Sample records for surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene

  1. Efficacy of two acidified chlorite postmilking teat disinfectants with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid on prevention of contagious mastitis using an experimental challenge protocol. (United States)

    Oura, L Y; Fox, L K; Warf, C C; Kempt, G K


    Two acidified sodium chlorite postmilking teat disinfectants were evaluated for efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae by using National Mastitis Council experimental challenge procedures. The effect of these teat dips on teat skin and teat end condition was also determined. Both dips contained 0.32% sodium chlorite, 1.32% lactic, and 2.5% glycerin. Dips differed in the amount of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (0.53 or 0.27%) added as a surfactant. Both dips significantly reduced new intramammary infection (IMI) rates compared with undipped controls. The dip containing 0.53% dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid reduced new IMI by Staph. aureus by 72% and Strep. agalactiae by 75%. The dip containing 0.27% dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid reduced new IMI by Staph. aureus by 100% and by Strep. agalactiae by 88%. Changes in teat skin and teat end condition for treatment and control groups varied in parallel over time. Teats treated with either teat dip had higher mean teat skin and teat end scores than control teats at some weeks. However, teat skin and teat end condition did not tend to change from the start to the completion of the trial. Application of the two new postmilking teat dips was effective in reducing new IMI from contagious mastitis pathogens. (Key words: teat dip, contagious mastitis, chlorous acid)

  2. Effect of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate on the dispersion stability of ceramic glaze suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchawan, Suphapan; Naksata, Wimol; Rattanakawin, Chairoj; Thiansem, Sakdiphon; Arqueropanyo, Orn-anong [Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Panya, Preecha [Kamphaengphet Rajabhat University, Kamphaengphet (Thailand); Sooksamiti, Ponlayuth [The Office of Primary Industries and Mines Region 3, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Scales, Peter J. [The University of Melbourne, Parkville Victoria (Australia)


    Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used to render the stability of ceramic glaze dispersion which is composed of limestone, feldspar, quartz, kaolin and ferric oxide. The measured zeta potential showed negative values for the systems in deionized water and 0.001 M MgCl{sub 2} media at pH above 2, but a positive value was observed in 0.1M MgCl{sub 2} at pH higher than 6.7. Adsorption of SDBS in aqueous suspensions of ceramic glaze in deionized water and in 0.001 M MgCl{sub 2}, within the concentration range studied, followed both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, but the Freundlich isotherm was more favored. Adsorption of SDBS in 0.1M MgCl{sub 2} corresponded to the Freundlich isotherm. From dispersion stability investigation, SDBS could render the suspension in deionized water and in 0.001 mM MgCl{sub 2} more than in 0.1 mM MgCl{sub 2}.

  3. Catalytic and non-catalytic wet air oxidation of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate: kinetics and biodegradability enhancement. (United States)

    Suárez-Ojeda, María Eugenia; Kim, Jungkwon; Carrera, Julián; Metcalfe, Ian S; Font, Josep


    Wet air oxidation (WAO) and catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) were investigated as suitable precursors for the biological treatment of industrial wastewater containing sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBS). Two hours WAO semi-batch experiments were conducted at 15 bar of oxygen partial pressure (P(O2)) and at 180, 200 and 220 degrees C. It was found that the highest temperature provides appreciable total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) abatement of about 42 and 47%, correspondingly. Based on the main identified intermediates (acetic acid and sulfobenzoic acid) a reaction pathway for DBS and a kinetic model in WAO were proposed. In the case of CWAO experiments, seventy-two hours tests were done in a fixed bed reactor in continuous trickle flow regime, using a commercial activated carbon (AC) as catalyst. The temperature and P(O2) were 140-160 degrees C and 2-9 bar, respectively. The influence of the operating conditions on the DBS oxidation, the occurrence of oxidative coupling reactions over the AC, and the catalytic activity (in terms of substrate removal) were established. The results show that the AC without any supported active metal behaves bi-functional as adsorbent and catalyst, giving TOC conversions up to 52% at 160 degrees C and 2 bar of P(O2), which were comparable to those obtained in WAO experiments. Respirometric tests were completed before and after CWAO and to the main intermediates identified through the WAO and CWAO oxidation route. Then, the readily biodegradable COD (COD(RB)) of the CWAO and WAO effluents were found. Taking into account these results it was possible to compare whether or not the CWAO or WAO effluents were suitable for a conventional activated sludge plant inoculated with non adapted culture.

  4. The Branched-Chain Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate Degradation Pathway of Pseudomonas aeruginosa W51D Involves a Novel Route for Degradation of the Surfactant Lateral Alkyl Chain


    Campos-García, Jesús; Esteve, Abraham; Vázquez-Duhalt, Rafael; Ramos, Juán Luis; Soberón-Chávez, Gloria


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa W51D is able to grow by using branched-chain dodecylbenzene sulfonates (B-DBS) or the terpenic alcohol citronellol as a sole source of carbon. A mutant derived from this strain (W51M1) is unable to degrade citronellol but still grows on B-DBS, showing that the citronellol degradation route is not the main pathway involved in the degradation of the surfactant alkyl moiety. The structures of the main B-DBS isomers and of some intermediates were identified by gas chromatog...

  5. The Branched-Chain Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate Degradation Pathway of Pseudomonas aeruginosa W51D Involves a Novel Route for Degradation of the Surfactant Lateral Alkyl Chain (United States)

    Campos-García, Jesús; Esteve, Abraham; Vázquez-Duhalt, Rafael; Ramos, Juán Luis; Soberón-Chávez, Gloria


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa W51D is able to grow by using branched-chain dodecylbenzene sulfonates (B-DBS) or the terpenic alcohol citronellol as a sole source of carbon. A mutant derived from this strain (W51M1) is unable to degrade citronellol but still grows on B-DBS, showing that the citronellol degradation route is not the main pathway involved in the degradation of the surfactant alkyl moiety. The structures of the main B-DBS isomers and of some intermediates were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis, and a possible catabolic route is proposed. PMID:10427075

  6. Investigation on the co-luminescence effect of europium (III)-lanthanum(III)-dopamine-sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate system and its application. (United States)

    Si, Hailin; Zhao, Fang; Cai, Huan


    A novel luminescence, enhancement phenomenon in the europium(III)-dopamine-sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate system was observed when lanthanum(III) was added. Based on this, a sensitive co-luminescence method was established for the determination of dopamine. The luminescence signal for the europium (III)-lanthanum(III)-dopamine-sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate system was monitored at λ(ex) = 300 nm, λ(em) = 618 nm and pH 8.3. Under optimized conditions, the enhanced luminescence signal responded linearly to the concentration of dopamine in the range 1.0 × 10(-10)-5.0 × 10(-7) mol/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9993 (n = 11). The detection limit (3σ) was 2.7 × 10(-11) mol/L and the relative standard deviation for 11 parallel measurements of 3.0 × 10(-8) mol/L dopamine was 1.9%. The presented method was successfully applied for the estimation of dopamine in samples of pharmaceutical preparations, human serum and urine. The possible luminescence enhancement mechanism of the system is discussed briefly.

  7. [Fluorescence reaction of the system of safranine T-sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate-protein and its application]. (United States)

    Cheng, Ding-xi; Wang, Shao-hua


    There is a self-polymerization equilibrium system between the cation of the fluorescent dye-safranine T and its dimer. In the presence of appropriate amounts of anionic surfactant SDBS, the above mentioned equilibrium can be adjusted by a quantitative addition of protein, thus leading to a regular change in the fluorescence intensity of the system. Based on this phenomenon, the properties of the absorption spectrum and fluorescence spectrum of the system were studied, and a new fluorescence probe for the determination of protein was established. It was found that ST was apt to dimerize in the solution added with appropriate amounts of anionic surfactant. Because of the dimerization, its fluorescence intensity decreased, whereas the addition of protein caused the dimer to be depolymerized and the system fluorescence increased. A linear relationship between the fluorescence intensities and serum albumin concentration was found in the range of 0-40 microg x mL(-1) , and the detection limit found was 0.034 microg x mL(-1). The significant features of this method were its rapidity of reaction, and high sensitivity, accuracy and selectivity. The method was applied to the determination of total proteins in real human serum, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  8. Effect of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate on the motion of three-phase contact lines on the Wilhelmy plate surface. (United States)

    Karakashev, Stoyan I; Phan, Chi M; Nguyen, Anh V


    The combined approach of the molecular-kinetic and hydrodynamic theories for description of the motion of three-phase gas-liquid-solid contact lines has been examined using the Wilhelmy plate method. The whole dynamic meniscus has been divided into molecular, hydrodynamic, and static-like regions. The Young-Laplace equation and the molecular-kinetic and hydrodynamic dewetting theories have been applied to describe the meniscus profiles and contact angle. The dissipative forces accompanying the dynamic dewetting have also been investigated. The experiments with a Wilhelmy plate made from an acrylic polymer sheet were carried out using a computerized apparatus for contact angle analysis (OCA 20, DataPhysics, Germany). The extrapolated dynamic contact angle versus velocity of the three-phase contact line for Milli-Q water and 5x10(-4) M SDBS solution was experimentally obtained and compared with the combined MHD models with low and moderate Reynolds numbers. The models predict similar results for the extrapolated contact angle. SDBS decreases the equilibrium contact angle and increases the molecular jumping length but does not affect the molecular frequency significantly. The hydrodynamic deformation of the meniscus, viscous dissipation, and friction were also influenced by the SDBS surfactant.

  9. Effects of Surfactant Adsorption on Surficial Wettability of Nonwoven Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Bing; TANG Bing; LI Rui-xia; WU Da-cheng


    All types of surfactants (cationic, anionic and nonionic)reported in this paper could enhance the surficiai wettability of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nonwoven fabrics. However, the effects of cationic and nonionic surfactants were better.The longer the treatment time of surfactants on the nonwoven fabrics, the better the surficial wettability.The surficial rewetting time would no longer change above a certain treatment time. The rewettability of nonwoven fabrics could be evidently improved just when the concentration of surfactants was just above the CMC,except for sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). The finer the fibers and the looser the structures, the better the surficial rewettability of nonwoven fabrics.

  10. Hydrogels of sodium alginate in cationic surfactants: Surfactant dependent modulation of encapsulation/release toward Ibuprofen. (United States)

    Jabeen, Suraya; Chat, Oyais Ahmad; Maswal, Masrat; Ashraf, Uzma; Rather, Ghulam Mohammad; Dar, Aijaz Ahmad


    The interaction of cetyltrimethylammoium bromide (CTAB) and its gemini homologue (butanediyl-1,4-bis (dimethylcetylammonium bromide), 16-4-16 with biocompatible polymer sodium alginate (SA) has been investigated in aqueous medium. Addition of K2CO3 influences viscoelastic properties of surfactant impregnated SA via competition between electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Viscosity of these polymer-surfactant systems increases with increase in concentration of K2CO3, and a cryogel is formed at about 0.5M K2CO3 concentration. The thermal stability of gel (5% SA+0.5M K2CO3) decreases with increase in surfactant concentration, a minimum is observed with increase in 16-4-16 concentration. The impact of surfactant addition on the alginate structure vis-à-vis its drug loading capability and release thereof was studied using Ibuprofen (IBU) as the model drug. The hydrogel with 16-4-16 exhibits higher IBU encapsulation and faster release in comparison to the one containing CTAB. This higher encapsulation-cum-faster release capability has been related to micelle mediated solubilization and greater porosity of the hydrogel with gemini surfactant.

  11. [Strengthening Effects of Sodium Salts on Washing Kerosene Contaminated Soil with Surfactants]. (United States)

    Huang, Zhao-lu; Chen, Quan-yuan; Zhou, Juan; Xie, Mo-han


    The impact of sodium salt on kerosene contaminated soil washing with surfactants was investigated. The results indicated that sodium silicate greatly enhanced the washing efficiency of SDS. Sodium tartrate can largely enhance the washing efficiency of SDBS and Brij35. Sodium salts can enhance the washing efficiency on kerosene contaminated with TX-100. No significant differences were observed between different sodium salts. Sodium salt of humic acid and sodium silicate had similar enhancement on kerosene contaminated soil washing with saponin. Sodium humate can be a better choice since its application can also improve soil quality. The enhancement of sodium silicate on kerosene contaminated soil washing with Tw-80 increased with the increase of Tw-80 dosage. However, the impact of sodium chloride and sodium tartrate was opposite to sodium silicate. Sodium salts can reduce surface tension and critical micelle concentration of ionic surfactants to enhance the washing. Sodium salts can also reduce re-adsorption of oil to soil with nonionic surfactants to enhance the washing. Kerosene contamination can increase the contact angle of soil, which indicated the increase of hydrophilicity of soil. Washing with surfactants can reduce the hydrophilicitiy of soil according to contact angle measurement, which indicated that kerosene contaminated soil remediation with surfactant can also benefit nutrient and water transportation in the contaminated soil.

  12. Preparation and characterization of polyaniline microrods synthesized by using dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid and periodic acid


    TAŞ, RECEP; Can, Muzaffer; Sönmezoğlu, Savaş


    The preparation of polyaniline (PANI) microrod arrays in the presence of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSAH), a structure-directing agent, and in the presence of periodic acid (H$_{5}$IO$_{6})$, an oxidant in aqua-acidic media, was investigated. DBSAH was performed to distinguish the roles of both surfactant and dopant. The method of preparation of DBSAH and H$_{5}$IO$_{6}$ doped PANI (DBSAH-PANI) microrods in a reversed micelle had previously not been reported. The characterizations of the ...

  13. Vesicle formation and stability in the surfactant sodium 4-(1'-heptylnonyl) benzenesulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franses, E.I.; Talmon, Y.; Scriven, L.E.; Davis, H.T.; Miller, W.G.


    Surfactants composed of a hydrophilic moiety covalently attached to the end of a hydrocarbon chain (e.g., sodium dodecyl sulfate), spontaneously form micelles, equilibrium aggregates, in solution if the surfactant concentration exceeds a critical value called the CMC. Naturally occurring double-tail surfactants (e.g., phospholipids) are not known to form micelles. Over a considerable range in surfactant concentration, 2 phases coexist in equilibrium: a hydrated, multilamellar (smectic) surfactant phase and an aqueous phase saturated with surfactant. In this report the preparation of vesicles, their direct, unstained visualization by electron microscopy, and investigation of their stability and structure by turbidimetry, conductimetry, light microscopy, densitometry, scanning calorimetry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are discussed. Dispersed liquid crystal was studied by the same means. For comparison, parallel studies on bovine lecithin are presented. From the results, it is concluded that these vesicles may be stable for many months, but eventually revert to multilamellar liquid crystals.

  14. Emulsification at the Liquid/Liquid Interface: Effects of Potential, Electrolytes and Surfactants. (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mehrin; Kataky, Ritu


    Emulsification of oils at liquid/liquid interfaces is of fundamental importance across a range of applications, including detergency. Adsorption and partitioning of the anionic surface active ions at the interface between two immiscible solutions is known to cause predictable chaos at the transfer potential region of the surfactant. In this work, the phenomenon that leads to the chaotic behaviour shown by sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) at the water/1,2-dichloroethane interface is applied to commercial surfactants and aqueous/glyceryl trioleate interface. Electrochemical methods, electrocapillary curves, optical microscopy and conductivity measurements demonstrated that at 1.5 mm of SDBS, surfactants are adsorbed at the interface and assemble into micelles, leading to interfacial instability. As the concentration of the anionic surfactant was enhanced to 8 and 13.4 mm, the Marangoni effect and the interfacial emulsification became more prominent. The chaotic behaviour was found to be dependent on the surfactant concentration and the electrolytes present.

  15. Binding of alkylpyridinium chloride surfactants to sodium polystyrene sulfonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishiguro, M.; Koopal, L.K.


    Binding of cationic surfactants to anionic polymers is well studied. However, the surfactant binding characteristics at very low concentration near the start of binding and at high concentration, where charge compensation may Occur. are less well known. Therefore, the binding characteristics of

  16. Study of adjuvant effect of model surfactants from the groups of alkyl sulfates, alkylbenzene sulfonates, alcohol ethoxylates and soaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, S K; Sobhani, S; Poulsen, O M


    The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice...... showed a statistically significant increase in OVA specific IgE levels. After two boosters, a statistically significant suppression in OVA-specific IgE production occurred with SDS (1000 mg/l), SDBS (1000 and 100 mg/l), coconut soap (1000 mg/l) and the alcohol ethoxylate (10 mg/l). This study suggests...

  17. A conductometric investigation of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose/sodium dodecyl sulfate/nonionic surfactant systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Lidija B.


    Full Text Available Surfactant mixtures are very often used in various cosmetic and pharmaceutical products because they commonly act in synergism and provide more favorable properties than the single surfactants. At the same time, the 9 presence of polymers in mixtures of surfactants may lead to molecular interactions thereby affecting product stability and activity. For these reasons it is very important to determine the surfactant interactions influence on 1micellization and mixed micellization, as well as polymer-surfactants mixed micelles interactions. In this work we examined self-aggregation of nonionic surfactants, polysorbate 20 (Tween 20, polyoxyethylene octylphenyl ether (Triton X100 and polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block copolymer (Pluronic F68 with ionic surfactant, sodium dodecylsulfate, in aqueous solution at 40ºC using conductometric titration method. It was found that concentration region for mixed micelle formation depends on nonionic surfactant characteristics and its concentration. Formation of surfactants mixed micelles in the presence of nonionic polymer, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, and their binding to polymer hydrophobic sites, were investigated too. Analysis of obtained results points to different kinds of interactions in investigated systems, which are crucial for their application. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010

  18. Effect of surfactants on pressure-sensitivity of CNT filled cement mortar composites (United States)

    Han, Baoguo; Yu, Xun


    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (NaDDBS) were used as surfactants to disperse multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) in cement mortar and fabricate pressure-sensitive carbon nanotubes filled cement mortar composites. The pressure-sensitivity of cement mortar composites with different concentrations of MWNT and different surfactants was explored under repeated loading and impulsive loading, respectively. Experimental results indicate that the response of the electrical resistance of composites with NaDDBS to external force is more stable and sensitive than that of composites with SDS. Therefore, NaDDBS has higher efficiency than SDS for the dispersion of MWNT in cement mortar, and it is an effective surfactant for fabricating MWNT filled cement mortar composites with superior pressure-sensitivity.

  19. Rheologycal properties of sodium carboxymethylcellulose in the presence of electrolyte and mixed micelle of surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Verica J.


    Full Text Available One of the most significant aspects of polymer-surfactant interaction, from the practical point of view, is that of rheology control and viscosity enhancement. In the oppositely charged polyelectrolyte-surfactant system strong ionic interaction often leads to precipitation of the formed complex yielding serious problems. In this paper the interaction between anionic polyelectrolyte - sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC and cationic surfactant - cethyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB has been investigated by rheological measurements. Addition of electrolyte NaBr and nonionic surfactant - Tween 80 reduced the binding strength, prevented the precipitation of the complex and increased the viscosity of the system. It was found that rheological properties are strong influenced by NaCMC-CTMAB interaction and the system exhibits either pseudoplastic or thixotropic or rheopectic behavior according to the intensity of interaction.

  20. Polycation-Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate-Type Surfactant Complexes : Influence of Ethylene Oxide Length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, Leo F. W.; Pollet, Jennifer; Tuinier, Remco


    Poiyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes (PESC) are a class of materials which form spontaneously by self-assembly driven by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. PESC containing sodium lauryl ether Sulfates (SLES) have found wide application in hair care products like shampoo. Typically, SLES wit


    A method for the determination of the anionic Steol CS-330 surfactant is described. CS-330 is a complex mixture of oligomers due to the various sizes of fatty alcohols and the number of moles of the ethoxylation. The main component of CS-330 is sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES)....

  2. Impact of cationic surfactant on the self-assembly of sodium caseinate. (United States)

    Vinceković, Marko; Curlin, Marija; Jurašin, Darija


    The impact of a cationic surfactant, dodecylammonium chloride (DDACl), on the self-assembly of sodium caseinate (SC) has been investigated by light scattering, zeta potential, and rheological measurements as well as by microscopy (transmission electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy). In SC dilute solutions concentration-dependent self-assembly proceeds through the formation of spherical associates and their aggregation into elongated structures composed of connected spheres. DDACl interacts with SC via its hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, inducing changes in SC self-assembled structures. These changes strongly depend on the surfactant aggregation states (monomeric or micellar) as well as concentration ratio of both components, leading to the formation of soluble and insoluble complexes of nano- to microdimensions. DDACl monomers interact with SC self-assembled entities in a different way compared to their micelles. Surfactant monomers form soluble complexes (similar to surfactant mixed micelles) at lower SC concentration but insoluble gelatinous complexes at higher SC concentration. At surfactant micellar concentration soluble complexes with casein chains wrapped around surfactant micelles are formed. This study suggests that the use of proper cationic surfactant concentration will allow modification and control of structural changes of SC self-assembled entities.

  3. Interaction of Sodium Hyaluronate with a Biocompatible Cationic Surfactant from Lysine: A Binding Study. (United States)

    Bračič, Matej; Hansson, Per; Pérez, Lourdes; Zemljič, Lidija F; Kogej, Ksenija


    Mixtures of natural and biodegradable surfactants and ionic polysaccharides have attracted considerable research interest in recent years because they prosper as antimicrobial materials for medical applications. In the present work, interactions between the lysine-derived biocompatible cationic surfactant N(ε)-myristoyl-lysine methyl ester, abbreviated as MKM, and the sodium salt of hyaluronic acid (NaHA) are investigated in aqueous media by potentiometric titrations using the surfactant-sensitive electrode and pyrene-based fluorescence spectroscopy. The critical micelle concentration in pure surfactant solutions and the critical association concentration in the presence of NaHA are determined based on their dependence on the added electrolyte (NaCl) concentration. The equilibrium between the protonated (charged) and deprotonated (neutral) forms of MKM is proposed to explain the anomalous binding isotherms observed in the presence of the polyelectrolyte. The explanation is supported by theoretical model calculations of the mixed-micelle equilibrium and the competitive binding of the two MKM forms to the surface of the electrode membrane. It is suggested that the presence of even small amounts of the deprotonated form can strongly influence the measured electrode response. Such ionic-nonionic surfactant mixtures are a special case of mixed surfactant systems where the amount of the nonionic component cannot be varied independently as was the case for some of the earlier studies.

  4. Synthesis and surface-active property of bis-quaternary ammonium-sodium sulfate Gemini surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Qiuling; Gao Zhinong


    N,N-dimethyldodecylamine,hydrochloride and epichlorohydrin (molar ration is 2:1:1) were used to synthesize bis-quaternary ammonium Gemini surfactant with a hydroxyl in its spacer group by the one-pot method.This hydroxyl was sulfonated by chlorosulfonic acid and then neutralized to bis-quaternary ammonium-sodium sulfate zwitterionic Gemini surfactant.The yield of the final product was 78%,and the melting point was 231-233℃.Its structure was characterized by IR,1H-NMR,MS,and elemental analyses.The critical micelle concentration (cmc)and surface tension of the novel zwitterionic Gemini surfactant in aqueous solution at 15℃ are 7.2×10-5 mol/L and 34.5 mN/m,respectively.

  5. Interaction between cationic surfactant of 1-methyl-3-tetradecylimidazolium bromide and anionic polymer of sodium polystyrene sulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qian [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Shandong Province, VIC 252059 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Engineering Research Center for Fine Chemicals of Ministry of Education, Shanxi University, Shanxi Province, VIC 030006 (China); Kang, Wenpei [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Shandong University, Ministry of Education, Shandong Province, VIC 250100 (China); Sun, Dezhi [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Shandong Province, VIC 252059 (China); Liu, Jie, E-mail: [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Shandong Province, VIC 252059 (China); Wei, Xilian, E-mail: [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Shandong Province, VIC 252059 (China)


    The interaction between long-chain imidazolium ionic liquid (C{sub 14}mimBr) and anionic polyelectrolyte of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (NaPSS) has been studied using surface tension, isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC), dynamic light scatting (DLS) and conductance methods. The result shows that the surface tension plots have a pronounced hump in the surface tension at surfactant concentrations below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the surfactant. The cooperative adsorption of surfactant and polymer on the surface (PS{sub S}) and the formation of polymer/surfactant aggregate in bulk solution (PS{sub M}) provide a rational explanation about it. The formation of surfactant/polymer complexes is affected by the concentration of the surfactant or NaPSS, which is also ascertained by ITC and DLS measurements. Further, the thermodynamic parameters are derived from calorimetric titration and conductance curves, and the effects of polymer concentration and temperature on the parameters are evaluated in detail.

  6. Interaction between Gelatin and Sodium Dodecylbenzene Sulphonate by Conductivity Method%电导率法研究明胶与表面活性剂相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵峰; 张国忠; 苏珍; 杨效登


    The properties of gelatin/sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate ( SDBS) solutions were studied by conductivity method. The effects of SDBS concentrations and temperature on the conductivities of gelatin/SDBS were investigated. And the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of SDBS, the micelle ionization degree (a) and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The investigation will provide a theoretical basis for broadening the utilization of leather - solid wastes.%以电导率法研究了明胶/十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)体系的溶液性质,考察了SDBS浓度和温度对明胶/SDBS体系电导率的影响,计算了SDBS的临界胶束浓度(cmc)、胶束离子化度(α)、胶束形成的热力学函数等参数,为拓展皮革下脚料的应用提供理论基础.

  7. A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid surfactant using silkworm pupae as stock material (United States)

    Wu, Min-Hui; Wan, Liang-Ze; Zhang, Yu-Qing


    A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid (SFAAA) surfactant was synthesized using pupa oil and pupa protein hydrolysates (PPH) from a waste product of the silk industry. The aliphatic acids from pupa oil were modified into N-fatty acyl chlorides by thionyl chloride (SOCl2). SFAAA was synthesized using acyl chlorides and PPH. GC-MS analysis showed fatty acids from pupa oil consist mainly of unsaturated linolenic and linoleic acids and saturated palmitic and stearic acids. SFAAA had a low critical micelle concentration, great efficiency in lowering surface tension and strong adsorption at an air/water interface. SFAAA had a high emulsifying power, as well as a high foaming power. The emulsifying power of PPH and SFAAA in an oil/water emulsion was better with ethyl acetate as the oil phase compared to n-hexane. The environment-friendly surfactant made entirely from silkworm pupae could promote sustainable development of the silk industry.

  8. Micelles in mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate and a bolaform surfactant. (United States)

    Muzzalupo, Rita; Gente, Giacomo; La Mesa, Camillo; Caponetti, Eugenio; Chillura-Martino, Delia; Pedone, Lucia; Saladino, Maria Luisa


    Mixtures composed of water, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and a bolaform surfactant with two aza-crown ethers as polar headgroups (termed Bola C-16) were investigated by modulating the mole ratios between the components. The two surfactants have ionic and nonionic, but ionizable, headgroups, respectively. The ionization is due to the complexation of alkali ions by the aza-crown ether unit(s). Structural, thermodynamic, and transport properties of the above mixtures were investigated. Results from surface tension, translational self-diffusion, and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) are reported and discussed. Interactions between the two surfactants to form mixed micelles result in a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic contributions. These effects are reflected in the size and shape of the aggregates as well as in transport properties. The translational diffusion of the components in mixed micelles, in particular, depends on the Bola C-16/SDS mole ratio. Nonideality of mixing of the two components was inferred from the dependence of the critical micelle concentration, cmc, on the mole fraction of Bola C-16. This behavior is also reflected in surface adsorption and in the area per polar headgroup at the air-water interface. SANS data analysis for the pure components gives results in good agreement with previous findings. An analysis of data relative to mixed systems allows us to compute some structural parameters of the mixed aggregates. The dependence of aggregation numbers, nu(T), on the Bola C-16/SDS mole ratio displays a maximum that depends on the overall surfactant content and is rationalized in terms of the nonideality of mixing. Aggregates grow perpendicularly to the major rotation axis, as formerly observed in the Bola C-16 system, and become progressively ellipsoidal in shape.

  9. Tungsten Oxide and Polyaniline Composite Fabricated by Surfactant-Templated Electrodeposition and Its Use in Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benxue Zou


    Full Text Available Composite nanostructures of tungsten oxide and polyaniline (PANI were fabricated on carbon electrode by electrocodeposition using sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS as the template. The morphology of the composite can be controlled by changing SDBS surfactant and aniline monomer concentrations in solution. With increasing concentration of aniline in surfactant solution, the morphological change from nanoparticles to nanofibers was observed. The nanostructured WO3/PANI composite exhibited enhanced capacitive charge storage with the specific capacitance of 201 F g−1 at 1.28 mA cm−2 in large potential window of -0.5~ 0.65 V versus SCE compared to the bulk composite film. The capacitance retained about 78% when the sweeping potential rate increased from 10 to 150 mV/s.

  10. Dynamic contact angles on PTFE surface by aqueous surfactant solution in the absence and presence of electrolytes. (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Rajib Ghosh; Paria, Santanu


    This study presents the experimental results on dynamic contact angles of pure surfactants and surfactants with electrolyte solutions on PTFE (Teflon) surface. Dynamic advancing (theta(A)) and receding (theta(R)) contact angles measurements by the Wilhelmy plate technique were carried out for aqueous solution of three different surfactants Triton X-100 (TX-100), sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The same measurements in the presence of different electrolytes NaCl, Na(2)SO(4), and CaCl(2) for ionic surfactants (SDBS and CTAB) were also carried out to see the change in contact angle and wetting behavior. The presence of electrolytes changes the advancing contact angle as well as wetting properties of hydrophobic solid surface significantly even at very low surfactant concentration. Counter ion valency of the electrolyte is more important in reducing advancing contact angle on hydrophobic PTFE surface at very low concentration of ionic surfactants from CMC. Pure surfactants and ionic surfactants in the presence of electrolytes show a linear relationship between the adhesional tension and surface tension at air-water interface with different slope and intercept.

  11. Cytotoxicity Effects of Different Surfactant Molecules Conjugated to Carbon Nanotubes on Human Astrocytoma Cells (United States)

    Dong, Lifeng; Witkowski, Colette M.; Craig, Michael M.; Greenwade, Molly M.; Joseph, Katherine L.


    Phase contrast and epifluorescence microscopy were utilized to monitor morphological changes in human astrocytoma cells during a time-course exposure to single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) conjugates with different surfactants and to investigate sub-cellular distribution of the nanotube conjugates, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that cytotoxicity of the nanotube/surfactant conjugates is related to the toxicity of surfactant molecules attached on the nanotube surfaces. Both sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) are toxic to cells. Exposure to CNT/SDS conjugates (0.5 mg/mL) for less than 5 min caused changes in cell morphology resulting in a distinctly spherical shape compared to untreated cells. In contrast, sodium cholate (SC) and CNT/SC did not affect cell morphology, proliferation, or growth. These data indicate that SC is an environmentally friendly surfactant for the purification and dispersion of SWCNTs. Epifluorescence microscopy analysis of CNT/DNA conjugates revealed distribution in the cytoplasm of cells and did not show adverse effects on cell morphology, proliferation, or viability during a 72-h incubation. These observations suggest that the SWCNTs could be used as non-viral vectors for diagnostic and therapeutic molecules across the blood-brain barrier to the brain and the central nervous system.

  12. Cytotoxicity Effects of Different Surfactant Molecules Conjugated to Carbon Nanotubes on Human Astrocytoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowski Colette


    Full Text Available Abstract Phase contrast and epifluorescence microscopy were utilized to monitor morphological changes in human astrocytoma cells during a time-course exposure to single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT conjugates with different surfactants and to investigate sub-cellular distribution of the nanotube conjugates, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that cytotoxicity of the nanotube/surfactant conjugates is related to the toxicity of surfactant molecules attached on the nanotube surfaces. Both sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS are toxic to cells. Exposure to CNT/SDS conjugates (0.5 mg/mL for less than 5 min caused changes in cell morphology resulting in a distinctly spherical shape compared to untreated cells. In contrast, sodium cholate (SC and CNT/SC did not affect cell morphology, proliferation, or growth. These data indicate that SC is an environmentally friendly surfactant for the purification and dispersion of SWCNTs. Epifluorescence microscopy analysis of CNT/DNA conjugates revealed distribution in the cytoplasm of cells and did not show adverse effects on cell morphology, proliferation, or viability during a 72-h incubation. These observations suggest that the SWCNTs could be used as non-viral vectors for diagnostic and therapeutic molecules across the blood–brain barrier to the brain and the central nervous system.

  13. Impact of model perfume molecules on the self-assembly of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl 6-benzene sulfonate. (United States)

    Bradbury, Robert; Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Tucker, Ian M; Petkov, Jordan T; Jones, Craig; Grillo, Isabelle


    The impact of two model perfumes with differing degrees of hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity, linalool (LL) and phenylethanol (PE), on the solution structure of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl 6-benzene sulfonate, LAS-6, has been studied by small angle neutron scattering, SANS. For both types of perfume molecules, complex phase behavior is observed. The phase behavior depends upon the concentration, surfactant/perfume composition, and type of perfume. The more hydrophilic perfume PE promotes the formation of more highly curved structures. At relatively low surfactant concentrations, small globular micelles, L1, are formed. These become perfume droplets, L(sm), stabilized by the surfactant at much higher perfume solution compositions. At higher surfactant concentrations, the tendency of LAS-6 to form more planar structures is evident. The more hydrophobic linalool promotes the formation of more planar structures. Combined with the greater tendency of LAS-6 to form planar structures, this results in the planar structures dominating the phase behavior for the LAS-6/linalool mixtures. For the LAS-6/linalool mixture, the self-assembly is in the form of micelles only at the lowest surfactant and perfume concentrations. Over most of the concentration-composition space explored, the structures are predominantly lamellar, L(α), or vesicle, L(v), or in the form of a lamellar/micellar coexistence. At low and intermediate amounts of LL, a significantly different structure is observed, and the aggregates are in the form of small, relatively monodisperse vesicles (i.e., nanovesicles), L(sv).

  14. Conductometric study of sodium dodecyl sulfate - nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85) mixed micelles in aqueous solution


    Ćirin Dejan M; Poša Mihalj M.; Krstonošić Veljko S.; Milanović Maja Lj.


    The present study is concerned with the determination of the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of mixed micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate with one of five nonionic surfactants (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85) from conductance measurements. Based on the calculated values of the β parameters we have noticed that SDS-nonionic surfactants mostly showed strong synergistic effect. It was found that nonionic surfactants with mainly longer and more hydrophobic tail s...

  15. Effect of Anionic Surfactant on the Thermo Acoustical Properties of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate in Polyvinyl Alcohol Solution by Ultrasonic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ravichandran


    Full Text Available The interaction of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS / poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA solution was studied by ultrasonic velocity measurements. Ultrasonic velocity, density, viscosity in mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulphate in polyvinyl alcohol was measured over the entire range of composition. From the experimental data, other related thermodynamic parameters, viz., adiabatic compressibility, intermolecular free length, surface tension, relative association, relaxation time, absorption coefficient and internal pressure were calculated. Formations of rods interfere with velocity of ultrasonic waves. Hence the ultrasonic velocity decreases with concentration. These results were interpreted in terms of polymer-surfactant complex reactions.

  16. Plasmid-mediated biodegradation of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate, by Pseudomonas aeruginosa S7. (United States)

    Yeldho, Deepthi; Rebello, Sharrel; Jisha, M S


    Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), an anionic surfactant, has been used extensively due to its low cost and excellent foaming properties. Fifteen different bacterial isolates capable of degrading SDS were isolated from detergent contaminated soil by enrichment culture technique and the degradation efficiency was assessed by Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) assay. The most efficient SDS degrading isolate was selected and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa S7. The selected isolate was found to harbor a single 6-kb plasmid. Acridine orange, ethidium bromide, SDS and elevated temperatures of incubation failed to cure the plasmid. The cured derivatives of SDS degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa were obtained only when ethidium bromide and elevated temperature (40 °C) were used together. Transformation of E. coli DH5α with plasmid isolated from S7 resulted in subsequent growth of the transformants on minimal salt media with SDS (0.1%) as the sole source of carbon. The SDS degradation ability of S7 and the transformant was found to be similar as assessed by Methylene Blue Active Substance Assay. The antibiotic resistance profiles of S7, competent DH5α and transformant were analyzed and it was noted that the transfer of antibiotic resistance correlated with the transfer of plasmid as well as SDS degrading property.

  17. Biodegradation of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate by Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 10311. (United States)

    Ambily, P S; Jisha, M S


    The anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), the core components of detergent and cosmetic product formulations, contributes significantly to the pollution profile of sewage and wastewater of all kinds. In this study, 44 SDS degrading strains were isolated by soil enrichment methods and the utilization efficiency was assessed by methylene blue active substances (MBAS) assay and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Isolate S2 which showed maximum degradation was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 10311 based on phenotypic features and 16 S rDNA typing. The isolate was found to harbor plasmid within the size range of 9-10 kb. The cured derivative of SDS degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa was obtained at a frequency of 10.7% by incubation with ethidium bromide (500 mg ml(-1) at 40 degrees C. 96% of SDS degradation occurred at 1500 ppm level within 48 hr of incubation, whereas higher concentration of SDS (10000 ppm) showed only 20% degradation. The optimum temperature and pH was 30 degrees C and 7.5, respectively. The additional supplementation of carbon and nitrogen source increased the degradation capacity from 93 to 95% and 90 to 96% respectively within 36 hrs of incubation.

  18. Solvation dynamics of DCM in a polypeptide-surfactant aggregate: gelatin-sodium dodecyl sulfate. (United States)

    Halder, Arnab; Sen, Pratik; Burman, Anupam Das; Bhattacharyya, Kankan


    Solvation dynamics of 4-(dicyanomethylidene)-2-[p-(dimethylamino)styryl]-6-methyl-4H-pyran (DCM) is studied in a polypeptide-surfactant aggregate consisting of gelatin and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KP) buffer. The average solvation time (tauS) in gelatin-SDS aggregate at 45 degrees C is found to be 1780 ps, which is about 13 times slower than that in 15 mM SDS in KP buffer at the same temperature. The fluorescence anisotropy decay in gelatin-SDS aggregate is also different from that in SDS micelles in KP buffer. DCM displays negligible emission in the presence of gelatin in aqueous solution. Thus the solvation dynamics in the presence of gelatin and SDS is exclusively due to the probe (DCM) molecules at the gelatin-micelle interface. The slow solvation dynamics is ascribed to the restrictions imposed on the water molecules trapped between the polypeptide chain and micellar aggregates. The critical association concentration (cac) of SDS for gelatin is determined to be 0.5 +/- 0.1 mM.

  19. Thermodynamic solution properties of pefloxacin mesylate and its interactions with organized assemblies of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usman, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Rashid, Muhammad Abid [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Mansha, Asim [Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Siddiq, Mohammad, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Free energy of adsorption is more negative than free energy of micellization. • Micellization becomes more spontaneous at high temperature. • There is strong interaction between PFM and SDS. - Abstract: This manuscript reports the physicochemical behavior of antibiotic amphiphilic drug pefloxacin mesylate (PFM) and its interaction with anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The data of surface tension and electrical conductivity are helpful to detect the CMC as well as to calculate surface parameters, i.e. surface pressure, π, surface excess concentration, Γ, area per molecule of drug and standard Gibbs free energy of adsorption, ΔG{sub ads} and thermodynamic parameters like standard free energy of micellization, ΔG{sub m}, standard enthalpy of micellization, ΔH{sub m} and standard entropy of micellization, ΔS{sub m}. The interaction of this drug with anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied by electrical conductivity and UV/visible spectroscopy. This enabled us to compute the values of partition coefficient (K{sub x}), free energy of partition, ΔG{sub p}, binding constant, K{sub b}, free energy of binding, ΔG{sub b}, number of drug molecules per micelle, n, and thermodynamic parameters of drug–surfactant interaction.

  20. Nonlinear response of a batch BZ oscillator to the addition of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate. (United States)

    Sciascia, Luciana; Lombardo, Renato; Turco Liveri, Maria Liria


    The response of the Belousov-Zhabotinsy (BZ) system to the addition of increasing amounts of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was monitored at 25.0 degrees C in stirred batch conditions. The presence of SDS in the reaction mixture influences the oscillatory parameters, i.e., induction period and oscillation period, to an extent that depends on the surfactant concentration. The experimental results have shown that the induction period increases slightly on increasing surfactant concentration and, then, a further increase in the [SDS] leads to an enhancement while the oscillation period increases monotonously on increasing SDS concentration. It has been proposed that the response of the oscillatory BZ system to the addition of SDS is due to the peculiar capability of the organized surfactant assemblies to affect the reactivity by selectively sequestering some key reacting species. Indeed, explanations of the experimental results have been given on the basis of the role played by the micellar shape, which in turn dictates the hydrophobic nature. The suggested perturbation effects have been supported by performing viscosity measurements on the aqueous SDS solutions and by the spectrophotometric estimation of the binding constant of the bromine species to the micellar aggregates. This study has indirectly corroborated the existence of two kind of micelles and unambiguously revealed that the bromine species show a different affinity toward the spherical and rod-like micelles.

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Suspended in Different Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Dong


    Full Text Available We investigated the antibacterial activity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs dispersed in surfactant solutions of sodium cholate, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Among the three surfactants, sodium cholate demonstrated the weakest antibacterial activity against Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecium and thereby was used to disperse bundled SWCNTs in order to study nanotube antibiotic activity. SWCNTs exhibited antibacterial characteristics for both S. enterica and E. coli. With the increase of nanotube concentrations from 0.3 mg/mL to 1.5 mg/mL, the growth curves had plateaus at lower absorbance values whereas the absorbance value was not obviously affected by the incubation ranging from 5 min to 2 h. Our findings indicate that carbon nanotubes could become an effective alternative to antibiotics in dealing with drug-resistant and multidrug-resistant bacterial strains because of the physical mode of bactericidal action that SWCNTs display.

  2. Occurrence of photoluminescence and onion like structures decorating graphene oxide with europium using sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant (United States)

    Cedeño, V. J.; Rangel, R.; Cervantes, J. L.; Lara, J.; Alvarado, J. J.; Galván, D. H.


    Graphene oxide decoration with europium was carried out using SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) as the surfactant. The reaction was performed in a microwave oven and subsequently underwent thermal treatment under hydrogen flow. The results found in the present work demonstrate that through the use of SDS surfactant aggregates of hemi-cylindrical and onion-like structures could be obtained; which propitiate an enhanced synergistic photoluminescence located at the red wavelength. On the other hand, after thermal treatment the aggregates disappear providing a good dispersion of europium, however a decrease in the photoluminescence signal is observed. The graphene oxide decorated with europium was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier infrared transform spectroscopy (FTIR), RAMAN spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, showing the characteristic features of graphene oxide and europium.

  3. Preparation and physicochemical properties of surfactant-free emulsions using electrolytic-reduction ion water containing lithium magnesium sodium silicate. (United States)

    Okajima, Masahiro; Wada, Yuko; Hosoya, Takashi; Hino, Fumio; Kitahara, Yoshiyasu; Shimokawa, Ken-ichi; Ishii, Fumiyoshi


    Surfactant-free emulsions by adding jojoba oil, squalane, olive oil, or glyceryl trioctanoate (medium chain fatty acid triglycerides, MCT) to electrolytic-reduction ion water containing lithium magnesium sodium silicate (GE-100) were prepared, and their physiochemical properties (thixotropy, zeta potential, and mean particle diameter) were evaluated. At an oil concentration of 10%, the zeta potential was ‒22.3 ‒ ‒26.8 mV, showing no marked differences among the emulsions of various types of oil, but the mean particle diameters in the olive oil emulsion (327 nm) and MCT emulsion (295 nm) were smaller than those in the other oil emulsions (452-471 nm). In addition, measurement of the hysteresis loop area of each type of emulsion revealed extremely high thixotropy of the emulsion containing MCT at a low concentration and the olive emulsion. Based on these results, since surfactants and antiseptic agents markedly damage sensitive skin tissue such as that with atopic dermatitis, surfactant- and antiseptic-free emulsions are expected to be new bases for drugs for external use.

  4. Adsorption of hydroxamate siderophores and EDTA on goethite in the presence of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jide


    Full Text Available Abstract Siderophore-promoted iron acquisition by microorganisms usually occurs in the presence of other organic molecules, including biosurfactants. We have investigated the influence of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS on the adsorption of the siderophores DFOB (cationic and DFOD (neutral and the ligand EDTA (anionic onto goethite (α-FeOOH at pH 6. We also studied the adsorption of the corresponding 1:1 Fe(III-ligand complexes, which are products of the dissolution process. Adsorption of the two free siderophores increased in a similar fashion with increasing SDS concentration, despite their difference in molecule charge. In contrast, SDS had little effect on the adsorption of EDTA. Adsorption of the Fe-DFOB and Fe-DFOD complexes also increased with increasing SDS concentrations, while adsorption of Fe-EDTA decreased. Our results suggest that hydrophobic interactions between adsorbed surfactants and siderophores are more important than electrostatic interactions. However, for strongly hydrophilic molecules, such as EDTA and its iron complex, the influence of SDS on their adsorption seems to depend on their tendency to form inner-sphere or outer-sphere surface complexes. Our results demonstrate that surfactants have a strong influence on the adsorption of siderophores to Fe oxides, which has important implications for siderophore-promoted dissolution of iron oxides and biological iron acquisition.

  5. Adsorption of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate on a C18 column under micellar and high submicellar conditions in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Ortiz-Bolsico, C; Ruiz-Angel, M J; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C


    Micellar liquid chromatography makes use of aqueous solutions or aqueous-organic solutions containing a surfactant, at a concentration above its critical micelle concentration. In the mobile phase, the surfactant monomers aggregate to form micelles, whereas on the surface of the nonpolar alkyl-bonded stationary phases they are significantly adsorbed. If the mobile phase contains a high concentration of organic solvent, micelles break down, and the amount of surfactant adsorbed on the stationary phase is reduced, giving rise to another chromatographic mode named high submicellar liquid chromatography. The presence of a thinner coating of surfactant enhances the selectivity and peak shape, especially for basic compounds. However, the risk of full desorption of surfactant is the main limitation in the high submicellar mode. This study examines the adsorption of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate under micellar and high submicellar conditions on a C18 column, applying two methods. One of them uses a refractive index detector to obtain direct measurements of the adsorbed amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate, whereas the second method is based on the retention and peak shape for a set of cationic basic compounds that indirectly reveal the presence of adsorbed monomers of surfactant on the stationary phase.

  6. Effects of waste activated sludge and surfactant addition on primary sludge hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids accumulation. (United States)

    Ji, Zhouying; Chen, Guanlan; Chen, Yinguang


    This paper focused on the effects of waste activated sludge (WAS) and surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) addition on primary sludge (PS) hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) accumulation in fermentation. The results showed that sludge hydrolysis, SCFA accumulation, NH(4)(+)-N and PO(4)(3-)-P release, and volatile suspended solids (VSS) reduction were increased by WAS addition to PS, which were further increased by the addition of SDBS to the mixture of PS and WAS. Acetic, propionic and valeric acids were the top three SCFA in all experiments. Also, the fermentation liquids of PS, PS+WAS, and PS+WAS+SDBS were added, respectively, to municipal wastewater to examine their effects on biological municipal wastewater treatment, and the enhancement of both wastewater nitrogen and phosphorus removals was observed compared with no fermentation liquid addition.

  7. Preparation of the cactus-like porous manganese oxide assisted with surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Jianling, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Yan, Gang; Xu, Guofeng; Xue, Qingrui [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Kang, Feiyu [Lab of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)


    Highlights: • The cactus-like porous MnO{sub 2} was synthesized by hydrothermal method assisted with SDS. • The MnO{sub 2} exhibits a max specific capacitance of 187.8 F g{sup −1} (0.2 A g{sup −1}, 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). • Excellent cycling stability: 92.9% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles. - Abstract: The cactus-like porous manganese dioxide (MnO{sub 2}) was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method assisted with the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The morphology, composition, property of the prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) measurements. It was found that the sample without surfactant was composed of nanoflakes which piling up together, whereas in the presence of the surfactant, the MnO{sub 2} samples with the max specific surface of 321.9 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} showed a porous cactus-like microstructure, consisted of uniform nanowires and porous nanoflakes. The electrochemical performances of the MnO{sub 2} with and without surfactant were analyzed using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical Impedance Spectrometry (EIS) and Galvanostatic Charge–Discharge (GCD) tests. The results showed that the MnO{sub 2} assisted with 1 wt.% SDS displayed a higher specific capacitance of 187.8 F g{sup −1} at the current density of 0.2 A g{sup −1} compared with the MnO{sub 2} without surfactant (134.8 F g{sup −1}). And such MnO{sub 2} samples with higher specific capacitance also afford an excellent cyclic stability with the capacity retention of approximately 92.9% after 1000 cycles in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at a current density of 1 A g{sup −1}. The superior capacitive performance of the as-prepared materials could be attributed to its unique cactus-like porous structure, which provided good electronic conductivity, large specific surface area as

  8. 微反应器中十二烷基苯液相SO3磺化过程%Process Performance of Dodecylbenzene Sulfonation with Liquid SO3 in a Microreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    主凯; 赵玉潮; 张博宇; 陈光文


    Petroleum sulfonates and heavy alkyl benzene sulfonates are important anionic surfactants used in tertiary oil recovery and the active components are alkyl benzene sulfonates. In this work, dodecylbenzene (DDB) sulfonation with liquid SO3 inmicroreactors was used as a model reaction and its reaction performance was studied in a microreactor. The effects of some important parameters on the yield of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid are investigated, including liquid flow rate, reaction temperature, mass fraction of SO3, length of microchannel, molar ratio of SO3 to dodecylbenzene, reactor types and stirring time. The results showed that the sulfonation of dodecylbenzene is controlled by mass transfer and the initial period of sulfonation can be significantly intensified in the microreactor. With a combination of a microreactor and a tank reactor, the yield of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid can reach 93.7% under the condition of molar ratio of SO3 to dodecylbenzene 1.1:1.%石油磺酸盐和重烷基苯磺酸盐是三次采油用重要阴离子表面活性剂,其主要成分是烷基苯磺酸盐。本研究以十二烷基苯(DDB)液相SO3磺化为模型反应,研究微反应器内的烷基苯磺酸合成反应过程特性,考察了液体流量、反应温度、磺化剂中 SO3含量、反应通道长度、SO3与十二烷基苯物质的量比、微反应器结构、搅拌时间等参数的影响。结果表明,十二烷基苯磺化过程受传质控制,微反应器对反应初始阶段的强化作用明显,在SO3与十二烷基苯物质的量比为1.1时,采用微反应器与釜式反应器串联模式合成十二烷基苯磺酸,收率高达93.7%,为微反应器生产重烷基苯磺酸的路线提供了重要基础。

  9. Small-angle neutron scattering from mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate and a cationic, bolaform surfactant containing azobenzene. (United States)

    Hubbard, F Pierce; Santonicola, Gabriella; Kaler, Eric W; Abbott, Nicholas L


    This paper reports on the microstructures formed in aqueous solutions containing mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and a photosensitive, bolaform surfactant, bis(trimethylammoniumhexyloxy)azobenzene dibromide (BTHA). By using quasi-elastic light scattering and small-angle neutron scattering, we determined that aqueous solutions containing SDS and the trans isomer of BTHA (0.1 wt % total surfactant, 15 mol % BTHA, 85 mol % SDS) form vesicles with average hydrodynamic diameters of 1350 +/- 50 angstroms and bilayer thicknesses of 35 +/- 2 angstroms. The measured bilayer thickness is consistent with a model of the vesicle bilayer in which the trans isomer of BTHA spans the bilayer. Upon illumination with UV light, the BTHA underwent photoisomerization to produce a cis-rich photostationary state (80% cis isomer). We measured this photoisomerization to drive the reorganization of vesicles into cylindrical aggregates with cross-sectional radii of 19 +/- 3 angstroms and average hydrodynamic diameters of 240 +/- 50 angstroms. Equilibration of the cis-rich solution in the dark at 25 degrees C for 12 h or illumination of the solution with visible light leads to the recovery of the trans-rich photostationary state of the solution and the reformation of vesicles, thus demonstrating the potential utility of this system as the basis of a tunable fluid.

  10. Fluorescence method using on-line sodium cholate coacervate surfactant mediated extraction for the flow injections analysis of Rhodamine B. (United States)

    Acosta, Gimena; Talio, María C; Luconi, Marta O; Hinze, Willie L; Fernández, Liliana P


    An on-line surfactant mediated extraction method in a flow injection analysis format with fluorescence detection was developed for the determination of Rhodamine B (RhB) in food condiments. The sample was extracted using the phase separation behavior exhibited by the bile salt surfactant, sodium cholate (NaC), upon addition of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) in the presence of acid at room temperature. The RhB in the sample was incorporated into the NaC/SDS coacervate phase which was then collected on a glass-wool packed mini column from which it was subsequently eluted using a 1.00 mol L(-1) HCl solution. The inherent fluorescence (λex=555 nm; λem=575 nm) of RhB was employed for detection. Good linearity (r(2)=0.9933) was obtained over the concentration range 0.4-4794-479.0 µg L(-1) RhB. The detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) limits were 0.12 and 0.40 µg L(-1), respectively. The method was successfully applied for analysis of RhB in food condiments and spiked samples. The average recoveries ranged from 95.3% to 118.9% at spiked concentration levels of 1.19 and 2.39 µg L(-1). Under optimized conditions, a throughput of 50 samples per hour was achieved. The proposed method may be a valuable tool not only for quality control of food condiments and similar food confectioneries but for the analysis of a variety of other RhB-containing samples as well.

  11. Rheological Properties of the Aqueous Solution for Fluorocarbon-containing Hydrophobically Modified Sodium PolyacrylicAcid with Various Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO,Jin-Feng(郭金峰); ZHUANG,Dong-Qing(庄东青); ZHOU,Hui(周晖); ZHANG,Yun-Xiang(章云祥)


    The interaction of fluorocarbon-containing hydrophobicallymodified sodiun polyacryiic acid (FMPAANa) (0.5 wt% )with various surfactants (anionic,nonionic and cationic) hasbeen investigated by theological measurements.Different rhe-ological behaviors are displayed for ionic surfactants and non-ionic surfactants.Fluorinated surfactants have stronger affini-ty with polyelectrolyte hydrophobes comparing with hydro-genated surfactants.The hydrophobic association of FM-PAANa with a cationic surfactant (CTAB) and a fluorinatednonionic surfactant (FC171) is much stronger than with anonionic surfactant (NP7.5 ) and an anionic surfactant(FC143).Further investigation of the effects of temperatureon solution properties shows that the dissociation energy Em iscorrelated to the strength of the aggregated junctions.``

  12. Conductometric study of sodium dodecyl sulfate - nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85 mixed micelles in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirin Dejan M.


    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the determination of the critical micelle concentration (cmc of mixed micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate with one of five nonionic surfactants (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85 from conductance measurements. Based on the calculated values of the β parameters we have noticed that SDS-nonionic surfactants mostly showed strong synergistic effect. It was found that nonionic surfactants with mainly longer and more hydrophobic tail show stronger interactions with hydrophobic part of SDS, thus expressing stronger synergism. In SDS-Tween 80 binary system the strongest synergistic effect was noticed. SDS-Tween 85 micellar system showed antagonistic effect, most probably because the presence of the double bond in its three hydrophobic tails (three C18 tails makes it sterically rigid.

  13. Identification of co-existing cationic surfactants with preliminary separation on silica HPTLC plates using mixed aqueous sodium chloride-ethanol as eluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad


    Full Text Available A new high-performance thin-layer chromatographic system comprising of silica gel 60 HPTLC plates as stationary phase and ethanol-5% aqueous sodium chloride (8:2 as mobile phase has been identified as most suitable for separation of quaternary mixture of cationic surfactants. Separation efficacy of developed method has been established by obtaining well-resolved densitogram of separated spots. To check the versatility, effects of presence of metal cations, inorganic anions, amino acids, vitamins and non-ionic surfactants as impurities were also examined. The chromatographic parameters like ΔRF, separation factor (α, resolution (RS and limit of detection were also calculated. The proposed method is applicable for the identification of surfactants in eye drops and Colgate Plax mouthwash.

  14. Paired-ion electrospray ionization--triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry for quantification of anionic surfactants in waters. (United States)

    Santos, Inês C; Guo, Hongyue; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Rangel, António O S S; Armstrong, Daniel W; Schug, Kevin A


    A new paired ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of anionic surfactants in water samples was developed. In this method, dicationic ion-pairing reagents were complexed with monoanionic analytes to facilitate analyte detection in positive mode electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry. Single ion monitoring and selected reaction monitoring on a triple quadrupole instrument were performed and compared. Four dicationic reagents were tested for the determination of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBS), and stearic acid (SA), among other common anions. The obtained limits of detection were compared with those from previous literature. Solid phase extraction using a C18 cartridge was performed in order to eliminate matrix interferences. A literature review was compiled for the methods published between 2010 and 2015 for determination of anionic surfactants. The optimized method was more sensitive than previously developed methods with LOD values of 2.35, 35.4, 37.0, 1.68, and 0.675 pg for SDS, SA, DBS, PFOS, and PFOA, respectively. The developed method was effectively applied for the determination of anionic surfactants in different water samples such as bottled drinking water, cooking water, tap water, and wastewater.

  15. Surfactant Effects on the Morphology and Pseudocapacitive Behavior of V2 O5 ⋅H2 O. (United States)

    Qian, Aniu; Zhuo, Kai; Shin, Myung Sik; Chun, Woo Won; Choi, Bit Na; Chung, Chan-Hwa


    To overcome the drawback of low electrical conductivity within supercapacitor applications, several surfactants are used for nanoscale V2 O5 to enhance the specific surface area. Polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000), sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), and Pluronic P-123 (P123) controllers, if used as soft templates, easily form large specific surface area crystals. However, the specific mechanism through which this occurs and the influence of these surfactants is not clear for V2 O5 ⋅H2 O. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism of crystal growth through hydrothermal processes and the pseudocapacitive behavior of these crystals formed by using diverse surfactants, including PEG-6000, SDBS, and P123. Our results show that different surfactants can dramatically influence the morphology and capacitive behavior of V2 O5 ⋅H2 O powders. Linear nanowires, flower-like flakes, and curly bundled nanowires can be obtained because of electrostatic interactions in the presence of PEG-6000, SDBS, and P123, respectively. Furthermore, the electrochemical performance of these powders shows that the nanowires, which are electrodes mediated by PEG-6000, exhibit the highest capacitance of 349 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 5 mV s(-1) of all the surfactants studied. However, a symmetric P123 electrode comprising curly bundled nanowires with numerous nanopores showed an excellent and stable specific capacitance of 127 F g(-1) after 200 cycles. This work is beneficial to understanding the fundamental role of the surfactant in the assisted growth of V2 O5 ⋅H2 O and the resulting electrochemical properties of the pseudocapacitors, which could be useful for the future design of appropriate materials.

  16. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride/sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuing, D.R.; Weers, J.G. (Clorox Technical Center, Pleasanton, CA (USA))


    The utility of FT-IR in characterizing the composition-dependent changes in packing of DTAC and SDS in mixed micelles is demonstrated. As the mixed micelle composition becomes equimolar, the micelle aggregation number is known to increase, indicating a spherical to nonspherical micelle shape change. The frequency of the composite CH{sub 2} stretching bands decreases as the composition becomes equimolar, suggesting a decrease in the gauche/trans conformer ratio in the tails of the surfactants, which is a result of the increased crowding of the methylene chains accompanying the shape change. The use of SDS-d{sub 25} allows confirmation of this trend through the inspection of the shifts in the CH{sub 2} stretching bands (DTAC tails) and the CD{sub 2} stretching bands (SDS-d{sub 25} tails). Electrostatic interactions between the headgroups of DTAC and SDS can also be monitored spectroscopically. The shifts in the asymmetric and symmetric S-O stretching bands with micelle composition indicate an increase in SDS headgroup ordering in SDS-rich mixed micelles and a dominance of interactions with DTA{sup +} ions in DTAC-rich micelles.

  17. Kinetics of Surfactant Desorption at an Air–Solution Interface

    KAUST Repository

    Morgan, C. E.


    The kinetics of re-equilibration of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate at the air-solution interface have been studied using neutron reflectivity. The experimental arrangement incorporates a novel flow cell in which the subphase can be exchanged (diluted) using a laminar flow while the surface region remains unaltered. The rate of the re-equilibration is relatively slow and occurs over many tens of minutes, which is comparable with the dilution time scale of approximately 10-30 min. A detailed mathematical model, in which the rate of the desorption is determined by transport through a near-surface diffusion layer into a diluted bulk solution below, is developed and provides a good description of the time-dependent adsorption data. A key parameter of the model is the ratio of the depth of the diffusion layer, H c, to the depth of the fluid, Hf, and we find that this is related to the reduced Péclet number, Pe*, for the system, via Hc/Hf = C/Pe*1/2. Although from a highly idealized experimental arrangement, the results provide an important insight into the "rinse mechanism", which is applicable to a wide variety of domestic and industrial circumstances. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  18. Factors affecting size and swelling of poly(ethylene glycol) microspheres formed in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions without surfactants. (United States)

    Nichols, Michael D; Scott, Evan A; Elbert, Donald L


    The LCST behavior of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions was exploited to fabricate microspheres without the use of other monomers, polymers, surfactants or organic solvents. Reactive PEG derivatives underwent thermally induced phase separation to produce spherical PEG-rich domains that coarsened in size pending gelation, resulting in stable hydrogel microspheres between approximately 1 and 100 microns in size. The time required to reach the gel point during the coarsening process and the extent of crosslinking after gelation both affected the final microsphere size and swelling ratio. The gel point could be varied by pre-reaction of the PEG derivatives below the cloud point, or by controlling pH and temperature above the cloud point. Pre-reaction brought the PEG derivatives closer to the gel point prior to phase separation, while the pH and temperature influenced the rate of reaction. Dynamic light scattering indicated a percolation-to-cluster transition about 3-5 min following phase separation. The mean radius of PEG-rich droplets subsequently increased with time to the 1/4th power until gelation. PEG microspheres produced by these methods with controlled sizes and densities may be useful for the production of modular scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  19. Giant extracellular Glossoscolex paulistus Hemoglobin (HbGp) upon interaction with cethyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) surfactants: Dissociation of oligomeric structure and autoxidation. (United States)

    Santiago, Patricia S; Moreira, Leonardo M; de Almeida, Erika V; Tabak, Marcel


    The effects of two ionic surfactants on the oligomeric structure of the giant extracellular hemoglobin of Glossoscolex paulistus (HbGp) in the oxy - form have been studied through the use of several spectroscopic techniques such as electronic optical absorption, fluorescence emission, light scattering, and circular dichroism. The use of anionic sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and cationic cethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) has allowed to differentiate the effects of opposite headgroup charges on the oligomeric structure dissociation and hemoglobin autoxidation. At pH 7.0, both surfactants induce the protein dissociation and a significant oxidation. Spectral changes occur at very low CTAC concentrations suggesting a significant electrostatic contribution to the protein-surfactant interaction. At low protein concentration, 0.08 mg/ml, some light scattering within a narrow CTAC concentration range occurs due to protein-surfactant precipitation. Light scattering experiments showed the dissociation of the oligomeric structure by SDS and CTAC, and the effect of precipitation induced by CTAC. At higher protein concentrations, 3.0 mg/ml, a precipitation was observed due to the intense charge neutralization upon formation of ion pair in the protein-surfactant precipitate. The spectral changes are spread over a much wider SDS concentration range, implying a smaller electrostatic contribution to the protein-surfactant interactions. The observed effects are consistent with the acid isoelectric point (pI) of this class of hemoglobins, which favors the intense interaction of HbGp with the cationic surfactant due to the existence of excess acid anionic residues at the protein surface. Protein secondary structure changes are significant for CTAC at low concentrations while they occur at significantly higher concentrations for SDS. In summary, the cationic surfactant seems to interact more strongly with the protein producing more dramatic spectral changes as compared to the

  20. Structure, interfacial properties, and dynamics of the sodium alkyl sulfate type surfactant monolayer at the water/trichloroethylene interface: a molecular dynamics simulation study. (United States)

    Shi, Wen-Xiong; Guo, Hong-Xia


    In this work, we perform a series of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the category of sodium alkyl sulfate (SDS-type) surfactant monolayers at the water/trichloroethylene (TCE) interface. Three separate tail-length SDS-type molecules are used. We investigate the conformation of surfactant chain (i.e., packing, orientation, and order), interfacial properties (i.e., interfacial thickness, interfacial tension, area compressibility, and bending modulus), their dependence on the chain length, and the average area per surfactant chain. We also examine the behavior of the surfactant monolayer in the metastable regime of negative surface tension with reference to collapse. The simulation has clearly shown that the very dilute monolayer is well described as a two-dimensional gas. With the increase of interfacial surfactant coverage, the monolayer is in the liquid-expanded (LE) phase. The surfactant tails at the interface become straighter, more ordered, and thicker at higher surfactant coverage. At the same time, interfacial tension of long-tail systems is always lower than that of short-tail systems. In the LE phase, the area compressibility modulus and the bending modulus increase with an increase in tail length. With a further decrease in molecular areas, the monolayer with large negative surface tension becomes unstable. Our simulations show that buckling of the monolayers is of dynamic nature as a response to mechanical instability. The further transformation pathway from buckling to bud can be controlled by the bending modulus, which depends crucially on the tail length and interfacial surfactant coverage. At a given area per molecule, the short tail chain makes the monolayer softer, and the budding process becomes more probable. For the supersaturated softer SDS monolayer, the collapse transition is initiated by the buckling of monolayers, followed primarily by budding and detachment of the nanoscale swollen micelle from the monolayer. Despite a number of

  1. Electrochemical characteristics of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid-doped polyaniline in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B.Y. [Korea Electr. Power Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Power Utilization Group; Chung, I.J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong Yusong, Taejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chun, J.H.; Ko, J.M. [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Taejon National University of Technology, 305-3, Samsung-2 dong, Dong-gu, Taejon 300-717 (Korea, Republic of)


    The electrochemical characteristics of the polyaniline (PAn) films doped with dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) were investigated in aqueous solutions by means of cyclic voltammetry. The PAn-DBSAs film showed a good electrochemical activity in a weak acid solution as well as in a strong acid solution due to the incorporation of small cation instead of DBSA trapped in the film for charge neutralization of polymer matrix. (orig.) 39 refs.

  2. Electrochemical deposition of Ni–TiN nanocomposite coatings and the effect of sodium dodecyl sulphate surfactant on the coating properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Ni–TiN nanocomposite coatings were prepared by using electrochemical deposition in a Watt’s bath containing TiN particles to increase the hardness of Ni. The effects of deposition current density, electrolyte agitation speed and the number of particles in the solution on the amount of incorporated particles in the coating process were investigated. The optimum deposition current density of 4 A dm$^{−2}$ and agitation speed of 450 rpm were obtained. The effect of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) anionic surfactant on the amount of particles in the coatings was investigated. It was observed that the maximum amount of incorporated particles, with a value of 7.5% by volume, was created in the current density of 4 A dm$^{−2}$, stirring rate of 450 rpm, 30 g l$^{−1}$ TiN particles and in the presence of 0.6 g l$^{−1}$ SDS anionic surfactant.

  3. 阴离子表面活性剂SDS和SDBS对紫贻贝生化指标的影响研究%Effect of Two Anionic Surfactants Sodium-Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate (SDBS) and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) on Biochemical Indice in Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 俞志明; 宋秀贤; 周斌


    以青岛胶州湾现场调查数据为依据,选择阴离子表面活性剂十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)和十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)作为污染物,以近海底栖生物紫贻贝为受试生物,研究了长期暴露后紫贻贝生化指标(SOD,CAT,GSH,GPx,GST,iNOS,AKP)的变化.结果表明,经过72 d不同浓度暴露后,SDBS实验组紫贻贝体内的SOD、CAT和iNOS活性均有显著下降(除CAT 0.1 mg/L组外),GSH、GST和GPx在3.0 mg/L SDS和SDBS组较各自对照组均有显著升高.SDBS对紫贻贝生化指标影响的显著性水平大于SDS.统计分析显示,SDBS暴露组下GST与GPx呈显著正相关关系,iNOS与SOD也表现出一定正相关,但GSH与CAT、GSH与SOD呈现显著负相关关系.此外,结果发现后闭壳肌中iNOS可能是一个具有应用前景的阴离子表面活性剂暴露生物标志物.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Interactions of collagen fibres (made from Beef Achilles tendons )with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS),sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS),cetylpyridinium bromide(CPB)and Igepal CA-720 were studied.Sorptions isotherms of all ionic surfactants under different reaction conditions were found out.At suitable conditions S-isotherms were obtained,while under isoeletric conditions isotherms were logaritmic.Igepal had no sorption.The interaction of surfactants with collagen is connected with its mass changes. Changes depend on reaction conditions,namely pH and ionic strenght of reaction solution.Degree of swelling(αm)was used for the description of these changes.At pH=3,in absence SDBS and under low ionic strenghts,a high swelling was attained.An addition of SDBS to reaction mixture led to vigerous deswelling and when the bound amount of SDBS reached about 1 mmol.g-1 αm became independent on a futher bound SDBS.With higher ionic strenghts αm was independent on the equilibrium bound amount of SDBS.Under isoeletric conditions changes of αm were markedly smaller than in acid region and had the opposite character.%研究了十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)、二十烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)、溴化十六烷基吡啶翁(CPB)和Igepal CA-720等表面活性剂与胶原(来源于牛跟腱)间的相互作用.发现了不同的反应条件下,上述离子性表面活性剂的吸附等温线,得到了适当条件下的吸附等温线,同时发现在等电条件下等温线呈对数关系,Igepal没有吸附.表面活性剂与胶原的作用情况与其质量的变化是相互关联的,这种变化取决于反应条件,即pH值和反应溶液中的离子强度,胶原的膨胀程度(am)被用来描述这种变化.在pH3.0,无SDBS存在且在低的离子强度下,胶原得到了大的膨胀:加入SDBS将会导致强烈的消肿作用,并且当胶原对SDBS的结合量达到1mmol/g时,am的值将不再随SDBS结合量的进一步增加而变化.在高的离子

  5. Comparative evaluation of antibacterial property and substantivity of chlorhexidine containing dentifrices with sodium lauryl sulfate and Tween as surfactants: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Venu


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the antibacterial property and substantivity of chlorhexidine containing dentifrices with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS and Tween as surfactants. Materials and Methods: It is a double-blind cross over the study, a total of 20 children within their mixed dentition period (7-13 year having Streptococci mutans count more than 10 6 were selected for the main study. Three types of chlorhexidine containing dentifrices were used with a washout period of 1 week. Out of the three toothpastes, one was without surfactant and other two toothpastes contained SLS and Tween as surfactants respectively. 20 volunteers brushed for 1 min during the study day with their assigned toothpaste. Saliva samples were collected before brushing, immediately after brushing and 1, 3, 5, and 7 hand sent for microbial analysis. The culture carried out by inoculating saliva sample onto Mitis salivarius agar for selective isolation of S. mutans followed by counting of colony forming unit. Results: Group I and III (Chlorhexidine and CHX + Tween had shown statistically significant reduction in bacterial count until 7 h when compared to their baseline values ( P < 0.001. Group II toothpaste (CHX + SLS had shown significant reduction in bacterial count until 3 h only. On inter group comparison, Group III had shown good amount of percentage reduction in bacterial count when compared to other groups. Conclusion: CHX + Tween toothpaste had shown statistically significant reduction in antibacterial activity and substantivity than other groups. These findings show chlorhexidine containing toothpaste with non-ionic surfactant will be able to maintain the antibacterial property and substantivity of chlorhexidine.

  6. Effect of light on self-assembly of aqueous mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate and a cationic, bolaform surfactant containing azobenzene. (United States)

    Hubbard, F Pierce; Abbott, Nicholas L


    We report light and small-angle neutron scattering measurements that characterize microstructures formed in aqueous surfactant solutions (up to 1.0 wt % surfactant) containing mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the light-sensitive bolaform surfactant, bis(trimethylammoniumhexyloxy)azobenzene dibromide (BTHA) as a function of composition, equilibration time, and photostationary state (i.e., solutions rich in cis-BTHA or trans-BTHA). We observed formation of vesicles in both SDS-rich and trans-BTHA-rich regions of the microstructure diagram, with vesicles present over a particularly broad range of compositions for trans-BTHA-rich solutions. Illumination of mixtures of BTHA and SDS with a broadband UV light source leads to formation of photostationary states where the fraction of BTHA present as cis isomer (75-80% cis-BTHA) is largely independent of the mixing ratio of SDS and BTHA. For a relatively limited set of mixing ratios of SDS and BTHA, we observed UV illumination of SDS-rich vesicles to result in the reversible transformation of the vesicles to micellar aggregates and UV illumination of BTHA-rich vesicles to result in irreversible precipitation. Surprisingly, however, for many mixtures of trans-BTHA and SDS that formed solutions containing vesicles, illumination with UV light (which was confirmed to lead to photoisomerization of BTHA) resulted in only a small decrease in the number of vesicles in solution, relatively little change in the sizes of the remaining vesicles, and coexistance of the vesicles with micelles. These observations are consistent with a physical model in which the trans and cis isomers of BTHA present at the photostationary state tend to segregate between the different microstructures coexisting in solution (e.g., vesicles rich in trans-BTHA and SDS coexist with micelles rich in cis-BTHA and SDS). The results presented in this paper provide guidance for the design of light-tunable surfactants systems.

  7. Electrodeposited CuInS2 Using Dodecylbenzene Sulphonic Acid As a Suspending Agent for Thin Film Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker Ebrahim


    Full Text Available CulnS2 thin films were electrochemically deposited onto fluoride-doped tin oxide (FTO substrate in presence of dodecylbenzene sulphonic acid to adjust pH of the solution and as a suspending agent for the sulfur. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were carried out to determine the optimum pH. The composition, crystallinity, and optical properties of the compounds synthesized were studied by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, X-ray diffraction, and UV-Visible spectra. It was found that the increasing of pH shifts the electrodeposited voltage toward more negative and lowers the deposition current. It was concluded that CuInS2 with atomic stoichiometric ratio was prepared at pH equal to 1.5 and 150 ml of 0.1 M sodium thiosulphate, 5 ml of 0.1 M indium chloride, and 5 ml of 0.1 M cupper chloride. The energy gaps were calculated to be 1.95 and 2.2 eV for CuInS2 prepared at 1.5 and 2.5 of pH, respectively. It was found that sc, oc, and are 1.02×10−4 A/cm2, 0.52 V, and 1.3×10−2%, respectively, for FTO/CuInS2/ZnO/FTO heterojunction solar cell.

  8. Formação de micelas mistas entre o sal biliar colato de sódio e o surfactante aniônico dodecanoato de sódio Mixed micelles formation between bile salt sodium cholate and the anionic surfactant sodium dodecanoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Eising


    Full Text Available Mixed-micelle formation between sodium chlolate (NaC and the anionic surfactant sodium dodecanoate (SDoD in Tris-HCl buffer solutions, pH 9.00, varying the molar fraction of the surfactants, was investigated by means of electrical conductivity and steady-state fluorescence of pyrene. The critical micelar concentration (cmc was measured from the equivalent conductance versus the square root of the molar surfactant concentration plots and the regular solution theory (RST was used to predict the mixing behavior. The I1/I3 pyrene ratio-surfactant concentration plots were used as an additional technique to follow the behavior and the changes in the micropolarity of the mixed micelles.

  9. Thermodynamic insights into drug-surfactant interactions: Study of the interactions of naporxen, diclofenac sodium, neomycin, and lincomycin with hexadecytrimethylammonium bromide by using isothermal titration calorimetry. (United States)

    Choudhary, Sinjan; Talele, Paurnima; Kishore, Nand


    The success of drug delivery depends on the efficiency of the route of administration, which in turn relies on properties of the drug and its transport vehicle. A quantitative knowledge of association of drugs with transport vehicles is lacking when the latter are in the category of self assembled structures. The work reported in this manuscript addresses the mechanism of partitioning of naproxen, diclofenac sodium, neomycin and lincomycin in the micelles of hexadecytrimethylammonium bromide and that is quantitatively based on the measurement of thermodynamic parameters of interactions by using isothermal titration calorimetry. The addressed mechanism of partitioning is based on the identification of the type of interactions of these drugs with the surfactant micelles and monomers, along with the effect of the former on the micellization properties of the surfactant. The conclusions are based on the interpretation of the values of partitioning constant, standard molar enthalpy change, standard molar entropy change and the stoichiometry of the interaction. The results of this study have implications for deriving guidelines for the target oriented synthesis of new drugs that are to be used for effective delivery via micellar media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of a sodium dodecyl sulphate-degrading Pseudomonas sp. strain DRY15 from Antarctic soil. (United States)

    Halmi, M I E; Hussin, W S W; Aqlima, A; Syed, M A; Ruberto, L; MacCormack, W P; Shukor, M Y


    A bacterium capable of biodegrading surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was isolated from Antarctic soil. The isolate was tentatively identified as Pseudomonas sp. strain DRY15 based on carbon utilization profiles using Biolog GN plates and partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny. Growth characteristic studies showed that the bacterium grew optimally at 10 degrees C, 7.25 pH, 1 g l(-1) SDS as a sole carbon source and 2 g l(-1) ammonium sulphate as nitrogen source. Growth was completely inhibited at 5 g l(-1) SDS. At a tolerable initial concentration of 2 g l(-1), approximately 90% of SDS was degraded after an incubation period of eight days. The best growth kinetic model to fit experimental data was the Haldane model of substrate inhibition with a correlation coefficient value of 0.97. The maximum growth rate was 0.372 hr(-1) while the saturation constant or half velocity constant (Ks) and inhibition constant (Ki), were 0.094% and 11.212 % SDS, respectively. Other detergent tested as carbon sources at 1 g l(-1) was Tergitol NP9, Tergitol 15S9, Witconol 2301 (methyl oleate), sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), benzethonium chloride, and benzalkonium chloride showed Tergitol NP9, Tergitol 15S9, Witconol 2301 and the anionic SDBS supported growth with the highest growth exhibited by SDBS.

  11. Flexible, all-organic ammonia sensor based on dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid-doped polyaniline films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, G. [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale e Ingegneria dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Messina (Italy); Arena, A.; Donato, N.; Latino, M.; Saitta, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica della Materia e Ingegneria Elettronica, Universita degli Studi di Messina (Italy); Bonavita, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale e Ingegneria dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Messina (Italy); Neri, G., E-mail: neri@ingegneria.unime.i [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale e Ingegneria dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Messina (Italy)


    A stable chlorobenzene dispersion of conducting polyaniline (PANI) has been obtained by doping emeraldine base with dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) and studied by spectrophotometric measurements in the UV-vis-IR range. The electrical properties of PANI: DBSA films obtained from the above dispersion have been investigated under different temperature and relative humidity conditions. All-organic chemoresistive devices have been developed by spin-coating the PANI: DBSA dispersion on flexible substrates, and then by depositing electrodes on the top, from a carbon nanotube conducting ink. Sensing tests performed under exposition to calibrated amounts of ammonia reveal that these simple and inexpensive sensors are able to detect ammonia at room temperature in a reliable way, with a sensitivity linearly related to concentration in the range between 5 ppm and 70 ppm.

  12. Impact of sodium dodecyl sulphate on the dissolution of poorly soluble drug into biorelevant medium from drug-surfactant discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madelung, Peter; Ostergaard, Jesper; Bertelsen, Poul


    The purpose was to elucidate the mechanism of action of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) on drug dissolution from discs under physiologically relevant conditions. The effect of incorporating SDS (4-30%, w/w) and drug into discs on the dissolution constant and solubility were evaluated for the poorly...

  13. Strengthening Effects of Sodium Salts on Washing Kerosene Contaminated Soil with Surfactants%钠盐类型对表面活性剂清洗煤油污染土壤的强化效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄昭露; 陈泉源; 周娟; 谢墨函


    采用表面活性剂清洗煤油污染土壤,考察添加钠盐对洗脱率的影响,并用 Zeta 电位仪、表面张力仪对溶液及用接触角仪对清洗前后的土壤进行表征。结果表明,硅酸钠对十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)清洗的增效作用最明显;酒石酸钠对十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)及聚氧乙烯月桂醚(Brij35)清洗的增效作用最明显;不同类型钠盐对曲拉通 X-100(TX-100)清洗均有一定的增效作用但差别不明显;腐殖酸钠及硅酸钠对皂苷溶液清洗的增效程度相当,但就改良土质而言选用腐殖酸钠作助剂更为合适;硅酸钠对 Tw-80清洗的增效作用随着 Tw-80浓度的增大而增强,氯化钠和酒石酸钠则相反。钠盐增效清洗的作用机制是降低离子型表面活性剂的表面张力和临界胶束浓度;而非离子型表面活性剂的增效作用则是利用钠盐防止煤油“重吸附”及抗表面活性剂“沉淀”,增大胶团体积来实现。接触角测量表明,煤油污染后的土壤亲水性减弱,清洗后接触角变小,亲水性增强,且随着表面活性剂浓度的增大接触角减小,对恢复土壤运输水分和养料正常功能有利。%The impact of sodium salt on kerosene contaminated soil washing with surfactants was investigated. The results indicated that sodium silicate greatly enhanced the washing efficiency of SDS. Sodium tartrate can largely enhance the washing efficiency of SDBS and Brij35. Sodium salts can enhance the washing efficiency on kerosene contaminated with TX- 100. No significant differences were observed between different sodium salts. Sodium salt of humic acid and sodium silicate had similar enhancement on kerosene contaminated soil washing with saponin. Sodium humate can be a better choice since its application can also improve soil quality. The enhancement of sodium silicate on kerosene contaminated soil washing with Tw- 80 increased with the increase of Tw- 80 dosage

  14. A multicommuted stop-flow system employing LEDs-based photometer for the sequential determination of anionic and cationic surfactants in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavorante, Andre F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, CP 96, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Morales-Rubio, Angel; Guardia, Miguel de la [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Valencia, Research Building, 50 Dr. Moliner St., 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Reis, Boaventura F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, CP 96, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mail:


    It has been developed an automatic stop-flow procedure for sequential photometric determination of anionic and cationic surfactants in a same sample of water. The flow system was based on multicommutation process that was designed employing two solenoid micro-pumps and six solenoid pinch valves, which under microcomputer control carry out fluid propelling and reagent solutions handling. A homemade photometer using a photodiode as detector and two light emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission at 470 nm (blue) and 650 nm (red) as radiation sources, which was tailored to allow the determination of anionic and cationic surfactants in waters. The procedure for anionic surfactant determination was based on the substitution reaction of methyl orange (MO) by the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBS) to form an ion-pair with the cetyl pyridine chloride (CPC). Features such as a linear response ranging from 0.35 to 10.5 mg L{sup -1} DBS (R = 0.999), a detection limit of 0.06 mg L{sup -1} DBS and a relative standard deviation of 0.6% (n = 11) were achieved. For cationic surfactant determination, the procedure was based on the ternary complex formation between cationic surfactant, Fe(III) and chromazurol S (CAS) using CPC as reference standard solution. A linear response range between 0.34 and 10.2 mg L{sup -1} CPC (R = 0.999), a detection limit of 0.05 mg L{sup -1} CPC and a relative standard deviation of 0.5% (n = 11) were obtained. In both cases, the sampling throughput was 60 determinations per hour. Reagents consumption of 7.8 {mu}g MO, 8.2 {mu}g CPC, 37.2 {mu}g CAS and 21.6 {mu}g Fe(III) per determination were achieved. Analyzing river water samples and applying t-test between the results found and those obtained using reference procedures for both surfactant types provide no significant differences at 95% confidence level.

  15. Construction and Study of Hetreojunction Solar Cell Based on Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid-Doped Polyaniline/n-Si


    Morsi, I.; Sh. Ebrahim; Soliman, M


    Polyaniline/n-type Si heterojunctions solar cell are fabricated by spin coating of soluble dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA)-doped polyaniline onto n-type Si substrate. The electrical characterization of the Al/n-type Si/polyaniline/Au (Ag) structure was investigated by using current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage (C-V), and impedance spectroscopy under darkness and illumination. The photovoltaic cell parameters, that is, open-circuit voltage (oc), short-circuit current density (sc), ...

  16. Kinetic investigation of the oxidation of N-alkyl anilines by peroxomonophosphoric acid in anionic surfactant sodium lauryl sulphate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G P Panigrahi; Jagannath Panda


    Kinetics of oxidation of N-methyl and N-ethyl aniline by peroxomono-phosphoric acid (PMPA) in aqueous and 5% (v/v) acetonitrile medium respectively have been studied in presence of anionic micelles of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) at different H. Oxidation rate of both the substrates increases up to a certain [SLS] much below the critical micellar concentration (cmc) after which the rate is retarded. Kinetic data have been used to compute the binding constants of both substrate and oxidant with the micelle. A scheme explaining the kinetic data has been proposed.

  17. Phase behavior of a pure alkyl aryl sulfonate surfactant. [Sodium 8-phenyl-n-hexadecyl-p-sulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franses, E.I.; Davis, H.T.; Miller, W.G.; Scriven, L.E.


    Specctroturbidimetry, visual and microscopic observations, ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration, conductimetry, and /sup 13/C NMR were used to study the phase behavior of pure sodium 8-phenyl-n-hexadecyl-p-sulfonate in water--NaCl, decane, and water--decane. Solubility of the sulfonate in water is 0.06 wt % at 25/sup 0/C and 0.7 wt % at 90/sup 0/C, and it drops to 0.0002 wt % in 3 wt % NaCl (25/sup 0/C). A liquid crystalline phase in equilibrium with aqueous solution contains 25 wt % water. Nucleation of supersaturated solutions is slow. Dispersability of the sulfonate is high, but NaCl has an adverse effect. 39 references, 13 figs., 5 tables. (DLC)

  18. Effect of Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid Used as Additive on Residue Hydrotreating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yudong; Yang Chaohe


    The effect of additive—dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA)—on residue hydrotreating was studied in the au-toclave. The results showed that the additive improved stabilization of the colloid system of residue, which could delay the aggregation and coke formation from asphaltenes on the catalyst, and make heavy components transformed into light oil. The residue conversion in the presence of this additive increased by 1.94%, and the yield of light oil increased by 1.53% when the reaction time was 90 min. The surface properties of the catalyst in the presence of this additive were better than that of the blank test within a very short time (30 min) and deteriorated rapidly after a longer reaction time due to higher conversion and coke deposition. Compared with the blank test, the case using the said additive had shown that the structure of hydrotreated asphaltene units was smaller and the condensation degrees were higher. The test results indicated that the additive could improve the hydrotreating reactivity of residue via permeation and depolymerization, the heavier components could be transformed into light oil more easily, and the light oil yield and residue conversion were higher for the case using the said additive in residue hydrotreating process.

  19. Development of a novel biosensor based on a polypyrrole-dodecylbenzene sulphonate (PPy-DBS) film for the determination of amperometric cholesterol. (United States)

    Özer, Bayram Oğuz; Çete, Servet


    Herein a novel amperometric biosensor based on a conducting polymer with anionic dopant modified electrode was successfully developed for detection of cholesterol. Polypyrrole is deposited on a platinum surface and the sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate (DBS) ion-doped polypyrrole film was electrochemically prepared by scanning the electrode potential between -0.8 and +0.8 V at a scan rate of 20 mV/s. The present electrochemical biosensor was optimized in terms of working potential, number of cycles, concentrations of monomer, and anionic dopant. Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) was physically entrapped in PPy-DBS to construct an amperometric cholesterol biosensor. Amperometric determination is based on the electrochemical detection of H2O2 generated in the enzymatic reaction of cholesterol. Kinetic parameters, operational and storage stabilities, pH, and temperature dependencies were determined. Km and Imax were calculated as 0.11 μM and 0.967 nM/min, respectively. The operational stability results showed that 90.0% of the response current was retained after 30 activity assays. Morphology of electrodes was characterized by SEM and AFM. Additionally, contact angle measurements were made with 1 μL water of polymer film and enzyme electrode. As a result, the cholesterol biosensor suggested in this study is easy to prepare and is highly cost-effective. This composite (PPy-DBS) can supply a biocompatible and electrochemical microenvironment for immobilization of the enzyme, making this material a good candidate for the fabrication of highly sensitive and selective cholesterol biosensors.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blandamer, M.J; Briggs, B.; Cullis, P.M.; Engberts, J.B.F.N.; Kacperska, A.


    Interactions of both cationic and anionic surfactants with vesicles formed by dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DOAB) and by sodium didodecylphosphate (DDP) have been probed using differential scanning microcalorimetry. The scans show that the surfactants are incorporated into the vesicle bilayer

  1. Vesicle-Surfactant Interactions : Effects of Added Surfactants on the Gel to Liquid-crystal Transition for Two Vesicular Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blandamer, Michael J.; Briggs, Barbara; Cullis, Paul M.; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Kacperska, Anna


    Interactions of both cationic and anionic surfactants with vesicles formed by dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DOAB) and by sodium didodecylphosphate (DDP) have been probed using differential scanning microcalorimetry. The scans show that the surfactants are incorporated into the vesicle bilayer

  2. Studies on the Treatment of Wastewater Containing Anion Surfactants with OFR Technique%废水中阴离子表面活性剂的最优化处理工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘怡; 熊亚; 朱锡海


    In this paper,a new method for the treatment of wastewater containing anion surfactants by electrogenerated hydroxyl radical(·OH) in the OFR has been established. Anion surfactants for dodecylbenzene sulphonic acid sodium (DBS) and dodecyl sulphonic acid sodium(DDS) are selected as model pollutants to study their removal rate and the degradation mechanism in the OFR. The main physico-chemical factors affecting the removal rate were investigated,such as type of catalyst, filler size, cell voltage, interelectrode distance, air flow, treating time, the concentration, pH and conductivity of testing solution etc. The optimal conditions have been found out with the removal rate of DBS and DDS above 95% .Residual concentrations of the effluent correspond to GB 8978- 1996 for national new standard.%应用氧化絮凝复合床降解废水中的阴离子表面活性剂,系统地研究了各种主要的物理化学因素;催化剂种类、填料颗粒粒度、槽电压、电极间距离、压缩空气流量、试样的浓度、酸度、电导率和处理时间等对阴离子表面活性剂去除效果的影响,找到了相关的影响规律,确定了最佳的物理化学条件。实验结果表明,阴离子表面活性剂的去除率在95%以上,出水的水质可以达到国家的排放标准。

  3. Interaction of nonionic surfactant AEO9 with ionic surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-guo; YIN Hong


    The interaction in two mixtures of a nonionic surfactant AEO9 (C12H25O(CH2CH2O)9H) and different ionic surfactants was investigated. The two mixtures were AEO9/sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and AEO9/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at molar fraction of AEO9, αAEO9 =0.5. The surface properties of the surfactants, critical micelle concentration (CMC),effectiveness of surface tension reduction (γCMC), maximum surface excess concentration (Гmax) and minimum area per molecule at the air/solution interface (Amin) were determined for both individual surfactants and their mixtures. The significant deviations from ideal behavior (attractive interactions) of the nonionic/ionic surfactant mixtures were determined. Mixtures of both AEO9/SDS and AEO9/CTAB exhibited synergism in surface tension reduction efficiency and mixed micelle formation, but neither exhibited synergism in surface tension reduction effectiveness.

  4. Interactions of Ovalbumin with Ionic Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xia; YAN Hui; GUO Rong


    The interactions of ovalbumin (OVA) with one anionic surfactant,sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS),and two cationic surfactants,dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB),in water have been studied through fluorescence and UV-Vis spectroscopies and transmission electronic microscopy,combined with the measurement of conductivity.OVA can increase the critical micelle concentrations (cmc) of SDS and CTAB but has little effect on that of DTAB.The interaction between surfactant monomer and OVA is greater than that between surfactant micelles and OVA.Moreover,SDS can make OVA unfolded while cationic surfactants cannot.

  5. Interaction of nonionic surfactant AEO9 with ionic surfactants*



    The interaction in two mixtures of a nonionic surfactant AEO9 (C12H25O(CH2CH2O)9H) and different ionic surfactants was investigated. The two mixtures were AEO9/sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and AEO9/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at molar fraction of AEO9, α AEO9=0.5. The surface properties of the surfactants, critical micelle concentration (CMC), effectiveness of surface tension reduction (γ CMC), maximum surface excess concentration (Γ max) and minimum area per...

  6. Vapor pressure studies of the solubilization of hydrocarbons by surfactant micelles. Final report, April 1, 1984-December 31, 1984. [Solubilization data for system benzene/sodium octylsulfate/sodium chloride/water at 15/sup 0/, 25/sup 0/, 35/sup 0/ and 45/sup 0/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, S.D.; Tucker, E.E.


    This final report describes vapor pressure studies of the solubilization of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives by aqueous micellar solutions. An automated vapor pressure apparatus and a manual apparatus incorporating a mercury-covered sintered-glass disk inlet valve were used to obtain highly precise data for the solubilization of hydrocarbons and aliphatic alcohols into aqueous solutions of the ionic surfactants sodium octylsulfate and n-hexadecylpyridinium chloride (cetylpyridinium chloride). A mass-action model based on a modification of the Poisson distribution equations has been developed and applied to data for the system benzene/sodium octylsulfate/sodium chloride/water at 15/sup 0/, 25/sup 0/, 35/sup 0/, and 45/sup 0/C. An excellent goodness of fit is achieved with the model. Tabulated experimental results (485 sets of activity and concentration data) are included in this report. 12 references, 2 figures.

  7. An anionic surfactant for EOR applications (United States)

    Sagir, Muhammad; Tan, Isa M.; Mushtaq, Muhammad


    This work is to investigate the new anionic surfactants for the Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) application. Sulfonated anionic surfactant was produced by attaching SO3 to an ethoxylated alcohol to increase the performance of the surfactant. Methallyl chloride and ethoxylated alcohol was reacted followed by the reaction with sodium bisulfite to produce anionic sulfonated surfactant in 80.3 % yield. The sulfonation reaction parameters such as reactants mole ratio, reaction temperature and catalyst amount were optimized. The generation and stability of foam from the synthesized surfactant is also tested and results are reported. The synthesized novel surfactant was further investigated for the effect on the CO2 mobility in porous media and the findings are presented here. This in house developed surfactant has a great potential for CO2- EOR applications.

  8. Characterization of sodium bentonites: effect of treatment with ammonium salt- free organic surfactant; Caracterizacao de bentonitas sodicas: efeito do tratamento com surfactante organico livre de sal de amonio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, R. Y.; Barbosa, R. V.; Kloss, J.R., E-mail: [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dartamento de Quimica e Biologia


    Bentonite, which the main clay mineral is montmorillonite, are commercially attractive because of its abundance in nature. The clays can be modified by ion exchange reactions of ions contained in the interlayer region with cationic surfactants that include ammonium or phosphonium salts. The clays origin and the type of surfactants (modifiers) are the main factors in the alteration of physical and chemical properties of these materials. This study aims to characterize and compare the results of natural bentonite commercially available and the effect of treatments with quaternary ammonium salt and an organic compound free of ammonium salt. The FTIR and XRD results indicate the process of organophilization of clays after treatment with the surfactants. These treatments have altered the average particle size, suggesting the formation of agglomerates, which was showed in the SEM images. The results of surface area and particle size data indicated the presence of larger particles. Although the two surfactants have shown similarities in the investigated properties, the organoclays free of ammonium salt are more promising in terms of its use as well as for their preparation and solubility. (author)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huai-tian Bu; Zhen-zhong Yang; Yun-xiang Zhang


    The interaction between surfactants and fluorocarbon-modified polyacrylamide (FC-PAM) in aqueous solutions was evaluated by theological means and fluorescence spectroscopy and was found to be strong regardless of the surfactant's nature. Two representative surfactants, anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and nonionic Triton X-100, were used. The origin of the interaction and its dependence on the surfactant concentration were discussed.

  10. Switchable Surfactants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yingxin Liu; Philip G. Jessop; Michael Cunningham; Charles A. Eckert; Charles L. Liotta


    .... We report that long-chain alkyl amidine compounds can be reversibly transformed into charged surfactants by exposure to an atmosphere of carbon dioxide, thereby stabilizing water/alkane emulsions...

  11. Secondary oil recovery process. [two separate surfactant slugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgatter, W.S.


    Oil recovery by two separate surfactant slugs is greater than for either one alone. One slug contains a surfactant(s) in either oil or water. The other slug contains surfactant(s) in thickened water. The surfactants are sodium petroleum sulfonate (Promor SS20), polyoxyethylene sorbitan trioleate (Tween 85), lauric acid diethanolamide (Trepoline L), and sodium tridecyl sulfate polyglycol ether (Trepenol S30T). The thickener is carboxymethyl cellulose (Hercules CMC 70-S Medium thickener) or polyvinyl alcohol (Du Pont Elvanol 50-42). Consolidated sandstone cores were flooded with water, followed with Hawes crude, and finally salt water (5 percent sodium chloride) which recovered about 67 percent of the crude. A maximum of 27.5 percent of the residual oil was recovered by surfactant(s) in oil or water followed by fresh water, then surfactant(s) plus thickener in water followed by fresh water. Either surfactant slug may be injected first. Individually, each of the surfactant slugs can recover from about 3 to 11 percent less residual oil than their total recovery when used consecutively.

  12. Chemical Behavior of Cadmium in Purple Soil as Affected by Surfactants and EDTA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yu-Cheng; XIONG Zhi-Ting; DONG Shan-Yan


    A soil batch experiment was conducted to investigate both separate and compound effects of three types of surfactants:anionic dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid sodiumsalt (DBSS), cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and nonionic nonyl phenol polyethyleneoxy ether (TX-100), as well as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on cadmium solubility, sorption kinetics, and sorption-desorption behavior in purple soil. The results indicated that both individual application of the three types of surfactants and surfactants combined with EDTA could stimulate Cd extraction from the soil with a general effectiveness ranking of EDTA/TX-100 > EDTA/DBSS > EDTA/CTAB > EDTA > TX-100 >DBSS > CTAB. Further study showed that the compound application of surfactants and EDTA had stronger (P < 0.05)effects on Cd solubility than those added individually. The application of surfactants and EDTA to purple soil (P < 0.05)decreased the proportion of Cd sorbed, while their effectiveness ranking was similar to that of enhanced solubilization. The sorption kinetics of Cd in purple soil was best described by the double-constant equation, while the Freundlich equation gave an excellent fit to the sorption isotherm curves. Therefore, surfactant-enhanced remediation of Cd contaminated soil is feasible and further research should be conducted.

  13. O/W emulsions stabilised by both low molecular weight surfactants and colloidal particles: The effect of surfactant type and concentration. (United States)

    Pichot, R; Spyropoulos, F; Norton, I T


    The stability against coalescence of O/W emulsions in the presence of both surfactants and colloidal particles was investigated. In particular the effect of the surfactant type and concentration in these emulsifier mixtures on the O/W emulsions' stability was studied. Two types of surfactants were selected; those that have the ability to stabilise O/W emulsions on their own (O/W surfactants) and those that cannot (W/O surfactants). Tween 60 and Sodium Caseinate were selected as the O/W surfactants and lecithin as the W/O surfactant. Oil-in-water emulsions prepared with both particles and any of the three surfactants were stable against coalescence but, depending on the type of surfactant, the behaviour of the systems was found to depend on surfactant concentration. The droplet sizes of emulsions stabilised by mixed emulsifier systems containing low concentrations of O/W surfactants (Tween 60 or Sodium Caseinate) were smaller than those solely stabilised by either the surfactant or particles alone. At intermediate O/W surfactants concentrations, the droplet sizes of the emulsions increased. Further increases in the O/W surfactants' concentration, resulted in the complete removal of particles from the interface with the system now behaving as a surfactant-only stabilised emulsion. The behaviour of emulsions stabilised by emulsifier mixtures containing W/O surfactants was not dependent on the concentration of surfactant: no removal of particles was observed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cationic versus anionic surfactant in tuning the structure and interaction of nanoparticle, protein, and surfactant complexes. (United States)

    Mehan, Sumit; Aswal, Vinod K; Kohlbrecher, Joachim


    The structure and interaction in complexes of anionic Ludox HS40 silica nanoparticle, anionic bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein, and cationic dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) surfactant have been studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The results are compared with similar complexes having anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant (Mehan, S; Chinchalikar, A. J.; Kumar, S.; Aswal, V. K.; Schweins, R. Langmuir 2013, 29, 11290). In both cases (DTAB and SDS), the structure in nanoparticle-protein-surfactant complexes is predominantly determined by the interactions of the individual two-component systems. The nanoparticle-surfactant (mediated through protein-surfactant complex) and protein-surfactant interactions for DTAB, but nanoparticle-protein (mediated through protein-surfactant complex) and protein-surfactant interactions for SDS, are found to be responsible for the resultant structure of nanoparticle-protein-surfactant complexes. Irrespective of the charge on the surfactant, the cooperative binding of surfactant with protein leads to micellelike clusters of surfactant formed along the unfolded protein chain. The adsorption of these protein-surfactant complexes for DTAB on oppositely charged nanoparticles gives rise to the protein-surfactant complex-mediated aggregation of nanoparticles (similar to that of DTAB surfactant). It is unlike that of depletion-induced aggregation of nanoparticles with nonadsorption of protein-surfactant complexes for SDS in similarly charged nanoparticle systems (similar to that of protein alone). The modifications in nanoparticle aggregation as well as unfolding of protein in these systems as compared to the corresponding two-component systems have also been examined by selectively contrast matching the constituents.

  15. Fibrinogen stability under surfactant interaction. (United States)

    Hassan, Natalia; Barbosa, Leandro R S; Itri, Rosangela; Ruso, Juan M


    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), circular dichroism (CD), difference spectroscopy (UV-vis), Raman spectroscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements have been performed in the present work to provide a quantitatively comprehensive physicochemical description of the complexation between bovine fibrinogen and the sodium perfluorooctanoate, sodium octanoate, and sodium dodecanoate in glycine buffer (pH 8.5). It has been found that sodium octanoate and dodecanoate act as fibrinogen destabilizer. Meanwhile, sodium perfluorooctanoate acts as a structure stabilizer at low molar concentration and as a destabilizer at high molar concentration. Fibrinogen's secondary structure is affected by all three studied surfactants (decrease in α-helix and an increase in β-sheet content) to a different extent. DSC and UV-vis revealed the existence of intermediate states in the thermal unfolding process of fibrinogen. In addition, SAXS data analysis showed that pure fibrinogen adopts a paired-dimer structure in solution. Such a structure is unaltered by sodium octanoate and perfluoroctanoate. However, interaction of sodium dodecanoate with the fibrinogen affects the protein conformation leading to a complex formation. Taken together, all results evidence that both surfactant hydrophobicity and tail length mediate the fibrinogen stability upon interaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adsorption of dimeric surfactants in lamellar silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcerzak, Mateusz; Pietralik, Zuzanna [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Domka, Ludwik [Department of Metalorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznań (Poland); Skrzypczak, Andrzej [Institute of Chemical Technology, Poznań University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, 60-965 Poznań (Poland); Kozak, Maciej, E-mail: [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)


    Highlights: • The intercalation of dimeric surfactants changed the morphology of MMT samples. • XRD indicated structures formed by surfactant molecules in interlayer space. • The four-step thermal decomposition of dimeric surfactant, confirms intercalation. - Abstract: The adsorption of different types of cationic surfactants in lamellar silicates changes their surface character from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. This study was undertaken to obtain lamellar silicates modified by a series of novel dimeric (gemini) surfactants of different length alkyl chains and to characterise these organophilised materials. Synthetic sodium montmorillonite SOMASIF® ME 100 (M) and enriched bentonite of natural origin (Nanoclay – hydrophilic bentonite®) were organophilised with dimeric (gemini) surfactants (1,1′-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(alkoxymethyl)imidazolium dichlorides). As a result of surfactant molecule adsorption in interlamellar space, the d-spacing (d{sub 001}) increased from 0.97 nm (for the anhydrous structure) to 2.04 nm. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the modified systems reveals bands assigned to the stretching vibrations of the CH{sub 2} and CH{sub 3} groups and the scissoring vibrations of the NH group from the structure of the dimeric surfactants. Thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) studies imply a four-stage process of surfactant decomposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images provide information on the influence of dimeric surfactant intercalation into the silicate structures. Particles of the modified systems show a tendency toward the formation of irregularly shaped agglomerates.

  17. Rheological properties of ovalbumin hydrogels as affected by surfactants addition. (United States)

    Hassan, Natalia; Messina, Paula V; Dodero, Veronica I; Ruso, Juan M


    The gel properties of ovalbumin mixtures with three different surfactants (sodium perfluorooctanoate, sodium octanoate and sodium dodecanoate) have been studied by rheological techniques. The gel elasticities were determined as a function of surfactant concentration and surfactant type. The fractal dimension of the formed structures was evaluated from plots of storage modulus against surfactant concentration. The role of electrostatic, hydrophobic and disulfide SS interactions in these systems has been demonstrated to be the predominant. The viscosity of these structures tends to increase with surfactant concentration, except for the fluorinated one. Unfolded ovalbumin molecules tend to form fibrillar structures that tend to increase with surfactant concentration, except for the fluorinated one. This fact has been related to the particular nature of this molecule.

  18. Construction and Study of Hetreojunction Solar Cell Based on Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid-Doped Polyaniline/n-Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Morsi


    Full Text Available Polyaniline/n-type Si heterojunctions solar cell are fabricated by spin coating of soluble dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA-doped polyaniline onto n-type Si substrate. The electrical characterization of the Al/n-type Si/polyaniline/Au (Ag structure was investigated by using current-voltage (I-V, capacitance-voltage (C-V, and impedance spectroscopy under darkness and illumination. The photovoltaic cell parameters, that is, open-circuit voltage (oc, short-circuit current density (sc, fill factor (FF, and energy conversion efficiency (η were calculated. The highest sc, oc, and efficiency of these heterojunctions obtained using PANI-DBSA as a window layer (wideband gap and Au as front contact are 1.8 mA/cm2, 0.436 V, and 0.13%, respectively. From Mott-Schottky plots, it was found that order of charge carrier concentrations is 3.5×1014 and 1.0×1015/cm3 for the heterojunctions using Au as front contact under darknessness and illumination, respectively. Impedance study of this type of solar cell showed that the shunt resistance and series resistance decreased under illumination.

  19. Comparison of electronic transport properties of soluble polypyrrole and soluble polyaniline doped with dodecylbenzene-sulfonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleshin, A.N.; Lee, K. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Inst. for Polymers and Organic Solids; Lee, J.Y.; Kim, D.Y.; Kim, C.Y. [Polymer Materials Laboratory, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of)


    The temperature dependences of the conductivity of soluble polypyrrole (PPy) and soluble polyaniline (PANI) films doped with dodecylbenzene-sulfonic acid (DBSA) have been studied. The room temperature conductivities of samples were 1-8 and 95-100 S/cm, with resistivity ratio {rho}{sub r}={rho}(20 K)/{rho}(300 K){proportional_to}10{sup 4} and {rho}{sub r}={rho}(1.4 K)/{rho}(300 K){proportional_to}32 for PPy-DBSA and PANI-DBSA, respectively. At low temperatures, the temperature dependence follows the {sigma}(T)={sigma}{sub 0}exp[-(T{sub 0}/T){sup m}] law, which has been explained within the framework of granular metals model (m=0.5) for PPy-DBSA and Mott`s variable range hopping model (m=0.25) for PANI-DBSA. The magnetoresistance of PANI-DBSA is positive and follows H{sup 2} and H{sup 1/3} dependencies at low and high magnetic fields, respectively; the magnitude of the magnetoresistance is strongly temperature dependent. (orig.) 35 refs.

  20. Hydrophobically Modified Polyelectrolytes: V. Interaction of Fluorocarbon Modified Poly (acrylic acid) with Various Added Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU,Hui(周晖); SONG,Guo-Qaiang(宋国强); GUO,Jin-Feng(郭金峰); ZHANG,Yun-xiang (章云祥); DIEING,Reinhold; MA,Lian(马莲); HAEUSSLING,Lukas


    The interactions between fiuorocarbon-medified pol(sodium acrylate) and various kinds of added surfactant have been studied by means of viscometric measurement. Association behavior was found in both hydrogenated and fluorinated anionic, nonionic and cationic surfactants. Among them, the interactions between fluorocarbon-modified poly ( sodium acrylate) and cationic surfactants are the strongest, owing to the cooperation of both electrostatic attractions and hydrophobic associations. The anionic surfactants have the weakest effects on the solution properties because of the existence of unfavorable electrostatic repulsion. The hydrophobic interactions between copolymers and fluorinated surfactants are much stronger than those between copolymers and hydrogenated surfactants.

  1. Aggregation of sulfosuccinate surfactants in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magid, L.J.; Daus, K.A.; Butler, P.D.; Quincy, R.B.


    The aggregation of sodium di-n-alkyl sulfosuccinates in water (H/sub 2/O and D/sub 2/O at 45/sup 0/C) has been investigated. A self-consistent picture of the dependence of sodium ion binding on surfactant concentration is obtained from emf measurements, conductimetry, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements. The concentration dependence of the micellar agregation number for the sulfosuccinates and related double-tailed surfactants depends markedly on surfactant solubility. A sphere-to-disk transition in micellar shape, which might have been expected as a precursor to formation of a lamellar mesophase, was not observed as the surfactant concentration was increased. 8 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Studies on the electrocapillary curves of anionic surfactants in presence of non-ionic surfactants. (United States)

    Bembi, R; Goyal, R N; Malik, W U


    Polyoxyethylated non-ionic surfactants such as Tween 20, Tween 40, Nonidet P40 and Nonex 501 have been supposed to be associated with cationic characteristics. Studies on the effect of these surfactants on the electrocapillary curves of the anionic surfactants Aerosol IB, Manaxol OT and sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), show that the electrocapillary maxima shift towards positive potentials. The order of adsorption of the anionic surfactants is SLS > Manaxol OT > Aerosol IB while the shift in maxima is in the order Aerosol IB ~ Manaxol OT > SLS which confirms association of cationic characteristics with the micelles of these non-ionic surfactants. The magnitude of the shift in electrocapillary maxima is Nonex 501 > Nonidet P40 > Tween 20 > Tween 40 which may be the order of magnitude of the positive charge carried by these non-ionic surfactants.

  3. Improving pure red upconversion emission of Co-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb{sup 3+}–Er{sup 3+} nanocrystals with a combination of sodium sulfide and surfactant Pluronic-F127

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Luke, T., E-mail: [Centro de Investigaciones en Óptica, A.P. 1-948, León, Gto. 37160, México (Mexico); De la Rosa, E., E-mail: [Centro de Investigaciones en Óptica, A.P. 1-948, León, Gto. 37160, México (Mexico); Campos Villalobos, I. [Centro de Investigaciones en Óptica, A.P. 1-948, León, Gto. 37160, México (Mexico); Rodriguez, R.A. [Universidad de Guadalajara, Unidad Lagos, Lagos de Moreno, Jal. 47460, México (Mexico); Ángles-Chávez, C. [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Cd. México, D.F. 07730, México (Mexico); Salas, P. [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 1-1010, Querétaro, Qro. 76000, México (Mexico); Wheeler, Damon A.; Zhang, J.Z. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    Nanocrystals of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb{sup 3+}–Er{sup 3+} (2:1 mol% Yb{sup 3+}:Er{sup 3+}) were prepared by a novel precipitation technique using Na{sub 2}S and Pluronic-F127 (PF127) surfactant. Crystal structure, particle size, red emission intensity and fluorescence decay lifetimes were determined using microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. TEM analysis indicates that the average particle size ranged from 40 to 70 nm. The nanocrystals showed a strong red emission band centered at 663 nm after excitation at 970 nm. The upconverted signal intensity was improved 250% with an optimum concentration of Na{sub 2}S (0.48 M) and PF127 (0.1 mM). The improvement was explained in terms of the reduction of surface contaminants as well as the cubic crystalline phase of the parent Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} material. Interestingly, the formation of sulfates (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) is faster than that of O–H, which is responsible for quenching the red and green emissions. The results suggest that Na{sub 2}S and PF127 are good candidates for surface passivation, especially when used in conjunction. The preparation of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb{sup 3+}–Er{sup 3+} using Na{sub 2}S with strong red emission band was produced at a lower cost than that of other sulfuration processes. -- Highlights: • . • Strong red emission band centered at 663 nm was obtained after excitation at 970 nm. • Yb-Er codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals with average size ranging from 40 to 70 nm. • Improvement of the red emission in Y2O3:Yb-Er nanocrystals by the introduction of sodium sulfide and pluronic. • Passivation of nanocrystal surface with sodium sulfide and pluoronic.

  4. Exogenous Pulmonary Surfactant as a Vehicle for Antimicrobials: Assessment of Surfactant-Antibacterial Interactions In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Birkun


    Full Text Available Owing to its unique surface-active properties, an exogenous pulmonary surfactant may become a promising drug delivery agent, in particular, acting as a vehicle for antibiotics in topical treatment of pneumonia. The purpose of this study was to assess a mutual influence of natural surfactant preparation and three antibiotics (amikacin, cefepime, and colistimethate sodium in vitro and to identify appropriate combination(s for subsequent in vivo investigations of experimental surfactant/antibiotic mixtures. Influence of antibiotics on surface-active properties of exogenous surfactant was assessed using the modified Pattle method. Effects of exogenous surfactant on antibacterial activity of antimicrobials against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated using conventional microbiologic procedures. Addition of amikacin or cefepime to surfactant had no significant influence on surface-active properties of the latter. Obvious reduction of surface-active properties was confirmed for surfactant/colistimethate composition. When suspended with antibiotics, surfactant either had no impact on their antimicrobial activity (amikacin or exerted mild to moderate influence (reduction of cefepime bactericidal activity and increase of colistimethate bacteriostatic activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Considering favorable compatibility profile, the surfactant/amikacin combination is advisable for subsequent investigation of joint surfactant/antibacterial therapy in animals with bacterial pneumonia.

  5. Synthesis and properties evaluation of sulfobetaine surfactant with double hydroxyl (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Luo, Gang; Zhang, Ze; Li, Sisi; Wang, Chengwen


    A series of sulfobetaine surfactants {N-[(3-alkoxy-2-hydroxyl)propoxy] ethyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-hydroxyl)propyl sulfonate} ammonium chloride were synthesized with raw materials containing linear saturated alcohol, N,N-dimethylethanolamine, sodium 3-chloro-2-hydroxyl propane sulfonic acid and epichlorohydrin. The molecule structures of sulfobetaine surfactants were characterized by FTIR, 1HNMR and elemental analysis. Surface tension measurements can provide us information about the surface tension at the CMC (γCMC), pC20, Γmax and Amin. The pC20 values of sulfobetaine surfactants increase with the hydrophobic chain length increasing. Amin values of the surfactants decrease with increasing hydrophobic chain length from 10 to 14. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surface tension (γCMC) values of the sulfobetaine surfactants decrease with increasing hydrophobic chain length from 10 to 16. The lipophilicity of surfactant was enhanced with the increase of the carbon chain, however, the ability of anti-hard water was weakened. The minimum oil/water interfacial tension of four kinds of sulfobetaine surfactants is 10-2-10-3 mN/m magnitude, which indicates that the synthesized bis-hydroxy sulfobetaine surfactants have a great ability to reduce interfacial tension in the surfactant flooding system. The surface tension (γCMC) values of synthesized surfactants were lower compared with conventional anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfonate.

  6. Determination of sodium bis(2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT surfactant with liquid chromatography: Comparative study of evaporative light scattering detector, ultraviolet detector and conductivity detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Ryul Ryu


    Full Text Available This work presents comparison of performance of ultraviolet (UV detector, conductivity detector (CD and evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD in terms of quantitative analysis of AOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate using liquid chromatography. The employed chromatographic condition, including an acetonitrile/water (45:55, v/v isocratic eluent system, is suitable for the three different detectors, and the figures of merits obtained by building up calibration plots are compared. The sensitivities of the detectors are in the order of ELSD ≈ CD >> UV detector. The linear range for quantification of AOT depends on the type of detector: the lower limits are in the order of UV detector (207 ㎍ mL-1 < CD (310 ㎍ mL-1 << ELSD (930 ㎍ mL-1, while the upper limits are 3720 ㎍ mL-1 for all the detectors (the maximum concentration of injected standard solution. The detection limits are 155 ㎍ mL-1 for ELSD, 78 ㎍ mL-1 for UV detector and 13 ㎍ mL-1 for CD, respectively. The figures of merit for each detector could be a guideline in choosing a detector in quantization of AOT. Furthermore, application of the chromatographic method to two commercial products is demonstrated.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope; Richard E. Jackson


    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. Also, the addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine.

  8. Selection of surfactant in remediation of DDT-contaminated soil by comparison of surfactant effectiveness. (United States)

    Guo, Ping; Chen, Weiwei; Li, Yueming; Chen, Tao; Li, Linhui; Wang, Guanzhu


    With an aim to select the most appropriate surfactant for remediation of DDT-contaminated soil, the performance of nonionic surfactants Tween80, TX-100, and Brij35 and one anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) in enhancement of DDT water solubility and desorption of DDT from contaminated soil and their adsorption onto soil and ecotoxicities were investigated in this study. Tween80 had the highest solubilizing and soil-washing ability for DDT among the four experimental surfactants. The adsorption loss of surfactants onto soil followed the order of TX-100 > Tween80 > Brij35 > SDBS. The ecotoxicity of Tween80 to ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was lowest. The overall performance considering about the above four aspects suggested that Tween80 should be selected for the remediation of DDT-contaminated soil, because Tween80 had the greatest solubilizing and soil-washing ability for DDT, less adsorption loss onto soil, and the lowest ecotoxicity in this experiment.

  9. Cerium oxide nanoparticles coated by surfactant sodium bis(2—ethylhexyl) sulphosuccinate(AOT):local atomic structures and x—ray absorption spectroscopic studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhonghuaWu; RobertEBenfield; LinGuo; HuanjunLi; QinglinYang; Didier


    Cerium oxide nanoparticles coated by sodium bis(2-ethylexyl) sulphosuccinate(AOT) were prepared by using a microemulsion method.Transmission electron microscopy revealed an average particle siae of 2-3nm.X-ray diffraction showed that the cerium oxide nanoparticles retain the CeF2-type cubic structures like the bulk crystal.The intermediate valence offormally tetravalent compounds had been detected by x-ray-absorption near-edge structetravalent compounds had been detected by x-ray-absorption near-dege structure(XANES) spectra of Ce LIII absorption in bulk CeO2 and the cerium oxide nanoparticles.Two well resoved white lines can be assigned to the electron configurations of 4f0L and 4f1L,respectively,where L denotes a ligand hole.At the same time,the cerium oxide nanoparticles also showed the structural featres of trivalent compounds,in comparison to the trivalent Ce(NO3)3·6H2O.Fuor Lorentzian functions and two arctan functions were used to fit the normalized XANES spectra.The extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure(EXAFS) technique was used to probe the local atomic structures around the absorber Ce.The multielectrorn excitation effect on the EXAFS spectra was eliminated.A cor-shell model was used to deduce the near-neighbour structural parameters around cerium.Bulk CeO2 with eight oxygen atoms located at 2.343A was used as the reference sample to extract the backscattering amplitude and phase shift of the Ce-O bond.One half of the atome locate at the core part with the CeF2-type cubic structures(eight oxyens at 2.343A around Ce),the other half of the atoms are amorphous phase located in the shell part (surface of the nanoparticles) with approximately Ce2O3 structural features (averageed seven oxygens at 2.50A around Ce).

  10. Equilibrium study of single-solute adsorption of anionic surfactants with polymeric XAD resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Delgado, R.A.; Cotoruelo-Minguez, L.M.; Rodriguez, J.J. (Univ. de Malaga (Spain))


    Equilibrium data for the adsorption of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) from aqueous solutions by Amberlite XAD-4 and XAD-7 polymeric resins at temperatures in the 10-40C range have been obtained. The specific surface area of the resins plays a major role in adsorption, and thus the best results have been obtained with XAD-4 resin. A higher adsorption of SDBS over SLS was also observed. Several adsorption isotherm models have been used to fit the experimental data. The best results have been obtained with the Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir-Freundlich equations. Estimations of the isosteric heat of adsorption, free energy, and entropy of adsorption are also reported.

  11. Interactions in Calcium Oxalate Hydrate/Surfactant Systems. (United States)

    Sikiric; Filipovic-Vincekovic; Babic-Ivancić Vdović Füredi-Milhofer


    Phase transformation of calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) into the thermodynamically stable monohydrate (COM) in anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) and cationic (dodecylammonium chloride) surfactant solutions has been studied. Both surfactants inhibit, but do not stop transformation from COD to COM due to their preferential adsorption at different crystal faces. SDS acts as a stronger transformation inhibitor. The general shape of adsorption isotherms of both surfactants at the solid/liquid interface is of two-plateau-type, but differences in the adsorption behavior exist. They originate from different ionic and molecular structures of crystal surfaces and interactions between surfactant headgroups and solid surface. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  12. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of synthetic surfactants.


    Tiehm, A


    The biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) often is limited by low water solubility and dissolution rate. Nonionic surfactants and sodium dodecyl sulfate increased the concentration of PAH in the water phase because of solubilization. The degradation of PAH was inhibited by sodium dodecyl sulfate because this surfactant was preferred as a growth substrate. Growth of mixed cultures with phenanthrene and fluoranthene solubilized by a nonionic surfactant prior to inoculation wa...

  13. An Investigation of CNT Cytotoxicity by Using Surfactants in Different Ratio (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Neeraj; Thakur, Rajesh; Bhanjana, Gaurav; Dilbaghi, Neeraj


    This account reports a comparative analysis on dispersion of multiwalled and single walled carbon nanotubes with different surfactants like—Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 80, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Dispersion of CNTs has been characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, electron microscopy and probe microscopy. An optimum CNT-to-surfactant ratio has been determined for each surfactant. Surfactant concentration in different ratio is found to deteriorate the quality of nanotube dispersion. Electron microscopy analysis of a high-surfactant sample concentration enables us to construct a plausible mechanism for increase or decrease in CNT dispersion at high surfactant concentration.

  14. Tunable, antibacterial activity of silicone polyether surfactants. (United States)

    Khan, Madiha F; Zepeda-Velazquez, Laura; Brook, Michael A


    Silicone surfactants are used in a variety of applications, however, limited data is available on the relationship between surfactant structure and biological activity. A series of seven nonionic, silicone polyether surfactants with known structures was tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli BL21. The compounds varied in their hydrophobic head, comprised of branched silicone structures with 3-10 siloxane linkages and, in two cases, phenyl substitution, and hydrophilic tail of 8-44 poly(ethylene glycol) units. The surfactants were tested at three concentrations: below, at, and above their Critical Micelle Concentrations (CMC) against 5 concentrations of E. coli BL21 in a three-step assay comprised of a 14-24h turbidometric screen, a live-dead stain and viable colony counts. The bacterial concentration had little effect on antibacterial activity. For most of the surfactants, antibacterial activity was higher at concentrations above the CMC. Surfactants with smaller silicone head groups had as much as 4 times the bioactivity of surfactants with larger groups, with the smallest hydrophobe exhibiting potency equivalent to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Smaller PEG chains were similarly associated with higher potency. These data link lower micelle stability and enhanced permeability of smaller silicone head groups to antibacterial activity. The results demonstrate that simple manipulation of nonionic silicone polyether structure leads to significant changes in antibacterial activity.

  15. A study of surfactant-assisted waterflooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scamehorn, J F; Harwell, J H


    In surfactant-assisted waterflooding, a surfactant slug is injected into a reservoir, followed by a brine spacer, followed by second surfactant slug. The charge on the surfactant in the first slug has opposite sign to that in the second slug. When the two slugs mix in the reservoir, a precipitate or coacervate is formed which plugs the permeable region of the reservoir. Subsequently injected water or brine is forced through the low permeability region of the reservoir, increasing sweep efficiency of the waterflood, compared to a waterflood not using surfactants. In this part of the work, two major tasks are performed. First, core floods are performed with oil present to demonstrate the improvement in incremental oil production, as well as permeability modification. Second, a reservoir simulation model will be proposed to further delineate the optimum strategy for implementation of the surfactant-assisted waterflooding, as well as indicate the reservoir types for which it would be most effective. Surfactants utilized were sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyl pyridinium chloride. 44 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Molecular-thermodynamic theory of micellization of multicomponent surfactant mixtures: 2. pH-sensitive surfactants. (United States)

    Goldsipe, Arthur; Blankschtein, Daniel


    In article 1 of this series, we developed a molecular-thermodynamic (MT) theory to model the micellization of mixtures containing an arbitrary number of conventional (pH-insensitive) surfactants. In this article, we extend the MT theory to model mixtures containing a pH-sensitive surfactant. The MT theory was validated by examining mixtures containing both a pH-sensitive surfactant and a conventional surfactant, which effectively behave like ternary surfactant mixtures. We first compared the predicted micellar titration data to experimental micellar titration data that we obtained for varying compositions of mixed micelles containing the pH-sensitive surfactant dodecyldimethylamine oxide (C12DAO) mixed with either a cationic surfactant (dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide, C12TAB), a nonionic surfactant (dodecyl octa(ethylene oxide), C12E8), or an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) surfactant. The MT theory accurately modeled the titration behavior of C12DAO mixed with C12E8. However, C12DAO was observed to interact more favorably with SDS and with C12TAB than was predicted by the MT theory. We also compared predictions to data from the literature for mixtures of C12DAO and SDS. Although the pH values of solutions with no added acid were modeled with only qualitative accuracy, the MT theory resulted in quantitatively accurate predictions of solution pH for mixtures containing added acid. In addition, the predicted degree of counterion binding yielded a lower bound to the experimentally measured value. Finally, we predicted the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of solutions of two pH-sensitive surfactants, tetradecyldimethylamine oxide (C14DAO) and hexadecyldimethyl betaine (C16Bet), at varying solution pH and surfactant composition. However, at the pH values considered, the pH sensitivity of C16Bet could be neglected, and it was equivalently modeled as a zwitterionic surfactant. The cmc's predicted using the MT theory agreed well with the experimental

  17. Effect of alkyl chain asymmetry on catanionic mixtures of hydrogenated and fluorinated surfactants. (United States)

    Blanco, Elena; Rodriguez-Abreu, Carlos; Schulz, Pablo; Ruso, Juan M


    In this work we studied and compared the physicochemical properties of the catanionic mixtures cetyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide-sodium dodecanoate, cetyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide-sodium perfluorodacanoate, octyltrimethylammonium bromide-sodium perfluorodacanoate and cetyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide-sodium octanoate by a combination of rheological, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and polarized optical microscopy measurements. The binary mixtures of the surfactants have been analyzed at different mixed ratios and total concentration of the mixture. Mixtures containing a perfluorinated surfactant are able to form lamellar liquid crystals and stable spontaneous vesicles. Meanwhile, system containing just hydrogenated surfactants form hexagonal phases or they are arranged in elongated aggregates.

  18. Influence of metacide - surfactant complexes on agricultural crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orynkul Esimova


    Full Text Available The complexes based on surfactants and polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (metacide are important for agriculture. This paper considers compositions of known bactericidal metacide with different surfactants: anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulphate (DDSNa and nonionic surfactant Tween 80 (monooleate of oxyethylenated anhydrosorbitols. The effect of individual components and associates of metacide and surfactants on productivity and infection of cereals was studied. According to the study, the highest productivity and infection rate were shown by the associate of metacide and Tween-80. At concentration of Tween-80 in aqueous solution equal to 0.001% in combination with metacide, efficiency was 98% at 0% infection. The surface tension and the wetting of metacide, DDSNa, Tween-80, and associates of metacide with surfactants were studied. In comparison with individual components, metacide-DDSNa and metacide-Tween-80 associates have higher surface activity.

  19. Influence of surfactants in forced dynamic dewetting. (United States)

    Henrich, Franziska; Fell, Daniela; Truszkowska, Dorota; Weirich, Marcel; Anyfantakis, Manos; Nguyen, Thi-Huong; Wagner, Manfred; Auernhammer, Günter K; Butt, Hans-Jürgen


    In this work we show that the forced dynamic dewetting of surfactant solutions depends sensitively on the surfactant concentration. To measure this effect, a hydrophobic rotating cylinder was horizontally half immersed in aqueous surfactant solutions. Dynamic contact angles were measured optically by extrapolating the contour of the meniscus to the contact line. Anionic (sodium 1-decanesulfonate, S-1DeS), cationic (cetyl trimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) and nonionic surfactants (C4E1, C8E3 and C12E5) with critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) spanning four orders of magnitude were used. The receding contact angle in water decreased with increasing velocity. This decrease was strongly enhanced when adding surfactant, even at surfactant concentrations of 10% of the critical micelle concentration. Plots of the receding contact angle-versus-velocity almost superimpose when being plotted at the same relative concentration (concentration/CMC). Thus the rescaled concentration is the dominating property for dynamic dewetting. The charge of the surfactants did not play a role, thus excluding electrostatic effects. The change in contact angle can be interpreted by local surface tension gradients, i.e. Marangoni stresses, close to the three-phase contact line. The decrease of dynamic contact angles with velocity follows two regimes. Despite the existence of Marangoni stresses close to the contact line, for a dewetting velocity above 1-10 mm s(-1) the hydrodynamic theory is able to describe the experimental results for all surfactant concentrations. At slower velocities an additional steep decrease of the contact angle with velocity was observed. Particle tracking velocimetry showed that the flow profiles do not differ with and without surfactant on a scales >100 μm.

  20. Thermally cleavable surfactants (United States)

    McElhanon, James R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Zifer, Thomas; Jamison, Gregory M.; Loy, Douglas A.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Long, Timothy M.; Wheeler, David R.; Staiger, Chad L.


    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments and the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  1. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)


    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  2. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)


    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁欣; 魏俊富; 张环


    采用自制等离子体改性聚砜荷电膜对表面活性剂十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)进行截留测试,通过改变溶液的初始SDBS质量浓度(40~400 mg· L-1)、操作压力(0.15~0.35 MPa),离子强度(NaCl质量浓度100~300 mg·L-1)以及pH(2~12)等影响因素,观察荷电膜对SDBS溶液的截留率以及通量的变化,分析作用机理.结果表明,静电斥力为主要作用力,同时伴有机械筛分作用.初始SDBS含量低时比高时截留效果好,SDBS初始质量浓度为40 mg· L-1时截留率可达85.68%;低离子强度时静电斥力发挥主要作用,截留率比高离子强度时高;压力越大,截留率越高;溶液pH接近中性时截留效果最好.%Surfactant sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate solution was retained by the plasma modified polysulfone charged membrane. The rejection tests were at different factors including solution concentration, operating pressure (0.15~0.35 Mpa), ionic strength (concentration of NaCl 100~300 mg*L') and pH (2~12). The retention rate and flux of SDBS solution retained by charged membrane were observed. The mechanism of retention was analyzed. Experimental results revealed that electrostatic repulsion was the main force in the process. And size exclusion also existed. Solutions possessing low concentration showed better rejection effect than those having high concentration. When initial feed concentration was 40 mg'L', the retention rate could reach 85.68%. Electrostatic repulsion played an important role at low ionic strength. The retention rate at low ionic strength was higher than those at high ionic strength. The retention rate increased as the operating pressure presented high. And the rejection performed well when pH was close to neutral.

  4. Paramaterization of a coarse-grained model for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactants and molecular dynamics studies of their self-assembly in aqueous solution (United States)

    He, Xibing; Shinoda, Wataru; DeVane, Russell; Anderson, Kelly L.; Klein, Michael L.


    A coarse-grained (CG) forcefield for linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) was systematically parameterized. Thermodynamic data from experiments and structural data obtained from all-atom molecular dynamics were used as targets to parameterize CG potentials for the bonded and non-bonded interactions. The added computational efficiency permits one to employ computer simulation to probe the self-assembly of LAS aqueous solutions into different morphologies starting from a random configuration. The present CG model is shown to accurately reproduce the phase behavior of solutions of pure isomers of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, despite the fact that phase behavior was not directly taken into account in the forcefield parameterization.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope; Richard E. Jackson


    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactants makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. Also, the addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluted to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. A dual-porosity version is demonstrated as a potential scale-up tool for fractured reservoirs.

  6. 表面活性剂真空浸渍活化超级电容器用活性炭研究%Study of Supercapacitor Activated Carbon Treated by Vacuum Impregnation Using Surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘治成; 杜微; 何铁石; 蔡克迪; 金振兴


    The activated carbon ( AC) is treated by vacuum impregnation using various surfactant .The acti-vated carbon treated with surfactant is characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy , thermal gravity analytical , and electrochemical measurements .The enhancement in electrochemical performance of treated AC e-lectrode is mainly attributable to improvement in wettability and ion mobility , resulting in a higher usable surface area and a smaller internal resistance .The AC electrode supercapacitor treated with sodium dodecylbenzene sul-fonate exhibits the best electrochemical performance .Specifically, its specific capacity by the 143.2 F· g -1 in-creased to 196.8 F· g -1 , internal impedance by the 1.75Ωreduced to 0.71Ωand maximum power density by the 6035.7 W· kg -1 increased to 9380.2 W· kg -1 .%采用不同种类表面活性剂对活性炭进行真空浸渍活化.通过红外光谱、热失重分析和电化学性能评价对处理前后的活性炭进行研究.结果表明,表面活性剂处理活性炭,可明显提高活性炭的有机电解液可润湿性,增加其比表面积利用率,改善活性炭电极的黏结性能.十二烷基苯磺酸钠处理后的活性炭电极,比电容由143.2 F· g -1提高到196.8 F· g-1,内阻由1.75Ω降低到0.71Ω,最大功率密度由6035.7 W· kg-1增加到9380.2 W· kg -1.

  7. In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Phototoxicity Assessment of Acylglutamate Surfactants Using a Human Keratinocyte Cell Line


    Abhay Kyadarkunte; Milind Patole; Varsha Pokharkar


    In the current study, human keratinocyte cell line was used as in vitro cell culture model to elucidate the effects of the fatty acid chain length of acylglutamate (amino acid-based surfactant) namely, sodium cocoyl glutamate, sodium lauroyl glutamate, and sodium myristoyl glutamate on their cytotoxicity and the ultraviolet B induced phototoxicity. The endpoint used to assess toxicity was a tetrazolium-based assay whereas, the phototoxic potential of acylglutamate surfactants was predicted u...

  8. Surfactant recovery from water using foam fractionation: Effect of temperature and added salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpabooth, K.; Osuwan, S. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Petroleum and Petrochemical Coll.; Scamehorn, J.F.; Harwell, J.H. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Inst. for Applied Surfactant Research


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of foam fractionation to recover surfactant present at low concentrations in aqueous streams. A simple continuous mode foam fractionation was used, and three surfactants were chosen for this study: sodium dodecyl sulfate, cetylpyridinium chloride, and sodium n-hexadecyl diphenyloxide disulfonate. In a previous study the effects of surfactant concentration, air flow rate, liquid- and vapor-phase heights, and sparger type were investigated for these surfactants. Here, the effects of temperature and added salt are studied. It is found that the foam flow rate and enrichment ratio increase whereas the foam wetness and the rate of surfactant recovery decrease with increasing temperature. Increasing the concentration of added salt decreases the CMC of the surfactants. The foam flow rate, foam wetness, and the rate of surfactant recovery increase, while the enrichment ratio decreases with increasing concentration of salt.

  9. Effect of Surfactants and Manufacturing Methods on the Electrical and Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Nanotube/Silicone Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Hřibová


    Full Text Available The effect of ionic surfactants and manufacturing methods on the separation and distribution of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs in a silicone matrix are investigated. The CNTs are dispersed in an aqueous solution of the anionic surfactant dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA, the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, and in a DBSA/CTAB surfactant mixture. Four types of CNT-based composites of various concentrations from 0 to 6 vol.% are prepared by simple mechanical mixing and sonication. The morphology, electrical and thermal conductivity of the CNT-based composites are analyzed. The incorporation of both neat and modified CNTs leads to an increase in electrical and thermal conductivity. The dependence of DC conductivity versus CNT concentration shows percolation behaviour with a percolation threshold of about 2 vol.% in composites with neat CNT. The modification of CNTs by DBSA increases the percolation threshold to 4 vol.% due to the isolation/separation of individual CNTs. This, in turn, results in a significant decrease in the complex permittivity of CNT–DBSA-based composites. In contrast to the percolation behaviour of DC conductivity, the concentration dependence of thermal conductivity exhibits a linear dependence, the thermal conductivity of composites with modified CNTs being lower than that of composites with neat CNTs. All these results provide evidence that the modification of CNTs by DBSA followed by sonication allows one to produce composites with high homogeneity.

  10. Performance of some surfactants as wetting agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalaby, M.N.; El-Shanny, O.A.A. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI), Cairo (Egypt). Evaluation and Analysis Dept.


    The wetting power of anionic surfactant: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and nonionic surfactants: polyoxyethelene(14)monolaurate [La(EO){sub 14}] and polyoxyethelene(14)monoeleate [OI(EO){sub 14}] has been studied to determine their performance as wetting agents. The study reveals that the nonionic compound with a long hydrophobic chain exhibits higher wettability than the shorter one when used at very low cocentrations (below CMC) and the reverse is shown with high concentrations (above CMC). the wetting power of the investigated surfactants increases as the CMC values increases. In case of the nonionic compounds and at surfactant concentrations equal their CMC values, OI(EO){sub 14} shows a higher wetting power than La(EO){sub 14} while is possesses a lower HLB value. The anionic surfactant shows an optimum wetting in comparison with the tested nonionic one. The wettability of all the investigated samples increases as the surface tension of their solutions increases to the allowed limit that can be reached in the presence of surfactant. (orig.)

  11. Effects of surfactants and salt on Henry's constant of n-hexane. (United States)

    Yang, Chunping; Chen, Fayuan; Luo, Shenglian; Xie, Gengxin; Zeng, Guangming; Fan, Changzheng


    n-Hexane biological removal is intrinsically limited by its hydrophobic nature and low bioavailability. The addition of surfactants could enhance the transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and change the gas-liquid equilibrium of VOCs. In this paper, the effects of four surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), tert-octylphenoxypoly-ethoxyethanol (Triton X-100), polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80), and sodium nitrate on apparent Henry's constant of n-hexane in surfactant solutions were investigated. The apparent Henry's constants were significantly reduced when surfactants concentrations exceeded their critical micelle concentrations (cmc's). On a cmc basis, the anionic surfactant SDS was found to have the greatest effect on the apparent Henry's constant with CTAB succeeding, then followed by Triton X-100 and Tween 80. However, the apparent Henry's constant of n-hexane decreased even more rapidly when Triton X-100, a nonionic surfactant, was added than when the ionic surfactant of SDS or CTAB was applied under identical mass concentration and other conditions. These results suggest that Triton X-100 have the biggest solubilization of n-hexane among the four surfactants. Sodium nitrate slightly decreased the apparent Henry's constant of n-hexane in surfactant solutions, and could be considered as a cosolvent in the surfactant-(n-hexane) solution. In addition, the relationship between apparent Henry's constant and surfactant concentration was further developed.

  12. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller


    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A mixture of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. The mixture is single phase for higher salinity or calcium concentrations than that for either surfactant used alone. This makes it possible to inject the surfactant slug with polymer close to optimal conditions and yet be single phase. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. It uses partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide for mobility control. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of naphthenic soap and significant reduction of synthetic surfactant adsorption. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT takes advantage of the observation that the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Even for a fixed ratio of soap to surfactant, the range of salinity for low IFT was wider than that reported for surfactant systems in the literature. Low temperature, forced displacement experiments in dolomite and silica sandpacks demonstrate that greater than 95% recovery of the waterflood remaining oil is possible with 0.2% surfactant concentration, 0.5 PV surfactant slug, with no alcohol. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the role of soap/surfactant ratio on passage of the profile through the ultralow IFT region, the importance of a wide salinity range of low IFT, and the importance of the viscosity of the surfactant slug. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs as well as a

  13. Mechanisms for lowering of interfacial tension in alkali/acidic oil systems; Effect of added surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, J. Wasan, D.T. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)


    This paper reports that experimental studies are conducted in order to determine the physicochemical mechanism responsible for lowering of interfacial tension in alkali, surfactant, and surfactant-enhanced alkali/acidic oil systems. A well-defined model oil is chosen to examine the influence of various surfactants and surfactant mixtures, such as oleic acid and its ionic counterpart, sodium dodecyl sulfate, petroleum sulfonate, and isobutanol, on equilibrium interfacial tension. With added surfactant alone, the interfacial tension goes through an ultralow minimum with increasing acid concentration. This proves for the first time that the un-ionized acid species plays a major role in affecting interfacial tension, and the ionized acid species.

  14. Determination of the anionic surfactant di(ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate in water samples collected from Gulf of Mexico coastal waters before and after landfall of oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, May to October, 2010 (United States)

    Gray, James L.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Furlong, Edward T.; McCoy, Jeff W.; Kanagy, Chris J.


    On April 22, 2010, the explosion on and subsequent sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil drilling platform resulted in the release of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. At least 4.4 million barrels had been released into the Gulf of Mexico through July 15, 2010, 10 to 29 percent of which was chemically dispersed, primarily using two dispersant formulations. Initially, the dispersant Corexit 9527 was used, and when existing stocks of that formulation were exhausted, Corexit 9500 was used. Over 1.8 million gallons of the two dispersants were applied in the first 3 months after the spill. This report presents the development of an analytical method to analyze one of the primary surfactant components of both Corexit formulations, di(ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS), the preliminary results, and the associated quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) from samples collected from various points on the Gulf Coast between Texas and Florida. Seventy water samples and 8 field QC samples were collected before the predicted landfall of oil (pre-landfall) on the Gulf Coast, and 51 water samples and 10 field QC samples after the oil made landfall (post-landfall). Samples were collected in Teflon(Registered) bottles and stored at -20(degrees)C until analysis. Extraction of whole-water samples used sorption onto a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter to isolate DOSS, with subsequent 50 percent methanol/water elution of the combined dissolved and particulate DOSS fractions. High-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was used to identify and quantify DOSS by the isotope dilution method, using a custom-synthesized 13C4-DOSS labeled standard. Because of the ubiquitous presence of DOSS in laboratory reagent water, a chromatographic column was installed in the LC/MS/MS between the system pumps and the sample injector that separated this ambient background DOSS contamination from the sample DOSS, minimizing one source of blank contamination

  15. Interaction of Natural Dye (Allium cepa) with Ionic Surfactants



    Allium cepa is a natural dye that has been extracted from onion skin with the help of soxhlet apparatus. The pigment in the dye pelargonidin was found to be 2.25%. The interaction of the dye with ionic surfactants, namely, cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) and anionic (sodium lauryl sulphate) has been studied by spectrophotometrically, conductivity, and surface tension measurements. The thermodynamic and surface parameters have been evaluated for the interaction process. Th...

  16. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope


    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A combination of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT is more challenging since the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the interdependence of the various components for oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. It has been modified to represent the effects of a change in wettability. Simulated case studies demonstrate the effects of wettability.

  17. Foaming behaviour of polymer-surfactant solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes-MartInez, Alfredo [Departamento de Investigacion en PolImeros y Materiales, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Maldonado, Amir [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 1626, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)


    We study the effect of a non-ionic amphiphilic polymer (PEG-100 stearate also called Myrj 59) on the foaming behaviour of aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate or SDS). The SDS concentration was kept fixed while the Myrj 59 concentration was varied. Measurements of foamability, surface tension and electrical conductivity were carried out. The results show two opposite effects depending on the polymer concentration: foamability is higher when the Myrj 59 concentration is low; however, it decreases considerably when the polymer concentration is increased. This behaviour is due to the polymer adsorption at the air/liquid interface at lower polymer concentrations, and to the formation of a polymer-surfactant complex in the bulk at higher concentrations. The results are confirmed by surface tension and electrical conductivity measurements, which are interpreted in terms of the microstructure of the polymer-surfactant solutions. The observed behaviour is due to the amphiphilic nature of the studied polymer. The increased hydrophobicity of Myrj 59, compared to that of water-soluble polymers like PEG or PEO, increases its 'reactivity' towards SDS, i.e. the strength of its interaction with this anionic surfactant. Our results show that hydrophobically modified polymers have potential applications as additives in order to control the foaming properties of surfactant solutions.

  18. Surfactant effects on SF6 hydrate formation. (United States)

    Lee, Bo Ram; Lee, Ju Dong; Lee, Hyun Ju; Ryu, Young Bok; Lee, Man Sig; Kim, Young Seok; Englezos, Peter; Kim, Myung Hyun; Kim, Yang Do


    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) has been widely used in a variety of industrial processes, but it is one of the most potent greenhouse gases. For this reason, it is necessary to separate or collect it from waste gas streams. One separation method is through hydrate crystal formation. In this study, SF(6) hydrate was formed in aqueous surfactant solutions of 0.00, 0.01, 0.05, 0.15 and 0.20 wt% to investigate the effects of surfactants on the hydrate formation rates. Three surfactants, Tween 20 (Tween), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LABS), were tested in a semi-batch stirred vessel at the constant temperature and pressures of 276.2 K and 0.78 MPa, respectively. All surfactants showed kinetic promoter behavior for SF(6) hydrate formation. It was also found that SF(6) hydrate formation proceeded in two stages with the second stage being the most rapid. In situ Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed that the increased gas consumption rate with the addition of surfactant was possibly due to the increased gas filling rate in the hydrate cavity.

  19. Syntheses of surfactants from oleochemical epoxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwel Siegfried


    Full Text Available Sugar-based surfactants were obtained in good yields (up to 100% under mild conditions (70°C, methanol or mixtures of methanol and water by ring-opening of terminal epoxides with aminopolyols, derived from glucose. Reaction of N-methyl glucamine with epoxides from even-numbered C4-C18 alpha-olefins or from terminal unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters leads to linear products, while corresponding reactions with N-dodecyl glucamine or glucamine yield surfactants with different Y-structures. Products obtained by conversion of omega-epoxy fatty acid methyl esters were saponificated with NaOH or hydrolyzed enzymatically to sodium salts or free acids respectively, which are amphoteric surfactants. Studies of the surfactants at different pH-values demonstrate different surface active properties in aqueous solutions. Critical micelle concentrations (c.m.c. in a range between 2 and 500mg/l and surface tensions of 25-40mN/m were measured for several of the synthesized sugar-based surfactants. The ring-opening products are rather poor foamers, whereas some of the corresponding hydrobromides show good foaming properties.

  20. Surfactants in tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Biresaw, Girma


    Surface science and tribology play very critical roles in many industries. Manufacture and use of almost all consumer and industrial products rely on the application of advanced surface and tribological knowledge. The fourth in a series, Surfactants in Tribology, Volume 4 provides an update on research and development activities connecting surfactants and tribological phenomena. Written by renowned subject matter experts, the book demonstrates how improved design of surfactants can be harnessed to control tribological phenomena. Profusely illustrated and copiously referenced, the chapters also

  1. o-Tolidine: A new reagent for a simple nephelometric determination of anionic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March, J.G. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands, 07122-Palma de Mallorca (Spain)]. E-mail:; Gual, M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands, 07122-Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Frontera, A.D. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands, 07122-Palma de Mallorca (Spain)


    Simple light scattering methods (batch, flow injection, sequential injection) for the determination of anionic active matter in detergents based on a novel reaction are reported. The methods are based on formation of a solid phase by association of anionic surfactants and protonated o-tolidine. Measurements were carried out with a conventional spectrofluorimeter at 400 nm, and dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBS) was selected as the reference anionic surfactant. Influence of the main parameters affecting the characteristics of the methods was studied by the univariate method. The optimized methods provided linear ranges from 1.6 to 300 mg l{sup -1} DBS with a repeatability within the 1.2-2.6% range. Reaction time for the manual method is 45 s and sampling frequency for FIA and SIA were estimated as 68 and 20 h{sup -1}, respectively. The methods were applied to commercial samples and results successfully compared with a volumetric recommended method. The proposed methods are simple, fast and neither require sample preparation nor any organic solvent.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.M. Saville; J.W. White


    Polymeric surfactants are amongst the most widespread of all polymers. In nature, proteins and polysaccharides cause self organization as a result of this surfactancy; in industry, polymeric surfactants play key roles in the food, explosives and surface coatings sectors. The generation of useful nano- and micro-structures in films and emulsions as a result of polymer amphiphilicity and the application of mechanical stress is discussed. The use of X-ray and neutron small angle scattering and reflectivity to measure these structures and their dynamic properties will be described. New results on linear and dendritic polymer surfactants are presented.

  3. Dendrimer-surfactant interactions. (United States)

    Cheng, Yiyun; Zhao, Libo; Li, Tianfu


    In this article, we reviewed the interactions between dendrimers and surfactants with particular focus on the interaction mechanisms and physicochemical properties of the yielding dendrimer-surfactant aggregates. In order to provide insight into the behavior of dendrimers in biological systems, the interactions of dendrimers with bio-surfactants such as phospholipids in bulk solutions, in solid-supported bilayers and at the interface of phases or solid-states were discussed. Applications of the dendrimer-surfactant aggregates as templates to guide the synthesis of nanoparticles and in drug or gene delivery were also mentioned.

  4. Self-association of sodium deoxycholate with EHEC cellulose cooperatively induced by sodium dodecanoate. (United States)

    Modolon, Samuel de M; Felippe, Arlindo C; Fizon, Tiago E; da Silva, Luciano; da Silva Paula, Marcos Marques; Dal-Bó, Alexandre G


    Some aspects of ethyl (hydroxyethyl) cellulose (EHEC) aqueous behavior in the presence of ionic surfactants are described in the literature; however, most of the studies reported address moderately concentrated solutions. Few studies have been carried out in the dilute regime using mixtures of biosurfactants. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the interaction of EHEC in the dilute regime and to verify the mixture of two surfactants: sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) and sodium dodecanoate (SDoD). The parameters of the surfactant to polymer association processes such as the critical aggregation concentration (cac) and saturation of the polymer by surfactants (psp) were determined from the plots of surface tension and specific conductivity versus surfactant concentration in basic conditions. The cmc of NaDC-SDoD mixtures showed non-ideal behavior. However, EHEC added to mixtures of SDoD and NaDC acts as a stabilizer for the mixed aggregate during the association process.

  5. Surfactant Sector Needs Urgent Readjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Hongzhou


    @@ Surfactant industrial system has been basically established After 50 years' development, China has already established a surfactant industrial system with a relatively complete product portfolio and can produce 4714 varieties of surfactants in cationic,anionic, nonionic and amphoteric categories.

  6. Studies on interfacial tension and contact angle of synthesized surfactant and polymeric from castor oil for enhanced oil recovery (United States)

    Babu, Keshak; Pal, Nilanjan; Bera, Achinta; Saxena, V. K.; Mandal, Ajay


    New synthesized polymeric surfactants have immensely attracted the researchers for further development of chemical enhanced oil recovery method particularly in surfactant flooding. Contact angle and interfacial tension measurement tests are the effective ways to identify proper chemicals/surfactants for enhanced oil recovery by chemical/surfactant flooding. In the present study a new polymeric surfactant was synthesized from pre-synthesized sodium methyl ester sulfonate (surfactant) and acrylamide for application in chemical enhanced oil recovery. The synthesized surfactant and polymeric surfactant were used to measure interfacial tension between their aqueous phase and crude oil phase to investigate the efficiency of the surfactants in reduction of interfacial tension. The synthesized polymeric surfactant has also ability to control the mobility because of its viscous nature in aqueous solution. Contact angles of solid-crude oil-surfactant interface were also measured to study the effect of the synthesized surfactant and polymeric surfactant on wettability alteration mechanism. Synergistic effect was studied by using NaCl and synthesized surfactants on interfacial tension. Dynamic interfacial tensions of the surfactant and polymeric surfactant solutions with crude oil were measured at different NaCl concentrations. Interfacial tension was found to be lowered up to 10-2 to 10-3 mN/m which is effective for oil recovery. Measurement of contact angle indicates the wettability change of the quartz surface. Comparative studies on efficiencies of synthesized sodium methyl ester sulfonate surfactant and polymeric surfactant were also carried out with respect to interfacial tension reduction and contact angle change.

  7. Effect of low concentrations of synthetic surfactants on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) biodegradation


    A. C. Rodrigues; Nogueira, R; Melo, L. F.; A. G. Brito


    The present study is focused on the effect of synthetic surfactants, at low concentration, on the kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) biodegradation by Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17514 and addresses the specific issue of the effect of the surfactant on bacterial adhesion to PAH, which is believed to be an important mechanism for the uptake of hydrophobic compounds. For that purpose, three surfactants were tested, namely, the nonionic Tween 20, the anionic sodium dodecyl sulphate (...

  8. Enrichment of surfactant from its aqueous solution using ultrasonic atomization. (United States)

    Takaya, Haruko; Nii, Susumu; Kawaizumi, Fumio; Takahashi, Katsuroku


    Dilute aqueous solutions of dodecyl-benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt (DBS-Na) and polyoxyethylenenonylphenyl ethers (PONPEs) were ultrasonically atomized. The surfactants were concentrated in collected mist droplets. The enrichment ratio increased with decreasing surfactant concentration. Depending on the surfactant's molecular weight and affinity to water, different enrichment ratio was observed in the range of low feed concentrations. For anionic surfactant, DBS-Na, the enrichment ratio was significantly improved by KCl addition and a peak appeared on the plot of the ratio against KCl concentration. Addition of NaCl or CaCl2 . 2H2O to the surfactant solution also enhanced the enrichment ratio; however, the effect was relatively small. Such behaviors of the ratio were interpreted as enhanced interfacial adsorption of the surfactant and a lack of supply of surfactant monomers from liquid bulk because of slow breaking of surfactant micelles. Time required for collecting an amount of mist was also observed. Among the three salt systems, the time for KCl system was twice as long as others. This fact suggested that the formation of smaller droplets in KCl system.

  9. Surfactant-assisted specific-acid catalysis of Diels-Alder reactions in aqueous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mubofu, Egid B.; Engberts, Jan B. F. N.


    Surfactant-assisted specific-acid catalysis (SASAC) for Diets-Alder reactions of dienophiles 1 and 4 with cyclopentadiene 2 in aqueous media at 32 C was studied. This study showed that acidified anionic surfactants (pH 2) such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid (LA

  10. Aggregation Kinetics and Transport of Single-Walled CarbonNanotubes at Low Surfactant Concentrations (United States)

    Little is known about how low levels of surfactants can affect the colloidal stability of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and how surfactant-wrapping of SWNTs can impact ecological exposures in aqueous systems. In this study, SWNTs were suspended in water with sodium ...

  11. Performance improvement of ionic surfactant flooding in carbonate rock samples by use of nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ahmadi


    Full Text Available Abstract Various surfactants have been used in upstream petroleum processes like chemical flooding. Ultimately, the performance of these surfactants depends on their ability to reduce the interfacial tension between oil and water. The surfactant concentration in the aqueous solution decreases owing to the loss of the surfactant on the rock surface in the injection process. The main objective of this paper is to inhibit the surfactant loss by means of adding nanoparticles. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and silica nanoparticles were used as ionic surfactant and nanoparticles in our experiments, respectively. AEROSIL® 816 and AEROSIL® 200 are hydrophobic and hydrophilic nanoparticles. To determine the adsorption loss of the surfactant onto rock samples, a conductivity approach was used. Real carbonate rock samples were used as the solid phase in adsorption experiments. It should be noted that the rock samples were water wet. This paper describes how equilibrium adsorption was investigated by examining adsorption behavior in a system of carbonate sample (solid phase and surfactant solution (aqueous phase. The initial surfactant and nanoparticle concentrations were 500–5000 and 500–2000 ppm, respectively. The rate of surfactant losses was extremely dependent on the concentration of the surfactant in the system, and the adsorption of the surfactant decreased with an increase in the nanoparticle concentration. Also, the hydrophilic nanoparticles are more effective than the hydrophobic nanoparticles.

  12. Modeling transport effects of perfluorinated and hydrocarbon surfactants in groundwater by using micellar liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Rashad N. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1322 (United States); McGuffin, Victoria L. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1322 (United States)], E-mail:


    The effects of hydrocarbon and perfluorinated surfactants, above their critical micelle concentration (CMC), on the transport of neutral environmental pollutants are compared. Reversed-phase micellar liquid chromatography is used to model the groundwater system. The octadecylsilica stationary phase serves to simulate soil particles containing organic matter, whereas the aqueous surfactant mobile phases serve to simulate groundwater containing a surfactant at varying concentrations. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and lithium perfluorooctane sulfonate are used as representatives of the hydrocarbon and perfluorinated surfactants, respectively. Benzene, mono- and perhalogenated benzenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are used as models for environmental pollutants. Transport effects were elucidated from the retention factor, k, and the equilibrium constant per micelle, K{sub eq}, of the model pollutants in the individual surfactants. Based on k values, the transport of the model pollutants increased in both surfactant solutions in comparison to pure water. As the concentration of the surfactants increased, the transport of the pollutants increased as well. Notably, the K{sub eq} values of the pollutants in the perfluorinated surfactant were at least an order of magnitude less than those in the hydrocarbon surfactant. Overall, these results suggest that the presence of a perfluorinated surfactant, above its CMC, increases the transport of pollutants in a groundwater system. However, the perfluorinated surfactant exhibits a lesser transport effect than the hydrocarbon surfactant.

  13. Impact of a surfactant on the electroactivity of proteins at an aqueous-organogel microinterface array. (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Shane; Arrigan, Damien W M


    The impact of surfactant addition to the organic phase on the electroactivity of proteins at the aqueous-organogel interface was examined by voltammetry. The presence of bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) in the organogel phase, as the sodium salt, caused marked changes in the peak currents for myoglobin detection. The protein desorption voltammetric peak exhibited a 6-fold increase in the current compared to the corresponding experiment without surfactant. Interfacial coverage showed a 17-fold increase in the adsorbed protein at the interface, from 50 pmol cm(-2), in the absence of surfactant, to 850 pmol cm(-2), in the presence of 10 mM surfactant. Additionally, the presence of the surfactant resulted in a second pair of adsorption/desorption peaks at lower potentials and in a change in the capacitance of the system. The formation of surfactant-protein and surfactant-protein-organic anion deposits is proposed on the basis of these features, leading to increased voltammetric signals for myoglobin, hemoglobin, and cytochrome c. The mechanism of protein-surfactant interaction was probed by using the surfactant as the anion in the organic phase electrolyte salt. Repetitive cyclic voltammetry of cytochrome c showed that in the presence of surfactant there was an enhancement of the signal, caused by a buildup of the protein-surfactant-electrolyte anion assembly at the interface. These findings provide the basis for surfactant-modified interfaces to enhance the electroanalytical performance for protein detection.


    Surfactants are one of the most widely applied materials by consumers and industry. The application areas for surfactants span from everyday mundane tasks such as cleaning, to highly complex processes involving the formulation of pharmaceuticals, foods, pesticides, lubricants, etc. Even though sur...

  15. Dynamic covalent surfactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minkenberg, C.B.


    In this thesis the development of surfactant aggregates with fast exchange dynamics between the aggregated and non-aggregated state is described. Dynamic surfactant exchange plays an important role in natural systems, for instance in cell signaling, cell division, and uptake and release of cargo. Re

  16. Molecular dynamics simulation of adsorption of an oil-water-surfactant mixture on calcite surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Guiwu; Zhang Xuefen; Shao Changjin; Yang Hong


    An interface super molecular structure model for oil-water-surfactant mixture and calcite was established. By using a molecular dynamics method, the effects of rhamnolipid, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate and sodium hexadecyl sulfonate on the interface adsorption behavior of oil molecules were investigated. It was found that these three surfactants could reduce oil-calcite interface binding energy, and play a role of oil-displacing agent.

  17. Ecotoxicological assessment of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine hydrochloride and the surfactant dodecyl sodium sulfate after their submission to ionizing radiation treatment; Avaliacao ecotoxicologica do farmaco cloridrato de fluoxetina e do surfactante dodecil sulfato de sodio quando submetidos a tratamento por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Dymes Rafael Alves dos


    The use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and the consequent and continuous input of this substances in the environment generates an increasing need to investigate the presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat effluents containing such substances. Fluoxetine hydrochloride is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive disorders and anxiety. As the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate is present in many cleaning and personal care products. The present study aimed on assessing the acute toxicity of fluoxetine hydrochloride, sodium dodecyl sulfate and the mixture of both to the aquatic organisms Hyalella azteca, Daphnia similis and Vibrio ficheri. Reducing the toxicity of fluoxetine and the mixture after treatment with ionizing radiation from industrial electron beam accelerator has also been the focus of this study. For Daphnia similis the average values of CE50-4{sub 8h} found for the non-irradiated drug, surfactant and mixture were 14.4 %, 9.62 % and 13.8 %, respectively. After irradiation of the substances, the dose 5 kGy proved itself to be the most effective dose for the treatment of the drug and the mixture as it was obtained the mean values for CE50{sub 48h} 84.60 % and > 90 %, respectively. For Hyalella azteca the acute toxicity tests were performed for water column with duration of 96 hours, the mean values for CE50{sub 96h} found for the drug, the surfactant and the mixture non-irradiated were 5.63 %, 19.29 %, 6.27 %, respectively. For the drug fluoxetine and the mixture irradiated with 5 kGy, it was obtained 69.57 % and 77.7 %, respectively. For Vibrio ficheri the acute toxicity tests for the untreated drug and the drug irradiated with 5 kGy it was obtained CE50{sub 15min} of 6.9 % and 32.88 % respectively. These results presented a reduction of the acute toxicity of the test-substances after irradiation. (author)

  18. Surfactants in the environment. (United States)

    Ivanković, Tomislav; Hrenović, Jasna


    Surfactants are a diverse group of chemicals that are best known for their wide use in detergents and other cleaning products. After use, residual surfactants are discharged into sewage systems or directly into surface waters, and most of them end up dispersed in different environmental compartments such as soil, water or sediment. The toxic effects of surfactants on various aquatic organisms are well known. In general, surfactants are present in the environment at levels below toxicity and in Croatia below the national limit. Most surfactants are readily biodegradable and their amount is greatly reduced with secondary treatment in wastewater treatment plants. The highest concern is the release of untreated wastewater or wastewater that has undergone primary treatment alone. The discharge of wastewater polluted with massive quantities of surfactants could have serious effects on the ecosystem. Future studies of surfactant toxicities and biodegradation are necessary to withdraw highly toxic and non-biodegradable compounds from commercial use and replace them with more environmentally friendly ones.

  19. Pulmonary surfactant and lung transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, Michiel Elardus


    Pulmonary surfactant lowers the surface tension at the air-water interface inside the alveolus. This is achieved by adsorption of surfactant phospholipids at the air-water interface, a process controlled by surfactant-associated proteins, such as SP-A. In this way, surfactant prevents collapse of th

  20. Metathesis depolymerizable surfactants (United States)

    Jamison, Gregory M.; Wheeler, David R.; Loy, Douglas A.; Simmons, Blake A.; Long, Timothy M.; McElhanon, James R.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Staiger, Chad L.


    A class of surfactant molecules whose structure includes regularly spaced unsaturation in the tail group and thus, can be readily decomposed by ring-closing metathesis, and particularly by the action of a transition metal catalyst, to form small molecule products. These small molecules are designed to have increased volatility and/or enhanced solubility as compared to the original surfactant molecule and are thus easily removed by solvent extraction or vacuum extraction at low temperature. By producing easily removable decomposition products, the surfactant molecules become particularly desirable as template structures for preparing meso- and microstructural materials with tailored properties.

  1. Experimental study on thermophoresis of colloids in aqueous surfactant solutions (United States)

    Dong, Ruo-Yu; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Chun; Cao, Bing-Yang


    Thermophoresis refers to the motion of particles under a temperature gradient and it is one of the particle manipulation techniques. Regarding the thermophoresis of particles in liquid media, however, many open questions still remain, especially the role of the interfacial effect. This work reports on a systematic experimental investigation of surfactant effects, especially the induced interfacial effect, on the thermophoresis of colloids in aqueous solutions via a microfluidic approach. Two kinds of commonly used surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), are selected and the results show that from relatively large concentrations, the two surfactants can greatly enhance the thermophilic mobilities. Specifically, it is found that the colloid-water interfaces modified with more polar end groups can potentially lead to a stronger thermophilic tendency. Due to the complex effects of surfactants, further theoretical model development is needed to quantitatively describe the dependence of thermophoresis on the interface characteristics.

  2. Surfactant and adhesive formulations from alkaline biomass extracts (United States)

    Baxter, Matthew

    This work studies the ability to produce effective surfactant and adhesive formulations using surface active biological material extracted from different biomass sources using alkaline extraction methods. Two urban waste biomass sources were used to produce surfactants, Return Activated Sludge (RAS), and solid Urban Refuse (UR). The third biomass source investigated was isolated mustard protein (MP). RAS and MP extracts were investigated for adhesive production. The results indicate that extracts from the waste biomass sources, RAS and UR, can be combined with a commercial surfactant, sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate (AOT), to produce surfactants with low interfacial tensions against various oils. These highly surface-active formulations were shown to be useful in the removal of bitumen from contaminated sand. RAS and MP showed potential as protein-based wood adhesives. These sources were used in adhesive formulations to produce a strong bond strength under low-pressure, ambient pressing conditions.

  3. Polyelectrolyte surfactant aggregates and their deposition on macroscopic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, David


    the CSC have been determined for mixtures of cationically modified guar gums (of varying charge density) with two anionic surfactants: sodium lauryl (or dodecyl) ether sulfate [SLES] and sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS], for various concentrations of the polyelectrolyte and added sodium chloride, at room temperature. The addition of sodium chloride has only a minor net effect on the CFC, but increases the CSC significantly. The interactions between the cationic polyelectrolyte and the surfactant have been studied in the one-phase regions, i.e. below the CFC and above the CSC, using different techniques. Surface tension, electrophoresis, light scattering and viscosimetry have been employed. In the two-phase region, the sedimented floe phase has been analysed and the flocculation has been investigated. Rheology of the floe phase has been studied, after a mild compression by centrifugation. The initial rate of flocculation has been determined, using stop-flow equipment. The growth and the structure of the flocs have been investigated by light scattering. The open-network flocs of polyelectrolyte-surfactant particles grow to {approx}10's {mu}m in size, prior to their eventual settling out. Other colloidal particles can be trapped within these large flocs, and the flocs can be used to transport these particles to a macroscopic surface. The deposition and the removal of such composite flocs on glass surfaces, under flow, have been studied using a flow cell device coupled with an optical microscope. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have also been employed. (author)

  4. Phase behavior of supercritical CO2 microemulsion with food-grade surfactant AOT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yongsheng; AN Xueqin; SHEN Weiguo; ZHANG Yinghua


    Phase behavior of scCO2 microemulsion formed with food grade surfactant sodium bis-(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) was studied. Critical microemulsion concentration (cμc) was deduced from the dependence of pressure of cloud points on the concentration of surfactant AOT at constant temperature and water concentration. The results show that there are transition points on the cloud point curve in a very narrow range of concentration of surfactant AOT. The transition points were changed with the temperature and water concentration. These phenomena show that lower temperature is suitable to forming microemulsion droplet and the microemulsion with high water concentration is likely to absorb more surfactants to structure the interface.

  5. Surfactant aggregation and its application to drag reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwigsson, I.


    A number of different drag-reducing (DR) surfactants: nonionics, zwitterionics and ampholytics suitable for use in both cool and hot water solution are described. These surfactants have been tested under various conditions common in district energy distribution. The surfactants described are environmentally more acceptable than the organic salts of quaternary ammonium compounds which have so far dominated as DR surfactants. The micellar phase formed in water by the surfactant system cetylpyridinium chloride/sodium salicylate has been investigated with surfactant self-diffusion (NMR) measurements and cryo-transmission electron microscopy. Results from this study support the hypothesis that worm-like micellar systems form a network before the phase boundary, when the first liquid crystalline phase formed is a bicontinuous cubic phase. A series of surfactants similar to the one used in the DR experiments has been examined in dilute solutions. Critical micellar concentration and the size of these micelles are investigated as a function of the amphiphile concentration, the pH and salt concentration. Adsorption properties on silica of zwitterionic dodecyl-N,N-dimethylammonio alkanoates, with polymethylene interchange arms of different lengths, have been investigated with an in situ ellipsometry technique. The use of two-tone frequency modulation spectroscopy as a general method for the determination of water activity has been initiated. 173 refs, 6 figs

  6. Sorptive affinity of ionic surfactants on silt loamy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchao Qi


    Full Text Available Due to their broad applications, ionic surfactants have already been released into or utilized in soil and environmental systems. However, current understanding on the sorption behavior of surfactants onto soils is still limited. This work systematically investigated the sorption kinetics and isotherms of one cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, and one anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, onto a silt loamy soil to determine the governing sorption mechanisms. The pseudo-second-order rate equation described the sorption kinetics data better than the pseudo-first-order rate equation. Experimental data showed that the sorption equilibrium for CTAB and SDS were reached at 24 and 240 h, respectively. Langmuir equation was better than Freundlich equation in simulating the sorption isotherms of CTAB and SDS on the soil. Soil Langmuir maximum sorption capacity of CTAB was much higher than that to SDS. When the experimental temperature increased, the sorption of CTAB and SDS on the soil decreased. In addition, the sorptive process of the surfactants on the soil was spontaneous and exothermal, as indicated by the absolute values of Gibbs free energy and enthalpy. The results also indicated that physical sorption was the dominant mechanism for the sorption of the two surfactants on the soil. Findings from this work are crucial to understand the environmental behaviors of ionic surfactants.

  7. Surface tension method for determining binding constants for cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of ionic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmawardana, U.R.; Christian, S.D.; Tucker, E.E.; Taylor, R.W.; Scamehorn, J.F. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States))


    A new method has been developed for determining binding constants of complexes of cyclodextrins with surface-active compounds, including water-soluble ionic surfactants. The technique requires measuring the change in surface tension caused by addition of a cyclodextrin (CD) to aqueous solutions of the surfactant; the experimental results lead directly to inferred values of the thermodynamic activity of the surfactant. Surface tension results are reported for three different surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in the presence and in the absence of added [beta]-CD. Data for CPC have been obtained at surfactant concentrations below and above the critical micelle concentration. Correlations between surface tension and surfactant activity are expressed by the Szyszkowski equation, which subsumes the Langmuir adsorption model and the Gibbs equation. It is observed that the surface tension increases monotonically as [beta]-cyclodextrin is added to ionic surfactant solutions. At concentrations of CD well in excess of the surfactant concentration, the surface tension approaches that of pure water, indicating that neither the surfactant-CD complexes nor CD itself are surface active. Binding constants are inferred from a model that incorporates the parameters of the Szyszkowski equation and mass action constants relating to the formation of micelles from monomers of the surfactant and the counterion. Evidence is given that two molecules of CD can complex the C-16 hydrocarbon chain of the cetyl surfactants. 30 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Mobilization of arsenic from contaminated sediment by anionic and nonionic surfactants. (United States)

    Liang, Chuan; Peng, Xianjia


    The increasing manufacture of surfactants and their wide application in industry, agriculture and household detergents have resulted in large amounts of surfactant residuals being discharged into water and distributed into sediment. Surfactants have the potential to enhance arsenic mobility, leading to risks to the environment and even human beings. In this study, batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate arsenic mobilization from contaminated sediment by the commercial anionic surfactants sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium laureth sulfate (AES) and nonionic surfactants phenyl-polyethylene glycol (Triton X-100) and polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate (Tween-80). The ability of surfactants to mobilize arsenic followed the order AES>SDBS>SDS≈Triton X-100>Tween 80. Arsenic mobilization by AES and Triton X-100 increased greatly with the increase of surfactant concentration and pH, while arsenic release by SDBS, SDS and Tween-80 slightly increased. The divalent ion Ca(2+) caused greater reduction of arsenic mobilization than Na(+). Sequential extraction experiments showed that the main fraction of arsenic mobilized was the specifically adsorbed fraction. Solid phase extraction showed that arsenate (As(V)) was the main species mobilized by surfactants, accounting for 65.05%-77.68% of the total mobilized arsenic. The mobilization of arsenic was positively correlated with the mobilization of iron species. The main fraction of mobilized arsenic was the dissolved fraction, accounting for 70% of total mobilized arsenic. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Phosphine oxide surfactants revisited. (United States)

    Stubenrauch, Cosima; Preisig, Natalie; Laughlin, Robert G


    This review summarizes everything we currently know about the nonionic surfactants alkyl dimethyl (C(n)DMPO) and alkyl diethyl (C(n)DEPO) phosphine oxide (PO surfactants). The review starts with the synthesis and the general properties (Section 2) of these compounds and continues with their interfacial properties (Section 3) such as surface tension, surface rheology, interfacial tension and adsorption at solid surfaces. We discuss studies on thin liquid films and foams stabilized by PO surfactants (Section 4) as well as studies on their self-assembly into lyotropic liquid crystals and microemulsions, respectively (Section 5). We aim at encouraging colleagues from both academia and industry to take on board PO surfactants whenever possible and feasible because of their broad variety of excellent properties.

  10. The effects of deoxycholate and sodium dodecyl sulphate on the serological reactivity of antigens isolated from six Bacteroides reference strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Beckmann (Ilse); F. Meisel-Mikolajczyk; H.C.S. Wallenburg (Henk)


    markdownabstractAbstract The detergents sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and sodium deoxycholate (NaD) are frequently used as solvents for macromolecular polysaccharide complexes in immunochemical and serological techniques. The influence of the disaggregating surfactants on the serological reactivit

  11. The effects of deoxycholate and sodium dodecyl sulphate on the serological reactivity of antigens isolated from six Bacteroides reference strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Beckmann (Ilse); F. Meisel-Mikolajczyk; H.C.S. Wallenburg (Henk)


    markdownabstractAbstract The detergents sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and sodium deoxycholate (NaD) are frequently used as solvents for macromolecular polysaccharide complexes in immunochemical and serological techniques. The influence of the disaggregating surfactants on the serological

  12. Interactions between Surfactants in Solution and Electrospun Protein Fibers: Effects on Release Behavior and Fiber Properties. (United States)

    Stephansen, Karen; García-Díaz, María; Jessen, Flemming; Chronakis, Ioannis S; Nielsen, Hanne M


    Intermolecular interaction phenomena occurring between endogenous compounds, such as proteins and bile salts, and electrospun compounds are so far unreported, despite the exposure of fibers to such biorelevant compounds when applied for biomedical purposes, e.g., tissue engineering, wound healing, and drug delivery. In the present study, we present a systematic investigation of how surfactants and proteins, as physiologically relevant components, interact with insulin-loaded fish sarcoplasmic protein (FSP) electrospun fibers (FSP-Ins fibers) in solution and thereby affect fiber properties such as accessible surface hydrophilicity, physical stability, and release characteristics of an encapsulated drug. Interactions between insulin-loaded protein fibers and five anionic surfactants (sodium taurocholate, sodium taurodeoxycholate, sodium glycocholate, sodium glycodeoxycholate, and sodium dodecyl sulfate), a cationic surfactant (benzalkonium chloride), and a neutral surfactant (Triton X-100) were studied. The anionic surfactants increased the insulin release in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the neutral surfactant had no significant effect on the release. Interestingly, only minute amounts of insulin were released from the fibers when benzalkonium chloride was present. The FSP-Ins fibers appeared dense after incubation with this cationic surfactant, whereas high fiber porosity was observed after incubation with anionic or neutral surfactants. Contact angle measurements and staining with the hydrophobic dye 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid indicated that the FSP-Ins fibers were hydrophobic, and showed that the fiber surface properties were affected differently by the surfactants. Bovine serum albumin also affected insulin release in vitro, indicating that also proteins may affect the fiber performance in an in vivo setting.

  13. Effect of curcumin on the binding of cationic, anionic and nonionic surfactants with myoglobin (United States)

    Mondal, Satyajit; Ghosh, Soumen


    Interaction of a globular protein, myoglobin and different surfactants has been studied in the absence and presence of curcumin in phosphate buffer at pH = 7.4 by UV-VIS spectrophotometry, fluorimetry and fluorescence polarization anisotropy methods. Results show that heme environment of myoglobin is changed by cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium N-dodecanoyl sarcosinate (SDDS). In the presence of curcumin, CTAB cannot change the heme; but SDDS can make change. Nonionic surfactant N-decanoyl-N-methylglucamine (Mega 10) cannot change the heme environment. Protein is unfolded by the surfactant. Curcumin can prevent the unfolding of protein in the low concentration region of ionic surfactants such as CTAB and SDDS. In nonionic surfactant media, curcumin accelerates the denaturation process. Due to myoglobin-curcumin complex formation, rotational motion of curcumin decreases in surfactant media and so anisotropy increases.

  14. Perfluorinated Alcohols Induce Complex Coacervation in Mixed Surfactants. (United States)

    Jenkins, Samuel I; Collins, Christopher M; Khaledi, Morteza G


    Recently, we reported a unique and nearly ubiquitous phenomenon of inducing simple and complex coacervation in solutions of a broad variety of individual and mixed amphiphiles and over a wide range of concentrations and mole fractions. This paper describes a novel type of biphasic separation in aqueous solutions of mixed cationic-anionic (catanionic) surfactants induced by hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP). The test cases included mixtures of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) (surfactants with different carbon chain lengths) as well as dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) with SDS (surfactants with the same carbon chain lengths). The CTAB-SDS-HFIP coacervate systems can be produced at many different mole ratios of surfactant, but DTAB-SDS-HFIP formed only coacervates at equimolar (1:1) mole ratios of DTAB and SDS. The phase-transition behavior of both systems was studied over a wide range of surfactant and HFIP concentrations at the stoichiometric (1:1) mole ratio of cationic/anionic surfactants. The chemical compositions of each of the two phases (aqueous-rich and coacervate phases) were studied with regard to the concentrations of HFIP, water, and individual surfactants. It is revealed that the surfactant-rich phase (coacervate phase) contains a large percentage of fluoroalcohol relative to the aqueous phase and is enriched in both surfactants but contains a small percentage of water. Surprisingly, the concentration of water in the coacervate phase increases as the total HFIP concentration is increased while the concentration of HFIP in the coacervate phase remains relatively constant, which means a larger amount of water associated with HFIP molecules is extracted into the coacervate phase, which results in the growth of the phase. The volume of the coacervate phase increases with an increase in surfactant concentration and total HFIP %. The coacervate phase is highly enriched in the two amphiphilic ions (DTA(+) and DS

  15. Study on aqueous two-phase systems of the mixture SDS/CTAB surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; CHEN Yah-ming; ZHAO Kong-shuang; Takumi HIKIDA


    The phenomenon of two dilute aqueous phases composed of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide(CTAB) was investigated under various conditions such as concentrations and molarratios of the two surfactants, the addition of sodium chloride and temperature. Vesicles formation was found in theboth phases by TEM image.

  16. Electrophoretic separations in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchips using a mixture of ionic and zwitterionic surfactants. (United States)

    Guan, Qian; Noblitt, Scott D; Henry, Charles S


    The use of mixtures of ionic and zwitterionic surfactants in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchips is reported. The effect of surfactant concentration on electroosmotic flow (EOF) was studied for a single anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), a single zwitterionic surfactant (N-tetradecylammonium-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate, TDAPS), and a mixed SDS/TDAPS surfactant system. SDS increased the EOF as reported previously while TDAPS showed an initial increase in EOF followed by a reduction at higher concentrations. When TDAPS was added to a solution containing SDS, the EOF decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. The EOF for all three surfactant systems followed expected pH trends, with increasing EOF at higher pH. The mixed surfactant system allowed tuning of the EOF across a range of pH and concentration conditions. After establishing the EOF behavior, the adsorption/desorption kinetics were measured and showed a slower adsorption/desorption rate for TDAPS than SDS. Finally, the separation and electrochemical detection of model catecholamines in buffer and reduced glutathione in red blood cell lysate using the mixed surfactant system were explored. The mixed surfactant system provided shorter analysis times and/or improved resolution when compared to the single surfactant systems.

  17. Inorganic Salts Effect on Adsorption Behavior of Surfactant AEC at Liquid/Liquid Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhua Yang


    Full Text Available Behaviors of nonionic-anionic surfactant sodium fatty Alcohol polyoxyethylene Ether Carboxylate (AEC at dodecane/water interface influenced by inorganic salts NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 were investigated by interfacial tension methods and molecular dynamics simulation. Contrasted distributions of various salts at interface and in aqueous solutions and resulting lowering the interfacial tension have been observed. Composition of surfactants-salts complex at interface surrounding different cations within 2.5 Å were found to be in two categories: (i the octahedral complexation of divalent cation was generated by the participation of surfactant head group and water molecule, (ii only water molecules were involved in the complexation. According to the simulation results, all the Na+ involved in type ii, without any direct interaction with surfactant head group, while Ca2+ and Mg2+ involved in type I, following the formula: Ca2++4 (surfactant +2(H2 O⇄ [Ca (surfactant4 [(H2 O]2]2+ M2+g+(surfactant+5 (H2 O⇄[Mg (surfactant [(H2 O]5 ]2+ This strongly chelate interaction between Ca2+ and surfactants makes surfactants more stretched at interface, thus more effective in oil/water interface.

  18. Surfactant-Amino Acid and Surfactant-Surfactant Interactions in Aqueous Medium: a Review. (United States)

    Malik, Nisar Ahmad


    An overview of surfactant-amino acid interactions mainly in aqueous medium has been discussed. Main emphasis has been on the solution thermodynamics and solute-solvent interactions. Almost all available data on the topic has been presented in a lucid and simple way. Conventional surfactants have been discussed as amphiphiles forming micelles and amino acids as additives and their effect on the various physicochemical properties of these conventional surfactants. Surfactant-surfactant interactions in aqueous medium, various mixed surfactant models, are also highlighted to assess their interactions in aqueous medium. Finally, their applied part has been taken into consideration to interpret their possible uses.

  19. Surfactant effect on functionalized carbon nanotube coated snowman-like particles and their electro-responsive characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ke; Liu, Ying Dan [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyoung Jin, E-mail: [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)


    The core–shell structured snowman-like (SL) microparticles coated by functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) were prepared in the presence of different surfactants including cationic surfactant-cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and anionic surfactant-sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS). The effect of surfactants on adsorption onto SL particles was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and conductivity. The cationic surfactant is found to be more effective than anionic surfactant for helping nanotube adsorbed onto microparticle due to the presence of electrostatic interaction between the functionalized MWNT and the surfactant. Furthermore, the MWNT/SL particles dispersed in silicone oil exhibited a typical fibril structure of the electrorheological characteristics under an applied electric field observed by an optical microscope (OM), in which the state of nanotubes wrapped on the particles strongly affects their electro-responsive characteristics.

  20. Influence of surfactant tail branching and organization on the orientation of liquid crystals at aqueous-liquid crystal interfaces. (United States)

    Lockwood, Nathan A; de Pablo, Juan J; Abbott, Nicholas L


    We have examined the influence of two aspects of surfactant structure--tail branching and tail organization--on the orientational ordering (so-called anchoring) of water-immiscible, thermotropic liquid crystals in contact with aqueous surfactant solutions. First, we evaluated the influence of branches in surfactant tails on the anchoring of nematic liquid crystals at water-liquid crystal interfaces. We compared interfaces that were laden with one of three linear surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium dodecanesulfonate, and isomerically pure linear sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate) to interfaces laden with branched sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate. We carried out these experiments at 60 degrees C, above the Krafft temperatures of all the surfactants studied, and used the liquid crystal TL205 (a mixture of cyclohexane-fluorinated biphenyls and fluorinated terphenyls), which forms a nematic phase at 60 degrees C. Linear surfactants caused TL205 to assume a perpendicular orientation (homeotropic anchoring) above a threshold concentration of surfactant and parallel orientation (planar anchoring) at lower concentrations. In contrast, branched sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate caused planar anchoring of TL205 at all concentrations up to the critical micelle concentration of the surfactant. Second, we used sodium dodecanesulfonate and a commercial linear sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate to probe the influence of surfactant tail organization on the orientations of liquid crystals at water-liquid crystal interfaces. Commercial linear sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, which comprises a mixture of ortho and para isomers, has been previously characterized to form less ordered monolayers than sodium dodecanesulfonate at oil-water interfaces at room temperature. We found sodium dodecanesulfonate to cause homeotropic anchoring of both TL205 and 4'-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB, nematic at room temperature), whereas commercial linear sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate caused predominantly

  1. Postdeposition dispersion of aerosol medications using surfactant carriers. (United States)

    Marcinkowski, Amy L; Garoff, Stephen; Tilton, Robert D; Pilewski, Joseph M; Corcoran, Timothy E


    Inhaled aerosol drugs provide a means of directly treating the lungs; however, aerosol deposition and drug distribution can be nonuniform, especially in obstructive lung disease. We hypothesize that surfactant-based aerosol carriers will disperse medications over airway surfaces after deposition through surface tension driven flows, increasing dose uniformity and improving drug distribution into underventilated regions. We considered saline and surfactant aerosol delivery via cannula onto several model airway surfaces including porcine gastric mucus (PGM) and both cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEs). Fluorescent dye and microspheres (d = 100 nm, 1 mum) were used to qualitatively and quantitatively assess postdeposition dispersion. Aerosol volume median diameters were in the 1-4 mum range. The tested surfactants included sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), tyloxapol, and calfactant. All surfactants tested on PGM (tyloxapol, calfactant, SDS, and CTAB) significantly increased dispersion area versus saline with all markers (2-20-fold increases; all p surfactants tested on CF HBEs (tyloxapol and calfactant) significantly increased dispersion area versus saline with all markers (1.6-4.1-fold increases; all p Surfactant carriers enhanced dispersion after aerosol deposition onto model airway surfaces, and may improve the efficacy of inhaled preparations such as inhaled antibiotics for cystic fibrosis.

  2. Study of the interactions between lysozyme and a fully-fluorinated surfactant in aqueous solution at different surfactant-protein ratios. (United States)

    Ruso, Juan M; González-Pérez, Alfredo; Prieto, Gerardo; Sarmiento, Félix


    The interactions of a fluorinated surfactant, sodium perfluorooctanoate, with lysozyme, have been investigated by a combination of UV absorbance, electrical conductivity and dynamic light scattering to detect and to characterize the conformational transitions of lysozyme. By using difference spectroscopy, the transition was followed as a function of surfactant concentration, and the data were analyzed to obtain the Gibbs energy of the transition in water (DeltaGw(o)) and in a hydrophobic environment (DeltaGh(o)) for saturated protein-surfactant complexes. Electrical conductivity was used to determine the critical micelle concentration of the surfactant in the presence of different lysozyme concentration. From these results, the average number of surfactant monomer per protein molecule was calculated. Finally, dynamic light scattering show that only changes in the secondary structure of the protein can be observed.

  3. A Study on the Optimization of Physical and Chemical Parameters for the Precipitate of Sodium Alkylsulfate with Cetylpyridinium Chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sun Wha; Moon, Sung Doo; Lee, Don Keun; Lee, Dong Jae; Kang, Young Soo [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    The optimum conditions for the most effective precipitate of surfactant complex of sodium alkylsulfate with cetylpyridinium chloride were studied in the aqueous solution. The parameters such as the alkyl chain length of anionic surfactants, molar ratio of two surfactants, temperature and the concentration of added NaCl in the aqueous solution were correlatively studied for the productivity of the precipitate formation. By the productivity, the optimum conditions to produce complex of anionic surfactant with cationic surfactant were the longer alkyl chain, equivalent molar ratio between anionic and cationic surfactants, 0 .deg. C and 1.5 M NaCl

  4. Electrophoretic and spectroscopic characterization of the protein patterns formed in different surfactant solutions. (United States)

    Blanco, Elena; Ruso, Juan M; Prieto, Gerardo; Sarmiento, Félix


    The complexations between catalase and the sodium perfluorooctanoate/sodium octanoate and sodium perfluorooctanoate/sodium dodecanoate systems have been studied by a combination of electrophoresis and spectroscopy measurements. The numbers of adsorption sites on the protein were determined from the observed increases of the zeta-potential as a function of surfactant concentration in the regions where the adsorption was a consequence of the hydrophobic effect. The Gibbs energies of adsorption of the surfactants onto the protein were evaluated and the results show that for all systems, Gibbs energies are negative and larger, in absolute values, at low values of surfactant concentration where binding to the high energy sites takes place, and become less negative as more surfactant molecules bind, suggesting a saturation process. The role of hydrophobic interactions in these systems has been demonstrated to be the predominant. Spectroscopy measurements suggest conformational changes on catalase depending on the surfactant mixture as well as the mixed ratio. No isosbestic point or shifts have been found showing that catalase has spectrophotometrically one kind of binding site for these surfactant mixtures.

  5. Non-covalent bonding interaction of surfactants with functionalized carbon nanotubes in proton exchange membranes for fuel cell applications. (United States)

    Sayeed, M Abu; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Younjin; Gopalan, A I; Lee, Kwang-Pill; Choi, Sang-June


    Dispersion of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in proton exchange membranes (PEMs) was conducted via non-covalent bonding between benzene rings of various surfactants and functionalized MWCNTs. In the solution casting method, dispersion of functionalized MWCNTs in PEMs such as Nafion membranes is a critical issue. In this study, 1 wt.% pristine MWCNTs (p-MWCNTs) and oxidized MWCNTs (ox-MWCNTs) were reinforced in Nafion membranes by adding 0.1-0.5 wt.% of a surfactant such as benzalkonium chloride (BKC) as a cationic surfactant with a benzene ring, Tween-80 as a nonanionic surfactant without a benzene ring, sodium dodecylsulfonate (SDS) as an anionic surfactant without a benzene ring, or sodium dodecylben-zenesulfonate (SDBS) as an anionic surfactant with a benzene ring and their effects on the dispersion of nanocomposites were then observed. Among these surfactants, those with benzene rings such as BKC and SDBS produced enhanced dispersion via non-covalent bonding interaction between CNTs and surfactants. Specifically, the surfactants were adsorbed onto the surface of functionalized MWCNTs, where they prevented re-aggregation of MWCNTs in the nanocomposites. Furthermore, the prepared CNTs reinforced nanocomposite membranes showed reduced methanol uptake values while the ion exchange capacity values were maintained. The enhanced properties, including thermal property of the CNTs reinforced PEMs with surfactants, could be applicable to fuel cell applications.

  6. Lung surfactant protein A (SP-A) interactions with model lung surfactant lipids and an SP-B fragment. (United States)

    Sarker, Muzaddid; Jackman, Donna; Booth, Valerie


    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is the most abundant protein component of lung surfactant, a complex mixture of proteins and lipids. SP-A performs host defense activities and modulates the biophysical properties of surfactant in concerted action with surfactant protein B (SP-B). Current models of lung surfactant mechanism generally assume SP-A functions in its octadecameric form. However, one of the findings of this study is that when SP-A is bound to detergent and lipid micelles that mimic lung surfactant phospholipids, it exists predominantly as smaller oligomers, in sharp contrast to the much larger forms observed when alone in water. These investigations were carried out in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dodecylphosphocholine (DPC), lysomyristoylphosphatidylcholine (LMPC), lysomyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (LMPG), and mixed LMPC + LMPG micelles, using solution and diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We have also probed SP-A's interaction with Mini-B, a biologically active synthetic fragment of SP-B, in the presence of micelles. Despite variations in Mini-B's own interactions with micelles of different compositions, SP-A is found to interact with Mini-B in all micelle systems and perhaps to undergo a further structural rearrangement upon interacting with Mini-B. The degree of SP-A-Mini-B interaction appears to be dependent on the type of lipid headgroup and is likely mediated through the micelles, rather than direct binding.

  7. Capillary electrophoresis investigation on equilibrium between polymer-related and surfactant-related species in aqueous polymer-surfactant solutions. (United States)

    Wu, Yefan; Chen, Miaomiao; Fang, Yun; Zhu, Meng


    It was inferred from aqueous solution behavior of nonionic polymers and anionic surfactants that the formation of charged polymer-bound surfactant micelle above critical aggregation concentration (cac) and the formation of free surfactant micelle beyond polymer saturation point (psp), but there was still a lack of direct experimental evidence for the considered equilibrium chemical species. Three modes of capillary electrophoresis are applied in this paper to study the complexation between nonionic polymers, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or polyethylene glycol (PEG), and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) by successfully distinguishing the imaginary charged polymer-bound SDBS micelle from nonionic polymer and SDBS molecule. Perhaps even more important, it is the action of SDBS as both a main surfactant and a UV probe that makes the free surfactant micelle emerged in electropherogram beyond psp, and thus makes it possible for the first time to provide the equilibrium relationship of the polymer-related and the surfactant-related species in the concentration regions divided into by cac and psp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of nanoparticles to improve the performance of sodium dodecyl sulfate flooding in a sandstone reservoir (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Ali


    One of the prominent enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods in oil reservoirs is surfactant flooding. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of nanoparticles on the surfactant adsorption. Real reservoir sandstone rock samples were implemented in adsorption tests. The ranges of the initial surfactant and nano silica concentrations were from 500 to 5000 ppm and 500 ppm to 2000 ppm, respectively. The commercial surfactant used is sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an ionic surfactant and two different types of nano silica were employed. The rate of surfactant losses extremely depends on the concentration of surfactant in the system, and it was found that the adsorption of surfactant decreased with increasing the concentration of nano silica. Also, it was found that hydrophobic nano silica is more effective than hydrophilic nanoparticles.

  9. Research on surfactant flooding in high temperature and high-salinity reservoir for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ming [Southwest Petroleum Univ., Chengdu, Sichuan (China). State Key Lab. of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation; Southwest Petroleum Univ., Chengdu, Sichuan (China). School of Material Science and Engineering; Zhao, Jinzhou; Yang, Yan [Southwest Petroleum Univ., Chengdu, Sichuan (China). State Key Lab. of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation; Wang, Xu [Southwest Petroleum Univ., Chengdu, Sichuan (China). School of Material Science and Engineering


    The aim of this work was to research the solution properties of a new surfactant flooding system for high temperature and high salinity reservoir, which include trimeric sulfonate surfactants 1,2,3-tri(2-oxypropyl sulfonation-3-alkylether-propoxyl) propanes (TTSS-n) and anion-nonionic surfactant NPSO [sodium nonyl phenol polyethyleneoxy ether sulfonate, (EO = 10)]. The critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of five trimeric sulfonate surfactants were smaller than 400 mg L{sup -1}. Furthermore, their interfacial tensions (IFTs) could reach an ultralow value with Tazhong 4 oil at lower concentrations. Through optimized formulation, we found that TTSS-12 had better properties and was selected as the major component of the surfactant flooding system. We designed an optimal formulation of the surfactant flooding system with 1000 mg . L{sup -1} TTSS-12 and 1000 mg . L{sup -1} NPSO surfactant. The system with a very small surfactant concentration could reach ultralow IFT with Tazhong 4 crude oils at high temperature (110 C) and high concentration formation brine (112,228.8 mg/L TDS), which proved that the simpler component surfactant had better reservoir compatibility. NPSO could weaken the disadvantage of the surfactant TTSS-12 in oil/water interface. The stability of this surfactant flooding system was evaluated by aging time, static adsorption and chromatographic separation. All experiments showed that it still keeps ultralow IFT in high temperature and high salinity conditions. Coreflooding experimentation showed that average oil recovery reached 9.8 wt% by surfactant flooding, therefore, it is feasible to use as a surfactant flooding system for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). (orig.)

  10. Sizing up surfactant synthesis. (United States)

    Han, SeungHye; Mallampalli, Rama K


    Phosphatidylcholine is generated through de novo synthesis and remodeling involving a lysophospholipid. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, research from the Shimizu lab (Harayama et al., 2014) demonstrates the highly selective enzymatic behavior of lysophospholipid acyltransferases. The authors present an enzymatic model for phosphatidylcholine molecular species diversification that impacts surfactant formation.

  11. Study of the formation and solution properties of worm-like micelles formed using both N-hexadecyl-N-methylpiperidinium bromide-based cationic surfactant and anionic surfactant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihu Yan

    Full Text Available The viscoelastic properties of worm-like micelles formed by mixing the cationic surfactant N-hexadecyl-N-methylpiperidinium bromide (C16MDB with the anionic surfactant sodium laurate (SL in aqueous solutions were investigated using rheological measurements. The effects of sodium laurate and temperature on the worm-like micelles and the mechanism of the observed shear thinning phenomenon and pseudoplastic behavior were systematically investigated. Additionally, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images further ascertained existence of entangled worm-like micelles.

  12. Sodium Test (United States)

    ... low levels of cortisol, aldosterone and sex hormones ( Addison disease ) Drinking too much water as might occur during ... urinary sodium levels may indicate diuretic use or Addison disease. Sodium levels are often evaluated in relation to ...

  13. Sodium Phosphate (United States)

    Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) ... view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

  14. Sodium Oxybate (United States)

    Sodium oxybate is used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and ... urge to sleep during daily activities, and cataplexy). Sodium oxybate is in a class of medications called ...

  15. Surfactants enhance recovery of poorly soluble drugs during microdialysis sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koplin, Sebastian; Kumpugdee-Vollrath, Mont; Bauer-Brandl, Annette


    Aim of this project was to investigate the applicability of a recently developed in vitro microdialysis-sampling approach in connection with a dissolution-/permeation (D/P) system, especially the impact of surfactants within the perfusion fluid. The D/P-system is based on side-by-side chambers...... drug-dissolution (-release) and drug permeation. Furthermore, it should allow quantification of the unbound (free) drug concentration. In the first step, it was assessed, if the addition of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) to the perfusate of the microdialysis system affects...... celecoxib, i.e. the fraction of drug, which is not associated with taurocholate surfactant micelles. In buffer, the measured concentrations matched the overall CXB concentrations. By the use of SDS-containing perfusates microdialysis sampling enabled reliable quantification of minute amounts of free CXB...

  16. Chemoenzymatic synthesis and properties of novel lactone-type anionic surfactants. (United States)

    Mori, Keisuke; Matsumura, Shuichi


    Two series of lactone-type surfactants with and without a hexyl side chain were prepared by the cyclocondensation of dimethyl alkanedioates with unsaturated diols, such as cis-2-butene-1,4-diol and ricinoleyl alcohol, using a lipase, followed by the addition of hydrophilic 3-mercaptopropionic acid in the presence of triethylamine. The lactone-type surfactants showed clear cmc values and surface tension lowering in aqueous solution irrespective of the hexyl side chain. It was found that the cmc values of lactone-type surfactants were lower than that of typical anionics, e.g., sodium laurate, and the cmc value became lower with increasing size of the lactone ring. The adsorption area at the surface of the aqueous lactone-type surfactant solution was larger when compared to the corresponding non-lactone-type surfactants. Lactone-type surfactants without the hexyl side chain aggregated quickly, forming 3-10 nm micelles; on the other hand, lactone-type surfactants with the hexyl side chain formed significantly larger micelles. This is due to the steric hindrance of the hexyl group on the lactone ring. The solubilization ability of the lactone-type surfactants with a hexyl side chain was superior to those without a hexyl side chain. The lactone-type surfactants showed a high foaming power and low foaming stability. They were also biodegraded by activated sludge.

  17. Pyrene removal from contaminated soil using electrokinetic process combined with surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Enayat Hashemi


    Full Text Available Background: Pyrene is one of the stable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that is considered as an important pollutants, because of extensive distribution in the environment and carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Among the various treatment techniques, electrokinetic method is an environmental- friendly process for organic and mineral pollutants adsorbed to soil with fine pore size the same as clay and low hydraulic conductivity soils. For improving the efficiency of pyrene removal from soil, soulobilization of pyrene from soil could be used by surfactants. Materials and Methods : In this study, clay soil was selected as model because of the specific properties. Combined method using surfactant and electrokinetic was applied for pyrene removal from soil. Experiments were designed using response surface methodology (RSM, and effect of three variables includes surfactant concentration, voltage and surfactant type were evaluated for pyrene removal from contaminated soil. Results: Pyrene removal using anionic surfactants(SDS and nonionic surfactants(TX100 as a solubilizing agents has high removal efficiency. In the optimum condition with 95% confidence coefficient, utilizing mixed surfactants of sodium dodecyl sulfate and triton X-100 with the same volume, induced of 18.54 volt and 6.53 percent surfactant concentration have 94.6% pyrene removal efficiency. Conclusion:: Results of this study shows that electrokinetic process combined with surfactant as solubilizing agent could be applied as an efficient method for treating the pyrene-contaminated soils.

  18. Reversibly enhanced aqueous solubilization of volatile organic compounds using a redox-reversible surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingjie Li; Senlin Tian; Hong Mo; Ping Ning


    Surfactant-enhanced remediation (SER) is an effective method for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated soils and groundwater.To reuse the surfactant the VOCs must be separated from the surfactant solutions.The water solubility of VOCs can be enhanced using reversible surfactants with a redox-acive group,(ferrocenylmethyl)dodecyldimethylammonium bromide (Fc12) and (ferrocenylmethyl)tetradecanedimethylammonium bromide (Fc14),above and below their critical micelle concentrations (CMC) under reducing (I+) and oxidative (I2+) conditions.The CMC values of Fc12 and Fc14 in I+ are 0.94 and 0.56 mmol/L and the solubilization of toluene by Fc12 and Fc14 in I+ for toluene is higher than the solubilization achieved with sodium dodecyl sulfate,cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and Trition X-114.The solubilization capacity of the ferrocenyl surfactants for each tested VOCs ranked as follows:ethylbenzene > toluene > benzene.The solubilities of VOCs by reversible surfactant in I+ were 30% higher than those in 12+ at comparable surfactant concentrations.The effects of Fc14 concentrations on VOCs removal efficiency were as follows:benzene > toluene > ethylbenzene.However,an improved removal efficiency was achieved at low ferrocenyl surfactant concentrations.Furthermore,the reversible surfactant could be recycled through chemical approaches to remove organic pollutants,which could significantly reduce the operating costs of SER technology.

  19. Effects of Surfactant on Zinc Recovery by Solvent Extraction during Leaching in HCl—FeCl3 Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LULizhu; KANGXiaobong; 等


    The effects of surfactant on the solvent extraction in leaching sphalerite were investigated. It is found that sodium dodecyl sulfonate is the effective surfactant in improving the zinc recovery from sphalerite in the aqueous FeCl3-HCl-tetrachloroethylene system. Through the measurements of surface tension and viscosity of the sphalerite slurry modified with different surfactants, it is concluded that sodium dodecyl sulfonate in the concentration range of 0.05 to 0.2g·L-1 can improve the viscosity of sphalerite slurry in the water, decrease the surface tension of leaching solution, prevent the aggregation of ore particles, and give very high zinc extraction.

  20. Studies on interfacial behavior and wettability change phenomena by ionic and nonionic surfactants in presence of alkalis and salt for enhanced oil recovery (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Mandal, Ajay


    Surfactant flooding is one of the most promising method of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) used after the conventional water flooding. The addition of alkali improves the performance of surfactant flooding due to synergistic effect between alkali and surfactant on reduction of interfacial tension (IFT), wettability alteration and emulsification. In the present study the interfacial tension, contact angle, emulsification and emulsion properties of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) surfactants against crude oil have been investigated in presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) and alkalis viz. sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH), sodium metaborate (SMB) and diethanolamine (DEA). All three surfactants significantly reduce the IFT values, which are further reduced to ultra-low value (∼10-4 mN/m) by addition of alkalis and salt. It has been found experimentally that alkali-surfactant systems change the wettability of an intermediate-wet quartz rock to water-wet. Emulsification of crude oil by surfactant and alkali has also been investigated in terms of the phase volume and stability of emulsion. A comparative FTIR analysis of crude oil and different emulsions were performed to investigate the interactions between crude oil and displacing water in presence of surfactant and alkali.

  1. Use of Viscosity to Probe the Interaction of Anionic Surfactants with a Coagulant Protein from Moringa oleifera Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Maikokera


    Full Text Available The intrinsic viscosity of the coagulant protein was evaluated from the flow times of the protein solutions through a capillary viscometer, and the results suggested the coagulant protein to be globular. The interactions of the coagulant protein with anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS were also investigated by capillary viscometry. We conclude that there is strong protein-surfactant interaction at very low surfactant concentrations, and the behavior of the anionic surfactants in solutions containing coagulant protein is very similar. The viscometry results of protein-SDS system are compared with surface tension, fluorescence, and circular dichroism reported earlier. Combining the results of the four studies, the four approaches seem to confirm the same picture of the coagulant protein-SDS interaction. All the physical quantities when studied as function of surfactant concentration for 0.05% (w/v protein solution either exhibited a maximum or minimum at a critical SDS concentration.

  2. Interactions of short chain phenylalkanoic acids within ionic surfactant micelles in aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Kashif


    Full Text Available % SDS KR nema Solubilization and interactions of phenylalkanoic acids induced by cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB and an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS was investigated spectrophotometrically at 25.0°C. The UV spectra of the additives (acids were measured with and without surfactant above and below critical micelle concentration (cmc of the surfactant. The presence of alkyl chain in phenylalkanoic acids is responsible for hydrophobic interaction resulting in shift of the spectra towards longer wavelength (red shift. The value of partition coefficient (Kx between the bulk water and surfactant micelles and in turn standard free energy change of solubilization (ΔGpº were also estimated by measuring the differential absorbance (ΔA of the additives in micellar solutions.

  3. Stratum corneum lipid removal by surfactants: relation to in vivo irritation. (United States)

    Froebe, C L; Simion, F A; Rhein, L D; Cagan, R H; Kligman, A


    The relationship between the in vivo irritation potential of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) and the ability of these two surfactants to remove lipid from the stratum corneum (SC) in vitro were investigated. Either surfactant removes detectable levels of lipids only above its critical micelle concentration (CMC). At high concentrations the surfactants removed only very small amounts of cholesterol, free fatty acid, the esters of those materials, and possibly squalene. SLS and LAS have been shown, below the CMC, to bind to and irritate the SC. Thus, clinical irritation provoked by SLS or LAS is unlikely to be directly linked with extraction of SC lipid. The milder forms of irritation--dryness, tightness, roughness--may involve both surfactant binding to and denaturation of keratin as well as disruption of lipid. Our findings challenge earlier assumptions that surfactants' degreasing of the SC is involved in the induction of erythema.

  4. How Chain Length and Charge Affect Surfactant Denaturation of Acyl Coenzyme A Binding Protein (ACBP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kell Kleiner; Otzen, Daniel


    Using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, equilibria and kinetics of unfolding of acyl coenzyme A binding protein (ACBP) have been investigated in sodium alkyl sulfate surfactants of different chain length (8-16 carbon atoms) and with different proportions of the nonionic surfactant dodecyl...... maltoside (DDM). The aim has been to determine how surfactant chain length and micellar charge affect the denaturation mechanism. ACBP denatures in two steps irrespective of surfactant chain length, but with increasing chain length, the potency of the denaturant rises more rapidly than the critical micelle...... constants increases linearly with denaturant concentration below the cmc but declines at higher concentrations. Both shortening chain length and decreasing micellar charge reduce the overall kinetics of unfolding and makes the dependence of unfolding rate constants on surfactant concentration more complex...

  5. Surfactant media for constant-current coulometry. Application for the determination of antioxidants in pharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziyatdinova, Guzel, E-mail: [Analytical Chemistry Department, A.M. Butlerov Institute of Chemistry, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kremlyevskaya, 18, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Ziganshina, Endzhe; Budnikov, Herman [Analytical Chemistry Department, A.M. Butlerov Institute of Chemistry, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kremlyevskaya, 18, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Applicability of surfactants in constant-current coulometry is shown for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reactions of antioxidants with electrogenerated titrants in surfactant media are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water insoluble antioxidants can be determined in water media with addition of surfactants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coulometric determination of antioxidants in pharmaceutical dosage forms using surfactants media is developed. - Abstract: Effect of surfactant presence on electrochemical generation of titrants has been evaluated and discussed for the first time. Cationic (1-dodecylpyridinium and cetylpyridinium bromide), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate) and nonionic (Triton X100 and Brij{sup Registered-Sign} 35) surfactants as well as nonionic high molecular weight polymer (PEG 4000) do not react with the electrogenerated bromine, iodine and hexacyanoferrate(III) ions. The electrogenerated chlorine chemically interact with Triton X100 and Brij{sup Registered-Sign} 35. The allowable range of surfactants concentrations providing 100% current yield has been found. Chain-breaking low molecular weight antioxidants (ascorbic acid, rutin, {alpha}-tocopherol and retinol) were determined by reaction with the electrogenerated titrants in surfactant media. Nonionic and cationic surfactants can be used for the determination of antioxidants by reaction with the electrogenerated halogens. On contrary, cationic surfactants gives significantly overstated results of antioxidants determination with electrogenerated hexacyanoferrate(III) ions. The use of surfactants in coulometry of {alpha}-tocopherol and retinol provides their solubilization and allows to perform titration in water media. Simple, express and reliable coulometric approach for determination of {alpha}-tocopherol, rutin and ascorbic acid in pharmaceuticals using surfactant media has been developed. The relative standard deviation of the

  6. Effects of fluorinated and hydrogenated surfactants on human serum albumin at different pHs. (United States)

    Sabín, Juan; Prieto, Gerardo; González-Pérez, Alfredo; Ruso, Juan M; Sarmiento, Félix


    Complexation between human serum albumin (HSA) and two different surfactants, one fully fluorinated (sodium perfluorooctanoate, SPFO) and one fully hydrogenated (sodium caprylate, SO), was studied using zeta-potential measurements and difference spectroscopy. The study was carried out at three different pHs, 3.2, 6.7, and 10.0. The spectroscopy study was performed at pHs 6.7 and 10.0, given that at pH 3.2 high turbidity was observed in the wide range of surfactant concentrations. The results were interpreted in terms of the electrostatic and hydrophobic contributions to the stability of the different phases formed in the water-surfactant-HSA system. Solutions and precipitates were observed in the concentration range investigated in more detail. Using Pace methods, the thermodynamic values of the surfactant-induced conformational changes in HSA were determined for sodium perfluorooctanoate in the concentration range 2-12 mmol dm(-3) at pH 6.7 and 5-22 mmol dm(-3) at pH 10.0. Electrophoretic measurements were used to characterize surfactant adsorption by determining the number of molecules adsorbed on the surface of HSA and the Gibbs energy of adsorption. Finally, the interactions between human serum albumin and other anionic surfactants studied by other authors were compared with those observed in the present work.

  7. Effect of surfactant structure on catalysis of microemulsion for photoisomerization of trans-stilbene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this study, the photoisomerization of trans-stilbene was carried out in water in oil (W/O) microemulsions by using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant, respectively. The catalytic effect of microemulsion on this reaction is closely related to the structure of surfactanz. When there is no photosensitizer 9,10-dicyanoanthracene (DCA), the surfactant with shorter hydrophobic chain is preferred, while in the presence of DCA, the surfactant with anionic polar group is preferred.

  8. Determination of alkylbenzenesulfonate surfactants in groundwater using macroreticular resins and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (United States)

    Thurman, E.M.; Willoughby, T.; Barber, L.B.; Thorn, K.A.


    Alkylbenzenesulfonate surfactants were determined in groundwater at concentrations as low as 0.3 mg/L. The method uses XAD-8 resin for concentration, followed by elution with methanol, separation of anionic and nonionic surfactants by anion exchange, quantitation by titration, and identification by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Laboratory standards and field samples containing straight-chain and branched-chain alkylbenzenesulfonates, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and alkylbenzene ethoxylates were studied. The XAD-8 extraction of surfactants from groundwater was completed in the field, which simplified sample preservation and reduced the cost of transporting samples.

  9. Studies of the behaviour of alcohols as co-surfactants in stabilizing microemulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadur, P. (Chemistry Dept., D.A.V. (P.G.) Coll., Muzaffarnagar- (India)); Chand, M. (Chemistry Dept., D.A.V. (P.G.) Coll., Muzaffarnagar- (India))

    Micoremulsion formation was investigated in the following quaternary systems. Water/oil/surfactant/co-surfactant alcohol systems i.e. (i) water/xylene, benzene, toluene/tween-20/propanol-1, propanol-2, methanol, (ii) water/xylene, benzene, toluene/sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate/propanol-1, propanol-2, methanol, (iii) water/xylene, benzene, toluene/dodecyl ammonium chloride/propanol-1, propanol-2, methanol. The formation of microemulsions is explained in terms of ternary phase diagrams for all three nonionic, anionic and cationic surfactants used. The viscosities and densities of the microemulsions were determined in all the systems. (orig.)

  10. Small angle neutron scattering study of mixed micelles of oppositely charged surfactants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J V Joshi; V K Aswal; P S Goyal


    Structures of mixed micelles of oppositely charged surfactants dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) have been studied using small angle neutron scattering. The concentration of one of the components was kept fixed (0.3 M) and that of another varied in the range 0 to 0.1 M. The aggregation number and micellar size increase and fractional charge decreases dramatically with the addition of small amount of oppositely charged surfactant. The effect of addition of SDS on DTAB is significantly different from that of the addition of DTAB on SDS. The contrast variation SANS experiments using deuterated surfactant suggests the homogeneous mixing of two components in mixed micellar system.

  11. Petroleum Contaminated Soil Treatment Using Surfactant and Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilza Lobo


    Full Text Available The process of washing soil with surfactants, sodium lauryl ether sulphate (LESS and sodium lauryl sulphate (SDS was combined with chemical oxidation using hydrogen peroxide, with a view to in situ remediation of clay soil contaminated with hydrocarbons oil. The evaluation of the efficiency of the procedure was the removal of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and the comparison of physical and chemical characteristics of contaminated soil and uncontaminated from the same region. The combination of these two techniques, soil washing and application of an oxidizing agent, presented as a process of effective remediation for soils contaminated with petroleum products in subtropical regions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirog T. Р.


    Full Text Available The review is devoted to surface-active glycolipids. The general characteristics, the physiological role of the rhamnolipids, trehalose lipids, sophorolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids and their traditional producers — the representatives of the genera Pseudozyma, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus and Candida are given. The detailed analysis of the chemical structure, the stages of the biosynthesis and the regulation of some low molecular glycolipids are done. The own experimental data concerning the synthesis intensification, the physiological role and the practical use of Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactants, which are a complex of the glyco-, phospho-, amino- and neutral lipids (glycolipids of all strains are presented by trehalose mycolates are summarized. It was found that R. erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, A. calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactants have protective, antimicrobial and antiadhesive properties. It was shown that R. erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, A. calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactants preparation of cultural liquid intensified the degradation of oil in water due to the activation of the natural petroleum-oxidizing microflora.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Pirog


    Full Text Available The classification and the chemical structure of the lipopeptides and their producers (bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas are given. The role of the lipopeptides in cells motility, biofilm formation, metal binding and xenobiotics degradation and their action on the cells of pro- and eukaryotes is summarized. The stages of the nonribosomal lipopeptides synthesis and the role of two-component (GacA/GacS, ComA/ComP and the quorum system regulation of this process are shown. The potential of lactic acid bacteria and marine microorganisms as alternative surfactants producers (glycolipids, lipopeptides, phospholipids and fatty acids, glycolipopeptides are discussed. Their productivity and advantages over traditional producers are given as well. The properties of surfactants synthesized by lactic acid bacteria (the reduction of the surface tension, the critical micelle concentration, the stability in a wide range of pH, the temperature, the biological activity are summarized. Surfactants of nonpathogenic probiotic bacteria could be used as effective antimicrobial agents and antiadhesive and marine producers which able to synthesize unique metabolites that are not produced by other microorganisms.

  14. Controlling block copolymer phase behavior using ionic surfactant (United States)

    Ray, D.; Aswal, V. K.


    The phase behavior of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide-poly(ethylene oxide) PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer [P85 (EO26PO39EO26)] in presence of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solution as a function of temperature has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements have been carried out for fixed concentrations (1 wt%) of block copolymer and surfactants. Each of the individual components (block copolymer and surfactant) and the nanoparticle-surfactant mixed system have been examined at varying temperature. The block copolymer P85 forms spherical micelles at room temperature whereas shows sphere-to-rod like micelle transition at higher temperatures. On the other hand, SDS surfactant forms ellipsoidal micelles over a wide temperature range. Interestingly, it is found that phase behavior of mixed micellar system (P85 + SDS) as a function of temperature is drastically different from that of P85, giving the control over the temperature-dependent phase behavior of block copolymers.

  15. Surfactants at the Design Limit. (United States)

    Czajka, Adam; Hazell, Gavin; Eastoe, Julian


    This article analyzes how the individual structural elements of surfactant molecules affect surface properties, in particular, the point of reference defined by the limiting surface tension at the aqueous cmc, γcmc. Particular emphasis is given to how the chemical nature and structure of the hydrophobic tails influence γcmc. By comparing the three different classes of surfactants, fluorocarbon, silicone, and hydrocarbon, a generalized surface packing index is introduced which is independent of the chemical nature of the surfactants. This parameter ϕcmc represents the volume fraction of surfactant chain fragments in a surface film at the aqueous cmc. It is shown that ϕcmc is a useful index for understanding the limiting surface tension of surfactants and can be useful for designing new superefficient surfactants.

  16. Regarding the effect that different hydrocarbon/fluorocarbon surfactant mixtures have on their complexation with HSA. (United States)

    Blanco, Elena; Messina, Paula; Ruso, Juan M; Prieto, Gerardo; Sarmiento, Félix


    The complexations between human serum albumin (HSA) and the sodium perfluorooctanoate/sodium octanoate and sodium perfluorooctanoate/sodium dodecanoate systems have been studied by a combination of electrical conductivity, ion-selective electrode, electrophoresis, and spectroscopy measurements. The binary mixtures of the surfactants deviated slightly from ideality. Binding plots revealed the existence of two specific binding sites, the first site being more accessible than the second. Positive cooperative binding has been found, thus revealing the importance of the hydrophobic interactions in both kinds of surfactants. The Gibbs energies of binding per mole of surfactant (DeltaG(nu)) were calculated from the Wyman binding potential where, on the basis of the elevated number of binding sites, a statistical contribution has been included. Initially these energies are large and negative, gradually decreasing as saturation is approached. Changes in the slope of Gibbs energies have been identified with the saturation of the first binding set. These facts denote that the surfactants under study have different favorite adsorption sites along the protein and that the adsorption process of perfluorooctanoate is more closely followed by dodecanoate than by octanoate. Finally, electrophoresis and spectroscopy measurements suggest induced conformational changes on HSA depending on the surfactant mixture as well as the mixed ratio.

  17. Viscoelasticity Enhancement of Surfactant Solutions Depends on Molecular Conformation: Influence of Surfactant Headgroup Structure and Its Counterion. (United States)

    Lutz-Bueno, Viviane; Pasquino, Rossana; Liebi, Marianne; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Fischer, Peter


    During the anisotropic growth from globular to wormlike micelles, the basic interactions among distinct parts of the surfactant monomer, its counterion, and additives are fundamental to tune molecular self-assembly. We investigate the addition of sodium salicylate (NaSal) to hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride and bromide (CTAC and CTAB), 1-hexadecylpyridinium chloride and bromide (CPyCl and CPyBr), and benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride (BDMC), which have the same hydrophobic tail. Their potential to enhance viscoelasticity by anisotropic micellar growth upon salt addition was compared in terms of (i) the influence of the headgroup structure, and (ii) the influence of surfactant counterion type. Employing proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), we focused on the molecular conformation of surfactant monomers in the core and polar shell regions of the micelles and their interactions with increasing concentration of NaSal. The viscoelastic response was investigated by rotational and oscillatory rheology. We show that micellar growth rates can be tuned by varying the flexibility and size of the surfactant headgroup as well as the dissociation degree of the surfactant counterion, which directly influences the strength of headgroup-counterion pairing. As a consequence, the morphological transitions depend directly on charge neutralization by electrostatic screening. For example, the amount of salt necessary to start the rodlike-to-wormlike micelle growth depends directly on the number of dissociated counterions in the polar shell.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Irina Moater


    Full Text Available The interactions between surfactants and proteins shows some similarities with interactions between surfactants and polymers, but the hydrophobic amphoteric nature of proteins and their secondary and tertiary structure components make them different from conventional polymer systems. Many studies from the past about surfactant - proteins bonding used the dialysis techniques. Other techniques used to determine the binding isotherm, included ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation, potentiometry, ion-selective electrode method and surface tension. High affinity isotherms which are typical of an anionic surfactant - protein bonding, exhibit an initial increase steep followed by a slow growth region and then a vertical growth above a certain concentration. This isotherm is typical of ionic surfactant to protein binding. Often the high affinity initial bond appears at very low concentrations of surfactant and therefore in some protein-surfactant systems, the exact shape of the isotherm in this region may be missing. The surfactant - protein binding is influenced by a number of variables such as the nature and chain length of surfactant, pH, ionic strength, temperature, nature of this protein and additives.

  19. Desorption of two organophosphorous pesticides from soil with wastewater and surfactant solutions. (United States)

    Hernández-Soriano, M C; Mingorance, M D; Peña, A


    A batch test was used to evaluate the extent of desorption of diazinon and dimethoate, preadsorbed on a calcareous agricultural soil, representative of the Mediterranean area. Urban wastewater from a secondary treatment and seven surfactant solutions, at concentrations ranging from 0.75 mg L(-1) to 10 gL(-1), were used. The surfactants assayed were cationic (hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HD)), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Aerosol 22 (A22) and Biopower (BP)), and nonionic (Tween 80 (TW), Triton X 100 (TX) and Glucopon 600 (G600)). Desorption of dimethoate was either not affected or only slightly by the nonionic and anionic surfactants tested, while desorption of diazinon from the soil was only enhanced by A22, BP and TW. This desorption increase correlated significantly with the surfactant concentration of the solution used for desorption and with the concurrent increase in the supernatant of the dissolved organic carbon, in particular that originating from the surfactant. This parameter did not vary with the use of SDS, G600 and TX. The cationic surfactant HD was retained on the soil surface, as confirmed by an increase in soil organic carbon, resulting in a fall in desorption rate for both pesticides. Comparing treatment by wastewater with control water, there was no difference in desorption rate for either pesticide. Mixed TW/anionic surfactant solutions either did not modify or slightly increased desorption of both pesticides in comparison with individual surfactant solutions.

  20. Surfactant and metal ion effects on the mechanical properties of alginate hydrogels. (United States)

    Kaygusuz, Hakan; Evingür, Gülşen Akın; Pekcan, Önder; von Klitzing, Regine; Erim, F Bedia


    This paper addresses the controlled variation of the mechanical properties of alginate gel beads by changing the alginate concentration or by adding different surfactants or cross-linking cations. Alginate beads containing nonionic Brij 35 or anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactants were prepared with two different types of cations (Ca(2+), Ba(2+)) as crosslinkers. Compression measurements were performed to investigate the effect of the surfactant and cation types and their concentrations on the Young's modulus of alginate beads. The Young's modulus was determined by using Hertz theory. For all types of alginate gel beads the Young's modulus showed an increasing value for increasing alginate contents. Addition of the anionic surfactant SDS increases the Young's modulus of the alginate beads while the addition of non-ionic surfactant Brij 35 leads to a decrease in Young's modulus. This opposite behavior is related to the contrary effect of both surfactants on the charge of the alginate beads. When Ba(2+) ions were used as crosslinker cation, the Young's modulus of the beads with the surfactant SDS was found to be approximately two times higher than the modulus of beads with the surfactant Brij 35. An ion specific effect was found for the crosslinking ability of divalent cations.

  1. Adsorption Behavior and Mechanisms of Surfactants by Farmland Soils in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The adsorption of two nonionic surfactants polyethylene glycol tert-octylphenyl ether Triton X-100 (TX-100), polyoxyethylene lauryl ether(Brij35) and an anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate(SDBS) by two soils(S1, S2) of different natures and their respective organic-matter-extracted samples(S3, S4) were investigated. These adsorption isotherms show different adsorption stages of different types of surfactants by soils. The data fitted Langmuir equation very well. The adsorption maximum capacity(Q0) indicates that TX-100 and SDBS were in the sequence of S3〉S4〉S1〉S2 in adsorption, however, Brij35 was in the sequence of S4〉S3〉S1〉S2 in adsorption. And the adsorption amounts of the different surfactants by soils followed the order of TX-100〉Brij35〉SDBS. Meanwhile, the adsorption of the nonionic surfactants TX-100 and Brij35 decreased with the increase of their ethylene oxide(EO) numbers. The results indicate that both soil organic matter and mineral played important roles in the adsorption of surfactants, and the adsorption of the surfactants by soils was affected by the physicochemical properties and structures of the soils and surfactants, especially the mineral type and content of soil.

  2. Sodium and Food Sources (United States)

    ... Sources Top 10 Sources of Sodium How to Reduce Sodium Sodium Reduction Resources for Everyone Sodium Reduction Fact ... in processed food [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. Sodium Reduction Is Challenging Types of food matter: ...

  3. Sodium in diet (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work ...

  4. Enhancing plant-microbe associated bioremediation of phenanthrene and pyrene contaminated soil by SDBS-Tween 80 mixed surfactants. (United States)

    Ni, Hewei; Zhou, Wenjun; Zhu, Lizhong


    The use of surfactants to enhance plant-microbe associated dissipation in soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a promising bioremediation technology. This comparative study was conducted on the effects of plant-microbe treatment on the removal of phenanthrene and pyrene from contaminated soil, in the presence of low concentration single anionic, nonionic and anionic-nonionic mixed surfactants. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and Tween 80 were chosen as representative anionic and nonionic surfactants, respectively. We found that mixed surfactants with concentrations less than 150 mg/kg were more effective in promoting plant-microbe associated bioremediation than the same amount of single surfactants. Only about (m/m) of mixed surfactants was needed to remove the same amount of phenanthrene and pyrene from either the planted or unplanted soils, when compared to Tween 80. Mixed surfactants (Tween 80. These results may be explained by the lower sorption loss and reduced interfacial tension of mixed surfactants relative to Tween 80, which enhanced the bioavailability of PAHs in soil and the microbial degradation efficiency. The higher remediation efficiency of low dosage SDBS-Tween 80 mixed surfactants thus advanced the technology of surfactant-enhanced plant-microbe associated bioremediation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cristina Wiedusch Sindelar


    Full Text Available The reuse of waste generated by various industrial sectors is a practice that has been increasingly used due to impairment of industries with their social responsibility (environmental protection or the requirements of the protection of the environment, since many residues do not have proper disposal. In the processing industry in the reuse of stones is no different. This study aims to evaluate the reuse of the oil used as a lubricant in the stone processing industry, along with water, surfactants and corrosion. To prepare the emulsions samples were used of diesel oil as a lubricant used in the cutting industry this type of industry, plus the following surfactants: Tween 20, Tween 80, sodium lauryl ether sulphate and Cetiol HE. After completing the pH, viscosity, density and phase separation in these emulsions, the conclusion was reached that the surfactant Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate provided the best formulation. Using this result, new emulsions prepared with the surfactant Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate and an anticorrosive, in this case, sodium molybdate. In such solutions containing sodium molybdate were analyzed power anticorrosive this substance, using the SAE 1020 steel plates. After these analyzes, it was found that the addition of an anticorrosive may reduce or inhibit oxidation, but in other cases, as in this study, can promote oxidation even greater.

  6. Phase behavior and molecular thermodynamics of coacervation in oppositely charged polyelectrolyte/surfactant systems: a cationic polymer JR 400 and anionic surfactant SDS mixture. (United States)

    Li, Dongcui; Kelkar, Manish S; Wagner, Norman J


    Coacervation in mixtures of polyelectrolytes and surfactants with opposite charge is common in nature and is also technologically important to consumer health care products. To understand the complexation behavior of these systems better, we combine multiple experimental techniques to systematically study the polymer/surfactant binding interactions and the phase behavior of anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant in cationic JR 400 polymer aqueous solutions. The phase-behavior study resolves a discrepancy in the literature by identifying a metastable phase between the differing redissolution phase boundaries reported in the literature for the surfactant-rich regime. Isothermal titration calorimetry analyzed within the framework of the simple Satake-Yang model identifies binding parameters for the surfactant-lean phase, whereas a calculation for polymer-bound micelles coexisting with free micelles is analyzed in the surfactant-rich redissolution regime. This analysis provides a preliminary understanding of the interactions governing the observed phase behavior. The resulting thermodynamic properties, including binding constants and the molar Gibbs free energies, enthalpies, and entropies, identify the relative importance of both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions and provide a first approximation for the corresponding microstructures in the different phases. Our study also addresses the stability and metastability of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and surfactant mixtures.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Somasundaran


    The aim of this project is to delineate the role of mineralogy of reservoir rocks in determining interactions between reservoir minerals and externally added reagents (surfactants/polymers) and its effect on critical solid-liquid and liquid-liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension in systems relevant to reservoir conditions. Previous studies have suggested that significant surfactant loss by precipitation or adsorption on reservoir minerals can cause chemical schemes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. Both macroscopic adsorption, wettability and microscopic orientation and conformation studies for various surfactant/polymer mixtures/reservoir rocks systems were conducted to explore the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this period, the adsorption of mixed system of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na) has been studied. The effects of solution pH, surfactant mixing ratio and different salts on surfactant adsorption on alumina have been investigated in detail. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption of the mixtures were determined under relevant conditions to identify the nano-structure of the adsorbed layers. Solution properties of C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na/DM mixtures were also studied to identify surfactant interactions that affect the mixed aggregate formation in solution. Adsorption of SDS on gypsum and limestone suggested stronger surfactant/mineral interaction than on alumina, due to the precipitation of surfactant by dissolved calcium ions. The effects of different salts such as sodium nitrate, sodium sulfite and sodium chloride on DM adsorption on alumina have also been determined. As surfactant hemimicelles at interface and micelles in solution have drastic effects on oil recovery processes, their microstructures in

  8. Spectroscopy and computational studies on the interaction of octyl, dodecyl, and hexadecyl derivatives of anionic and cationic surfactants with adenosine deaminase. (United States)

    Ajloo, Davood; Mahmoodabadi, Najmeh; Ghadamgahi, Maryam; Saboury, Ali Akbar


    Effects of sodium (octyl, dodecyl, hexadecyl) sulfate and their cationic analogous on the structure of adenosine deaminase (ADA) were investigated by fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy as well as molecular dynamics simulation and docking calculation. Root-mean-square derivations, radius of gyration, solvent accessible surface area, and radial distribution function were obtained. The results showed that anionic and cationic surfactants reduce protein stability. Cationic surfactants have more effect on the ADA structure in comparison with anionic surfactants. More concentration and longer surfactants are parallel to higher denaturation. Furthermore, aggregation in the presence of anionic surfactants is more than cationic surfactants. Docking data showed that longer surfactants have more interaction energy and smaller ones bound to the active site.


    Surfactants used to enhance remediation of soils by soil washing are often lost in the process. Neither the amount nor the cause of this loss is known. It is assumed that clays present in the soil are responsible for the loss of the surfactant. In this papere, adsorption prope...

  10. Surfactant monitoring by foam generation (United States)

    Mullen, Ken I.


    A device for monitoring the presence or absence of active surfactant or other surface active agents in a solution or flowing stream based on the formation of foam or bubbles is presented. The device detects the formation of foam with a light beam or conductivity measurement. The height or density of the foam can be correlated to the concentration of the active surfactant present.

  11. Surfactant adsorption kinetics in microfluidics (United States)

    Riechers, Birte; Maes, Florine; Akoury, Elias; Semin, Benoît; Gruner, Philipp; Baret, Jean-Christophe


    Emulsions are metastable dispersions. Their lifetimes are directly related to the dynamics of surfactants. We design a microfluidic method to measure the kinetics of adsorption of surfactants to the droplet interface, a key process involved in foaming, emulsification, and droplet coarsening. The method is based on the pH decay in the droplet as a direct measurement of the adsorption of a carboxylic acid surfactant to the interface. From the kinetic measurement of the bulk equilibration of the pH, we fully determine the adsorption process of the surfactant. The small droplet size and the convection during the droplet flow ensure that the transport of surfactant through the bulk is not limiting the kinetics of adsorption. To validate our measurements, we show that the adsorption process determines the timescale required to stabilize droplets against coalescence, and we show that the interface should be covered at more than 90% to prevent coalescence. We therefore quantitatively link the process of adsorption/desorption, the stabilization of emulsions, and the kinetics of solute partitioning—here through ion exchange—unraveling the timescales governing these processes. Our method can be further generalized to other surfactants, including nonionic surfactants, by making use of fluorophore-surfactant interactions.

  12. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  13. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels


    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium.......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...

  14. Investigations into surfactant/gas hydrate relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Rudy; Zhang, Guochang; Dearman, Jennifer; Woods, Charles [Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)


    Gas hydrates have unique physical properties portending useful industrial applications of gas storage, gas separation, or water desalination. When gas hydrates were found in the early 1990s to occur naturally and abundantly in seafloors, three other primary interests and concerns emerged: potential new energy source, climate threat from their greenhouse gases, and seafloor instabilities. This paper presents research showing how anionic synthetic surfactants helped develop an industrial gas hydrate storage process for natural gas and how naturally-occurring in-situ anionic biosurfactants influence the formation and placement of gas hydrates in ocean sediments. The catalytic effects, mechanisms, and surface specificities imparted by synthetic surfactants in the gas storage process and imparted by biosurfactants in porous media are discussed. The Bacillus subtilis bacterium that is indigenous to gas hydrate mounds in the Gulf of Mexico was cultured in the laboratory. Its biosurfactant was separated and found to catalyze gas hydrates in porous media. The experiments indicate that seafloor-biosurfactants can be produced rapidly in-situ to achieve threshold concentrations whereby hydrates are promoted. The biosurfactants accumulate and promote hydrate formation on specific mineral surfaces such as sodium montmorillonite. (author)

  15. Solubilization and separation of p-tert-butylphenol using polyelectrolyte/surfactant complexes in colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, Hirotaka; Christian, S.D.; Tucker, E.E.; Scamehorn, J.F. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States))


    Water-soluble polyelectrolyte/surfactant complexes, involving oppositely charged species, can form at quite low thermodynamic activities of the surfactant. This fact can be exploited in colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration separations, where both molecular organic pollutants and toxic ions are to be removed from contaminated aqueous streams. Investigations have been made of (a) the solubilization and ultrafiltration of solutions of organic solutes in polymer/surfactant solutions, for comparison with studies of micellar surfactant solutions in the absence of added polymers; (b) the penetration of surfactant through the membrane (leakage of monomer) in dialysis and ultrafiltration experiments; and (c) the utility of polyelectrolytes as scavengers'' for surfactant species that-enter the permeate or filtrate in colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration separations. The polyelectrolyte chosen for the studies is sodium poly(styrenesulfonate) and the surfactant is cetylpyridinium chloride (hexadecylpyridinium chloride). A detailed study has been made of the solubilization and separation of p-tert-butylphenol in aqueous mixtures of sodium poly(styrenesulfonate) and cetylpyridinium chloride, at polyelectrolyte to surfactant mole ratios of two to one and three to one.

  16. Innovation in surfactant therapy II: surfactant administration by aerosolization. (United States)

    Pillow, J Jane; Minocchieri, S


    Instilled bolus surfactant is the only approved surfactant treatment for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. However, recent trends towards increased utilization of noninvasive respiratory support for preterm infants with surfactant deficiency have created a demand for a similarly noninvasive means of administering exogenous surfactant. Past approaches to surfactant nebulization met with varying success due to inefficient aerosol devices resulting in low intrapulmonary delivery doses of surfactant with variable clinical effectiveness. The recent development of vibrating membrane nebulizers, coupled with appropriate positioning of the interface device, indicates that efficient delivery of aerosolized surfactant is now a realistic goal in infants. Evidence of clinical effect despite low total administered dose in pilot studies, together with suggestions of enhanced homogeneity of pulmonary distribution indicate that this therapy may be applied in a cost-effective manner, with minimal patient handling and disruption. These studies need to be subjected to appropriately designed randomized controlled trials. Further work is also required to determine the optimum delivery route (mask, intranasal prong, nasopharyngeal or laryngeal), dosing amount and redosing interval.

  17. Vapour-liquid equilibrium relationship between toluene and mixed surfactants. (United States)

    Tian, Senlin; Li, Yingjie; Mo, Hong; Ning, Ping


    Micellar partitioning of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in surfactant solutions and its effects on vapour-liquid equilibrium is fundamental to the overall design and implementation ofsurfactant-enhanced remediation. Knowledge of the vapour-liquid equilibrium partitioning coefficients for VOCs, especially in contaminated soils and groundwater in which they exist, is required. Headspace experiments were performed to quantify the effect of three mixed surfactants, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTMAB) with tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB), sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) with Triton X-405 (TX405), and CTMAB with Triton X-100 (TX100), on the apparent Henry's constants (Hc) of toluene at temperatures ranging from 25 degrees C to 40 degrees C. The Hc values were significantly reduced in the presence of all three mixed surfactants at concentrations above their critical micelle concentrations (CMC). Mixed micellar partitioning, showing effects on the vapour-liquid equilibrium of toluene, was primarily responsible for the significant reduction of Hc in their mixed systems. The mixed surfactants CTMAB-TX100 had the greatest effect on Hc above the CMC, followed by SDS-TX405, then CTMAB-TBAB. Mixed systems of CTMAB-TX100 decreased Hc at concentrations significantly lower than the SDS-TX405 and CTMAB-TBAB concentrations, because of to the lower CMC of CTMAB-TX100. Vapour-liquid equilibrium data were also tested against the model (Hc = H/(1 + K(X - CMC)) that described the partitioning of VOCs in vapour-water-micelle phases. The correlation of Hc with mixed surfactant concentrations (X) and CMC can be utilized as an effective tool to predict the Hc by mixed surfactants.

  18. Research on the Influence of the Type of Surfactant and Concentrator in Aqueous Dispersion of Pigments. (United States)

    Makarewicz, Edwin; Michalik, Agnieszka


    This work reports tests performed to evaluate the stability of aqueous dispersions of inorganic oxide pigments with different specific surface areas, with the use of anionic and non-ionic surfactants and concentrators. Color mixtures of oxide compounds of blue, green, olive and brown with the unit cell spinel structure were used as pigments. The sodium salt of sulfosuccinic acid monoester, oxyethylenated nonylphenol and ethoxylated derivatives of lauryl alcohol, fatty alcohol and fatty amine were used as surfactants. The concentrators used were: poly(vinyl alcohol), the sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose as well as a water-based polyurethane oligomer. The highest dispersion efficiency was found for dispersed systems in which surfactant and concentrator were incorporated in the formula. The one containing the sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose or polyurethane oligomer with ethoxylated saturated fatty alcohol or fatty amine was found to be the most efficient. It was discovered that a higher dispersion efficiency corresponds to pigments with larger specific surface. The efficiency is also found to improve when the concentrator is an acrylic polymer or copolymer made up of two acrylic species. In this case, the concentrator interaction with the surfactant is more effective if the value of its boundary viscosity number is higher. This observation confirms the existence of interactions between macro-chains of the concentrator and surfactant molecules forming micelles with the pigment particles.

  19. On relationships between surfactant type and globular proteins interactions in solution. (United States)

    Blanco, Elena; Ruso, Juan M; Prieto, Gerardo; Sarmiento, Félix


    The binding of sodium perfluorooctanoate (C8FONa), sodium octanoate (C8HONa), lithium perfluorooctanoate (C8FOLi), and sodium dodecanoate (C12HONa) onto myoglobin, ovalbumin, and catalase in water has been characterized using electrophoretic mobility. The tendency of the protein-surfactant complexes to change their charge in the order catalase < ovalbumin < myoglobin was observed which was related to the contents of alpha-helices in the proteins. alpha-Helices are more hydrophobic than beta-sheets. The effect of surfactant on the zeta potentials follows C8HONa < C8FONa < C8FOLi < C12HONa for catalase and ovalbumin; and C8HONa < C8FOLi < C8FONa < C12HONa for myoglobin. The numbers of binding sites on the proteins were determined from the observed increases of the zeta-potential as a function of surfactant concentration in the regions where the binding was a consequence of the hydrophobic effect. The Gibbs energies of binding of the surfactants onto the proteins were evaluated. For all systems, Gibbs energies are negative and large at low concentrations (where binding to the high energy sites takes place) and become less negative at higher ones. This fact suggests a saturation process. Changes in Gibbs energies with the different proteins and surfactants under study have been found to follow same sequence than that found for the charge. The role of hydrophobic interactions in these systems has been demonstrated to be the predominant.

  20. Soap opera : polymer-surfactant interactions on thin film surfaces /

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, B. H. (Byram H.); Johal, M. S. (Malkiat S.); Wang, H. L. (Hsing-Lin); Robinson, J. M. (Jeanne M.)


    Surfactants are macromolecules with unique properties. They commonly contain a polar head group with a nonpolar hydrocarbon chain. These properties allow surfactants to solubilize greases and other nonpolar molecules. One particular way that this is accomplished is through the formation of micelles. Micelles are formed at the critical micelle concentration (cmc), which varies depending upon the nature of the surfactant and also the media in which the surfactant resides. These micelles can take a variety of shapes, but are generally characterized by surrounding the grease with the nonpolar hydrocarbon chains, exposing only the polarized head groups to the media, usually water. This property of easy solubilization has made surfactants a very attractive industrial agent, They are used most conventionally as industrial cleaning agents and detergents. However, they also have lesser-known applications in conjunction with polymers and other macromolecular mixtures, often creating a system with novel properties, such as increased solubilization and smoother mixture consistency. A recently developed field has investigated the self-assembly of polymers and polyelectrolytes onto thin film surfaces. There are many reasons for studying this process, such as for second harmonic generation purposes and bioassays. In this study, the interaction between the anionic polyelectrolyte poly[1-[4-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo)benzenesulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt] (PAZO) and two surfactants of opposite charge, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and Dodecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (DTAB), in their assembly onto thin film surfaces was investigated. The kinetics of adsorbance onto the thin films was examined, followed by construction of 10-bilayer films using an alternating layer of the cationic polyelectrolyte poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) to provide the electrostatic means for the PAZO/surfactant combination to assemble onto the thin film. The kinetics of adsorption is being

  1. Surfactant enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, J.H.; Scamehorn, J.F.


    Surfactant-enhanced waterflooding is a novel EOR method aimed to improve the volumetric sweep efficiencies in reservoirs. The technique depends upon the ability to induce phase changes in surfactant solutions by mixing with surfactants of opposite charge or with salts of appropriate type. One surfactant or salt solution is injected into the reservoir. It is followed later by injection of another surfactant or salt solution. The sequence of injections is arranged so that the two solutions do not mix until they are into the permeable regions well away from the well bore. When they mix at this point, by design they form a precipitate or gel-like coacervate phase, plugging this permeable region, forcing flow through less permeable regions of the reservoir, improving sweep efficiency. The selectivity of the plugging process is demonstrated by achieving permeability reductions in the high permeable regions of Berea sandstone cores. Strategies were set to obtain a better control over the plug placement and the stability of plugs. A numerical simulator has been developed to investigate the potential increases in oil production of model systems. Furthermore, the hardness tolerance of anionic surfactant solutions is shown to be enhanced by addition of monovalent electrolyte or nonionic surfactants. 34 refs., 32 figs., 8 tabs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Pirog


    Full Text Available It was shown literature and own experimental data concerning the use of microbial surface active glycolipids (rhamno-, sophoro- and trehalose lipids and lipopeptides for water and soil purification from oil and other hydrocarbons, removing toxic heavy metals (Cu2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, degradation of complex pollution (oil and other hydrocarbons with heavy metals, and the role of microbial surfactants in phytoremediation processes. The factors that limit the use of microbial surfactants in environmental technologies are discussed. Thus, at certain concentrations biosurfactant can exhibit antimicrobial properties and inhibit microorganisms destructing xenobiotics. Microbial biodegradability of surfactants may also reduce the effectiveness of bioremediation. Development of effective technologies using microbial surfactants should include the following steps: monitoring of contaminated sites to determine the nature of pollution and analysis of the autochthonous microbiota; determining the mode of surfactant introduction (exogenous addition of stimulation of surfactant synthesis by autochthonous microbiota; establishing an optimal concentration of surfactant to prevent exhibition of antimicrobial properties and rapid biodegradation; research both in laboratory and field conditions.

  3. Electrokinetic investigation of surfactant adsorption. (United States)

    Bellmann, C; Synytska, A; Caspari, A; Drechsler, A; Grundke, K


    Fuerstenau [D.W. Fuerstenau, in: M.L. Hair (Ed.), Dekker, New York, 1971, p. 143] has already discussed the role of hydrocarbon chain of surfactants, the effect of alkyl chain length, chain structure and the pH of the solution on the adsorption process of surfactants. Later Kosmulski [M. Kosmulski, Chemical Properties of Material Surfaces, Surfactant Science Series, vol. 102, Dekker, New York, Basel, 2001] included the effect of surfactant concentration, equilibration time, temperature and electrolyte in his approaches. Certainly, the character of the head groups of the surfactant and the properties of the adsorbent surface are the basis for the adsorption process. Different surfactants and adsorbents cause different adsorption mechanisms described firstly by Rosen [M.J. Rosen, Surfactants and Interfacial Phenomena, second ed., Wiley, New York, 1989]. These adsorption mechanisms and their influencing factors were studied by electrokinetic investigations. Here only changes of the charges at the surfaces could be detected. To control the results of electrokinetic investigations they were compared with results from ellipsometric measurements. In the case of surfactant adsorption the chain length was vitally important. It could be shown by the adsorption of alkyl trimethyl ammonium bromides onto polymer films spin coated at wafer surfaces. The influence of the chain length depending on surface properties of the polymer film was studied. Streaming potential measurements were applied for these investigations. The obtained results enabled us to calculate the molar cohesive free energy per mol of CH2-group in the alkaline chain of the surfactant if all other specific adsorption effects were neglected.

  4. Flavonoid-surfactant interactions: A detailed physicochemical study (United States)

    Singh, Onkar; Kaur, Rajwinder; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar


    The aim of this article is to study the interactions between flavonoids and surfactants with attention of finding the probable location of flavonoids in micellar media that can be used for controlling their antioxidant behavior. In present study, the micellar and interfacial behavior of twin tailed anionic surfactants viz. sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) and sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (NaDEHP) in the presence of two flavonoids, namely quercetin (QUE) and kaempferol (KFL) have been studied by surface tension measurements. UV-visible, fluorescence and differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) measurements have been employed to predict the probable location of flavonoids (QUE/KFL) within surfactant (AOT/NaDEHP) aggregates. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements further confirmed the solubilization of QUE/KFL in AOT/NaDEHP aggregates deduced from increased hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) of aggregates in the presence of flavonoids. Both radical scavenging activity (RSA) and degradation rate constant (k) of flavonoids are found to be higher in NaDEHP micelles as compared to AOT micelles.

  5. Solubilization of trichloroethylene by polyelectrolyte/surfactant complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, Hirotaka; Christian, S.D.; Tucker, E.E.; Scamehorn, J.F. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States))


    An automated vapor pressure method is used to obtain solubilization isotherms for trichloroethylene (TCE) in polyelectrolyte/surfactant complexes throughout a wide range of solute activities at 20 and 25 C. The polyelectrolyte chosen is sodium poly(styrenesulfonate), PSS< and the surfactant is cetylpyridinium chloride or N-hexadecylpyridinium chloride, CPC. Data are fitted to the quadratic equation K = K[sub 0](1[minus][alpha]X + [beta]X[sup 2]), which correlates the solubilization equilibrium constant (K) with the mole fraction of TCE (X) in the micelles or complexes at each temperature. Activity coefficients are also obtained for TCE in the PSS/CPC complexes as a function of X. The general solubilization of TCE in PSS/CPC complexes resembles that of TCE in CPC micelles, as well as that of benzene or toluene in CPC micelles, suggesting that TCE solubilizes in ionic micelles both within the hydrocarbon micellar interior and near the micellar surface. The presence of the polyelectrolyte causes a small decrease in the ability of the cationic surfactant to solubilize TCE, while greatly reducing the concentration of the surfactant present in monomeric form. PSS/CPC complexes may be useful in colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration processes to purify organic-contaminated water.

  6. Photocatalytic Degradation of Diethyl Phthalate with Surfactant Addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tianyong; HU Juan; ZHANG Youlan; LI Bin; FEI Xuening


    This paper studies the adsorption of diethyl phthalate (DEP,an environmental hormone) on the surface of nanoscale TiO2, effects of pH value of solutions, initial concentrations of DEP and additive surfactant on photocatalytic degradation and dynamics of DEP. Under ultra violet illumination, the interaction between DEP and surfactants including DBS (sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate), CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide), and OP-10 (nonylphenol polyoxyethylene ether)was exploited from the perspective of degradation speed calculated by the data of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV-Vis spectra, respectively. Photocatalytic degradation of DEP followed pseudo first-order reaction kinetics. DEP as substrate degraded fast when its initial concentration was 130 mg/L. TiO2 had certain adsorption ability of DEP. TiO2 could adsorb the most DEP at the approximately neutral pH of 6.91. Degradation of DEP was not affected obviously by ad ditives OP-10 and JBS. Degradation rate of DEP was not enhanced greatly in the presence of surfactants, but degradation of DBS was sped up. Degradation rate of DEP was depressed in the presence of additive CTAB. The more CTAB was added, the less DEP was degraded. Degradation rate of CTAB became slow with the increase of initial CTAB concentration. The possible adsorption models among TiO2, DEP and surfactants were given.

  7. Microporosity of Bicontinuous Polymer Composites: Diffusion of Water and Surfactant (United States)

    Kuta, K.; Challa, V.; Cheung, M.; Lopina, S.; von Meerwall, E.


    We have used the proton NMR pulsed-gradient spin-echo method to study the self-diffusion of water and surfactant in bicontinuous microcomposites formed with methyl methacrylate and hydroxy ethyl methacrylate, crosslinked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, in the presence of water containing 10 wt. percent sodium dodecyl sulfate as surfactant. Measurements were made over the full bicontinuous range of water content, (30 to 96 wt. percent) at 50 deg. C at a diffusion time of 12-15 ms. At spin-echo times greater than a few ms the echo of the glassy open-cell network phase was unobservable. The diffusivity spectrum of the mobile fraction is cleanly separable into two components differing by a factor of at least 30, attributable to water and surfactant. We find that the diffusivity of water increases with increasing water content, but that of the surfactant decreases. Measurements of restricted diffusion (non-adherence to Fick's second law) can reveal the size of the diffusionally accessible pores and its distribution, and their degree of interconnection. Corresponding measurements of time-resolved apparent diffusion are in progress.

  8. Sodium - blood (United States)

    ... gland problems such as Cushing syndrome or hyperaldosteronism Diabetes insipidus (type of diabetes in which kidneys are not able to conserve water) Too much salt or sodium bicarbonate in the diet Use of certain medicines, including corticosteroids, laxatives, lithium, ...

  9. Dynamic interfacial behavior of decyl methylnaphthalene sulfonate surfactants for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Zhongkui; Ba Yan; Li Zongshi; Qiao Weihong; Cheng Luebai [State Key Lab. of Fine Chemicals, Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian (China)


    The high purity decyl methylnaphthalene sulfonate (DMNS) was synthesized, the purity was determined by HPLC and the structure was confirmed by IR, UV and ESI-MS. Dynamic interfacial tensions (DIT) between DMNS flooding systems and crude oil were measured and the effects of sodium carbonate concentration, surfactant concentration and sodium chloride concentration on the DIT behaviors were investigated. It's found that the surfactant concentration, alkali concentration and the salinity have obvious influences on DIT behaviors. DMNS possessed outstanding capacity and efficiency of lowering the DIT between oil and water. The minimum dynamic interfacial tension could reach 6.35 x 10{sup -6} mNm{sup -1} at a low concentration for added surfactant. DMNS might be used in Enhanced Oil Recovery with low costs and high efficiency. (orig.)

  10. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Detergent Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Jelen


    Full Text Available Detergent surfactantscan be found in wastewater in relevant concentrations. Most of them are known as ready degradable under aerobic conditions, as required by European legislation. Far fewer surfactants have been tested so far for biodegradability under anaerobic conditions. The natural environment is predominantly aerobic, but there are some environmental compartments such as river sediments, sub-surface soil layer and anaerobic sludge digesters of wastewater treatment plants which have strictly anaerobic conditions. This review gives an overview on anaerobic biodegradation processes, the methods for testing anaerobic biodegradability, and the anaerobic biodegradability of different detergent surfactant types (anionic, nonionic, cationic, amphoteric surfactants.

  11. Effect of concentration on surfactant micelle shapes--A molecular dynamics study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jian; GE Wei; LI Jinghai


    Many aspects of the behavior of surfactants have not been well understood due to the coupling of many different mechanisms. Computer simulation is, therefore, attractive in the sense that it can explore the effect of different mechanisms separately. In this paper, the shapes, structures and sizes of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) micelles under different concentrations in an oil/water mixture were studied via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using a simplified atomistic model which basically maintains the hydrophile and lipophile properties of the surfactant molecules. Above the critical micellar concentration (cmc), surfactant molecules aggregate spontaneously to form a wide variety of assemblies, from spherical to rodlike, wormlike and bilayer micelles. Changes in their ratios of the principle moments of inertia (g1/g3, g2/g3) indicated the transition of micelle shapes at different concentrations. The aggregation number of micelle is found to have a power-law dependence on surfactant concentration.

  12. The Roll of NaPSS Surfactant on the Ceria Nanoparticles Embedding in Polypyrrole Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Popescu


    Full Text Available Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs in crystalline form have been synthesized by a coprecipitation method. CeO2 nanoparticles were then embedded in polypyrrole (PPy films during the electropolymerization of pyrrole (Py on titanium substrate. The influence of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (NaPSS surfactant used during polymerization on the embedding of CeO2 NPs in polypyrrole films was investigated. The new films were characterized in terms of surface analysis, wettability, electrochemical behaviour, and antibacterial effect. The surface and electrochemical characterization revealed the role of surfactant on PPy doping process cerium oxide incorporation. In the presence of surfactant, CeO2 NPs are preferentially embedded in the polymeric film while, without surfactant, the ceria nanoparticles are quasiuniformly spread as agglomerates onto polymeric films. The antibacterial effect of studied PPy films was substantially improved in the presence of cerium oxide and depends by the polymerization conditions.

  13. Effect of surfactants and temperature on the hyperfiltration performance of poly(ether/urea) membranes (United States)

    Leban, M. I.; Wydeven, T. J.


    The individual and combined effects of pasteurization temperature (347 K) and surfactants (anionic, cationic, and neutral) on a poly(ether/urea) thin-film hyperfiltration membrane were studied. Performance of this positively charged membrane was measured in terms of sodium chloride rejection and water flux. The observed effect was mostly on water flux and minimal on salt rejection. Pasteurization temperature caused an irreversible flux decline (flux decline slope of 0.09). The gradual flux reduction caused by neutral and cationic surfactants was reversible, whereas the flux reduction caused by anionic surfactant was irreversible and of similar magnitude to flux reduction caused by pasteurization temperature. The effects of anionic surfactant and pasteurization temperature were additive. Because of flux decline at elevated temperatures the poly(ether/urea) membrane is not very attractive for long-term spaceflight use.

  14. Quality of Iceberg and Romaine lettuce treated by combinations of sanitizer, surfactant, and ultrasound (United States)

    We report an investigation of the individual and combined effects of sonication, two sanitizers (chlorine and Tsunami 100®) and a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the quality of fresh-cut Iceberg and Romaine lettuce. Lettuce samples were treated for 1 minute with and without ultrasound in...

  15. Competition between a lamellar and a microemulsion phase in an ionic surfactant system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kegel, W.K.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.


    An experimental study of a microemulsion system consisting of equal volumes of brine (water plus salt) and oil (cyclohexane), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant, and a mixture of hexanol and pentanol as cosurfactant is presented. Increasing the hexanol fraction in the cosurfactant mixture

  16. In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Phototoxicity Assessment of Acylglutamate Surfactants Using a Human Keratinocyte Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Kyadarkunte


    Full Text Available In the current study, human keratinocyte cell line was used as in vitro cell culture model to elucidate the effects of the fatty acid chain length of acylglutamate (amino acid-based surfactant namely, sodium cocoyl glutamate, sodium lauroyl glutamate, and sodium myristoyl glutamate on their cytotoxicity and the ultraviolet B induced phototoxicity. The endpoint used to assess toxicity was a tetrazolium-based assay whereas, the phototoxic potential of acylglutamate surfactants was predicted using two models namely, the Photo-Irritation Factor and Mean Photo Effect. The results of this study showed that the fatty acid chain length of acylglutamate greatly influences toxic effects on human keratinocyte cells. In addition, all the acylglutamate surfactants tested on human keratinocyte cells demonstrated significantly less cytotoxicity (when irradiated and non-irradiated with ultraviolet B light; p < 0.05 and no phototoxic potential was observed in any of the acylglutamate surfactants, when compared with the positive control chlorpromazine. In conclusion, the in vitro studies confirm the suitability of sodium lauroyl glutamate destined for the synthesis and stabilization of lipid nanoparticles.

  17. Competition between a lamellar and a microemulsion phase in an ionic surfactant system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kegel, W.K.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.


    An experimental study of a microemulsion system consisting of equal volumes of brine (water plus salt) and oil (cyclohexane), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant, and a mixture of hexanol and pentanol as cosurfactant is presented. Increasing the hexanol fraction in the cosurfactant mixture ca

  18. Estudo das dispersões aquosas de nanotubos de carbono utilizando diferentes surfactantes Study of aqueous dispersions of carbon nanotubes using different surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella R. da Silva


    Full Text Available The dispersion of carbon nanotubes in water for their utilization in nanoscale devices is a challenging task. Comparative studies on interaction and dispersion of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT using two different surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS, and polyoxyethylenesorbitanmonooleate, Tween 80 are presented. The interaction between carbon nanotubes and surfactants was studied by tensiometry, conductivimetry, and fluorimetry. The dispersions of MWNT in surfactants were characterized using a UV-vis spectrophotometer. For effective dispersion, the minimum weight ratio of MWNT to surfactant was 1:41 and 1:3 for SDS and Tween 80, respectively.

  19. Enhanced desorption of phenanthrene from contaminated soil using anionic/nonionic mixed surfactant. (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjun; Zhu, Lizhong


    A new approach using an anionic/nonionic mixed surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) with Triton X-100 (TX100), was utilized for the desorption of phenanthrene from an artificial contaminated natural soil in an aim to improve the efficiency of surfactant remediation technology. The experimental results showed that the presence of SDS not only reduced the sorption of TX100 onto the natural soil, but also enhanced the solubilization of TX100 for phenanthrene, both of which resulted in the distribution of phenanthrene in soil-water systems decreasing with increasing mole fraction of SDS in surfactant solutions. These results can be attributed to the formation of mixed micelles in surfactant solution and the corresponding decrease in the critical micelle concentration of TX100 in mixed solution. The batch desorption experiments showed that the desorption percentage of phenanthrene from the contaminated soil with mixed solution was greater than that with single TX100 solution and appeared to be positively related to the mole fraction of SDS in surfactant solution. Thus, the anionic/nonionic mixed surfactants are more effective for the desorption of phenanthrene from the contaminated soil than a single nonionic surfactant.

  20. Structure of the SDS/1-dodecanol surfactant mixture on a graphite surface: a computer simulation study. (United States)

    Domínguez, Hector


    Molecular dynamics simulations of mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 1-dodecanol molecules on a graphite surface were carried out at low and high concentration to investigate the formation of aggregates on the solid plate. The simulations showed that at low concentration the surfactants were well adsorbed on the surface by forming layers structures or a hemicylinder aggregate for a slightly higher surfactant concentration whereas at the highest concentration the surfactants formed monolayer-like structures localized away from the graphite surface with a water bin between the monolayer and the graphite plate. Therefore, we obtained different arrays of those observed in recent simulations of pure SDS adsorbed on graphite at the same concentration reported in the literature. The unexpected water layer between the 1-dodecanol and the graphite surface, at the highest concentration, was explained in terms of the Hamaker constants. The present results suggest that the formation of aggregates on solid surfaces is a combined effect not only of the surfactant-surfactant and the surfactant-wall interactions but also of the surfactant concentration.

  1. Surfactant-Enhanced Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants: Potential and Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yan-Zheng; LING Wan-Ting; ZHU Li-Zhong; ZHAO Bao-Wei; ZHENG Qing-Song


    Phytoremediation is becoming a cost-effective technology for the in-situ clean up of sites polluted with hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). The major factors limiting phytoremediation are the mass transfer, rate of plant uptake, and microbial biodegradation of HOCs. This article discusses the potential of surfactants to enhance desorption, plant uptake, and biodegradation of HOCs in the contaminated sites. Positive effects of surfactants on phytoremediation have been recently observed in greenhouse studies. The presence of some nonionic surfactants including polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) and polyoxyethylene(23)dodecanol (Brij35) at relatively low concentrations resulted in significant positive effects on phytoremediation for pyrene-contaminated soil. However, the anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) and the cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTMAB) were not useful because of their phytotoxicity or low efficiency for surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation (SEPR). The mechanisms of SEPR for HOC-contaminated sites were evaluated by considering experimental observations. In view of concerns about the cost effectiveness and toxicity of surfactants to plants, more research is needed to enhance the use of SEPR technology.

  2. Phase Separation and Microstructure of Mixed Surfactants Solution Containing Cationic Geminis and Traditional Anionic Surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚亚卓; 刘洪来; 胡英


    The properties of aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) of mixed solution containing gemini cationic surfactant trimethylene-l,3-bis(dodecyldimethyl ammonium) bromide (12-3-12, 2Br-) and traditional anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with or without added salt have been studied. An ATPS is formed in a narrow region of the ternary phase diagram different from that of traditional aqueous cationic-anionic surfactant systems. In ATPS region, the lowest total concentration of surfactants varies with the mixing ratio of geminis to SDS. Photographs obtained from freeze-etching, negative-staining and transmission electron microscopy show that the microstructures of two phases are different from each other. Micelles and vesicles can coexist in a single phase. The addition of salts can change the phase diagram of ATPS. Furthermore, the added salts promote the aggregation of rod-like micelles to form coarse network structure that increase the viscosity of solutions. The negative ions of the added salts are the determining factor.

  3. Treatment with exogenous surfactant stimulates endogenous surfactant synthesis in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, JEH; Carnielli, VP; Janssen, DJ; Wattimena, JLD; Hop, WC; Sauer, PJ; Zimmermann, LJI


    Objective: Treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) with exogenous surfactant has greatly improved clinical outcome. Some infants require multiple doses, and it has not been studied whether these large amounts of exogenous surfactant disturb endogenous surfactant metabol

  4. Electrochemical Oscillations Induced by Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟俊红; 贺占博


    A new type of electrochemical oscillation induced by surfactant was observed in experiments. The electrochemical system is a Daniell cell with a copper rod in CuSO4 aqueous and an aluminum rod in Al(NO3)3 aqueous as electrodes. The surfactants are CTAB, TX-100, SLS. The addition of trace surfactant solution by a micro-syringe made the original monotonously changing electrochemical system produce obvious periodic phenomena. At the mean time, the copper ion selective electrode and Hg2SO4 reference electrode were used to monitor the copper electrode reaction and determine its rate constant k of first order reaction. According to the experimental results of electrode reaction kinetics, the possible mechanism was found to be the polarization induced from the directional adsorption of trace surfactant on the electrode surface. That is the electrochemical oscillations.

  5. Determination of some solubilization parameters with surfactants of egg-yolk lecithin multilamellar vesicles by static light-scattering measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Hobai, S; Hobai, St.; Fazakas, Zita


    Effective surfactant:phospholipid ratios (i.e. molar ratios in the mixed aggregates, vesicles or micelles) have been determined by static light-scattering for the interaction of egg-yolk lecithin (EYL) multilamellar vesicles (MLV) with Triton X-100 (TX-100), sodium deoxycholate (DOCNa) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMB). The suspension of MLV-EYL was mixed with appropriate volumes of surfactant solution and was left overnight to reaches thermodynamic equilibrium. Rectan-gular optic diffusion data were used to compute the solubilization parameters: total surfactant concentrations, at saturation and solubilization Dtsat and Dtsol respectively, and effective molar ratios, Resat and Resol respectively. From the Resat value ob-tained graphically for interaction of vesicles with TX-100 resulted that in vesicle bilayers a surfactant molecule is surrounded with seven phospholipid molecules and the Resol value suggests that in mixed micelles ten lipid molecules with about fifteen surfactant molecules coexist. T...

  6. Determination of methylene blue biosorption by Rhizopus arrhizus in the presence of surfactants with different chemical structures. (United States)

    Karatay, Sevgi Ertuğrul; Gül, Ulküye Dudu; Dönmez, Gönül


    Methylene blue (MB) biosorption properties of Rhizopus arrhizus were investigated in the presence of surfactants. The effects of cationic and anionic surfactants on MB removal by dead biomass (1 g L(-1)) were determined. MB removal was tested as a function of initial pH (2-12), contact time (5-1440 min), and dye (37.4-944.7 mg L(-1)) and surfactant (0-10 mM) concentrations. The opposite charged anionic surfactant dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid sodium salt (DBS) enhanced sorption of cationic MB by biomass dramatically. Maximum biosorption capacity was 471.5 mg g(-1) at pH 8 with 0.5 mM DBS at 944.7 mg L(-1) MB concentration. The surfactant-stimulated fungal decolorization method may provide a highly efficient, inexpensive, and time-saving procedure in biological wastewater treatment technologies.

  7. Self Assembly of Biogenic Surfactants at Mineral Surfaces and Their Effect on Biological Iron Acquisition (United States)

    Kraemer, S. M.


    Microorganisms exude biogenic surfactants to modify the physical and chemical properties of mineral-water interfaces. Surfactants with negatively charged hydrophilic head groups interact strongly with oppositely charged mineral surfaces such as iron or aluminum oxides. Surfactant self assembly at mineral surfaces can result in the formation of admicelles that have a significant effect on the surface charge and hydrophobicity. These effects are exploited by microorganisms to facilitate attachment to mineral surfaces. Similarly, plants exude surfactants into the rhizosphere and change the surface tension and flow of soil water. Other surface active compounds that are typically found in soils and surface waters are humic substances and fatty acids that are produced by degradation of biomass. In general, surface active compounds are ubiquitous in natural systems. In this study we investigated how surfactants influence bio-mineral interactions using the example of siderophore promoted iron acquisition. Siderophore promoted iron acquisition involves the adsorption of a biogenic iron specific ligand (i.e. the siderophore) to iron oxides and the subsequent siderophore promoted iron oxide dissolution. The hypothesis of this project is that the modification of the iron oxide surface charge and hydrophobicity by adsorbed surfactants will have an important effect on siderophore adsorption and dissolution kinetics. We approached this subject by investigating the adsorption of a natural surfactant (rhamnolipids: RhL) and the synthetic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate: SDS) on goethite (α-FeOOH, a common pedogenic iron oxide) and observing the effect of surfactant self assembly on the properties of the mineral water interface. We observed fast adsorption kinetics at pH 3 and slow adsorption at pH 6. The adsorbed surfactants reversed the surface potential of goethite (as evidenced by electrophoretic mobility measurements) at soluble surfactant concentrations below 10 μM (SDS

  8. A fundamental investigation of the surfactant-stabilized single-walled carbon nanotube/epoxy resin suspensions by molecular dynamics simulation (United States)

    Rahmani, Farzin; Nouranian, Sasan; Mahdavi, Mina; O’Haver, John H.


    The surfactant-assisted stabilization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in SWCNT/epoxy resin suspensions were investigated for different surfactant types, concentrations, and temperatures using molecular dynamics simulation. One cationic surfactant, i.e. cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and three anionic surfactants, i.e. sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (NaDDBS), and sodium cholate (SC), as well as a 1:1 mixture of CTAB and SDS were used. Potentials of mean force (PMFs) were generated between two fixed-size (6,6) SWCNTs for all neat (no surfactant) and surfactant-loaded SWCNT/epoxy resin systems at three different surfactant concentrations (0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 wt%) at room (298 K) and elevated temperature (398 K, only for low-surfactant-concentration systems). Overall, two distinct mechanisms of SWCNT stabilization by the surfactants were identified: (1) an increase in the SWCNT aggregation energy barrier due to the wrapping of the SWCNTs by the surfactant molecules, and (2) a constantly positive free energy (repulsion) for all SWCNT separation distances due to the encapsulation of the two approaching SWCNTs. With the second mechanism, there is a delay for the epoxy molecules to be pushed out from the space between the two SWCNTs. With an increase in the surfactant concentration, the first mechanism becomes more prevalent. With an increase in temperature to 398 K, all surfactants migrate to the suspending medium, thereby the second mechanism of SWCNT stabilization dominates. A drop in the SWCNT-surfactant binding energy is observed around 360–370 K, signifying the surfactant migration to the suspending medium. More or less, all surfactants stabilize the SWCNTs in an epoxy resin at one or more surfactant concentrations. However, NaDDBS exhibits a higher SWCNT aggregation barrier at high concentrations and both temperatures (298 K and 398 K), thereby providing a better SWCNT stabilization in the epoxy resin

  9. Photoisomerization of merocyanine 540 in polymer-surfactant aggregate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sobhan Sen; Dipankar Sukul; Partha Dutta; Kankan Bhattacharyya


    Photoisomerization of merocyanine 540 (MC540) in a polymer-surfactant aggregate is studied using picosecond time resolved emission spectroscopy. The aggregate consists of the polymer, poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and the surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). With increase in the concentration of SDS in an aqueous solution of MC540 containing PVP, the emission quantum yield and lifetime of MC540 increase markedly. This indicates marked retardation in the nonradiative photoisomerization process of MC540, when it binds to the polymersurfactant aggregate. The critical association concentration of SDS for binding to PVP has been found to be 0.5 mM. This is about 16 times lower than the CMC of SDS in pure water (8 mM).

  10. Persurf, a New Method to Improve Surfactant Delivery: A Study in Surfactant Depleted Rats



    PURPOSE: Exogenous surfactant is not very effective in adults with ARDS, since surfactant does not reach atelectatic alveoli. Perfluorocarbons (PFC) can recruit atelectatic areas but do not replace impaired endogenous surfactant. A surfactant-PFC-mixture could combine benefits of both therapies. The aim of the proof-of-principal-study was to produce a PFC-in-surfactant emulsion (Persurf) and to test in surfactant depleted Wistar rats whether Persurf achieves I.) a more homogenous pulmonary di...

  11. Impact of surfactants on the crystallization of aqueous suspensions of celecoxib amorphous solid dispersion spray dried particles. (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Ormes, James D; Higgins, John D; Taylor, Lynne S


    Amorphous solid dispersions are frequently prepared by spray drying. It is important that the resultant spray dried particles do not crystallize during formulation, storage, and upon administration. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the impact of surfactants on the crystallization of celecoxib amorphous solid dispersions (ASD), suspended in aqueous media. Solid dispersions of celecoxib with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate were manufactured by spray drying, and aqueous suspensions were prepared by adding the particles to acidified media containing various surfactants. Nucleation induction times were evaluated for celecoxib in the presence and absence of surfactants. The impact of the surfactants on drug and polymer leaching from the solid dispersion particles was also evaluated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and Polysorbate 80 were found to promote crystallization from the ASD suspensions, while other surfactants including sodium taurocholate and Triton X100 were found to inhibit crystallization. The promotion or inhibition of crystallization was found to be related to the impact of the surfactant on the nucleation behavior of celecoxib, as well as the tendency to promote leaching of the drug from the ASD particle into the suspending medium. It was concluded that surfactant choice is critical to avoid failure of amorphous solid dispersions through crystallization of the drug.

  12. 叶面肥和表面活性剂对辣椒表皮百菌清的光化学降解的影响%Effects of Foliar-fertilizer and Surfactant on Photochemical Degradation of Chlorothalonil in the Epidermis of Pepper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐勇; 凌秋霞; 花日茂; 李学德; 操海群


    [Objective] The aim was to study effects of foliar-fertilizer and surfactant on photochemical degradation of chlorothalonil in the epidermis of pepper. [Method] Through the epidermis of pepper was added with chlorothalonil under high pressure mercury lamp,the effects of foliar-fertilizer (foliar trace fertilizer and foliar nitrogen) and three kinds of surfactants [sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) ,Tween-80 and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) ] on photochemical degradation of chlorothalonil in the epidermis of pepper. [ Result] Under high pressure mercury lamp,foliar trace fertilizer and foliar nitrogen showed intensive photoquench effects on the photolysis of chlorothalonil,with photo-quench efficiency of 89.5% and 174.6%. SDBS and Tween-80 enhanced the photodegradation of chlorothalonil,with the photodegradation half-lives of 2.23 h and 4. 30 h,while CTAB showed photoquench effect on the photolysis of chlorothalonil,with the photodegradation half-live of 7.10 n. [Conclusion] The research result provides theoretical basis for choosing fertilizer and pesticides in agricultural production and study on transformation and trend of chlorothalonil in environment.%[目的]探究叶面肥和表面活性剂对辣椒表皮百菌清的光化学降解的影响.[方法]以高压汞灯为光源,在辣椒表面定量添加百菌清,研究叶面肥(叶面微肥和叶面氮肥)和3种不同类型的表面活性剂(十二烷基苯磺酸钠、吐温-80和十六烷基三甲基溴化铵)对百菌清在辣椒表皮光化学降解的影响.[结果]在高压汞灯下,按推荐剂量添加的叶面微肥和叶面氮肥对百菌清的光化学降解都有强烈的光猝灭作用,光猝灭率分别为89.5%和174.6%.添加十二烷基苯磺酸钠和吐温-80对百菌清的光化学降解均具有光敏作用,光解半衰期T1/2分别为2.23和4.30 h;添加十六烷基三甲基溴化铵对百菌清的光化学降解具有光猝灭作用,光解半衰期T1/2为7.10 h.[结论]为

  13. Biomimicry of surfactant protein C. (United States)

    Brown, Nathan J; Johansson, Jan; Barron, Annelise E


    Since the widespread use of exogenous lung surfactant to treat neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, premature infant survival and respiratory morbidity have dramatically improved. Despite the effectiveness of the animal-derived surfactant preparations, there still remain some concerns and difficulties associated with their use. This has prompted investigation into the creation of synthetic surfactant preparations. However, to date, no clinically used synthetic formulation is as effective as the natural material. This is largely because the previous synthetic formulations lacked analogues of the hydrophobic proteins of the lung surfactant system, SP-B and SP-C, which are critical functional constituents. As a result, recent investigation has turned toward the development of a new generation of synthetic, biomimetic surfactants that contain synthetic phospholipids along with a mimic of the hydrophobic protein portion of lung surfactant. In this Account, we detail our efforts in creating accurate mimics of SP-C for use in a synthetic surfactant replacement therapy. Despite SP-C's seemingly simple structure, the predominantly helical protein is extraordinarily challenging to work with given its extreme hydrophobicity and structural instability, which greatly complicates the creation of an effective SP-C analogue. Drawing inspiration from Nature, two promising biomimetic approaches have led to the creation of rationally designed biopolymers that recapitulate many of SP-C's molecular features. The first approach utilizes detailed SP-C structure-activity relationships and amino acid folding propensities to create a peptide-based analogue, SP-C33. In SP-C33, the problematic and metastable polyvaline helix is replaced with a structurally stable polyleucine helix and includes a well-placed positive charge to prevent aggregation. SP-C33 is structurally stable and eliminates the association propensity of the native protein. The second approach follows the same design

  14. Effect of surfactant species and electrophoretic medium composition on the electrophoretic behavior of neutral and water-insoluble linear synthetic polymers in nonaqueous capillary zone electrophoresis. (United States)

    Fukai, Nao; Kitagawa, Shinya; Ohtani, Hajime


    We have recently demonstrated the separation of neutral and water-insoluble linear synthetic polymers in nonaqueous capillary zone electrophoresis (NACZE) using a cationic surfactant of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). In this study, eight ionic surfactants were investigated for the separation of four synthetic polymers (polystyrene, polymethylmethacrylates, polybutadiene, and polycarbonate); only three surfactants (CTAC, dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide, and sodium dodecylsulfate) caused their separation. The order of the interaction between the polymers and the surfactants depended on both the surfactant species and the composition of the electrophoretic medium. Their investigation revealed that the separation is majorly affected by the hydrophobic interactions between the polymers and the ionic surfactants. In addition, the electrophoretic behavior of polycarbonate suggested that electrostatic interaction also affects the selectivity of the polymers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Response of graywater recycling systems based on hydroponic plant growth to three classes of surfactants (United States)

    Garland, J. L.; Levine, L. H.; Yorio, N. C.; Hummerick, M. E.


    Anionic (sodium laureth sulfate, SLES), amphoteric (cocamidopropyl betaine, CAPB) and nonionic (alcohol polyethoxylate, AE) surfactants were added to separate nutrient film technique (NFT) hydroponic systems containing dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. USU Apogee) in a series of 21 day trials. Surfactant was added either in a (1). temporally dynamic mode (1-3 g surfactant m(-2) growing area d(-1)) as effected by automatic addition of a 300 ppm surfactant solution to meet plant water demand, or (2). continuous mode (2 g surfactant m(-2) growing area d(-1)) as effected by slow addition (10 mLh(-1)) of a 2000 ppm surfactant solution beginning at 4d after planting. SLES showed rapid primary degradation in both experiments, with no accumulation 24 h after initial addition. CAPB and AE were degraded less rapidly, with 30-50% remaining 24 h after initial addition, but CAPB and AE levels were below detection limit for the remainder of the study. No reductions in vegetative growth of wheat were observed in response to SLES, but biomass was reduced 20-25% with CAPB and AE. Microbial communities associated with both the plant roots and wetted hardware surfaces actively degraded the surfactants, as determined by monitoring surfactant levels following pulse additions at day 20 (with plants) and day 21 (after plant removal). In order to test whether the biofilm communities could ameliorate phytotoxicity by providing a microbial community acclimated for CAPB and AE decay, the continuous exposure systems were planted with wheat seeds after crop removal at day 21. Acclimation resulted in faster primary degradation (>90% within 24h) and reduced phytotoxicity. Overall, the studies indicate that relatively small areas (3-5m(2)) of hydroponic plant systems can process per capita production of mixed surfactants (5-10 g x person(-1)d(-1)) with minimal effects on plant growth.

  16. Response of graywater recycling systems based on hydroponic plant growth to three classes of surfactants (United States)

    Garland, J. L.; Levine, L. H.; Yorio, N. C.; Hummerick, M. E.


    Anionic (sodium laureth sulfate, SLES), amphoteric (cocamidopropyl betaine, CAPB) and nonionic (alcohol polyethoxylate, AE) surfactants were added to separate nutrient film technique (NFT) hydroponic systems containing dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. USU Apogee) in a series of 21 day trials. Surfactant was added either in a (1). temporally dynamic mode (1-3 g surfactant m(-2) growing area d(-1)) as effected by automatic addition of a 300 ppm surfactant solution to meet plant water demand, or (2). continuous mode (2 g surfactant m(-2) growing area d(-1)) as effected by slow addition (10 mLh(-1)) of a 2000 ppm surfactant solution beginning at 4d after planting. SLES showed rapid primary degradation in both experiments, with no accumulation 24 h after initial addition. CAPB and AE were degraded less rapidly, with 30-50% remaining 24 h after initial addition, but CAPB and AE levels were below detection limit for the remainder of the study. No reductions in vegetative growth of wheat were observed in response to SLES, but biomass was reduced 20-25% with CAPB and AE. Microbial communities associated with both the plant roots and wetted hardware surfaces actively degraded the surfactants, as determined by monitoring surfactant levels following pulse additions at day 20 (with plants) and day 21 (after plant removal). In order to test whether the biofilm communities could ameliorate phytotoxicity by providing a microbial community acclimated for CAPB and AE decay, the continuous exposure systems were planted with wheat seeds after crop removal at day 21. Acclimation resulted in faster primary degradation (>90% within 24h) and reduced phytotoxicity. Overall, the studies indicate that relatively small areas (3-5m(2)) of hydroponic plant systems can process per capita production of mixed surfactants (5-10 g x person(-1)d(-1)) with minimal effects on plant growth.

  17. Surfactant for pediatric acute lung injury. (United States)

    Willson, Douglas F; Chess, Patricia R; Notter, Robert H


    This article reviews exogenous surfactant therapy and its use in mitigating acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in infants, children, and adults. Biophysical and animal research documenting surfactant dysfunction in ALI/ARDS is described, and the scientific rationale for treatment with exogenous surfactant is discussed. Major emphasis is placed on reviewing clinical studies of surfactant therapy in pediatric and adult patients who have ALI/ARDS. Particular advantages from surfactant therapy in direct pulmonary forms of these syndromes are described. Also discussed are additional factors affecting the efficacy of exogenous surfactants in ALI/ARDS.

  18. Role of an amide bond for self-assembly of surfactants. (United States)

    Bordes, Romain; Tropsch, Juergen; Holmberg, Krister


    Self-assembly in solution and adsorption at the air-water interface and at solid surfaces were investigated for two amino-acid-based surfactants with conductimetry, NMR, tensiometry, quartz crystal microbalance with monitoring of the dissipation (QCM-D), and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The surfactants studied were sodium N-lauroylglycinate and sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate, differing only in a methyl group on the amide nitrogen for the sarcosinate. Thus, the glycinate but not the sarcosinate surfactant is capable of forming intermolecular hydrogen bonds via the amide group. It was found that the amide bond, N-methylated or not, gave a substantial contribution to the hydrophilicity of the amphiphile. The ability to form intermolecular hydrogen bonds led to tighter packing at the air-water interface and at a hydrophobic surface. It also increased the tendency for precipitation as an acid-soap pair on addition of acid. Adsorption of the surfactants at a gold surface was also investigated and gave unexpected results. The sarcosine-based surfactant seemed to give bilayer adsorption, while the glycine derivative adsorbed as a monolayer.

  19. Theoretical and Experimental Studies on Interactions of Cationic-Anionic Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大喜; 杜永顺; 岳长涛; 侯建国; 栗秀刚; 杨文杰


    Typical cationic and anionic surfactants were chosen and their interactions were calculated by quantum chemical method. Interaction energies are -0.2378 kJ·mol-1, -3.3394 kJ·mol-1 and 0.1204 kJ·mol-1 for the molecular pairs with fluocarbon and hydrocarbon chain: C4H10/C5H12, C4F10/C5H12, and C4F10 /C5F12, respectively.When hydrophilic group with cationic and anionicions is introduced, interaction energies are -287.40kJ·mol-1,-311.18 kJ·mo1-1 and -345.83 kJ·mo1-1. The results show that there is strong static interaction between cationic and anionic surfactants. It has been predicted that mixed monolayer may be formed and surface activity is enhanced favorably, especially for mixtures of cationic and anionic surfactants with fluocarbon and hydrocarbon chains. The anionic surfactants, sodium octadecylbenzenesulfonate perfluopolyetherbenzenesulonate(ANF-I) was synthesized, mixture effects of ANF-I with sodium octadecylbenzenesulfonate or dodecyldimethyl benzylammonium bromide were studied. The results indicate that the efficiency of mixing increased and the theoretical prediction was testified. These results can provide useful information for the design of new surfactants.

  20. Self-assembly in dilute mixtures of non-ionic and anionic surfactants and rhamnolipd biosurfactants. (United States)

    Liley, J R; Penfold, J; Thomas, R K; Tucker, I M; Petkov, J T; Stevenson, P S; Banat, I M; Marchant, R; Rudden, M; Terry, A; Grillo, I


    The self-assembly of dilute aqueous solutions of a ternary surfactant mixture and rhamnolipid biosurfactant/surfactant mixtures has been studied by small angle neutron scattering. In the ternary surfactant mixture of octaethylene glycol monododecyl ether, C12E8, sodium dodecyl 6-benzene sulfonate, LAS, and sodium dioxyethylene monododecyl sulfate, SLES, small globular interacting micelles are observed over the entire composition and concentration range studied. The modelling of the scattering data strongly supports the assumption that the micelle compositions are close to the solution compositions. In the 5-component rhamnolipid/surfactant mixture of the mono-rhamnose, R1, di-rhamnose, R2, rhamnolipids with C12E8/LAS/SLES, globular micelles are observed over much of the concentration and composition range studied. However, for solutions relatively rich in rhamnolipid and LAS, lamellar/micellar coexistence is observed. The transition from globular to more planar structures arises from a synergistic packing in the 5 component mixture. It is not observed in the individual components nor in the ternary C12E8/LAS/SLES mixture at these relatively low concentrations. The results provide an insight into how synergistic packing effects can occur in the solution self-assembly of complex multi-component surfactant mixtures, and give rise to an unexpected evolution in the phase behaviour.

  1. Complexation between dodecyl sulfate surfactant and zein protein in solution. (United States)

    Ruso, Juan M; Deo, Namita; Somasundaran, P


    Interactions between sodium dodecyl sulfate and zein protein, a model system for the understanding of the effect of surfactants on skin, were investigated using a range of techniques involving UV-vis spectroscopy, TOC (total organic carbon analysis), electrophoresis, and static and dynamic light scattering. Zein protein was solubilized by SDS. The adsorption of SDS onto insoluble protein fraction caused the zeta potential of the complex to become more negative. From these values, we calculated the Gibbs energy of absorption, which decreases when the SDS concentration is raised. Finally the structure of the complex, based on the analysis by static and dynamic light scattering, is proposed to be rod like.

  2. Surfactant Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of CdSe Nanostructural Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganganagappa Nagaraju; Cujjarahalli Thimmanna Chandrappa


    CdSe/CTAB composite nanostructural materials were successfully synthesized at 160-200℃ for 2 days through a facile surfactant (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-CTAB) assisted hydrothermal method us- ing cadmium acetate and sodium selenate as precursor. The obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. Optical properties were studied by photoluminescence and UV-visible spectroscopy and morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Use of surfactants as plasticizers in preparing solid dispersions of poorly soluble API: selection of polymer-surfactant combinations using solubility parameters and testing the processability. (United States)

    Ghebremeskel, Alazar N; Vemavarapu, Chandra; Lodaya, Mayur


    Formation of solid dispersions as a means to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly soluble Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) typically employs hydrophilic polymer systems and surfactants. While the utility of the surfactant systems in solubilization is well known, the secondary effects of the same on processing and subsequent physical stability of the solid dispersions needs to be studied further. Physical blends of the poorly soluble API and hydrophilic polymers such as PVP-K30, Plasdone-S630, HPMC-E5, HPMCAS, and Eudragit L100 with mass ratio 1:1 were prepared. The surfactants tested in this study included Tween-80, Docusate sodium, Myrj-52, Pluronic-F68 and SLS. Thermal analysis of the API-polymer-surfactant blends suggested that the surfactants caused solvation/plasticization, manifesting in reduction of (i) the melting (T(m)) of API (ii) T(g) of the polymers and (iii) the combined T(g) of the solid dispersion formed from quench cooling. Explanation of these effects of surfactants is attempted based on their physical state (at the temperature of interest), HLB values and similarity of their solubility parameter values with respect to drug-polymer systems. Furthermore, extruded matrices containing different API-polymer (PVP-K30, Plasdone-S630, and HPMC-E5) mixtures prepared with and without surfactants, were produced by feeding the powder blend through a hot-melt extruder. The melt viscosity of the polymer blends was assessed by torque rheometry using a Haake Rheomix. The physicochemical properties of the extruded API-polymer-surfactant were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and polarized microscopy. The results demonstrated that the glass transition temperature of the carrier polymers decreased as direct result of the surfactants in the extrudate, due to an increase in the chain mobility of polymers. A decrease in the melt viscosity was seen due to a plasticization of the polymer. The drug release

  4. Adsorption of surfactants onto acrylic ester resins with different pore size distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Weiben; LI Aimin; CAI Jianguo; MENG Guanhua; ZHANG Quanxing


    In this study, a series of acrylic ester resins with different pore size distribution were prepared successfully by varying the type and the amount of pore-forming agents. In order to investigate the adsorption behavior and mechanism of surfactants on acrylic ester resins, three kinds of surfactants were utilized as adsorbates that were sodium 6-dodecyl benzenesulfonate (6-NaDBS),sodium 1-dodecyl benzene sulfonate (1-NaDBS) and sodium 1-dodecyl sulfonate, respectively. It was observed that the surface area was available in a particular pore size and an appropriate pore size of resins appeared to be more important for the adsorption of surfactants. As compared to commercial acrylic ester resins XAD-7 and HP2MG, 50# and 38# resins exhibited more excellent adsorption properties toward 1-NaDBS and 6-NaDBS. The experimental equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, and double-Langmuir models. Two models provided very good fittings for all resins over the temperature range studied. The investigation dicated that electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bond between resins and surfactants were the main forces and had an obvious effect on adsorption process.

  5. Tuning Polyelectrolyte-Surfactant Interactions: Modification of Poly(ethylenimine) with Propylene Oxide and Blocks of Ethylene Oxide. (United States)

    Penfold, J; Thomas, R K; Li, P; Batchelor, S N; Tucker, I M; Burley, A W


    Significantly enhanced adsorption at the air-water interface arises in polyelectrolyte/ionic surfactant mixtures, such as poly(ethylenimine)/sodium dodecyl sulfate (PEI/SDS), down to relatively low surfactant concentrations due to a strong surface interaction between the polyelectrolyte and surfactant. In the region of charge neutralization this can result in precipitation or coacervation and give rise to undesirable properties in many applications. Ethoxylation of the PEI can avoid precipitation, but can also considerably weaken the interaction. Localization of the ethoxylation can overcome these shortcomings. Further manipulation of the polyelectrolyte-surfactant interaction can be achieved by selective ethoxylation and propoxylation of the PEI amine groups. Neutron reflectivity and surface tension data are presented here which show how the polyelectrolyte-surfactant interaction can be manipulated by tuning the PEI structure. Using deuterium labeled surfactant and polymer the neutron reflectivity measurements provide details of the surface composition and structure of the adsorbed layer. The general pattern of behavior is that at low surfactant concentrations there is enhanced surfactant adsorption due to the strong surface interaction; whereas around the region of the SDS critical micellar concentration, cmc, the surface is partially depleted of surfactant in favor bulk aggregate structures. The results presented here show how these characteristic features of the adsorption are affected by the degree of ethoxylation and propoxylation. Increasing the degree of propoxylation enhances the surfactant adsorption, whereas varying the degree of ethoxylation has a less pronounced effect. In the region of surfactant surface depletion increasing both the degree of ethoxylation and propoxylation result in an increased surface depletion.

  6. Surfactant recovery from water using foam fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tharapiwattananon, N.; Osuwan, S. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand); Scamehorn, J.F. [Inst. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)] [and others


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of foam fractionation to recover surfactant from water. A simple continuous mode foam fractionation was used and three surfactants were studied (two anionic and one cationic). The effects of air flow rate, foam height, liquid height, liquid feed surfactant concentration, and sparger porosity were studied. This technique was shown to be effective in either surfactant recovery or the reduction of surfactant concentration in water to acceptable levels. As an example of the effectiveness of this technique, the cetylpyridinium chloride concentration in water can be reduced by 90% in one stage with a liquid residence time of 375 minutes. The surfactant concentration in the collapsed foam is 21.5 times the feed concentration. This cationic surfactant was easier to remove from water by foam fractionation than the anionic surfactants studied.

  7. Synthesis of carbohydrate-based surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemberton, Jeanne E.; Polt, Robin L.; Maier, Raina M.


    The present invention provides carbohydrate-based surfactants and methods for producing the same. Methods for producing carbohydrate-based surfactants include using a glycosylation promoter to link a carbohydrate or its derivative to a hydrophobic compound.

  8. Characteristics of the Carbon Nanotube Coated with Polyaniline Doped with Hydrochloric Acid and Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid%盐酸与DBSA共掺杂聚苯胺修饰碳纳米管性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱波; 刘刚; 薛艳丽; 郑亚萍; 赵纯颖


    The MWNTs/polyaniline composites were prepared via in-situ emulsion polymerization using hydrochloric acid and dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid as dopants. The FTIR spectra, TEM and TGA were used to characterize the morphology and performance of the composites. The TEM results show that the surface of MWNTs are coated by polyaniline composites and the thickness of the coating layer is 10~20nm. The solubility is increased in DMF, THF and chloroform. The thermal stability of the composite is highly improved at 520~750℃ and the encapsulation rate is 15.16%. The conductivity of the sample is increased from 10-7S/cm to 10-3S/cm.%采用原位乳液聚合法制备了盐酸与十二烷基苯磺酸(DBSA)共掺杂聚苯胺/MWNTs复合材料.利用FTIR、TEM和TG等对复合材料的形貌和性能进行了表征.TEM结果表明苯胺共聚物包覆于碳纳米管表面,包覆厚度为10~20nm.复合材料在DMF、THF和氯仿中的溶解性大幅度提高,在520~750℃的热稳定性明显提高,包覆率为15.16%,电导率从聚苯胺的10-7A/cm增大到10-3S/cm.

  9. Test Your Sodium Smarts (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  10. Study on the Formation of Urea or Salt Induced Vesicles in Built-system Surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Gang HU; Hui XIE; Gan Zuo LI; Ya AN; Zhong Ni WANG; Xiao Yi ZHANG; Jing Ping TIAN


    The spontaneous formation of vesicles in the aqueous of cationic surfactant phosphate(PTA) and anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at certain mixing ratios have obtained1.The addition of urea or NaI will expand the range of spontaneous vesicle formation. The fact is demonstrated by negative-staining transmission electron microscope(TEM) and dynamic light scattering(DLS) methods. The phenomenon especially in the part of urea is reported by us at first.Mechanism of urea/NaI-induced vesicles formation is discussed from the viewpoint of the molecular geometry packing parameter f, conformation and interaction.

  11. Influences of surfactants on the preparation of copper nanoparticles by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Ruimin [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail:; Wu Xinfeng; Hao Xufeng; Zhou Fei [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li Hongbin [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China); Rao Weihong [Shenzhen Tianding Fine Chemical Engineering Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Shenzhen, Guangdong 518057 (China)


    Electron beam radiation was applied to prepare nano-size copper in water system using polyvinyl alcohol, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, gluten and polyethylene glycol as the surfactants, respectively. The irradiated products were characterized by XRD, TEM and LSPSDA. The XRD and TEM showed that relative pure copper products with an average size of 20 nm, 40 nm and 20 nm can be obtained by using gluten, PEG and SDBS as surfactant, respectively. An admixture of copper and cuprous oxide was obtained in PVA system. The LSPSDA showed that the size of the Cu nanoparticles decreased with increasing the glutin concentration.

  12. Effect of surfactants on the performance of tubular and spherical micromotors – a comparative study† (United States)

    Sanchez, Samuel; Chokmaviroj, Sarocha; Ruiz-Molina, Daniel; Baeza, Alejandro; Schmidt, Oliver G.


    The development of artificial micromotors is one of the greatest challenges of modern nanotechnology. Even though many kinds of motors have been published in recent times, systematic studies on the influence of components of the fuel solution are widely missing. Therefore, the autonomous movement of Pt-microtubes and Pt-covered silica particles is comparatively observed in the presence and absence of surfactants in the medium. One representative of each of the three main surfactant classes – anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), cationic (benzalkonium chloride, BACl) and non-ionic (Triton X) – has been chosen and studied. PMID:25364501

  13. Emulsion electrospinning of polycaprolactone: influence of surfactant type towards the scaffold properties. (United States)

    Hu, Jue; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Ding, Xin; Ramakrishna, Seeram


    Producing uniform nanofibers in high quality by electrospinning remains a huge challenge, especially using low concentrated polymer solutions. However, emulsion electrospinning assists to produce nanofibers from less concentrated polymer solutions compared to the traditional electrospinning process. The influence of individual surfactants towards the morphology of the emulsion electrospun poly (ɛ-caprolactone)/bovine serum albumin (PCL/BSA) nanofibers were investigated by using (i) non-ionic surfactant sorbitane monooleate (Span80); (ii) anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS); and (iii) cationic benzyltriethylammonium chloride, and poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer Pluronic F108 of different concentrations. The morphology, along with the chemical and mechanical properties of the fibers, was evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, water contact angle, and tensile tester. With the addition of surfactants, the electrospinnability of dilute PCL solution was enhanced, with either branched or uniform fibers were obtained. Electrospinning of an emulsion containing 0.4% (w/v) SDS produced the smallest and the most uniform nanofibers (167 ± 39 nm), which was attributed to the high conductivity of the solution. Analysis revealed that the emulsion electrospun nanofibers containing different surfactants and surfactant concentrations differ in fiber morphology and mechanical properties. Results suggest that surfactants have the ability to modulate the fiber morphology via electrostatic and hydrogen bonding, depending on their chemical structure.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noor Rehman; Abbas Khan; Iram Bibi; Mohammad Siddiq


    The interactions of non-ionic amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(oxyethylene/oxybutylene) (E39B18) with anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were studied by using various techniques such as surface tension,conductivity,steady-state fluorescence and dynamic light scattering.Surface tension measurements were used to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and thereby the free energy of micellization (AGmic),free energy of adsorption (AGads),surface excess concentration (F) and minimum area per molecule (A).Conductivity measurements were used to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC),critical aggregation concentration (CAC),polymer saturation point (PSP),degree of ionization (α) and counter ion binding (β).Dynamic light scattering experiments were performed to check the changes in physiochemical properties of the block copolymer micelles taken place due to the interactions of diblock copolymers with ionic surfactants.The ratio of the first and third vibronic peaks (I1/I13) indicated the polarity of the pyrene micro environment and was used for the detection of micelle as well as polymer-surfactant interactions.Aggregation number (N),number of binding sites (n) and free energy of binding (AGb) for pure surfactants as well as for polymer-surfactant mixed micellar systems were determined by the fluorescence quenching method.

  15. Synthesis, surface properties and antimicrobial activity of some germanium nonionic surfactants. (United States)

    Zaki, Mohamed F; Tawfik, Salah M


    Esterification reaction between different fatty acid namely; lauric, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids and polyethylene glycol-400 were performed. The produced polyethylene glycol ester were reacted with p-amine benzoic acid followed by condensation reaction with germanium dioxide in presence of sodium carbonate to form desired germinate surfactants. The chemical structures of the synthesized surfactants were determined using different spectra tools. The surface parameter including: the critical micelle concentration (CMC), effectiveness (π(cmc)), efficiency (Pc20), maximum surface excess (Γ(max)) and minimum surface area (A(min)), were calculated from the surface tension measurements. The synthesized surfactants showed higher surface activity. The thermodynamic parameters showed that adsorption and micellization processes are spontaneous. It is clear that the synthesized nonionic surfactants showed their tendency towards adsorption at the interfaces and also micellization in the bulk of their solutions. The synthesized surfactants were tested against different strain of bacteria using inhibition zone diameters. The synthesized surfactants showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms including Gram positive, Gram negative as well as fungi. The promising inhibition efficiency of these compounds against the sulfate reducing bacteria facilitates them to be applicable as new categories of sulfate reducing bacteria biocides.

  16. Adsorption Behavior and Mechanisms of Surfactants by Farmland Soils in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei-wei; KANG Chun-li; WANG Ting-ting; LI Yue-ming; ZHANG Ying-xin; WEN Xin; GUO Ping


    The adsorption of two nonionic surfactants polyethylene glycol tert-octylphenyl ether Triton X-100 (TX-100), polyoxyethylene lauryl ether(Brij35) and an anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate(SDBS) by two soils(S1, S2) of different natures and their respective organic-matter-extracted samples(S3, S4) were investigated. These adsorption isotherms show different adsorption stages of different types of surfactants by soils. The data fitted Langmuir equation very well. The adsorption maximum capacity(Q0) indicates that TX-100 and SDBS were in the sequence of S3>S4>S1>S2 in adsorption, however, Brij35 was in the sequence of S4>S3>S1>S2 in adsorption. And the adsorption amounts of the different surfactants by soils followed the order of TX-1 00>Brij35>SDBS. Meanwhile,the adsorption of the nonionic surfactants TX-100 and Brij35 decreased with the increase of their ethylene oxide(EO) numbers. The results indicate that both soil organic matter and mineral played important roles in the adsorption of suffactants, and the adsorption of the surfactants by soils was affected by the physicochemical properties and structures of the soils and suffactants, especially the mineral type and content of soil.

  17. Anomalous thickness variation of the foam films stabilized by weak non-ionic surfactants. (United States)

    Qu, Xuan; Wang, Liguang; Karakashev, Stoyan I; Nguyen, Anh V


    The constant thickness (H) of metastable free films of various non-ionic surfactant solutions was measured at surfactant concentrations less than the critical micelle concentrations or solubility limits with fixed 5x10(-5) M sodium chloride (NaCl) serving as the background electrolyte. The surfactants include n-pentanol, n-octanol, methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC), polypropylene glycol (PPG-400), tetraethylene glycol monooctyl ether (C(8)E(4)), and tetraethylene glycol monodecyl ether (C(10)E(4)). H was interferometrically measured. For each surfactant in this study, the H-versus-surfactant-concentration curve finds a peak at a concentration around 5x10(-6)-1x10(-5) M and a valley at a higher concentration. The measured H values were compared to those predicted from the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, which considers solely the contribution from electrostatic double-layer repulsion with van der Waals attraction being neglected in the present work. In determining the double-layer repulsion, the ionic strength was determined from the electrolytic conductivity measurement of the film-forming solutions and the surface potential was estimated from the zeta-potential measurement of air bubbles. It was found that the DLVO theory failed to explain the thickness variance with surfactant concentration, implying that additional non-DLVO attractive forces might be required to explain the experimental results. Finally, the possible origins of these attractive forces were discussed.

  18. Solubilization of octane in electrostatically-formed surfactant-polymer complexes. (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zeeb, Benjamin; Salminen, Hanna; Feng, Fengqin; Weiss, Jochen


    Polymers can be used to modulate the stability and functionality of surfactant micelles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the solubilization of an octane oil-in-water emulsion in mixtures of an anionic polymer (carboxymethyl cellulose) and anionic sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS), nonionic polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) and cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant micelles using dynamic light scattering, microelectrophoresis and turbidity measurements. The results showed that the addition of anionic carboxymethyl cellulose accelerated octane solubilization in cationic CTAB and CTAB-Tween 80 micelles, but did not affect the solubilization behaviors of micelles that were nonionic and anionic. The surfactant-polymer interactions were also studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to characterize different physiochemical interaction regions depending on surfactant concentration in surfactant-polymer systems. Upon octane solubilization in CTAB-carboxymethyl cellulose mixtures, shape transitions of polymer-micelle complexes may have taken place that altered light scattering behavior. Based on these results, we suggest a mechanism for oil solubilization in electrostatically-formed surfactant-polymer complexes.

  19. Sono-electroanalysis of copper: enhanced detection and determination in the presence of surfactants. (United States)

    Hardcastle, Joanna Lorraine; Hignett, Geraldine; Melville, James L; Compton, Richard G


    Surfactant adsorption has been shown to have a passivating effect on the electrode surface during anodic stripping voltammetric measurements. In the present work the feasibility of sono-anodic stripping analysis for the determination of copper in aqueous media contaminated with surfactant has been studied at an unmodified bare glassy carbon electrode. We illustrate the deleterious effect of three common surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dodecyl pyridinium chloride (DPC) and Triton-X 100 (TX-100) on conventional electroanalysis. The analogous sono-electroanalytical response was investigated for each surfactant at ultrasound intensities above and below the cavitation threshold. The enhancement in the stripping signal observed is attributed to the increased mass transport due to acoustic streaming and above the cavitation threshold the intensity of cavitational events is significantly increased leading to shearing of adsorbed surfactant molecules from the surface. As a result accurate analyses for SDS concentrations up to 100 ppm are possible, with analytical signals visible in solutions of SDS and TX-100 of 1000 ppm. Analysis is reported in high concentration of surfactant with use of sono-solvent double extraction. The power of this technique is clearly illustrated by the ability to obtain accurate measurements of copper concentration from starting solutions containing 1000 ppm SDS or TX-100. This was also exemplified by analysis of the low concentration 0.3 microM Cu(II) solution giving a percentage recovery of 94% in the presence of 1000 ppm SDS or TX-100.

  20. Effects of Concentration and Conformation of Surfactants on Phase Separation of Surfactant-Water-Oil Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁银权; 邹宪武; 刘昊阳


    The effects of surfactants on the phase separation of surfactant-water-oil systems have been investigated by using discontinuous molecular dynamic simulations. The phase separation speed and equilibrium configuration are dependent on the surfactant concentration and conformation. The equilibrium concentration of surfactants at the interface remains constant. With the increasing surfactant concentration, the equilibrium configuration crosses over from the disperse phase to the bicontinuous one. The crossover concentration is estimated. The conformation of the surfactant has little effect on the equilibrium concentration of surfactants at the interface,while it affects the equilibrium configuration after phase separation.

  1. Complex Formation Between Polyelectrolytes and Ionic Surfactants



    The interaction between polyelectrolyte and ionic surfactant is of great importance in different areas of chemistry and biology. In this paper we present a theory of polyelectrolyte ionic-surfactant solutions. The new theory successfully explains the cooperative transition observed experimentally, in which the condensed counterions are replaced by ionic-surfactants. The transition is found to occur at surfactant densities much lower than those for a similar transition in non-ionic polymer-sur...

  2. Destabilization Mechanism of Ionic Surfactant on Curcumin Nanocrystal against Electrolytes (United States)

    Rachmawati, Heni; Rahma, Annisa; Al Shaal, Loaye; Müller, Rainer H.; Keck, Cornelia M.


    We have successfully developed curcumin nanosuspension intended for oral delivery. The main purpose is to improve bioavailability through enhancing its solubility. The nanoparticles were stabilized using various stabilizers, including polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC), d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The average diameter of particles, microscopic appearance, and sedimentation of each preparation was observed and compared. Each stabilizer demonstrated a different degree of inhibition of particle aggregation under electrolyte-containing simulated gastrointestinal (GIT) fluid. Non-ionic stabilizers (PVA, PVP, and TPGS) were shown to preserve the nanosuspension stability against electrolytes. In contrast, strong ionic surfactants such as SDS were found to be very sensitive to electrolytes. The results can provide useful information for the formulators to choose the most suitable stabilizers by considering the nature of stabilizers and physiological characteristics of the target site of the drug. PMID:27763572

  3. Destabilization Mechanism of Ionic Surfactant on Curcumin Nanocrystal against Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Rachmawati


    Full Text Available We have successfully developed curcumin nanosuspension intended for oral delivery. The main purpose is to improve bioavailability through enhancing its solubility. The nanoparticles were stabilized using various stabilizers, including polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC, d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. The average diameter of particles, microscopic appearance, and sedimentation of each preparation was observed and compared. Each stabilizer demonstrated a different degree of inhibition of particle aggregation under electrolyte-containing simulated gastrointestinal (GIT fluid. Non-ionic stabilizers (PVA, PVP, and TPGS were shown to preserve the nanosuspension stability against electrolytes. In contrast, strong ionic surfactants such as SDS were found to be very sensitive to electrolytes. The results can provide useful information for the formulators to choose the most suitable stabilizers by considering the nature of stabilizers and physiological characteristics of the target site of the drug.

  4. Use of highly saline ethoxylated surfactant system for oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisberg, J.


    An aqueous solution of a sulfated polyoxylated primary alcohol and a soluble inorganic electrolyte was used for enhanced oil recovery. The electrolyte should be present in a concentration exceeding the critical concentration for forming a two-phase coacervate system, by an amount sufficient to convert the two-phase system to a turbid dispersion. The dispersion permits an interfacial tension with petroleum of 10/sup -4/ dynes/cm. A berea core (400 md) was flooded to residual oil saturation before flooding with a 4 M sodium chloride brine which contained Tergitol 15-S4 (4 ethylene oxide units, sodium salt). A 1 PV slug of the surfactant solution left only about 7 percent PV of oil.

  5. Phase behavior and interfacial tension studies of surfactant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franses, E.I.


    Parallel studies of isomerically pure sodium P(1-heptylnonyl) benzene sulfoante, Texas No. 1, its mixture with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and the petroleum sulfonate TRS 10-80 were made. Phase behavior in water, in decane, and in water-decane mixtures was studied by spectroturbidimetry, polarizing light microscopy, ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, densitometry, conductimetry, low-frequency, 0.2 to 20 kHz, dielectric relaxation, isopiestic vapor pressure, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. It was deduced that ultralow tensions (less than 0.01 dyn/cm) arise from the dispersed microcrystallites which form a third, usually liquid crystalline, phase at the decane-brine interfacial region. It appears that neither molecular adsorption from solution for micelles have anything to do with ultralow tensions, which appear to be sensitive to the third phase microstructure. The implications of these results for the mechanism of ultralow tensions in surfactant flooding processes for enhanced petroleum recovery are discussed.

  6. Binding of cationic surfactants to humic substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishiguro, M.; Tan, W.; Koopal, L.K.


    Commercial surfactants are introduced into the environment either through waste products or site-specific contamination. The amphiphilic nature of both surfactants and humic substances (HS) leads to their mutual attraction especially when surfactant and HS are oppositely charged. Binding of the cati

  7. Surfactant analysis in oil-containing fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronsveld, J.; Faber, M.J. (Koninklijke Shell Exploratie en Produktie Laboratorium, Rijswijk (Netherlands))

    The total surfactant concentration in aqueous phase samples can be analysed with a potentiometric titration. In enhanced oil recovery research, however, the surfactant is produced not only in aqueous phase samples but also in oleic phase samples. The oleic constituents in the oliec phase samples interfere in the surfactant analysis and, therefore, the titration method has been adapted. (orig.).

  8. Surfactant adsorption to soil components and soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishiguro, Munehide; Koopal, Luuk K.


    Soils are complex and widely varying mixtures of organic matter and inorganic materials; adsorption of surfactants to soils is therefore related to the soil composition. We first discuss the properties of surfactants, including the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surfactant adsorption on

  9. Low sodium diet (image) (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  10. Surfactant mediated slurry formulations for Ge CMP applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. Bahar


    In this study, slurry formulations in the presence of self-assembled surfactant structures were investigated for Ge/SiO2 CMP applications in the absence and presence of oxidizers. Both anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate-SDS) and cationic (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-C12TAB) micelles were used in the slurry formulations as a function of pH and oxidizer concentration. CMP performances of Ge and SiO2 wafers were evaluated in terms of material removal rates, selectivity and surface quality. The material removal rate responses were also assessed through AFM wear rate tests to obtain a faster response for preliminary analyses. The surfactant adsorption characteristics were studied through surface wettability responses of the Ge and SiO2 wafers through contact angle measurements. It was observed that the self-assembled surfactant structures can help obtain selectivity on the silica/germanium system at low concentrations of the oxidizer in the slurry. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  11. Persurf, a new method to improve surfactant delivery: a study in surfactant depleted rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Burkhardt

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Exogenous surfactant is not very effective in adults with ARDS, since surfactant does not reach atelectatic alveoli. Perfluorocarbons (PFC can recruit atelectatic areas but do not replace impaired endogenous surfactant. A surfactant-PFC-mixture could combine benefits of both therapies. The aim of the proof-of-principal-study was to produce a PFC-in-surfactant emulsion (Persurf and to test in surfactant depleted Wistar rats whether Persurf achieves I. a more homogenous pulmonary distribution and II. a more homogenous recruitment of alveoli when compared with surfactant or PFC alone. METHODS: Three different PFC were mixed with surfactant and phospholipid concentration in the emulsion was measured. After surfactant depletion, animals either received 30 ml/kg of PF5080, 100 mg/kg of stained (green dye Curosurf™ or 30 ml/kg of Persurf. Lungs were fixated after 1 hour of ventilation and alveolar aeration and surfactant distribution was estimated by a stereological approach. RESULTS: Persurf contained 3 mg/ml phospholipids and was stable for more than 48 hours. Persurf-administration improved oxygenation. Histological evaluation revealed a more homogenous surfactant distribution and alveolar inflation when compared with surfactant treated animals. CONCLUSIONS: In surfactant depleted rats administration of PFC-in-surfactant emulsion leads to a more homogenous distribution and aeration of the lung than surfactant alone.

  12. Evaluation of a common commercial surfactant in a water recycle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rector, T.; Jackson, A.; Rainwater, K. [Texas Tech Univ., Water Resources Center, Texas (United States); Pickering, S. [Johnson Space Center, NASA, Houston, Texas (United States)


    The fate of a common commercial surfactant was investigated in the biological reactors of a water recycle system. A NO{sub 2}{sup -} reducing packed-bed bioreactor was employed to evaluate degradation of surfactant present in a typical greywater stream. The research was conducted to determine if an alternative commercial surfactant could be used in a biological water recycle system proposed for space travel in place of the current surfactant. The commercial soap used in the research was Pert Plus for Kids (PPK), which contains sodium laureth sulfate (SLES) as the active surfactant. Experiments included a combination of microcosm studies as well as a continuous-flow packed-bed bioreactor. The hydraulic retention time of the packed-bed bioreactor was varied through changes in flow rate to yield different steady-state values for NO{sub 2}-N, TOC, and COD. Steady-state values will allow the determination of the bacterial kinetic parameters. Initial results suggest that the commercial surfactant may be difficult to treat in the time frame of typical biological systems. NO{sub 2}{sup -} reduction was favorable in the packed-bed reactor, but TOC removal rates did not correspond to the NO{sub 2}{sup -} removal. It is theorized that, due to its high K{sub oc} value (1200), SLES has an affinity to absorb to the media contained in the bed, which in turn allows for adsorption of the surfactant. Future research will include development of an isotherm model to characterize the adsorption rates and correlate them to surfactant removal. (author)

  13. Arsenic retention and transport behavior in the presence of typical anionic and nonionic surfactants. (United States)

    Liang, Chuan; Wang, Xianliang; Peng, Xianjia


    The massive production and wide use of surfactants have resulted in a large amount of surfactant residuals being discharged into the environment, which could have an impact on arsenic behavior. In the present study, the influence of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and nonionic surfactant polyethylene glycol octylphenyl ether (Triton X-100) on arsenic behavior was investigated in batch and column tests. The presence of SDBS and Triton X-100 reduced arsenic retention onto ferrihydrite (FH), enhanced arsenic transport through FH coated sand (FH-sand) columns and promoted arsenic release from the FH surface. With coexisting surfactants in solution, the equilibrium adsorbed amount of arsenic on FH decreased by up to 29.7% and the adsorption rate decreased by up to 52.3%. Pre-coating with surfactants caused a decrease in the adsorbed amount and adsorption rate of arsenic by up to 15.1% and 58.3%, respectively. Because of the adsorption attenuation caused by surfactants, breakthrough of As(V) and As(III) with SDBS in columns packed with FH-sand was 23.8% and 14.3% faster than that in those without SDBS, respectively. In columns packed with SDBS-coated FH-sand, transport of arsenic was enhanced to a greater extent. Breakthrough of As(V) and As(III) was 52.4% and 43.8% faster and the cumulative retention amount was 44.5% and 57.3% less than that in pure FH-sand column systems, respectively. Mobilization of arsenic by surfactants increased with the increase of the initial adsorbed amount of arsenic. The cumulative release amount of As(V) and As(III) from the packed column reached 10.8% and 36.0%, respectively.

  14. Surface tension of polytetrafluoroethylene and its wetting by aqueous solution of some surfactants and their mixtures (United States)

    Mańko, Diana; Zdziennicka, Anna; Jańczuk, Bronisław


    Measurements of the contact angle of aqueous solution of rhamnolipid (RL) mixture with n-octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (OGP), Triton X-100 (TX-100) or/and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDDS) on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were made. To this aim there was used a plate whose surface topography was analyzed by means of optical profilometry method. Additionally, plate surface chemistry was studied employing the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The obtained values of contact angle were discussed based on the PTFE surface tension (γSV) as well as the Lifshitz-van der Waals component of the water surface tension (γWLW). The contact angle of aqueous solution of several surfactants and their mixtures on PTFE was also considered on the basis of γSV and γWLW . It occured that by using the values of γSV , γWLW and surface tension of the aqueous solution of surfactants and their mixtures, the contact angle on PTFE can be predicted. It also occured that changes of adhesion tension of aqueous solutions of surfactants as a function of their concentration can be determined by the exponential function of the first or second order. Using such functions Gibbs surface excess concentration of surfactants at the PTFE-water interface, mole fraction of surfactant in the mixed monolayer and fraction of the area occupied by given surfactants in the monolayer were determined. Gibbs surface free energy of adsorption of a given surfactant in the presence of another one and adhesion work of the aqueous solution of surfactants to the PTFE surface were also evaluated.

  15. Model study of enhanced oil recovery by flooding with aqueous surfactant solution and comparison with theory. (United States)

    Fletcher, Paul D I; Savory, Luke D; Woods, Freya; Clarke, Andrew; Howe, Andrew M


    With the aim of elucidating the details of enhanced oil recovery by surfactant solution flooding, we have determined the detailed behavior of model systems consisting of a packed column of calcium carbonate particles as the porous rock, n-decane as the trapped oil, and aqueous solutions of the anionic surfactant sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT). The AOT concentration was varied from zero to above the critical aggregation concentration (cac). The salt content of the aqueous solutions was varied to give systems of widely different, post-cac oil-water interfacial tensions. The systems were characterized in detail by measuring the permeability behavior of the packed columns, the adsorption isotherms of AOT from the water to the oil-water interface and to the water-calcium carbonate interface, and oil-water-calcium carbonate contact angles. Measurements of the percent oil recovery by pumping surfactant solutions into calcium carbonate-packed columns initially filled with oil were analyzed in terms of the characterization results. We show that the measured contact angles as a function of AOT concentration are in reasonable agreement with those calculated from values of the surface energy of the calcium carbonate-air surface plus the measured adsorption isotherms. Surfactant adsorption onto the calcium carbonate-water interface causes depletion of its aqueous-phase concentration, and we derive equations which enable the concentration of nonadsorbed surfactant within the packed column to be estimated from measured parameters. The percent oil recovery as a function of the surfactant concentration is determined solely by the oil-water-calcium carbonate contact angle for nonadsorbed surfactant concentrations less than the cac. For surfactant concentrations greater than the cac, additional oil removal occurs by a combination of solubilization and emulsification plus oil mobilization due to the low oil-water interfacial tension and a pumping pressure increase.

  16. Physical properties of botanical surfactants. (United States)

    Müller, Lillian Espíndola; Schiedeck, Gustavo


    Some vegetal species have saponins in their composition with great potential to be used as natural surfactants in organic crops. This work aims to evaluate some surfactants physical properties of Quillaja brasiliensis and Agave angustifolia, based on different methods of preparation and concentration. The vegetal samples were prepared by drying and grinding, frozen and after chopped or used fresh and chopped. The neutral bar soap was used as a positive control. The drying and grinding of samples were the preparation method that resulted in higher foam column height in both species but Q. brasiliensis was superior to A. angustifolia in all comparisons and foam index was 2756 and 1017 respectively. Critical micelle concentration of Q. brasiliensis was 0.39% with the superficial tension of 54.40mNm(-1) while neutral bar soap was 0.15% with 34.96mNm(-1). Aspects such as genetic characteristics of the species, environmental conditions, and analytical methods make it difficult to compare the results with other studies, but Q. brasiliensis powder has potential to be explored as a natural surfactant in organic farming. Not only the surfactants physical properties of botanical saponins should be taken into account but also its effect on insects and diseases control when decided using them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Surfactant gene polymorphisms and interstitial lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelidis Panagiotis


    Full Text Available Abstract Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, which is present in the alveolar lining fluid and is essential for normal lung function. Alterations in surfactant composition have been reported in several interstitial lung diseases (ILDs. Furthermore, a mutation in the surfactant protein C gene that results in complete absence of the protein has been shown to be associated with familial ILD. The role of surfactant in lung disease is therefore drawing increasing attention following the elucidation of the genetic basis underlying its surface expression and the proof of surfactant abnormalities in ILD.

  18. Destabilization of Surfactant-Dispersed Carbon Nanotubes by Anions (United States)

    Hirano, Atsushi; Gao, Weilu; He, Xiaowei; Kono, Junichiro


    The colloidal stability of surfactant-dispersed single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is determined by microscopic physicochemical processes, such as association, partitioning, and adsorption propensities. These processes can be controlled by the addition of solutes. While the effects of cations on the colloidal stability of SWCNTs are relatively well understood, little is known about the effects of anions. In this study, we examined the effects of anions on the stability of SWCNTs dispersed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) using sodium salts, such as NaCl and NaSCN. We observed that the intensity of the radial breathing mode Raman peaks rapidly decreased as the salts were added, even at concentrations less than 25 mM, indicating the association of SWCNTs. The effect was stronger with NaSCN than NaCl. We propose that the association of SWCNTs was caused by thermodynamic destabilization of SDS assemblies on SWCNT surfaces by these salts, which was confirmed through SWCNT separation experiments using aqueous two-phase extraction and gel chromatography. These results demonstrate that neutral salts can be used to control the colloidal stability of surfactant-dispersed SWCNTs.

  19. The role of surfactants in Köhler theory reconsidered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sorjamaa


    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol particles typically consist of inorganic salts and organic material. The inorganic compounds as well as their hygroscopic properties are well defined, but the effect of organic compounds on cloud droplet activation is still poorly characterized. The focus of the present study is in the organic compounds that are surface active i.e. they concentrate on droplet surface and decrease droplet surface tension. Gibbsian surface thermodynamics were used to find out how partitioning in binary and ternary aqueous solutions affects the droplet surface tension and the droplet bulk concentration in droplets large enough to act as cloud condensation nuclei. Sodium dodecyl sulfate was used as a model compound together with sodium chloride to find out the effect the correct evaluation of surfactant partitioning has on the solute effect (Raoult effect. While the partitioning is known to lead to higher surface tension compared to a case in which partitioning is neglected, the present results show that the partitioning also alters the solute effect, and that the change is large enough to further increase the critical supersaturation and hence decrease the droplet activation. The fraction of surfactant partitioned to droplet surface increases with decreasing droplet size, which suggests that surfactants might enhance the activation of larger particles relatively more thus leading to less dense clouds. Cis-pinonic acid-ammonium sulfate aqueous solution was studied in order to relate the partitioning to more realistic atmospheric situation and to find out the combined effects of dissolution and partitioning behaviour. The results show that correct partitioning consideration alters the shape of the Köhler curve when compared to a situation in which the partitioning is neglected either completely or in the Raoult effect.

  20. Structure and physico-chemical properties in mixed aqueoussolution of sodium alkylcarboxylate-alkyltrimethylammoniumbromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG, Jian-Bin(黄建滨); ZHAO, Guo-Xi(赵国玺); HE, Xu(何煦); ZHU, Bu-Yao(朱步瑶); FU, Hong-Lan(付宏兰)


    The physico-chemical properties of organized assemblies (micelle or vesicle) from sodium alkylcarboxylate-alkyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide mixture have been investigated systematically. In different mixed cationic-anionic surfactant systems, micelles and vesicles can coexist or be transformed into each other on different conditions. The experimental results are explained prelimilarily from the viewpoint of molecular packing geometry. The solubilization of organic compound in the mixed surfactant system was also studied in detail.

  1. Combination of surfactant solubilization with permanganate oxidation for DNAPL remediation. (United States)

    Li, Zhaohui; Hanlie, Hong


    A combination of surfactant solubilization with permanganate oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) was studied in batch, flow-through column, and three-dimensional (3-D) tank tests. Batch results showed that chloride production, an indication of TCE degradation, followed a pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics with respect to KMnO4 in the presence of free-phase TCE. A higher chloride production rate was achieved when anionic surfactants were present. The observed pseudo-first-order reaction rate constant increased as the concentrations of anionic surfactants Ninate 411 and Calfax increased from 0% to 0.1%, 0.3%, and 1.0%. Column experiments on TCE reduction by permanganate in the presence and absence of surfactants were carried out using well-sorted coarse Ottawa sand. The peak effluent TCE concentration reached 1700 mg/L due to enhanced solubilization when both sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and permanganate were used, in contrast to less than 300 mg/L when only permanganate solution was used. In addition, the effluent TCE concentration decreased much faster when SDS was present in the permanganate solution, compared with the case when SDS was absent. With an initial 1 mL of TCE emplaced in the columns, the effluent TCE concentration dropped to breakthrough occurred after 21-25 h of injection when SDS was present compared with 45-70 h later when SDS was absent. A slightly higher chloride concentration was observed in the earlier stage of the column experiment and the chloride concentration decreased quickly once KMnO4 was seen in the effluent. The 3-D tank test showed that the MnO2 precipitation front formed more quickly when 1% SDS was present, which further confirmed the observation from the column study.

  2. The study of The study of the influence of temperature on surfactants – polyethylene glycol layers The study of the influence of temperature on surfactants – polyethylene glycol layers on liquid-gas interface liquid-gas interfacethe influence of temperature on surfactants – polyethylene glycol layers on liquid-gas interfaceThe study of the influence of temperature on surfactants – polyethylene glycol layers on liquid-gas interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seryk Boloshaan


    Full Text Available The surface tension of compositions consisting of nonionic polyethylene glycol and surface active substances of different nature and influence of temperatures on properties of their adsorption layers were studied. To be taken into account the basics of classical chemical thermodynamics and colloidal chemistry, the thermodynamic parameters were determined for the adsorption of glycol, cetyl pyridinium bromide, Tween- 80 and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Adsorption speed was valuated By Kinetic curves of a liquid /gas interfaces. As a surfactants were taken the anionic surfactantsodium dodecylsulphate, cationic surfactant cetylpyridinium bromide and nonionic Tween-80. The reason of using nonionic polyethyleneglycol as polymer is that the polymer is not toxic, biodegradable and it has no harm to the human body. That is why they are largely used in food industry, pharmaceutics, cosmetics and household chemical products.

  3. Discrepancies over the onset of surfactant monomer aggregation interpreted by fluorescence, conductivity and surface tension methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Carvalho Costa


    Full Text Available Molecular probe techniques have made important contributions to the determination of microstructure of surfactant assemblies such as size, stability, micropolarity and conformation. Conductivity and surface tension were used to determine the critical aggregation concentration (cac of polymer-surfactant complexes and the critical micellar concentration (cmc of aqueous micellar aggregates. The results are compared with those of fluorescent techniques. Several surfactant systems were examined, 1-butanol-sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS mixtures, solutions containing poly(ethylene oxide-SDS, poly(vinylpyrrolidone-SDS and poly(acrylic acid-alkyltrimethylammonium bromide complexes. We found differences between the cac and cmc values obtained by conductivity or surface tension and those obtained by techniques which use hydrophobic probe.

  4. Separating excess surfactant from silver and gold nanoparticles in micellar concentrates by means of nonaqueous electrophoresis (United States)

    Bulavchenko, A. I.; Demidova, M. G.; Popovetskiy, P. S.; Podlipskaya, T. Yu.; Plyusnin, P. E.


    It is shown by physicochemical means (IR Fourier spectroscopy, CHN-analysis with preliminary sorption of surfactant on SiO2) that the content of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) in an electrophoretic concentrate remains unchanged during the electrophoretic concentration of silver and gold nanoparticles. Diluting the concentrate and carrying out the second stage of electrophoresis reduces the concentration of surfactant from 0.25 to 0.015 M while maintaining the mass concentration of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles in organosols before and after electrophoresis are characterized by means of photon correlation spectroscopy, phase analysis light scattering, and spectrophotometry. Conducting films on glass substrates are obtained from concentrates with a different contents of surfactant via water-alcohol treatment and thermolysis.

  5. Removal of Hg (II and Mn (II from aqueous solution using nanoporous carbon impregnated with surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Anbia


    Full Text Available Mesoporous carbons were impregnated with the anionic and cationic surfactants to increase adsorbing capacity for heavy metal ions. Prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to study the effect of various parameters like contact time, pH, metal ion concentration and agitation speed. The mercury removal by cationic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB, anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS modified mesoporous carbon and unmodified mesoporous carbon were found to be 94%, 81.6% and 54.5%, respectively while the manganese removal for these adsorbents were found to be 82.2%, 70.5% and 56.8%, respectively. The sorption data were fit better with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm than Freundlich isotherm.

  6. Effect of Cationic and Anionic Surfactants on the Application of Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles in Paper Coating

    CERN Document Server

    Barhoum, Ahmed; Abou-Zaied, Ragab Esmail; Rehan, Mohamed; Dufour, Thierry; Hill, Gavin; Dufresne, Alain


    Modification of calcium carbonate particles with surfactant significantly improves the properties of the calcium carbonate coating on paper. Unmodified and CTAB and oleate-modified calcium carbonate nanoparticles were prepared using the wet carbonation technique for paper coating. CTAB (cationic surfactant) and sodium oleate (anionic surfactant) were used to modify the size, morphology, and surface properties of the precipitated nanoparticles. The obtained particles were characterized by XRD, FT-IR spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements, TGA and TEM. Coating colors were formulated from the prepared unmodified and modified calcium carbonates and examined by creating a thin coating layer on reference paper. The effect of calcium carbonate particle size and surface modification on paper properties, such as coating thickness, coating weight, surface roughness, air permeability, brightness, whiteness, opacity, and hydrophobicity, were investigated and compared with GCC calcium carbonate-coated papers. The obtai...

  7. Effect of anionic surfactants on the process of Fenton degradation of methyl orange. (United States)

    Yang, C W; Wang, D


    Fenton process has been shown to be very successful to remove dyes from water. However, the influence of other constituents in dyeing industry wastewater, such as Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) surfactants, has not been investigated. In this study, the effect of SDS surfactant on the kinetics of Methyl Orange degradation undergoing Fenton process was investigated. Results show that Methyl Orange degradation rate decreased as SDS concentration increased, which was attributed to the consumption of hydroxyl radicals (OH) by surfactants and the formation of Methyl Orange-SDS complex. No evidence was found that the Methyl Orange degradation pathway was affected by the presence of SDS. The kinetics modelling indicates the reaction was the first-order reaction to Methyl Orange.

  8. Interfacial behavior of pure surfactants for enhanced oil recovery. Part 1. A study on the adsorption and distribution of cetylbenzene sulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weihong Qiao; Liangjun Dong; Zhongkui Zhao; Jie Yang; Huamin Li; Zongshi Li [Dalian Univ. of Technology (China)


    The contents of pure alkyl benzene sulfonate surfactants in both the aqueous and oil phases were determined. The diffusion, adsorption and distribution of the surfactants in the oil and aqueous phases were studied at dynamic equilibrium and the effects of different structures on diffusion were investigated. N-nonane was used as the oil phase. The results indicate that the contents of the surfactants on both sides of the interface tend to increase with increasing sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride concentrations. The corresponding interfacial tensions, however, decrease gradually, and the quantities adsorbed at the oil-water interface reach a maximum value. The content of surfactant at the interface tends to be higher when the benzene ring is located near the middle of the carbon chain, so resulting in ultralow interfacial tension. (orig.)

  9. Surfactant molecules to promote removal of cadmium ions from solid surfaces: A complementary experimental-simulational study (United States)

    Pacheco-Blas, María del Alba; Dominguez, Hector; Rivera, Margarita


    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used to interact with metallic ions to demonstrate the efficiency of surfactant molecules to promote desorption of metals from solid surfaces. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopy were employed to study desorption of cadmium ions from highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), as a model to understand the removal of metallic ions from carbon substrates. Contact angle measurements were carried out to investigate the wettability behavior of the surfactant on the contaminated surface. The desorption mechanism from a microscopic level was studied by using molecular dynamic simulations. Density profiles and pair correlation functions were analyzed to determine the cadmium-surface interaction in the presence of surfactant molecules to improve ion detachment. Simulations showed that surfactant molecules moved in between the adsorbed cadmium ions and the graphite surface pushing up the metallic groups to improve metal desorption. The experimental and theoretical results agree with atomic absorption spectroscopy results.

  10. Effect of Different Surfactants on the Interfacial Behavior of the n-Hexane-Water System in the Presence of Silica Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Biswal, Nihar Ranjan; Rangera, Naveen; Singh, Jayant K


    This paper presents the effect of negatively charged silica nanoparticles (NPs) on the interfacial tension of the n-hexane-water system at variable concentrations of four different surfactants, viz., an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and two nonionic surfactants, Tween 20 and Triton X-100 (TX-100). The presence of negatively charged silica nanoparticles is found to have a different effect depending on the type of surfactant. In the case of ionic surfactants, SDS and CTAB, silica NPs reduce the interfacial tension of the system. On the contrary, for nonionic surfactants, Tween 20 and TX-100, silica NPs increase the interfacial tension. The increasing/decreasing nature of the interfacial tension in the presence of NPs is well supported by the calculated surface excess concentrations. The diffusion kinetic control (DKC) and statistical rate theory (SRT) models are used to understand the behavior of dynamic interfacial tension of the surfactant-NP-oil-water system. The DKC model is found to describe the studied surfactant-NP-oil-water systems more aptly.

  11. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in vitro and on the surface of spinach leaves by biobased surfactants (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of biosurfactants on the populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in suspension and on spinach leaves. Eight surfactants including four soybean oil-based biosurfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80), sopho...

  12. Adsorption of Anionic, Cationic and Nonionic Surfactants on Carbonate Rock in Presence of ZrO 2 Nanoparticles (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Pouriya; Bahramian, Alireza; Fakhroueian, Zahra

    The adsorption of surfactants at the solid-water interface is important for the control of wetting, lubrication, detergency and in mineral flotation.We have studied the adsorptions of different types of surfactants, cationic (Dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide, DTAB), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) and non-anionic (lauryl alcohol-7 mole ethoxylate, LA7) on carbonate rock in presence of zirconium oxide spherical nanoparticles (17-19 nm). ZrO2 nanoparticles with tetrahedral structure have significant effect on adsorption of surfactants on the carbonate rock. We have used the measured conductivities to determine the rate of adsorption of surfactants at rock-water interfaces. The conductivity of DTAB in aqueous solutions containing calcite powder decreases more than the other surfactants in contact with ZrO2 nanoparticles. We have also investigated the adsorption of surfactants at the air-water interface. The presence of nanoparticles, as demonstrated by our experiments, enhances the surface activity and surface adsorption of the surfactants through electrostatic forces or formation of nanostructures. Dynamic light structuring data shows similar aggregation number of nanoparticles in presence of nanoparticles.

  13. Technical and economic feasibility of soil flushing with non-ionic surfactant to remediate gas well condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felske, D.; Morton, P.R. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    The results of a feasibility study to assess the technical and economic viability of remediating condensate-impacted soils surrounding a main gas pipeline in northern Alberta by in situ flushing with non-ionic surfactant were presented. A commercially available non-ionic surfactant was evaluated for its solubility increasing properties as an economic means of solubilizing soil-bonded condensate. An injection-recovery well configuration was situated within the condensate spill pathway and was selected for a series of inter-well tests using surfactant injection and its recovery from a nearby pumped recovery well. Sodium bromide was used as a conservative tracer to assist in the selection of surfactant and solubilized hydrocarbon samples from the recovery well for laboratory analysis. Surfactant, hydrocarbon and tracer breakthrough curves were plotted for the recovered groundwater. Results enabled the quantification of surfactant effects on recovered groundwater. Findings demonstrated that the non-ionic surfactant achieved a significant solubilization and soil remediation of condensate at a more economic rate than bioventing, biosparging or soil vapour extraction when considered over the projected time, and attained all regulatory soil and groundwater quality remediation objectives.

  14. The interactions between cationic cellulose and Gemini surfactant in aqueous solution. (United States)

    Zhao, Shaojing; Cheng, Fa; Chen, Yu; Wei, Yuping


    Due to the extensive application of cationic cellulose in cosmetic, drug delivery and gene therapy, combining the improvement effect of surfactant-cellulose complexes, to investigate the properties of cellulose in aqueous solution is an important topic from both scientific and technical views. In this study, the phase behavior, solution properties and microstructure of Gemini surfactant sodium 5-nonyl-2-(4-(4-nonyl-2-sulfonatophenoxy)butoxy)phenyl sulfite (9-4-9)/cationic cellulose (JR400, the ammonium groups are directly bonded to the hydroxyethyl substituent with a degree substitution of 0.37) mixture was investigated using turbidity, fluorescence spectrophotometer and shear rheology techniques. As a control, the interaction of corresponding monovalent surfactant, sodium 2-ethoxy-5-nonylbenzenesulfonate (9-2) with JR400 in aqueous solution was also studied. Experimental results showed that 9-4-9/JR400 mixture has lower critical aggregation concentration (CAC) and critical micelle concentration (CMC) (about one order of magnitude) than 9-2/JR400 mixture. A low concentration of Gemini surfactant 9-4-9 appeared to induce an obvious micropolarity and viscosity value variation of the mixture, while these effects required a high concentration of corresponding monovalent one. Furthermore, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements illuminated the formation and collapse procedure of network structure of the 9-4-9/JR400 mixture, which resulted in the increase and decrease of viscosity. These results suggest that the molecular structure of the surfactant has a great effect on its interaction with cationic cellulose. Moreover, the Gemini surfactant/cationic cellulose mixture may be used as a potencial stimuli-responsive drug delivery vector which not only load hydrophilic drugs, but also deliver hydrophobic substances.

  15. Effect of inorganic additives on solutions of nonionic surfactants VI: Further cloud point relations. (United States)

    Schott, H; Royce, A E


    Disperse dosage forms stabilized with nonionic surfactants frequently contain electrolytes as active ingredients or adjuvants. Salting out of the surfactants by these electrolytes may cause breakdown of the dosage forms. The cloud point of an aqueous solution of octoxynol 9 was used to measure the salt effects. Electrolytes which salt octoxynol 9 out lower its cloud point, while salting-in electrolytes raise it. The observed cloud point effects are discussed according to the mechanisms involved. Salting out by dehydration in competition with octoxynol 9 for the available water was observed with sulfate and phosphate anions, sodium, potassium, and ammonium tribasications, and the nonelectrolyte sorbitol. The extensive self-association of water by hydrogen bonds at and below room temperature weakens its solvent power. Ions which reduce this self-association, breaking the structure of water, increased the cloud point of octoxynol 9. Among them were the iodide, thiocyanate, and nitroprusside anions. Ions which tighten the structure of water and enhance its self-association salted the surfactant out, lowering its cloud point. Among these were the fluoride and hydroxide anions. Complex formation between the ether linkages of octoxynol 9 and the following cations increased its cloud point: hydrogen (from strong acids), silver, magnesium, and zinc. Including published data, the only cations which do not form complexes with polyoxyethylated surfactants (and are, therefore, unable to salt them in) were the alkali metal ions sodium, potassium, and cesium and the ammonium ion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Enhanced dispersion of multiwall carbon nanotubes in natural rubber latex nanocomposites by surfactants bearing phenyl groups. (United States)

    Mohamed, Azmi; Anas, Argo Khoirul; Bakar, Suriani Abu; Ardyani, Tretya; Zin, Wan Manshol W; Ibrahim, Sofian; Sagisaka, Masanobu; Brown, Paul; Eastoe, Julian


    Here is presented a systematic study of the dispersibility of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in natural rubber latex (NR-latex) assisted by a series of single-, double-, and triple-sulfosuccinate anionic surfactants containing phenyl ring moieties. Optical polarising microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectroscopy have been performed to obtain the dispersion-level profiles of the MWCNTs in the nanocomposites. Interestingly, a triple-chain, phenyl-containing surfactant, namely sodium 1,5-dioxo-1,5-bis(3-phenylpropoxy)-3-((3-phenylpropoxy)carbonyl) pentane-2-sulfonate (TCPh), has a greater capacity the stabilisation of MWCNTs than a commercially available single-chain sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) surfactant. TCPh provides significant enhancements in the electrical conductivity of nanocomposites, up to ∼10(-2) S cm(-1), as measured by a four-point probe instrument. These results have allowed compilation of a road map for the design of surfactant architectures capable of providing the homogeneous dispersion of MWCNTs required for the next generation of polymer-carbon-nanotube materials, specifically those used in aerospace technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Surfactants in tribology, v.3

    CERN Document Server

    Biresaw, Girma


    The manufacture and use of almost every consumer and industrial product rely on application of advanced knowledge in surface science and tribology. These two disciplines are of critical importance in major economic sectors, such as mining, agriculture, manufacturing (including metals, plastics, wood, computers, MEMS, NEMS, appliances), construction, transportation, and medical instruments, transplants, and diagnostic devices. An up-to-date reference with contributions by experts in surface science and tribology, Surfactants in Tribology, Volume 3 discusses some of the underlying tribological a

  18. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Detergent Surfactants


    Erich Jelen; Ute Merrettig-Bruns


    Detergent surfactantscan be found in wastewater in relevant concentrations. Most of them are known as ready degradable under aerobic conditions, as required by European legislation. Far fewer surfactants have been tested so far for biodegradability under anaerobic conditions. The natural environment is predominantly aerobic, but there are some environmental compartments such as river sediments, sub-surface soil layer and anaerobic sludge digesters of wastewater treatment plants which have str...

  19. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of polysaccharide alginate derived cationic surfactant-metal(II) complexes. (United States)

    Tawfik, Salah M; Hefni, Hassan H


    New natural polysaccharide carbohydrate derivatives of sodium alginate surfactant and its cobalt, copper and zinc complexes were synthesized. Structures of the synthesized compounds are reported using FTIR, (1)H NMR and UV-vis. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of the alginate surfactant and its metal complexes in aqueous solution was found out from surface tension measurements. Surface tension data at different temperatures served for the evaluation of the temperature-dependent CMC and the thermodynamics of micellization (ΔGmic, ΔHmic, ΔSmic) and adsorption (ΔGads, ΔGads, ΔSads). The surface activities of the synthesized polymeric surfactant and its metal complexes were influenced by their chemical structures and the type of the transition metals. These compounds were evaluated against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungi (Candida albicans and Asperigllus niger). The antibacterial and antifungal screening tests of the alginate surfactant metal complexes have shown good results compared to its precursor alginate surfactant.

  20. Performance of Surfactant Methyl Ester Sulphonate solution for Oil Well Stimulation in reservoir sandstone TJ Field (United States)

    Eris, F. R.; Hambali, E.; Suryani, A.; Permadi, P.


    Asphaltene, paraffin, wax and sludge deposition, emulsion and water blocking are kinds ofprocess that results in a reduction of the fluid flow from the reservoir into formation which causes a decrease of oil wells productivity. Oil well Stimulation can be used as an alternative to solve oil well problems. Oil well stimulation technique requires applying of surfactant. Sodium Methyl Ester Sulphonate (SMES) of palm oil is an anionic surfactant derived from renewable natural resource that environmental friendly is one of potential surfactant types that can be used in oil well stimulation. This study was aimed at formulation SMES as well stimulation agent that can identify phase transitions to phase behavior in a brine-surfactant-oil system and altered the wettability of rock sandstone and limestone. Performance of SMES solution tested by thermal stability test, phase behavioral examination and rocks wettability test. The results showed that SMES solution (SMES 5% + xylene 5% in the diesel with addition of 1% NaCl at TJformation water and SMES 5% + xylene 5% in methyl ester with the addition of NaCl 1% in the TJ formation water) are surfactant that can maintain thermal stability, can mostly altered the wettability toward water-wet in sandstone reservoir, TJ Field.

  1. Different behaviours in the solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water induced by mixed surfactant solutions. (United States)

    Sales, Pablo S; de Rossi, Rita H; Fernández, Mariana A


    Water solubility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), viz, naphthalene and phenanthrene, in micellar solutions at 25°C was investigated, using two series of different binary mixtures of anionic and nonionic surfactants. Tween 80 and Brij-35 were used as nonionic surfactants whereas fatty acids or amphiphilic cyclodextrins (Mod-β-CD) synthesized in our laboratory were used as anionic ones. Solubilization capacity has been quantified in terms of the molar solubilization ratio and the micelle-water partition coefficient, using UV-visible spectrophotometry. Anionic surfactants exhibited less solubilization capacity than nonionics. The mixtures between Tween 80 and Mod-β-CD did not show synergism to increase the solubilization of PAHs. On the other hand, the mixtures formed by Tween 80 and fatty acids at all mole fractions studied produced higher enhancements of the solubility of naphthalene than the individual surfactants. The critical micellar concentration of the mixtures of Tween 80/sodium laurate was determined by surface tension measurements and spectrofluorimetry using pyrene as probe. The system is characterized by a negative interaction parameter (β) indicating attractive interactions between both surfactants in the range of the compositions studied. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Release of surfactant cargo from interfacially-active halloysite clay nanotubes for oil spill remediation. (United States)

    Owoseni, Olasehinde; Nyankson, Emmanuel; Zhang, Yueheng; Adams, Samantha J; He, Jibao; McPherson, Gary L; Bose, Arijit; Gupta, Ram B; John, Vijay T


    Naturally occurring halloysite clay nanotubes are effective in stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions and can serve as interfacially-active vehicles for delivering oil spill treating agents. Halloysite nanotubes adsorb at the oil-water interface and stabilize oil-in-water emulsions that are stable for months. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM) imaging of the oil-in-water emulsions shows that these nanotubes assemble in a side-on orientation at the oil-water interface and form networks on the interface through end-to-end linkages. For application in the treatment of marine oil spills, halloysite nanotubes were successfully loaded with surfactants and utilized as an interfacially-active vehicle for the delivery of surfactant cargo. The adsorption of surfactant molecules at the interface serves to lower the interfacial tension while the adsorption of particles provides a steric barrier to drop coalescence. Pendant drop tensiometry was used to characterize the dynamic reduction in interfacial tension resulting from the release of dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (DOSS) from halloysite nanotubes. At appropriate surfactant compositions and loadings in halloysite nanotubes, the crude oil-saline water interfacial tension is effectively lowered to levels appropriate for the dispersion of oil. This work indicates a novel concept of integrating particle stabilization of emulsions together with the release of chemical surfactants from the particles for the development of an alternative, cheaper, and environmentally-benign technology for oil spill remediation.

  3. The hydrophobicity of silicone-based oils and surfactants and their use in reactive microemulsions. (United States)

    Castellino, Victor; Cheng, Yu-Ling; Acosta, Edgar


    In this work, for the first time, the Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Difference (HLD) framework for microemulsion formulation has been applied to silicone oils and silicone alkyl polyether surfactants. Based on the HLD equations and recently introduced mixing rules, we have quantified the hydrophobicity of the oils according to the equivalent alkane carbon number (EACN). We have found that, in a reference system containing sodium dihexyl sulfosuccinate (SDHS) as the surfactant, 0.65 centistoke (cSt) and 3.0 cSt silicone oils behave like n-dodecane and n-pentadecane, respectively. Silicone alkyl polyether surfactants were found to have characteristic curvatures ranging 3.4-18.9, exceeding that of most non-ionic surfactants. The introduction of methacrylic acid (MAA) and hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) to the aqueous phase caused a significant negative shift in HLD, indicative of an aqueous phase that is less hydrophilic than pure water. The more hydrophobic surfactants (largest positive curvatures) were used in order to compensate for this effect. These findings have led to the formulation of bicontinuous microemulsions (μEs) containing silicone oil, silicone alkyl polyether and reactive monomers in aqueous solution. Ternary phase diagrams of these systems revealed the potential for silicone-containing polymer composites with bicontinuous morphologies. These findings have also helped to explain the phase behavior of formulations previously reported in literature, and could help in providing a systematic, consistent approach to future silicone oil based microemulsion formulation.

  4. Micellar dispersions with tolerance for extreme water hardness for use in petroleum recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braden, W.B. Jr.; Flourny, K.H.


    A thickened, miscible flooding medium useful for displacing petroleum in subterranean reservoirs is described. The medium consists of a dispersion of light hydrocarbons, an aqueous fluid, and a surfactant system. This aqueous fluid may have from 1,500 to 12,000 ppm polyvalent ions present, such as calcium and magnesium. The surfactant system is comprised of an aqueous solution of an anionic surfactant such as a water-soluble salt of an alkyl or an alkylaryl sulfonate, for example sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, plus a water-soluble salt of an alkyl or alkylaryl polyethoxylated sulfate anionic surfactant, such as sodium dodecyl polyethoxy sulfate, plus a nonionic surfactant such as a fatty acid diethanolamide, a polyethoxylated aliphetic alcohol, or a polyethoxylated alkyl phenol. A method is described for recovering petroleum from subterranean reservoirs using the described thickened fluid. (8 claims)

  5. Interactions between dyes and surfactants in inkjet ink used for textiles. (United States)

    Park, Ju-Young; Hirata, Yuichi; Hamada, Kunihiro


    Optimal preparation of inkjet ink should be possible through the elucidation of the relationship between dye/additive interactions and ink performance. In the present study, the interactions between the dyes and surfactant additives were investigated. To investigate the physical properties of the surfactants used, the critical micelle concentration (cmc) and the aggregation number (N) were determined using electron spin resonance, static light-scattering, and fluorescence spectroscopy. On the basis of the cmc and N values, the visible absorption spectra of aqueous acid dye solutions (C. I. Acid Red 88, 13, and 27) containing surfactants (i.e., Surfynol 465 (S465), octaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (OGDE), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) were measured. From the dependence of the spectra on the surfactant concentration, the binding constants, K(bind), of the acid dyes with the surfactant micelles were calculated: the K(bind) values decreased in the order of C. I. Acid Red 88 > C. I. Acid Red 13 > C. I. Acid Red 27, which correlates with the number of sulfonate groups. For all the dyes, the K(bind) values with the nonionic surfactants, S465 and OGDE, were much larger than those with the anionic surfactant, SDS. The thermodynamic parameters of the binding, i.e., the enthalpy change, ΔH(bind), and entropy change, ΔS(bind), were determined via the temperature dependence of the binding constants. The positive ΔH(bind) value for S465 indicates an endothermic binding process, while the negative ΔH(bind) values for SDS and OGDE indicate exothermic binding processes.

  6. Surfactant inhibition in acute respiratory failure : consequences for exogenous surfactant therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.P. Eijking (Eric)


    textabstractThe neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is characterized by immaturity of the lung, resulting in relative or absolute absence of pulmonary surfactant. Worldwide, neonates suffering from RDS have been treated successfully with exogenous surfactant preparations. Currently, exogeno

  7. On the use of sodium lignosulphonate for enhanced oil recovery (United States)

    Azis, M. M.; Rachmadi, H.; Wintoko, J.; Yuliansyah, A. T.; Hasokowati, W.; Purwono, S.; Rochmadi, W.; Murachman, B.


    There has been large interest to utilize oil reservoirs in Indonesia by using Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes. Injection of surfactant as a part of chemical injection technique in EOR is known to aid the mobility and reduction in surface tension. One potential surfactant for EOR application is Sodium Lignosulphonate (SLS) which can be made from various sources particularly empty fruit bunch of oil palm and black liquor from kraft pulp production. Here, we will discuss a number of methods for SLS production which includes lignin isolation techniques and sulphonation reaction. The use of SLS alone as EOR surfactant, however, is often not feasible as the Interfacial Tension (IFT) value of SLS is typically above the order of 10-3 dyne/cm which is mandated for EOR application. Hence, brief discussion on SLS formulation screening is provided which illustrates an extensive labwork experience during the SLS development in our lab.

  8. 表面活性剂对苯并[a]芘在黑炭表面吸附解吸的影响%Effect of Surfactants on Sorption and Desorption of Benzo[a]pyrene onto Black Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张景环; 陈春溶; 张玮航; 栗桂州


    通过静态吸附实验,研究了3种不同类型的表面活性剂(阳离子∶十六烷基三甲基溴化铵,CTAB;阴离子∶十二烷基苯磺酸钠,SDBS∶非离子,曲拉通100,TX100)对苯并[a]芘(BaP)在黑炭表面吸附解吸的影响.结果表明,3种表面活性剂的存在均会增加BaP在黑炭表面吸附的非线性程度.CTAB的存在可以促进BaP在黑炭表面的吸附同时抑制了BaP的解吸,然而SDBS的存在降低了BaP在黑炭表面的吸附并增加了吸附过程的可逆性.与CTAB和SDBS不同,TX100对BaP在黑炭表面吸附解吸的影响取决于其添加浓度.低浓度的TX100(50 mg.L-1)能够促进BaP在黑炭上的吸附并抑制BaP的解吸,吸附能力参数Kd值(在ce=50μg.L-1下)从188 062 mL.g-1增大到264 179 mL.g-1,解吸滞后指数HI从0.44降低到0.39.随着TX100浓度增加到150 mg.L-1和200 mg.L-1,TX100对BaP的吸附表现出抑制作用并能够促进BaP的解吸,Kd值(在ce=50μg.L-1下)从188 062 mL.g-1分别降低到182 751 mL.g-1和178 730 mL.g-1,解吸滞后指数从0.44分别升高到0.65和0.70.本研究为预测多环芳烃在表面活性剂污染的环境中的分布特征和最终归趋提供了理论依据.%Sorption and desorption of benzo[a]pyrene(BaP) onto black carbon(BC) extracted from sediment were studied in the presence of three types of surfactants(cetyltrimethylammonium bromide,CTAB;sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate,SDBS;Triton X-100,TX100) to examine the role of surfactants in sorption and desorption.Nonlinearity of the sorption isotherms of BaP increased in the presence of surfactants.CTAB enhanced the sorption capacity and irreversibility of BaP on BC.However,the presence of SDBS reduced the sorption capacity and desorption hysteresis.Unlike CTAB and SDBS,the influence of TX100 on sorption and desorption was concentration dependent.Low levels of TX100(50 mg·L-1) enhanced BaP sorption and reduced desorption.The sorption capacity parameter Kd value

  9. Influence of Surfactant-polymer Complexes on Crystallization and Aggregation of CaCO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Yan; GUO Yu-peng; ZHAO Xu; WANG Zi-chen


    Hollow calcium carbonate(CaCO3) microspheres with different morphologies were synthesized via the precipitation reaction of calcium chloride with sodium carbonate in the presence of different surfactant-polymer complexes.The selected anionic surfactants were sodium dodecyl sulfonate(SDS) and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate(SDBS),respectively.The selected water-soluble polymers were polyacrylic acid(PAA) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone(PVP).In this work,SDS-PVP "pearl-necklace model" micellar complex was formed via hydrophobic effectiveness between SDS and PVP and it served as the spherical template to generate spherical CaCO3 aggregates with hollow microspheres composed of about 500 nm irregular shaped particles.SDS-PAA complexes and SDBS-PAA complexes formed "core-shell model" aggregates with calcium ions serving as the medium to link the anionic surfactant and the polymer.SDS-PAA "core-shell model" aggregates would act as templates for hollow CaCO3 microspheres consisting of 30-50 nm irregular shaped crystallites.SDBS-PAA "core-shell model" aggregates served as the spherical aggregate templates to generate spherical CaCO3 aggregates consisted of many small spherical particles which had grown together.All the obtained CaCO3 hollow microspheres are calcite particles.This research may provide new insight into the control of morphologies of hollow CaCO3 microspheres in the presence of surfactantpolymer complexes.

  10. Surfactant-enhanced cellulose nanocrystal Pickering emulsions. (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Ballinger, Sarah; Pelton, Robert; Cranston, Emily D


    The effect of surfactants on the properties of Pickering emulsions stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) was investigated. Electrophoretic mobility, interfacial tension, confocal microscopy and three-phase contact angle measurements were used to elucidate the interactions between anionic CNCs and cationic alkyl ammonium surfactants didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Both surfactants were found to adsorb onto CNCs with concentration-dependent morphology. At low concentrations, individual surfactant molecules adsorbed with alkyl tails pointing outward leading to hydrophobic CNCs. At higher concentrations, above the surfactant's apparent critical micelle concentration, surfactant aggregate morphologies on CNCs were inferred and the hydrophobicity of CNCs decreased. DMAB, which has two alkyl tails, rendered the CNCs more hydrophobic than CTAB which has only a single alkyl tail, at all surfactant concentrations. The change in CNC wettability from surfactant adsorption was directly linked to emulsion properties; adding surfactant increased the emulsion stability, decreased the droplet size, and controlled the internal phase of CNC Pickering emulsions. More specifically, a double transitional phase inversion, from oil-in-water to water-in-oil and back to oil-in-water, was observed for emulsions with CNCs and increasing amounts of DMAB (the more hydrophobic surfactant). With CNCs and CTAB, no phase inversion was induced. This work represents the first report of CNC Pickering emulsions with surfactants as well as the first CNC Pickering emulsions that can be phase inverted. The ability to surface modify CNCs in situ and tailor emulsions by adding surfactants may extend the potential of CNCs to new liquid formulations and extruded/spray-dried materials.

  11. Complexation between Sodium Poly(styrenesulfonate) and Alkyltrimethylammonium Bromides in the Presence of Dodecyl Maltoside. (United States)

    Fegyver, Edit; Mészáros, Róbert


    In the present paper, the impact of dodecyl maltoside (C12G2) on the association of sodium poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) with dodecyl- and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromides (DTAB and CTAB) was studied. A low amount of nonionic surfactant enhances the binding of the investigated cationic amphiphiles on PSS, reducing the cationic surfactant-to-polyanion ratio needed for charge neutralization and precipitation. This effect is more pronounced for DTAB than for CTAB due to the considerably higher free surfactant concentration of the former cationic amphiphile. The synergistic surfactant binding also affects the nonequilibrium features of PSS/CTAB association via enhancing the kinetically stable concentration range of overcharged polyion/surfactant nanoparticle dispersions. With increasing C12G2 concentration, however, an opposite effect of the uncharged additive dominates. Namely, the CTAB molecules are solubilized excessively into mixed surfactant micelles, which reduces the surface charge of the PSS/CTAB/C12G2 nanoparticles and thus destabilizes their dispersion. At appropriately large nonionic surfactant concentrations, the binding of CTAB is largely reduced, resulting in the redissolution of the precipitate. In contrast, neither the destabilization nor the resolubilization effects of the added dodecyl maltoside were observed for the PSS/DTAB system due to the much lower driving force of DTAB binding compared to CTAB. Our results clearly demonstrate that the alkyl chain length of the ionic amphiphile has a pronounced effect on both the equilibrium and nonequilibrium aspects of polyion/mixed surfactant complexation which might be further exploited in various next generation applications.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Addition-Fragmentation Reactive Surfactant (TRANSURF) for Use in Free-Radical Emulsion Polymerizations. (United States)

    Wilkinson, Terence S.; Boonstra, Armin; Montoya-Goñi, Amaia; van Es, Steven; Monteiro, Michael J.; German, Anton L.


    The synthesis and characterization of a new type of chain-transfer-active surfactant (i.e., TRANSURF) is reported. The compound was designed on the basis of the chemistry of macromers, which undergo free-radical chain-transfer addition-fragmentation reactions. In effect this allows incorporation of the surfactant molecule into the polymer backbone, and thus reduces the influence of surfactant migration during film formation. Surfactants of this type, containing two hydrophilic head groups, can have a marked influence on the polymer and latex properties (e.g., molecular weight distributions and particle size). Characterization of the physical properties of this surfactant was therefore carried out using surface tension, conductivity, and fluorescence techniques. Because of the surfactant's unusual "bolaform" (alpha, omega) (Zana, R., in "Structure-Performance Relationships in Surfactants" (K. Esumi and M. Ueno, Eds.), Surfactant Science Series 70, Dekker, New York, 1997) structure the micelle formation process has been found to be quite different from that of the conventional surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). From the surface tension data a flat molecular conformation was evident at 1x10(-3) mol dm(-3) (131 Å(2) surface area), which we assumed to correspond to the low aggregation number of premicellar aggregates. There is evidence to suggest formation of a larger volume of the microdomains in these micelles compared to that in SDS. At higher TRANSURF concentrations, however, we find no clear indication of a switch to a "wicket"-type conformation, although such conformational changes cannot be ruled out. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  13. Solubilization of Hydrophobic Dyes in Surfactant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Tehrani-Bagha


    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of surfactants for solubilization of hydrophobic organic dyes (mainly solvent and disperse dyes has been reviewed. The effect of parameters such as the chemical structures of the surfactant and the dye, addition of salt and of polyelectrolytes, pH, and temperature on dye solubilization has been discussed. Surfactant self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution and below the concentration where this occurs—the critical micelle concentration (CMC—there is no solubilization. Above the CMC, the amount of solubilized dye increases linearly with the increase in surfactant concentration. It is demonstrated that different surfactants work best for different dyes. In general, nonionic surfactants have higher solubilization power than anionic and cationic surfactants. It is likely that the reason for the good performance of nonionic surfactants is that they allow dyes to be accommodated not only in the inner, hydrocarbon part of the micelle but also in the headgroup shell. It is demonstrated that the location of a dye in a surfactant micelle can be assessed from the absorption spectrum of the dye-containing micellar solution.

  14. Using biologically soft surfactants for dust suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachenko, N.G.; Kolodiichak, V.K.; Motrii, A.E.; Severin, V.D.


    This article discusses environmental aspects of using surfactants in coal mines for dust suppression. Surfactants for underground black coal mines in the USSR are divided into three classes: so-called soft surfactants with a decomposition period from 1 to 3 days, hard surfactants with decomposition exceeding a month and an intermediary group. The decomposition process is analyzed; the role played by fermentation is stressed. Environmental effects of surfactant decomposition are evaluated. Selected surfactants tested in Soviet laboratories are described. The results of experimental use of diethanolamide as a surfactant for water injection in coal seams are evaluated. Wetting time amounts to 1 s when a 0.2% concentration is used. When surfactant concentration in water is reduced to 0.05% wetting time does not change; when concentration decreases to 0.025% wetting time increases to 3 s. Surfactant efficiency is investigated under operational conditions in a Donbass mine. Specifications of the working face, mining system and air pollution caused by a shearer loader are discussed. When diethanolamide is used dust suppression efficiency ranges from 86.4 to 90.4%. During the tests diethanolamide concentration in water was 0.05%.

  15. Remediation using trace element humate surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Taylor, Steven Cheney; Bruhn, Debra Fox


    A method of remediation at a remediation site having one or more undesirable conditions in which one or more soil characteristics, preferably soil pH and/or elemental concentrations, are measured at a remediation site. A trace element humate surfactant composition is prepared comprising a humate solution, element solution and at least one surfactant. The prepared trace element humate surfactant composition is then dispensed onto the remediation site whereby the trace element humate surfactant composition will reduce the amount of undesirable compounds by promoting growth of native species activity. By promoting native species activity, remediation occurs quickly and environmental impact is minimal.

  16. Surfactant nebulisation : lung function, surfactant distribution and pulmonary blood flow distribution in lung lavaged rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Peter H.; Heikamp, A; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto


    Objective: Surfactant nebulisation is a promising alternative to surfactant instillation in newborns with the respiratory distress syndrome. Although less surfactant is deposited in the lung, it improves gas exchange, probably due to a superior distribution. We hypothesize that a more uniform distri

  17. Biophysical inhibition of pulmonary surfactant function by polymeric nanoparticles: role of surfactant protein B and C. (United States)

    Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Ruppert, Clemens; Schmehl, Thomas; Günther, Andreas; Seeger, Werner


    The current study investigated the mechanisms involved in the process of biophysical inhibition of pulmonary surfactant by polymeric nanoparticles (NP). The minimal surface tension of diverse synthetic surfactants was monitored in the presence of bare and surface-decorated (i.e. poloxamer 407) sub-100 nm poly(lactide) NP. Moreover, the influence of NP on surfactant composition (i.e. surfactant protein (SP) content) was studied. Dose-elevations of SP advanced the biophysical activity of the tested surfactant preparation. Surfactant-associated protein C supplemented phospholipid mixtures (PLM-C) were shown to be more susceptible to biophysical inactivation by bare NP than phospholipid mixture supplemented with surfactant protein B (PLM-B) and PLM-B/C. Surfactant function was hindered owing to a drastic depletion of the SP content upon contact with bare NP. By contrast, surface-modified NP were capable of circumventing unwanted surfactant inhibition. Surfactant constitution influences the extent of biophysical inhibition by polymeric NP. Steric shielding of the NP surface minimizes unwanted NP-surfactant interactions, which represents an option for the development of surfactant-compatible nanomedicines.

  18. Surfactant nebulisation : lung function, surfactant distribution and pulmonary blood flow distribution in lung lavaged rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Peter H.; Heikamp, A; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto


    Objective: Surfactant nebulisation is a promising alternative to surfactant instillation in newborns with the respiratory distress syndrome. Although less surfactant is deposited in the lung, it improves gas exchange, probably due to a superior distribution. We hypothesize that a more uniform distri

  19. Prevention of topical surfactant-induced itch-related responses by chlorogenic acid through the inhibition of increased histamine production in the epidermis. (United States)

    Inami, Yoshihiro; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Kuraishi, Yasushi


    Effects of chlorogenic acid on surfactant-induced itching were studied in mice. Topical application of sodium laurate increased hind-paw scratching, an itch-related response, 2 h after application, which was inhibited by topical post-treatment with chlorogenic acid. Sodium laurate increased the histamine content and 53-kDa L-histidine decarboxylase in the epidermis, which were also inhibited by post-treatment with chlorogenic acid. These results suggest that topical chlorogenic acid is effective in the prevention of itching induced by anionic surfactants. The inhibitory activity of chlorogenic acid may be due to the inhibition of an increase in histamine in the epidermis.

  20. "Phase diagrams of Lecithin-based microemulsions containing Sodium Salicylate "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Aboofazeli R


    Full Text Available Partial phase diagrams were constructed at 25°C to investigate the phase behaviour of systems composed of soybean lecithin, water, sodium salicylate, alcohol and isopropyl myristate. The lecithins used were the commercially available soy bean lecithins, namely E200 and E170 (phosphatidyl choline purities greater than 95% and 68-72% respectively. The cosurfactants employed were n-propanol, 2-propanol and n-butanol and these were used at lecithin/alcohol weight ratios (Km of 1:1 and 1.5:1. At a given Km, the aqueous phase consisted of a 2% w/w sodium salicylate solution. Phase diagrams showed the area of existence of a stable isotropic region along the surfactant/oil axis (i.e., reverse microemulsion area. The extension of the microemulsion domain was influenced by the purity of surfactant, the lecithin/alcohol weight ratios and the kind of the alcohol.

  1. Implications of surfactant-induced flow for miscible-displacement estimation of air-water interfacial areas in unsaturated porous media. (United States)

    Costanza-Robinson, Molly S; Zheng, Zheng; Henry, Eric J; Estabrook, Benjamin D; Littlefield, Malcolm H


    Surfactant miscible-displacement experiments represent a conventional means of estimating air-water interfacial area (A(I)) in unsaturated porous media. However, changes in surface tension during the experiment can potentially induce unsaturated flow, thereby altering interfacial areas and violating several fundamental method assumptions, including that of steady-state flow. In this work, the magnitude of surfactant-induced flow was quantified by monitoring moisture content and perturbations to effluent flow rate during miscible-displacement experiments conducted using a range of surfactant concentrations. For systems initially at 83% moisture saturation (S(W)), decreases of 18-43% S(W) occurred following surfactant introduction, with the magnitude and rate of drainage inversely related to the surface tension of the surfactant solution. Drainage induced by 0.1 mM sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, commonly used for A(I) estimation, resulted in effluent flow rate increases of up to 27% above steady-state conditions and is estimated to more than double the interfacial area over the course of the experiment. Depending on the surfactant concentration and the moisture content used to describe the system, A(I) estimates varied more than 3-fold. The magnitude of surfactant-induced flow is considerably larger than previously recognized and casts doubt on the reliability of A(I) estimation by surfactant miscible-displacement.

  2. Effect of different surfactants on removal efficiency of heavy metals in sewage sludge treated by a novel method combining bio-acidification with Fenton oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任苗苗; 林宁波; 袁兴中; 朱艺; 黄华军; 曾光明; 李辉; 陈明; 王侯; 陈畅亚


    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different surfactants on the removal efficiency of heavy metals in sewage sludge treated by a method combining bio-acidification with Fenton oxidation. Four surfactants were adopted such as anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, SDBS), nonionic surfactants (tween-20 and tween-60) and cationic surfactant (hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, HTAC), respectively. The indigenous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in bio-acidification phase were enriched and cultured from fresh activated sludge obtained from a wastewater treatment plant. It is shown that different surfactants exhibited distinct effect on the removal efficiency of heavy metals from sewage sludge. The nonionic surfactants, especially tween-60, promotes the solubilization of heavy metals, while the anionic and cationic surfactants hinder the removal of heavy metals. Copper is efficiently leached. The removal efficiency of cadium is relatively lower than that of Cu due to the demand for rigorous pH value. Lead is leached with a low efficiency as the formation of low soluble PbSO4 precipitates.

  3. Hemolysis by surfactants--A review. (United States)

    Manaargadoo-Catin, Magalie; Ali-Cherif, Anaïs; Pougnas, Jean-Luc; Perrin, Catherine


    An overview of the use of surfactants for erythrocyte lysis and their cell membrane action mechanisms is given. Erythrocyte membrane characteristics and its association with the cell cytoskeleton are presented in order to complete understanding of the erythrocyte membrane distortion. Cell homeostasis disturbances caused by surfactants might induce changes starting from shape modification to cell lysis. Two main mechanisms are hypothesized in literature which are osmotic lysis and lysis by solubilization even if the boundary between them is not clearly defined. Another specific mechanism based on the formation of membrane pores is suggested in the particular case of saponins. The lytic potency of a surfactant is related to its affinity for the membrane and the modification of the lipid membrane curvature. This is to be related to the surfactant shape defined by its hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties but also by experimental conditions. As a consequence, prediction of the hemolytic potency of a given surfactant is challenging. Several studies are focused on the relation between surfactant erythrolytic potency and their physico-chemical parameters such as the critical micellar concentration (CMC), the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB), the surfactant membrane/water partition coefficient (K) or the packing parameter (P). The CMC is one of the most important factors considered even if a lytic activity cut-off effect points out that the only consideration of CMC not enough predictive. The relation K.CMC must be considered in addition to the CMC to predict the surfactant lytic capacity within the same family of non ionic surfactant. Those surfactant structure/lytic activity studies demonstrate the requirement to take into account a combination of physico-chemical parameters to understand and foresee surfactant lytic potency.

  4. Structured fluids polymers, colloids, surfactants

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Thomas A


    Over the last thirty years, the study of liquids containing polymers, surfactants, or colloidal particles has developed from a loose assembly of facts into a coherent discipline with substantial predictive power. These liquids expand our conception of what condensed matter can do. Such structured-fluid phenomena dominate the physical environment within living cells. This book teaches how to think of these fluids from a unified point of view showing the far-reaching effects ofthermal fluctuations in producing forces and motions. Keeping mathematics to a minimum, the book seeks the simplest expl

  5. Innovation in surfactant therapy I: surfactant lavage and surfactant administration by fluid bolus using minimally invasive techniques. (United States)

    Dargaville, Peter A


    Innovation in the field of exogenous surfactant therapy continues more than two decades after the drug became commercially available. One such innovation, lung lavage using dilute surfactant, has been investigated in both laboratory and clinical settings as a treatment for meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Studies in animal models of MAS have affirmed that dilute surfactant lavage can remove meconium from the lung, with resultant improvement in lung function. In human infants both non-randomised studies and two randomised controlled trials have demonstrated a potential benefit of dilute surfactant lavage over standard care. The largest clinical trial, performed by our research group in infants with severe MAS, found that lung lavage using two 15-ml/kg aliquots of dilute surfactant did not reduce the duration of respiratory support, but did appear to reduce the composite outcome of death or need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. A further trial of lavage therapy is planned to more precisely define the effect on survival. Innovative approaches to surfactant therapy have also extended to the preterm infant, for whom the more widespread use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has meant delaying or avoiding administration of surfactant. In an effort to circumvent this problem, less invasive techniques of bolus surfactant therapy have been trialled, including instillation directly into the pharynx, via laryngeal mask and via brief tracheal catheterisation. In a recent clinical trial, instillation of surfactant into the trachea using a flexible feeding tube was found to reduce the need for subsequent intubation. We have developed an alternative method of brief tracheal catheterisation in which surfactant is delivered via a semi-rigid vascular catheter inserted through the vocal cords under direct vision. In studies to date, this technique has been relatively easy to perform, and resulted in rapid improvement in lung function and reduced need for

  6. Synthesis of silica particles with lamellar and wormhole-like bi-modal mesopores using anionic surfactant as the template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Silica particles with lamellar and wormhole-like bi-modal mesopores have been synthesized using anionic surfactant (N-lauroylsarcosine sodium) as the template. The particles with diameters of 300―500 nm possess bi-modal mesopores with pore sizes of 3 nm and 12 nm, which were ascribed to the disordered wormhole-like mesophase and lamellar mesophase, respectively. The BET surface area of the particles was 536 m2/g and the pore volume was 0.83 cm3/g. The lamellar mesophase and cylindrical mesophase were formed due to the co-assembly of the anionic surfactant and its protonized polar oil.

  7. Molecular Dynamics Study of the Foam Stability of a Mixed Surfactant System with and without Calcium Ions (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozhen; Yang, Wenhong; Institute of Chemistry, CAS Team


    Foam stability performance of a mixture surfactant system with and without calcium ions, including linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), has been studied by molecular dynamics. Microscopic interaction analysis reveals that the fraction of free calcium ions, Xf , in film system indicates the extent of the foam stabilities when Xf is in different calcium ion zones. In the system without ions, we found the variable of the surfactant tail mass out of water film, W , is indicator of foam stability. Performance of the mixture system predicted here was supported by experiments.

  8. Enhanced hydrolysis of bamboo biomass by chitosan based solid acid catalyst with surfactant addition in ionic liquid. (United States)

    Si, Wenqing; Li, Yichen; Zheng, Jie; Wei, Shun'an; Wang, Dan


    Surfactants were used for the hydrolysis of bamboo biomass to enhance lignocellulose hydrolysis. Tween 80, polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were tested as surfactants for improving the bamboo hydrolysis with a novel sulfonated cross-linked chitosan solid acid catalyst (SCCAC) in ionic liquid (IL). Compared to the use of only SCCAC in 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), the surfactants facilitated hydrolysis and improved the yield of total reducing sugar (TRS) under the same conditions. Tween 80 was the most effective surfactant, with a TRS yield of 68.01% achieved at 120°C after 24h. Surfactants broke the lignocellulose structure, promoted lignin removal, and increased positive interactions between cellulose and the catalyst, which were favorable for hydrolysis. This novel surfactant-assisted hydrolysis strategy with SCCAC and IL as the solvent demonstrated a promise for the large-scale transformation of biomass into biofuels and bioproducts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Surface active complexes formed between keratin polypeptides and ionic surfactants. (United States)

    Pan, Fang; Lu, Zhiming; Tucker, Ian; Hosking, Sarah; Petkov, Jordan; Lu, Jian R


    Keratins are a group of important proteins in skin and hair and as biomaterials they can provide desirable properties such as strength, biocompatibility, and moisture regaining and retaining. The aim of this work is to develop water-soluble keratin polypeptides from sheep wool and then explore how their surface adsorption behaves with and without surfactants. Successful preparation of keratin samples was demonstrated by identification of the key components from gel electrophoresis and the reproducible production of gram scale samples with and without SDS (sodium dodecylsulphate) during wool fibre dissolution. SDS micelles could reduce the formation of disulphide bonds between keratins during extraction, reducing inter-molecular crosslinking and improving keratin polypeptide solubility. However, Zeta potential measurements of the two polypeptide batches demonstrated almost identical pH dependent surface charge distributions with isoelectric points around pH 3.5, showing complete removal of SDS during purification by dialysis. In spite of different solubility from the two batches of keratin samples prepared, very similar adsorption and aggregation behavior was revealed from surface tension measurements and dynamic light scattering. Mixing of keratin polypeptides with SDS and C12TAB (dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide) led to the formation of keratin-surfactant complexes that were substantially more effective at reducing surface tension than the polypeptides alone, showing great promise in the delivery of keratin polypeptides via the surface active complexes. Neutron reflection measurements revealed the coexistence of surfactant and keratin polypeptides at the interface, thus providing the structural support to the observed surface tension changes associated with the formation of the surface active complexes.

  10. Surfactant Adsorption: A Revised Physical Chemistry Lab (United States)

    Bresler, Marc R.; Hagen, John P.


    Many physical chemistry lab courses include an experiment in which students measure surface tension as a function of surfactant concentration. In the traditional experiment, the data are fit to the Gibbs isotherm to determine the molar area for the surfactant, and the critical micelle concentration is used to calculate the Gibbs energy of micelle…

  11. Surfactant effects on soil aggregate tensile strength (United States)

    Little is known regarding a soil aggregate's tensile strength response to surfactants that may be applied to alleviate soil water repellency. Two laboratory investigations were performed to determine surfactant effects on the tensile strength of 1) Ap horizons of nine wettable, agricultural soils co...

  12. Metathesis depolymerization for removable surfactant templates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zifer, Thomas (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Wheeler, David Roger; Rahimian, Kamayar; McElhanon, James Ross (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Long, Timothy Michael; Jamison, Gregory Marks; Loy, Douglas Anson (Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, NM); Kline, Steven R. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD); Simmons, Blake Alexander (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)


    Current methodologies for the production of meso- and nanoporous materials include the use of a surfactant to produce a self-assembled template around which the material is formed. However, post-production surfactant removal often requires centrifugation, calcination, and/or solvent washing which can damage the initially formed material architecture(s). Surfactants that can be disassembled into easily removable fragments following material preparation would minimize processing damage to the material structure, facilitating formation of templated hybrid architectures. Herein, we describe the design and synthesis of novel cationic and anionic surfactants with regularly spaced unsaturation in their hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails and the first application of ring closing metathesis depolymerization to surfactant degradation resulting in the mild, facile decomposition of these new compounds to produce relatively volatile nonsurface active remnants.

  13. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Surfactant Flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandersen, Sara Bülow

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is being increasingly applied in the oil industry and several different technologies have emerged during, the last decades in order to optimize oil recovery after conventional recovery methods have been applied. Surfactant flooding is an EOR technique in which the phase...... both for complex surfactant systems as well as for oil and brine systems. It is widely accepted that an increase in oil recovery can be obtained through flooding, whether it is simple waterflooding, waterflooding where the salinity has been modified by the addition or removal of specific ions (socalled...... “smart” waterflooding) or surfactant flooding. High pressure experiments have been carried out in this work on a surfactant system (surfactant/ oil/ brine) and on oil/ seawater systems (oil/ brine). The high pressure experiments were carried out on a DBR JEFRI PVT cell, where a glass window allows...

  14. Transdermal Delivery of Piroxicam by Surfactant Mediated Electroporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZAN Jia; JIANG Guoqiang; LIN Ying; TAN Fengping; DING Fuxin


    A lipophilic, nonsteroidal antiinflammation drug, piroxicam, was administered by skin electroporation using short, high-voltage pulses. The transdermal delivery of piroxicam during the electroporation was buffered due to the higher partition in skin lipids than in aqueous environments, which is called entrapment. Entrapment is the main resistance to transdermal delivery of lipophilic drugs. Two types of surfactants were used to enhance the skin electroporation. Tween 80 (0.2 g/L) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, 3 mg/mL) improve the solubility and diffusion rate of the drug in the hydrophobic local transport regions and reduce the entrapment of piroxicam in the skin. The transdermal delivery rate of piroxicam is increased 30- to 50-fold. However, the entrapment of piroxicam in the skin still occurred when Tween 80 was added. The SDS provides higher and more stable transdermal delivery rates of piroxicam than Tween 80, and also reduces the entrapment of piroxicam in the skin.

  15. Unsteady Motion of a Single Droplet in Surfactant Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓锦; 毛在砂; 费维扬


    A numerical investigation of the unsteady motion of a deformed drop released freely in another quiescent liquid contaminated by surfactant is presented in this paper. The finite difference method was used to solve numerically the coupled time-dependent Navier-Stokes and convective-diffusion equations in a body-fitted orthogonal coordinate system. Numerical simulation was conducted on the experimental cases, in which MIBK drops with the size ranging from 1.24 mm to 1.97 mm rose and accelerated freely in pure water and in dilute sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) aqueous solution. The applicability of the numerical scheme was validated by the agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data. Both the numerical and experimental results showed that the velocitytime profile exhibited a maximum rising velocity for drops in SDS solutions, which was close to the terminal velocity in pure water, before it dropped down to a steady-state value. The effect of the sorption kinetics of surfactant on the accelerating motion was also evaluated. It is also suggested that introduction of virtual mass force into the formulation improved obviously the precision of numerical simulation of transient drop motion.

  16. Coarsening of firefighting foams containing fluorinated hydrocarbon surfactants (United States)

    Kennedy, Matthew J.; Dougherty, John A.; Otto, Nicholas; Conroy, Michael W.; Williams, Bradley A.; Ananth, Ramagopal; Fleming, James W.


    Diffusion of gas between bubbles in foam causes growth of large bubbles at the expense of small bubbles and leads to increasing mean bubble size with time thereby affecting drainage. Experimental data shows that the effective diffusivity of nitrogen gas in aqueous film forming foam (AFFF), which is widely used in firefighting against burning liquids, is several times smaller than in 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) foam based on time-series photographs of bubble size and weighing scale recordings of liquid drainage. Differences in foam structure arising from foam production might contribute to the apparent difference in the rates of coarsening. AFFF solution produces wetter foam with initially smaller bubbles than SDS solution due in part to the lower gas-liquid surface tension provided by the fluorosurfactants present in AFFF. Present method of foam production generates microbubble foam by high-speed co-injection of surfactant solution and gas into a tube of 3-mm diameter. These results contribute to our growing understanding of the coupling between foam liquid fraction, bubble size, surfactant chemistry, and coarsening. NRC Resident Research Associate at NRL

  17. Discourse of the form and concentration of surfactants to ensure the sustainability foam-emulsive products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction. Development of dry mixes for making spumy and emulsion products are topical, because nowadays there is a tendency to minimize the time spent on the process of cooking, which is achieved by the use of semi finished products high degree of readiness. Materials and methods. Foaming ability was determined by the method of multiplicity of the foam, the stability of unstable foam-by the half-life method of foam, highly resistant foam - as a ratio of the height of the column of foam after exposure for 24 hours. Results. Was determined the influence of sunflower oil on the foaming ability and half-life foam of systems «sodium caseinate-oil». It was found that getting systems with high index of foaming capacity and foam stability in the presence of oil in the system is impossible without the use of low molecular weight surfactants. Substantiated recommendations regarding the feasibility of using two surfactants in systems «sodium caseinate-surfactants-oil», which provide the necessary kinship surfaces air, fat and water phases. it has been found that the use of 2,5...3,5% mono-and diglycerides of fatty acid sand Lecithin’s 0.15...0.25% in the content of sodium caseinate about 0.5% allows to receive the stable foam-emulsive systems containing sunflower oil 7...8% and foaming ability about 640±1%. Conclusions. It is established that for ensuring high indicators foaming capacity and stability of foam-emulsive systems required the use of low-molecular surfactants. The research results, is recommended to use when developing technology of foam-emulsive products.

  18. Discourse of the form and concentration of surfactants to ensure the sustainability foam-emulsive products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kotlyar


    Full Text Available Introduction. Development of dry mixes for making spumy and emulsion products are topical, because nowadays there is a tendency to minimize the time spent on the process of cooking, which is achieved by the use of semi finished products high degree of readiness. Materials and methods. Foaming ability was determined by the method of multiplicity of the foam, the stability of unstable foam-by the half-life method of foam, highly resistant foam - as a ratio of the height of the column of foam after exposure for 24 hours. Results. Was determined the influence of sunflower oil on the foaming ability and half-life foam of systems «sodium caseinate-oil». It was found that getting systems with high index of foaming capacity and foam stability in the presence of oil in the system is impossible without the use of low molecular weight surfactants. Substantiated recommendations regarding the feasibility of using two surfactants in systems «sodium caseinate-surfactants-oil», which provide the necessary kinship surfaces air, fat and water phases. it has been found that the use of 2,5...3,5% mono-and diglycerides of fatty acid sand Lecithin’s 0.15...0.25% in the content of sodium caseinate about 0.5% allows to receive the stable foam-emulsive systems containing sunflower oil 7...8% and foaming ability about 640±1%. Conclusions. It is established that for ensuring high indicators foaming capacity and stability of foam-emulsive systems required the use of low-molecular surfactants. The research results, is recommended to use when developing technology of foam-emulsive products. Introduction

  19. [Study on synergistic effect of bactericidal effect of chlorine dioxide solution by surfactant]. (United States)

    Wang, Kuitao; Tian, Vuena; Gu, Na; Zhang, Congjing; Niu, Jiajing


    To study the effect of gemini fluorocarbon, sodium p-perfluorous nonenoxybenzene sulfonate and sodium dodecyl sulfate on the chlorine dioxide solution sterilization to object surface. Pure chlorine dioxide solution as the reference disinfectant, carrier quantitative bactericidal test and simulated test on-site were used to carry out laboratory observation according to The disinfection technical specifications (2002). Carrier quantitative bactericidal test showed that the addition dosage of gemini fluoronates, sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant and perfluorinated the nonene oxy benzene sulfonate in disinfectant solution were 60, 60 and 40 mg/L respectively, the killing log value of Staphylococcus aureus exposed to the disinfectant solution containing chlorine dioxide 50 mg/L for 10 mm were all more than 3; and the addition dosage of gemini fluorinates, sodium dodecyl sulfate and perfluorinated the nonene oxy benzene sulfonate in disinfectant solution were 60 mg/L, the killing log value of Escherichia coli exposed to the disinfectant solution containing chlorine dixoxide 20 mg/L for 10 min were all more than 3. The bactericidal effect of the mixture use of surfactant and chlorine dioxide was better than the single use of chlorine dioxide. The simulated test on-site showed that the killing log value of Escherichia coli exposed to the disinfectant solution containing perfluorinated the nonene oxy benzene sulfonate 40 mg/L and chlorine dioxide 20 mg/L for 15 min was more than 3. Surface active agent on germicidal efficacy of chlorine dioxide solution had synergistic action.

  20. A high-resolution study of surfactant partitioning and kinetic limitations for two-component internally mixed aerosols (United States)

    Suda, S. R.; Petters, M. D.


    Atmospheric aerosols serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), altering cloud properties and ultimately affecting climate through their effect on the radiative balance. Aerosol CCN activity depends in part on aerosol composition and surfactant compounds are of particular interest because surfactants are enriched at the water/air interface, resulting in a radial concentration gradient within the aqueous droplet. Accurate treatment of the surfactant concentration gradient complicates the otherwise straightforward predictions of CCN activity for aerosols of known composition. To accurately evaluate predictions made by theory, laboratory studies investigating the relationship between critical supersaturation and dry diameter of particles that include surfactants require significant reduction in measurement uncertainty for both water-uptake and CCN measurements. Furthermore, uncertainties remain regarding kinetic limitations to surfactant partitioning that could result in deviation from predictions based on equilibrium thermodynamics. This study attempts to address some of these issues through high-resolution analysis of CCN activity of two-component mixed surfactant/non-surfactant aerosols at different internal mixing ratios performed with and without a water-uptake time delay to ascertain whether or not the observed effects are kinetically limited. We present new data for the aerosols consisting of 1) the ionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with ammonium sulfate, 2) SDS with sodium chloride and 3) the strong non-ionic fluorosurfactant Zonyl with an organic proxy glucose. As a point of reference we also evaluated the mixture of ammonium sulfate with glucose. Aerosol activation diameters were determined using CCN analysis in conjunction with scanning mobility size classification and high sheath-to-aerosol flow ratios. This resulted in CCN-derived kappa values that could be determined within +/-5% relative error. To test whether dynamic surfactant partitioning

  1. Effect of bio-surfactant on municipal solid waste composting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Bei-dou; LIU Hong-liang; HUANG G H; ZHANG Bai-yu; QIN Xiao-sheng


    Bio-surfactant is a new type of surfactant that is produced in microbial metabolism. Adding bio-surfactant during composting process, especially to those contain some toxic substances, has been proved to be a promising way. In this study, Strains Ⅲ (2), a bacterial with high activity to produce bio-surfactant, were isolated firstly. Following comparison experiments with and without adding Strains Ⅲ (2), namely Run 1 and Run R, were conducted, respectively. The experimental results showed that, by adding Strains Ⅲ (2),the surface tension could reduce from 46.5 mN/m to 39.8 mN/m and the corresponding time to maintain the surface tension under 50 mN/m could prolong from 60 h to 90 h. The oxygen uptake rate and total accumulated oxygen consumption with Stains Ⅲ (2) were both higher than those without Strains Ⅲ (2), while the accumulation of H2S in outlet gas was reduced to around 50% of Run R. Moreover, two additional experiments were also carried out to examine the effects of strains coming from different systems. One is adding Strains Ⅲ (2)with a dose of 0.4% (Run 2), and the other is seedling commercial Strains at the same conditions, the composting experiments showed that: Run 2 was more effective than Run 3, because the commercial Strains can be suppressed significantly in a complex composting system with different pH, high temperature and some of metals. The bio-surfactant was also added into the solid waste, which contained some toxic substances, the corresponding results showed that the remove rate of Hg and sodium pentachlorophenolate(PCP-Na) could be improved highly. Thus, the microenvironment, reactionrate and composting quality could be enhanced effectively by adding bio-surfactant to the composting process.

  2. Effect of surfactants on the aggregation and sedimentation of zinc oxide nanomaterial in natural water matrices. (United States)

    Li, Xuankun; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Matsui, Yasuto


    The wide application of surfactants and engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in industrial and consumer products lead to the high possibility of their co-presence in natural water environment, making it important to study the effect of surfactants on the environmental behavior and fate of ENMs. In this work, we selected an anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and a nonionic nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO, Tergitol NP-9) to study their effects on the aggregation and sedimentation of a 20nm ZnO ENM in different water matrices. The adsorption of SDS and NP-9 by ZnO ENM were fitted with Langmuir model, and the maximum adsorption capacities were 43.73±4.62mg/g and 13.79±1.09 respectively. As the surfactant concentration increased from 0 to 0.030% (m:v), SDS reduced the zeta potential of ZnO ENM from 17.56±2.13 to -27.96±2.59mV, whereas NP-9 did not affect the zeta potential. After a 24-h batch reactor experiment, SDS and NP-9 reduced 93.02% and 80.26% of the aggregate size of ZnO ENM (50mgL(-1)) in maximum at surfactant concentrations≥0.015%. The ZnO ENM was not stable in natural aqueous matrices, mainly because of the relatively high ionic strength. However, surfactants were found to reduce the aggregation and sedimentation of ZnO ENM in six natural water matrices in different degrees. With the presence of 0.030% SDS in tap water, maximum reduction rates of aggregate size and sedimentation were recorded as 69.54% and 26.69%, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the presence of surfactants may alter the behaviors and fate of ENMs in natural water environment.

  3. Adsorption of anionic and nonionic surfactant mixtures from synthetic detergents on soils. (United States)

    Rao, Pinhua; He, Ming


    Adsorption of anionic surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, SDBS) and nonionic surfactant (an alcohol ethoxylates with 12 carbons and 9 oxyethyl groups, A12E9) mixtures, widely used as the major constituents of synthetic detergents in China and become the most common pollutants in the environment, on soils was conducted to investigate the behavior of mixed surfactants in soils. The effects of addition order and mixing ratios of two surfactants, associated with pH and ion strength in solutions, on adsorptions were considered. The results show that saturated adsorption amount of SDBS and A12E9 on soils decreased respectively when A12E9 was added into soils firstly compared with that secondly, possibly resulting from the screening of A12E9 to part adsorption sites on soils and the hydrocarbon chain-chain interactions between SDBS and A12E9. The adsorption of SDBS and A12E9 on soils was enhanced each other at pre-plateau region of isotherms. At plateau region of isotherms, the adsorption of SDBS on soils decreased with the increase of molar fraction of A12E9 in mixed surfactant solutions, while that of A12E9 increased except the molar ratio of SDBS to A12E9 0.0:1.0. With the increase of pH in mixed surfactant solutions, adsorption amount of SDBS and A12E9 on soils decreased, respectively. The reduction of ion strength in soils resulted in the decrease of adsorption amount of SDBS and A12E9 on soils, respectively.

  4. Solubility limits and phase diagrams for fatty alcohols in anionic (SLES) and zwitterionic (CAPB) micellar surfactant solutions. (United States)

    Tzocheva, Sylvia S; Danov, Krassimir D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Georgieva, Gergana S; Post, Albert J; Ananthapadmanabhan, Kavssery P


    By analysis of experimental data, a quantitative theoretical interpretation of the solubility limit of medium- and long-chain fatty alcohols in micellar solutions of water-soluble surfactants is presented. A general picture of the phase behavior of the investigated systems is given in the form of phase diagrams. The limited solubility of the fatty alcohols in the micelles of conventional surfactants is explained with the precipitation of their monomers in the bulk, rather than with micelle phase separation. The long chain fatty alcohols (with n=14, 16 and 18 carbon atoms) exhibit an ideal mixing in the micelles of the anionic surfactant sodium laurylethersulfate (SLES) and the zwitterionic surfactant cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) at temperatures of 25, 30, 35 and 40 °C. Deviations from ideality are observed for the alcohols of shorter chain (n=10 and 12), which can be explained by a mismatch with the longer chains of the surfactant molecules. Using the determined thermodynamic parameters of the systems, their phase diagrams are constructed. Such a diagram consists of four domains, viz. mixed micelles; coexistent micelles and precipitate (dispersed crystallites or droplets); precipitate without micelles, and molecular solution. The four boundary lines intersect in a quadruple point, Q. For ionic surfactants (like SLES), a detailed theory for calculating the boundary lines of the phase diagrams is developed and verified against data for the positions of the kinks in surface tension isotherms. The theory takes into account the electrostatic interactions in the micellar solutions and the effect of counterion binding. The results can be useful for a quantitative interpretation and prediction of the phase behavior of mixed solutions of two (or more) surfactants, one of them being water soluble and forming micelles, whereas the other one has a limited water solubility, but readily forms mixed micelles with the former surfactant.

  5. Surfactant replacement therapy--economic impact. (United States)

    Pejaver, R K; al Hifzi, I; Aldussari, S


    Surfactant replacement is an effective treatment for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. (RDS). As widespread use of surfactant is becoming a reality, it is important to assess the economic implications of this new form of therapy. A comparison study was carried out at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Northwest Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Among 75 infants who received surfactant for RDS and similar number who were managed during time period just before the surfactant was available, but by set criteria would have made them eligible for surfactant. All other management modalities except surfactant were the same for all these babies. Based on the intensity of monitoring and nursing care required by the baby, the level of care was divided as: Level IIIA, IIIB, Level II, Level I. The cost per day per bed for each level was calculated, taking into account the use of hospital immovable equipment, personal salaries of nursing, medical, ancillary staff, overheads and maintenance, depreciation and replacement costs. Medications used, procedures done, TPN, oxygen, were all added to individual patient's total expenditure. 75 infants in the Surfactant group had 62 survivors. They spent a total of 4300 days in hospital. (av 69.35) Out of which 970 d (av 15.65 per patient) were ventilated days. There were 56 survivors in the non-surfactant group of 75. They had spent a total of 5023 days in the hospital (av 89.69/patient) out of which 1490 were ventilated days (av 26.60 d). Including the cost of surfactant (two doses), cost of hospital stay for each infant taking the average figures of stay would be SR 118, 009.75 per surfactant treated baby and SR 164, 070.70 per non-surfactant treated baby. The difference of 46,061 SR is 39.03% more in non-surfactant group. One Saudi rial = 8 Rs (approx at the time study was carried out.) Medical care cost varies from place to place. However, it is definitely cost-effective where surfactant is concerned. Quality adjusted

  6. Surfactant-soil interactions during surfactant-amended remediation of contaminated soils by hydrophobic organic compounds: a review. (United States)

    Laha, Shonali; Tansel, Berrin; Ussawarujikulchai, Achara


    Surfactants are amphiphilic molecules that reduce aqueous surface tension and increase the solubility of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs). Surfactant-amended remediation of HOC-contaminated soils and aquifers has received significant attention as an effective treatment strategy - similar in concept to using soaps and detergents as washing agents to remove grease from soiled fabrics. The proposed mechanisms involved in surfactant-amended remediation include: lowering of interfacial tension, surfactant solubilization of HOCs, and the phase transfer of HOC from soil-sorbed to pseudo-aqueous phase. However, as with any proposed chemical countermeasures, there is a concern regarding the fate of the added surfactant. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding nonionic micelle-forming surfactant sorption onto soil, and serves as an introduction to research on that topic. Surfactant sorption onto soil appears to increase with increasing surfactant concentration until the onset of micellization. Sorbed-phase surfactant may account for the majority of added surfactant in surfactant-amended remediation applications, and this may result in increased HOC partitioning onto soil until HOC solubilization by micellar phase surfactant successfully competes with increased HOC sorption on surfactant-modified soil. This review provides discussion of equilibrium partitioning theory to account for the distribution of HOCs between soil, aqueous phase, sorbed surfactant, and micellar surfactant phases, as well as recently developed models for surfactant sorption onto soil. HOC partitioning is characterized by apparent soil-water distribution coefficients in the presence of surfactant.

  7. Different effects of surfactant proteins B and C - implications for development of synthetic surfactants. (United States)

    Curstedt, Tore; Johansson, Jan


    Treatment of premature newborn rabbits with synthetic surfactants containing a surfactant protein C analogue in a simple phospholipid mixture gives similar tidal volumes as treatment with poractant alfa (Curosurf(R)) but ventilation with a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is needed for this synthetic surfactant to stabilize the alveoli at end-expiration. The effect on lung gas volumes seems to depend on the structure of the peptide since treatment with a synthetic surfactant containing the 21-residue peptide (LysLeu(4))(4)Lys (KL(4)) gives low lung gas volumes in experiments also performed with PEEP. Surfactant preparations containing both surfactant proteins B and C or their analogues prevent alveolar collapse at end-expiration even if ventilated without PEEP. Treatment of premature newborn rabbits with different natural surfactants indicates that both the lipid composition and the proteins are important in order to stabilize the alveoli at end-expiration. Synthetic surfactants containing two peptides may be able to replace natural surfactants within the near future but more trials need to be performed before any conclusion can be drawn about the ideal composition of this new generation of synthetic surfactants.

  8. Development of a new surfactant liquid formulation for TBP removal in reprocessing plants for decommissioning purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournel, B.; Bisel, I.; Pochon, P.; Delagrange, J.; Fulconis, J.M. [French Atomic Energy Commission, CEA/Siege, 31-33, rue de la Federation, 75752 Paris cedex 15 (France); Causse, J. [Universite de Montpellier, Place Eugene Bataillon 34095 Montpellier Cedex II (France)


    CEA has developed in the past years surfactant liquid solutions to remove organic matter located at the surfaces of nuclear components used in reprocessing facilities. These components may be covered with Tributyl Phosphate or products resulting from TBP radiolysis like Dibutyl phosphate or Monobutyl phosphate. These molecules can be combined either with uranium, plutonium or metal ions like zirconium for example. Conventional treatment used for decontamination usually have poor degreasing effect (like sodium hydroxide) so few of these products can be removed successfully. The aim of developing these new treatments is to achieve a better degreasing effect and eliminate sodium ions from the secondary liquid wastes. In a first step, low alkaline formulations have been developed (sodium content about 0,5 M to 1 M). In a second step, it is aimed to remove sodium ions completely, together with keeping a high degreasing efficiency. Another advantage to remove sodium hydroxide from decontamination solutions is to avoid Pu precipitation during the decontamination process. This paper describes the study of a degreasing formulation based on the use of fully soluble low foaming surfactants in nitric acid medium. One presents laboratory scale experiments, experiments on active samples, liquid secondary waste processing, a scale one experiment, and associated basic studies. In conclusion, chemical properties of a surfactant solution in nitric acid medium have been detailed. Aim of the formulation was to remove TBP molecules from metallic surfaces. Efficiency of the treatment was evaluated on inactive and hot samples and compared to more conventional treatments like concentrated sodium hydroxide and pure nitric acid. A micellization of 5,3 g/L of TBP in 0,5 M nitric acid is obtained. This value is about 15 times larger than TBP solubility in acid. The efficiency was found to be higher than that of sodium hydroxide and consequently the risk of Pu and U insolubilization is

  9. Sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) degradation by nitrate-reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva Paulo, da Ana; Aydin, Rozelin; Dimitrov, Mauricio R.; Vreeling, Harm; Cavaleiro, Ana J.; García-Encina, Pedro A.; Stams, Fons; Plugge, Caroline M.


    The surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) is widely used in the composition of detergents and frequently ends up in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). While aerobic SLES degradation is well studied, little is known about the fate of this compound in anoxic environments, such as denitrifica

  10. Mixed adsorption of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate on kaolinite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torn, L.A.; Keizer, de A.; Koopal, L.K.; Lyklema, J.


    The mixed adsorption of the nonionic polymer poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) on kaolinite has been studied. Both components adsorb from their mixture onto the clay mineral. The overall adsorption process is sensitive to the pH, the electr

  11. Interactions between selected bile salts and Triton X-100 or sodium lauryl ether sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirin Dejan M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to develop colloidal drug carriers with desired properties, it is important to determine physico-chemical characteristics of these systems. Bile salt mixed micelles are extensively studied as novel drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation is to develop and characterize mixed micelles of nonionic (Triton X-100 or anionic (sodium lauryl ether sulfate surfactant having oxyethylene groups in the polar head and following bile salts: cholate, deoxycholate and 7-oxodeoxycholate. Results The micellization behaviour of binary anionic-nonionic and anionic-anionic surfactant mixtures was investigated by conductivity and surface tension measurements. The results of the study have been analyzed using Clint's, Rubingh's, and Motomura's theories for mixed binary systems. The negative values of the interaction parameter indicate synergism between micelle building units. It was noticed that Triton X-100 and sodium lauryl ether sulfate generate the weakest synergistic interactions with sodium deoxycholate, while 7-oxodeoxycholate creates the strongest attractive interaction with investigated co-surfactants. Conclusion It was concluded that increased synergistic interactions can be attributed to the larger number of hydrophilic groups at α side of the bile salts. Additionally, 7-oxo group of 7-oxodeoxycholate enhance attractive interactions with selected co-surfactants more than 7-hydroxyl group of sodium cholate.

  12. Mixed adsorption of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate on kaolinite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torn, L.A.; Keizer, de A.; Koopal, L.K.; Lyklema, J.


    The mixed adsorption of the nonionic polymer poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) on kaolinite has been studied. Both components adsorb from their mixture onto the clay mineral. The overall adsorption process is sensitive to the pH, the electr

  13. Fluorescence emission of pyrene in surfactant solutions. (United States)

    Piñeiro, Lucas; Novo, Mercedes; Al-Soufi, Wajih


    The systematic description of the complex photophysical behaviour of pyrene in surfactant solutions in combination with a quantitative model for the surfactant concentrations reproduces with high accuracy the steady-state and the time resolved fluorescence intensity of pyrene in surfactant solutions near the cmc, both in the monomer and in the excimer emission bands. We present concise model equations that can be used for the analysis of the pyrene fluorescence intensity in order to estimate fundamental parameters of the pyrene-surfactant system, such as the binding equilibrium constant K of pyrene to a given surfactant micelle, the rate constant of excimer formation in micelles, and the equilibrium constant of pyrene-surfactant quenching. The values of the binding equilibrium constant K(TX100)=3300·10³ M⁻¹ and K(SDS)=190·10³ M⁻¹ for Triton X-100 (TX100) and SDS micelles, respectively, show that the partition of pyrene between bulk water and micelles cannot be ignored, even at relatively high surfactant concentrations above the cmc. We apply the model to the determination of the cmc from the pyrene fluorescence intensity, especially from the intensity ratio at two vibronic bands in the monomer emission or from the ratio of excimer to monomer emission intensity. We relate the finite width of the transition region below and above the cmc with the observed changes in the pyrene fluorescence in this region.

  14. Surfactants tailored by the class Actinobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes H Kügler


    Full Text Available Gloablly, the drive towards the establishment of a bio-based economy has resulted in an increased need for bio-based applications. This, in turn, has served as a driving force for the discovery and application of novel biosurfactants. The class Actinobacteria represents a vast group of microorganisms with the ability to produce a diverse range of secondary metabolites, including surfactants. Understanding the extensive nature of the biosurfactants produced by actinobacterial strains can assist in finding novel biosurfactants with new potential applications. This review therefore presents a comprehensive overview of the knowledge available on actinobacterial surfactants, the chemical structures that have been completely or partly elucidated, as well as the identity of the biosurfactant-producing strains. Producer strains of not yet elucidated compounds are discussed, as well as the original habitats of all the producer strains, which seems to indicate that biosurfactant production is environmentally driven. Methodology applied in the isolation, purification and structural elucidation of the different types of surface active compounds, as well as surfactant activity tests, are also discussed. Overall, actinobacterial surfactants can be summarized to include the dominantly occurring trehalose-comprising surfactants, other non-trehalose containing glycolipids, lipopeptides and the more rare actinobacterial surfactants. The lack of structural information on a large proportion of actinobacterial surfactants should be considered as a driving force to further explore the abundance and diversity of these compounds. This would allow for a better understanding of actinobacterial surface active compounds and their potential for biotechnological application.

  15. Application of polyhydroxyalkanoate binding protein PhaP as a bio-surfactant. (United States)

    Wei, Dai-Xu; Chen, Chong-Bo; Fang, Guo; Li, Shi-Yan; Chen, Guo-Qiang


    PhaP or phasin is an amphiphilic protein located on surfaces of microbial storage polyhydroxyalkanoates granules. This study aimed to explore amphiphilic properties of PhaP for possible application as a protein surfactant. Following agents were used to conduct this study as controls including bovine serum albumin, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Tween 20, sodium oleate, a commercial liquefied detergent together with the same amount of PhaP. Among all these tested control surfactants, PhaP showed the strongest effect to form emulsions with lubricating oil, diesel, and soybean oil, respectively. PhaP emulsion stability study compared with SDS revealed that PhaP had a stronger capability to maintain a very stable emulsion layer after 30 days while SDS lost half and two-thirds of its capacity after 2 and 30 days, respectively. When PhaP was more than 200 μg/ml in the water, all liquids started to exhibit stable emulsion layers. Similar to SDS, PhaP significantly reduced the water contact angles of water on a hydrophobic film of biaxially oriented polypropylene. PhaP was thermally very stable, it showed ability to form emulsion and to bind to the surface of polyhydroxybutyrate nanoparticles after a 60- min heating process at 95 °C. It is therefore concluded that PhaP is a protein with thermally stable property for application as natural and environmentally friendly surfactant for food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical usages.

  16. Electrostatic Screening and Charge Correlation Effects in Micellization of Ionic Surfactants

    KAUST Repository

    Jusufi, Arben


    We have used atomistic simulations to study the role of electrostatic screening and charge correlation effects in self-assembly processes of ionic surfactants into micelles. Specifically, we employed grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the critical micelle concentration (cmc), aggregation number, and micellar shape in the presence of explicit sodium chloride (NaCl). The two systems investigated are cationic dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) and anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactants. Our explicit-salt results, obtained from a previously developed potential model with no further adjustment of its parameters, are in good agreement with experimental data for structural and thermodynamic micellar properties. We illustrate the importance of ion correlation effects by comparing these results with a Yukawa-type surfactant model that incorporates electrostatic screening implicitly. While the effect of salt on the cmc is well-reproduced even with the implicit Yukawa model, the aggregate size predictions deviate significantly from experimental observations at low salt concentrations. We attribute this discrepancy to the neglect of ion correlations in the implicit-salt model. At higher salt concentrations, we find reasonable agreement of the Yukawa model with experimental data. The crossover from low to high salt concentrations is reached when the electrostatic screening length becomes comparable to the headgroup size. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  17. Effect of surfactant on phenanthrene metabolic kinetics by Citrobacter sp. SA01. (United States)

    Li, Feng; Zhu, Lizhong; Zhang, Dong


    To attain a better understanding of the effects of surfactants on the metabolic kinetics of hydrophobic organic compounds, the biodegradation of phenanthrene by Citrobacter sp. SA01 was investigated in a batch experiment containing Tween 80, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate and liquid mineral salt medium. The Monod model was modified to effectively describe the partition, phenanthrene biodegradation and biopolymer production. The results showed that Tween 80 and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (each at 50mg/L) enhanced phenanthrene metabolism and poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production as indicated by the increasing amounts of intermediates (by 17.2% to 47.9%), and percentages of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (by 107.3% and 33.1%) within the cell dry weight when compared to their absence. The modified Monod model was capable of predicting microbial growth, phenanthrene depletion and biopolymer production. Furthermore, the Monod kinetic coefficients were largely determined by the surfactant-enhanced partition, suggesting that partitioning is a critical process in surfactant-enhanced bioremediation of hydrophobic organic compounds.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Polymeric Surfactants Based on Epoxidized Soybean Oil Grafted Hydroxyethyl Cellulose. (United States)

    Huang, Xujuan; Liu, He; Shang, Shibin; Rao, Xiaoping; Song, Jie


    Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) grafted hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) was prepared via ring-opening polymerization, in which the hydroxyl groups of HEC acted as initiators and the polymeric ESO were covalently bonded to the HEC. Hydrolysis of ESO-grafted HEC (ESO-HEC) was performed with sodium hydroxide, and the hydrolyzed ESO-HEC (H-ESO-HEC) products were characterized via Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, high-temperature gel permeation chromatography (HT-GPC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicated that ring-opening polymerization of ESO occurred with the hydroxyl groups of HEC as initiators. The molecular weights of the H-ESO-HEC products were varied by adjusting the mass ratio of HEC and ESO. Through neutralizing the carboxylic acid of H-ESO-HEC with sodium hydroxide, novel polymeric surfactants (H-ESO-HEC-Na) were obtained, and the effects of polymeric surfactants on the surface tension of water were investigated as a function of concentration of H-ESO-HEC-Na. The H-ESO-HEC-Na was effective at lowering the surface tension of water to 26.33 mN/m, and the critical micelle concentration (CMC) value decreased from 1.053 to 0.157 g/L with increases in molecular weights of the polymeric surfactants. Rheological measurements indicated that the H-ESO-HEC-Na solutions changed from pseudoplastic property to Newtonian with increasing shear rate.

  19. The effect of surfactant on fermentation of kitasamycin in Streptomyces kitasatoensis. (United States)

    Zheng, Qianli; Gao, Shuhong


    Soybean oil is an important carbon source in kitasamycin fermentation by Streptomyces kitasatoensis. In this study, three different surfactants, Tween 80, Tween 85, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), were added in the fermentation medium to improve soybean oil utilization. Results indicated that all of these surfactants promote kitasamycin biosynthesis. When 0.5 g/L SDS was added at the beginning of fermentation, kitasamycin production increased by 55% and A5 content improved by 12%, compared with the control treatment (i.e., no surfactant added). Oil consumption rate and lipase activity were also improved in the presence of SDS, producing more organic acids benefiting kitasamycin biosynthesis. High butyric acid concentration in the fermentation medium containing SDS repressed C-3 acetylation and promoted A5 component accumulation. Additionally, utilization of oil components by S. kitasatoensis was altered. Specifically, linoleic acid was primarily used in the fermentation process with SDS, whereas oleic acid was primarily used in the fermentation process where no surfactant had been added.

  20. Design of Agglomerated Crystals of Ibuprofen During Crystallization: Influence of Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maghsoodi


    Full Text Available Objective(sIbuprofen is a problematic drug in tableting, and dissolution due to its poor solubility, hydrophobicity, and tendency to stick to surface. Because of the bad compaction behavior ibuprofen has to be granulated usually before tableting. However, it would be more satisfactory to obtain directly during the crystallization step crystalline particles that can be directly compressed and quickly dissolved. Materials and Methods Crystallization of ibuprofen was carried out using the quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method in presence of surfactant (sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, Tween 80. The particles were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, powder X-ray diffraction (XRPD and were evaluated for particle size, flowability, drug release and tableting behavior. ResultsIbuprofen particles obtained in the presence of surfactants consisted of numerous plate- shaped crystals which had agglomerated together as near spherical shape. The obtained agglomerates exhibited significantly improved micromeritic properties as well as tableting behavior than untreated drug crystals. The agglomerates size and size distribution was largely controlled by surfactant concentration, but there was no significant influence found on the tableting properties. The dissolution tests showed that the agglomerates obtained in presence of SLS exhibited enhanced dissolution rate while the agglomerates made in the presence of Tween 80 had no significant impact on dissolution rate of ibuprofen in comparison to untreated sample. The XRPD and DSC results showed that during the agglomeration process, ibuprofen did not undergo any polymorphic changes.Conclusion The study highlights the influence of surfactants on crystallization process leading to modified performance.

  1. Manipulating perfume delivery to the interface using polymer-surfactant interactions. (United States)

    Bradbury, Robert; Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Tucker, Ian M; Petkov, Jordan T; Jones, Craig


    Enhanced delivery of perfumes to interfaces is an important element of their effectiveness in a range of home and personal care products. The role of polyelectrolyte-surfactant mixtures to promote perfume adsorption at interfaces is explored here. Neutron reflectivity, NR, was used to quantify the adsorption of the model perfumes phenylethanol, PE, and linalool, LL, at the air-water interface in the presence of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate, SDS, and the cationic polyelectrolytes, poly(dimethyldiallyl ammonium chloride), polydmdaac, and poly(ethyleneimine), PEI. The strong SDS-polydmdaac interaction dominates the surface adsorption in SDS-polymer-perfume (PE, LL) mixtures, such that the PE and LL adsorption is greatly suppressed. For PEI-SDS-perfume mixtures the PEI-LL interaction competes with the SDS-PEI interaction at all pH at the surface and significant LL adsorption occurs, whereas for PE the PEI-SDS interaction dominates and the PE adsorption is greatly reduced. The use of the strong surface polyelectrolyte-ionic surfactant interaction to manipulate perfume adsorption at the air-water interface has been demonstrated. In particular the results show how the competition between polyelectrolyte, surfactant and perfume interactions at the surface and in solution affect the partitioning of perfumes to the surface.

  2. Re-entrant phase behavior of a concentrated anionic surfactant system with strongly binding counterions. (United States)

    Ghosh, Sajal Kumar; Rathee, Vikram; Krishnaswamy, Rema; Raghunathan, V A; Sood, A K


    The phase behavior of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the presence of the strongly binding counterion p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) has been examined using small-angle X-ray diffraction and polarizing microscopy. A hexagonal-to-lamellar transition on varying the PTHC to SDS molar ratio (alpha) occurs through a nematic phase of rodlike micelles (Nc) --> isotropic (I) --> nematic of disklike micelles (N(D)) at a fixed surfactant concentration (phi). The lamellar phase is found to coexist with an isotropic phase (I') over a large region of the phase diagram. Deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of the phase behavior at phi = 0.4 confirm the transition from N(C) to N(D) on varying alpha. The viscoelastic and flow behaviors of the different phases were examined. A decrease in the steady shear viscosity across the different phases with increasing alpha suggests a decrease in the aspect ratio of the micellar aggregates. From the transient shear stress response of the N() and N(D) nematic phases in step shear experiments, they were characterized to be tumbling and flow aligning, respectively. Our studies reveal that by tuning the morphology of the surfactant micelles strongly binding counterions modify the phase behavior and rheological properties of concentrated surfactant solutions.

  3. Biogenic amine – surfactant interactions at the air-water interface. (United States)

    Penfold, J; Thomas, R K; Li, P X


    The strong interaction between polyamines and anionic surfactants results in pronounced adsorption at the air-water interface and can lead to the formation of layered surface structures. The transition from monolayer adsorption to more complex surface structures depends upon solution pH, and the structure and molecular weight of the polyamine. The effects of manipulating the polyamine molecular weight and structure on the adsorption of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate at the air-water interface are investigated using neutron reflectivity and surface tension, for the biogenic amines putrescine, spermidine and spermine. The results show how changing the number of amine groups and the spacing between the amine groups impacts upon the surface adsorption. At lower pH, 3-7, and for the higher molecular weight polyamines, spermidine and spermine, ordered multilayer structures are observed. For putrescine at all pH and for spermidine and spermine at high pH, monolayer adsorption with enhanced surfactant adsorption compared to the pure surfactant is observed. The data for the biogenic amines, when compared with similar data for the polyamines ethylenediamine, diethylenetriamine and triethylenetetramine, indicate that the spacing between amines groups is more optimal for the formation of ordered surface multilayer structures.

  4. Skin capacitance imaging and corneosurfametry. A comparative assessment of the impact of surfactants on stratum corneum. (United States)

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, Emmanuelle; Loussouarn, Geneviève; Haubrechts, Christelle; Léger, Didier Saint; Piérard, Gérald E


    Silicon image sensor (SIS) technology was recently introduced as an innovative tool (SkinChip, L'Oréal) providing sensitive imaging of the skin capacitance. This method can detect discrete focal variations in skin surface hydration, and thus early discrete manifestations of skin irritation induced by surfactants. In the present in vivo study, 2 neat and diluted shampoos, and 5% and 10% sodium laurylsulfate solutions were tested on human skin. Each surfactant solution was gently rubbed on the skin using wet hair wicks mimicking the casual use of a shampoo on the scalp. Clinical and SIS evaluations were carried out. In addition, the same products were tested using the ex vivo corneosurfametry bioassay performed on human stratum corneum (SC) harvested by cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings. The colourimetric index of mildness (CIM) was measured on these samples. The product reactivity with the SC was recognized by darker skin capacitance images, and by both lowered SkinChip-generated values and lowered CIM values. The extent in changes varied according to the nature of the test products and their concentrations. The SkinChip image changes likely corresponded to the acute surfactant-induced water swelling of the corneocytes. Skin capacitance imaging and corneosurfametry allow to disclose discrete surfactant-induced alterations of corneocytes.

  5. Surfactant-Assisted Coal Liquefaction (United States)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.


    Obtaining liquid fuels from coal which are economically competitive with those obtained from petroleum based sources is a significant challenge for the researcher as well as the chemical industry. Presently, the economics of coal liquefaction are not favorable because of relatively intense processing conditions (temperatures of 430 degrees C and pressures of 2200 psig), use of a costly catalyst, and a low quality product slate of relatively high boiling fractions. The economics could be made more favorable by achieving adequate coal conversions at less intense processing conditions and improving the product slate. A study has been carried out to examine the effect of a surfactant in reducing particle agglomeration and improving hydrodynamics in the coal liquefaction reactor to increase coal conversions...

  6. Gemini surfactants from natural amino acids. (United States)

    Pérez, Lourdes; Pinazo, Aurora; Pons, Ramon; Infante, Mrosa


    In this review, we report the most important contributions in the structure, synthesis, physicochemical (surface adsorption, aggregation and phase behaviour) and biological properties (toxicity, antimicrobial activity and biodegradation) of Gemini natural amino acid-based surfactants, and some potential applications, with an emphasis on the use of these surfactants as non-viral delivery system agents. Gemini surfactants derived from basic (Arg, Lys), neutral (Ser, Ala, Sar), acid (Asp) and sulphur containing amino acids (Cys) as polar head groups, and Geminis with amino acids/peptides in the spacer chain are reviewed.

  7. Liquid-liquid extraction for surfactant-contaminant separation and surfactant reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, M.A. [Surbec Environmental, Norman, OK (United States); Sabatini, D.A.; Harwell, J.H. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)


    Liquid-liquid extraction was investigated for use with surfactant enhanced subsurface remediation. A surfactant liquid-liquid extraction model (SLLEM) was developed for batch equilibrium conditions based on contaminant partitioning between micellar, water, and solvent phases. The accuracy of this fundamental model was corroborated with experimental results (using naphthalene and phenanthrene as contaminants and squalane as the extracting solvent). The SLLEM model was then expanded to nonequilibrium conditions. The effectiveness of this nonequilibrium model was corroborated with experimental results from continuous flow hollow fiber membrane systems. The validated models were used to conduct a sensitivity analysis evaluating the effects of surfactants on the removal of the contaminants in liquid-liquid extraction systems. In addition, liquid-liquid extraction is compared to air stripping for surfactant-contaminant separation. Finally, conclusions are drawn as to the impact of surfactants on liquid-liquid extraction processes, and the significance of these impacts on the optimization of surfactant-enhanced subsurface remediation.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Zirconia Nanocrystallites by Cationic Surfactant and Anionic Surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Study on nanomaterials has attracted great interests in recent years. In this article,zirconia nanocrystallites of different structures have been successfully synthesized via hydrothermal methods with cationic surfactant (CTAB) and anionic surfactant (SDS), respectively. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC-TG), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-vis) and N2 adsorption-desorption analyses are used for their structure characteristics. The results show that the cationic surfactant has a distinctive direction effect on the formation of zirconia nanocrystallites, while the anionic surfactant has a self-assembly synergistic effect on them. The sample synthesized with the cationic surfactant presents good dispersion with the main phase of tetragonal zirconia, and the average nanocryst al size is around 15nm after calcination at 500 ℃. While the sample synthesized with the anionic surfactant exhibits a worm-like mesoporous structure with pure tetragonal phase after calcination at 500 ℃ and with good thermal stability.

  9. Adsorption of ionic surfactants at microscopic air-water interfaces using the micropipette interfacial area-expansion method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinoshita, Koji; Parra, Elisa; Needham, David


    The dynamic adsorption of ionic surfactants at air-water interfaces have been less-well studied than that of the simpler non-ionics since experimental limitations on dynamic surface tension (DST) measurements create inconsistencies in their kinetic analysis. Using our newly designed "Micropipette...... interfacial area-expansion method", we have measured and evaluated both equilibrium and dynamic adsorption of a well-known anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), in the absence or presence of 100mM NaCl. Our focus was to determine if and to what extent the inclusion of a new correction parameter...... for the "ideal ionic activity", A±i, can renormalize both equilibrium and dynamic surface tension measurements and provide better estimates of the diffusion coefficient of ionic surfactants in aqueous media obtained from electroneutral models, namely extended Frumkin isotherm and Ward-Tordai adsorption models...

  10. Combined impact of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic alpha-amylase and surfactants on starch pasting and gelation properties. (United States)

    Van Steertegem, Bénédicte; Pareyt, Bram; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A


    In baking applications involving starch gelatinisation, surfactants such as sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) and Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic alpha-amylase (BStA) can be used jointly. We here showed that SSL but not MAG delays wheat starch hydrolysis by BStA. The effects were explained in terms of different degrees of adsorption of the surfactants on the starch granule surface, retarded and/or decreased water uptake and delayed availability of gelatinised starch for hydrolysis by BStA. Additional experiments with waxy maize starch led to the conclusion that SSL impacts swelling power and carbohydrate leaching more by covering the starch granule surface than by forming amylose-lipid complexes. SSL postponed starch hydrolysis by BStA, but this did not influence subsequent starch gelation. Finally, when adding SSL or MAG on top of BStA to starch suspensions, the effect of the surfactants on gel strength predominated over that of BStA.

  11. Effects of surfactants on the contents of metallothionein, heme and hemoproteins and on the activities of heme oxygenase and drug-metabolizing enzymes in rats pretreated with phenobarbital or. beta. -naphthoflavone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariyoshi, Toshihiko; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Hideki; Arizono, Koji (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan))


    Synthetic surfactants as major constituent of detergent products are widely used in consumer and industrial fields, and hence environmental and toxicological investigations of surfactants are numerous. In the previous study, the authors observed that intraperitoneal administration of surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium n-dodecylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) and polyoxyethyleneglycol nonylphenyl ether (Emulgen 913) to rats depressed the content of microsomal cytochrome P-450, while they enhanced markedly the activity of heme oxygenase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation. In addition, they noted an increase of metallothionein content in the liver of rats treated with LAS. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of surfactants on metallothionein, heme, hemoproteins, heme oxygenase and drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver of rats pretreated with phenobarbital or {beta}-naphthoflavone.

  12. A small-angle X-ray scattering study of complexes formed in mixtures of a cationic polyelectrolyte and an anionic surfactant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, M.; Kjellin, U.R.M.; Claesson, P.M.


    The internal structure of the solid phase formed in mixtures of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and a range of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes with different side chains and charge density has been investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering. Polyelectrolytes with short....... The hexagonal structure of MAPTAC is retained either when a neutral monomer (acrylamide, AM) is included in the polymer backbone to reduce the charge density or when a nonionic surfactant is admixed to the SDS/polyelctrolyte complex.. The unit cell length of AM-MAPTAC increases with decreasing charge density...... structure and the bilayers in the lamellar structure are based on self-assembled surfactant aggregates with the polyelectrolyte mainly located in the aqueous region adjacent to the charged surfactant headgroups....

  13. Effects of Surfactant on Zinc Recovery by Solvent Extraction during Leaching in HCl-FeCl3 Solution%表面活性剂对HCl-FeCl3溶液中锌精矿在浆萃取浸出率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢立柱; 康晓红; 谢慧琴


    The effects of surfactant on the solvent extraction in leaching sphalerite were investigated. It is found that sodium dodecyl sulfonate is the effective surfactant in improving the zinc recovery from sphalerite in the aqueous FeCla-HCl-tetrachloroethylene system. Through the measurements of surface tension and viscosity of the sphalerite slurry modified with different surfactants, it is concluded that sodium dodecyl sulfonate in the concentration range of 0.05 to 0.2g@L-1 can improve the viscosity of sphalerite slurry in the water, decrease the surface tension of leaching solution, prevent the aggregation of ore particles, and give very high zinc extraction .

  14. Protolytic properties and complexation of DL-alpha-alanine and DL-alpha-valine and their dipeptides in aqueous and micellar solutions of surfactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chernyshova, O. S.; Boychenko, Oleksandr; Abdulrahman, H.; Loginova, L. P.


    In this work we investigated the effect of the micellar media of anionic (sodium dodecylsulfate, SDS), cationic (cetylpiridinium chloride, CPC) and non-ionic (Brij-35) surfactants on the protolytic properties of amino acids DL-alpha-alanine, DL-alpha-valine and dipeptides L-alpha-alanyl-L-alpha-alan

  15. Change in Chirality of Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Can Overcome Anionic Surfactant Stabilization: A Systematic Study of Aggregation Kinetics. (United States)

    Khan, Iftheker A; Flora, Joseph R V; Nabiul Afrooz, A R M; Aich, Nirupam; Schierz, P Ariette; Ferguson, P Lee; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Saleh, Navid B


    Single-walled carbon nanotubes' (SWNT) effectiveness in applications is enhanced by debundling or stabilization. Anionic surfactants are known to effectively stabilize SWNTs. However, the role of specific chirality on surfactant-stabilized SWNT aggregation has not been studied to date. The aggregation behavior of chirally enriched (6,5) and (7,6) semiconducting SWNTs, functionalized with three anionic surfactants-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), and sodium deoxycholate (SDOCO)-was evaluated with time-resolved dynamic light scattering. A wide range of mono- (NaCl) and di-valent (CaCl2) electrolytes as well as a 2.5 mg TOC/L Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) were used as background chemistry. Overall, SDBS showed the most effectiveness in SWNT stability, followed by SDOCO and SDS. However, the relatively larger diameter (7,6) chiral tubes compromised the surfactant stability, compared to (6,5) chiral enrichment, due to enhanced van der Waals interaction. The presence of di-valent electrolytes overshadowed the chirality effects and resulted in similar aggregation behavior for both the SWNT samples. Molecular modeling results enumerated key differences in surfactant conformation on SWNT surfaces and identified interaction energy changes between the two chiralities to delineate aggregation mechanisms. The stability of SWNTs increased in the presence of SRHA under 10 mM monovalent and mixed electrolyte conditions. The results suggest that change in chirality can overcome surfactant stabilization of semiconducting SWNTs. SWNT stability can also be strongly influenced by the anionic surfactant structure.

  16. Synthesis of novel quaternary ammonium surfactants containing adamantane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wei Guo; Xing Zhong; Hua Zhu; Li Juan Feng; Ying De Cui


    A series of novel quaternary ammonium surfactants containing adamantane were designed and synthesized from 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid.The structures of target surfactants were confirmed by 1H NMR,elements analysis and FTIR.Surface properties of these surfactants were investigated.Due to the lipophilicity of adamantane,the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and C20 values of the synthesized quaternary ammonium surfactants are lower than that of conventional quaternary ammonium surfactants.

  17. Emulsification/internal gelation as a method for preparation of diclofenac sodium-sodium alginate microparticles. (United States)

    Ahmed, Mahmoud M; El-Rasoul, Saleh Abd; Auda, Sayed H; Ibrahim, Mohamed A


    Emulsification/internal gelation has been suggested as an alternative to extrusion/external gelation in the encapsulation of several compounds including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac sodium. The objective of the present study was a trial to formulate diclofenac sodium as controlled release microparticles that might be administered once or twice daily. This could be achieved via emulsification/internal gelation technique applying Box-Behnken design to choose these formulae. Box-Behnken design determined fifteen formulae containing specified amounts of the independent variables, which included stirring speed in rpm (X1), drug:polymer ratio (X2) and the surfactant span 80% (X3). The dependent variables studied were cumulative percent release after two hours (Y1), four hours (Y2) and eight hours (Y3). The prepared microparticles were characterized for their production yield, sizes, shapes and morphology, entrapment efficiency and Diclofenac sodium in vitro release as well. The results showed that the production yield of the prepared diclofenac sodium microparticles was found to be between 79.55% and 97.41%. The formulated microparticles exhibited acceptable drug content values that lie in the range 66.20-96.36%. Also, the data obtained revealed that increasing the mixing speed (X1) generally resulted in decreased microparticle size. In addition, scanning electron microscope images of the microparticles illustrated that the formula contains lower span concentration (1%) in combination with lower stirring speed (200 rpm) which showed wrinkled, but smooth surfaces. However, by increasing surfactant concentration, microspheres' surfaces become smoother and slightly porous. Kinetic treatment of the in vitro release from drug-loaded microparticles indicated that the zero order is the drug release mechanism for the most formulae.

  18. Diclofenac sodium overdose (United States)

    ... page: // Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  19. Naproxen sodium overdose (United States)

    ... page: // Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  20. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy (United States)

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  1. Sodium carbonate poisoning (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  2. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  3. Lung surfactant levels are regulated by Ig-Hepta/GPR116 by monitoring surfactant protein D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Fukuzawa

    Full Text Available Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins, which is secreted from the alveolar type II epithelial cell and coats the surface of alveoli as a thin layer. It plays a crucial role in the prevention of alveolar collapse through its ability to reduce surface tension. Under normal conditions, surfactant homeostasis is maintained by balancing its release and the uptake by the type II cell for recycling and the internalization by alveolar macrophages for degradation. Little is known about how the surfactant pool is monitored and regulated. Here we show, by an analysis of gene-targeted mice exhibiting massive accumulation of surfactant, that Ig-Hepta/GPR116, an orphan receptor, is expressed on the type II cell and sensing the amount of surfactant by monitoring one of its protein components, surfactant protein D, and its deletion results in a pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and emphysema-like pathology. By a coexpression experiment with Sp-D and the extracellular region of Ig-Hepta/GPR116 followed by immunoprecipitation, we identified Sp-D as the ligand of Ig-Hepta/GPR116. Analyses of surfactant metabolism in Ig-Hepta(+/+ and Ig-Hepta(-/- mice by using radioactive tracers indicated that the Ig-Hepta/GPR116 signaling system exerts attenuating effects on (i balanced synthesis of surfactant lipids and proteins and (ii surfactant secretion, and (iii a stimulating effect on recycling (uptake in response to elevated levels of Sp-D in alveolar space.

  4. Lung surfactant levels are regulated by Ig-Hepta/GPR116 by monitoring surfactant protein D. (United States)

    Fukuzawa, Taku; Ishida, Junji; Kato, Akira; Ichinose, Taro; Ariestanti, Donna Maretta; Takahashi, Tomoya; Ito, Kunitoshi; Abe, Jumpei; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Wakana, Shigeharu; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Hirose, Shigehisa


    Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins, which is secreted from the alveolar type II epithelial cell and coats the surface of alveoli as a thin layer. It plays a crucial role in the prevention of alveolar collapse through its ability to reduce surface tension. Under normal conditions, surfactant homeostasis is maintained by balancing its release and the uptake by the type II cell for recycling and the internalization by alveolar macrophages for degradation. Little is known about how the surfactant pool is monitored and regulated. Here we show, by an analysis of gene-targeted mice exhibiting massive accumulation of surfactant, that Ig-Hepta/GPR116, an orphan receptor, is expressed on the type II cell and sensing the amount of surfactant by monitoring one of its protein components, surfactant protein D, and its deletion results in a pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and emphysema-like pathology. By a coexpression experiment with Sp-D and the extracellular region of Ig-Hepta/GPR116 followed by immunoprecipitation, we identified Sp-D as the ligand of Ig-Hepta/GPR116. Analyses of surfactant metabolism in Ig-Hepta(+/+) and Ig-Hepta(-/-) mice by using radioactive tracers indicated that the Ig-Hepta/GPR116 signaling system exerts attenuating effects on (i) balanced synthesis of surfactant lipids and proteins and (ii) surfactant secretion, and (iii) a stimulating effect on recycling (uptake) in response to elevated levels of Sp-D in alveolar space.

  5. Effects of Interactions Among Surfactants,Water and Oil on Equilibrium Configuration of Surfactant-Water-Oil Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Yin-quan; SUN Zhi-bo; XIE Yun; ZOU Xian-wu


    The distribution and configuration of surfactants at interface in surfactant-water-oil systems have been investigated using discontinuous molecular dynamic simulations. There exists a certain equilibrium concentration of surfactants at interface for the systems with certain interactions among surfactant, water and oil. The interface length and equilibrium morphology of the systems are dependent on the equilibrium concentration of surfactants at interface and the total amount of surfactants. The interaction strengths among surfactant, water and oil determine the equilibrium concentration of surfactants at interface. Three typical configurations of surfactants at interface have been observed: ① surfactant molecules are perpendicular to the interface and arranged closely; ② perpendicular to the interface and arranged at interval of two particles; ③ lie down in the interface partly.

  6. Spectrophotometric determination of ampicillin sodium in pharmaceutical products using sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic as the chromogentic reagent (United States)

    Xu, Lixiao; Wang, Huaiyou; Xiao, Yan


    Spectrophotometric determination of ampicillin sodium is described. The ampicillin sodium reacts with sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic in pH 9.00 buffer solution to form a salmon pink compound, and its maximum absorption wavelength is at 463 nm, ɛ463=1.14×10 4. The absorbance of ampicillin sodium from 2.0-80 μg ml -1 obeys Beer's law. The linear regression equation of the calibration graph is C=40.24 A-2.603, with a linear regression correlation coefficient is 0.9997, the detection limit is 1.5 μg ml -1, recovery is from 97.23 to 104.5%. Effects of pH, surfactant, organic solvents, and foreign ions on the determination of ampicillin sodium have been examined. This method is rapid and simple, and can be used for the determination of ampicillin sodium in the injection solution of ampicillin sodium. The results obtained by this method agreed with those by the official method (HPLC).

  7. Sodium sieving in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, E.; Krediet, R.T.; Willems, H.L.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Schroder, C.H.


    Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport. Ic

  8. A Molecular Thermodynamic Model for Interfacial Tension in Surfactant-Oil-Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    An interfacial equation of state based on perturbation theory for surfactant-oil-water system has been developed. By combining the interfacial equation of state with Boudh-Hir and Mansoori's model, a molecular ther- modynamic model has been proposed. The interfacial tension of surfactant-oil-water systems can be calculated from the surface tensions of pure oil and water by this model. The inteffacial tension data for sodium dodecyl sulphate- heptane-water system, polyoxyethylene n-octylphenol-heptane-water system and hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-heptane-water system have been correlated. By using the adjustable parameters obtained, the interfacial tensions of these systems at other temperatures have been predicted. Both the correlated and the predicted values are satisfactory.

  9. Effect of silk protein surfactant on silk degumming and its properties. (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Cao, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Yu-Qing


    The silk protein surfactant (SPS) first used as a silk degumming agent in this study is an amino acid-type anionic surfactant that was synthesized using silk fibroin amino acids and lauroyl chloride. We studied it systematically in comparison with the traditional degumming methods such as sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and neutral soap (NS). The experimental results showed that the sericin can be completely removed from the silk fibroin fiber after boiling the fibers three times for 30 min and using a bath ratio of 1:80 (g/mL) and a concentration of 0.2% SPS in an aqueous solution. The results of the tensile properties, thermal analysis, and SEM all show that SPS is similar to the NS, far superior to Na2CO3. In short, SPS may be used as an environmentally friendly silk degumming/refining agent in the silk textile industry and in the manufacture of silk floss quilts.

  10. Effect of EDTA with and without surfactants or ultrasonics on removal of smear layer. (United States)

    Lui, Jeen-Nee; Kuah, Hong-Guan; Chen, Nah-Nah


    This study compared the in vitro efficacy of Smear Clear (Sybron Endo, CA), a 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution with surfactants, to 17% EDTA, with and without the use of ultrasonics, in removal of the smear layer. Seventy-five extracted teeth, randomly distributed into 5 test groups, were prepared by using ProFile rotary instruments (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and subjected to different final irrigating regimes; group A, 1% sodium hypochlorite; group B, 17% EDTA; group C, 17% EDTA with ultrasonics; group D, Smear Clear; and group E, Smear Clear with ultrasonics. Samples were examined under the scanning electron microscope and scored for debris and smear layer removal. Statistical analysis showed that groups D and E did not perform significantly better than groups B and C. Group C performed significantly better than group B. Addition of surfactants to EDTA in Smear Clear did not result in better smear layer removal. The use of ultrasonics with 17% EDTA improved smear layer removal.

  11. Investigation of a polyether trisiloxane surfactant


    Michel, Amandine


    Thanks to their adaptability and high efficiency compared to traditional carbon based surfactants, silicone surfactants are a success in many different applications, from pesticides to cosmetics, polyurethane foam, textile and car care products. In spite of those numerous applications, no analytical method existed for their trace determination in environmental samples and no data have been available regarding their environmental occurrence and fate. An analytical method for the trace ana...

  12. Surfactant apoprotein in nonmalignant pulmonary disorders.


    Singh, G.; Katyal, S. L.


    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lungs exhibiting a variety of nonmalignant disorders were studied by immunoperoxidase staining using antibodies specific for surfactant apoprotein, IgG, IgM, IgA, albumin, fibrinogen, and lysozyme. Normal Type II pneumocytes showed staining for surfactant apoprotein in the perinuclear region only. The extent and intensity of staining for apoprotein was markedly increased in reactive Type II pneumocytes. This increase appeared to be a nonspecific reaction to l...

  13. Sodium Hypochlorite and Sodium Bromide Individualized and Stabilized Carbon Nanotubes in Water

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xuezhu


    Aggregation is a major problem for hydrophobic carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in water because it reduces the effective particle concentration, prevents particles from entering the medium, and leads to unstable electronic device performances when a colloidal solution is used. Molecular ligands such as surfactants can help the particles to disperse, but they tend to degrade the electrical properties of CNTs. Therefore, self-dispersed particles without the need for surfactant are highly desirable. We report here, for the first time to our knowledge, that CNT particles with negatively charged hydrophobic/water interfaces can easily self-disperse themselves in water via pretreating the nanotubes with a salt solution with a low concentration of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and sodium bromide (NaBr). The obtained aqueous CNT suspensions exhibit stable and superior colloidal performances. A series of pH titration experiments confirmed the presence and role of the electrical double layers on the surface of the salted carbon nanotubes and of functional groups and provided an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon.

  14. Effects of common inorganic anions on the rates of photocatalytic degradation of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate over illuminated titanium dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Experiments were carried out to study the effects of several anions on the photocatalytic degradation rates of sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate (DBS) with TiO2 as catalyst. The anions were added as Na2 SO4, NaNO3, NaCl, NaHCO3, NaH2 PO4 and Na3 PO4, and two levels of anion content, i.e. 12 mmol/L and 36 mmol/L in terms of Na+ , were studied. The results revealed that: Cl , SO24- , NO-3 and HCO3-retarded the rates of DBS degradation to different degrees; PO43 - increased the DBS degradation rate at low concentration and decreased the rate at high concentration; H2PO-4 accelerated the rate of DBS degradation. The mechanism of the effects of anions on DBS degradation was concluded as the following three aspects: anions compete for the radicals; anions are absorbed on the surface of catalyst and block the active site catalyst.

  15. Evaluation of Surfactant Effects on Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khalessi


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: One of the standard therapies in neonates with severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS is surfactant administration in early course of therapy that cause reduction in mortality, pneumothorax and need to mechanical ventilation. In this study that was carried out in Aliasghar Hospital NICU in 1994-1995 & 2001-2002, the goal was to compare two groups of neonates with severe RDS that had been ventilated in the first 24 hours but one group had received surfactant and the other group (7 years ago was deprived of this substance. Materials & Methods: In our study, 36 neonates that received surfactant and 52 neonates with only mechanical ventilation therapy were compared. Data collected and analyzed using SPSS.Results: We found that mortality in patients with surfactant administration was significantly lower compared to the second group who did not receive surfactant. There were not any significant differences in incidences of HIV, pneumothorax, sepsis, and PDA and also course of hospitalization and need to ventilation between two groups. Conclusion: As a result, all of these findings reflect obligatory surfactant administration in sever RDS in NICU under observation of an educated expert.

  16. Nonlinear water waves with soluble surfactant (United States)

    Lapham, Gary; Dowling, David; Schultz, William


    The hydrodynamic effects of surfactants have fascinated scientists for generations. This presentation describes an experimental investigation into the influence of a soluble surfactant on nonlinear capillary-gravity waves in the frequency range from 12 to 20 Hz. Waves were generated in a plexiglass wave tank (254 cm long, 30.5 cm wide, and 18 cm deep) with a triangular plunger wave maker. The tank was filled with carbon- and particulate-filtered water into which the soluble surfactant Triton-X-100® was added in known amounts. Wave slope was measured nonintrusively with a digital camera running at 225 fps by monitoring the position of light beams which passed up through the bottom of the tank, out through the wavy surface, and onto a white screen. Wave slope data were reduced to determine wave damping and the frequency content of the wave train. Both were influenced by the presence of the surfactant. Interestingly, a subharmonic wave occurring at one-sixth the paddle-driving frequency was found only when surfactant was present and the paddle was driven at amplitudes high enough to produce nonlinear waves in clean water. Although the origins of this subharmonic wave remain unclear, it appears to be a genuine manifestation of the combined effects of the surfactant and nonlinearity.

  17. Spinodal Decomposition in Mixtures Containing Surfactants (United States)

    Melenekvitz, J.


    Spinodal decomposition in mixtures containing two immiscible liquids (A and B) plus surfactant was investigated using a recently developed (J. Melenkevitz and S. H. Javadpour, J. Chem. Phys., 107, 623 (1997).) 3-component Ginzburg-Landau model. The time dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equations governing the evolution of structure were numerically integrated in 2-dimensions. We found the growth rate of the average domain size, R(t), decreased with increasing surfactant concentration over a wide range of relative amounts of A and B. This can be attributed to the surfactant accumulating at the growing interface between the immiscible liquids, which leads to a reduction in the surface tension. At late times, the growth rate was noticeably altered when thermal fluctuations were added to the numerical simulations. In this case, power law behavior was observed for R(t) at late times, R(t) ~ t^α, with the exponent α decreasing as the amount of surfactant increased. The dynamics at early times were determined by linearizing the TDGL equations about a uniformly mixed state. The growth rate at ealry times was found to be strongly dependent on the model parameters describing the surfactant miscibility in A and B and the surfactant strength. Comparison with recent measurements on SBR / PB mixtures with added PB-SBR diblock copolymer will also be presented.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore K. Mohanty


    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Imbibition in an originally oil-wet 2D capillary is the fastest in the case of Alf-38 and slowest in the case of DTAB (among the surfactants studied). Force of adhesion studies and contact angle measurements show that greater wettability alteration is possible with these anionic surfactants than the cationic surfactant studied. The water imbibition rate does not increase monotonically with an increase in the surfactant concentration. A numerical model has been developed that fits the rate of imbibition. Plans for the next quarter include conducting simulation and imbibition studies.

  19. A blend of Sodium Humate/SLES/Herbal Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz Akyiğit


    Full Text Available A blend of sodium humate (SH with anionic surfactants such as sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES was prepared by solution mixing at medium of herbal oils at 25, 50 and 75°C. Its miscibility studies were carried out by using physical techniques over an extended range of concentration and composition in buffer solution. In addition, to ascertain the state of miscibility of the blends, they were investigated by using UV-visible spectrophotometer and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR. These values revealed that the blend is miscible when the sodium humate content is more than %60 in the blend at all temperatures. There were no important differences in the characteristics of the blends at different temperatures.It was thought that the mechanism ofthe complex formation is realized by making strong intermolecular interaction like hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl groups in humic acid and hydroxyl groups in fatty acids.

  20. Effect of Thermal History on Rheological Properties of Partially Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide/Anionic Surfactant SDS Complex Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The effects of thermal history on the rheological properties of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide/ sodium dodecyl sulfate complex aqueous solutions have been studied using both steady shear and dynamic temperature sweep characterizations. An abnormal rheological behavior was found that dynamic moduli of the aqueous solutions increased, while the viscosity decreased after thermal treatment, which could help to gain insight into the micro-phase evolution of the polymer/surfactant complex aqueous solutions and its dependence on temperature.

  1. Simultaneous effect of dissolved organic carbon, surfactant, and organic acid on the desorption of pesticides investigated by response surface methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ha Thu; Duong, Hanh Thi; Ta, Thao Thi


    Desorption of pesticides (fenobucarb, endosulfan, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)) from soil to aqueous solution with the simultaneous presence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and sodium oxalate (Oxa) was investigated in batch test by applying a full fac...... characteristics of flooding and irrigation water in rice fields, and surfactants from pollution increase the problem with desorption of legacy pesticides in the rice fields....... caused the minimum desorption. This point at conditions of concern for flooding water is high content of organic compounds causing potentially high contamination by desorption, and the remarkably lower desorption at organic matter-free conditions. The suspended organic matter is one of the common...

  2. Sodium in feline nutrition. (United States)

    Nguyen, P; Reynolds, B; Zentek, J; Paßlack, N; Leray, V


    High sodium levels in cat food have been controversial for a long time. Nonetheless, high sodium levels are used to enhance water intake and urine volume, with the main objective of reducing the risk of urolithiasis. This article is a review of current evidence of the putative risks and benefits of high dietary sodium levels. Its secondary aim is to report a possible safe upper limit (SUL) for sodium intake. The first part of the manuscript is dedicated to sodium physiology, with a focus on the mechanisms of sodium homeostasis. In this respect, there is only few information regarding possible interactions with other minerals. Next, the authors address how sodium intake affects sodium balance; knowledge of these effects is critical to establish recommendations for sodium feed content. The authors then review the consequences of changes in sodium intake on feline health, including urolithiasis, blood pressure changes, cardiovascular alterations and kidney disease. According to recent, long-term studies, there is no evidence of any deleterious effect of dietary sodium levels as high as 740 mg/MJ metabolizable energy, which can therefore be considered the SUL based on current knowledge.

  3. Influence of ionic surfactants on the flocculation and sorption of palladium and mercury in the aquatic environment. (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Xu, Jing


    The influence of sub-micellar concentrations of an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate; SDS) and a cationic surfactant (hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide; HDTMA) on the aquatic behaviour of the strongly complexing metals, Pd(II) and Hg(II), has been investigated. In river water, flocculation of organic complexes of metal was suppressed by SDS but accentuated by HDTMA, effects that are consistent with electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between ionic surfactants and natural polyelectrolytes. In sea water, flocculation of metal complexes was enhanced by both surfactants because of the shielding and salting effects of inorganic ions on these interactions. Particle surface modification engendered by sorbed surfactant strongly influenced the sorption of Pd and Hg to estuarine particles. Thus, hydrophobically bound SDS enhances the negative charge at the particle surface and favours specific sorption of metal, while specifically sorbed HDTMA enhances the solvency of the particle surface, favouring non-specific sorption of metal complexes. Given the relatively short environmental half-life of SDS, its impacts on strongly complexing metals are predicted to be localised. However, greater stability of HDTMA suggests that its effects on such metals, including enhanced flocculation and sorption, are likely to be more pervasive.

  4. Dynamic properties of cationic diacyl-glycerol-arginine-based surfactant/phospholipid mixtures at the air/water interface. (United States)

    Lozano, Neus; Pinazo, Aurora; Pérez, Lourdes; Pons, Ramon


    In this Article, we study the binary surface interactions of 1,2-dimyristoyl-rac-glycero-3-O-(N(alpha)-acetyl-L-arginine) hydrochloride (1414RAc) with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) on 0.1 M sodium chloride solutions. 1414RAc is a novel monocationic surfactant that has potential applications as an antimicrobial agent, is biodegradable, and shows a toxicity activity smaller than that of other commercial cationic surfactants. DPPC phospholipid was used as a model membrane component. The dynamic surface tension of 1414RAc/DPPC aqueous dispersions injected into the saline subphase was followed by tensiometry. The layer formation for the mixtures is always accelerated with respect to DPPC, and surprisingly, the surface tension reduction is faster and reaches lower surface tension values at surfactant concentration below its critical micellar concentration (cmc). Interfacial dilational rheology properties of mixed films spread on the air/water interface were determined by the dynamic oscillation method using a Langmuir trough. The effect of surfactant mole fraction on the rheological parameters of 1414RAc/DPPC mixed monolayers was studied at a relative amplitude of area deformation of 5% and a frequency of 50 mHz. The monolayer viscoelasticity shows a nonideal mixing behavior with predominance of the surfactant properties. This nonideal behavior has been attributed to the prevalence of electrostatic interactions.

  5. Influence of surfactants on the microstructure and electrochemical performance of the tin oxide anode in lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yan-Hui, E-mail: [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Dong, Pei-Pei; Liu, Shan; Nan, Jun-Min [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)


    Highlights: • CTAB and SDS alter the formation of SnO{sub 2} from nanosheets to nanocubes during oxalate precipitation. • The CTAB concentration affects the SnO{sub 2} crystal growth direction, morphology and size. • The SnO{sub 2} anode synthesized using CTAB exhibited superior electrochemical performance. • Proposed a mechanism of influence of surfactant on SnO{sub 2} in the precipitation and annealing process. - Abstract: Different SnO{sub 2} micro–nano structures are prepared by precipitation using a surfactant-assisted process. The surfactants, such as cetyltriethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), can change the crystal growth direction and microstructure of SnO{sub 2} primary and secondary particles. Larger SnO{sub 2} nanosheets were synthesized without surfactant, and micro-fragments composed of small nanospheres or nanocubes were synthesized using CTAB and SDBS. The CTAB-assisted process resulted in smaller primary particles and larger specific surface area and larger pore volume, as a lithium-ion-battery anode that exhibits superior electrochemical performance compared to the other two anodes. Further investigation showed that the concentration of CTAB had a substantial influence on the growth of the crystal face, morphology and size of the SnO{sub 2} secondary particles, which influenced the electrochemical performance of the anode. A simple mechanism for the influence of surfactants on SnO{sub 2} morphology and size in the precipitation and annealing process is proposed.

  6. The effects of pH and surfactants on the absorption and fluorescence properties of ochratoxin A and zearalenone. (United States)

    Li, Taihua; Kim, Bo Bae; Ha, Tae Hwan; Shin, Yong-Beom; Kim, Min-Gon


    The pH and surfactant dependencies of the absorption and fluorescence properties of ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEN), the main mycotoxins found as contaminants in foods and feeds, were evaluated. Three surfactants with different ionic properties were investigated, namely sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, anionic), Tween 20 (nonionic) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, cationic). The results show that the effects of pH on the absorption wavelength maxima and fluorescence efficiencies of the mycotoxins, which are a consequence of the presence of acidic phenol and/or carboxyl containing fluorophores, are dependent on the ionic nature of the added surfactants. Specifically, the fluorescence responses to pH changes of OTA and ZEN are similar in the presence or absence of Tween 20 and SDS. By contrast, the pH-dependent fluorescence properties of these mycotoxins are altered when CTAB is present in the solutions. Moreover, unlike OTA, ZEN in aqueous solution displays almost no fluorescence. However, fluorescence enhancement takes place when surfactants are present in aqueous solutions of this mycotoxin. The results of this study demonstrate that the different microenvironments, present in the organized micellar systems created by the individual surfactants, can be potentially employed to modulate the sensitivities and selectivities of the fluorescence detection of OTA or ZEN. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. VOC removal from contaminated groundwater through membrane pervaporation. (Ⅱ): 1,1,1-trichloroethane- SDS surfactant solution system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Ming; Sean LIU


    The conventional "pump-and-treat" technology for subsurface remediation of groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds(VOCs) such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane(TCA), a common chlorinated organic solvent, has limitation of prohibitively long treatment time due to extremely low water solubility of the VOCs. Surfactant-based soil remediation has emerged as the effective technology that substantially reduces the treatment time. In order to make the whole process economical, the surfactant used in soil washing has to be recovered and reused. This study examined the recovery of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), from soil remediation fluids containing TCA, using a bench-scale membrane pervaporation unit. The effects of high TCA concentration, surfactant dosage, and flow rate on permeation flux and selectivity( α value) of the process were evaluated. In general, higher surfactant concentration yielded lower TCA flux and constant water flux, resulting in declining α values; higher flow rate of TCA feed stream results in higher VOC flux and selectivity, an indication of the effect of concentration polarization; higher TCA feed concentration produces higher TCA permeation across the membrane, however, the selectivity was virtually unchanged unless the total TCA concentration exceeded 2000 ppm.

  8. Effect of surfactants on surface activity and rheological properties of type I collagen at air/water interface. (United States)

    Kezwoń, Aleksandra; Góral, Ilona; Frączyk, Tomasz; Wojciechowski, Kamil


    We describe the effect of three synthetic surfactants (anionic - sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic - cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and nonionic - Triton X-100 (TX-100)) on surface properties of the type I calf skin collagen at the air/water interface in acidic solutions (pH 1.8). The protein concentration was fixed at 5×10(-6)molL(-1) and the surfactant concentration was varied in the range 5×10(-6)molL(-1)-1×10(-4)molL(-1), producing the protein/surfactant mixtures with molar ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20. An Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis (ADSA) method was used to determine the dynamic surface tension and surface dilatational moduli of the mixed adsorption layers. Two spectroscopic techniques: UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorimetry allowed us to determine the effect of the surfactants on the protein structure. The thermodynamic characteristic of the mixtures was studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Modification of the collagen structure by SDS at low surfactant/protein ratios has a positive effect on the mixture's surface activity with only minor deterioration of the rheological properties of the adsorbed layers. The collagen/CTAB mixtures do not show that pronounced improvement in surface activity, while rheological properties are significantly deteriorated. The mixtures with non-ionic TX-100 do not show any synergistic effects in surface activity.

  9. Highly methyl-branched hydrocarbon surfactant as a CO₂-philic solubilizer for water/supercritical CO₂ microemulsion. (United States)

    Sagisaka, Masanobu; Kudo, Kotaro; Nagoya, Shota; Yoshizawa, Atsushi


    To develop an efficient and fluorine-free solubilizer for a water/supercritical CO₂ microemulsion (W/CO₂ μE), in this study, a highly methyl-branched alkyl, isostearyl group was focused on as a CO₂-philic tail, and the custom-made isostearyl surfactant, sodium 2-(4,4-dimethylpentan-2-yl)-5,7,7-trimethyloctyl sulfate (SIS1) was synthesized. The surface tension (γ) of an aqueous SIS1 solution was measured at ambient pressure as a function of surfactant concentration, and it was found to be 25 mN/m at concentrations of > 1.5 mM. A low γ value can generally be reached only by a fluorocarbon surfactant, which implies that SIS1 has an excellent solubilizing power for the W/CO₂ μE, similar to some fluorocarbon surfactants reported previously. Visual observations of the SIS1/W/CO₂ mixtures revealed the formation of transparent single phases without separated water, identified as W/CO₂ μE. The μE was well-stabilized at pressures > 210 bar and temperatures > 55 °C. At 75 °C and 370 bar, SIS1 was found by spectral measurements using a water-soluble UV-light absorber to solubilize water contents up to a maximum water-to-surfactant molar ratio (W0) = 50. The achievement of W0 = 50 in a W/CO₂ μE system has not been reported previously in similar hydrocarbon surfactant/W/CO₂ systems, and this demonstrates that a highly methyl-branched alkyl group can act as a good CO₂-philic group for a W/CO₂ -type surfactant.

  10. Thermodynamic Study of the Ion-Pair Complexation Equilibria of Dye and Surfactant by Spectral Titration and Chemometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimeh Abbasi Awal


    Full Text Available Surfactant-dye interactions are very important in chemical and dyeing processes. The dyes interact strongly with surfactant and show new spectrophotometric properties, so the UV-vis absorption spectrophotometric method has been used to study this process and extract some thermodynamic parameters. In this work, the association equilibrium between ionic dyes and ionic surfactant were studied by analyzing spectrophotometric data using chemometric methods. Methyl orange and crystal violet were selected as a model of cationic and anionic dyes respectively. Also sodium dodecyl sulphate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were selected as anionic and cationic surfactant, respectively. Hard model methods such as target transform fitting (TTF classical multi-wavelength fitting and soft model method such as multivariate curve resolution (MCR were used to analyze data that were recorded as a function of surfactant concentration in premicellar and postmicellar regions. Hard model methods were used to resolve data using ion-pair model in premicellar region in order to extract the concentration and spectral profiles of individual components and also related thermodynamic parameters. The equilibrium constants and other thermodynamic parameters of interaction of dyes with surfactants were determined by studying the dependence of their absorption spectra on the temperature in the range 293–308 K at concentrations of 5 × 10−6 M and 8 × 10−6 M for dye crystal violet and methyl orange, respectively. In postmicellar region, the MCR-ALS method was applied for resolving data and getting the spectra and concentration profiles in complex mixtures of dyes and surfactants.

  11. Silicone antifoam performance enhancement by nonionic surfactants in potato medium. (United States)

    Christiano, Steven P; Fey, Kenneth C


    The ability of a silicone antifoam to retard foaming in a liquor prepared from potatoes is enhanced by the addition of ethoxylated nonionic surfactants. The enhancement is non-linear for surfactant concentration, with all 12 surfactants tested possessing a concentration at which foam heights strongly diminish, referred to as the surfactant critical antifoaming concentration (SCAFC). SCAFCs vary between surfactants, with lower values indicating better mass efficiency of antifoaming enhancement. SCAFCs decrease with degree of ethoxylation and decrease with the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance for ethoxylated nonionic surfactants. Surfactant addition produces a mixed water-surface layer containing surfactant and surface-active components in the potato medium. Surface tension reduction does not correlate well with antifoam performance enhancement. A model is proposed where surfactant adsorption promotes desorption of surface-active potato medium components from the water surface. At the SCAFC, desorption is not complete, yet the rate of bubble rupture is sufficiently enhanced to provide excellent foam control.

  12. Interactions of organic contaminants with mineral-adsorbed surfactants (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Chen, B.; Tao, S.; Chiou, C.T.


    Sorption of organic contaminants (phenol, p-nitrophenol, and naphthalene) to natural solids (soils and bentonite) with and without myristylpyridinium bromide (MPB) cationic surfactant was studied to provide novel insight to interactions of contaminants with the mineral-adsorbed surfactant. Contaminant sorption coefficients with mineral-adsorbed surfactants, Kss, show a strong dependence on surfactant loading in the solid. At low surfactant levels, the Kss values increased with increasing sorbed surfactant mass, reached a maximum, and then decreased with increasing surfactant loading. The Kss values for contaminants were always higher than respective partition coefficients with surfactant micelles (Kmc) and natural organic matter (Koc). At examined MPB concentrations in water the three organic contaminants showed little solubility enhancement by MPB. At low sorbed-surfactant levels, the resulting mineral-adsorbed surfactant via the cation-exchange process appears to form a thin organic film, which effectively "adsorbs" the contaminants, resulting in very high Kss values. At high surfactant levels, the sorbed surfactant on minerals appears to form a bulklike medium that behaves essentially as a partition phase (rather than an adsorptive surface), with the resulting Kss being significantly decreased and less dependent on the MPB loading. The results provide a reference to the use of surfactants for remediation of contaminated soils/sediments or groundwater in engineered surfactant-enhanced washing.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Babu


    Full Text Available AbstractAttention has been given to reduce the cost of surfactant by using castor oil as an alternative natural source of feedstock. A new surfactant, sodium methyl ester sulfonate (SMES was synthesised using ricinoleic acid methyl ester, which is obtained from castor oil, for enhanced oil recovery in petroleum industries. The performance of SMES was studied by measuring the surface tension with and without sodium chloride and its thermal stability at reservoir temperature. SMES exhibited good surface activity, reducing the surface tension of surfactant solution up to 38.4 mN/m and 27.6 mN/m without and with NaCl, respectively. During the thermal analysis of SMES, a 31.2% mass loss was observed from 70 ˚C to 500 ˚C. The phase behavior of the cosurfactant/SMES-oil-water system plays a key role in interpreting the performance of enhanced oil recovery by microemulsion techniques. Flooding experiments were performed using a 0.5 pore volume of synthesized SMES solutions at three different concentrations. In each case chase water was used to maintain the pressure gradient. The additional recoveries in surfactant flooding were found to be 24.53%, 26.04% and 27.31% for 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 mass% of surfactant solutions, respectively.

  14. Critical interaction strength for surfactant-induced mesomorphic structures in polymer-surfactant systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruokolainen, J.; Torkkeli, M.; Serimaa, R.; Vahvaselka, S.; Saariaho, M.; ten Brinke, G.; Ikkala, O.; Vahvaselkä, Sakari


    The critical interaction strength to induce mesomorphic structures in flexible polymers by complexing with surfactants is determined by using surfactants with different hydrogen-bonding strengths;. Two essential requirements have to be satisfied: (i) the association has to be strong enough, otherwis

  15. Surfactant nebulization versus instillation during high frequency ventilation in surfactant-deficient rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Peter H.; Heikamp, A; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto


    Surfactant nebulization improves lung function at low alveolar doses of surfactant. However, efficiency of nebulization is low, and lung deposition seems to depend on lung aeration. High frequency ventilation (HFV) has been shown to improve lung aeration. We hypothesize that the combination of HFV a


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Guo-dong; CHAI Lei


    The influence of a surfactant on the two-phase flow regime and the pressure drop in upward inclined pipes is investigated for various gas/liquid flow rates.The air/water and air/100 ppm sodium dodecyl sulphate aqueous solution are used as the working fluids.The influence of the surfactant on the two-phase flow regime in upward inclined pipes is investigated using the electrical tomographic technique.For 0°,2.5° and 5° pipe inclinations,the surfactant has obvious effect on the transition from the stratified wavy flow to the annular flow,and the range of the stratified smooth flow regime is also extended to higher gas velocities.For 10°pipe inclination,no stratified flow regime is observed in the air/water flow.In the air/surfactant solution system,however,the stratified flow regime can be found in the range of USG =10m/s-28m/s and USL =0.07 m/s-0.2 m/s.For all inclination angles,the changes of the pressure gradient characteristics are accompanied with the flow pattern transitions.Adding surfactant in a two-phase flow would reduce the pressure gradient significantly in the slug flow and annular flow regimes.In the annular flow regime,the pressure gradient gradually becomes free of the influence of the upward inclined angle,and is only dependent on the property of the two-phase flow.

  17. Interaction between zwitterionic surface activity ionic liquid and anionic surfactant: Na(+)-driven wormlike micelles. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Ruitao; Zheng, Yan; Sun, Limei; Yu, Li; Jiao, Jingjing; Wang, Rui


    The physicochemical properties of the mixed zwitterionic surface activity ionic liquid/anionic surfactant (N-alkyl-N'-carboxymethyl imidazolium inner salts/sodium dodecyl sulfate, [N-C(12), N'-CO(2)-Im]/SDS) at various molar ratios (R(1) = C([N-C(12),N'-CO(2)-Im])/(C([N-C(12),N'-CO(2)-Im]) + C(SDS)) were investigated by surface tension and steady-state fluorescence measurements. The results show that the mixed [N-C(12), N'-CO(2)-Im]/SDS system has a much lower cmc value and higher surface activity than individual surfactant. Compared with the mixed zwitterionic betaine surfactant/SDS system, the mixture studied exhibits a stronger synergism, i.e., more negative interaction parameters (β(m) and β(σ)). Through addition of NaCl, the wormlike micelles (WMs) could be formed in a [N-C(12), N'-CO(2)-Im]/SDS system. Steady and dynamic rheology was employed to characterize the WMs with different surfactant ratio (R(1)), NaCl concentration, and temperature. An optimal composition, viz., C(T) = 60 mM, R(1) = 0.45, and C(NaCl) = 0.10 M, was detected to form the strongest and longest wormlike micelles. Compared with the WMs formed by a traditional zwitterionic C(12) betaine/anionic surfactant mixture (e.g., laurylamidopropyl betaine/SDS), the WMs studied have a stronger network structure, which is expected to have potential applications in some fields, such as in nanomaterials synthesis, personal care products, and flooding liquid for tertiary oil recovery.

  18. Surfactant Enhanced Electroremediation of Phenanthrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘鹏; 杨建刚; 等


    Removal of hydrophobic organic contaminants(HOCs) form soil of low permeability by electroremediation was investigated by using phenanthrene and kaolinite as a model system.Tween 80 was added into the purging solution in order to enhance the solubility of phenanthrene.The effects of pH on the adsorption of phenanthrene and Tween 80 on kaolinite and the magnitude of ζ-potential of kaolinite were examined,respectively.The effects of electric field strength indicated by electric current on the electroremediation behavior,including the pH of purging solution,the conductivity,phenanthrene concentration and flow rate of effluent,were experimentally investigated,repectively,In case of an electric field of 25mA applied for 72 hours,over 90% of phenanthrene was removed from 424g(dry mass)of kaolinite at an energy consumption of 0.148kW.h.The experimental results described in present study show that the addition of surfactant into purging solution greatly enhances the removel of HOCs by electroremediation.

  19. STM investigation of surfactant molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Adsorption and self-organization of sodium alkyl sulfonates (STS and SHS) have been studied on HOPG by using the in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Both SHS and STS molecules adsorb on the HOPG surface and form long-range well-ordered monolayers. The neighboring molecules in different rows form a "head to head" configuration. In the high-resolution images of STS and SHS molecules, one end of the molecules shows bright spots which are attributed to the SO3- groups.

  20. Renal sodium handling and sodium sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa A. Frame


    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of hypertension, which affects over 1 billion individuals worldwide, involves the integration of the actions of multiple organ systems, including the kidney. The kidney, which governs sodium excretion via several mechanisms including pressure natriuresis and the actions of renal sodium transporters, is central to long term blood pressure regulation and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure. The impact of renal sodium handling and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure in health and hypertension is a critical public health issue owing to the excess of dietary salt consumed globally and the significant percentage of the global population exhibiting salt sensitivity. This review highlights recent advances that have provided new insight into the renal handling of sodium and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure, with a focus on genetic, inflammatory, dietary, sympathetic nervous system and oxidative stress mechanisms that influence renal sodium excretion. Increased understanding of the multiple integrated mechanisms that regulate the renal handling of sodium and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure has the potential to identify novel therapeutic targets and refine dietary guidelines designed to treat and prevent hypertension.

  1. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore K. Mohanty


    There are many fractured carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). The process of using dilute anionic surfactants in alkaline solutions has been investigated in this work for oil recovery from fractured oil-wet carbonate reservoirs both experimentally and numerically. This process is a surfactant-aided gravity drainage where surfactant diffuses into the matrix, lowers IFT and contact angle, which decrease capillary pressure and increase oil relative permeability enabling gravity to drain the oil up. Anionic surfactants have been identified which at dilute concentration of 0.05 wt% and optimal salinity can lower the interfacial tension and change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil. The force of adhesion in AFM of oil-wet regions changes after anionic surfactant treatment to values similar to those of water-wet regions. The AFM topography images showed that the oil-wetting material was removed from the surface by the anionic surfactant treatment. Adsorption studies indicate that the extent of adsorption for anionic surfactants on calcite minerals decreases with increase in pH and with decrease in salinity. Surfactant adsorption can be minimized in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (20-42% OOIP in 50 days; up to 60% in 200 days) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Small (<10%) initial gas saturation does not affect significantly the rate of oil recovery in the imbibition process, but larger gas saturation decreases the oil recovery rate. As the core permeability decreases, the rate of oil recovery reduces

  2. Effect of NaCl on the spectral and kinetic properties of cresyl violet (CV)-sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K I Priyadarsini; Hari Mohan


    Effect of added NaCl on the spectral and kinetic properties of cationically charged dye (cresyl violet) and anionically charged surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate) were studied in the pre-micellar and micellar regions. Addition of 0.2M NaCl to dye-surfactant solution decreased the critical micellar concentration for the micellization of the dye in sodium dodecyl sulphate to 1.2 × 10-3 M. Time-resolved studies using a stopped-flow spectrometer showed that NaCl influences the dynamics of micellisation. Addition of NaCl during the dye-surfactant complex formation converted the complex into micellized form at NaCl concentration of 0.01 to 0.05 M. In contrast, much higher concentration of NaCl (2 M) is required for the salting-out effect of the dye-surfactant complex for conversion to the micellized form.

  3. Microemulsion-based lycopene extraction: Effect of surfactants, co-surfactants and pretreatments. (United States)

    Amiri-Rigi, Atefeh; Abbasi, Soleiman


    Lycopene is a potent antioxidant that has received extensive attention recently. Due to the challenges encountered with current methods of lycopene extraction using hazardous solvents, industry calls for a greener, safer and more efficient process. The main purpose of present study was application of microemulsion technique to extract lycopene from tomato pomace. In this respect, the effect of eight different surfactants, four different co-surfactants, and ultrasound and enzyme pretreatments on lycopene extraction efficiency was examined. Experimental results revealed that application of combined ultrasound and enzyme pretreatments, saponin as a natural surfactant, and glycerol as a co-surfactant, in the bicontinuous region of microemulsion was the optimal experimental conditions resulting in a microemulsion containing 409.68±0.68 μg/glycopene. The high lycopene concentration achieved, indicates that microemulsion technique, using a low-cost natural surfactant could be promising for a simple and safe separation of lycopene from tomato pomace and possibly from tomato industrial wastes.

  4. A Review on Progress in QSPR Studies for Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwu Wang


    Full Text Available This paper presents a review on recent progress in quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR studies of surfactants and applications of various molecular descriptors. QSPR studies on critical micelle concentration (cmc and surface tension (γ of surfactants are introduced. Studies on charge distribution in ionic surfactants by quantum chemical calculations and its effects on the structures and properties of the colloids of surfactants are also reviewed. The trends of QSPR studies on cloud point (for nonionic surfactants, biodegradation potential and some other properties of surfactants are evaluated .

  5. The use of surfactant in lung transplantation. (United States)

    Amital, Anat; Shitrit, David; Raviv, Yael; Saute, Milton; Medalion, Benjamin; Bakal, Llana; Kramer, Mordechai R


    Lung transplantation impairs surfactant activity, which may contribute to primary graft dysfunction (PGD). Prompted by studies in animals and a few reports in humans, this study sought to determine if the administration of surfactant during transplantation serves as an effective preventive measure. An open, randomized, controlled prospective design was used. Forty-two patients scheduled for single (n=38) or double (n=4) lung transplantation at a major tertiary medical center were randomly assigned to receive, or not, intraoperative surfactant treatment. In the treated group, bovine surfactant was administered at a dose of 20 mg phospholipids/kg through bronchoscope after the establishment of bronchial anastomosis. The groups were compared for oxygenation (PaO2/FiO2), chest X-ray findings, PGD grade, and outcome. Compared with the untreated group, the patients who received surfactant were characterized by better postoperative oxygenation mean PaO2/FiO2 (418.8+/-123.8 vs. 277.9+/-165 mm Hg, P=0.004), better chest radiograph score, a lower PGD grade (0.66 vs. 1.86, P=0.005), fewer cases of severe PGD (1 patient vs. 12, P<0.05), earlier extubation (by 2.2 hr; 95% CI 1.1-4.3 hr, P=0.027), shorter intensive care unit stay (by 2.3 days; 95% CI 1.47-3.74 days, P=0.001), and better vital capacity at 1 month (61% vs. 50%, P=0.022). One treated and 2 untreated patients died during the first postoperative month. Surfactant instillation during lung transplantation improves oxygenation, prevents PGD, shortens intubation time, and enhances early posttransplantation recovery. Further, larger studies are needed to assess whether surfactant should be used routinely in lung transplantation.

  6. Surfactants and the Mechanics of Respiration (United States)

    Jbaily, Abdulrahman; Szeri, Andrew J.


    Alveoli are small sacs found at the end of terminal bronchioles in human lungs with a mean diameter of 200 μm. A thin layer of fluid (hypophase) coats the inner face of an alveolus and is in contact with the air in the lungs. The thickness of this layer varies among alveoli, but is in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 μm for many portions of the alveolar network. The interfacial tension σ at the air-hypophase interface tends to favor collapse of the alveolus, and resists its expansion during inhalation. Type II alveolar cells synthesize and secrete a mixture of phospholipids and proteins called pulmonary surfactant. These surfactant molecules adsorb to the interface causing σ of water at body temperature is 70 mN/m and falls to an equilibrium value of 25 mN/m when surfactants are present. Also, in a dynamic sense, it is known that σ is reduced to near 0 during exhalation when the surfactant film compresses. In this work, the authors develop a mechanical and transport model of the alveolus to study the effect of surfactants on various aspects of respiration. The model is composed of three principal parts: (i) air movement into and out of the alveolus; (ii) a balance of linear momentum across the two-layered membrane of the alveolus (hypophase and elastic wall); and (iii) a pulmonary surfactant transport problem in the hypophase. The goal is to evaluate the influence of pulmonary surfactant on respiratory mechanics.

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid sodium rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Benjamin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sodium levels have been reported to rise during episodic migraine. Since migraine frequently starts in early morning or late afternoon, we hypothesized that natural sodium chronobiology may predispose susceptible persons when extracellular CSF sodium increases. Since no mammalian brain sodium rhythms are known, we designed a study of healthy humans to test if cation rhythms exist in CSF. Methods Lumbar CSF was collected every ten minutes at 0.1 mL/min for 24 h from six healthy participants. CSF sodium and potassium concentrations were measured by ion chromatography, total protein by fluorescent spectrometry, and osmolarity by freezing point depression. We analyzed cation and protein distributions over the 24 h period and spectral and permutation tests to identify significant rhythms. We applied the False Discovery Rate method to adjust significance levels for multiple tests and Spearman correlations to compare sodium fluctuations with potassium, protein, and osmolarity. Results The distribution of sodium varied much more than potassium, and there were statistically significant rhythms at 12 and 1.65 h periods. Curve fitting to the average time course of the mean sodium of all six subjects revealed the lowest sodium levels at 03.20 h and highest at 08.00 h, a second nadir at 09.50 h and a second peak at 18.10 h. Sodium levels were not correlated with potassium or protein concentration, or with osmolarity. Conclusion These CSF rhythms are the first reports of sodium chronobiology in the human nervous system. The results are consistent with our hypothesis that rising levels of extracellular sodium may contribute to the timing of migraine onset. The physiological importance of sodium in the nervous system suggests that these rhythms may have additional repercussions on ultradian functions.

  8. The surfactant application of sodium deoxycholate in the EMA-PCR discrimination of viable and dead cells of Listeria monocytogenes%表面活性剂脱氧胆酸钠在单增李斯特菌死活细胞EMA-PCR鉴别中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝乐友; 吕淑霞; 张超; 于晓丹; 马镝; 曹慧颖


    通过脱氧胆酸钠(sodium deoxycholate,SD)结合染料叠氮溴乙锭(ethidium bromide monoazide,EMA)与PCR反应体系相结合,建立纯培养条件下区分单增李斯特菌死活细胞的方法,即SD-EMA-PCR鉴别单增李斯特菌死活细胞检测法.结果表明:向浓度为2.0×108 CFU/mL的单增李斯特死菌悬液中加入终浓度为1.5 mg/mL的表面活性剂脱氧胆酸钠后,EMA激活光解最佳曝光时间为25 min.SD-EMA-PCR检测体系中,对死菌细胞DNA的PCR扩增抑制的EMA最小浓度为1.6 μg/mL;而对活菌细胞DNA的PCR扩增不抑制的EMA最大浓度为9 μg/mL,活菌细胞的最低检出限为20 CFU/mL.SD-EMA-PCR检测法能够减小EMA-PCR漏检死菌细胞给检测结果带来假阳性的可能,降低了检测的成本,为单增李斯特菌的快速检测提供了一种新的有效途径.%Through the treatment of the sodium deoxycholate to the cells,Ethidium bromide monoazide was utilized to selectively allow the PCR amplification of a targeted DNA sequence in viable but not dead cells of Listeria monocytogenes,namely SD-EMA-PCR.The optimal concentration of sodium deoxycholate incorporating into the PCR system could enhance the discrimination of viable and dead cells.The results showed that:with the treatment of the Sodium deoxycholate,the optimized light exposure time to achieve cross-linking of DNA by the EMA in dead cells and to photolyse the free EMA in solution was at least 25 min,and the maximum concentration of EMA which did not inhibit the PCR amplification of DNA extracted from viable cells was 9 μg/mL.but the minimum concentration of EMA which completely inhibited the PCR amplification of DNA extracted from dead cells was 1.6 μg/mL; a detection limit of the assay for the viable cells was 20 CFU/mL.SD-EMA-PCR could minimize the possibility of the false-positive by the way of EMA-PCR and reduce the cost of detection.It is a new efficient approach for the rapid detection of the isolate of Listeria monocytogenes.

  9. Surfactant irritation: in vitro corneosurfametry and in vivo bioengineering. (United States)

    Gabard, B; Chatelain, E; Bieli, E; Haas, S


    Irritant reactions to surfactants, cleansing products, soaps and detergents are common in clinical and occupational dermatology. Mildness has become a major benefit claimed, and testing for mildness now ranks among the first concerns of the manufacturing industry. A wealth of publications deals with this problem, trying to improve the methodology, reduce the costs of testing and facilitate decision-making. Differences in vivo can be measured clinically and/or instrumentally. This is difficult, as commercially available products are generally safe to use and none are harsh in the absolute sense. Nineteen different products (syndets, shampoos, personal cleansers), all claiming to be mild, were tested in vitro by a newly introduced method, corneosurfametry. For evaluating the aggressiveness of the products, the calculation of an index of irritation (IOI) was proposed. A concentration-effect curve of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as standard and model surfactant was obtained. Some of the products were further tested in vivo with a flex wash test and with a soap chamber test and compared to SLS. Bioengineering methods (transepidermal water loss TEWL, skin color) were used to evaluate the results. The results of the corneosurfametry allowed us to classify the products in three categories, with increasing aggressiveness towards the stratum corneum, according to their IOIs. The in vivo tests were not able to discriminate between the products, but ranks from the results of the bioengineering measurements showed a good correlation between TEWL changes, but not between colour changes, and IOIs from corneosurfametry. Corneosurfametry emerged as a simple, low-cost and fast method for ranking commercial products according to their mildness. However, the skin bioengineering techniques showed that some products could lead to skin reactions, such as erythema, that could not be detected by the in vitro technique.

  10. Adsorptive Removal of Copper by Using Surfactant Modified Laterite Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien Duc Pham


    Full Text Available Removal of copper ion (Cu2+ by using surfactant modified laterite (SML was investigated in the present study. Characterizations of laterite were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, and total carbon analysis. The optimum conditions for removal of Cu2+ by adsorption using SML were systematically studied and found as pH 6, contact time 90 min, adsorbent dosage 5 mg/mL, and ionic strength 10 mM NaCl. The equilibrium concentration of copper ions was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS. Surface modification of laterite by anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS induced a significant increase of the removal efficiency of Cu2+. The surface modifications of laterite by preadsorption of SDS and sequential adsorption of Cu2+ were also evaluated by XRD and FT-IR. The adsorption of Cu2+ onto SML increases with increasing NaCl concentration from 1 to 10 mM, but at high salt concentration this trend is reversed because desorption of SDS from laterite surface was enhanced by increasing salt concentration. Experimental results of Cu2+/SML adsorption isotherms at different ionic strengths can be represented well by a two-step adsorption model. Based on adsorption isotherms, surface charge effects, and surface modification, we suggest that the adsorption mechanism of Cu2+ onto SML was induced by electrostatic attraction between Cu2+ and the negatively charged SML surface and nonelectrostatic interactions between Cu2+ and organic substances in the laterite.

  11. Valuation of surfactant Phosphonates synthesized in the protection of metal surfaces against corrosion of mild steel in 0.5M H2SO4 media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghibate


    Full Text Available In this article, we are interesting to investigate the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in sulfuric acid by two surfactants phospohonates already synthesized namely sodium methyldodecylphosphonate (Pho1 and sodium methyl (11-methacryloyloxyundecyl phosphonate (Pho2. The inhibition performances of Pho1 and Pho2 on mild steel corrosion in 0,5M H2SO4 solution were studied using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, weight loss, and Tafel polarization technics. The experimental results suggest that those surfactants are effective corrosion inhibitors and the inhibition efficiency increases with the increase surfactants concentrations. Polarization measurements proved that the inhibitors behave as mixed-type. EIS diagram appears a large capacitive loop at high frequencies (HF followed by a small inductive loop at low frequencies (LF for Pho2, and the addition of this surfactant inhibitor increases the impedance of electrode. The adsorption of each surfactant on steel surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were calculated and discussed. Values of inhibition efficiency calculated from weight loss, Tafel polarization curves, and EIS are in good agreement.

  12. Estimation of interfacial acidity of sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arghya Dey; G Naresh Patwari


    An enhancement in the excited state proton transfer (ESPT) processes of coumarin-102 (C-102) dye was observed upon addition of salicylic acid and hydrochloric acid in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solution. The phenomenon was observed only in the micellar medium of anionic surfactant SDS and not in case of cationic (CTAB) or neutral (Trition X -100) surfactants. ESPT of C-102 was also observed in aqueous solutions but on addition of very high concentrations of hydrochloric acid. However, on comparing the ratio of the protonated species from the emission spectra in the presence and absence of SDS micelle, a conclusive estimation of the local proton concentration at the Stern layer of SDS micelles could be evaluated.

  13. Location of ethanol in sodium dodecyl sulfate aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU, Tian-Qing; YU, Wei-Li; GUO, Rong


    The hexagonal liquid crystalline phase of SDS ( Sodium dodecyl sulfate)/H2O system changes into lamellar liquid crystal and the effective length of surfactant molecule d0/2 in the lamellar liquid crystal decreases with the addition of ethanol.The micellar aggregation number N of SDS decreases and the micellar diffusion coefficient increases with the added ethanol.Under a constant concentration of SDS, the molecule number ratio of ethanol to SDS in the micelle increases with the concentration of ethanol and even exceeds 10 when ethanol concentration is 1.085 mol/L. All these results show that ethanol, even though a short chain alcohol and soluble in water, can partly exist in the interphase of the amphiphilic aggregates showing some properties of co-surfactant.

  14. Role of surfactant and pH in dissolution of curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman SMH


    Full Text Available Curcumin is a phytoconstituent with wide range of biological activity. It is poorly soluble in water. In the present study a new dissolution medium was developed, as there is no validated dissolution method available in the literature. The composition of the dissolution medium was selected on the basis of solubility data at 37°. Solubility data revealed that addition of surfactant may be suitable as a dissolution medium. The suitability of dissolution medium (0.5% sodium lauryl sulphate in water relative to the other dissolution medium was evaluated. The selected dissolution media was used for the evaluation of curcumin tablets.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuHui; WanYu


    The effect of an anionic surfactant(sodium dodecylsulfate.SDS)on the fluorescence properties of nucleic acid with terbium(III)is studied.Results show that ri-bonucleir acid (RNA)presents fluorescence reaction with Tb(III)directly.but deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA)pre-sents similar fluorescence reaction only after its denatura-tion.In the presence of SDS ,the fluorescence intensity is 4.0 times and 3.5 times greater than that of DNA and RNA without SDS.

  16. Relationship between Spreading Rate and Wetting Behaviour of Oil on Surface of Surfactant Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Xi; CHENG Yang; HUANG Xue-Dong; MA Hong-Ru


    @@ We report a systematic investigation of the spreading of a polydimethylsiloxane oil layer on flat surfaces of solution containing anionic surfactant of sodium dodecylsulfate. The experiment reveals that different wetting behaviours of the oil follow different spreading rates. In the case of complete wetting, it obeys a 0. 75 power law, while in the pseudopartial wetting it follows a non-power law. The results can well be explained by a new simple theory of spreading. The theory further predicts that for a complete wetting state there exists another spreading rate.

  17. Studies of surfactants in photogalvanic cells - NaLS-EDTA and azur-B system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R C Meena; Gautam Singh; Nidhi Tyagi; Manju kumari


    Photogalvanic effects were studied in photogalvanic cells containing sodium lauryl sulphate as surfactant, EDTA as reductant and azur-B as photosensitizer. The photopotential and photocurrent generated were 814.0 mV and 255.0 A respectively. The observed conversion efficiency was 1.2% and the maximum power of cell was 207.57 W. The storage capacity of the cell was 26.0 min in dark. The effect of different parameters on electrical output of the cell was observed. A mechanism has been proposed here for the generation of photocurrent in photogalvanic cells.

  18. Examination of surface adsorption of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulfate. (United States)

    Nakahara, Hiromichi; Shibata, Osamu; Moroi, Yoshikiyo


    Several pieces of experimental evidence of condensation of soluble surfactant molecules, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), into the air/water surface region from the bulk solution are presented at different added salt concentrations in order to substantiate that the concentrated molecules do not locate just at the air/solution interface. The insoluble monolayer just at the air/subphase interface for the two surfactants could be studied by surface pressure (π) versus molecular surface area (A), surface potential (ΔV) versus the area (A), infrared absorption of the surface region, and BAM (Brewster angle microscope) image. From surface tension versus concentration curves for the two surfactant solutions, the apparent molecular surface area and the cmc values were determined at different added salt concentrations, and the degree of counterion binding to micelle was found to be 0.70 and 0.73 for CTAB and SDS, respectively. Further examination was made on infrared absorption from the surface region of the surfactant solutions and on BAM images of the surface planes in order to examine the difference between the insoluble monolayer and the condensation in the surface region. Finally, the new concept of bilayer or bilamellar aggregate for soluble surfactant solutions is presented together with the former experimental evidence, which is consistent with several interfacial phenomena of the surfactant solutions.

  19. An investigation of chitosan and sodium dodecyl sulfate interactions in acetic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Lidija B.


    Full Text Available Polymer/surfactant association is a cooperative phenomenon where surfactant binds to the polymer in the form of aggregates, usually through electrostatic or hydrophobic forces. As already known, polyelectrolytes may interact with oppositely charged surfactants through electrostatic attraction that results in polymer/surfactant complex formation. This behavior could be desirable in wide range of application of polymer/surfactant mixtures, such as improving colloid stability, gelling, emulsification and microencapsulation. In the present study surface tension, turbidity, viscosity and electrophoretic mobility measurements were used to investigate interactions of cationic polyelectrolyte chitosan (Ch and oppositely charged anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, in buffered water. Obtained results show the presence of interactions that lead to Ch/SDS complexes formation at all investigated pH and for all investigated polymer concentrations. Mechanisms of interaction, as well as characteristics of formed Ch/SDS complexes, are highly dependent on their mass ratio in the mixtures, while pH has no significant influence. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. II46010

  20. Degradation of soil-sorbed trichloroethylene by stabilized zero valent iron nanoparticles: Effects of sorption, surfactants, and natural organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Man [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; He, Feng [ORNL; Zhao, Dongye [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Hao, Xiaodi [Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture


    Zero valent iron (ZVI) nanoparticles have been studied extensively for degradation of chlorinated solvents in the aqueous phase, and have been tested for in-situ remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. However, little is known about its effectiveness for degrading soil-sorbed contaminants. This work studied reductive dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) sorbed in two model soils (a potting soil and Smith Farm soil) using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) stabilized Fe-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles. Effects of sorption, surfactants and dissolved organic matter (DOC) were determined through batch kinetic experiments. While the nanoparticles can effectively degrade soil-sorbed TCE, the TCE degradation rate was strongly limited by desorption kinetics, especially for the potting soil which has a higher organic matter content of 8.2%. Under otherwise identical conditions, {approx}44% of TCE sorbed in the potting soil was degraded in 30 h, compared to {approx}82% for Smith Farm soil (organic matter content = 0.7%). DOC from the potting soil was found to inhibit TCE degradation. The presence of the extracted SOM at 40 ppm and 350 ppm as TOC reduced the degradation rate by 34% and 67%, respectively. Four prototype surfactants were tested for their effects on TCE desorption and degradation rates, including two anionic surfactants known as SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) and SDBS (sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate), a cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) bromide, and a non-ionic surfactant Tween 80. All four surfactants were observed to enhance TCE desorption at concentrations below or above the critical micelle concentration (cmc), with the anionic surfactant SDS being most effective. Based on the pseudo-first-order reaction rate law, the presence of 1 x cmc SDS increased the reaction rate by a factor of 2.5 when the nanoparticles were used for degrading TCE in a water solution. SDS was effective for enhancing degradation of TCE sorbed in Smith Farm

  1. Protein denaturation due to the action of surfactants: a study by SAXS and ITC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oseliero Filho, Pedro Leonidas; Oliveira, Cristiano Luis Pinto de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Pedersen, Jan Skov; Otzen, Daniel Erik [University of Aarhus (Denmark)


    Full text: Proteins are the major constituent of biological systems along with carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). According to their structure and composition, proteins perform several functions in the organism, starting from the macroscopic level, with participation on the olfaction of animals, down to the cellular level, allocated in the membrane and making the connection between extra and intracellular environment. The function of a protein (which may be enzymatic, hormonal, structural, energetic, transport etc) is related to several factors including its structure (primary, secondary, tertiary or quaternary). Denaturation occurs when the secondary structure and/or tertiary is lost, which is almost always followed by the loss of the associated biological function. Temperature, pH and the action of surfactants influence the process of the denaturation. The influence of surfactants to the protein structure and function is the aim of this work. Therefore we are using an isolated protein, {alpha}-lactalbumin, that is found in the milk and whose function is related to the synthesis of galactose. The purpose is to characterize, in a thermodynamic-structural point of view, the denaturation of alpha-lactalbumin in the presence of surfactants anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate - SDS), cationic (tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide - TTAB), zwitterionic (2-diheptanoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine - DHPC) and nonionic (decyl-{beta}-D-Maltopyranoside - DM). The isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) technique, which provides information of structural changes from changes in energy, represents the starting point for the study, while the technique of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) provides information about the structural characteristics of surfactant-protein complexes formed at each step of the denaturation process. The data analysis is in the initial stage, but it was possible to obtain general parameters related to the complex formed from the

  2. History of surfactant up to 1980. (United States)

    Obladen, Michael


    Remarkable insight into disturbed lung mechanics of preterm infants was gained in the 18th and 19th century by the founders of obstetrics and neonatology who not only observed respiratory failure but also designed devices to treat it. Surfactant research followed a splendid and largely logical growth curve. Pathological changes in the immature lung were characterized in Germany by Virchow in 1854 and by Hochheim in 1903. The Swiss physiologist von Neergard fully understood surfactant function in 1929, but his paper was ignored for 25 years. The physical properties of surfactant were recognized in the early 1950s from research on warfare chemicals by Pattle in Britain and by Radford and Clements in the United States. The causal relationship of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and surfactant deficiency was established in the USA by Avery and Mead in 1959. The Australian obstetrician Liggins induced lung maturity with glucocorticoids in 1972, but his discovery was not fully believed for another 20 years. A century of basic research was rewarded when Fujiwara introduced surfactant substitution in Japan in 1980 for treatment and prevention of RDS.

  3. Recovering hydrocarbons with surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; Whittington, L.E.; Ledoux, W.A.; Debons, F.E.


    This patent describes a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of surfactants produced from lignin, the surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen creating a reduction reaction mixture comprising oil soluble lignin phenols, the reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reduction mixture, and converting the lignin phenols into lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of alkoxylation, sulfonation, sulfation, aklylation, sulfomethylation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  4. Surfactant apoprotein in nonmalignant pulmonary disorders. (United States)

    Singh, G.; Katyal, S. L.


    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lungs exhibiting a variety of nonmalignant disorders were studied by immunoperoxidase staining using antibodies specific for surfactant apoprotein, IgG, IgM, IgA, albumin, fibrinogen, and lysozyme. Normal Type II pneumocytes showed staining for surfactant apoprotein in the perinuclear region only. The extent and intensity of staining for apoprotein was markedly increased in reactive Type II pneumocytes. This increase appeared to be a nonspecific reaction to lung injury. The intra-alveolar material in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis stained intensely for surfactant apoprotein, indicating that the accumulated proteinaceous material contained pulmonary surfactant. Type II pneumocytes in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis exhibited hyperplasia as well as hypertrophy. The few macrophages in lung affected by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis stained intensely for lysozyme. The excessive intraalveolar accumulation of proteinaceous material in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis may be the result of both an over-production as well as a deficient removal of pulmonary surfactant. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 p[57]-a PMID:7004201

  5. 2-DE using hemi-fluorinated surfactants. (United States)

    Starita-Geribaldi, Mireille; Thebault, Pascal; Taffin de Givenchy, Elisabeth; Guittard, Frederic; Geribaldi, Serge


    The synthesis of hemi-fluorinated zwitterionic surfactants was realized and assessed for 2-DE, a powerful separation method for proteomic analysis. These new fluorinated amidosulfobetaine (FASB-p,m) were compared to their hydrocarbon counterparts amidosulfobetaine (ASB-n) characterized by a hydrophilic polar head, a hydrophobic and lipophilic tail, and an amido group as connector. The tail of these FASB surfactants was in part fluorinated resulting in the modulation of its lipophilicity (or oleophobicity). Their effect on the red blood cell (RBC) membrane showed a specific solubilization depending on the length of the hydrophobic part. A large number of polypeptide spots appeared in the 2-DE patterns by using FASB-p,m. The oleophobic character of these surfactants was confirmed by the fact that Band 3, a highly hydrophobic transmembrane protein, was not solubilized by these fluorinated structures. The corresponding pellet was very rich in Band 3 and could then be solubilized by using a strong detergent such as amidosulfobetaine with an alkyl tail containing 14 carbon atoms (ASB-14). Thus, these hemi-fluorinated surfactants appeared as powerful tools when used at the first step of a two-step solubilization strategy using a hydrocarbon homologous surfactant in the second step.

  6. Effects of Ionic Surfactants on Bacterial Luciferase and α-Amylase%离子型表面活性剂对荧光素酶和α-脂肪酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫桑田; 李安; 郑浩; 罗明芳; 邢新会


    In order to study the effects of ionic surfactants on bacterial luciferase, the cationic surfactant dodecyl-trimethylammonium biomide (DTAB) and anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) were chosen. For comparison with bacterial luciferase, α-amylase was used since these two enzymes have similar electrostatic potential and charged active sites. After the enzymes were treated with the surfactants, the catalytic properties of bacterial luciferase and a-amylase were assayed, and fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) were used to analyze the alteration of the protein structure. The results showed that when the DTAB concentration was low, the cationic surfactant DTAB enhanced the enzymatic activities of bacterial luciferase and a-amylase. On the other hand, the anionic surfactant SDS did not alter the enzymatic activity. The main interaction of cationic surfactant DTAB and the negatively charged surface of the proteins was the ionic interaction, which could alter the environment for the enzyme to work when the DTAB/enzyme molar ratio was low. However, at high cationic surfactant concentration, the ionic interaction and hydrophobic interaction might destroy the secondary and tertiary structures of the proteins, leading to the loss of enzymatic activities.

  7. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.


    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

  8. Effect of synergistic adsorption of anion surfactants and heavy metal ions onto kaolinite surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The experiments were performed in solution for the synergistic adsorption of dodecylbenzene sulfonate and copper ions onto kaolinite surfaces. The results showed that the former enhances the binding constant of copper ions onto kaolinite surfaces, but copper ions deduce the binding constant of odecylbenzene sulfonate onto kaolinite surfaces.At the same time, they depress the proton release or absorb each other during their adsorption on kaolinite surfaces.

  9. Interaction of Fluorocarbon Containing Hydrophobically Modified Polyelectrolyte with Nonionic Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO,Jin-Feng(郭金峰); ZHUANG,Dong-Qing(庄东青); ZHOU,Hui(周晖); ZHANG,Yun-Xiang(章云祥)


    The interaction of fluorocarbon containing hydrophobically modified polyelectrolyte (FMPAANa) with two kinds of nonionic surfactants (hydrogenated and fluorinated) in a semidilute (0.5 wt% ) aqueous solution had been studied by rheological measurements. Association behavior was found in both systems. The hydrophobic interaction of FMPAANa with fluorinated surfactant (FC171) is much stronger than that with hydrogenated surfactant (NP7.5) at low surfactant concentrations. The interaction is strengthened by surfactants being added for the density of active junctions increased. Whereas distinct phenomena for FC171 and NP7. 5 start to be found as the surfactants added over their respective certain concentration. The interaction of polyelectrolyte with fluorinated surfactant increases dramatical ly while that with hydrogenated surfactant decreases.

  10. Synthesis of mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite by using zwitterions surfactant (United States)

    Mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite (mn-HAP) was successfully synthesized via a novel micelle-templating method using lauryl dimethylaminoacetic acid as zwitterionic surfactant. The systematic use of such a surfactant in combination with microwave energy inputenables the precise contr...

  11. Polyelectrolyte surfactant aggregates and their deposition on macroscopic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Voisin, D


    Oppositely charged surfactant and polyelectrolyte are present in hair shampoos and conditioners, together with particles (e.g. anti-dandruff agents for scalp) and droplets (e.g. silicone oil for the hair). These are normally formulated at high surfactant concentrations, beyond the flocculation region for the polyelectrolyte concentration used. However, on dilution with water, during application, flocs are formed which carry the particles and droplets to the scalp and hair. The addition of an anionic surfactant to an aqueous solution of cationic polyelectrolyte, at a given concentration, can lead to the formation of polyelectrolyte-surfactant 'particles', in which the surfactant 'binds' to the polyelectrolyte. This occurs from the critical association concentration (CAC), up to the surfactant concentration corresponding to maximum binding. Within this range of surfactant concentrations, the surfactant bound to the polyelectrolyte is thought to associate to form what might be termed 'internal micelles'. Each po...

  12. Fullerene surfactants and their use in polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jen, Kwan-Yue; Yip, Hin-Lap; Li, Chang-Zhi


    Fullerene surfactant compounds useful as interfacial layer in polymer solar cells to enhance solar cell efficiency. Polymer solar cell including a fullerene surfactant-containing interfacial layer intermediate cathode and active layer.

  13. Contribution of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium lauric acid in the one-pot synthesis of intercalated ZnAl-layered double hydroxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fengzhu Lv; Zilin Meng; Penggang Li; Yihe Zhang; Guocheng Lv; Qian Zhang; Zhilei Zhang


    Anion surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and sodium lauric acid (SLA), with almost the same chain length but different anion groups were used together as intercalates to prepare intercalated ZnAl–layered double hydroxides (ZnAl–LDHs). Their composition, structure and morphology were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated SDS intended to maintain the lamellae structure of LDHs, but SLA was more likely to expand the basal spacings of LDHs in the present system. The arrangement of the surfactants in the interlayer of ZnAl–LDHs was also simulated by Materials Studio. The basal spacings of the LDHs calculated based on simulated structure consisted with that from XRD.

  14. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation (United States)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.


    A phase 2 study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the second quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs with Illinois number 6 coal at processing temperatures of 300, 325, and 350 C, and pressures of 1800 psig; analysis of the filter cake and the filtrate obtained from the treated slurry in each run; and correlation of the coal conversions and the liquid yield quality to the surfactant concentration. An increase in coal conversions and upgrading of the liquid product quality due to surfactant addition was observed for all runs.

  15. Nanotube Dispersions Made With Charged Surfactant (United States)

    Kuper, Cynthia; Kuzma, Mike


    Dispersions (including monodispersions) of nanotubes in water at relatively high concentrations have been formulated as prototypes of reagents for use in making fibers, films, and membranes based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Other than water, the ingredients of a dispersion of this type include one or more charged surfactant(s) and carbon nanotubes derived from the HiPco(TradeMark) (or equivalent) process. Among reagents known to be made from HiPco(TradeMark)(or equivalent) SWNTs, these are the most concentrated and are expected to be usable in processing of bulk structures and materials. Test data indicate that small bundles of SWNTs and single SWNTs at concentrations up to 1.1 weight percent have been present in water plus surfactant. This development is expected to contribute to the growth of an industry based on applied carbon nanotechnology. There are expected to be commercial applications in aerospace, avionics, sporting goods, automotive products, biotechnology, and medicine.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirog T. P.


    Full Text Available The literature and own experimental data on the synthesis of microbial surfactants of different chemical nature (rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, manozylerythritollipids, lipopeptides at various waste (vegetable oil and fat, sugar, dairy industry, agriculture, forestry, biodiesel, as well as waste — fried vegetable oils are presented. Most suitable substrates for the synthesis of microbial surfactants are oil containing waste that, unlike, for example, lignocellulose, whey, technical glycerol do not require pre-treatment and purification. Replacing traditional substrates for the biosynthesis of surfactant with industrial waste will help to reduce the cost of technology by several times, dispose of unwanted waste, solve the problem of storage or disposal of large amounts of waste from the food industry, agricultural sector and companies that produce biodiesel, which spent large amount of energy and money for such needs

  17. Natural surfactants used in cosmetics: glycolipids. (United States)

    Lourith, N; Kanlayavattanakul, M


    Cosmetic surfactant performs detergency, wetting, emulsifying, solubilizing, dispersing and foaming effects. Adverse reactions of chemical synthesis surfactant have an effect on environment and humans, particularly severe in long term. Biodegradability, low toxicity and ecological acceptability which are the benefits of naturally derived surfactant that promises cosmetic safety are, therefore, highly on demand. Biosurfactant producible from microorganisms exhibiting potential surface properties suitable for cosmetic applications especially incorporate with their biological activities. Sophorolipids, rhamnolipids and mannosylerythritol lipids are the most widely used glycolipids biosurfactant in cosmetics. Literatures and patents relevant to these three glycolipids reviewed were emphasizing on the cosmetic applications including personal care products presenting the cosmetic efficiency, efficacy and economy benefits of glycolipids biosurfactant.

  18. Epidermal cell proliferation and terminal differentiation in skin organ culture after topical exposure to sodium dodecyl sulphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Bos, T.A.; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.


    Epidermal cell proliferation and differentiation were investigated in vitro after exposure to the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Human skin organ cultures were exposed topically to various concentrations of SDS for 22 h, after which the irritant was removed. Cell proliferation was

  19. Surfactant, but not the size of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) influences viability and cytokine production of macrophages. (United States)

    Schöler, N; Olbrich, C; Tabatt, K; Müller, R H; Hahn, H; Liesenfeld, O


    After intravenous (i.v.) injection, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) interact with mononuclear cells. Murine peritoneal macrophages were incubated with SLN formulations consisting of Dynasan 114 coated with different surfactants. The present study was performed to examine the impact of surfactants, which are important surface defining components of SLN, on viability and cytokine production by macrophages. Cytotoxicity, as assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test, was strongly influenced by the surfactant used being marked with cetylpyridinium chloride- (CPC-) coated SLN at a concentration of 0.001% and further increased at SLN concentrations of 0.01 and 0.1%. All other SLN formulations -- containing Poloxamine 908 (P908), Poloxamer 407 (P407), Poloxamer 188 (P188), Solutol HS15 (HS15), Tween 80 (T80), Lipoid S75 (S75), sodium cholate (SC), or sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) -- when used at the same concentrations reduced cell viability only slightly. None of the SLN formulations tested induced cytokine production but a concentration-dependent decrease of IL-6 production was observed, which appeared to be associated with cytotoxic effects. IL-12 and TNF-alpha were detected neither in supernatants of macrophages treated with SLN at any concentration nor in those of untreated cells. In contrast to the type of surfactant, the size of SLN was found neither to affect cytotoxicity of SLN nor to result in induction or digression of cytokine production by macrophages. In conclusion, testing the effects of surfactants on SLN on activity of macrophages is a prerequisite prior to in vivo use of SLN.

  20. Activity, stability and kinetic parameters for -chymotrypsin catalysed reactions in AOT/isooctane reverse micelles with nonionic and zwitterionic mixed surfactants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Santosh Kumar Verma; Kallol K Ghosh


    Reverse micelles (RMs) of sodium 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulphosuccinate (AOT) in nonpolar organic solvents are widely known to have very high solubilization power for water. The method is applied to the hydrolysis of -nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA) catalysed by -chymotrypsin (-CT) in AOT/isooctane/buffer RMs. The increase in -CT activity and stability was an optimum at wo ([H2O]/[AOT]) = 10, z [Isooctane]/[AOT]) = 5. Three typical surfactants were selected based on their head group charges: a non-ionic surfactant Triton-X 100 and two zwitterionic sulphobetaine surfactants of the type CH2+1N+Me2 (CH2)3 SO$^{−}_{3}$ (n = 10; SB3-10, n = 16; SB3-16). The kinetic parameters (such as cat and M) of the -CT at 27°C were determined and compared in the absence and presence of three surfactants. The effect of chain length of zwitterionic surfactant (SB3-10 and SB3-16) on the enzymatic efficacy of -CT as a function of mixed surfactant addition has been investigated in AOT/isooctane RMs at pH 7.75.