works; (ii) no transition metal involved in the copolymer synthesis and therefore no coloration of the samples isolated; and (iii) no necessity for postsynthesis purification.

  3. Xyloglucan-Functional Latex Particles via RAFT-Mediated Emulsion Polymerization for the Biomimetic Modification of Cellulose. (United States)

    Hatton, Fiona L; Ruda, Marcus; Lansalot, Muriel; D'Agosto, Franck; Malmström, Eva; Carlmark, Anna


    Herein, we report a novel class of latex particles composed of a hemicellulose, xyloglucan (XG), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), specially designed to enable a biomimetic modification of cellulose. The formation of the latex particles was achieved utilizing reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) mediated surfactant-free emulsion polymerization employing XG as a hydrophilic macromolecular RAFT agent (macroRAFT). In an initial step, XG was functionalized at the reducing chain end to bear a dithioester. This XG macroRAFT was subsequently utilized in water and chain extended with methyl methacrylate (MMA) as hydrophobic monomer, inspired by a polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) process. This yielded latex nanoparticles with a hydrophobic PMMA core stabilized by the hydrophilic XG chains at the corona. The molar mass of PMMA targeted was varied, resulting in a series of stable latex particles with hydrophobic PMMA content between 22 and 68 wt % of the total solids content (5-10%). The XG-PMMA nanoparticles were subsequently adsorbed to a neutral cellulose substrate (filter paper), and the modified surfaces were analyzed by FT-IR and SEM analyses. The adsorption of the latex particles was also investigated by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), where the nanoparticles were adsorbed to negatively charged model cellulose surfaces. The surfaces were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle (CA) measurements. QCM-D experiments showed that more mass was adsorbed to the surfaces with increasing molar mass of the PMMA present. AFM of the surfaces after adsorption showed discrete particles, which were no longer present after annealing (160 °C, 1 h) and the roughness (Rq) of the surfaces had also decreased by at least half. Interestingly, after annealing, the surfaces did not all become more hydrophobic, as monitored by CA measurements, indicating that the surface roughness was an important factor to

  4. Synthesis, Characterization and Swelling Characteristics of Graft Copolymerized Isotactic Polypropylene Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teena Sehgal


    Full Text Available Grafted membranes were prepared through chemical graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA onto isotactic polypropylene film (IPP. The IPP films were grafted with MMA molecules resulting in IPP-g-MMA grafts using benzoyl peroxide as an initiator in an inert nitrogen atmosphere. Using this method, the degree of grafting and morphology could be controlled through the variation of reaction parameters such as initiator concentration, monomer concentration, reaction time, and the reaction temperature. Optimum conditions pertaining to maximum percentage of grafting (%G were evaluated as a function of these parameters. Maximum percentage of grafting (50% was obtained at [BPO]=0.03 M, [MMA]=10% V/V, and [Reaction Temperature] = 70∘C in a [Reaction time] of 120 minutes. IPP-g-MMA films were investigated for their swelling behavior. Water-swelling analysis of IPP-g-MMA was carried out as a function of different percentage of grafting, temperatures, and time. Maximum swelling percentage of IPP-g-MMA (92% was observed in 8 hours at 60∘C. The evidence of grafting was carried out by Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM before and after grafting, respectively. The swelling pattern was characterized by two distinct stages, an initial diffusion-controlled fast swelling, followed by a subsequent slower process controlled by the relaxation of polymer fragments. Swelling chrematistics of IPP-g-MMA make it a potentially useful material.

  5. Optimizing the bulk copolymerization of D,L-lactide and glycolide by response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Rodriguez


    Full Text Available Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide, PLGA, is a biodegradable polyester with high interest in medical industry, especially when zinc (II 2-ethylhexanoate (ZnOct2 is used as catalyst substitute in polymerization processes as a substitute of the toxic tin (II 2-ethylhexanoate (SnOct2 together an initiator such as methanol to improve the reaction rate. This article shows the optimization of the bulk copolymerization method by using a factorial design approach on three experimental parameters: temperature (T, molar ratio monomers/catalyst (MC ratio and molar ratio initiator/catalyst (IC ratio. Their influence on mass conversion (X and number-average molecular weight (Mn was also discussed. Also it provides a useful tool to select in a fast way the proper experimental conditions for the obtaining of this polymer as a previous stage in the synthesis and impregnation of biodegradable scaffolds. This analysis revealed that the most relevant variable in the process is the temperature, being desirable to use the high value (160ºC in order to obtain high values of conversion and molecular weight.

  6. Ionic Liquid-Complex Pd/C System as Catalyst for Copolymerization of CO and Styrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海霞; 郭锦棠; 胡光; 冯亚凯; 武瑞涛


    The copolymerization of CO and styrene catalyzed by Pd/C toward the formation of polyketones (PK)was studied in the N-valeronitrile-N'-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C4CNmim]+PF6-) medium. The synthe-sized PK was characterized by Fourier transform infrared(FTIR), elemental analysis, 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and gel permeation chro-matography (GPC). The supported ionic liquid film on the surface of Pd/C catalyst can prevent the products from covering the hole of active carbon due to its chemical stability and weak coordination ability with metal ions, and thus efficiently improve the catalytic activity. The effects of different amounts of ionic liquid on the catalytic activity and reusability of the catalyst and the molecular weight of PK were discussed. When the usage of ionic liquid is 10wt%(0.1 g ionic liquid/1 g active carbon carrier) and the theoretical content of Pd2+is 5wt%(0.05 g Pd2+/1 g active car-bon carrier), the highest catalytic activity 2 963.64 gSTCO/(gPd·h) is achieved with the molecular weight and polydispersity index of PK as Mn=9 684, Mw=13 452 and Mw/Mn=1.389.

  7. Graft Copolymerization of Methyl Methacrylate Monomer onto Starch and Natural Rubber Latex Initiated by Gamma Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Iskandar


    Full Text Available To obtain the degradable plastic, the graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate onto starch and natural rubber latex was conducted by a simultaneous irradiation technique. Gamma-ray from cobalt-60 source was used as the initiator. The grafted copolymer of starch-polymethyl methacrylate and the grafted copolymer of natural rubber-polymethyl methacrylate were mixed in the blender, and dried it in the oven. The dried grafted copolymer mixture was then molded using hydraulic press machine. The effect of irradiation dose, composition of the grafted copolymer mixture, film forming condition and recycle effect was evaluated. The parameters observed were tensile strength, gel fraction and soil burial degradability of grafted copolymer mixture. It was found that the tensile strength of grafted copolymer mixture increased by -ray irradiation. Increasing of the grafted copolymer of natural rubber-polymethyl methacrylate content, the gel fraction and tensile strength of the grafted copolymer mixture increased. The tensile strength of the grafted copolymer mixture was increased from 18 MPa to 23 MPa after recycled (film forming reprocessed 3 times. The grafted copolymer mixture was degraded completely after soil buried for 6 months

  8. Fluorinated polymides for interlayer dielectric applications: Tailoring of properties via copolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auman, B.C. [Du Pont Electronic Materials, Wilmington, DE (United States); McKerrow, A.J.; Ho, P.S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others


    Over the past several years DuPont has been exploring new, rod-like fluorinated polyimides for interlayer dielectric (ILD) applications. It has been shown that copolymerization is a versatile method for tailoring properties of these rigid polyimides. Initial product offerings from DuPont showed an excellent balance of properties for ILD applications. These materials, however, due to their highly rod-like structure and very low in-plane coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), actually yielded negative thermal stresses on silicon at the 1 {mu}m thicknesses typical of interlayer dielectrics. More flexible materials with higher CTE typically yield positive stress values which can be undesirably quite high. The dielectric constant of these highly rod-like fluorinated polyimides was also somewhat anisotropic, again due to the rod-like nature and resulting high in-plane orientation of these polyimides. Since a thermal stress on silicon near zero and a more isotropic dielectric constant are likely the most desirable states for an ILD, the highly rod-like polyimide was further optimized by incorporation of a more flexible fluorinated comonomer, 6FDA, at various levels to increase CTE and balance dielectric constant. The various properties of this series of fluorinated polyimides were investigated. The results have shown that it is indeed possible to obtain near zero stress on silicon while attaining more isotropic dielectric constant via structure optimization.

  9. Photocrosslinkable Star Polymers via RAFT-Copolymerizations with N-Ethylacrylate-3,4-dimethylmaleimide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Vana


    Full Text Available This paper describes the Z-RAFT-star copolymerization of n-butyl acrylate (BA and N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAm, respectively, with N-ethylacrylate-3,4-dimethylmaleimide (1.1, a monomer carrying a UV-reactive unit that undergoes photocrosslinking. Addition of 1.1 slows down the polymerization rate both for BA and for NIPAm polymerization. Double star formation due to radical attack to the 3,4-dimethylmaleimide moiety was found in the case of BA. Dead polymer formation, presumably due to aminolysis as side-reaction, was pronounced in the NIPAm system. These two effects broadened the molar mass distributions, but did not impede the formation of functional star polymers. The composition of the copolymers as well as the reactivity ratios for the applied comonomers were determined via NMR spectroscopy (BA-co-1.1 r1.1 = 2.24 rBA = 0.95; NIPAm-co-1.1 r1.1 = 0.96 rNIPAm = 0.05. In both cases, the comonomer is consumed preferably in the beginning of the polymerization, thus forming gradient copolymer stars with the UV-reactive units being located in the outer sphere.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of 1,3-Bis(vinylbenzylthymine: Copolymerization with Vinylbenzyl Thymine Ammonium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Chau H. Vy


    Full Text Available A novel bioinspired molecule, 1,3-bis(vinylbenzylthymine (bisVBT, was isolated as a by-product during the synthesis of 1-(4-vinylbenzylthymine (VBT and analyzed with various techniques: NMR, IR, and Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction. In addition to embodying all the desired characteristics of VBT (i.e., having the ability to undergo a 2π+2π photodimerization reaction upon UV irradiation, a derivatization site, hydrogen bonding sites, and aromatic stacking ability the bisVBT monomer has the added benefit of having two vinyl groups for cross-polymerization. Copolymerizing the bisVBT monomer with the charged monomer vinylbenzyl triethylammonium (VBA chloride, different copolymers/terpolymers/cross-linked network were obtained, as it was shown by the absence of the vinyl resonance in the NMR spectra. Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC showed an indication of materials with low degree of cross-linking. A Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC method was improved to better characterize the molecular weight distributions of the cationic structures. Preliminary qualitative cross-linking studies were performed on bisVBT-VBA copolymers, and a comparison with VBT-VBA copolymers is presented.

  11. Template-Directed Copolymerization, Random Walks along Disordered Tracks, and Fractals (United States)

    Gaspard, Pierre


    In biology, template-directed copolymerization is the fundamental mechanism responsible for the synthesis of DNA, RNA, and proteins. More than 50 years have passed since the discovery of DNA structure and its role in coding genetic information. Yet, the kinetics and thermodynamics of information processing in DNA replication, transcription, and translation remain poorly understood. Challenging issues are the facts that DNA or RNA sequences constitute disordered media for the motion of polymerases or ribosomes while errors occur in copying the template. Here, it is shown that these issues can be addressed and sequence heterogeneity effects can be quantitatively understood within a framework revealing universal aspects of information processing at the molecular scale. In steady growth regimes, the local velocities of polymerases or ribosomes along the template are distributed as the continuous or fractal invariant set of a so-called iterated function system, which determines the copying error probabilities. The growth may become sublinear in time with a scaling exponent that can also be deduced from the iterated function system.

  12. Molecular Imprinted Membrane with High Flux by Surface Photo-grafting Copolymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爽; 张凤宝; 张国亮; 王燕


    Molecular imprinted polymer membranes (MIM) combine the merits of molecular imprint and membrane technology. In this work, a very thin of imprinted polymer that can specifically and selectively absorb the basic template (adenine) was grafted on the surface of polyvinylidene fluoride membrane by photo-grafting copolymerization. Because the molecular imprinted polymer is grafted on the surface of the matrix membrane without blocking the membrane pores, the resultant MIMs have high flux as microfiltration membrane (0.26 mol·m-2·h-1 of template and flux for distilled water was 3.6 ml·mim-1·cm-2 at 0.8 MPa). Moreover, the MIMs can absorb/desorb template molecules rapidly. Usually, it only takes several minutes for MIMs to absorb more than 75% of the template (adenine) in aqueous solution. And the influences of the type and amount of the functional monomers, the amount of the cross-linker on the absorption capability are discussed to determine the optimal preparation conditions。

  13. Chemically induced graft copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto polyurethane surface for improving blood compatibility (United States)

    He, Chunli; Wang, Miao; Cai, Xianmei; Huang, Xiaobo; Li, Li; Zhu, Haomiao; Shen, Jian; Yuan, Jiang


    To improve hydrophilicity and blood compatibility properties of polyurethane (PU) film, we chemically induced graft copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) onto the surface of polyurethane film using benzoyl peroxide as an initiator. The effects of grafting temperature, grafting time, monomer and initiator concentrations on the grafting yields were studied. The maximum grafting yield value was obtained 0.0275 g/cm2 for HEMA. Characterization of the films was carried out by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), water contact angle measurements. ATR-FTIR data showed that HEMA was successfully grafted onto the PU films surface. Water contact angle measurement demonstrated the grafted films possessed a relatively hydrophilic surface. The blood compatibility of the grafted films was preliminarily evaluated by a platelet-rich plasma adhesion test and hemolysis test. The results of platelet adhesion experiment showed that polyurethane grafted polymerization with monomer of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate had good blood compatibility featured by the low platelet adhesion. Hemolysis rate of the PU-g-PHEMA films was dramatically decreased than the ungrafted PU films. This kind of new biomaterials grafted with HEMA monomers might have a potential usage for biomedical applications.

  14. Swelling behaviors,tensile properties and thermodynamic interactions in APS/HEMA copolymeric hydrogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhihui; WU Wenhui; WANG Jianquan; JIN Xin


    A series of hydrogels was synthesized from hydrophobic allyl phenyl sulfone (APS) and hydrophilic 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) by bulk flee radical copolymerization.The effects of APS content and temperature were studied on network parameters such as efiective crosslink density(ve),molar mass between crosslinks(Mc) and polymer-water interaction parameter (χ) of hydrogels.The increase in APS content was shown to enhance hydrophobic bonding within hydrogel.1eading to the decrease in equilibrium water content(EWC)and the increase in volume fraction of polymer in hydrogel(φ2),tensile strength and Young'S modulus.At the same time,the increases in (Ve) and φ and the decrease in Mc were also observed.When the temperature is increased from 273 to 343 K,the hydrogel A/H3 undergoes decreasing in EWC and increasing in φ2 and χ values.The thermodynamic analysis indicated that the swelling process is an exothermic process.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xianhai; ZHANG Yifeng; SHEN Zhiquan


    Ring opening copolymerization of succinic anhydride (SA) with ethylene oxide (EO)was successfully carried out by using a series of aluminum-based catalyst in 1,4-dioxane at 62±2℃. The results showed that in-situ AlR3-H2O (R=ethyl, iso-butyl) catalysts gave higher molecular weight ((-M)w ~ 104), while Al(OR)3 catalysts gave the higher alternating copolymer structure with slightly lower molecular weight. The in-situ AlR3-H2O systems have been evaluated in more detail for the reaction which showed the optimum H2O/Al molar ratio to be 0.5. The copolymers with different composition (FSA/FEO = 36/64 to 45/55 mol/mol) were synthesized by using different monomer feed ratio. The melting point (Tm), glass transition temperature (Tg) and enthalpy of fusion (ΔHf) of these copolymers are depended on the copolymer composition and in the range of 87~ 102℃,-12 ~ -18℃, and 37 ~ 66J/g, respectively. The second heating scan of DSC also indicated that the higher alternating copolymer was more easily recrystallized. The onset decomposition temperature was more than 300℃ under nitrogen and influenced by the copolymer composition.

  16. Formation of hyperbranched polymers in atom transfer radical copolymerization of MMA and DVB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Hyperbranched poly(methyl methacrylate)s (HPMMAs) have been successfully prepared by atom transfer radical copolymerization of MMA and divinylbenzene (DVB).Kinetic study shows complete consumption of the initiator in 0.5 h,and relatively low polymerization rate when DVB content in the feed was high.By analyzing MALDI-TOF spectra of the resulting copolymers,the linear A n B (n=0,1,2,3) oligomers were formed in 0.5 h of polymerization,and then the oligomers reacted each other to form dimers,further reactions produced HPMMA.The SEC and NMR spectroscopies were used to trace the polymerization,and the results demonstrate that small amount of the branching reactions occur in the initial polymerization,and the branched polymers are significantly generated past a certain conversion depending upon the feed ratios.Raising the content of DVB in the monomer mixture can increase the pendent vinyl groups of the linear oligo-inimers,leading to gelation at low MMA conversion.

  17. Textural perception of liquid emulsions: Role of oil content, oil viscosity and emulsion viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aken, van G.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Wijk, de R.A.


    This work describes a study on the in-mouth textural perception of thickened liquid oil-in-water emulsions. The variables studied are oil content, oil viscosity, and the concentration of polysaccharide thickener. Gum arabic was chosen as the thickener because of the nearly Newtonian behavior of its

  18. New techniques for emulsion analysis in a hybrid experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, K. (Aichi University of Education, Kariya 448 (Japan)); Ushida, N. (Aichi University of Education, Kariya 448 (Japan)); Mokhtarani, A. (University of California (Davis), Davis, CA 95616 (United States)); Paolone, V.S. (University of California (Davis), Davis, CA 95616 (United States)); Volk, J.T. (University of California (Davis), Davis, CA 95616 (United States)); Wilcox, J.O. (University of California (Davis), Davis, CA 95616 (United States)); Yager, P.M. (University of California (Davis), Davis, CA 95616 (United States)); Edelstein, R.M. (Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)); Freyberger, A.P. (Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)); Gibaut, D.B. (Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)); Lipton, R.J. (Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)); Nichols, W.R. (Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)); Potter, D.M. (Carnegie-Mellon Univers


    A new method, called graphic scanning, was developed by the Nagoya University Group for emulsion analysis in a hybrid experiment. This method enhances both speed and reliability of emulsion analysis. Details of the application of this technique to the analysis of Fermilab experiment E653 are described. ((orig.))

  19. Synthesis of metallic nanoshells on porphyrin-stabilized emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haorong (Albuquerque, NM); Song, Yujiang (Albuquerque, NM); Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Medforth, Craig J. (Winters, CA)


    Metal nanostructures formed by photocatalytic interfacial synthesis using a porphyrin-stabilized emulsion template and the method for making the nanostructures. Catalyst-seeded emulsion droplets are employed as templates for hollow-nanoshell growth. The hollow metal nanospheres may be formed with or without inclusions of other materials.

  20. Emulsion Preparation with Micro-Structured Systems (online)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Sahin, S.; Dijke, van K.C.; Graaf, van der S.; Zijffers, J.F.; Krebs, T.; Boom, R.M.


    Microfluidic devices can be used for either pre-mix emulsification (a method in which a coarse emulsion is broken up by passing it through a geometry) or direct emulsification (a method in which oil and water are introduced separately in the device and the emulsion is formed at their point of contac

  1. Pickering Emulsions for Food Applications: Background, Trends, and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berton-Carabin, C.C.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.


    Particle-stabilized emulsions, also referred to as Pickering emulsions, have garnered exponentially increasing interest in recent years. This has also led to the first food applications, although the number of related publications is still rather low. The involved stabilization mechanisms are fundam

  2. Interplay between Colloids and Interfaces : Emulsions, Foams and Microtubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Folter, J.W.J.


    The central theme of this thesis is the interplay between colloids and interfaces. The adsorption of colloids at fluid-fluid interfaces is the main topic and covers Chapters 2-6. Pickering emulsions where colloidal particles act as emulsion stabilizers in the absence of surfactants are studied in a

  3. Water-in-diesel emulsions and related systems. (United States)

    Lif, Anna; Holmberg, Krister


    Water-in-diesel emulsions are fuels for regular diesel engines. The advantages of an emulsion fuel are reductions in the emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matters, which are both health hazardous, and reduction in fuel consumption due to better burning efficiency. An important aspect is that diesel emulsions can be used without engine modifications. This review presents the influence of water on the emissions and on the combustion efficiency. Whereas there is a decrease in emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matters, there is an increase in the emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide with increasing water content of the emulsion. The combustion efficiency is improved when water is emulsified with diesel. This is a consequence of the microexplosions, which facilitate atomization of the fuel. The review also covers related fuels, such as diesel-in-water-in-diesel emulsions, i.e., double emulsions, water-in-diesel microemulsions, and water-in-vegetable oil emulsions, i.e., biodiesel emulsions. A brief overview of other types of alternative fuels is also included.

  4. Tocopherol isoforms in parenteral lipid emulsions and neutrophil activation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanten, G.J.A.; Beunk, J.; Naber, A.H.J.; Swinkels, D.W.


    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tocopherol is a lipid-soluble anti-oxidant that exists in several isoforms. Patients on total parenteral nutrition depend on lipid emulsions for their tocopherol intake. In the present study, we analysed the content of tocopherol isoforms in various lipid emulsions. We also

  5. Oxidative Stability and Shelf Life of Food Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte


    Lipid oxidation and antioxidant effects in food emulsions are influenced by many different factors, such as the composition of the aqueous phase and interface, the partitioning of the antioxidants between the different phases of the emulsion system, the antioxidant properties, and others. This ch...

  6. Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio-physical ... virgin olive oil was developed by entrapping it in the oily phase of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. ... The evaluation parameters consisted of color, smell, phase separation, ...

  7. Preparation of double emulsions by membrane emulsification - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, van der S.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.


    Double emulsions have potential for the production of low calorie food products, encapsulation of medicines and other high value products. The main issue is the difficulty to efficiently produce double emulsions in a well controlled manner due to their shear sensitivity. In membrane emulsification o

  8. Pickering Emulsions for Food Applications: Background, Trends, and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berton-Carabin, C.C.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.


    Particle-stabilized emulsions, also referred to as Pickering emulsions, have garnered exponentially increasing interest in recent years. This has also led to the first food applications, although the number of related publications is still rather low. The involved stabilization mechanisms are

  9. Tuning Amphiphilicity of Particles for Controllable Pickering Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang


    Full Text Available Pickering emulsions with the use of particles as emulsifiers have been extensively used in scientific research and industrial production due to their edge in biocompatibility and stability compared with traditional emulsions. The control over Pickering emulsion stability and type plays a significant role in these applications. Among the present methods to build controllable Pickering emulsions, tuning the amphiphilicity of particles is comparatively effective and has attracted enormous attention. In this review, we highlight some recent advances in tuning the amphiphilicity of particles for controlling the stability and type of Pickering emulsions. The amphiphilicity of three types of particles including rigid particles, soft particles, and Janus particles are tailored by means of different mechanisms and discussed here in detail. The stabilization-destabilization interconversion and phase inversion of Pickering emulsions have been successfully achieved by changing the surface properties of these particles. This article provides a comprehensive review of controllable Pickering emulsions, which is expected to stimulate inspiration for designing and preparing novel Pickering emulsions, and ultimately directing the preparation of functional materials.

  10. Electrospraying of water in oil emulsions for thin film coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.K.I.; Maan, A.A.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.


    Electrospraying of water-in-oil emulsions was investigated to produce thin edible barriers. A reproducible model surface was used, namely cellulose membranes of which permeability is well-established. PGPR-based emulsions were stable during electrospraying and produced a fine stable jet spray; emuls

  11. Engineering of acidic O/W emulsions with pectin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alba, Katerina; Sagis, L.M.C.; Kontogiorgos, Vassilis


    Pectins with distinct molecular design were isolated by aqueous extraction at pH 2.0 or 6.0 and were examined in terms of their formation and stabilisation capacity of model n-alkane–in–water emulsions at acidic pH (pH 2.0). The properties and stability of the resulting emulsions were examined by me

  12. Formulation of indomethacin emulsion using biopolymer of Prunus avium. (United States)

    Verma, Shivangi; Dabral, Prashant; Rana, Vinod; Upadhaya, Kumud; Bhardwaj


    The aim of the investigation was to formulate Indomethacin Emulsion using Bio-polymer as Emulsifier. Different batches of emulsions were prepared by varying concentration of biopolymer prunus avium. Based evaluation of the prepared polymers, a conclusion can be drawn that in the Prunus avium bio-material can serve as a promising film forming agent for formulating various drug.

  13. Formulation of indomethacin emulsion using biopolymer of Prunus avium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivangi Verma


    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to formulate Indomethacin Emulsion using Bio-polymer as Emulsifier. Different batches of emulsions were prepared by varying concentration of biopolymer prunus avium. Based evaluation of the prepared polymers, a conclusion can be drawn that in the Prunus avium bio-material can serve as a promising film forming agent for formulating various drug.

  14. Physical stability of caseinate stabilized emulsions during heating.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijsen, J.M.M.


    The physical stability of caseinate stabilized emulsions was studied during heating (80- 120°C). Coagulation, coalescence and phase separation of the caseinate emulsions was studied using objective heat stability tests. The physical changes were characterized by light microscopy, particle size measu

  15. Synthesis of metallic nanoshells on porphyrin-stabilized emulsions (United States)

    Wang, Haorong [Albuquerque, NM; Song, Yujiang [Albuquerque, NM; Shelnutt, John A [Tijeras, NM; Medforth, Craig J [Winters, CA


    Metal nanostructures formed by photocatalytic interfacial synthesis using a porphyrin-stabilized emulsion template and the method for making the nanostructures. Catalyst-seeded emulsion droplets are employed as templates for hollow-nanoshell growth. The hollow metal nanospheres may be formed with or without inclusions of other materials.

  16. Multi-responsive ionic liquid emulsions stabilized by microgels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteillet, H.J.M.; Workamp, M.J.; Li, X.; Schuur, B.; Kleijn, J.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Sprakel, J.H.B.


    We present a complete toolbox to use responsive ionic liquid (IL) emulsions for extraction purposes. IL emulsions stabilized by responsive microgels are shown to allow rapid extraction and reversible breaking and re-emulsification. Moreover, by using a paramagnetic ionic liquid, droplets can be easi

  17. Microfluidic production of multiple emulsions and functional microcapsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Tae Yong; Choi, Tae Min; Shim, Tae Soup; Frijns, Raoul A.M.; Kim, Shin Hyun


    Recent advances in microfluidics have enabled the controlled production of multiple-emulsion drops with onion-like topology. The multiple-emulsion drops possess an intrinsic core–shell geometry, which makes them useful as templates to create microcapsules with a solid membrane. High flexibility in t

  18. Destruction of secondary water-oil emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abashev, R.G.; Isayev, M.G.; Nikolayeva, T.M.; Zheryakova, N.I.


    The article advances a number of requirements for the object, methods and means of destroying secondary water-oil emulsions (WOE) which currently cannot be recovered. By using the latest advances in science: chemistry of oil and surfactants, physicochemical surface phenomena, physical mechanics of dispersed systems, hydrodynamics and engineering chemistry jointly with the fundamentals of economics, efficient solutions are indicated for stabilization of the composition and property of WOE, and their destruction in a stationary technological process. A flowsheet is established for the recommended technology.

  19. Detecting Double Beta Decays Using Nuclear Emulsions

    CERN Document Server

    Dracos, Marcos


    Neutrino nature and absolute mass scale are major questions in particle physics which cannot be addressed by the present neutrino oscillation program. To answer these two questions, several neutrinoless double beta decay experiments are underway or planed for the near future. These experiments, mainly use bolometric techniques or gaseous counters coupled with scintillator detectors. The energy resolution is better in bolometric experiments but experiments coupling tracking with calorimetry have the advantage of observing the two electron tracks and remove many background sources. Here, we present a proposal of using nuclear emulsions to observe double beta decays. This technique has the advantage of precise tracking and vertexing even for low energy electrons.

  20. Domain and droplet sizes in emulsions stabilized by colloidal particles (United States)

    Frijters, Stefan; Günther, Florian; Harting, Jens


    Particle-stabilized emulsions are commonly used in various industrial applications. These emulsions can present in different forms, such as Pickering emulsions or bijels, which can be distinguished by their different topologies and rheology. We numerically investigate the effect of the volume fraction and the uniform wettability of the stabilizing spherical particles in mixtures of two fluids. For this, we use the well-established three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann method, extended to allow for the added colloidal particles with non-neutral wetting properties. We obtain data on the domain sizes in the emulsions by using both structure functions and the Hoshen-Kopelman (HK) algorithm, and we demonstrate that both methods have their own (dis)advantages. We confirm an inverse dependence between the concentration of particles and the average radius of the stabilized droplets. Furthermore, we demonstrate the effect of particles detaching from interfaces on the emulsion properties and domain-size measurements.

  1. Lipid oxidation in omega-3 emulsions prepared with milk proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Andersen, Ulf

    components. In these three studies different parameters that are expected to change the properties and structure of the proteins at the interface were investigated. The first study compares 70% emulsions with either sodium caseinate or whey protein isolate at two pH values with and without iron addition....... The properties of the emulsifier used and the structure at the interface are therefore expected to be of great importance for oxidation in emulsions. This presentation will include results from mainly three different studies of lipid oxidation in omega-3 emulsions prepared with milk proteins and protein....... The second study evaluates the effect of two different high pressure homogenizers on oxidation in 10% emulsions with the same emulsifiers as in the first study. Finally, the third study considers the effect of changing pH on oxidation in emulsions prepared with different whey protein components. Results...

  2. Progression of radical reactions on microscopic scale in food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudsepp, Piret

    Understanding the progression of lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions from the aspect of the food quality and safety, consumer satisfaction and cleaner food label is of importance, because most of the food emulsions are oil-in-water emulsions. There is an increasing tendency in the food...... industry to incorporate unsaturated oils into food products, but that results in shortened shelf-life. Therefore, studying the factors and consequences of the oxidative instability provides beneficial insight into prolonging the antioxidative stage and inhibiting undergoing oxidation processes to improve...... the food quality and increase the shelflife of the food products. In the present work, lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions was studied via conventional analytical and via novel state-of-the-art techniques. For the first time, the effect of mixing emulsions made of saturated medium-chain triglyceride...

  3. A Simple and Effective Test Method of the Emulsion Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    An innovational test method was developed on the basis of redefinition of the emulsion stability. The stability was characterized by relative volume percentage of disperse phase demulsified thoroughly from the top part and the bottom part of an emulsion sample, each weighting the same amount, after being settled for a given time at constant temperature. Three series of emulsions were prepared and tested successfully, which were emulsions of paraffin oil and water stabilized with polyoxyethylene lauryl ether series (AEO3 and AEO9) at various HLBs, and emulsions of rapeseed oil and water stablized with sorbitan monoleate (Span80) and each of polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan carboxylic esters (Tween20, Tween40, Tween60, Tween80 and Tween85) at different HLBs. It proved that this method is especially workable while the boundaries are opaque in a wide range of HLBs and is capable of offering an accurate optimum HLB.

  4. Structure- and oil type-based efficacy of emulsion adjuvants. (United States)

    Jansen, Theo; Hofmans, Marij P M; Theelen, Marc J G; Manders, Frans; Schijns, Virgil E J C


    Oil-based emulsions are well-known immunopotentiators for inactivated, "killed" vaccines. We addressed the relationship between emulsion structure and levels of in vivo antibody formation to inactivated New Castle Disease virus (NDV) and Infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV) as antigens in 3-week-old chickens. The use of a polymeric emulsifier allowed for direct comparison of three types of emulsions, water-in-oil (W/O), oil-in-water (O/W) and W/O-in-water (W/O/W), while maintaining an identical content of components for each vehicle. They were prepared with either non-metabolizable, mineral oil or metabolizable, Miglyol 840. In addition, we assessed the inherent release capacity of each emulsion variant in vitro. Remarkably, we noted that W/O-type emulsions induced the best immune responses, while they released no antigen during 3 weeks. In general, mineral oil vaccines showed superior efficacy compared to Miglyol 840-based vaccines.

  5. Use of Bitumen Emulsion for Flexible Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Singh Dhriyan


    Full Text Available In the present study bitumen is replaced by bitumen emulsion for the construction of flexible pavement. The conventional method of road construction involves the burning of bitumen which produces toxic gases which degrades the environment. In colder region it is difficult to maintain the paving temperature of hot mix. To overcome these problems and conserve the energy bitumen emulsion is considered as good option. Likewise emulsion can be used in the areas having higher rate of rainfall where the hot mix plant is closed most of the time because of rain. Emulsified bitumen can be used during rainy season and colder regions. To study the suitability of emulsion Marshal Test is carried out to find the stability value, flow value and optimum binder content. Experiments performed shows that bitumen emulsion (Cold Mix have high stability value therefore it can be used as binder.

  6. Emulsion chamber experiments; critical comments and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, M. [School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)


    Emulsion chamber data give valuable information about particle production in the forward region of very high-energy nuclear interactions. Many characteristics of high-energy atmospheric families, observed by emulsion chambers, have not been fully described by simulations employing existing nuclear interaction models. Some of the events and the phenomena observed in emulsion chamber experiments have been considered to be unusual and new, never seen in lower energy accelerator experiments. We re-examine emulsion chamber data critically in order to get unbiased views of these unusual events and phenomena. It is shown that some of the previous interpretations need to be changed. We take up for the discussions scaling violation in C-jets, Centauro events, alignment of showers in high-energy families, hadrons of anomalous absorption in thick lead chambers. We will also discuss the results on the hybrid experiments of emulsion chamber and EAS-array.

  7. Progression of radical reactions on microscopic scale in food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudsepp, Piret

    Understanding the progression of lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions from the aspect of the food quality and safety, consumer satisfaction and cleaner food label is of importance, because most of the food emulsions are oil-in-water emulsions. There is an increasing tendency in the food...... the food quality and increase the shelflife of the food products. In the present work, lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions was studied via conventional analytical and via novel state-of-the-art techniques. For the first time, the effect of mixing emulsions made of saturated medium-chain triglyceride...... industry to incorporate unsaturated oils into food products, but that results in shortened shelf-life. Therefore, studying the factors and consequences of the oxidative instability provides beneficial insight into prolonging the antioxidative stage and inhibiting undergoing oxidation processes to improve...

  8. Techniques and methods to study functional characteristics of emulsion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Ting Hu


    Full Text Available With the growing popularity of the functional food market, bioactive ingredients from natural sources are discovered one after another for their ability to promote better health and prevent chronic diseases. Emulsion, widely occurring in many food systems, has become a popular vehicle to facilitate the incorporation of bioactive components into the food system. Depending on the designated functionality, an emulsion can be developed with various physical and chemical properties. To ensure the successful development of a high-quality emulsion-based system to serve their purpose in food, knowledge of the analytical methods that could efficiently evaluate their quality parameters is important for investigators who work in this field. In this work, important emulsion properties are overviewed, and techniques that are commonly used to assess them are provided. Discussions and recommendations are also included to make suggestions on advantages and disadvantages when selecting suitable techniques and methods to characterize these quality parameters of emulsion systems.

  9. An exclusively based parenteral fish-oil emulsion reverses cholestasis. (United States)

    Triana Junco, Miryam; García Vázquez, Natalia; Zozaya, Carlos; Ybarra Zabala, Marta; Abrams, Steven; García de Lorenzo, Abelardo; Sáenz de Pipaón Marcos, Miguel


    Prolonged parenteral nutrition (PN) leads to liver damage. Recent interest has focused on the lipid component of PN. A lipid emulsion based on w-3 fatty acids decrease conjugated bilirubin. A mixed lipid emulsion derived from soybean, coconut, olive, and fish oils reverses jaundice. Here we report the reversal of cholestasis and the improvement of enteral feeding tolerance in 1 infant with intestinal failure-associated liver disease. Treatment involved the substitution of a mixed lipid emulsion with one containing primarily omega-3 fatty acids during 37 days. Growth and biochemical tests of liver function improved significantly. This suggests that fat emulsions made from fish oils may be more effective means of treating this condition compared with an intravenous lipid emulsion containing soybean oil, medium -chain triglycerides, olive oil, and fish oil.

  10. Al(OH)3/聚丙烯酸酯复合乳液的制备及其对涂层玻璃纤维网格布机械性能的影响%Preparation and Characterization of Al(OH)3/Polyacrylate Composite Emulsion and Its Application as Coating on Glass Fiber Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓娜; 彭志勤; 于金超; 胡国樑


    通过种子乳液聚合的方法,采用纳米氢氧化铝(ATH)无机改性剂,制备ATH/聚丙烯酸酯复合乳液(PA)作为玻璃纤维纤网格布的涂层.通过粒径分析、透射电镜(TEM)、热重分析(TG)和极限氧指数值(LOI)对复合乳液的结构和性能进行了表征.通过扫描电镜和电子织物强力仪对复合乳液涂层后玻纤布的表面形态和力学性能进行观察和测试.结果表明:纳米ATH粉体可以有效参与乳液聚合反应;当ATH含量为3‰时,复合乳液的固含量高,粒径分布均匀且较窄,成膜性、热稳定性均较高;该复合乳液可以在玻纤网格布上形成均匀致密的薄膜,涂层后玻纤网格布的断裂强力和LOI值均有所增大.%Abstract: A1(OH)3(ATH)/Polyacrylate composite emulsions are prepared by seed emulsion polymerization method, in which ATH nano-powder with different loadings is used as flame-retardant modifier. The prepared emulsions are used as coating for glass fiber grid. The structure and properties of the com-'ppsite emulsions are characterized by particle size analysis, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetry(TG) analysis and Limited Oxygen Index(LOI). The surface appearance and mechanical properties of the glass fiber grid coated with the composite emulsions are measured by Scanning Electron Microscopy and E-fabric strength tester. It is found that ATH nano-powder is effectively concluded in the emulsion copolymerization. The composite emulsion films show better flame retardance and higher thermal stability than those of pure polyacrylate film, especially in the case of 3wt‰ ATH loading. The ATH/ polyacrylate composite emulsions can form smooth wall-like films on the surface of the glass fiber grid. The mechanical properties of the glass fiber grids are improved after being coated with the composite emulsions.

  11. Manganese(III) Schiff base complexes: chemistry relevant to the copolymerization of epoxides and carbon dioxide. (United States)

    Darensbourg, Donald J; Frantz, Eric B


    Schiff base complexes of the form (acacen)Mn(III)X (acacen = N,N'-bis(acetylacetone)-1,2-ethylenediimine), where X = OAc, Cl, or N(3), have been evaluated for their ability to couple CO(2) and cyclohexene oxide in the presence of a variety of cocatalysts to provide cyclic or polycarbonates. These complexes proved to be ineffective at catalyzing this process; however, valuable information related to the coordination chemistry of these manganese Schiff bases was elucidated. Of importance, mechanistic findings as revealed by comprehensive studies involving structurally related (salen)CrX and (salen)CoX complexes strongly support the requirement of six-coordinate metal species for the effective copolymerization of CO(2) and epoxides. In the case of these Mn(III) complexes, it was determined that in chloroform or toluene solution a five-coordinate species was greatly favored over a six-coordinate species even in the presence of 20 equiv or more of various Lewis bases. Significantly epoxide monomers such as propylene oxide and cyclohexene oxide displayed no tendency to bind to these (acacen)MnX derivatives, even when used as solvents. Only in the case of excessive quantities of heterocyclic amines such as pyridine, DMAP, and DBU was spectral evidence of a six-coordinate Mn derivative observed in solution. X-ray crystal structures are provided for many of the complexes involved in this study, including the one-dimensional polymeric structures of [(acacen)MnOAc x 2H(2)O](n), [(acacen)MnN(3)](n) (mu(1,3)-N(3)), and a rare mixed bridging species [(acacen)MnN(3)](n) (mu(1,3)-N(3)/mu(1,1)-N(3)). In addition, a structure was obtained in which the unit cell contains both a (acacen)MnN(3)(DMAP) and a (acacen)MnN(3) species.

  12. Novel rubbers from cationic copolymerization of soybean oils and dicyclopentadiene. 1. Synthesis and characterization. (United States)

    Andjelkovic, Dejan D; Larock, Richard C


    Novel thermosetting copolymers, ranging from tough and ductile to very soft rubbers, have been prepared by the cationic copolymerization of regular (SOY) and 100% conjugated soybean oils (C(100)SOY) with dicyclopentadiene (DCP) catalyzed by Norway fish oil (NFO)-modified and SOY- and C(100)SOY-diluted boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BFE). The gelation time of the reactions varies from 4 to 991 min at 110 degrees C. The yields of the bulk copolymers are essentially quantitative, while the yields of the cross-linked copolymers remaining after Soxhlet extraction with methylene chloride range from 69% to 88%, depending on the monomer stoichiometry and the catalyst used. (1)H NMR spectroscopy and Soxhlet extraction data indicate that these copolymers consist of a cross-linked soybean oil-DCP network plasticized by certain amounts of methylene chloride-soluble linear or less cross-linked soybean oil-DCP copolymers, unreacted oil, and some low molecular weight hydrolyzed oil. The molecular weights of these soluble fractions are in the range from 400 to 10,000 g/mol based on polystyrene standards. The bulk copolymers have glass transition temperatures ranging from -22.6 to 56.6 degrees C, while their tan delta peak values range from 0.7 to 1.2. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates that these soybean oil-DCP copolymers are thermally stable below 200 degrees C, with 10% and 50% weight loss temperatures ranging from 280 to 372 degrees C and 470-554 degrees C, respectively. These properties suggest that these biobased thermosets may prove useful alternatives to current petroleum-based plastics and find widespread utility.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOUYingcai; ZHUChangying; 等


    The starch/D,L-lactide graft copolymers were synthesized by reacting D,L-lactide with corn starch in N,N-dimethylacetamide(DMAM)in the presence of triethylamine(NEt3)and anhydrous lithium chloride.The effect of reaction time and the molar ratio of D,L-lactide to glucose structural unit of starch on monomer conversion(C%),graft(G%)and graft efficiency(GE%)were studied,The C%,G%and GE% could approach 37.3% 179.7%and 68.0%,respectively when the molar ratio of D,L-lactide to glucose structuralunit of starch is 10:1 and the graft copolymerization was carried out at 80-85℃ for 4hr under nitrogen atmosphere.The Fourier transforms infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy.differential scanning calorimetry(DSC)and X_ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy were used in order to characterize the graft copolymers.FTIR spectra show that absorption band at 1740cm-1 confirmed the formation of ester bond,indicating the starch /D,L-lactide graft copolymers were produced,the DSC characteristic results show the melting temperature of the graft copolymer were elevated slightly as the molar ratio of D,L-lactide to glucose structural units of starch increased and the X-ray diffraction spectra show the synthesized graft copolymers were amorphous.The degradability of graft copolymer was tested with the aid of acid,alkali and microbe such as bacillus subtilis and staphylococcus aureus.The results of water rsistance show the graft copolymer produced can be used as a component of impermeable coating for cardboard.

  14. Prediction of monomer reactivity in radical copolymerizations from transition state quantum chemical descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengde Tan


    Full Text Available In comparison with the Q-e scheme, the Revised Patterns Scheme: the U, V Version (the U-V scheme has greatly improved both its accessibility and its accuracy in interpreting and predicting the reactivity of a monomer in free-radical copolymerizations. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR models were developed to predict the reactivity parameters u and v of the U-V scheme, by applying genetic algorithm (GA and support vector machine (SVM techniques. Quantum chemical descriptors used for QSAR models were calculated from transition state species with structures C¹H3 - C²HR³• or •C¹H2 - C²H2R³ (formed from vinyl monomers C¹H²=C²HR³ + H•, using density functional theory (DFT, at the UB3LYP level of theory with 6-31G(d basis set. The optimum support vector regression (SVR model of the reactivity parameter u based on Gaussian radial basis function (RBF kernel (C = 10, ε = 10- 5 and γ = 1.0 produced root-mean-square (rms errors for the training, validation and prediction sets being 0.220, 0.326 and 0.345, respectively. The optimal SVR model for v with the RBF kernel (C = 20, ε = 10- 4 and γ = 1.2 produced rms errors for the training set of 0.123, the validation set of 0.206 and the prediction set of 0.238. The feasibility of applying the transition state quantum chemical descriptors to develop SVM models for reactivity parameters u and v in the U-V scheme has been demonstrated.

  15. POE-PEG-POE triblock copolymeric microspheres containing protein. II. Polymer erosion and protein release mechanism. (United States)

    Wan, J P; Yang, Y Y; Chung, T S; Tan, D; Ng, S; Heller, J


    The first paper of this series presented the fabrication and characterization of POE-PEG-POE triblock copolymeric microspheres containing protein. In this paper, we focus on the polymer erosion and the mechanism of protein release. Fourteen-week in vitro behaviors of POE-PEG-POE microspheres loaded with bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been monitored. SEM micrographs reveal that after 14-week incubation in PBS buffer, pH 7.4, 37 degrees C, the polymeric particles remain spherical despite mass loss of almost 90%. On the other hand, molecular weight undergoes a high initial loss of 38% and 44% during the first 2-week incubation for POE-PEG(5%)-POE and POE-PEG(10%)-POE, respectively. Then, it keeps relatively unchanged over 12 weeks. However, POE-PEG(20%)-POE copolymer provides a better compatibility between the POE and PEG blocks. Hydrolysis is homogeneous through the polymer backbone. Thus, its molecular weight remains relatively constant and mass loss shows quite sustained over the 14-week in vitro release. The similar phenomena are observed in the polydispersity index of the degrading copolymers. SDS-PAGE of the encapsulated BSA within the POE-PEG(5%)-POE microspheres displays that the structural integrity of BSA is intact for at least 8 weeks due to a mild environment provided by the copolymer. In addition, XPS and FTIR are utilized to investigate protein behaviors in the degrading microspheres. Protein release from the POE-PEG-POE microspheres shows a biphasic pattern, characterized by an initial stage followed by a non-detectable release. The non-release phase is dominated by either slow polymer degradation or dense microsphere matrix structures. The microsphere formulation is optimized and a sustained protein release over 2 weeks is achieved by using POE-PEG(20%)-POE at a high protein loading.

  16. Grafting copolymerization of natural rubber with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate for plywood adhesion improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoopadee Promdum


    Full Text Available The graft copolymer of natural rubber (NR and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA was prepared by seeded emulsion polymerization using cumene hydroperoxide (CHP and tetraethylene pentamine TEPA as an initiator system. The structures of the copolymers were characterized by FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy techniques. The adhesion properties of NR-g-HEMA were examined. The effects of monomer concentration, initiator concentration, reaction temperature,reaction time and the agitation speed on grafting and grafting efficiency were investigated. It was found that the optimumconditions for preparing NR-g-HEMA when 5 phr of HEMA with 0.15mol% of initiator was used were 60oC for 90 min under agitation speed of 50 rpm. Furthermore, the adhesion properties to plywood of the graft copolymers are higher than those of original NR.

  17. Random close packing of polydisperse jammed emulsions (United States)

    Brujic, Jasna


    Packing problems are everywhere, ranging from oil extraction through porous rocks to grain storage in silos and the compaction of pharmaceutical powders into tablets. At a given density, particulate systems pack into a mechanically stable and amorphous jammed state. Theoretical frameworks have proposed a connection between this jammed state and the glass transition, a thermodynamics of jamming, as well as geometric modeling of random packings. Nevertheless, a simple underlying mechanism for the random assembly of athermal particles, analogous to crystalline ordering, remains unknown. Here we use 3D measurements of polydisperse packings of emulsion droplets to build a simple statistical model in which the complexity of the global packing is distilled into a local stochastic process. From the perspective of a single particle the packing problem is reduced to the random formation of nearest neighbors, followed by a choice of contacts among them. The two key parameters in the model, the available space around a particle and the ratio of contacts to neighbors, are directly obtained from experiments. Remarkably, we demonstrate that this ``granocentric'' view captures the properties of the polydisperse emulsion packing, ranging from the microscopic distributions of nearest neighbors and contacts to local density fluctuations and all the way to the global packing density. Further applications to monodisperse and bidisperse systems quantitatively agree with previously measured trends in global density. This model therefore reveals a general principle of organization for random packing and lays the foundations for a theory of jammed matter.

  18. Detecting plastic events in emulsions simulations (United States)

    Lulli, Matteo; Matteo Lulli, Massimo Bernaschi, Mauro Sbragaglia Team


    Emulsions are complex systems which are formed by a number of non-coalescing droplets dispersed in a solvent leading to non-trivial effects in the overall flowing dynamics. Such systems possess a yield stress below which an elastic response to an external forcing occurs, while above the yield stress the system flows as a non-Newtonian fluid, i.e. the stress is not proportional to the shear. In the solid-like regime the network of the droplets interfaces stores the energy coming from the work exerted by an external forcing, which can be used to move the droplets in a non-reversible way, i.e. causing plastic events. The Kinetic-Elasto-Plastic (KEP) theory is an effective theory describing some features of the flowing regime relating the rate of plastic events to a scalar field called fluidity f =γ˙/σ , i.e. the inverse of an effective viscosity. Boundary conditions have a non-trivial role not captured by the KEP description. In this contribution we will compare numerical results against experiments concerning the Poiseuille flow of emulsions in microchannels with complex boundary geometries. Using an efficient computational tool we can show non-trivial results on plastic events for different realizations of the rough boundaries. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007- 2013)/ERC Grant Agreement no. [279004].

  19. Concerning the Deactivation of Cobalt(III)-Based Porphyrin and Salen Catalysts in Epoxide/CO 2 Copolymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Wei


    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Functioning as active catalysts for propylene oxide (PO) and carbon dioxide copolymerization, cobalt(III)-based salen and porphyrin complexes have drawn great attention owing to their readily modifiable nature and promising catalytic behavior, such as high selectivity for the copolymer formation and good regioselectivity with respect to the polymer microstructure. Both cobalt(III)-salen and porphyrin catalysts have been found to undergo reduction reactions to their corresponding catalytically inactive cobalt(II) species in the presence of propylene oxide, as evidenced by UV/Vis and NMR spectroscopies and X-ray crystallography (for cobalt(II)-salen). Further investigations on a TPPCoCl (TPP=tetraphenylporphyrin) and NaOMe system reveal that such a catalyst reduction is attributed to the presence of alkoxide anions. Kinetic studies of the redox reaction of TPPCoCl with NaOMe suggests a pseudo-first order in cobalt(III)-porphyrin. The addition of a co-catalyst, namely bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium chloride (PPNCl), into the reaction system of cobalt(III)-salen/porphyrin and PO shows no direct stabilizing effect. However, the results of PO/CO2 copolymerization by cobalt(III)-salen/porphyrin with PPNCl suggest a suppressed catalyst reduction. This phenomenon is explained by a rapid transformation of the alkoxide into the carbonate chain end in the course of the polymer formation, greatly shortening the lifetime of the autoreducible PO-ring-opening intermediates, cobalt(III)-salen/porphyrin alkoxides. CO2 saves: The deactivation of cobalt(III)-porphyrin and salen catalysts in propylene oxide/carbon dioxide copolymerization is systematically investigated, revealing a proposed mechanism for the catalyst reduction (see scheme).

  20. Surface modification of copolymerized films from three-armed biodegradable macromers - An analytical platform for modified tissue engineering scaffolds. (United States)

    Müller, Benno M; Loth, Rudi; Hoffmeister, Peter-Georg; Zühl, Friederike; Kalbitzer, Liv; Hacker, Michael C; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela


    The concept of macromers allows for a broad adjustment of biomaterial properties by macromer chemistry or copolymerization. Copolymerization strategies can also be used to introduce reactive sites for subsequent surface modification. Control over surface features enables adjustment of cellular reactions with regard to site and object of implantation. We designed macromer-derived polymer films which function as non-implantable analytical substrates for the investigation of surface properties of equally composed scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. To this end, a toolbox of nine different biodegradable, three-armed macromers was thermally cross-copolymerized with poly(ethylene glycol)-methacrylate (PEG-MA) to films. Subsequent activation of PEG-hydroxyl groups with succinic anhydride and N-hydroxysuccinimid allowed for covalent surface modification. We quantified the capacity to immobilize analytes of low (amino-functionalized fluorescent dye, Fcad, and RGD-peptides) and high (alkaline phosphatase, ALP) molecular weight. Fcad grafting level was controlled by macromer chemistry, content and molecular weight of PEG-MA, but also the solvent used for film synthesis. Fcad molar amount per surface area was twentyfive times higher on high-swelling compared to low-swelling films, but differences became smaller when large ALP (appr. 2:1) were employed. Similarly, small differences were observed on RGD peptide functionalized films that were investigated by cell adhesion studies. Presentation of PEG-derivatives on surfaces was visualized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) which unraveled composition-dependent domain formation influencing fluorescent dye immobilization. Surface wetting characteristics were investigated via static water contact angle. We conclude that macromer ethoxylation and lactic acid content determined film swelling, PEG domain formation and eventually efficiency of surface decoration.

  1. Modulating Bandgap and HOCO/LUCO Energy of Semiconducting Polymer by Copolymerization or Incorporation of Electron Withdrawing/Releasing Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Liu-ming; LU Wen-cong


    The modulation of bandgap and HOCO/LUCO energies of conjugated polymers by copolymerization or by incorporation of electron withdrawing/releasing groups is studied. The study was conducted by band structure calculation applying density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation. The polymers and copolymers were modeled as 1D infinite system with periodical boundary condition along the molecular direction. It is concluded that the bandgap and HOCO/LUCO energies of conjugated polymers depend on both electron withdrawing/releasing effects and non-bonding interaction between a side group and the conjugated systems.

  2. Droplet migration in emulsion systems measured using MR methods. (United States)

    Hollingsworth, K G; Johns, M L


    The migration of emulsion droplets under shear flow remains a largely unexplored area of study, despite the existence of an extensive literature on the analogous problem of solid particle migration. A novel methodology is presented to track the shear-induced migration of emulsion droplets based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The work is in three parts: first, single droplets of one Newtonian fluid are suspended in a second Newtonian fluid (water in silicone oil (PDMS)) and are tracked as they migrate within a Couette cell; second, the migration of emulsion droplets in Poiseuille flow is considered; third, water-in-silicone oil emulsions are sheared in a Couette cell. The effect of (a) rotational speed of the Couette, (b) the continuous phase viscosity, and (c) the droplet phase concentration are considered. The equilibrium extent of migration and rate of migration increase with rotational speed for two different emulsion systems and increased continuous phase viscosity, leads to a greater equilibrium extent of migration. The relationship between the droplet phase concentration and migration is however complex. These results for semi-concentrated emulsion systems and wide-gap Couette cells are not well described by existing models of emulsion droplet migration.

  3. Remediation of groundwater contaminated with DNAPLs by biodegradable oil emulsion. (United States)

    Lee, Young-Chul; Kwon, Tae-Soon; Yang, Jung-Seok; Yang, Ji-Won


    Emulsion-based remediation with biodegradable vegetable oils was investigated as an alternative technology for the treatment of subsurface DNAPLs (dense non-aqueous phase liquids) such as TCE (trichloroethylene) and PCE (perchloroethylene). Corn and olive oil emulsions obtained by homogenization at 8000rpm for 15min were used. The emulsion droplets prepared with corn and olive oil gave a similar size distribution (1-10microm) and almost all of initially injected oil, >90%, remained in a dispersed state. In batch experiments, 2% (v/v) oil emulsion could adsorb up to 11,000ppm of TCE or 18,000ppm of PCE without creating a free phase. Results of one-dimensional column flushing studies indicated that contaminants with high aqueous solubility could be efficiently removed by flushing with vegetable oil emulsions. Removal efficiencies exceeded 98% for TCE and PCE with both corn and olive oil emulsions. The results of this study show that flushing with biodegradable oil emulsion can be used for the remediation of groundwater contaminated by DNAPLs.

  4. Stability of drug-carrier emulsions containing phosphatidylcholine mixtures. (United States)

    Trotta, Michele; Pattarino, Franco; Ignoni, Terenzio


    Lipid emulsion particles containing 10% of medium chain triglycerides were prepared using 2% w/w of a mixture 1:1 w/w of purified soya phosphatidylcholine and 2-hexanoyl phosphatidylcholine as emulsifier mixture, for use as drug carriers. The mean droplet sizes of emulsions, prepared using an Ultra Turrax or a high-pressure homogenizer, were about 288 and 158 nm, respectively, compared with 380 and 268 nm for emulsions containing lecithin, or 325 and 240 nm for those containing 6-phosphatidylcholine. The stability of the emulsions, determined by monitoring the decrease of a lipophilic marker at a specified level within the emulsion, and observing coalescence over time, was also greatly increased using the emulsifier mixture. The emulsion stability did not notably change in the presence of a model destabilizing drug, indomethacin. The use of a second hydrophilic surfactant to adjust the packing properties of the lecithin at the oil-water interface provided an increase in the stability of lipid emulsions, and this may be of importance in the formulation of drug delivery systems.

  5. Texture optimization of water-in-oil emulsions. (United States)

    Lemaitre-Aghazarian, V; Piccerelle, P; Reynier, J P; Joachim, J; Phan-Tan-Luu, R; Sergent, M


    The aim of this research is to demonstrate the effect of variations in certain parameters of the oily phase (OP) in water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions on rheological and texture properties of finished products. The formulated emulsions were selected according to an optimal experimental procedure. The applied variations were nature of the OP, its volume fraction, the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value, and the surfactant proportion. Results are presented for the followed tests carried out on the emulsions: texture analysis, rheology, and particle size analysis. The oils used in the study were sweet almond oil, liquid paraffin, maize oil, cyclomethicone, dimethicone, and wheat germ oil. The resulting data demonstrate a notable influence of the volume fraction oil on hardness, viscosity, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness of W/O emulsions. Emulsion hardness and viscosity increased as the OP percentage increased; this effect being even more pronounced for the vegetable oils. In contrast, emulsion adhesiveness and cohesiveness decreased as the volume fraction oil increased. The HLB value of the surfactant mixture of the emulsion also influenced hardness, adhesiveness, and elasticity, increasing or decreasing as HLB value did.

  6. Oil-in-oil emulsions stabilised solely by solid particles. (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Tyowua, Andrew T


    A brief review of the stabilisation of emulsions of two immiscible oils is given. We then describe the use of fumed silica particles coated with either hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon groups in acting as sole stabilisers of emulsions of various vegetable oils with linear silicone oils (PDMS) of different viscosity. Transitional phase inversion of emulsions, containing equal volumes of the two oils, from silicone-in-vegetable (S/V) to vegetable-in-silicone (V/S) occurs upon increasing the hydrophobicity of the particles. Close to inversion, emulsions are stable to coalescence and gravity-induced separation for at least one year. Increasing the viscosity of the silicone oil enables stable S/V emulsions to be prepared even with relatively hydrophilic particles. Predictions of emulsion type from calculated contact angles of a silica particle at the oil-oil interface are in agreement with experiment provided a small polar contribution to the surface energy of the oils is included. We also show that stable multiple emulsions of V/S/V can be prepared in a two-step procedure using two particle types of different hydrophobicity. At fixed particle concentration, catastrophic phase inversion of emulsions from V/S to S/V can be effected by increasing the volume fraction of vegetable oil. Finally, in the case of sunflower oil + 20 cS PDMS, the study is extended to particles other than silica which differ in chemical type, particle size and particle shape. Consistent with the above findings, we find that only sufficiently hydrophobic particles (clay, zinc oxide, silicone, calcium carbonate) can act as efficient V/S emulsion stabilisers.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hongzhi; GAO Guozhen; WANG Yin; FENG Xinde(S. T. Voong)


    The yield of copolymerization of tetrahydrofuran and propylene oxide (THF: PO = 100: 5-15, by wt) using a binary catalyst of fuming sulfuric acid (21% or 28%) and perchloric acid is around 50-60%, and the loss of THF in the reaction is below 10-15%. The average molecular weight of the product can be controlled in the range of 1000-2000 by varying the binary catalyst system.The present method, which is different from the usual copolymerization initiated by BF3-diol or SbCl5-diol system, shows the pecularities i.e. the yield of copolymerization with the low PO feed is not decreased, the hydroxyl functionality is equal to 2, and the end-groups are predominantly primary hydroxyls (around 65-70%).

  8. Vinyl Acetate/butyl acrylate/acrylate Research of Ternary Soap-free Emulsion Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li-guang


    Full Text Available Through the vinyl acetate/butyl acrylate/acrylic acrylic emulsion preparation without soap vinegar, with solid content, gel, emulsion stability and film forming properties and tensile strength as the main index to study the effect of raw materials on the properties of emulsion. Through the infrared spectrometer soap-free emulsion for microscopic analysis research. Study of the ternary soap-free vinegar acrylic emulsion with good performance.

  9. Data on the physical characterization of oil in water emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldana L. Zalazar


    Full Text Available This article contains experimental data and images for the physical characterization of oil in water emulsions. Mentioned data are related to the research article “Effect of stabilizers, oil level and structure on the growth of Zygosaccharomyces bailii and on physical stability of model systems simulating acid sauces” (A.L. Zalazar, M.F. Gliemmo, C.A. Campos, 2016 [1]. Physical characterization of emulsions was performed through the evaluation of Span and Specific Surface Area (SSA determined by light scattering using a Mastersizer. Furthermore, microscopy images were recorded by confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM. The latter are presented to collaborate in the analysis of emulsion microstructure.

  10. Data on the physical characterization of oil in water emulsions. (United States)

    Zalazar, Aldana L; Gliemmo, María F; Campos, Carmen A


    This article contains experimental data and images for the physical characterization of oil in water emulsions. Mentioned data are related to the research article "Effect of stabilizers, oil level and structure on the growth of Zygosaccharomyces bailii and on physical stability of model systems simulating acid sauces" (A.L. Zalazar, M.F. Gliemmo, C.A. Campos, 2016) [1]. Physical characterization of emulsions was performed through the evaluation of Span and Specific Surface Area (SSA) determined by light scattering using a Mastersizer. Furthermore, microscopy images were recorded by confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). The latter are presented to collaborate in the analysis of emulsion microstructure.

  11. Low-velocity ion tracks in fine grain emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsume, M. [F-lab., Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Hoshino, K. [F-lab., Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kuwabara, K. [Digital and Photo Imaging Materials Research Laboratories, FUJIFILM Corporation, Minamiashigara, Kanagawa 250-0193 (Japan); Nakamura, M. [F-lab., Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Nakano, T. [F-lab., Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Niwa, K. [F-lab., Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sato, O. [F-lab., Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Tani, T. [Digital and Photo Imaging Materials Research Laboratories, FUJIFILM Corporation, Minamiashigara, Kanagawa 250-0193 (Japan); Toshito, T. [F-lab., Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)


    We have studied low-velocity Kr ion responses of nuclear emulsions for the possibility of tracking Ag and Br recoils from galactic dark matter particles. Tracks of 680-1180 km/s Kr ions have been observed in a 40 nm-sized AgBr grain emulsion with scanning electron microscopy. The tracks have a linear energy-dependency in range, angles biased along the incident direction, and a high developed-grain number density with respect to expected electronic stopping. We find that the fine grain emulsion is sensitive enough to low-velocity heavy ions whose energy losses are mainly governed by nuclear stopping.

  12. Flow behaviour of emulsions containing small and large droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, R. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)


    Steady flow and visco-elastic properties of kerosene-in-water and mineral oil-in-water emulsions were studied using a controlled-stress rheometer. Results showed that the viscosity, storage and loss moduli of kerosene-in-water and mineral oil-in-water increase substantially when droplet size is reduced. The emulsion became more elastic and shear-thinning. The minimum in viscosity occurs only at low shear stresses in both kerosene-in-water and mineral oil-in-water emulsions. 59 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  13. Parylene-encapsulated copolymeric membranes as localized and sustained drug delivery platforms. (United States)

    Chen, Mark; Huang, Houjin; Pierstorff, Erik; Shin, Eric; Robinson, Erik; Ho, Dean


    Parylene is a biologically inert material capable of being deposited in conformal nanoscale layers on virtually any surface, making it a viable structural material for the fabrication of drug delivery devices, as well as implant coatings, sensors, and other biomedical technologies. Here we explore its novel drug delivery applications by using parylene to package the polymethyloxazoline-polydimethylsiloxane-polymethyloxazoline (PMOXA-PDMS-PMOXA) block copolymer membrane of a nanoscale thickness (approximately 4 nm/layer) mixed with a therapeutic element, creating an active parylene-encapsulated copolymeric (APC) membrane for slow release drug delivery of dexamethasone (Dex), a potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant synthetic glucocorticoid. Given current needs for localized therapeutic release for conditions such as cancer, post-surgical inflammation, wound healing, regenerative medicine, to name a few, this stand-alone and minimally invasive implantable technology may impact a broad range of medical scenarios. To evaluate the applicability of the APC membrane as a biocompatible drug delivery system, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to investigate the expression of cytokines that regulate cellular stress and inflammation as a result of in vitro RAW264.7 macrophage cell growth on the APC membrane. Significant decreases in relative mRNA levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and iNOS were observed. Dex functionalized APC membranes were further found to effectively slow-elute the drug via confocal microscopy, with a confirmed extended elution capability over a period of several days, undergoing phosphate buffered saline washes between time points. In addition, we examined the membrane surface through atomic force microscopy (AFM) to examine Dex/copolymer deposition, and to characterize the surface of the APC membrane. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of incubation with the APC membrane in solution on macrophage growth behavior and cellular

  14. Copolymeric polythioesters by lipase-catalyzed thioesterification and transthioesterification of alpha,omega-alkanedithiols. (United States)

    Weber, N; Bergander, K; Fehling, E; Klein, E; Vosmann, K; Mukherjee, K D


    Linear copolymeric polythioesters [PTE; poly(alpha,omega-alkanedioic acid-co-alpha,omega-alkanedithiols)] were formed in good yield (approximately 69%) by thioesterification of 1,12-dodecanedioic acid with 1,6-hexanedithiol and 1,8-octanedithiol, respectively, catalyzed by immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme RM IM) in vacuo without a solvent. Similarly, transthioesterification (thiolysis) of diethyl 1,12-dodecanedioate with 1,6-hexanedithiol led to the formation of approximately 66% PTE. Poly (1,12-dodecanedioic acid-co-1,6-hexanedithiol) and poly (1,12-dodecanedioic acid-co-1,8-octanedithiol) were extracted from the reaction mixture using methyl-t-butylether, precipitated at -20 degrees C and the precipitates extracted with boiling i-hexane to yield two fractions of PTE. The i-hexane-insoluble fraction of poly (1,12-dodecanedioic acid-co-1,6-hexanedithiol) shows an average molecular mass (Mw) of 1,212 Da, corresponding to a molecular weight range of up to 13,200 Da and a degree of polymerization of up to 38 monomer units. The i-hexane-insoluble fraction of poly (1,12-dodecanedioic acid-co-1,8-octanedithiol) shows a Mw of 2,360 Da, corresponding to a molecular weight range of up to 19,500 Da and a maximum degree of polymerization of up to 52 monomer units. The low-molecular weight (<800 Da) reaction products of thioesterification of 1,12-dodecanedioic acid with 1,6-hexanedithiol, elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, show the following intermediates: (1) 9,20-dioxo-1,8-dithiacycloeicosane; (2) 17,28-dioxo-1,8,9,16-tetrathiacyclooctacosane; (3) 1,12-dodecanedioic acid methyl(O)ester 6'-S-mercaptohexyl thio(S)ester; and (4) oligomeric linear thioester, formed by thioesterification of two molecules of 1,12-dodecanedioic acid with one molecule of 1,6-hexanedithiol.

  15. Free radical (co)polymerization of methyl methacrylate and styrene in room temperature ionic liquids (United States)

    Zhang, Hongwei

    Conventional free radical polymerizations were carried out in a variety of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). Generally, methyl methacrylate (MMA) and styrene (St) were used as typical monomers to compare the polymerization behavior both in RTILs and in common volatile organic compound solvents (VOCs). In most cases, it was observed that both yields and molecular weights are enhanced in the RTIL. While we believe the "diffusion-controlled termination" mechanism makes the termination of the radical propagating chains difficult due to the highly viscous nature of RTIL, other researchers have suggested that the rapid polymerization rates are due to the high polarity of these reaction media. By employing more than a dozen RTILs with a wide range of anions and cations, we attempted to correlate the viscosity and polarity of the RTILs with the molecular weights and polymerization rates. This correlation was not successful, suggesting that other parameters may also play a role in affecting the polymerization behavior. Other kinds of polymerizations have also been attempted including nitroxide-mediated living radical polymerizations of St and MMA in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM]PF6), and redox initiation system initiated polymerization of MMA through redox pair formed by cation of trihexyl-tetradecyl-phosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate ([H3TDP] [(PM3) 2P]) and BPO. The formation of PSt-b-PMMA by sequential monomer addition through the standard free radical polymerization mechanism, using BPO as initiator, can be realized in [BMIM]PF6 due to the insolubility of polymerized first block---PSt in [BMIM]PF6. The macroradicals wrapped inside the chain coils have prolonged lifetimes because of the diminished termination, which allow some of these radicals to initiate polymerization of MMA at room temperature to form diblock copolymer. Solvents effects on reactivity ratios for free radical statistical copolymerization have been

  16. Characterization of whey protein emulsion films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida C. M. P.


    Full Text Available Stearic acid was incorporated into whey protein through emulsification to produce films. Whey protein films were prepared by dispersing 6.5% protein in distilled water. Glycerol was the plasticizer agent. Stearic acid was added at different levels (0.0 to 1.0% and the films were analyzed at different pHs (5.0, 6.0, 7.0 and 9.0. The emulsion films were evaluated for mechanical properties, water vapor permeability and protein solubility. It was observed that water vapor permeability and protein solubility values for the film decreased with increasing fatty acid content in the film, but the mechanical properties also decreased.

  17. Omega-3s in food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte


    There is an increasing interest in the use of healthy long chain omega-3 oils in foods. Incorporation of omega-3 oils into foods decreases their oxidative stability and therefore precautions need to be taken to avoid lipid oxidation. This review summarises the major factors to take into considera...... into consideration when developing food emulsions enriched with omega-3 oils and examples on how oxidation can be reduced in products such as mayonnaise, spreads, milk, yoghurt are also given.......There is an increasing interest in the use of healthy long chain omega-3 oils in foods. Incorporation of omega-3 oils into foods decreases their oxidative stability and therefore precautions need to be taken to avoid lipid oxidation. This review summarises the major factors to take...

  18. The structure of omega3 food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Loussert, C.; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt

    Fish oil is rich in polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) which are generally recognized as being beneficial to the health [1]. The addition of fish oil to food products is attractive to both the consumers and the food industry. Indeed, these components will improve nutritional value...... and add product value. Omega-3 PUFAs are rich in double bonds in their fatty acid chains and this attribute renders them highly susceptible to lipid oxidation. Omega-3 PUFAs can be added to food products as neat oil or as a delivery system such as oil-in-water emulsions. In this last configuration...... and the prooxidants. But this protective aspect is a really complex process and it is dependent on the food matrix to which the oil is added [2]. Oxidation is presumed to be initiated at the emulsifier layer, i.e. the interface layer between the oil and water where the oil is most likely to come into contact...

  19. Preparation of nickel nanoparticles in emulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG You-xian; FU Wen-jie; AN Xue-qin


    The nickel nanoparticles with different sizes and spherical shape were prepared by the reduction of nickel sulfate with sodium borohydride in the water-in-oil emulsions of water/SDBS(sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate)/n-pentanol/n-heptane. The effects of aging time, molar ratio of water to SDBS(R) and the concentration of nickel sulfate on the size of particles were studied. The samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry(ICP). The results show that the average particle size changes from 20 to 40 nm by adjusting aging time (15-30 min) and R (9-11.5). The concentration of nickel sulfate of 1.0 mol/L is the favorite condition.

  20. Recent applications of nuclear track emulsion (United States)

    Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Ambřozová, I.; Artemenkov, D. A.; Bradnova, V.; Kamanin, D. V.; Kattabekov, R. R.; Majling, L.; Marey, A.; Ploc, O.; Rusakova, V. V.; Stanoeva, R.; Turek, K.; Zaitsev, A. A.; Zarubin, P. I.; Zarubina, I. G.


    Application of the nuclear track emulsion technique (NTE) in radioactivity and nuclear fission studies is discussed. It is suggested to use a HSP-1000 automated microscope for searching for a collinear cluster tri-partition of heavy nuclei implanted in NTE. Calibrations of α-particles and ion ranges in a novel NTE are carried out. Surface exposures of NTE samples to a Cf-252 source started. Planar events containing fragments and long-range α-particles as well as fragment triples only are studied. NTE samples are calibrated by ions Kr and Xe of energy of 1.2 and 3 A MeV. Use of the image recognition program "ImageJ" for obtaining characteristics of individual events and for events from the large scan area is presented.

  1. Transport of nitric oxide by perfluorocarbon emulsion. (United States)

    Ortiz, Daniel; Cabrales, Pedro; Briceño, Juan C


    Perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions can transport and release various gases based on concentration gradients. The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of carrying and delivering exogenous nitric oxide (NO) into the circulation by simply loading PFC emulsion with NO prior infusion. PFC was equilibrated with room air (PFC) or 300 ppm NO (PFC-NO) at atmospheric pressure. Isotonic saline solution was used as a volume control (Saline). PFC and PFC-NO were infused at a dose of 3.5 mL/kg in the hamster window chamber model. Blood chemistry, and systemic and microvascular hemodynamic response were measured. Infusion of PFC preloaded with NO reduced blood pressure, induced microvascular vasodilation and increased capillary perfusion; although these changes lasted less than 30 min post infusion. On the other hand, infusion of PFC (without NO) produced vasoconstriction; however, the vasoconstriction was followed by vasodilatation at 30 min post infusion. Plasma nitrite and nitrate increased 15 min after infusion of NO preloaded PFC compared with PFC, 60 min after infusion nitrite and nitrate were not different, and 90 min after infusion plasma S-nitrosothiols increased in both groups. Infusion of NO preloaded PFC resulted in acute vascular relaxation, where as infusion of PFC (without NO) produced vasoconstriction, potentially due to NO sequestration by the PFC micelles. The late effects of PFC infusion are due to NO redistribution and plasma S-nitrosothiols. Gas solubility in PFC can provide a tool to modulate plasma vasoactive NO forms availability and improve microcirculatory function and promote increased blood flow.

  2. Physical chemistry of highly concentrated emulsions. (United States)

    Foudazi, Reza; Qavi, Sahar; Masalova, Irina; Malkin, Alexander Ya


    This review explores the physics underlying the rheology of highly concentrated emulsions (HCEs) to determine the relationship between elasticity and HCE stability, and to consider whether it is possible to describe all physicochemical properties of HCEs on the basis of a unique physical approach. We define HCEs as emulsions with a volume fraction above the maximum closest packing fraction of monodisperse spheres, φm=0.74, even if droplets are not of polyhedron shape. The solid-like rheological behavior of HCEs is characterized by yield stress and elasticity, properties which depend on droplet polydispersity and which are affected by caging at volume fractions about the jamming concentration, φj. A bimodal size distribution in HCEs diminishes caging and facilitates droplet movement, resulting in HCEs with negligible yield stress and no plateau in storage modulus. Thermodynamic forces automatically move HCEs toward the lowest free energy state, but since interdroplet forces create local minimums - points beyond which free energy temporarily increases before it reaches the global minimum of the system - the free energy of HCEs will settle at a local minimum unless additional energy is added. Several attempts have been undertaken to predict the elasticity of HCEs. In many cases, the elastic modulus of HCEs is higher than the one predicted from classical models, which only take into account spatial repulsion (or simply interfacial energy). Improved models based on free energy calculation should be developed to consider the disjoining pressure and interfacial rheology in addition to spatial repulsion. The disjoining pressure and interfacial viscoelasticity, which result in the deviation of elasticity from the classical model, can be regarded as parameters for quantifying the stability of HCEs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mussel-inspired one-step copolymerization to engineer hierarchically structured surface with superhydrophobic properties for removing oil from water. (United States)

    Huang, Shouying


    In the present study, a superhydrophobic polyurethane (PU) sponge with hierarchically structured surface, which exhibits excellent performance in absorbing oils/organic solvents, was fabricated for the first time through mussel-inspired one-step copolymerization approach. Specifically, dopamine (a small molecular bioadhesive) and n-dodecylthiol were copolymerized in an alkaline aqueous solution to generate polydopamine (PDA) nanoaggregates with n-dodecylthiol motifs on the surface of the PU sponge skeletons. Then, the superhydrophobic sponge that comprised a hierarchical structured surface similar to the chemical/topological structures of lotus leaf was fabricated. The topological structures, surface wettability, and mechanical property of the sponge were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, contact angle experiments, and compression test. Just as a result of the highly porous structure, superhydrophobic property and strong mechanical stability, this sponge exhibited desirable absorption capability of oils/organic solvents (weight gains ranging from 2494% to 8670%), suggesting a promising sorbents for the removal of oily pollutants from water. Furthermore, thanks to the nonutilization of the complicated processes or sophisticated equipment, the fabrication of the superhydrophobic sponge seemed to be quite easy to scale up. All these merits make the sponge a competitive candidate when compared to the conventional absorbents, for example, nonwoven polypropylene fabric.

  4. Kinetic investigations of graft copolymerization of sodium styrene sulfonate onto electron beam irradiated poly(vinylidene fluoride) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud Nasef, Mohamed, E-mail: mahmoudeithar@fkkksa.utm.m [Institute of Hydrogen Economy, International City Campus, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Semarak, 54100 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Saidi, Hamdani [Institute of Hydrogen Economy, International City Campus, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Semarak, 54100 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Mohd Dahlan, Khairul Zaman [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)


    Graft copolymerization of sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS) onto electron beam (EB) irradiated poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films was investigated to find out a simple preparation process for sulfonic acid proton exchange membranes with respect to monomer concentration, absorbed dose, temperature, film thickness and storage time. The reaction order of the monomer concentration and absorbed dose of grafting was found to be 2.84 and 1.20, respectively. The overall activation energy for graft copolymerization reaction was calculated to be 11.36 kJ/mol. The initial rate of grafting was found to decrease with an increase in the film thickness. The trapped radicals in the irradiated PVDF films remained effective in initiating the reaction without considerable loss in grafting level up to 180 days, when stored under -60 {sup o}C. The presence and distribution of polystyrene sulfonate grafts in the obtained membranes were observed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, scanning optical microscope and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled with X-ray energy dispersive (EDX), respectively.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Xie; Xian-hong Wang; Xiao-jiang Zhao; Fo-song Wang


    Rare-earth ternary catalysts Y(CC13COO)3-ZnR2-glycerin were prepared for the copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide (PO), where dialkylzincs (ZnR2) were diethylzinc, di(n-propyl)zinc, ali(n-butyl)zinc, di(i-propyl)zinc, di(i-butyl)zinc, di(s-butyl)zinc,respectively. The Y(CCl3COO)3-ZnR2-glycerin catalysts displayed the highest catalytic activity at the molar ratio of Y(CCl3COO)3:ZnR2:glycerin = 1:20:10. In the same copolymerization condition,catalysts containing dialkylzincs with branched alkyl group showed lower catalytic activity than that with primary alkyl group. For those catalysts including dialkylzincs with primary alkyl group, their catalytic activity decreases with increasing number of carbon atom in the alkyl group with the following sequence: Y(CCl3COO)3-ZnEt2-glycerin > Y(CCl3COO)3-Zn(n-Pr)2-glycerin>Y(CCl3COO)3-Zn(n-Bu)2-glycerin. However, the alkyl group in the dialkylzinc does not influence the insertion of PO into the propagation chain end.

  6. Preparation of Thermo-Responsive Poly(ionic liquids-Based Nanogels via One-Step Cross-Linking Copolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang


    Full Text Available In this study, thermo-responsive polymeric nanogels were facilely prepared via one-step cross-linking copolymerization of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate/divinylbenzene and ionic liquid (IL-based monomers, 1,n-dialkyl-3,3′-bis-1-vinyl imidazolium bromides ([CnVIm]Br; n = 6, 8, 12 in selective solvents. The results revealed that stable and blue opalescent biimidazolium (BIm-based nanogel solutions could be obtained without any precipitation when the copolymerizations were conducted in methanol. Most importantly, these novel nanogels were thermo-response, and could reversibly transform to precipitation in methanol with temperature changes. Turbidity analysis and dynamic light scatting (DLS measurement illustrated that PIL-based nanogel solutions presented the phase transform with upper critical solution temperature (UCST in the range of 5–25 °C. The nanogels were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In addition, BIm-based nanogels could also be used as highly active catalysts in the cycloaddition reaction of CO2 and epoxides. As a result, our attributes build a robust platform suitable for the preparation of polymeric nanomaterials, as well as CO2 conversion.

  7. Surfactant-free exfoliation of graphite in aqueous solutions. (United States)

    Ricardo, Karen B; Sendecki, Anne; Liu, Haitao


    We report an ultrasound exfoliation of graphite in a weakly basic solution to produce multi-layer graphene dispersion. A unique feature of this process is that no surfactant was added to stabilize the exfoliated graphene in water. The concentration of the graphene dispersion prepared by this approach can be up to 0.02 mg mL(-1) and it was stable at room temperature for several months.

  8. Development of amino resin for emulsion paint formulation: reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of amino resin for emulsion paint formulation: reactive blending of methylol urea with soybean oil. ... advantages of this new system are low formaldehyde emission and water reduction characteristics. The polymer blend may ...

  9. Aging mechanisms of perfluorocarbon emulsions using image analysis. (United States)

    Freire, Mara G; Dias, Ana M A; Coelho, Maria A Z; Coutinho, João A P; Marrucho, Isabel M


    The aging mechanisms of perfluorocarbon emulsions were investigated using image analysis. Oil-in-water emulsions of two perfluorocarbons, n-perfluorohexane and perfluorodecalin, were prepared with three emulsifiers, Lecithin, Span 20, and Pluronic F-68. The effect of the temperature and the replacement of water by an aqueous phase consisting of a microbial culture medium were also studied. The emulsions were prepared by sonication and their stability was followed through analysis of the evolution of mean droplet size. The results indicate that the stability of perfluorocarbon in water emulsions depends on all the parameters investigated and that two aging mechanisms, coalescence and molecular diffusion, may take place. Analysis of the evolution of the mean droplet size during long time periods indicate that coalescence is more common than previously reported for these systems and seems to be favored by a temperature increase.

  10. The Emulsion Scanning System of the OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Juget, F


    The OPERA experiment has for goal the direct detection of !μ ! !! oscilla- tion, using an hybrid apparatus composed of electronic detectors and nuclear photographic emulsions. A charged particle crossing an emulsion layer ion- izes the medium along its path leaving a latent image which leads, after de- velopment, to a sequence of aligned grains. Nuclear emulsions are analyzed by means of optical microscopes to reconstruct the 3D particle tracks. The OPERA collaboration has developed a dedicated system to scan a large num- ber of emulsions (surface of about 1000 m2). The achieved resolution is "1 μm and "1 mrad allowing to observe directly the short-lived " particles pro- duced in !!CC interactions.

  11. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.


    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  12. Nonionic emulsion-mediated synthesis of zeolite beta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuguo Shen; Ying Zhang; Chao Jin; Ying Cao; Wei Gao; Lishan Cui


    Zeolite beta synthesis was first carried out in a newly developed emulsion system containing nonionic polyoxyethylated alkylphenol surfactant, which showed interesting non-conventional features. Compared to the conventional hydrothermal synthesis of zeolite beta, the reported nonionic emulsion system showed a faster nucleation rate. Furthermore, the emulsion system could stabilize the beta product and retarded its further transformation to ZSM-5 even under the high crystallization temperature at 453 K. Additionally, the beta particle size could be tuned by the adoption of different lengths of alkyl chain in the surfactant and cosurfactant. Control experiments showed each emulsion component played a crucial role in the zeolite beta growth. The approach proposed in this paper might be extended to apply for the syntheses of other types of zeolites with particle size under control.

  13. Emulsion sheet doublets as interface trackers for the OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Anokhina, A.; Ariga, A.; Arrabito, L.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bay, F.; Greggio, F.Bersani; Bertolin, A.; Besnier, M.; Bick, D.; Bozza, C.; Brugiere, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Carrara, E.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chon-Sen, N.; Chukanov, A.; Consiglio, L.; Cozzi, M.; Cuha, V.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Amato, G.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Declais, Y.; De Serio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Giovanni, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Troia, C.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dominjon, A.; Dracos, Marcos; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Ebert, J.; Egorov, O.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, Antonio; Esposito, L.S.; Favier, J.; Felici, G.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.; Frekers, D.; Fukuda, T.; Galkin, V.I.; Galkin, V.A.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Goellnitz, C.; Goldberg, J.; Golubkov, D.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Guler, M.; Gusev, G.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, Caren; Hara, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Hiramatsu, S.; Hoshino, Kaoru; Ieva, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Janutta, B.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kawai, T.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S.H.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Laktineh, I.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, Andrea; Lutter, G.; Manai, K.; Mandrioli, G.; Marotta, A.; Marteau, J.; Matsuo, T.; Matsuoka, H.; Mauri, N.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Messina, M.; Migliozzi, P.; Mikado, S.; Miyamoto, S.; Monacelli, Piero; Morishima, Kunihiro; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, Maria Teresa; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, T.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Osedlo, V.; Ossetski, D.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B.D.; Park, I.G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pilipenko, V.; Pistillo, C.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, Klaus P.; Publichenko, P.; Pupilli, F.; Roganova, T.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Ryzhikov, D.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Saveliev, V.; Sazhina, G.; Schembri, A.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sioli, Max; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J.S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, Paolo Emilio; Sugonyaev, V.; Taira, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tezuka, I.; Tioukov, V.; Tolun, P.; Tsarev, V.; Tufanli, S.; Ushida, N.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Wurtz, J.; Yoon, C.S.; Yoshida, J.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, Amina; Zimmermann, R.


    New methods for efficient and unambiguous interconnection between electronic counters and target units based on nuclear photographic emulsion films have been developed. The application to the OPERA experiment, that aims at detecting oscillations between mu neutrino and tau neutrino in the CNGS neutrino beam, is reported in this paper. In order to reduce background due to latent tracks collected before installation in the detector, on-site large-scale treatments of the emulsions ("refreshing") have been applied. Changeable Sheet (CSd) packages, each made of a doublet of emulsion films, have been designed, assembled and coupled to the OPERA target units ("ECC bricks"). A device has been built to print X-ray spots for accurate interconnection both within the CSd and between the CSd and the related ECC brick. Sample emulsion films have been extensively scanned with state-of-the-art automated optical microscopes. Efficient track-matching and powerful background rejection have been achieved in tests with electronic...

  14. Encapsulation of emulsion droplets by organo–silica shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoldesi, C.; Steegstra, Patrick; Imhof, Arnout


    Surfactant-stabilized emulsion droplets were used as templates for the synthesis of hollow colloidal particles. Monodisperse silicone oil droplets were prepared by hydrolysis and polymerization of dimethyldiethoxysiloxane monomer, in the presence of surfactant: sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, anionic)

  15. Reduced Fat Food Emulsions: Physicochemical, Sensory, and Biological Aspects. (United States)

    Chung, Cheryl; Smith, Gordon; Degner, Brian; McClements, David Julian


    Fat plays multiple important roles in imparting desirable sensory attributes to emulsion-based food products, such as sauces, dressings, soups, beverages, and desserts. However, there is concern that over consumption of fats leads to increased incidences of chronic diseases, such as obesity, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. Consequently, there is a need to develop reduced fat products with desirable sensory profiles that match those of their full-fat counterparts. The successful design of high quality reduced-fat products requires an understanding of the many roles that fat plays in determining the sensory attributes of food emulsions, and of appropriate strategies to replace some or all of these attributes. This paper reviews our current understanding of the influence of fat on the physicochemical and physiological attributes of food emulsions, and highlights some of the main approaches that can be used to create high quality emulsion-based food products with reduced fat contents.

  16. Pickering emulsions stabilized by paraffin wax and Laponite clay particles. (United States)

    Li, Caifu; Liu, Qian; Mei, Zhen; Wang, Jun; Xu, Jian; Sun, Dejun


    Emulsions containing wax in dispersed droplets stabilized by disc-like Laponite clay particles are prepared. Properties of the emulsions prepared at different temperatures are examined using stability, microscopy and droplet-size analysis. At low temperature, the wax crystals in the oil droplets can protrude through the interface, leading to droplet coalescence. But at higher temperatures, the droplet size decreases with wax concentration. Considering the viscosity of the oil phase and the interfacial tension, we conclude that the wax is liquid-like during the high temperature emulsification process, but during cooling wax crystals appear around the oil/water interface and stabilize the droplets. The oil/water ratio has minimal effect on the emulsions between ratios of 3:7 and 7:3. The Laponite is believed to stabilize the emulsions by increasing the viscosity of the continuous phase and also by adsorbing at the oil/water interface, thus providing a physical barrier to coalescence.

  17. Processing emulsions from desalting of crude oil using centrifuges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiger, W.; Westenthanner, F.; Reichl, J. [Flottweg GmbH und Co. KGaA, Vilsbiburg (Germany)


    Crude oil directly from the well contains brine. This brine is separated using static settling in tanks. Thereby a layer of emulsion is built up in the interface between oil and the brine, which reduces the available tank volume and makes the separation process difficult. In order to break the emulsion there are several approaches, e.g., use of emulsion breaker, treatment using electrical field, ultra sonic, microwave, etc., This article describes a successful commissioning of a centrifuge, a FLOTTWEG, TRICANTER {sup registered}, in the ural-central region. The FLOTTWEG TRICANTER {sup registered} enables a continuous 3-phase-separation, i. e., separation of the emulsion into oil, water and solids without chemical additives. (orig.)

  18. Fluorescent-magnetic Janus particles prepared via seed emulsion polymerization. (United States)

    Kaewsaneha, Chariya; Bitar, Ahmad; Tangboriboonrat, Pramuan; Polpanich, Duangporn; Elaissari, Abdelhamid


    Anisotropic polymeric colloidal or Janus particles possessing simultaneous magnetic and fluorescent properties were successfully prepared via the swelling-diffusion or the in situ emulsion polymerization method. In the swelling-diffusion process, magnetic emulsions (an organic ferrofluid dispersed in aqueous medium) were synthesized and used for seeds of submicron magnetic Janus particles. After swelling the anisotropic particles obtained by 1-pyrene-carboxaldehyde fluorescent dye dissolved in tetrahydrofuran, well-defined fluorescent-magnetic Janus particles were produced. In the in situ emulsion polymerization, styrene monomer mixed with fluorescent dye monomers, i.e., 1-pyrenylmethyl methacrylate (PyMMA) or fluorescein dimethacrylate (FDMA), and an oil-soluble initiator (2,2'-azobis(2-isobutyronitrile)) were emulsified in the presence of magnetic seed emulsions. The confocal microscopic images showed the fluorescent-magnetic Janus particles with high fluorescent intensity when a fluorescent crosslinker monomer FDMA was employed.

  19. Properties of emulsions stabilised by sodium caseinate–chitosan complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinoviadou, K.; Scholten, E.; Moschakis, T.; Biliaderis, C.G.


    Oil-in-water emulsions (10%, w/w, oil) were prepared at pH 5.7 by using electrostatically formed complexes of 0.5% (w/w) sodium caseinate (Na-CAS) and 0–0.6% (w/w) chitosan. Emulsions stabilized by complexes with increased levels of chitosan (>0.2% w/w) had a smaller average droplet size and exhi

  20. Emulsion detectors for the antihydrogen detection in AEgIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistillo, C., E-mail: [University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (Switzerland); Aghion, S. [Politecnico of Milano (Italy); Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T. [University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (Switzerland); Belov, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation); Bonomi, G. [University of Brescia, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (Italy); Bräunig, P. [Heidelberg University, Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics (Germany); Bremer, J. [CERN, Physics Department (Switzerland); Brusa, R. S. [University of Trento, Department of Physics (Italy); Cabaret, L. [University of Paris-Sud, Laboratory Aim Cotton, CNRS (France); Caccia, M. [INFN Milano (Italy); Caravita, R. [University of Genova, Department of Physics (Italy); Castelli, F. [INFN Milano (Italy); Cerchiari, G. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (Germany); Chlouba, K. [Czech Technical University (Czech Republic); Cialdi, S. [INFN Milano (Italy); Comparat, D. [University of Paris-Sud, Laboratory Aim Cotton, CNRS (France); Consolati, G. [Politecnico of Milano (Italy); Demetrio, A. [Heidelberg University, Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics (Germany); and others


    The AEgIS experiment at CERN aims to perform the first direct measurement of gravitational interaction between matter and antimatter by measuring the deviation of a cold antihydrogen beam in the Earth gravitational field. The design of the experiment has been recently updated to include emulsion films as position sensitive detector. The submicrometric position accuracy of emulsions leads indeed to a significant improvement of the experimental sensitivity. We present results of preliminary tests and discuss perspectives for the final measurement.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Microlatex particles of emulsion explosives determined by microphotography were studied with the law of logarithmic Gauss normal distribution, and results obtained showed that the microlatex particle just possessed the law of logarithmic Gauss normal distribution. The particlediameter in statistical average value, such as ONE, ONS, DES, OSV and DVM was calculated through the diagram of logarithmic Gauss normal distribution of microlatex particles of emulsion explosives, so was Sw.

  2. Rheological properties of highly concentrated protein-stabilized emulsions. (United States)

    Dimitrova, Tatiana D; Leal-Calderon, Fernando


    We prepared concentrated quasi monodisperse hexadecane-in-water emulsions stabilized by various proteins and investigated their rheological properties. Some protein-stabilized emulsions possess remarkably high elasticity and at the same time they are considerably fragile--they exhibit coalescence at yield strain and practically do not flow. The elastic storage modulus G' and the loss modulus G" of the emulsions were determined for different oil volume fractions above the random close packing. Surprisingly, the dimensionless elastic moduli G'/(sigma/a), sigma being the interfacial tension, and a being the mean drop radius, obtained for emulsions stabilized by different proteins do not collapse on a single master curve. They are almost always substantially higher than the corresponding values obtained for equivalent Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)-stabilized emulsions. The unusually high elasticity cannot be attributed to a specificity of the continuous phase, because the osmotic equation of state of our emulsions is found identical to the one obtained for samples stabilized by classical surfactants. In parallel, we mimicked the thin films that separate the droplets in the concentrated emulsion and found that the protein adsorption layers contain a substantial number of sticky surface aggregates. These severely obstruct local rearrangements of individual drops in respect to their neighbors which leads to coalescence at yield strain. Furthermore, we found that G'/(sigma/a) is correlated (for a given oil volume fraction) to the dilatational elastic modulus, of the protein layer adsorbed on the droplets. The intrinsic elasticity of the protein layers, together with the blocked local rearrangements are considered as the main factors determining the unusual bulk elasticity of the studied emulsions.

  3. Preparation of Pickering double emulsions using block copolymer worms. (United States)

    Thompson, Kate L; Mable, Charlotte J; Lane, Jacob A; Derry, Mathew J; Fielding, Lee A; Armes, Steven P


    The rational formulation of Pickering double emulsions is described using a judicious combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic block copolymer worms as highly anisotropic emulsifiers. More specifically, RAFT dispersion polymerization was utilized to prepare poly(lauryl methacrylate)-poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 20% w/w solids in n-dodecane and poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate)-poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 13% w/w solids in water by polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). Water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsions can be readily prepared with mean droplet diameters ranging from 30 to 80 μm using a two-stage approach. First, a w/o precursor emulsion comprising 25 μm aqueous droplets is prepared using the hydrophobic worms, followed by encapsulation within oil droplets stabilized by the hydrophilic worms. The double emulsion droplet diameter and number of encapsulated water droplets can be readily varied by adjusting the stirring rate employed during the second stage. For each stage, the droplet volume fraction is relatively high at 0.50. The double emulsion nature of the final formulation was confirmed by optical and fluorescence microscopy studies. Such double emulsions are highly stable to coalescence, with little or no change in droplet diameter being detected over storage at 20 °C for 10 weeks as judged by laser diffraction. Preliminary experiments indicate that the complementary o/w/o emulsions can also be prepared using the same pair of worms by changing the order of homogenization, although somewhat lower droplet volume fractions were required in this case. Finally, we demonstrate that triple and even quadruple emulsions can be formulated using these new highly anisotropic Pickering emulsifiers.

  4. Properties of emulsions stabilised by sodium caseinate–chitosan complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinoviadou, K.; Scholten, E.; Moschakis, T.; Biliaderis, C.G.


    Oil-in-water emulsions (10%, w/w, oil) were prepared at pH 5.7 by using electrostatically formed complexes of 0.5% (w/w) sodium caseinate (Na-CAS) and 0–0.6% (w/w) chitosan. Emulsions stabilized by complexes with increased levels of chitosan (>0.2% w/w) had a smaller average droplet size and

  5. Enhanced reductive dechlorination in columns treated with edible oil emulsion (United States)

    Long, Cameron M.; Borden, Robert C.


    The effect of edible oil emulsion treatment on enhanced reductive dechlorination was evaluated in a 14 month laboratory column study. Experimental treatments included: (1) emulsified soybean oil and dilute HCl to inhibit biological activity; (2) emulsified oil only; (3) emulsified oil and anaerobic digester sludge; and (4) continuously feeding soluble substrate. A single application of emulsified oil was effective in generating strongly reducing, anaerobic conditions for over 14 months. PCE was rapidly reduced to cis-DCE in all three live columns. Bioaugmentation with a halorespiring enrichment culture resulted in complete dechlorination of PCE to ethene in the soluble substrate column (yeast extract and lactate). However, an additional treatment with a pulse of yeast extract and bioaugmentation culture was required to stimulate complete dechlorination in the emulsion treated columns. Once the dechlorinating population was established, the emulsion only column degraded PCE from 90-120 μM to below detection with concurrent ethene production in a 33 day contact time. The lower biodegradation rates in the emulsion treated columns compared to the soluble substrate column suggest that emulsified oil barriers may require a somewhat longer contact time for effective treatment. In the HCl inhibited column, partitioning of PCE to the retained oil substantially delayed PCE breakthrough. However, reduction of PCE to more soluble degradation products ( cis-DCE, VC and ethene) greatly reduced the impact of oil-water partitioning in live columns. There was only a small decline in the hydraulic conductivity ( K) of column #1 (low pH + emulsion, Kfinal/ Kinitial = 0.57) and column #2 (live + emulsion, Kfinal/ Kinitial = 0.73) indicating emulsion injection did not result in appreciable clogging of the clayey sand. However, K loss was greater in column #3 (sludge +emulsion, Kfinal/ Kinitial = 0.12) and column #4 (soluble substrate, Kfinal/ Kinitial = 0.03) indicating clogging due

  6. An exclusively based parenteral fish-oil emulsion reverses cholestasis


    Junco, Miryam Triana; García Vázquez, Natalia; Zozaya, Carlos; Ybarra Zabala, Marta; Abrams, Steven; García de Lorenzo, Abelardo; Sáenz de Pipaón Marcos, Miguel


    Prolonged parenteral nutrition (PN) leads to liver damage. Recent interest has focused on the lipid component of PN. A lipid emulsion based on w-3 fatty acids decrease conjugated bilirubin. A mixed lipid emulsion derived from soybean, coconut, olive, and fish oils reverses jaundice. Here we report the reversal of cholestasis and the improvement of enteral feeding tolerance in 1 infant with intestinal failure-associated liver disease. Treatment involved the substitution...

  7. Generation of colloidal granules and capsules from double emulsion drops (United States)

    Hess, Kathryn S.

    Assemblies of colloidal particles are extensively used in ceramic processing, pharmaceuticals, inks and coatings. In this project, the aim was to develop a new technique to fabricate monodispersed colloidal assemblies. The use of microfluidic devices and emulsion processing allows for the fabrication of complex materials that can be used in a variety of applications. A microfluidic device is used to create monodispersed water/oil/water (w/o/w) double emulsions with interior droplets of colloidal silica suspension ranging in size from tens to hundreds of microns. By tailoring the osmotic pressure using glycerol as a solute in the continuous and inner phases of the emulsion, we can control the final volume size of the monodispersed silica colloidal crystals that form in the inner droplets of the double emulsion. Modifying the ionic strength in the colloidal dispersion can be used to affect the particle-particle interactions and crystal formation of the final colloidal particle. This w/o/w technique has been used with other systems of metal oxide colloids and cellulose nanocrystals. Encapsulation of the colloidal suspension in a polymer shell for the generation of ceramic-polymer core-shell particles has also been developed. These core-shell particles have spawned new research in the field of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials. Systems and chemistries for creating cellulose hydrogels within the double emulsions have also been researched. Water in oil single emulsions and double emulsions have been used to create cellulose hydrogel spheres in the sub-100 micron diameter range. Oil/water/oil double emulsions allow us to create stable cellulose capsules. The addition of a second hydrogel polymer, such as acrylate or alginate, further strengthens the cellulose gel network and can also be processed into capsules and particles using the microfluidic device. This work could have promising applications in acoustic metamaterials, personal care products, pharmaceuticals

  8. Ultrasonic Production of Nano-Size Dispersions and Emulsions


    Hielscher, Thomas


    Submitted on behalf of EDA Publishing Association (; International audience; Ultrasound is a well-established method for particle size reduction in dispersions and emulsions. Ultrasonic processors are used in the generation of nano-size material slurries, dispersions and emulsions because of the potential in the deagglomeration and the reduction of primaries. These are the mechanical effects of ultrasonic cavitation. Ultrasound can also be used to infl...

  9. Tunable Pickering emulsions with polymer-grafted lignin nanoparticles (PGLNs). (United States)

    Silmore, Kevin S; Gupta, Chetali; Washburn, Newell R


    Lignin is an abundant biopolymer that has native interfacial functions but aggregates strongly in aqueous media. Polyacrylamide was grafted onto kraft lignin nanoparticles using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) chemistry to form polymer-grafted lignin nanoparticles (PGLNs) that tune aggregation strength while retaining interfacial activities in forming Pickering emulsions. Polymer graft density on the particle surface, ionic strength, and initial water and cyclohexane volume fractions were varied and found to have profound effects on emulsion characteristics, including emulsion volume fraction, droplet size, and particle interfacial concentration that were attributed to changes in lignin aggregation and hydrophobic interactions. In particular, salt concentration was found to have a significant effect on aggregation, zeta potential, and interfacial tension, which was attributed to changes in solubility of both the kraft lignin and the polyacrylamide grafts. Dynamic light scattering, UV-vis spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and tensiometry were used to quantify emulsion properties and nanoparticle behavior. Under all conditions, the emulsions exhibited relatively fast creaming but were stable against coalescence and Ostwald ripening for a period of months. All emulsions were also oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions, as predicted by the Bancroft rule, and no catastrophic phase inversions were observed for any nanoparticle compositions. We conclude that lower grafting density of polyacrylamide on a lignin core resulted in high levels of interfacial activity, as characterized by higher concentration at the water-cyclohexane interface with a corresponding decrease in interfacial tension. These results indicate that the interfacial properties of polymer-grafted lignin nanoparticles are primarily due to the native hydrophobic interactions of the lignin core. These results suggest that the forces that drive aggregation are also correlated with interfacial

  10. Stabilization/solidification of munition destruction waste by asphalt emulsion. (United States)

    Cervinkova, Marketa; Vondruska, Milan; Bednarik, Vratislav; Pazdera, Antonin


    Destruction of discarded military munitions in an explosion chamber produces two fractions of hazardous solid waste. The first one is scrap waste that remains in the chamber after explosion; the second one is fine dust waste, which is trapped on filters of gas products that are exhausted from the chamber after explosion. The technique of stabilization/solidification of the scrap waste by asphalt emulsion is described in this paper. The technique consists of simple mixing of the waste with anionic asphalt emulsion, or two-step mixing of the waste with cationic asphalt emulsion. These techniques are easy to use and the stabilized scrap waste proves low leachability of contained heavy metals assessed by TCLP test. Hence, it is possible to landfill the scrap waste stabilized by asphalt emulsion. If the dust waste, which has large specific surface, is stabilized by asphalt emulsion, it is not fully encapsulated; the results of the leaching tests do not meet the regulatory levels. However, the dust waste solidified by asphalt emulsion can be deposited into an asphalted disposal site of the landfill. The asphalt walls of the disposal site represent an efficient secondary barrier against pollutant release.

  11. Droplet-based microfluidics and the dynamics of emulsions (United States)

    Baret, Jean-Christophe; Brosseau, Quentin; Semin, Benoit; Qu, Xiaopeng


    Emulsions are complex fluids already involved for a long time in a wide-range of industrial processes, such as, for example, food, cosmetics or materials synthesis [1]. More recently, applications of emulsions have been extended to new fields like biotechnology or biochemistry where the compartmentalization of compounds in emulsion droplets is used to parallelise (bio-) chemical reactions [2]. Interestingly, these applications pinpoint to fundamental questions dealing with surfactant dynamics, dynamic surface tension, hydrodynamic interactions and electrohydrodynamics. Droplet-based microfluidics is a very powerful tool to quantitatively study the dynamics of emulsions at the single droplet level or even at the single interface level: well-controlled emulsions are produced and manipulated using hydrodynamics, electrical forces, optical actuation and combination of these effects. We will describe here how droplet-based microfluidics is used to extract quantitative informations on the physical-chemistry of emulsions for a better understanding and control of the dynamics of these systems [3].[4pt] [1] J. Bibette et al. Rep. Prog. Phys., 62, 969-1033 (1999)[0pt] [2] A. Theberge et al., Angewandte Chemie Int. Ed. 49, 5846 (2010)[0pt] [3] J.-C. Baret et al., Langmuir, 25, 6088 (2009)

  12. Sardine Fish Oil By Sentrifugation and Adsorbent for Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Haryati


    Full Text Available Sardine fish meal by-product contain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA and it can be made as emulsion. The purpose of this study were to determine the best fish oil emulsion by mixingthe oil phase (lecithin 3% and oil and water phase (carboxymethyl cellulose/CMC 2% and fruit juice and then stored until creaming, and the emulsion is analyzed their viscosity, pH, percent of stability and longseparation. Sardine oil is separated from the emulsion and tested oxidation parameters. The best emulsion was fish oil emulsion after refined without citric acid (RTS with viscosity (2470.31 cP, pH (5.64, percent of stability (56.14% and long separation (14 days. Primary and secondary oxidation parameters of RTS  were FFA (14.87%, PV (14.43 meq/kg, AV (32.57 meq KOH/g, AnV (17.3 meq/kg, and Totox (46.16 meq/kg.

  13. Formulation, stability and degradation kinetics of intravenous cinnarizine lipid emulsion. (United States)

    Shi, Shuai; Chen, Hao; Cui, Yue; Tang, Xing


    Cinnarizine was loaded in the lipid emulsion to develop an intravenous formulation with good physical and chemical stability. High-pressure homogenization was used to prepare the lipid emulsion. The factors influencing the stability of cinnarizine lipid emulsion, such as different drug loading methods, pH, temperature, sterilization methods and sterilization time were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatograph. The degradation of cinnarizine in aqueous solution and lipid emulsion both followed apparent first-order kinetics. A possible degradation mechanism was postulated by the bell-shaped pH-rate profile of cinnarizine. Localization of the drug in the interfacial lecithin layer significantly improved the chemical stability of cinnarizine and its stabilizing mechanism was thoroughly discussed and proved. The activation energy of cinnarizine in lipid emulsion was calculated to be 51.27 kJ/mol which was similar to that in aqueous solution. This indicates that the stabilizing effect of the drug carrier on cinnarizine was not an alteration of the degradation reaction. In addition, shelf-life of cinnarizine in lipid emulsion was estimated to be 1471.6 days at 4 degrees C, which is much longer compared with 19.8 days in aqueous solution. The final products were stable enough to resist a 121 degrees C rotating steam sterilization for 15 min.

  14. Evaluation of emulsion stability by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. (United States)

    Akers, M J; Lach, J L


    A new method is described for evaluating the stability of emulsion bases and active components contained within such emulsions. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a technique that has the capability of detecting changes in particle size, surface properties, or drug quality of emulsions as a function of time without disturbance of the system. Such physical or chemical changes are monitored by changes in the visible and UV wavelength spectral characteristics of the emulsified systems. Four basic emulsion systems were prepared and analyzed for physical stability for 6 months by three techniques: visible coalescence, particle counting measurement, and DRS. Two drugs, aspirin and ascorbic acid, were then incorporated within stable emulsion bases, and the chemical stability of these drugs was monitored by DRS for 6 months. Results were compared with concomitant quantitative drug assay procedures. Good agreement was observed when data from DRS and analytical measurements were compared. The DRS technique may be used as a supportive method, offering simplicity and expedience, with other methods of evaluating emulsion stability and drug stability within emulsified systems.

  15. Analyzing Benzene and Cyclohexane Emulsion Droplet Collisions on Ultramicroelectrodes. (United States)

    Li, Yan; Deng, Haiqiang; Dick, Jeffrey E; Bard, Allen J


    We report the collisions of single emulsion oil droplets with extremely low dielectric constants (e.g., benzene, ε of 2.27, or cyclohexane, ε of 2.02) as studied via emulsion droplet reactor (EDR) on an ultramicroelectrode (UME). By applying appropriate potentials to the UME, we observed the electrochemical effects of single-collision signals from the bulk electrolysis of single emulsion droplets. Different hydrophobic redox species (ferrocene, decamethyl-ferrocene, or metalloporphyrin) were trapped in a mixed benzene (or cyclohexane) oil-in-water emulsion using an ionic liquid as the supporting electrolyte and emulsifier. The emulsions were prepared using ultrasonic processing. Spike-like responses were observed in each i-t response due to the complete electrolysis of all of the above-mentioned redox species within the droplet. On the basis of these single-particle collision results, the collision frequency, size distribution, i-t decay behavior of the emulsion droplets, and possible mechanisms are analyzed and discussed. This work demonstrated that bulk electrolysis can be achieved in a few seconds in these attoliter reactors, suggesting many applications, such as analysis and electrosynthesis in low dielectric constant solvents, which have a much broader potential window.

  16. Emulsifier development for high-concentrated reverse emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L. Kovalenko


    Full Text Available The reverse emulsions have found broad application in ore mining industry as matrixes of emulsion explosive substances and boring washing waters. The defining characteristic of reverse emulsions of industrial explosive substances is the high stability and immunity to crystallization. Aim: The aim of this work is to assess the mechanism of emulsifiers effect like SMO and some PIBSA-derivatives, that are most abundantly used in world practice, and also to develop an effective domestic emulsifier of reverse emulsions. Materials and methods: Using the semi-dynamic method with use of the reverse stalagmometer it was determined the decreasing in interfacial tension on “water / diesel fuel” border in the presence of 0.5 wt % sorbitan monooleate of various producers. Emulsions with use of the chosen emulsifiers using the dynamic mixer on the basis of monosolution of ammonium nitrate and diesel fuel have been produced. The emulsions have the following composition, wt %: ammonium nitrate – 76.8; water – 15.6; diesel fuel – 6.0; emulsifier – 1.6. Results: By the researches results of the interfacial tension “surfactant water / solution in diesel fuel”, the stability of emulsions using monosolution of ammonium nitrate and the IR spectrums of SMO of various producers it is established that presence in product of impurity of oleic acid, di- and trioleates leads to decreasing in interphase activity, increasing of emulsifier oil solubility and decreasing the resistance of emulsions to crystallization. On the basis of the spectral data analysis it is suggested about possibility of specific interaction on the mechanism of “spectral resonance” between emulsifiers of the PIBSA-MEA, LZX type and crystals nucleus of NH4NO3 ammonium nitrate in dispersed phase of emulsion. Amidation of vegetable oils by monoethanol amine is implemented at the reduced temperatures (90…100 °C. It was proved the availability mainly of fatty acids amides in product

  17. Asphaltene and solids-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions (United States)

    Sztukowski, Danuta M.

    Water-in-crude oil emulsions are a problem in crude oil production, transportation, and processing. Many of these emulsions are stabilized by asphaltenes and native oilfield solids adsorbed at the oil-water interface. Design of effective emulsion treatments is hampered because there is a lack of understanding of the role asphaltenes and solids play in stabilizing these emulsions. In this work, the structural, compositional and rheological properties of water/hydrocarbon interfaces were determined for model emulsions consisting of water, toluene, heptane, asphaltenes and native oilfield solids. The characteristics of the interface were related to the properties of asphaltenes and native solids. Emulsion stability was correlated to interfacial rheology. A combination of vapour pressure osmometry, interfacial tension and emulsion gravimetric studies indicated that asphaltenes initially adsorb at the interface as a monolayer of self-associated molecular aggregates. It was demonstrated why it is necessary to account for asphaltene self-association when interpreting interfacial measurements. The interfacial area of Athabasca asphaltenes was found to be approximately 1.5 nm2 and did not vary with concentration or asphaltene self-association. Hence, more self-associated asphaltenes simply formed a thicker monolayer. The interfacial monolayer observed in this work varied from 2 to 9 nm in thickness. The asphaltene monolayer was shown to adsorb reversibly only at short interface aging times. The film gradually reorganizes at the interface to form a rigid, irreversibly adsorbed network. The elastic and viscous moduli can be modeled using the Lucassen-van den Tempel (LVDT) model when the aging time is less than 10 minutes. An increase in film rigidity can be detected with an increase in the total elastic modulus. Increased film rigidity was shown to reduce the rate of coalescence in an emulsion and increase overall emulsion stability (reduce free water resolution). The rate of

  18. Investigations on vinylene carbonate. IV. Radiation induced graft copolymerization of vinylene carbonate and N-vinyl-N-methylacetamide onto polyethylene films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Guohua; Does, van der Leen; Bantjes, Adriaan


    Graft copolymerization of binary mixtures of vinylene carbonate (VCA) and N-vinyl-N-methylacetamide (VIMA) onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) films was studied by the mutual γ-irradiation technique. Sufficient amounts of functionally active VCA groups could be grafted onto the surface and the hydr


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-yuan Yang; Jian Yu; Mei Li; Zhong-wei Gu; Xin-de Feng


    The copolymerization of DL-LA and 3-BMG was carried out in bulk with stannous 2-ethylhexanoate as the catalyst. A series of copolymers with pendant protected groups were obtained and characterized by 1H-NMR and GPC to be rBMG = 1.96 and rLA = 0.37, respectively.

  20. 共聚改性水性聚氨酯的研究进展%Progress of copolymerization modification of waterborne polyurethanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张探; 王晓莉; 卢曼怡; 熊晓; 孔志祥; 张洋; 管蓉


    共聚改性水性聚氨酯 WPU 可以有效的提高其耐热性、耐水性和力学性能,并且能够很好的将共聚材料与WPU的优点结合起来。本文重点介绍了环氧树脂、丙烯酸酯、有机硅和有机氟共聚改性WPU的研究进展,并对共聚改性WPU的发展现状进行了分析和展望。()%The copolymerization modification of waterborne polyurethanes combining the advantages of copolymerized materials and waterborne polyurethanes(WPU) can improve their heat resistance, water resistance and mechanical properties. This paper introduced the progress of copolymerization modification of waterborne polyurethanes epoxy resin, acrylate, silicone and organic fluorine with at home and abroad in recent years. Finally, current development situation and the trend of copolymerization modification waterborne polyurethanes were analyzed and prospected.

  1. Reactivity of vegetable oil macromonomers in thiol-ene, cationic, and emulsion polymerizations (United States)

    Black, Micah Stephen

    Vegetable oils were, and continue, to be a mainstay in unsaturated polyester ("alkyd") technology. Our endeavor is to use vegetable oil-based polymers in environmentally-friendly coatings. The role of vegetable oil cis-unsaturation has not been fully explored in polymers. To that end, vegetable oil macromonomers (VOMMs) in three different systems were investigated to determine the involvement of cis-unsaturation in chain transfer, auto-oxidation, and copolymerization reactions. VOMMs were incorporated into UV curable thiol-ene coatings, UV cationic coatings, and acrylic solution copolymers and fundamental studies were conducted to determine how and to what extent cis-unsaturation contributes to film performance properties. In thiol-ene UV curable coatings, cis-unsaturation was involved in the initial curing reaction and to lesser degrees, in postcure crosslinking. Its behavior was determined to be dependent on the ene component. Thiol-ene photopolymerization yielded homogeneous networks but formulations containing VOMMs exhibited greater heterogeneity due to non-uniformity in the VOMM chemical structures, and the concurrent reactions occurring during thiol-ene photopolymerization and "dark cure". Partially epoxidized soybean oil was synthesized to contain varying levels of residual cis-unsaturation. Cationic photopolymerization of partially epoxidized soybean oil yielded lightly crosslinked films, but the influence of free radical decomposition byproducts has not been fully investigated. The low involvement of the cis-unsaturation in photopolymerization was attributed to its low reactivity and/or radical combination with antioxidants and molecular oxygen dissolved in the films. When used in emulsion polymerization, VOMMs lower the minimum filming temperature during coalescence and increase the Tg after application via auto-oxidation. Free radical polymerization of VOMMs is accompanied by chain transfer reactions between polymer radicals and VOMMs that reduces

  2. Iron-mediated lipid oxidation in 70% fish oil-in-ater emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte


    The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effect of five different emulsifiers on iron‐mediated lipid oxidation in 70% fish oil‐in‐water emulsions. The emulsifiers were either based on protein (whey protein isolate and sodium caseinate) or based on phospholipid (soy lecithin...... oxidised more at low pH than at high pH, and casein emulsions oxidised the least (Peroxide value (PV) at day 7 was 0.5–0.7 meq kg−1). Among emulsions prepared with phospholipids, emulsions with MPL75 were the most oxidised followed by emulsions prepared with lecithin and MPL20. Thus, PV in MPL75 emulsions...

  3. Explosion Power and Pressure Desensitization Resisting Property of Emulsion Explosives Sensitized by MgH2 (United States)

    Cheng, Yangfan; Ma, Honghao; Liu, Rong; Shen, Zhaowu


    Due to low detonation power and pressure desensitization problems that traditional emulsion explosives encounter in utilization, a hydrogen-based emulsion explosives was devised. This type of emulsion explosives is sensitized by hydrogen-containing material MgH2, and MgH2 plays a double role as a sensitizer and an energetic material in emulsion explosives. Underwater explosion experiments and shock wave desensitization experiments show that an MgH2 emulsion explosives has excellent detonation characteristics and is resistant to pressure desensitization. The pressure desensitization-resistant mechanism of MgH2 emulsion explosives was investigated using scanning electron microscopy.

  4. Food-grade Pickering emulsions stabilised with solid lipid particles. (United States)

    Pawlik, Aleksandra; Kurukji, Daniel; Norton, Ian; Spyropoulos, Fotis


    Aqueous dispersions of tripalmitin particles (with a minimum size of 130 nm) were produced, via a hot sonication method, with and without the addition of food-grade emulsifiers. Depending on their relative size and chemistry, the emulsifiers altered the properties of the fat particles (e.g. crystal form, dispersion state and surface properties) by two proposed mechanisms. Firstly, emulsifiers modify the rate and/or extent of polymorphic transitions, resulting in the formation of fat crystals with a range of polarities. Secondly, the adsorption of emulsifiers at the particle interface modifies crystal surface properties. Such emulsifier-modified fat particles were then used to stabilise emulsions. As the behaviour of these particles was predisposed by the kind of emulsifier employed for their manufacture, the resulting particles showed different preferences to which of the emulsion phases (oil or water) became the continuous one. The polarity of the fat particles decreased as follows: Whey Protein Isolate > Soy Lecithin > Soy Lecithin + Tween 20 > Tween 20 > Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate > no emulsifier. Consequently, particles stabilised with WPI formed oil-in-water emulsions (O/W); particles stabilised solely with lecithin produced a highly unstable W/O emulsion; and particles stabilised with a mixture of lecithin and Tween 20 gave a stable W/O emulsion with drop size up to 30 μm. Coalescence stable, oil-continuous emulsions (W/O) with drop sizes between 5 and 15 μm were produced when the tripalmitin particles were stabilised with solely with Tween 20, solely with polyglycerol polyricinoleate, or with no emulsifier at all. It is proposed that the stability of the latter three emulsions was additionally enhanced by sintering of fat particles at the oil-water interface, providing a mechanical barrier against coalescence.

  5. Design and development of oral nanoparticulated insulin in multiple emulsion. (United States)

    Siddhartha, T Venkata; Senthil, V; Kishan, Ilindra Sai; Khatwal, Rizwan Basha; Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V


    The present research aimed at developing an injection-free nanoparticulated formulation in multiple emulsion form, for oral delivery of insulin, which otherwise undergoes degradation in the gastric environment if administered orally. Insulin-polymeric nanoparticles were prepared using layer by layer (LbL) adsorption method and incorporated into an emulsion to form a nanoparticulated multiple emulsion. Using 0.6 M sodium chloride, the insulin nanoaggregates of 300-400 nm size were obtained about a yield of 94%. The characteristics of a representative nanoparticle were as follows: particle size - 391.9±0.41 nm, polydispersity index -0.425, zeta potential- +20.6 mv, encapsulation efficiency- 86.7±1.42% and percentage entrapment efficiency of the insulin-polymeric nanoparticles in the inner aqueous phase of emulsion was 84.6%. The FT-IR analysis confirms that there were no drug interactions with the polymers. Stability analysis carried out for 3 months at 8-40 °C, showed only minor changes at the end period. The release kinetics of the nanoparticulated multiple emulsion at pH 7.4 followed first order kinetics and obeyed the Fickian law. However, at pH 2.0 the release kinetics from nanoparticulated multiple emulsion followed zero order kinetics without obeying to the Fickian law. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the nanoparticulated multiple emulsion formulation has good release characteristics and imparted a tolerable protection for insulin at different pH conditions, which may be exploited for oral administration.

  6. To Model Chemical Reactivity in Heterogeneous Emulsions, Think Homogeneous Microemulsions. (United States)

    Bravo-Díaz, Carlos; Romsted, Laurence Stuart; Liu, Changyao; Losada-Barreiro, Sonia; Pastoriza-Gallego, Maria José; Gao, Xiang; Gu, Qing; Krishnan, Gunaseelan; Sánchez-Paz, Verónica; Zhang, Yongliang; Dar, Aijaz Ahmad


    Two important and unsolved problems in the food industry and also fundamental questions in colloid chemistry are how to measure molecular distributions, especially antioxidants (AOs), and how to model chemical reactivity, including AO efficiency in opaque emulsions. The key to understanding reactivity in organized surfactant media is that reaction mechanisms are consistent with a discrete structures-separate continuous regions duality. Aggregate structures in emulsions are determined by highly cooperative but weak organizing forces that allow reactants to diffuse at rates approaching their diffusion-controlled limit. Reactant distributions for slow thermal bimolecular reactions are in dynamic equilibrium, and their distributions are proportional to their relative solubilities in the oil, interfacial, and aqueous regions. Our chemical kinetic method is grounded in thermodynamics and combines a pseudophase model with methods for monitoring the reactions of AOs with a hydrophobic arenediazonium ion probe in opaque emulsions. We introduce (a) the logic and basic assumptions of the pseudophase model used to define the distributions of AOs among the oil, interfacial, and aqueous regions in microemulsions and emulsions and (b) the dye derivatization and linear sweep voltammetry methods for monitoring the rates of reaction in opaque emulsions. Our results show that this approach provides a unique, versatile, and robust method for obtaining quantitative estimates of AO partition coefficients or partition constants and distributions and interfacial rate constants in emulsions. The examples provided illustrate the effects of various emulsion properties on AO distributions such as oil hydrophobicity, emulsifier structure and HLB, temperature, droplet size, surfactant charge, and acidity on reactant distributions. Finally, we show that the chemical kinetic method provides a natural explanation for the cut-off effect, a maximum followed by a sharp reduction in AO efficiency with


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Emulsions from the wells in the Suplac area create great difficulties in removing water due to their specifications. A complex study was conducted in order to eliminate water from emulsions using alkaline-surfactants. The choice of surfactant was made after the chromatographic SARA analysis of emulsions and the determination of their physical properties: density, viscosity, organic acidity. The samples were taken from two wells in the Suplac area. In the case of samples from A well the variation of density is 907 - 955 kg·m-3 for crude oil and 928 - 970 kg·m-3 for emulsion, while the rheological behavior of the emulsion varies between 0.680 to 0.995 Pa·s at a temperature of 25 °C and between 0.049 to 0.328 Pa·s at a temperature of 80 °C. For samples from B well the variation of density is 855 - 905 kg·m-3 for crude oil and 939 - 970 kg·m-3 for emulsion, while the rheological behavior of the emulsion varies between 0.149 to 0.797 Pa·s at a temperature of 25 °C and between 0.014 to 0.397 Pa·s at a temperature of 80 °C. The justification for choosing R - DP surfactant like reagent was based on laboratory tests which showed a maximum efficiency at 80 °C (95.69 for B and 98.75 % for A.

  8. The Morphology of Emulsion Polymerized Latex Particles (United States)

    Wignall, G. D.; Ramakrishnan, V. R.; Linne, M. A.; Klein, A.; Sperling, L. H.; Wai, M. P.; Gelman, R. A.; Fatica, M. G.; Hoerl, R. H.; Fisher, L. W.


    Under monomer starved feed conditions, emulsion polymerization of perdeuterated methyl methacrylate and styrene in the presence of preformed polymethylmethacrylate latexes resulted in particles with a core-shell morphology, as determined by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis for a hollow sphere. The locus of polymerization of the added deuterated monomer is therefore at the particle surface. In similar measurements a statistical copolymer of styrene and methyl methacrylate was used as seed particles for further polymerization of trideuteromethyl methacrylate. The resulting polymer latex was again shown to have a core-shell morphological structure as determined by SANS. SANS experiments were also undertaken on polystyrene latexes polymerized by equilibrium swelling methods, with deuterated polymer forming the first or second step. The experiments covered a molecular weight range of 6 x 10{sup 4} 10{sup 6} the molecular weights are consistent with the experimental errors, indicating that the deuterium labeled molecules are randomly distributed in the latex. These results led to the finding that the polymer chains were constrained in the latex particles by factors of 2 to 4 from the relaxed coil dimensions. For M < 10{sup 6} g/mol SANS gave zero angle scattering intensities much higher than expected on the basis of a random distribution of labeled molecules. Several models were examined, including the possible development of core-shell structures at lower molecular weights.

  9. Recent applications of nuclear track emulsion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubin, P. I., E-mail: [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics (Russian Federation)


    A survey of recent results obtained using the nuclear track emulsion (NTE) technique in low energy applications is given. NTE irradiation with 60 MeV {sup 8}He nuclei provides identification of their decays at stopping, evaluation of the possibility of α range spectrometry, and observation of drift of thermalized {sup 8}He atoms. Correlations of α particles studied in {sup 12}C → 3α splitting induced by 14.1 MeV neutrons indicate the presence of a superposition of 0{sup +} and 2{sup +} states of the {sup 8}Be nucleus in the ground state of {sup 12}C. Angular correlations of fragments are studied in boron-enriched NTE, and the prospects of NTE application in radioactivity and nuclear fission research are discussed. It is proposed to use an automated microscope to search for collinear tripartition of heavy nuclei implanted in NTE. Surface irradiation of NTE by a {sup 252}Cf source is started. Planar events containing fragment pairs and long range α particles, as well as fragment triples, are studied. NTE samples are calibrated using Kr and Xe ions with an energy of 1.2 and 3 A MeV.

  10. Influence of Droplet Size on Exergy Destruction in Flow of Concentrated Non-Newtonian Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinder Pal


    Full Text Available The influence of droplet size on exergy destruction rate in flow of highly concentrated oil-in-water emulsions was investigated experimentally in a cone and plate geometry. The oil concentration was fixed at 74.5% by volume. At this dispersed-phase (oil concentration, two different droplet size emulsions were prepared: fine and coarse emulsions. The fine and coarse emulsions were mixed in different proportions to vary the droplet size distribution. Although the dispersed and matrix phases of the emulsions were Newtonian in nature, the emulsions exhibited a non-Newtonian (shear-thinning behavior due to the high droplet concentration. The shear stress—shear rate data of the emulsions could be described adequately by a power law model. At low shear rates, the exergy destruction rate per unit volume of emulsion exhibited a minimum at a fine emulsion proportion of 35%. The results from the cone and plate geometry were used to simulate exergy loss in pipeline flow of emulsions. The pumping of emulsions becomes more efficient thermodynamically upon mixing of fine and coarse emulsions provided that the flow regime is maintained to be laminar and that the Reynolds number is kept at a low to moderate value. In the turbulent regime, the exergy loss generally increases upon mixing the fine and coarse emulsions.

  11. Synthesis and properties of poly(methyl methacrylate-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid)/PbS hybrid composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preda, N., E-mail: [National Institute of Materials Physics, Multifunctional Materials and Structures Laboratory, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Rusen, E. [University Politehnica Bucharest, Department of Polymer Science, Calea Victoriei No. 71101, Bucharest (Romania); Musuc, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Enculescu, M.; Matei, E. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Multifunctional Materials and Structures Laboratory, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Marculescu, B. [University Politehnica Bucharest, Department of Polymer Science, Calea Victoriei No. 71101, Bucharest (Romania); Fruth, V. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Enculescu, I. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Multifunctional Materials and Structures Laboratory, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125 Bucharest (Romania)


    The synthesis of a new hybrid composite based on PbS nanoparticles and poly(methyl methacrylate-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid) [P(MMA-AMPSA)] copolymer is reported. The chemical synthesis consists in two steps: (i) a surfactant-free emulsion copolymerization between methyl methacrylate and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid and (ii) the generation of PbS particles in the presence of the P(MMA-AMPSA) latex, from the reaction between lead nitrate and thiourea. The composite was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The microstructure observed using SEM proves that the PbS nanoparticles are well dispersed in the copolymer matrix. The X-ray diffraction measurements demonstrate that the PbS nanoparticles have a cubic rock salt structure. It was also found that the inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles improve the thermal stability of the copolymer matrix.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Li; Qing-bin Meng; Zhan-yong Li; Ying-li An; Xiao-xia Zhu


    Monodispersed microspheres with polystyrene as the core and poly(acrylamide-co-N-acryloxysuccinimide) as the shell were synthesized by a two-step surfactant-free emulsion copolymerization. The core-shell morphology of the microspheres was shown by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Rabbit immunoglobulin G (as antigen) was covalently coupled onto the microspheres by the reaction between succinimide-activated ester groups on the shell of the microspheres and amino groups of the antigen molecules. The size of particles was characterized by dynamic light scattering technique and was found to vary upon bioconjugation and interaction with proteins. The binding process was shown to be specific to goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G (as antibody) and reversible upon the addition of free antigen into the system.

  13. In situ UV-visible spectroelectrochemical studies on the copolymerization of diphenylamine with ortho-methoxy aniline (United States)

    Santhosh, P.; Gopalan, A.; Vasudevan, T.


    UV-visible spectroelectrochemical studies on copolymerization of diphenylamine (DPA) with ortho-methoxy aniline (OMA) were carried out for different feed ratios of DPA and OMA using indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass as working electrode. The UV-visible spectra show clear dependencies on the molar feed composition of DPA or OMA used in electropolymerization. Derivative cyclic voltabsorptogram (DCVA) was deduced at the wavelengths corresponding to the absorption by the intermediate species and used to confirm the intermediates generated during the electropolymerization. The composition of DPA and OMA in the copolymer for the copolymers synthesized with different molar feed ratios of DPA and OMA was determined by UV-visible spectroscopy. Reactivity ratios of DPA and OMA were deduced by using Fineman-Ross and Kelen-Tudos methods and correlated with spectroelectrochemical results.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-kun Xu; Zhen-hong Wei; Qiang Xiao; Shou-zhi Pu


    The copolymer poly(3-(4-fluorophenyl)thiophene-co-3-methylthiophene) was successfully prepared from mixtures of 3-(4-fluorophenyl)thiophene (FPT) and 3-methylthiophene (MeT) via electrochemical oxidation in boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BFEE) and its mixed electrolytes with acetonitrile (ACN). The influence of monomer concentration ratios on the copolymerization was investigated by using linear sweep voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry. The structure and morphology of these copolymer films were elucidated by UV-Vis, infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results showed that the molar ratio of FPT and MeT units, when copolymer was electrodeposited from feed ratio of FPT:MeT = 1:2, was about 1.08:1. In addition, the introduction of ACN into BFEE has little effect on the properties of as-formed copolymers.

  15. Lithium-Assisted Copolymerization of CO 2 /Cyclohexene Oxide: A Novel and Straightforward Route to Polycarbonates and Related Block Copolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Dongyue


    A facile route toward alternating polycarbonates by anionic copolymerization of carbon dioxide (CO2) and cyclohexene oxide (CHO), using lithium halide or alkoxide as initiators and triisobutylaluminum (TiBA) as activator, is reported. α,ω-Heterobifunctional and α,ω-dihydroxypoly(cyclohexene carbonate)s (PCHC) as well as poly(CHC-co-CHO) copolymers with different carbonate composition could also be easily synthesized by adjusting the amount of TiBA or by adding inert lithium salts. The value of this initiating system also resides in the easy access to PSt-b-PCHC (PSt: polystyrene) and PI-b-PCHC (PI: polyisoprene) block copolymers which can be derived by mere one-pot sequential addition of styrene or dienes first and then of CO2 and CHO under the same experimental conditions. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-qiang Kou; Chao Qu; Zhi-kang Xu; You-yi Xu; Ke Yao


    In this work, the surface properties of novel sugar-containing polymers, α-allyl glucoside (AG)/acrylonitrile (AN)copolymers, were studied by contact angle, protein adsorption and cell adhesion measurements. It was found that the contact angle of the copolymer films decreased from 68° to 30° with the increase of AG content in the copolymer. The adsorption amount of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the adhesive macrophage onto the film surface also decreased significantly with increasing α-allyl glucoside content from 0 to 42 wt% in the copolymer. These preliminary results reveal that both the hydrophilicity and the biocompatibility of polyacrylonitrile-based membranes could be improved by copolymerizing acrylonitrile with vinyl carbohydrates.

  17. Effect of Nano-clay on Rheological and Extrusion Foaming Process of a Block-Copolymerized Polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Mingyi


    Full Text Available The effects of nano-clay and the corresponding coupling agent maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MAH on thermal properties, rheological properties and extrusion foaming process of a block-copolymerized polypropylene (B-PP were studied. Supercritical CO2 (SC CO2 was used as the foaming agent with a concentration of 5wt%. Each step of foamed B-PP/ PP-g-MAH/ nano-clay composites processing is addressed, including mixing of the composites, manufacture of the composites, foaming process of the composites and characterization of the cell structure. The results showed that incorporation of nano-clay and PP-g-MAH caused reduced melt strength and complex viscosity of B-PP. However, the heterogeneous nucleation induced by nano-clay and PP-g-MAH improved the maximum foaming expansion ratio and cell-population density of B-PP foam.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Well-Defined Soluble Alq3- and Znq2-Functionalized Polymers via RAFT Copolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengchao Wang


    Full Text Available The reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT copolymerizations of 2-((8-hydroxyquinolin-5-ylmethoxyethyl methacrylate (HQHEMA with styrene (St or methyl methacrylate (MMA were successfully carried out in the presence of 2-cyanoprop-2-yl dithionaphthalenoate (CPDN. The polymerization behaviors showed the typical living natures by the first-order polymerization kinetics, the linear dependence of molecular weights of the polymers on the monomer conversions with the relatively narrow molecular weight distributions (Mw/Mn, and the successful chain extension experiments. The soluble polymers having tris(8-hydroxyquinolinealuminum (Alq3 and bis(8-hydroxyquinoline znic(II (Znq2 side chains were obtained via complexation of the polymers with aluminium isopropoxide or zinc acetate in the presence of monomeric 8-hydroxyquinoline, which had strong fluorescent emission at 520 nm. The obtained polymers were characterized by GPC, NMR, UV-vis, and fluorescent spectra.

  19. Investigation of different emulsion systems for dermal delivery of nicotinamide. (United States)

    Tuncay, Sakine; Özer, Özgen


    Nicotinamide (NA) has been shown to have beneficial effects on several skin diseases such as tumor, acne vulgaris, photodamage, cellulite and atopic dermatitis. The purpose of this study was to develop a multiple emulsion and a microemulsion formulation as delivery systems for NA. A two-step process was used to prepare the W/O/W multiple emulsion. Optimum microemulsion formulation was selected by using construction of pseudo-ternary phase diagram. The physicochemical properties such as droplet size and viscosity measurements, stability studies were also evaluated. Ex-vivo permeation studies were performed with Franz-type diffusion cells and the samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The permeation data showed that there was no significant difference between multiple emulsion and microemulsion (p > 0.05). Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was also measured. As a result of TEWL studies, a slight increase of TEWL values was observed for microemulsion formulation on rat skin when compared with multiple emulsion and commercial formulation. The results suggested that microemulsion and multiple emulsion formulations could be new and alternative dosage forms for topical application of NA.

  20. Delivery of Chlorambucil Using an Acoustically-Triggered, Perfluoropentane Emulsion (United States)

    Fabiilli, Mario L.; Haworth, Kevin J.; Sebastian, Ian E.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.; Carson, Paul L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian


    Ultrasound-mediated delivery systems have mainly focused on microbubble contrast agents as carriers of drugs or genetic material. This study utilizes micron-sized, perfluoropentane (PFP) emulsions as carriers for chlorambucil (CHL), a lipophilic chemotherapeutic. The release of CHL is achieved via acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV), whereby the superheated emulsion is converted into gas bubbles using ultrasound. Emulsions were made using an albumin shell and soybean oil as the CHL carrier. The ratio of the PFP to soybean oil phases in the droplets, as well as the fraction of droplets that vaporize per ultrasound exposure were shown to correlate with droplet diameter. A 60-minute incubation with the CHL-loaded emulsion caused a 46.7% cellular growth inhibition, whereas incubation with the CHL-loaded emulsion that was exposed to ultrasound at 6.3 MHz caused an 84.3% growth inhibition. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01), signifying that ADV can be used as a method to substantially enhance drug delivery. PMID:20691925

  1. Induced phase transitions of nanoparticle-stabilized emulsions (United States)

    Frijters, Stefan; Günther, Florian; Harting, Jens


    Nanoparticles can stabilize fluid-fluid interfaces over long timescales and are nowadays commonly used, e.g. in emulsions. However, their fundamental properties are as of yet poorly understood. Nanoparticle-stabilized emulsions can exhibit different phases, such as Pickering emulsions or bijels, which can be characterized by their different topologies and rheology. We investigate the effect of various initial conditions on random mixtures of two fluids and nanoparticles - in particular, the final state these systems will reach. For this, we use the well-established 3D lattice Boltzmann method, extended to allow for the added nanoparticles. After the evolution of the emulsions has stopped, we induce transitions from one state to another by gradually changing the wettability of the nanoparticles over time. This changes the preferential local curvature of the interfaces, which strongly affects the global state. We observe strong hysteresis effects because of the energy barrier presented by the necessary massive reordering of the particles. Being able to change emulsion states in situ has potential application possibilities in filtering technology, or creating particle scaffolds.

  2. Thermodynamically Stable Pickering Emulsions Stabilized by Janus Dumbbells (United States)

    Tu, Fuquan; Park, Bum Jun; Lee, Daeyeon


    Janus particles have two sides with different, often opposite, surface properties. Janus dumbbell is one type of Janus particles that consists of two partially fused spherical lobes. It is possible to independently control the geometry and surface wettability of Janus dumbbells. Janus dumbbells can also be produced in a large quantity, making them useful for practical applications such as emulsion stabilization. In this work, we calculate the free energy of emulsion formation using amphiphilic Janus dumbbells as solid surfactants. In contrast to kinetically stable emulsions stabilized by homogeneous particles, emulsion stabilized by Janus dumbbells can be thermodynamically stable. There also exists an optimal radius of droplets that can be stabilized by infinite or limited number of amphiphilic dumbbells in the continuous phase. We demonstrate that the optimal radius of dumbbell-stabilized droplets can be predicted based on the volume of the dispersed phase and the volume fraction of dumbbells in the continuous phase. We believe our calculation will provide guidelines for using Janus dumbbells as colloid surfactants to generate stable emulsions.

  3. Studies on Pharmacodynamics in vitro o Florfenicol Dual Suspension Emulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaowen LI; Hongjun ZHANG; Chengshu WU; Zigong WEI


    Abstract [Objective] The paper was to study in vitro pharmacodynamics character- istics of florfenicol dual suspension emulsion (DSEF). [Method] The florfenicol injec- tion (FI) was used as the control group, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericide concentration (MBC) and mutant selection window (MSW) of florfenicol dual suspension emulsion on 5 kinds of bacteria were determined. The post-antibiotic effect (PAE) and post-antibiotic sub-MIC effect (PASME) of Salmonella typhimurium were also measured. [Result] Compared with the ordinary injection, the MIC and MBC of florfenicol dual suspension emulsion on 5 kinds of bacteria showed no obvious changes. However, florfenicol dual suspension emulsion obvious- ly narrowed MSW of 5 kinds of bacteria (P〈0.01), which also significantly extended PAE and PASME of S. typhimurium (P〈0.01). [Conclusion] The florfenicol dual sus- pension emulsion in vitro can reduce the probability of bacterial resistance, signifi- cantly prolong after effect time of antibiotics on bacteria, thereby effectively improving the antibacterial effect.

  4. Evaporation of an emulsion trapped in a yield stress fluid (United States)

    Guéna, G.; Corde, J.; Fouilloux, S.; D'Espinose, J.-B.; Lequeux, F.; Talini, L.


    The present work deals with emulsions of volatile alkanes in an aqueous clay suspension, Laponite, which forms a yield stress fluid. For a large enough yield stress (i.e. Laponite concentration), the oil droplets are prevented from creaming and the emulsions are thus mechanically stabilized. We have studied the evaporation kinetics of the oil phase of those emulsions in contact with the atmosphere. We show that the evaporation process is characterized by the formation of a sharp front separating the emulsion from a droplet-free Laponite phase, and that the displacement of the front vs. time follows a diffusion law. Experimental data are confronted to a diffusion-controlled model, in the case where the limiting step is the diffusion of the dissolved oil through the aqueous phase. The nature of the alkane, as well as its volume fraction in the emulsion, has been varied. Quantitative agreement with the model is achieved without any adjustable parameter and we describe the mechanism leading to the formation of a front.

  5. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes at the Interface of Pickering Emulsions. (United States)

    Briggs, Nicholas M; Weston, Javen S; Li, Brian; Venkataramani, Deepika; Aichele, Clint P; Harwell, Jeffrey H; Crossley, Steven P


    Carbon nanotubes exhibit very unique properties in biphasic systems. Their interparticle attraction leads to reduced droplet coalescence rates and corresponding improvements in emulsion stability. Here we use covalent and noncovalent techniques to modify the hydrophilicity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and study their resulting behavior at an oil-water interface. By using both paraffin wax/water and dodecane/water systems, the thickness of the layer of MWNTs at the interface and resulting emulsion stability are shown to vary significantly with the approach used to modify the MWNTs. Increased hydrophilicity of the MWNTs shifts the emulsions from water-in-oil to oil-in-water. The stability of the emulsion is found to correlate with the thickness of nanotubes populating the oil-water interface and relative strength of the carbon nanotube network. The addition of a surfactant decreases the thickness of nanotubes at the interface and enhances the overall interfacial area stabilized at the expense of increased droplet coalescence rates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time the interfacial thickness of modified carbon nanotubes has been quantified and correlated to emulsion stability.

  6. Emulsion Inks for 3D Printing of High Porosity Materials. (United States)

    Sears, Nicholas A; Dhavalikar, Prachi S; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth M


    Photocurable emulsion inks for use with solid freeform fabrication (SFF) to generate constructs with hierarchical porosity are presented. A high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) templating technique was utilized to prepare water-in-oil emulsions from a hydrophobic photopolymer, surfactant, and water. These HIPEs displayed strong shear thinning behavior that permitted layer-by-layer deposition into complex shapes and adequately high viscosity at low shear for shape retention after extrusion. Each layer was actively polymerized with an ultraviolet cure-on-dispense (CoD) technique and compositions with sufficient viscosity were able to produce tall, complex scaffolds with an internal lattice structure and microscale porosity. Evaluation of the rheological and cure properties indicated that the viscosity and cure rate both played an important role in print fidelity. These 3D printed polyHIPE constructs benefit from the tunable pore structure of emulsion templated material and the designed architecture of 3D printing. As such, these emulsion inks can be used to create ultra high porosity constructs with complex geometries and internal lattice structures not possible with traditional manufacturing techniques.

  7. Interactions between chemical additives and their effects on emulsion separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M.; Stewart, A.C.; Davies, G.A.


    In offshore production, chemical additives are used to combat various operational problems such as corrosion, scaling, foaming and emulsion formation etc. Although individual chemicals may be found to be effective when used alone, there is no guarantee that they will perform as well when present as part of the complex cocktail of additives in the production fluids entering the primary separator. Little is known about interactions between these chemical additives and their effects on gas/oil/water phase separation. This paper will report results from a multi-national sponsored project with the aim of understanding the ways in which chemical additives interact and their effects on emulsion stability with an ultimate objective of developing a strategy for reduction of the chemical inventory offshore. The chemical additives studied include demulsifiers, corrosion inhibitors, scale inhibitors and antifoamants. Both interfacial tension and surface film pressure measurements have been successfully employed to identify interactions between chemical additives and their synergistic effects. Emulsion stability has been measured through conventional bottle tests. It was found that in most cases corrosion inhibitors increased emulsion stability considerably when present both alone and as part of a binary mixture. Interactions between the corrosion inhibitors and some of the demulsifiers were also observed. In contrast the de-foamant and scale inhibitors had little effect on emulsion stability and in most cases did not interact with the other additives.

  8. Engineering of acidic O/W emulsions with pectin. (United States)

    Alba, K; Sagis, L M C; Kontogiorgos, V


    Pectins with distinct molecular design were isolated by aqueous extraction at pH 2.0 or 6.0 and were examined in terms of their formation and stabilisation capacity of model n-alkane-in-water emulsions at acidic pH (pH 2.0). The properties and stability of the resulting emulsions were examined by means of droplet size distribution analysis, Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner modelling, bulk rheology, interfacial composition analysis, large-amplitude oscillatory surface dilatational rheology, electrokinetic analysis and fluorescence microscopy. Both pectin preparations were able to emulsify alkanes in water but exhibited distinct ageing characteristics. Emulsions prepared using pectin isolated at pH 6.0 were remarkably stable with respect to droplet growth after thirty days of ageing, while those prepared with pectin isolated at pH 2.0 destabilised rapidly. Examination of chemical composition of interfacial layers indicated multi-layered adsorption of pectins at the oil-water interface. The higher long-term stability of emulsions prepared with pectin isolated at high pH is attributed to mechanically stronger interfaces, the highly branched nature and the low hydrodynamic volume of the chains that result in effective steric stabilisation whereas acetyl and methyl contents do not contribute to the long-term stability. The present work shows that it is possible by tailoring the fine structure of pectin to engineer emulsions that operate in acidic environments.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xianhai; ZHANG Yifeng; SHEN Zhiquan


    Copolymerization of carbon dioxide with epichlorohydrin was successfully carried out by using Nd (P204)3-A1 (i-Bu)3 as catalyst (P204) = (RO)2POO -, R=CH3 (CH2)3CH(C2H5)CH2-). Addition of carbonyl compounds into the catalyst decreased the carbon dioxide content of the copolymer to some extent. Compared to nonpolar solvents, ethereal and moderate polar solvents were favourable to obtaining higher carbon dioxide content copolymer. The coincidence of these results with the assumed copolymerization scheme clearly indicated that the copolymerization proceeds via coordinate anionic mechanism.

  10. Effect of bitumen emulsion on setting, strength, soundness and moisture resistance of oxychloride cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P S Chandrawat; T N Ojha; R N Yadav


    Addition of bitumen emulsion to the matrix has been found to improve strength and soundness of the product while decreasing the initial setting periods. Thus, bitumen emulsion as an admixture in magnesia cement is a moisture proofing and strengthening material.

  11. Repulsive van der Waals forces enable Pickering emulsions with non-touching colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, Nina; van der Hoeven, Jessi; de Winter, D.A.M.; Schneijdenberg, C.T.W.M.; van der Linden, M.N.; Filion, L.C.; van Blaaderen, A.


    Emulsions stabilized by solid particles, called Pickering emulsions, offer promising applications in drug delivery, cosmetics, food science and the manufacturing of porous materials. This potential stems from their high stability against coalescence and ‘surfactant-free’ nature. Generally, Pickering

  12. Study of Pickering emulsions stabilized by mixed particles of silica and calcite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sha Wang; Yongjun He; Yong Zou


    Picketing emulsions were prepared using mixed particles of silica and calcite as emulsifiers.The effects of the silica content in the mixed particles on the stability and the drop size of the Pickering emulsions were investigated.The results showed that the Pickering emulsions were of the oil-in-water type.With increasing silica content in the mixed particles,the stability and the drop size of the Pickering emulsions decreased.Larger silica particles had more influence on the stability of the emulsions,while smaller ones had more influence on the drop size of the emulsions.The effect of the silica particles on the emulsions was attributed to their adsorptive behavior at the oil-water interfaces of the Pickering emulsions.

  13. Emulsion and it’s Applications in Food Processing – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adheeb Usaid A.S


    Full Text Available An emulsion is a heterogeneous system consisting of atleast one immiscible liquid dispersed in another in the form of droplets. Emulsions are classified based on the nature of the emulsifier or the structure of the system. The range of droplets size for each type of emulsion is quite arbitrary. Macro emulsions are the most common form of emulsions used in food industries than nano and micro emulsions. There are several methods are possible and a wide range of equipments are available for emulsion formations. These methods include shaking, stirring and injection, and the use of colloid mills, homogenizers and ultrasonics. The unique nature of emulsions with a narrow size distribution of different sized droplets has number of applications in food industries including bakery products, dairy, candy products, meat products and beverages. Still most applications are waiting for commercial exploitation.

  14. Preparation and in vivo pharmacokinetics of curcumin-loaded PCL-PEG-PCL triblock copolymeric nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng R


    Full Text Available Runliang Feng,1,* Zhimei Song,1,* Guangxi Zhai2 1Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, College of Medicine and Life Science, University of Jinan, Jinan, Shandong Province, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Curcumin (CUR has been linked with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti amyloid, and antitumor effects, but its application is limited because of its low aqueous solubility and poor oral bioavailability.Methods: To improve its bioavailability and water solubility, we synthesized two series of poly (ε-Caprolactone-poly (ethylene glycol-poly (ε-Caprolactone triblock copolymers by ring-opening polymerization of poly (ethylene glycol and ε-Caprolactone, with stannous 2-ethylhexanoate as the catalyst. Structure of the copolymers was characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and gel permeation chromatography. The nanoparticles (NPs were prepared using a probe-type ultrasonic emulsion and solvent evaporation method. To obtain an optimal delivery system, we explored the effect of the length of the copolymers' hydrophilic and hydrophobic chains on the encapsulation of hydrophobic CUR, performing entrapment efficiency and drug loading evaluations, as well as studying the particle distribution and in vitro release using the direct dispersion method. Finally, study of the in vivo pharmacokinetics of the CUR-loaded NPs was also carried out on selected copolymers in comparison with CUR solution formulations.Results: CUR was encapsulated with 94.3% and 95.5% efficiency in biodegradable nanoparticulate formulations based on NP43 and NP63, respectively. Dynamic laser light scattering and transmission electron microscopy indicated a particle diameter of 55.6 nm and 62.4 nm for NP43 and NP63, respectively. Fourier transform

  15. Glycerol: major contributor to the short term protein sparing effect of fat emulsions in normal man. (United States)

    Brennan, M F; Fitzpatrick, G F; Cohen, K H; Moore, F D


    Intravenous fat emulsions have been advocated as acceptable alternatives to hyperosmolar glucose solutions in parenteral nutrition. The ability of a fat emulsion (soy bean oil suspended in glycerol) to produce nitrogen sparing in the absence of nitrogen intake was examined in normal man. The protein conservation obtained by the fat emulsion can be duplicated by the infusion of glycerol alone in the same amount as that available from the fat emulsion.

  16. Characterization of water-in-crude oil emulsions in oil spill response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The formation of water-in-crude oil emulsions occurs when crude oils are spilled into sea. The water-in-crude oil emulsionssignificantly change the properties of the spilled crude oils and in turn influence the choices made relating to oil spill countermeasures. Thewater-in-crude oil emulsions were characterized using various techniques in this study. The environmental scanning electron microscopyobservation of water droplets in the emulsions is also presented. It is a powerful tool in emulsion observations.

  17. When emulsions meet saliva : a physical-chemical, biochemical and sensory study


    Silletti, E.


    Keywords: Emulsion, flocculation, bridging, saliva, salivary protein, salivary peptides, lysozyme, -lactoglobulin, complex formation, LC-MS, SELDI-TOF-MS, proteomics. Upon consumption food emulsions undergo various structural and compositional changes in the mouth. One of these changes is that mixing of an emulsion with saliva induces droplet flocculation In the study described in this thesis we investigated the influence of saliva on emulsions properties, the mechanism of flocculation and t...

  18. Study on the Stability of DeoxyArbutin in an Anhydrous Emulsion System


    Chiu-Wen Chen; Shu-Mei Lee; Yi-Shyan Chen; Pey-Shiuan Wu; Nai-Fang Chang; Chao-Hsun Yang; Chih-Chien Lin


    The skin-whitening agent, deoxyArbutin, is a potent tyrosinase inhibitor that is safer than hydroquinone and arbutin. However, it is thermolabile in aqueous solutions, where it decomposes to hydroquinone. Pharmaceutical and cosmetic emulsions are normally oil-in-water (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) systems; however, emulsions can be formulated with no aqueous phase to produce an anhydrous emulsion system. An anhydrous emulsion system could offer a stable vehicle for compounds that are sensitive ...

  19. The complexity of prescribing intravenous lipid emulsions. (United States)

    Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky; Torrinhas, Raquel Susana


    Intravenous lipid emulsions (LEs) are relevant for patients receiving parenteral nutrition because they prevent the depletion of essential fatty acids (FAs) and, as a highly dense energy source, enable the reduction of glucose provision, thereby decreasing the risks of hyperglycemia and hepatic impairment. The prescription of LEs is complex, due mainly to their distinct FA components, which may alter the immune response in different ways and distinctly influence inflammation, oxidative stress and blood coagulation according to their biochemical properties. In addition, an excess of other LE components, such as phospholipids and phytosterols, may be associated with hepatic steatosis and dysfunction. These associations do not represent direct risks or obstacles to LE use in metabolically stable patients but can render the choice of the best LE for hypermetabolic patients difficult. The infusion of LEs according to the available guidelines provides more benefit than harm and should be part of exclusive parenteral nutrition regimens or complement enteral nutrition when appropriate. The patient's metabolic profile should guide the type of FA and amount of lipids that are provided. For critically ill hypermetabolic patients, growing evidence indicates that standard LEs based solely on soybean oil should be avoided in favor of new LEs containing medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil, or fish oil to decrease the provision of potentially oxidative, inflammatory/immunosuppressive, and prothrombotic n-6 FAs. In addition, as sources of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, LEs containing fish oil may be important for critically ill patients because they allow better modulation of the immune response and likely reduce the length of intensive care unity stay. However, current evidence precludes the recommendation of a specific LE for clinical use in this patient population.

  20. Rapid enumeration of phage in monodisperse emulsions. (United States)

    Tjhung, Katrina F; Burnham, Sean; Anany, Hany; Griffiths, Mansel W; Derda, Ratmir


    Phage-based detection assays have been developed for the detection of viable bacteria for applications in clinical diagnosis, monitoring of water quality, and food safety. The majority of these assays deliver a positive readout in the form of newly generated progeny phages by the bacterial host of interest. Progeny phages are often visualized as plaques, or holes, in a lawn of bacteria on an agar-filled Petri dish; however, this rate-limiting step requires up to 12 h of incubation time. We have previously described an amplification of bacteriophages M13 inside droplets of media suspended in perfluorinated oil; a single phage M13 in a droplet yields 10(7) copies in 3-4 h. Here, we describe that encapsulation of reporter phages, both lytic T4-LacZ and nonlytic M13, in monodisperse droplets can also be used for rapid enumeration of phage. Compartmentalization in droplets accelerated the development of the signal from the reporter enzyme; counting of "positive" droplets yields accurate enumeration of phage particles ranging from 10(2) to 10(6) pfu/mL. For enumeration of T4-LacZ phage, the fluorescent signal appeared in as little as 90 min. Unlike bulk assays, quantification in emulsion is robust and insensitive to fluctuations in environmental conditions (e.g., temperature). Power-free emulsification using gravity-driven flow in the absence of syringe pumps and portable fluorescence imaging solutions makes this technology promising for use at the point of care in low-resource environments. This droplet-based phage enumeration method could accelerate and simplify point-of-care detection of the pathogens for which reporter bacteriophages have been developed.

  1. Processable high internal phase Pickering emulsions using depletion attraction. (United States)

    Kim, KyuHan; Kim, Subeen; Ryu, Jiheun; Jeon, Jiyoon; Jang, Se Gyu; Kim, Hyunjun; Gweon, Dae-Gab; Im, Won Bin; Han, Yosep; Kim, Hyunjung; Choi, Siyoung Q


    High internal phase emulsions have been widely used as templates for various porous materials, but special strategies are required to form, in particular, particle-covered ones that have been more difficult to obtain. Here, we report a versatile strategy to produce a stable high internal phase Pickering emulsion by exploiting a depletion interaction between an emulsion droplet and a particle using water-soluble polymers as a depletant. This attractive interaction facilitating the adsorption of particles onto the droplet interface and simultaneously suppressing desorption once adsorbed. This technique can be universally applied to nearly any kind of particle to stabilize an interface with the help of various non- or weakly adsorbing polymers as a depletant, which can be solidified to provide porous materials for many applications.

  2. Ultrasonic splitting of oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jens; König, Ralf; Benes, Ewald


    Standing resonant ultrasonic wave fields can be utilized for liquid–liquid separation of the dispersed particles and the fluid caused by the acoustic radiation pressure and the induced particle agglomeration or coagulation/coalescence process. For the splitting of oil-in-water emulsions...... emulsion samples have been investigated. The quality of the ultrasonic-induced particle separation/coagulation process is characterized by physical–chemical analysis of the separated oil- and water phase and by determining the change of the particle size distribution of the initial emulsion due...... of up to 24 W/cm2 into the sonication volume. The chosen resonance frequency is kept stable by automatic frequency control utilizing the maximum true power criterion. Physically and chemically well-defined low and high density pure laboratory and also industrially used cooling-lubricating oil-in-water...

  3. Arrested of coalescence of emulsion droplets of arbitrary size (United States)

    Mbanga, Badel L.; Burke, Christopher; Blair, Donald W.; Atherton, Timothy J.


    With applications ranging from food products to cosmetics via targeted drug delivery systems, structured anisotropic colloids provide an efficient way to control the structure, properties and functions of emulsions. When two fluid emulsion droplets are brought in contact, a reduction of the interfacial tension drives their coalescence into a larger droplet of the same total volume and reduced exposed area. This coalescence can be partially or totally hindered by the presence of nano or micron-size particles that coat the interface as in Pickering emulsions. We investigate numerically the dependance of the mechanical stability of these arrested shapes on the particles size, their shape anisotropy, their polydispersity, their interaction with the solvent, and the particle-particle interactions. We discuss structural shape changes that can be induced by tuning the particles interactions after arrest occurs, and provide design parameters for the relevant experiments.

  4. Processable high internal phase Pickering emulsions using depletion attraction (United States)

    Kim, Kyuhan; Kim, Subeen; Ryu, Jiheun; Jeon, Jiyoon; Jang, Se Gyu; Kim, Hyunjun; Gweon, Dae-Gab; Im, Won Bin; Han, Yosep; Kim, Hyunjung; Choi, Siyoung Q.


    High internal phase emulsions have been widely used as templates for various porous materials, but special strategies are required to form, in particular, particle-covered ones that have been more difficult to obtain. Here, we report a versatile strategy to produce a stable high internal phase Pickering emulsion by exploiting a depletion interaction between an emulsion droplet and a particle using water-soluble polymers as a depletant. This attractive interaction facilitating the adsorption of particles onto the droplet interface and simultaneously suppressing desorption once adsorbed. This technique can be universally applied to nearly any kind of particle to stabilize an interface with the help of various non- or weakly adsorbing polymers as a depletant, which can be solidified to provide porous materials for many applications.

  5. Ammonium nitrate emulsion : physical properties and decomposition using thermal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, H.; Goldthorp, S.; Singh, S.; Turcotte, R.


    This presentation discussed methods of determining the physical properties and decomposition rates of commercial water-based explosives. Ammonium nitrate emulsions can explode when heated to critical temperatures or when a localized thermal energy deposition occurs. An accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) was used to investigate the emulsion under adiabatic conditions. Simultaneous mass spectroscopy (MS) Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to conduct an evolved gas analysis. Results of the analysis demonstrated that the AN emulsions have ARC onset temperatures of approximately 220 degrees C. The mass loss reaction occurred in 2 steps. The initial step was related to water evaporation and oil phase volatilization. The second step was related to AN decomposition in a closed system, and AN dissociation in an open system. tabs., figs.

  6. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics of Oil-in-Water Emulsions (United States)

    Yin, Zhaoqi; Han, Yunfeng; Ren, Yingyu; Yang, Qiuyi; Jin, Ningde


    In this article, the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of oil-in-water emulsions under the addition of surfactant were experimentally investigated. Firstly, based on the vertical upward oil-water two-phase flow experiment in 20 mm inner diameter (ID) testing pipe, dynamic response signals of oil-in-water emulsions were recorded using vertical multiple electrode array (VMEA) sensor. Afterwards, the recurrence plot (RP) algorithm and multi-scale weighted complexity entropy causality plane (MS-WCECP) were employed to analyse the nonlinear characteristics of the signals. The results show that the certainty is decreasing and the randomness is increasing with the increment of surfactant concentration. This article provides a novel method for revealing the nonlinear dynamic characteristics, complexity, and randomness of oil-in-water emulsions with experimental measurement signals.

  7. Destabilising Pickering emulsions by drop flocculation and adhesion. (United States)

    Whitby, Catherine P; Khairul Anwar, Hunainah; Hughes, James


    We have investigated how emulsions of water drops coated by organoclay particles destabilise in organic solvents. The drops destabilise and the emulsions undergo a fluid-solid transition if the particles are poorly wetted by the solvent. We show that the drops adhere together and form three-dimensional networks as the fraction of the poor-quality solvent in the mixture increases. Microscopic observations revealed that the drops coalesce into buckled, non-spherical shapes in mixtures rich in poor-quality solvent. A key finding is that destabilisation is favoured under conditions where the energy of adhesion between the particle layers coating drops is comparable to the energy required to detach the particles from the drops. Rupture of the interfacial layer produces particle flocs and uncoated, unstable water drops that settle out of the emulsion.

  8. Processable high internal phase Pickering emulsions using depletion attraction (United States)

    Kim, KyuHan; Kim, Subeen; Ryu, Jiheun; Jeon, Jiyoon; Jang, Se Gyu; Kim, Hyunjun; Gweon, Dae-Gab; Im, Won Bin; Han, Yosep; Kim, Hyunjung; Choi, Siyoung Q.


    High internal phase emulsions have been widely used as templates for various porous materials, but special strategies are required to form, in particular, particle-covered ones that have been more difficult to obtain. Here, we report a versatile strategy to produce a stable high internal phase Pickering emulsion by exploiting a depletion interaction between an emulsion droplet and a particle using water-soluble polymers as a depletant. This attractive interaction facilitating the adsorption of particles onto the droplet interface and simultaneously suppressing desorption once adsorbed. This technique can be universally applied to nearly any kind of particle to stabilize an interface with the help of various non- or weakly adsorbing polymers as a depletant, which can be solidified to provide porous materials for many applications. PMID:28145435


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Arya Thanaya


    Full Text Available This paper describes investigation on the performances of cold asphalt emulsion mixes (CAEMs. The type of emulsion used was a cationic asphalt emulsion. The investigation was carried out at Leeds University, United Kingdom (UK. The objective of the experiments was to evaluate and to improve the performances of cold mixes and compared with hot mixes. For optimising the performances of the cold mixes, a target porosity of five to ten percent and indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM value of 2000 MPa was selected, suitable for low to medium trafficked roads. A simplified mix design procedure was used for producing the cold mixes. It was found that when properly designed, at full curing conditions, the stiffness (ITSM of CAEMs were found to be very comparable to those of hot mixes. Test results also show that the addition of cement in the amount of one to two percent by mass of aggregates significantly improved the mechanical performance of cold asphalt mixes.

  10. Use of Emulsions with Surfactant Solutions for Viscous Fluids Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Martínez Martín


    Full Text Available The needs for improving the fluidity of fluids is present in the industry, because of the expenses that it takes and its relation with the achievement of the consumers’ demand according to volumes required for its different uses. In this way, the Oil Industry shows several methods to achieve this purpose, taking into account the characteristics of this substance. A method that can be used is the oil emulsions. Emulsions provide good results if they gather certain requirements for its use. In thispaper are shown the results of a research about the use of surfactant solutions in emulsions W/O. Oil transmission is used in this work because of its similar properties to oil.

  11. First results on proton radiography with nuclear emulsion detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Braccini, S; Kreslo, I; Moser, U; Pistillo, C; Studer, S; Scampoli, P; Coray, A; Pedroni, E


    We propose an innovative method for proton radiography based on nuclear emulsion film detectors, a technique in which images are obtained by measuring the position and the residual range of protons passing through the patient's body. For this purpose, nuclear emulsion films interleaved with tissue equivalent absorbers can be used to reconstruct proton tracks with very high accuracy. This is performed through a fully automated scanning procedure employing optical microscopy, routinely used in neutrino physics experiments. Proton radiography can be used in proton therapy to obtain direct information on the average tissue density for treatment planning optimization and to perform imaging with very low dose to the patient. The first prototype of a nuclear emulsion based detector has been conceived, constructed and tested with a therapeutic proton beam. The first promising experimental results have been obtained by imaging simple phantoms.

  12. High speed automated microtomography of nuclear emulsions and recent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tioukov, V.; Aleksandrov, A.; Consiglio, L. [INFN Napoli (Italy); De Lellis, G. [Universita di Napoli (Italy); Vladymyrov, M. [LPI Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The development of high-speed automatic scanning systems was the key-factor for massive and successful emulsions application for big neutrino experiments like OPERA. The emulsion detector simplicity, the unprecedented sub-micron spatial resolution and the unique ability to provide intrinsically 3-dimensional spatial information make it a perfect device for short-living particles study, where the event topology should be precisely reconstructed in a 10-100 um scale vertex region. Recently the exceptional technological progress in image processing and automation together with intensive R&D done by Italian and Japanese microscopy groups permit to increase the scanning speed to unbelievable few years ago m{sup 2}/day scale and so greatly extend the range of the possible applications for emulsion-based detectors to other fields like: medical imaging, directional dark matter search, nuclear physics, geological and industrial applications.

  13. Oscillations Produced From Acidity Hydrolysis of Triglyceride inEmulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE, Zhan-Bo; QI, Gang


    A new type of oscillating reaction was found from the systematic cesign of the chemical oscillator in water in oil (W/O)emulsions. It is an acidity hydrolysis reaction of long chaintriglyceride in W/O emulsion at 25.0 ± 0. I°C in a bath stirring reactor. During the proeess of reaction, there were periodic and semi-periodic changes lasting more than 10 hoursboth in electrolytic conductivity and electric potential. Microscope also revealed that the emulsion structure changed regularly and puikly. Became of the large differnce in the solubility of the hydrolyzed products, it could be thought, that thediffernt redistribution in the two phases of water and oil induces the regular changes. Marangoni effect of interfacemembrane made oscillation to form. TITne oscillating reactioncan be used to explain the periodic change in the living systemprodrced from coupling between reaction and diffusion.

  14. Light scattering in Baltic crude oil - seawater emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Stelmaszewski


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the scattering of radiation by a Baltic crude oil - seawater emulsion. The scattering spectrum calculated using the Mie solution in the spectral range from 380 nm to 730 nm is compared with the measured spectrum of light scattered through a right angle. Spectra in the wavelength range from 210 nm to 730 nm were measured using a spectrofluorimeter for fresh and stored samples of the Baltic crude oil emulsion. Scattering increases with wavelength in the UV range and then decreases slightly with the wavelength of visible light. The result of the calculation is similar to the measured spectra. Both the calculated and measured spectra display numerous relative extremes throughout the spectral area. Light scattering in the emulsion decreases during storage as the oil concentration in the medium diminishes. The results also demonstrate that the single scattering model describes the phenomenon correctly.

  15. Caffeates as antioxidants in emulsions and the effect of tocopherols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Durand, E.; Villeneuve, P.

    Lipid oxidation is a major issue in foods containing LC PUFA. To protect these food products antioxidant addition can be a solution. Many food products are emulsions. According to the “polar paradox” hypothesis, polar compounds are more efficient as antioxidants in bulk oil, whereas lipophilic...... compounds are more efficient antioxidants in emulsions. Lately, extensive work has been performed on phenolipids and their antioxidant efficacy in emulsions. It was found that the “polar paradox” hypothesis was too simple to explain the observed efficacy of the phenolipids. The antioxidant efficacy...... increased with increasing length of the alkyl chain up to a certain length after which the efficacy decreased. Therefore, a new term, “cut-off effect”, was introduced to describe this behavior. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative effect of caffeic acid and its ester C1 – C20, caffeates...

  16. Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease and lipid emulsions. (United States)

    Zugasti Murillo, Ana; Petrina Jáuregui, Estrella; Elizondo Armendáriz, Javier


    Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is a particularly important problem in patients who need this type of nutritional support for a long time. Prevalence of the condition is highly variable depending on the series, and its clinical presentation is different in adults and children. The etiology of PNALD is not well defined, and participation of several factors at the same time has been suggested. When a bilirubin level >2 mg/dl is detected for a long time, other causes of liver disease should be ruled out and risk factors should be minimized. The composition of lipid emulsions used in parenteral nutrition is one of the factors related to PNALD. This article reviews the different types of lipid emulsions and the potential benefits of emulsions enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. 40 CFR 443.10 - Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory. (United States)


    ... asphalt emulsion subcategory. 443.10 Section 443.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.10 Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  18. In vitro lipid digestion of chitin nanocrystal stabilized o/w emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzoumaki, M.V.; Moschakis, T.; Scholten, E.; Biliaderis, C.G.


    Chitin nanocrystals (ChN) have been shown to form stable Pickering emulsions. These oil-in-water emulsions were compared with conventional milk (whey protein isolate, WPI, and sodium caseinate, SCn) protein-stabilized emulsions in terms of their lipid digestion kinetics using an in vitro enzymatic p

  19. Separation kinetics of an oil-in-water emulsion under enhanced gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krebs, T.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.


    The breakup of crude oil emulsions to produce clean oil and water phases is an important task in crude oil processing. We have investigated the demulsification kinetics of a model oil-in-water emulsion in a centrifugal field to mimic the forces acting on emulsion droplets in oil/water separators

  20. Spreading of oil from protein stabilised emulsions at air/water interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, E.P.; Bos, M.A.; Kuijpers, A.J.; Wijnen, M.E.; Walstra, P.


    Spreading of a drop of an emulsion made with milk proteins on air/water interfaces was studied. From an unheated emulsion, all oil molecules could spread onto the air/water interface, indicating that the protein layers around the oil globules in the emulsion droplet were not coherent enough to