Sample records for surfactant shell allowing

  1. Micromechanical measurements of the effect of surfactants on cyclopentane hydrate shell properties. (United States)

    Brown, Erika P; Koh, Carolyn A


    Investigating the effect of surfactants on clathrate hydrate growth and morphology, especially particle shell strength and cohesion force, is critical to advancing new strategies to mitigate hydrate plug formation. In this study, dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid and polysorbate 80 surfactants were included during the growth of cyclopentane hydrates at several concentrations above and below the critical micelle concentration. A novel micromechanical method was applied to determine the force required to puncture the hydrate shell using a glass cantilever (with and without surfactants), with annealing times ranging from immediately after the hydrate nucleated to 90 minutes after formation. It was shown that the puncture force was decreased by the addition of both surfactants up to a maximum of 79%. Over the entire range of annealing times (0-90 minutes), the thickness of the hydrate shell was also measured. However, there was no clear change in shell thickness with the addition of surfactants. The growth rate of the hydrate shell was found to vary less than 15% with the addition of surfactants. The cohesive force between two hydrate particles was measured for each surfactant and found to be reduced by 28% to 78%. Interfacial tension measurements were also performed. Based on these results, microscopic changes to the hydrate shell morphology (due to the presence of surfactants) were proposed to cause the decrease in the force required to break the hydrate shell, since no macroscopic morphology changes were observed. Understanding the hydrate shell strength can be critical to reducing the capillary bridge interaction between hydrate particles or controlling the release of unconverted water from the interior of the hydrate particle, which can cause rapid hydrate conversion.

  2. Surfactants at Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Water Interface: Physics of Surfactants, Counter-Ions, and Hydration Shell (United States)

    Khare, Ketan S.; Phelan, Frederick R., Jr.

    Specialized applications of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) require an efficient and reliable method to sort these materials into monodisperse fractions with respect to their defining metrics (chirality, length, etc.) while retaining their physical and chemical integrity. A popular method to achieve this goal is to use surfactants that individually disperse SWCNTs in water and then to separate the resulting colloidal mixture into fractions that are enriched in monodisperse SWCNTs. Recently, experiments at NIST have shown that subtle point mutations of chemical groups in bile salt surfactants have a large impact on the hydrodynamic properties of SWCNT-surfactant complexes during ultracentrifugation. These results provide strong motivation for understanding the rich physics underlying the assembly of surfactants around SWCNTs, the structure and dynamics of counter ions around the resulting complex, and propagation of these effects into the first hydration shell. Here, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the thermodynamics of SWCNT-bile salt surfactant complexes in water with an emphasis on the buoyant characteristics of the SWCNT-surfactant complexes. Simulation results will be presented along with a comparison with experimental data. Official contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology; not subject to copyright in the United States.

  3. CNTs/mesostructured silica core-shell nanowires via interfacial surfactant templating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; QIAO ShiZhang; YAN ZiFeng; ZHENG HuaJun; LI Li; DING RongGang; LU GaoQing(Max)


    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/mesostructured silica core-shell nanowires with a carbon nanotube core and controllable highly ordered periodic mesoporous silica shell are syntheiszed via the interfacial surfac-tant template. The core-shell nanowires are characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and nitrogen sorption/desorption. The results indicate that the core-shell nanowires have highly ordered periodic mesoporous silica shell (space group p6mm), high BET sur-face area and narrow pore size distribution. Moreover, the morphology of core-shell nanowires can be controlled by the pH value. The core-shell nanowires have promising applications in biosensors, nanoprobes and energy storage due to their good dispersibility in polar solvents.

  4. Energy transfer from silica core-surfactant shell nanoparticles to hosted molecular fluorophores. (United States)

    Rampazzo, Enrico; Bonacchi, Sara; Juris, Riccardo; Montalti, Marco; Genovese, Damiano; Zaccheroni, Nelsi; Prodi, Luca; Rambaldi, Diana Cristina; Zattoni, Andrea; Reschiglian, Pierluigi


    Very monodisperse water-soluble silica core-surfactant shell nanoparticles (SCSS NPs) doped with a rhodamine B derivative were prepared using micelles of F127 as nanoreactors for the hydrolysis and condensation of the silica precursor tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). The functionalization of the rhodamines with a triethoxysilane group allowed the covalent binding of the fluorophores to the silica core: no leaking of the dye was observed when the NPs were purified either by ultrafiltration (UF) or dialysis. The diameter of the core (d(c) = 10 ± 1 nm) was determined by TEM and subtracted from the hydrodynamic diameter, measured by DLS, (d(H) = 24 nm, PdI = 0.1) to calculate the shell thickness (∼7 nm). The presence of a single population of NPs with a radius compatible with the one measured by DLS after UF was confirmed by AF4-MALS-RI measurements. The concentration of the NPs was measured by MALS-RI. This allowed us to determine the average number of rhodamine molecules per NP (10). The ability of the NPs to host hydrophobic species as cyanines in the SS was confirmed by fluorescence anisotropy measurements. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements allowed us to observe the occurrence of a very efficient Förster resonance energy transfer process from the covalently linked rhodamines to the hosted cyanines. In particular, the analysis of the TCSPC data and steady-state measurements revealed that the adsorption of a single cyanine molecule causes an almost complete quenching of the fluorescence of the NP. Thanks to these observations, it was possible to easily determine the concentration of the NPs by fluorescence titration experiments. Results are in good agreement with the concentration values obtained by MALS-RI. Finally, the hosted cyanine molecule could be extracted with (±)-2-octanol, demonstrating the reversibility of the adsorption process.

  5. Dual latex/surfactant templating of hollow spherical silica particles with ordered mesoporous shells. (United States)

    Tan, Bing; Rankin, Stephen E


    Hollow spherical silica particles with hexagonally ordered mesoporous shells are synthesized with the dual use of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and unmodified polystyrene latex microspheres as templates in concentrated aqueous ammonia. In most of the hollow mesoporous particles, cylindrical pores run parallel to the hollow core due to interactions of CTAB/silica aggregates with the latices. Effects on the product structure of the CTAB:latex ratio, the amount of aqueous ammonia, and the latex size are studied. Hollow particles with hexagonally patterned mesoporous shells are obtained at moderate CTAB:latex ratios. Too little CTAB causes silica shell growth without surfactant templating, and too much induces nucleation of new mesoporous silica particles without latex cores. The concentration of ammonia must be large to induce co-assembly of CTAB, silica, and latex into dispersed particles. The results are consistent with the formation of particles by addition of CTAB/silica aggregates to the surface of latex microspheres. When the size and number density of the latex microspheres are changed, the size of the hollow core and the shell thickness can be controlled. However, if the microspheres are too small (50 nm in this case), agglomerated particles with many hollow voids are obtained, most likely due to colloidal instability.

  6. Surfactant-Mediated Conformal Overgrowth of Core-Shell Metal-Organic Framework Materials with Mismatched Topologies. (United States)

    Zhuang, Jia; Chou, Lien-Yang; Sneed, Brian T; Cao, Yingze; Hu, Pan; Feng, Lin; Tsung, Chia-Kuang


    Fracture-free and conformal Pd-UiO-66@ZIF-8 core-shell metal-organic framework material is synthesized by a surfactant-mediated method. The hierarchical nanoporous material exhibits great size-selective hydrogenation catalysis and demonstrates potentials for many different applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Improved microbial growth inhibition activity of bio-surfactant induced Ag–TiO{sub 2} core shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nithyadevi, D. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Kumar, P. Suresh [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Ponpandian, N.; Viswanathan, C. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Meena, P. [Department of Physics, PSGR Krishnammal college for women, Coimbatore 641 004 (India)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrolysis process and Ag nanoparticles were prepared by using hydrazine reduction method. • Ag–TiO{sub 2} core shell nanoparticles were synthesized by reverse micelle method. • Coatings of TiO{sub 2} shell leads to decrease the usage of silver particles and also it reduces the release of silver ions from the matrix. • Optimum ratio of TiO{sub 2} particles: Ag atoms are needed for better antibacterial activity. • Sodium alginate (Bio-copolymer) induced core shell nanoparticles results 100% cell growth inhibition toward Staphylococcus aureus. - Abstract: Surfactant induced silver–titanium dioxide core shell nanoparticles within the size range of 10–50 nm were applied in the antibacterial agent to inhibit the growth of bacterial cells. The single crystalline silver was located in the core part of the composite powder and the titanium dioxide components were uniformly distributed in the shell part. HRTEM and XRD results indicated that silver was completely covered by titanium dioxide and its crystal structure was not affected after being coated by titanium dioxide. The effect of silver–titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the inhibition of bacterial cell growth was studied by means of disk diffusion method. The inhibition zone results reveal that sodium alginate induced silver–titanium dioxide nanoparticles exhibit 100% more antibacterial activity than that with cetyltrimethylbromide or without surfactant. UV–vis spectroscopic analysis showed a large concentration of silver was rapidly released into phosphate buffer solution (PBS) within a period of 1 day, with a much smaller concentration being released after this 1-day period. It was concluded that sodium alginate induced silver–titanium dioxide core shell nanoparticles could enhance long term cell growth inhibition in comparison with cetyltrimethylbromide or without surfactant. The surfactant mediated core shell

  8. Effects of ionic and nonionic surfactants on milk shell wettability during co-spray-drying of whole milk particles. (United States)

    Lallbeeharry, P; Tian, Y; Fu, N; Wu, W D; Woo, M W; Selomulya, C; Chen, X D


    Mixing surfactants with whole milk feed before spray drying could be a commercially favorable approach to produce instant whole milk powders in a single step. Pure whole milk powders obtained directly from spray drying often have a high surface fat coverage (up to 98%), rendering them less stable during storage and less wettable upon reconstitution. Dairy industries often coat these powders with lecithin, a food-grade surfactant, in a secondary fluidized-bed drying stage to produce instant powders. This study investigated the changes in wetting behavior on the surface of a whole milk particle caused by the addition of surfactants before drying. Fresh whole milk was mixed with 0.1% (wt/wt) Tween 80 or 1% (wt/wt) lecithin (total solids), and the wetting behavior of the shell formed by each sample was captured using a single-droplet drying device at intermediate drying stages as the shell was forming. The addition of surfactants improved shell wettability from the beginning of shell formation, producing more wettable milk particles after drying. The increase in surfactant loading by 10 times reduced the wetting time from around 30s to 30s). We proposed that Tween 80 could adsorb at the oil-water interface of fat globules, making the surface fat more wettable, whereas lecithin tends to combine with milk proteins to form a complex, which then competes for the air-water surface with fat globules. Spray-drying experiments confirmed the greatly improved wettability of whole milk powders by the addition of either 0.1% (wt/wt) Tween 80 or 1% (wt/wt) lecithin; wetting time was reduced from 35±4s to drying system has been used to elucidate the complex interactions between ionic or nonionic surfactants and milk components (both proteins and fat), as well as the resultant effect on the development of milk particle functionality during drying.

  9. A minimal length rigid helical peptide motif allows rational design of modular surfactants (United States)

    Mondal, Sudipta; Varenik, Maxim; Bloch, Daniel Nir; Atsmon-Raz, Yoav; Jacoby, Guy; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Shimon, Linda J. W.; Beck, Roy; Miller, Yifat; Regev, Oren; Gazit, Ehud


    Extensive work has been invested in the design of bio-inspired peptide emulsifiers. Yet, none of the formulated surfactants were based on the utilization of the robust conformation and self-assembly tendencies presented by the hydrophobins, which exhibited highest surface activity among all known proteins. Here we show that a minimalist design scheme could be employed to fabricate rigid helical peptides to mimic the rigid conformation and the helical amphipathic organization. These designer building blocks, containing natural non-coded α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib), form superhelical assemblies as confirmed by crystallography and microscopy. The peptide sequence is amenable to structural modularity and provides the highest stable emulsions reported so far for peptide and protein emulsifiers. Moreover, we establish the ability of short peptides to perform the dual functions of emulsifiers and thickeners, a feature that typically requires synergistic effects of surfactants and polysaccharides. This work provides a different paradigm for the molecular engineering of bioemulsifiers.

  10. Fabrication of Mesoporous Silica Shells on Solid Silica Spheres Using Anionic Surfactants and Their Potential Application in Controlling Drug Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Al-Hoshan


    Full Text Available In this work, mesoporous shells were constructed on solid silica cores by employing anionic surfactante. A co-structure directing agent (CSDA has assisted the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged silica particles and the negatively charged surfactant molecules. Synthetic parameters such as reaction time and temperature had a significant impact on the formation of mesoporous silica shelld and their textural properties such as surface area and pore volume. Core-mesoporous shell silica spheres were characterized by small angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and N2 adsorption–desorption analysis. The synthesized particles have a uniformly mesoporous shell of 34–65 nm and possess a surface area of ca. 7–324 m2/g, and pore volume of ca. 0.008–0.261 cc/g. The core-mesoporous shell silica spheres were loaded with ketoprofen drug molecules. The in vitro drug release study suggested that core-mesoporous shell silica spheres are a suitable nanocarrier for drug molecules offering the possibility of having control over their release rate.

  11. Fabrication of mesoporous silica shells on solid silica spheres using anionic surfactants and their potential application in controlling drug release. (United States)

    El-Toni, Ahmed Mohamed; Khan, Aslam; Ibrahim, Mohamed Abbas; Al-Hoshan, Mansour; Labis, Joselito Puzon


    In this work, mesoporous shells were constructed on solid silica cores by employing anionic surfactante. A co-structure directing agent (CSDA) has assisted the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged silica particles and the negatively charged surfactant molecules. Synthetic parameters such as reaction time and temperature had a significant impact on the formation of mesoporous silica shelld and their textural properties such as surface area and pore volume. Core-mesoporous shell silica spheres were characterized by small angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and N(2) adsorption–desorption analysis. The synthesized particles have a uniformly mesoporous shell of 34–65 nm and possess a surface area of ca. 7–324 m2/g, and pore volume of ca. 0.008–0.261 cc/g. The core-mesoporous shell silica spheres were loaded with ketoprofen drug molecules. The in vitro drug release study suggested that core-mesoporous shell silica spheres are a suitable nanocarrier for drug molecules offering the possibility of having control over their release rate.

  12. Characteristics of Amine Surfactant Modified Peanut Shell and Its Sorption Property for Cr(VI)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳敏; 张猛; 刘斌; 许醒; 李小明; 岳钦艳; 马春元


    Modified peanut shell (MPS) was prepared by amination reaction with peanut shell (PS) as the starting material. The sorption of Cr(VI) oxyanions on MPS in static and column tests were investigated. In addition, the sorption isotherm and kinetic models were applied to confirm the sorption capacity and the sorption mechanisms. BET surface area analysis showed the physicochemical characteristics of the samples. The results of zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectra analysis illustrated that chemical adsorption and ion ex-change are the potential sorption mechanism. The static sorption test showed that the maximum sorption capacity (qmax) of MPS for Cr(VI) increased with temperature, which indicated that the Cr(VI) sorption process was endo-thermic. The saturated sorption capacity of Cr(VI) in the column sorption test was 138.34 mg·g-1, which accounted for 93.9%of the qmax at 25 °C. The regeneration capacity of MPS was evaluated using HCl solution as an eluent. The high regeneration efficiency (82.6%) validated the dominance of the ion exchange mechanism in the Cr(VI) sorption process with Cl-ions displacing Cr(VI) oxyanion on MPS. The Langmuir isotherm model showed a higher correlation coefficient than the other adsorption isotherm models. And in the kinetic study, a pseudo-second-order model fit the data best.

  13. Solubilization of Hydrophobic Dyes in Surfactant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Tehrani-Bagha


    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of surfactants for solubilization of hydrophobic organic dyes (mainly solvent and disperse dyes has been reviewed. The effect of parameters such as the chemical structures of the surfactant and the dye, addition of salt and of polyelectrolytes, pH, and temperature on dye solubilization has been discussed. Surfactant self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution and below the concentration where this occurs—the critical micelle concentration (CMC—there is no solubilization. Above the CMC, the amount of solubilized dye increases linearly with the increase in surfactant concentration. It is demonstrated that different surfactants work best for different dyes. In general, nonionic surfactants have higher solubilization power than anionic and cationic surfactants. It is likely that the reason for the good performance of nonionic surfactants is that they allow dyes to be accommodated not only in the inner, hydrocarbon part of the micelle but also in the headgroup shell. It is demonstrated that the location of a dye in a surfactant micelle can be assessed from the absorption spectrum of the dye-containing micellar solution.

  14. Fluorescence of aminofluoresceins as an indicative process allowing one to distinguish between micelles of cationic surfactants and micelle-like aggregates (United States)

    Mchedlov-Petrossyan, Nikolay O.; Cheipesh, Tatiana A.; Roshal, Alexander D.; Doroshenko, Andrey O.; Vodolazkaya, Natalya A.


    Among the vast set of fluorescein derivatives, the double charged R2- anions of aminofluoresceins are known to exhibit only low quantum yields of fluorescence, \\varphi . The \\varphi value becomes as high as that of the fluorescein dianion when the lone electron pair of the amino group is involved in a covalent bond. According to Munkholm et al (1990 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112 2608-12), a much smaller increase in the emission intensity can be observed in the presence of surfactant micelles. However, all these observations refer to aqueous or alcoholic solvents. In this paper, we show that in the non-hydrogen bond donor (or ‘aprotic’) solvents DMSO and acetone, the quantum yields, φ, of the 4‧- (or 5‧)-aminofluorescein R2- species amount to 61-67% and approach that of fluorescein (φ  =  87%), whereas in water φ is only 0.6-0.8%. In glycerol, a solvent with an extremely high viscosity, the φ value is only 6-10%. We report on the enhancement of the fluorescence of the aminofluorescein dianions as an indicative process, which allows us to distinguish between the micelle-like aggregates of cationic dendrimers of low generation, common spherical surfactant micelles, and surfactant bilayers. Some of these colloidal aggregates partly restore the fluorescence of aminofluoresceins in aqueous media. By contrast, other positively charged micellar-like aggregates do not enhance the quantum yield of aminofluorescein R2- species. Results for several related systems, such as CTAB-coated SiO2 particles and reverse microemulsions, are briefly described, and the possible reasons for the observed phenomena are discussed.

  15. Surfactant mediated hydrothermal synthesis, characterization and luminescent properties of GdPO{sub 4}: Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} @ GdPO{sub 4} core shell nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khajuria, Heena; Ladol, Jigmet; Khajuria, Sonika; Shah, Mohd Syed; Sheikh, H.N., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Core shell nanorods were synthesised by surfactant assisted hydrothermal method. • Morphology of core shell nanorods resembles those of core nanorods indicating coating of shell on cores. • More uniform and non-aggregated core shell nanorods were prepared in presence of surfactants. • Surfactant assisted prepared core shell nanorods show intense emission as compared to uncoated core nanorods. - Abstract: Core shell GdPO{sub 4}: Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} @ GdPO{sub 4} nanorods were synthesized via hydrothermal route in the presence of different surfactants [cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)]. The nanorods were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and photoluminescence (PL) studies. The X-ray diffraction results indicate good crystallinity and effective doping in core and core shell nanorods. SEM and TEM micrographs show that all of the as prepared gadolinium phosphate products have rod like shape. The compositional analysis of GdPO{sub 4}: Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} core was done by EDS. The emission intensity of the GdPO{sub 4}: Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} @ GdPO{sub 4} core shell increased significantly with respect to those of GdPO{sub 4}: Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} core nanorods. The effect of surfactant on the uniformity, thickness and luminescence of the core shell nanorods was investigated.

  16. Preparation of Surfactant-free Core-Shell Poly(lactic acid) / Calcium Phosphate Hybrid Particles and Their Drug Release Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuno, T; Hirao, K [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan); Nagata, F; Ohji, T; Kato, K, E-mail: [Advanced Manufacturing Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98, Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya, 463-8510 (Japan)


    We propose surfactant-free core-shell poly(lactic acid) (PLA) / calcium phosphate (CaP) hybrid particles as drug delivery carriers. These particles were prepared by biomineralization process using ultrasonic irradiation, and their drug release profiles were investigated. Drug release rate was earlier when particles were prepared by PLA with a low molecular weight, and/or by Ca(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}. Also, these were shown good protein adsorption. This work indicates that these particles have sustained-release ability without initial burst and can do targeting capability by biomolecule conjugation.

  17. Surfactant-free nickel-silver core@shell nanoparticles in mesoporous SBA-15 for chemoselective hydrogenation of dimethyl oxalate. (United States)

    Li, Molly Meng-Jung; Ye, Linmin; Zheng, Jianwei; Fang, Huihuang; Kroner, Anna; Yuan, Youzhu; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman


    Surfactant-free bimetallic Ni@Ag nanoparticles in mesoporous silica, SBA-15 prepared by simple wet co-impregnation catalyse hydrogenation of dimethyl oxalate to methyl glycolate or ethylene glycol in high yield.

  18. Surfactant-assisted synthesis and luminescent properties of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} core–shell microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jing; Song, Yanhua; Wang, Guowei; Sheng, Ye; Zheng, Keyan; Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Hongguang [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Huo, Qisheng [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Xu, Xuechun [College of Earth Science, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Zou, Haifeng, E-mail: [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)


    Highlights: •Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} core–shell mirospheres were prepared successfully. •PVP play a significant role in the formation progress of core–shell structure. •The obtained core–shell microspheres exhibit excellent red-luminescent properties. -- Abstract: Homogeneous and monodisperse Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} core–shell mirospheres have been successfully synthesized via a solvothermal method with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as surfactant, followed by a subsequent calcination process. The as-prepared products were characterized by various methods, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), trans-mission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and photoluminescence spectra (PL). The results show that the obtained Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} mirospheres with a core–shell structure are uniform in size and distribution, and they have diameters of ∼350 nm, the core diameters of ∼150 nm, and the shell thicknesses of ∼45 nm. Under ultraviolet (UV) excitation, the corresponding Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} products exhibit strong red emission corresponding to the {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition of the Eu{sup 3+} ions, which might find potential applications in the fields such as light-emitting phosphors, advanced flat panel displays, or biological labeling.

  19. Shell


    Harper, Catherine


    Susie MacMurray's Shell installation manifests in Pallant House Gallery, Chichester, like some pulsing exotica, a heavily-textured wall-paper, darkly decorative, heavily luxurious, broodingly present, with more than a hint of the uncanny or the gothic. A remarkable undertaking by an artist of significance, this work's life-span will be just one year, and then it will disappear, leaving no physical trace, but undoubtedly contributing in a much less tangible way to an already rich layering of n...

  20. Photoluminescence of CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots stabilized in water with a pseudopeptidic gemini surfactant (United States)

    Rubio, Jenifer; Izquierdo, M. Angeles; Burguete, M. Isabel; Galindo, Francisco; Luis, Santiago V.


    The use of pseudopeptidic gemini surfactants as stabilizers of hydrophobic quantum dots in water is discussed. Compound 1a acts as an intercalator with hydrophobic ligands of QDs transferring them from toluene to pure water yielding a fluorescent nanoparticle resistant to quenching by chloride anion (up to 0.1 M).The use of pseudopeptidic gemini surfactants as stabilizers of hydrophobic quantum dots in water is discussed. Compound 1a acts as an intercalator with hydrophobic ligands of QDs transferring them from toluene to pure water yielding a fluorescent nanoparticle resistant to quenching by chloride anion (up to 0.1 M). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: General experimental and synthetic procedures; NMR, ESI-MS spectra; FTIR, TEM and stability studies of water soluble QDs, fluorescent decay curves, effect of chloride, effect of concentration of 1a, and calculation of cmc. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10680e


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 王得宁


    采用天然植物油(脱羧腰果壳液CNSL)作为疏水基的原料,经由己二异氰酸酯与亲水基聚乙二醇在较为温和的条件下反应,制得了两亲性表面活性剂,表征了其表面性能。该类表面活性剂的三个样品的临界胶束浓度为0.35~0.5g/L,亲油亲水平衡点为15.5~16.0,浊点为70~80℃,临界胶束浓度下的表面张力(25℃)为28~35mN/m。该技术为腰果壳液的综合利用开辟了一条新的途径。%A new kind of surfactant based on cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL)as lipophile group, HDI (hexame-thylenediisocyanate) and polyethylglycol (as hydrophile group) was synthesized, and its surface properties was tested. Surface properties of three samples of this surfactant are: CMC 0.35~0.5g/L; HLB 15.5~16.0; cloud point 70~80℃,surface tension (25℃, at CMC) 28~35mN/m.

  2. Simulation of dynamic behavior of surfactants on a hydrophobic surface using periodic-shell boundary molecular dynamics. (United States)

    Minami, Daiki; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Sakai, Kenichi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko


    The adsorption and aggregation behaviors of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on a hydrophobic graphite surface were examined using a novel molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with the periodic-shell boundary condition (PSBC). Differences in the adsorption behavior of SDS and CTAB molecules were clearly shown on the hydrophobic surface. Unexpectedly, the SDS molecules approached the graphite surface with their hydrophilic head groups. This unexpected approach mode was thought to be due to the aqueous layer on the graphite surface. The hydrophobic moiety of SDS molecules repeatedly adsorbed and desorbed on the graphite surface. In addition, SDS molecules kept moving on the graphite surface; thus, they did not form a stable adsorption layer. In contrast to SDS, the hydrophobic moiety of CTAB molecules approached the graphite surface at the primary step of adsorption. The hydrophobic moieties of CTAB molecules came close to each other, whereas the hydrophilic groups separated from one another. This result suggests that the CTAB molecules form molecular assemblies with a curved structure. The simulation results were consistent with the experimental observations. A clear difference between the adsorption behavior of SDS and CTAB molecules was revealed by MD simulations with PSBC.

  3. Switchable Surfactants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yingxin Liu; Philip G. Jessop; Michael Cunningham; Charles A. Eckert; Charles L. Liotta


    .... We report that long-chain alkyl amidine compounds can be reversibly transformed into charged surfactants by exposure to an atmosphere of carbon dioxide, thereby stabilizing water/alkane emulsions...

  4. Allowance for the shell structure of the {sub 42}{sup 100}Mo and {sub 46}{sup 110}Pd nuclei in the synthesis of {sub 84}{sup 200}Po, {sub 88}{sup 210}Ra, and {sub 92}{sup 220}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litnevsky, V. L., E-mail: [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Laboratory of Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation); Kosenko, G. I., E-mail: [Omsk State University (Russian Federation); Ivanyuk, F. A., E-mail: [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Nuclear Research (Ukraine); Pashkevich, V. V., E-mail: [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Laboratory of Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation)


    The effect of the shell structure of colliding nuclei in calculating the entrance channel on the ensuing evolution of the product system is investigated. The entrance channel is calculated under the assumption of the nose-to-nose orientation of colliding nuclei. The following three reactions involving nuclei that are deformed in the ground state are considered: {sub 42}{sup 100}Mo + {sub 42}{sup 100}Mo {yields} {sub 84}{sup 100}Po, {sub 42}{sup 100}Mo + {sub 46}{sup 100}Pd {yields} {sub 88}{sup 210}Ra, and {sub 46}{sup 110}Pd + {sub 46}{sup 110}Pd {yields} {sub 92}{sup 220}U. The state of the system at the point of touching is determined by the results obtained by calculating the entrance reaction channel. The shape of the system is specified by three collective coordinates (deformation parameters). The evolution of collective coordinates of the system is described in terms of Langevin equations. The potential energy of the system of colliding nuclei is calculated with allowance for their shell structure. It is shown that allowance for individual features of interacting nuclei in the entrance channel of the fusion-fission reactions makes it possible to obtain, for the reactions being considered, cross sections for evaporation-residue formation that are closer to available experimental data than their liquid-drop counterparts.


    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division


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  6. Thermally cleavable surfactants (United States)

    McElhanon, James R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Zifer, Thomas; Jamison, Gregory M.; Loy, Douglas A.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Long, Timothy M.; Wheeler, David R.; Staiger, Chad L.


    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments and the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  7. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)


    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  8. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)


    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  9. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Surfactant Flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandersen, Sara Bülow

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is being increasingly applied in the oil industry and several different technologies have emerged during, the last decades in order to optimize oil recovery after conventional recovery methods have been applied. Surfactant flooding is an EOR technique in which the phase...... both for complex surfactant systems as well as for oil and brine systems. It is widely accepted that an increase in oil recovery can be obtained through flooding, whether it is simple waterflooding, waterflooding where the salinity has been modified by the addition or removal of specific ions (socalled...... “smart” waterflooding) or surfactant flooding. High pressure experiments have been carried out in this work on a surfactant system (surfactant/ oil/ brine) and on oil/ seawater systems (oil/ brine). The high pressure experiments were carried out on a DBR JEFRI PVT cell, where a glass window allows...

  10. Role of lung surfactant in respiratory disease: current knowledge in large animal medicine. (United States)

    Christmann, U; Buechner-Maxwell, V A; Witonsky, S G; Hite, R D


    Lung surfactant is produced by type II alveolar cells as a mixture of phospholipids, surfactant proteins, and neutral lipids. Surfactant lowers alveolar surface tension and is crucial for the prevention of alveolar collapse. In addition, surfactant contributes to smaller airway patency and improves mucociliary clearance. Surfactant-specific proteins are part of the innate immune defense mechanisms of the lung. Lung surfactant alterations have been described in a number of respiratory diseases. Surfactant deficiency (quantitative deficit of surfactant) in premature animals causes neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Surfactant dysfunction (qualitative changes in surfactant) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome and asthma. Analysis of surfactant from amniotic fluid allows assessment of fetal lung maturity (FLM) in the human fetus and exogenous surfactant replacement therapy is part of the standard care in premature human infants. In contrast to human medicine, use and success of FLM testing or surfactant replacement therapy remain limited in veterinary medicine. Lung surfactant has been studied in large animal models of human disease. However, only a few reports exist on lung surfactant alterations in naturally occurring respiratory disease in large animals. This article gives a general review on the role of lung surfactant in respiratory disease followed by an overview of our current knowledge on surfactant in large animal veterinary medicine.

  11. Surfactant Effects on Microemulsion-Based Nanoparticle Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concha Tojo


    Full Text Available The effect of the surfactant on the size, polydispersity, type of size distribution and structure of nanoparticles synthesized in microemulsions has been studied by computer simulation. The model simulates the surfactant by means of two parameters: the intermicellar exchange parameter, kex, related to dimer life time, and film flexibility parameter, f, related to interdroplet channel size. One can conclude that an increase in surfactant flexibility leads to bigger and polydisperse nanoparticle sizes. In addition, at high concentrations, the same reaction gives rise to a unimodal distribution using a flexible surfactant, and a bimodal distribution using a rigid one. In relation to bimetallic nanoparticles, if the nanoparticle is composed of two metals with a moderate difference in reduction potentials, increasing the surfactant flexibility modifies the nanoparticle structure, giving rise to a transition from a nanoalloy (using a rigid film to a core-shell structure (using a flexible one.

  12. Multi-Shell Hollow Nanogels with Responsive Shell Permeability. (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas J; Dubbert, Janine; Rudov, Andrey A; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Lindner, Peter; Karg, Matthias; Potemkin, Igor I; Richtering, Walter


    We report on hollow shell-shell nanogels with two polymer shells that have different volume phase transition temperatures. By means of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) employing contrast variation and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations we show that hollow shell-shell nanocontainers are ideal systems for controlled drug delivery: The temperature responsive swelling of the inner shell controls the uptake and release, while the thermoresponsive swelling of the outer shell controls the size of the void and the colloidal stability. At temperatures between 32 °C shell. Computer simulations showed, that temperature induced switching of the permeability of the inner shell allows for the encapsulation in and release of molecules from the cavity.

  13. Molecular-thermodynamic theory of micellization of multicomponent surfactant mixtures: 2. pH-sensitive surfactants. (United States)

    Goldsipe, Arthur; Blankschtein, Daniel


    cmc's and were found to be comparable to and sometimes better than the cmc's determined using the regular solution theory (RST), even though the empirical RST utilizes experimentally measured cmc's as an input. The MT theory presented here represents the first molecular-based quantitative description of the micellization behavior of mixtures of pH-sensitive surfactants and conventional surfactants, and allows qualitative and quantitative predictions of the micellization behavior of a variety of surfactant systems.

  14. Surfactants tailored by the class Actinobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes H Kügler


    Full Text Available Gloablly, the drive towards the establishment of a bio-based economy has resulted in an increased need for bio-based applications. This, in turn, has served as a driving force for the discovery and application of novel biosurfactants. The class Actinobacteria represents a vast group of microorganisms with the ability to produce a diverse range of secondary metabolites, including surfactants. Understanding the extensive nature of the biosurfactants produced by actinobacterial strains can assist in finding novel biosurfactants with new potential applications. This review therefore presents a comprehensive overview of the knowledge available on actinobacterial surfactants, the chemical structures that have been completely or partly elucidated, as well as the identity of the biosurfactant-producing strains. Producer strains of not yet elucidated compounds are discussed, as well as the original habitats of all the producer strains, which seems to indicate that biosurfactant production is environmentally driven. Methodology applied in the isolation, purification and structural elucidation of the different types of surface active compounds, as well as surfactant activity tests, are also discussed. Overall, actinobacterial surfactants can be summarized to include the dominantly occurring trehalose-comprising surfactants, other non-trehalose containing glycolipids, lipopeptides and the more rare actinobacterial surfactants. The lack of structural information on a large proportion of actinobacterial surfactants should be considered as a driving force to further explore the abundance and diversity of these compounds. This would allow for a better understanding of actinobacterial surface active compounds and their potential for biotechnological application.

  15. Surfactants in tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Biresaw, Girma


    Surface science and tribology play very critical roles in many industries. Manufacture and use of almost all consumer and industrial products rely on the application of advanced surface and tribological knowledge. The fourth in a series, Surfactants in Tribology, Volume 4 provides an update on research and development activities connecting surfactants and tribological phenomena. Written by renowned subject matter experts, the book demonstrates how improved design of surfactants can be harnessed to control tribological phenomena. Profusely illustrated and copiously referenced, the chapters also


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.M. Saville; J.W. White


    Polymeric surfactants are amongst the most widespread of all polymers. In nature, proteins and polysaccharides cause self organization as a result of this surfactancy; in industry, polymeric surfactants play key roles in the food, explosives and surface coatings sectors. The generation of useful nano- and micro-structures in films and emulsions as a result of polymer amphiphilicity and the application of mechanical stress is discussed. The use of X-ray and neutron small angle scattering and reflectivity to measure these structures and their dynamic properties will be described. New results on linear and dendritic polymer surfactants are presented.

  17. Dendrimer-surfactant interactions. (United States)

    Cheng, Yiyun; Zhao, Libo; Li, Tianfu


    In this article, we reviewed the interactions between dendrimers and surfactants with particular focus on the interaction mechanisms and physicochemical properties of the yielding dendrimer-surfactant aggregates. In order to provide insight into the behavior of dendrimers in biological systems, the interactions of dendrimers with bio-surfactants such as phospholipids in bulk solutions, in solid-supported bilayers and at the interface of phases or solid-states were discussed. Applications of the dendrimer-surfactant aggregates as templates to guide the synthesis of nanoparticles and in drug or gene delivery were also mentioned.

  18. Surfactant Sector Needs Urgent Readjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Hongzhou


    @@ Surfactant industrial system has been basically established After 50 years' development, China has already established a surfactant industrial system with a relatively complete product portfolio and can produce 4714 varieties of surfactants in cationic,anionic, nonionic and amphoteric categories.

  19. Foaming and foam stability for mixed polymer-surfactant solutions: effects of surfactant type and polymer charge. (United States)

    Petkova, R; Tcholakova, S; Denkov, N D


    Solutions of surfactant-polymer mixtures often exhibit different foaming properties, compared to the solutions of the individual components, due to the strong tendency for formation of polymer-surfactant complexes in the bulk and on the surface of the mixed solutions. A generally shared view in the literature is that electrostatic interactions govern the formation of these complexes, for example between anionic surfactants and cationic polymers. In this study we combine foam tests with model experiments to evaluate and explain the effect of several polymer-surfactant mixtures on the foaminess and foam stability of the respective solutions. Anionic, cationic, and nonionic surfactants (SDS, C(12)TAB, and C(12)EO(23)) were studied to clarify the role of surfactant charge. Highly hydrophilic cationic and nonionic polymers (polyvinylamine and polyvinylformamide, respectivey) were chosen to eliminate the (more trivial) effect of direct hydrophobic interactions between the surfactant tails and the hydrophobic regions on the polymer chains. Our experiments showed clearly that the presence of opposite charges is not a necessary condition for boosting the foaminess and foam stability in the surfactant-polymer mixtures studied. Clear foam boosting (synergistic) effects were observed in the mixtures of cationic surfactant and cationic polymer, cationic surfactant and nonionic polymer, and anionic surfactant and nonionic polymer. The mixtures of anionic surfactant and cationic polymer showed improved foam stability, however, the foaminess was strongly reduced, as compared to the surfactant solutions without polymer. No significant synergistic or antagonistic effects were observed for the mixture of nonionic surfactant (with low critical micelle concentration) and nonionic polymer. The results from the model experiments allowed us to explain the observed trends by the different adsorption dynamics and complex formation pattern in the systems studied.

  20. Flexible polyelectrolyte conformation in the presence of cationic and anionic surfactants (United States)

    Passos, C. B.; Kuhn, P. S.; Diehl, A.


    In this work we have studied the conformation of flexible polyelectrolyte chains in the presence of cationic and anionic surfactant molecules. We developed a simple theoretical model for the formation of the polyelectrolyte-cationic surfactant complexes and mixed micelles formed by cationic and anionic surfactant molecules, in the framework of the Debye-Hückel-Bjerrum-Manning and Flory theories, with the hydrophobic interaction included explicitly as an effective short-ranged attraction between the surfactant hydrocarbon tails. This simple model allows us to calculate the extension of the polyelectrolyte-cationic surfactant complexes as a function of the anionic surfactant concentration, for different types of cationic and anionic surfactant molecules. A discrete conformational transition from a collapsed state to an elongated coil was found, for all surfactant chain lengths we have considered, in agreement with the experimental observations for the unfolding of ​DNA-cationic surfactant complexes.


    Surfactants are one of the most widely applied materials by consumers and industry. The application areas for surfactants span from everyday mundane tasks such as cleaning, to highly complex processes involving the formulation of pharmaceuticals, foods, pesticides, lubricants, etc. Even though sur...

  2. Dynamic covalent surfactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minkenberg, C.B.


    In this thesis the development of surfactant aggregates with fast exchange dynamics between the aggregated and non-aggregated state is described. Dynamic surfactant exchange plays an important role in natural systems, for instance in cell signaling, cell division, and uptake and release of cargo. Re

  3. Interfacial mechanisms for stability of surfactant-laden films

    CERN Document Server

    Bhamla, M Saad; Alvarez-Valenzuela, Marco A; Tajuelo, Javier; Fuller, Gerald G


    Thin liquid films are central to everyday life. They are ubiquitous in modern technology (pharmaceuticals, coatings), consumer products (foams, emulsions) and also serve vital biological functions (tear film of the eye, pulmonary surfactants in the lung). A common feature in all these examples is the presence of surface-active molecules at the air-liquid interface. Though they form only molecularly-thin layers, these surfactants produce complex surface stresses on the free surface, which have important consequences for the dynamics and stability of the underlying thin liquid film. Here we conduct simple thinning experiments to explore the fundamental mechanisms that allow the surfactant molecules to slow the gravity-driven drainage of the underlying film. We present a simple model that works for both soluble and insoluble surfactant systems. We show that surfactants with finite surface rheology influence bulk flow through viscoelastic interfacial stresses, while surfactants with inviscid surfaces achieve stab...

  4. Bio-inspired pulmonary surfactant-modified nanogels: A promising siRNA delivery system. (United States)

    De Backer, Lynn; Braeckmans, Kevin; Stuart, Marc C A; Demeester, Jo; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Raemdonck, Koen


    Inhalation therapy with small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a promising approach in the treatment of pulmonary disorders. However, clinical translation is severely limited by the lack of suitable delivery platforms. In this study, we aim to address this limitation by designing a novel bioinspired hybrid nanoparticle with a core-shell nanoarchitecture, consisting of a siRNA-loaded dextran nanogel (siNG) core and a pulmonary surfactant (Curosurf®) outer shell. The decoration of siNGs with a surfactant shell enhances the colloidal stability and prevents siRNA release in the presence of competing polyanions, which are abundantly present in biofluids. Additionally, the impact of the surfactant shell on the biological efficacy of the siNGs is determined in lung cancer cells. The presence of the surfactants substantially reduces the cellular uptake of siNGs. Remarkably, the lowered intracellular dose does not impede the gene silencing effect, suggesting a crucial role of the pulmonary surfactant in the intracellular processing of the nanoparticles. In order to surmount the observed reduction in cellular dose, folate is incorporated as a targeting ligand in the pulmonary surfactant shell to incite receptor-mediated endocytosis. The latter substantially enhances both cellular uptake and gene silencing potential, achieving efficient knockdown at siRNA concentrations in the low nanomolar range.

  5. Performance of some surfactants as wetting agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalaby, M.N.; El-Shanny, O.A.A. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI), Cairo (Egypt). Evaluation and Analysis Dept.


    The wetting power of anionic surfactant: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and nonionic surfactants: polyoxyethelene(14)monolaurate [La(EO){sub 14}] and polyoxyethelene(14)monoeleate [OI(EO){sub 14}] has been studied to determine their performance as wetting agents. The study reveals that the nonionic compound with a long hydrophobic chain exhibits higher wettability than the shorter one when used at very low cocentrations (below CMC) and the reverse is shown with high concentrations (above CMC). the wetting power of the investigated surfactants increases as the CMC values increases. In case of the nonionic compounds and at surfactant concentrations equal their CMC values, OI(EO){sub 14} shows a higher wetting power than La(EO){sub 14} while is possesses a lower HLB value. The anionic surfactant shows an optimum wetting in comparison with the tested nonionic one. The wettability of all the investigated samples increases as the surface tension of their solutions increases to the allowed limit that can be reached in the presence of surfactant. (orig.)

  6. Surfactants in the environment. (United States)

    Ivanković, Tomislav; Hrenović, Jasna


    Surfactants are a diverse group of chemicals that are best known for their wide use in detergents and other cleaning products. After use, residual surfactants are discharged into sewage systems or directly into surface waters, and most of them end up dispersed in different environmental compartments such as soil, water or sediment. The toxic effects of surfactants on various aquatic organisms are well known. In general, surfactants are present in the environment at levels below toxicity and in Croatia below the national limit. Most surfactants are readily biodegradable and their amount is greatly reduced with secondary treatment in wastewater treatment plants. The highest concern is the release of untreated wastewater or wastewater that has undergone primary treatment alone. The discharge of wastewater polluted with massive quantities of surfactants could have serious effects on the ecosystem. Future studies of surfactant toxicities and biodegradation are necessary to withdraw highly toxic and non-biodegradable compounds from commercial use and replace them with more environmentally friendly ones.

  7. Pulmonary surfactant and lung transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, Michiel Elardus


    Pulmonary surfactant lowers the surface tension at the air-water interface inside the alveolus. This is achieved by adsorption of surfactant phospholipids at the air-water interface, a process controlled by surfactant-associated proteins, such as SP-A. In this way, surfactant prevents collapse of th

  8. Metathesis depolymerizable surfactants (United States)

    Jamison, Gregory M.; Wheeler, David R.; Loy, Douglas A.; Simmons, Blake A.; Long, Timothy M.; McElhanon, James R.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Staiger, Chad L.


    A class of surfactant molecules whose structure includes regularly spaced unsaturation in the tail group and thus, can be readily decomposed by ring-closing metathesis, and particularly by the action of a transition metal catalyst, to form small molecule products. These small molecules are designed to have increased volatility and/or enhanced solubility as compared to the original surfactant molecule and are thus easily removed by solvent extraction or vacuum extraction at low temperature. By producing easily removable decomposition products, the surfactant molecules become particularly desirable as template structures for preparing meso- and microstructural materials with tailored properties.

  9. Phosphine oxide surfactants revisited. (United States)

    Stubenrauch, Cosima; Preisig, Natalie; Laughlin, Robert G


    This review summarizes everything we currently know about the nonionic surfactants alkyl dimethyl (C(n)DMPO) and alkyl diethyl (C(n)DEPO) phosphine oxide (PO surfactants). The review starts with the synthesis and the general properties (Section 2) of these compounds and continues with their interfacial properties (Section 3) such as surface tension, surface rheology, interfacial tension and adsorption at solid surfaces. We discuss studies on thin liquid films and foams stabilized by PO surfactants (Section 4) as well as studies on their self-assembly into lyotropic liquid crystals and microemulsions, respectively (Section 5). We aim at encouraging colleagues from both academia and industry to take on board PO surfactants whenever possible and feasible because of their broad variety of excellent properties.

  10. Viscoelasticity Enhancement of Surfactant Solutions Depends on Molecular Conformation: Influence of Surfactant Headgroup Structure and Its Counterion. (United States)

    Lutz-Bueno, Viviane; Pasquino, Rossana; Liebi, Marianne; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Fischer, Peter


    During the anisotropic growth from globular to wormlike micelles, the basic interactions among distinct parts of the surfactant monomer, its counterion, and additives are fundamental to tune molecular self-assembly. We investigate the addition of sodium salicylate (NaSal) to hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride and bromide (CTAC and CTAB), 1-hexadecylpyridinium chloride and bromide (CPyCl and CPyBr), and benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride (BDMC), which have the same hydrophobic tail. Their potential to enhance viscoelasticity by anisotropic micellar growth upon salt addition was compared in terms of (i) the influence of the headgroup structure, and (ii) the influence of surfactant counterion type. Employing proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), we focused on the molecular conformation of surfactant monomers in the core and polar shell regions of the micelles and their interactions with increasing concentration of NaSal. The viscoelastic response was investigated by rotational and oscillatory rheology. We show that micellar growth rates can be tuned by varying the flexibility and size of the surfactant headgroup as well as the dissociation degree of the surfactant counterion, which directly influences the strength of headgroup-counterion pairing. As a consequence, the morphological transitions depend directly on charge neutralization by electrostatic screening. For example, the amount of salt necessary to start the rodlike-to-wormlike micelle growth depends directly on the number of dissociated counterions in the polar shell.

  11. Surfactant effect on functionalized carbon nanotube coated snowman-like particles and their electro-responsive characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ke; Liu, Ying Dan [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyoung Jin, E-mail: [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)


    The core–shell structured snowman-like (SL) microparticles coated by functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) were prepared in the presence of different surfactants including cationic surfactant-cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and anionic surfactant-sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS). The effect of surfactants on adsorption onto SL particles was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and conductivity. The cationic surfactant is found to be more effective than anionic surfactant for helping nanotube adsorbed onto microparticle due to the presence of electrostatic interaction between the functionalized MWNT and the surfactant. Furthermore, the MWNT/SL particles dispersed in silicone oil exhibited a typical fibril structure of the electrorheological characteristics under an applied electric field observed by an optical microscope (OM), in which the state of nanotubes wrapped on the particles strongly affects their electro-responsive characteristics.

  12. Phase diagrams of DNA-photosensitive surfactant complexes: effect of ionic strength and surfactant structure. (United States)

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Titov, Evgenii; Lomadze, Nino; Santer, Svetlana


    Realization of all-optically controlled and efficient DNA compaction is the major motivation in the study of interactions between DNA and photosensitive surfactants. In this article, using recently published approach of phase diagram construction [Y. Zakrevskyy, P. Cywinski, M. Cywinska, J. Paasche, N. Lomadze, O. Reich, H.-G. Löhmannsroben, and S. Santer, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 044907 (2014)], a strategy for substantial reduction of compaction agent concentration and simultaneous maintaining the light-induced decompaction efficiency is proposed. The role of ionic strength (NaCl concentration), as a very important environmental parameter, and surfactant structure (spacer length) on the changes of positions of phase transitions is investigated. Increase of ionic strength leads to increase of the surfactant concentration needed to compact DNA molecule. However, elongation of the spacer results to substantial reduction of this concentration. DNA compaction by surfactants with longer tails starts to take place in diluted solutions at charge ratios Z phase diagrams for different DNA-photosensitive surfactant systems allowed explanation and proposal of a strategy to overcome previously reported limitations of the light-induced decompaction for complexes with increasing surfactant hydrophobicity.

  13. Surfactant-Amino Acid and Surfactant-Surfactant Interactions in Aqueous Medium: a Review. (United States)

    Malik, Nisar Ahmad


    An overview of surfactant-amino acid interactions mainly in aqueous medium has been discussed. Main emphasis has been on the solution thermodynamics and solute-solvent interactions. Almost all available data on the topic has been presented in a lucid and simple way. Conventional surfactants have been discussed as amphiphiles forming micelles and amino acids as additives and their effect on the various physicochemical properties of these conventional surfactants. Surfactant-surfactant interactions in aqueous medium, various mixed surfactant models, are also highlighted to assess their interactions in aqueous medium. Finally, their applied part has been taken into consideration to interpret their possible uses.

  14. Interaction of photosensitive surfactant with DNA and poly acrylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy, E-mail:; Paasche, Jens; Lomadze, Nino; Santer, Svetlana, E-mail: [Experimental Physics, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Cywinski, Piotr; Cywinska, Magdalena; Reich, Oliver; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd [Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)


    In this paper, we investigate interactions and phase transitions in polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes formed between a cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant and two types of polyelectrolytes: natural (DNA) or synthetic (PAA: poly acrylic acid). The construction of a phase diagram allowed distancing between four major phases: extended coil conformation, colloidally stable compacted globules, colloidal instability range, and surfactant-stabilized compact state. Investigation on the complexes’ properties in different phases and under irradiation with UV light provides information about the role of the surfactant's hydrophobic trans isomers both in the formation and destruction of DNA and PAA globules as well as in their colloidal stabilization. The trans isomer shows much stronger affinity to the polyelectrolytes than the hydrophilic cis counterpart. There is no need for complete compensation of the polyelectrolyte charges to reach the complete compaction. On contrary to the findings previously reported in the literature, we demonstrate – for the first time – complete polyelectrolyte compaction which occurs already at 20% of DNA (and at 50% of PAA) charge compensation. The trans isomer plays the main role in the compaction. The aggregation between azobenzene units in the photosensitive surfactant is a driving force of this process. The decompaction can be realized during UV light irradiation and is strongly influenced by the interplay between surfactant-surfactant and surfactant-DNA interactions in the compacted globules.

  15. Interaction of photosensitive surfactant with DNA and poly acrylic acid (United States)

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Cywinski, Piotr; Cywinska, Magdalena; Paasche, Jens; Lomadze, Nino; Reich, Oliver; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd; Santer, Svetlana


    In this paper, we investigate interactions and phase transitions in polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes formed between a cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant and two types of polyelectrolytes: natural (DNA) or synthetic (PAA: poly acrylic acid). The construction of a phase diagram allowed distancing between four major phases: extended coil conformation, colloidally stable compacted globules, colloidal instability range, and surfactant-stabilized compact state. Investigation on the complexes' properties in different phases and under irradiation with UV light provides information about the role of the surfactant's hydrophobic trans isomers both in the formation and destruction of DNA and PAA globules as well as in their colloidal stabilization. The trans isomer shows much stronger affinity to the polyelectrolytes than the hydrophilic cis counterpart. There is no need for complete compensation of the polyelectrolyte charges to reach the complete compaction. On contrary to the findings previously reported in the literature, we demonstrate - for the first time - complete polyelectrolyte compaction which occurs already at 20% of DNA (and at 50% of PAA) charge compensation. The trans isomer plays the main role in the compaction. The aggregation between azobenzene units in the photosensitive surfactant is a driving force of this process. The decompaction can be realized during UV light irradiation and is strongly influenced by the interplay between surfactant-surfactant and surfactant-DNA interactions in the compacted globules.

  16. Nanoparticle decoration with surfactants: Molecular interactions, assembly, and applications (United States)

    Heinz, Hendrik; Pramanik, Chandrani; Heinz, Ozge; Ding, Yifu; Mishra, Ratan K.; Marchon, Delphine; Flatt, Robert J.; Estrela-Lopis, Irina; Llop, Jordi; Moya, Sergio; Ziolo, Ronald F.


    Nanostructures of diverse chemical nature are used as biomarkers, therapeutics, catalysts, and structural reinforcements. The decoration with surfactants has a long history and is essential to introduce specific functions. The definition of surfactants in this review is very broad, following its lexical meaning ;surface active agents;, and therefore includes traditional alkyl modifiers, biological ligands, polymers, and other surface active molecules. The review systematically covers covalent and non-covalent interactions of such surfactants with various types of nanomaterials, including metals, oxides, layered materials, and polymers as well as their applications. The major themes are (i) molecular recognition and noncovalent assembly mechanisms of surfactants on the nanoparticle and nanocrystal surfaces, (ii) covalent grafting techniques and multi-step surface modification, (iii) dispersion properties and surface reactions, (iv) the use of surfactants to influence crystal growth, as well as (v) the incorporation of biorecognition and other material-targeting functionality. For the diverse materials classes, similarities and differences in surfactant assembly, function, as well as materials performance in specific applications are described in a comparative way. Major factors that lead to differentiation are the surface energy, surface chemistry and pH sensitivity, as well as the degree of surface regularity and defects in the nanoparticle cores and in the surfactant shell. The review covers a broad range of surface modifications and applications in biological recognition and therapeutics, sensors, nanomaterials for catalysis, energy conversion and storage, the dispersion properties of nanoparticles in structural composites and cement, as well as purification systems and classical detergents. Design principles for surfactants to optimize the performance of specific nanostructures are discussed. The review concludes with challenges and opportunities.

  17. Shell supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik


    A new statical and conceptual model for membrane shell structures - the stringer system - has been found. The principle was first published at the IASS conference in Copenhagen (OHL91), and later the theory has been further developed (ALMO3)(ALMO4). From the analysis of the stringer model it can...... be concluded that all membrane shells can be described by a limited number of basic configurations of which quite a few have free edges....

  18. Sizing up surfactant synthesis. (United States)

    Han, SeungHye; Mallampalli, Rama K


    Phosphatidylcholine is generated through de novo synthesis and remodeling involving a lysophospholipid. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, research from the Shimizu lab (Harayama et al., 2014) demonstrates the highly selective enzymatic behavior of lysophospholipid acyltransferases. The authors present an enzymatic model for phosphatidylcholine molecular species diversification that impacts surfactant formation.

  19. Fabrication of diamond shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, Alex V.; Biener, Juergen; Wild, Christoph; Woerner, Eckhard


    A novel method for fabricating diamond shells is introduced. The fabrication of such shells is a multi-step process, which involves diamond chemical vapor deposition on predetermined mandrels followed by polishing, microfabrication of holes, and removal of the mandrel by an etch process. The resultant shells of the present invention can be configured with a surface roughness at the nanometer level (e.g., on the order of down to about 10 nm RMS) on a mm length scale, and exhibit excellent hardness/strength, and good transparency in the both the infra-red and visible. Specifically, a novel process is disclosed herein, which allows coating of spherical substrates with optical-quality diamond films or nanocrystalline diamond films.

  20. Synthesis of fly ash based core-shell composites for use as functional pigment in paints (United States)

    Sharma, Richa; Tiwari, Sangeeta


    Fly ash is a combustion residue, mainly composed of silica, alumina and iron oxides. It is produced by the power industries in very large amounts and usually disposed in landfills, which have represented an environmental problem in recent years1. The need to generate a market for fly ash consumption is the main reason why alternative applications have been studied. It has been applied as an additive in construction materials like cement and pavements2. The present work describes the synthesis of Flyash-Titania core-shell particles by precipitation technique using Titanium tetra isopropoxide (TTIP) which can be used for variety of applications such as NIR reflecting materials for cool coatings, Photocatalysis etc. In this work, Fly ash is used in core and Nano -TiO2 is coated as shell on it. Surfactants are used to improve the adhesion of Nano Titania shell on fly ash core. Effect on adhesion of TiO2 on Fly ash is studied by using different types of surfactant. The preparation of core shells was carried out in absence of surfactant as well as using anionic and non-ionic surfactants. The percentage of surfactant was varied to study the effect of amount of surfactant on the uniformity and size of particles in the shell using Kubelka-Munk transformed reflectance spectra. The morphology of core shell structures was studied using SEM technique. Use of anionic surfactant results in more uniform coating with reduced particle size of the shell material. The composite particles prepared by using anionic surfactant are having good pigment properties and also shows good reflectance in Near Infrared region and hence can be used as a pigment in cool coatings.

  1. Use of surfactants to control island size and density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrell, Jason; Liu, Feng; Stringfellow, Gerald B.


    Methods of controlling island size and density on an OMVPE growth film may comprise adding a surfactant at a critical concentration level, allowing a growth phase for a first period of time, and ending the growth phase when desired island size and density are achieved. For example, the island size and density of an OMVPE grown InGaN thin film may be controlled by adding an antimony surfactant at a critical concentration level.

  2. Statistical mechanics of thin spherical shells

    CERN Document Server

    Kosmrlj, Andrej


    We explore how thermal fluctuations affect the mechanics of thin amorphous spherical shells. In flat membranes with a shear modulus, thermal fluctuations increase the bending rigidity and reduce the in-plane elastic moduli in a scale-dependent fashion. This is still true for spherical shells. However, the additional coupling between the shell curvature, the local in-plane stretching modes and the local out-of-plane undulations, leads to novel phenomena. In spherical shells thermal fluctuations produce a radius-dependent negative effective surface tension, equivalent to applying an inward external pressure. By adapting renormalization group calculations to allow for a spherical background curvature, we show that while small spherical shells are stable, sufficiently large shells are crushed by this thermally generated "pressure". Such shells can be stabilized by an outward osmotic pressure, but the effective shell size grows non-linearly with increasing outward pressure, with the same universal power law expone...

  3. Design of a stabilizing shell for KTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Wei [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Li, Hong, E-mail: [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Tan, Mingsheng; Lu, Mingjian; Wu, Yanqi; Mao, Wenzhe; Bai, Wei; Tu, Cui; Luo, Bing; Li, Zichao; Adil, Yolbarsop; Hu, Jintong [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Song, Yuntao; Yang, Qingxi; Zhang, Ping [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230026 (China); Xie, Jinlin; Lan, Tao; Liu, Adi [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Ding, Weixing [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Xiao, Chijin [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, SK S7 N 5N2 (Canada); and others


    The conductive shell in reversed field pinch devices plays an important role in controlling plasma and in suppressing MHD instabilities. The shell in the Keda torus experiment reversed field pinch (KTX-RFP) device includes a 6-mm stainless steel vacuum chamber and a 1.5-mm stabilizing copper shell. This stabilizing shell has both poloidal and toroidal gaps to allow a coupling of electromagnetic energy to the plasma. Nevertheless, any gaps in this shell generate error fields. A 3D electromagnetic field model has been used to study effects of the gap on the shell. Using off-center current filaments instead of the distributed plasma current density, numerical analyses render the induced current distribution on the stabilizing shell and the resultant error field distribution at a specific frequency. From the analyses and comparisons of different configurations for the stabilizing shell, a suitable shell design is chosen consisting of three sections: one primary shell, two poloidal shield shells, and two toroidal shield shells. Moreover, the time evolution of the magnetic field inside and outside the stabilizing shell was obtained for this design and the dependence of the magnetic field penetration time on mode number and location has been investigated.

  4. Preparation of aqueous core/silica shell microcapsules. (United States)

    Bean, Keith; Black, Camilla F; Govan, Norman; Reynolds, Paul; Sambrook, Mark R


    Water core/silica shell microcapsules are prepared via the hydrolysis and subsequent polycondensation of tetraethoxysilane in a surfactant stabilised water-in-oil emulsion. The relationship between preparative conditions, including pH and silane concentration, has been related to final particle structure. Furthermore, the nature of the catalyst has been found to affect the mechanism by which the shells are formed, with an interfacial polymerisation proposed for ammonium hydroxide catalysed synthesis in agreement with previous reports and a new colloidosome assembly process for sodium hydroxide catalysis. In both cases shell aging processes are observed to continue beyond initial shell formation suggesting that trans-shell diffusion of reactants may be feasible, or that rapid hydrolysis is required in order to load high concentrations of the reactants into the internal phase before significant shell formation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirog T. Р.


    Full Text Available The review is devoted to surface-active glycolipids. The general characteristics, the physiological role of the rhamnolipids, trehalose lipids, sophorolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids and their traditional producers — the representatives of the genera Pseudozyma, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus and Candida are given. The detailed analysis of the chemical structure, the stages of the biosynthesis and the regulation of some low molecular glycolipids are done. The own experimental data concerning the synthesis intensification, the physiological role and the practical use of Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactants, which are a complex of the glyco-, phospho-, amino- and neutral lipids (glycolipids of all strains are presented by trehalose mycolates are summarized. It was found that R. erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, A. calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactants have protective, antimicrobial and antiadhesive properties. It was shown that R. erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, A. calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactants preparation of cultural liquid intensified the degradation of oil in water due to the activation of the natural petroleum-oxidizing microflora.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Pirog


    Full Text Available The classification and the chemical structure of the lipopeptides and their producers (bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas are given. The role of the lipopeptides in cells motility, biofilm formation, metal binding and xenobiotics degradation and their action on the cells of pro- and eukaryotes is summarized. The stages of the nonribosomal lipopeptides synthesis and the role of two-component (GacA/GacS, ComA/ComP and the quorum system regulation of this process are shown. The potential of lactic acid bacteria and marine microorganisms as alternative surfactants producers (glycolipids, lipopeptides, phospholipids and fatty acids, glycolipopeptides are discussed. Their productivity and advantages over traditional producers are given as well. The properties of surfactants synthesized by lactic acid bacteria (the reduction of the surface tension, the critical micelle concentration, the stability in a wide range of pH, the temperature, the biological activity are summarized. Surfactants of nonpathogenic probiotic bacteria could be used as effective antimicrobial agents and antiadhesive and marine producers which able to synthesize unique metabolites that are not produced by other microorganisms.

  7. Surfactants at the Design Limit. (United States)

    Czajka, Adam; Hazell, Gavin; Eastoe, Julian


    This article analyzes how the individual structural elements of surfactant molecules affect surface properties, in particular, the point of reference defined by the limiting surface tension at the aqueous cmc, γcmc. Particular emphasis is given to how the chemical nature and structure of the hydrophobic tails influence γcmc. By comparing the three different classes of surfactants, fluorocarbon, silicone, and hydrocarbon, a generalized surface packing index is introduced which is independent of the chemical nature of the surfactants. This parameter ϕcmc represents the volume fraction of surfactant chain fragments in a surface film at the aqueous cmc. It is shown that ϕcmc is a useful index for understanding the limiting surface tension of surfactants and can be useful for designing new superefficient surfactants.

  8. Graphene-philic surfactants for nanocomposites in latex technology. (United States)

    Mohamed, Azmi; Ardyani, Tretya; Bakar, Suriani Abu; Brown, Paul; Hollamby, Martin; Sagisaka, Masanobu; Eastoe, Julian


    Graphene is the newest member of the carbon family, and has revolutionized materials science especially in the field of polymer nanocomposites. However, agglomeration and uniform dispersion remains an Achilles' heel (even an elephant in the room), hampering the optimization of this material for practical applications. Chemical functionalization of graphene can overcome these hurdles but is often rather disruptive to the extended pi-conjugation, altering the desired physical and electronic properties. Employing surfactants as stabilizing agents in latex technology circumvents the need for chemical modification allowing for the formation of nanocomposites with retained graphene properties. This article reviews the recent progress in the use of surfactants and polymers to prepare graphene/polymer nanocomposites via latex technology. Of special interest here are surfactant structure-performance relationships, as well as background on the roles surfactant-graphene interactions for promoting stabilization.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Irina Moater


    Full Text Available The interactions between surfactants and proteins shows some similarities with interactions between surfactants and polymers, but the hydrophobic amphoteric nature of proteins and their secondary and tertiary structure components make them different from conventional polymer systems. Many studies from the past about surfactant - proteins bonding used the dialysis techniques. Other techniques used to determine the binding isotherm, included ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation, potentiometry, ion-selective electrode method and surface tension. High affinity isotherms which are typical of an anionic surfactant - protein bonding, exhibit an initial increase steep followed by a slow growth region and then a vertical growth above a certain concentration. This isotherm is typical of ionic surfactant to protein binding. Often the high affinity initial bond appears at very low concentrations of surfactant and therefore in some protein-surfactant systems, the exact shape of the isotherm in this region may be missing. The surfactant - protein binding is influenced by a number of variables such as the nature and chain length of surfactant, pH, ionic strength, temperature, nature of this protein and additives.

  10. Simple control of surface topography of gold nanoshells by a surfactant-less seeded-growth method. (United States)

    Topete, Antonio; Alatorre-Meda, Manuel; Villar-Álvarez, Eva M; Cambón, Adriana; Barbosa, Silvia; Taboada, Pablo; Mosquera, Víctor


    We report the synthesis of branched gold nanoshells (BGNS) through a seeded-growth surfactant-less method. This was achieved by decorating chitosan-Pluronic F127 stabilized poly(lactic-co-gycolic) acid nanoparticles (NPs) with Au seeds (NP-seed), using chitosan as an electrostatic self-assembling agent. Branched shells with different degrees of anisotropy and optical response were obtained by modulating the ratios of HAuCl4/K2CO3 growth solution, ascorbic acid (AA) and NP-seed precursor. Chitosan and AA were crucial in determining the BGNS size and structure, acting both as coreductants and structure directing growth agents. Preliminary cytotoxicity experiments point to the biocompatibility of the obtained BGNS, allowing their potential use in biomedical applications. In particular, these nanostructures with "hybrid" compositions, which combine the features of gold nanoshells and nanostars showed a better performance as surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy probes in detecting intracellular cell components than classical smoother nanoshells.

  11. Interaction of nonionic surfactant AEO9 with ionic surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-guo; YIN Hong


    The interaction in two mixtures of a nonionic surfactant AEO9 (C12H25O(CH2CH2O)9H) and different ionic surfactants was investigated. The two mixtures were AEO9/sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and AEO9/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at molar fraction of AEO9, αAEO9 =0.5. The surface properties of the surfactants, critical micelle concentration (CMC),effectiveness of surface tension reduction (γCMC), maximum surface excess concentration (Гmax) and minimum area per molecule at the air/solution interface (Amin) were determined for both individual surfactants and their mixtures. The significant deviations from ideal behavior (attractive interactions) of the nonionic/ionic surfactant mixtures were determined. Mixtures of both AEO9/SDS and AEO9/CTAB exhibited synergism in surface tension reduction efficiency and mixed micelle formation, but neither exhibited synergism in surface tension reduction effectiveness.

  12. Electrophoretic separations in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchips using a mixture of ionic and zwitterionic surfactants. (United States)

    Guan, Qian; Noblitt, Scott D; Henry, Charles S


    The use of mixtures of ionic and zwitterionic surfactants in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchips is reported. The effect of surfactant concentration on electroosmotic flow (EOF) was studied for a single anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), a single zwitterionic surfactant (N-tetradecylammonium-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate, TDAPS), and a mixed SDS/TDAPS surfactant system. SDS increased the EOF as reported previously while TDAPS showed an initial increase in EOF followed by a reduction at higher concentrations. When TDAPS was added to a solution containing SDS, the EOF decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. The EOF for all three surfactant systems followed expected pH trends, with increasing EOF at higher pH. The mixed surfactant system allowed tuning of the EOF across a range of pH and concentration conditions. After establishing the EOF behavior, the adsorption/desorption kinetics were measured and showed a slower adsorption/desorption rate for TDAPS than SDS. Finally, the separation and electrochemical detection of model catecholamines in buffer and reduced glutathione in red blood cell lysate using the mixed surfactant system were explored. The mixed surfactant system provided shorter analysis times and/or improved resolution when compared to the single surfactant systems.


    Surfactants used to enhance remediation of soils by soil washing are often lost in the process. Neither the amount nor the cause of this loss is known. It is assumed that clays present in the soil are responsible for the loss of the surfactant. In this papere, adsorption prope...

  14. Surfactant monitoring by foam generation (United States)

    Mullen, Ken I.


    A device for monitoring the presence or absence of active surfactant or other surface active agents in a solution or flowing stream based on the formation of foam or bubbles is presented. The device detects the formation of foam with a light beam or conductivity measurement. The height or density of the foam can be correlated to the concentration of the active surfactant present.

  15. Surfactant adsorption kinetics in microfluidics (United States)

    Riechers, Birte; Maes, Florine; Akoury, Elias; Semin, Benoît; Gruner, Philipp; Baret, Jean-Christophe


    Emulsions are metastable dispersions. Their lifetimes are directly related to the dynamics of surfactants. We design a microfluidic method to measure the kinetics of adsorption of surfactants to the droplet interface, a key process involved in foaming, emulsification, and droplet coarsening. The method is based on the pH decay in the droplet as a direct measurement of the adsorption of a carboxylic acid surfactant to the interface. From the kinetic measurement of the bulk equilibration of the pH, we fully determine the adsorption process of the surfactant. The small droplet size and the convection during the droplet flow ensure that the transport of surfactant through the bulk is not limiting the kinetics of adsorption. To validate our measurements, we show that the adsorption process determines the timescale required to stabilize droplets against coalescence, and we show that the interface should be covered at more than 90% to prevent coalescence. We therefore quantitatively link the process of adsorption/desorption, the stabilization of emulsions, and the kinetics of solute partitioning—here through ion exchange—unraveling the timescales governing these processes. Our method can be further generalized to other surfactants, including nonionic surfactants, by making use of fluorophore-surfactant interactions.

  16. Selection and evaluation of adsorbents for the removal of anionic surfactants from laundry rinsing water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Natasja; Ham, Louis G.J. van der; Euverink, Gert-Jan W.; Haan, André B. de


    Low-cost adsorbents were tested to remove anionic surfactants from laundry rinsing water to allow re-use of water. Adsorbents were selected corresponding to the different surfactant adsorption mechanisms. Equilibrium adsorption studies of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) show that ionic interact

  17. Surfactant Ligand Removal and Rational Fabrication of Inorganically Connected Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Haitao


    A novel method is reported to create inorganically connected nanocrystal (NC) assemblies for both II-VI and IV-VI semiconductors by removing surfactant ligands using (NH 4) 2S. This surface modification process differs from ligand exchange methods in that no new surfactant ligands are introduced and the post-treated NC surfaces are nearly bare. The detailed mechanism study shows that the high reactivity between (NH 4) 2S and metal-surfactant ligand complexes enables the complete removal of surfactant ligands in seconds and converts the NC metal-rich shells into metal sulfides. The post-treated NCs are connected through metal-sulfide bonding and form a larger NCs film assembly, while still maintaining quantum confinement. Such "connected but confined" NC assemblies are promising new materials for electronic and optoelectronic devices. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Ultrafast hydrothermal synthesis of high quality magnetic core phenol-formaldehyde shell composite microspheres using the microwave method. (United States)

    You, Li-Jun; Xu, Shuai; Ma, Wan-Fu; Li, Dian; Zhang, Yu-Ting; Guo, Jia; Hu, Jack J; Wang, Chang-Chun


    An ultrafast, facile, and efficient microwave hydrothermal approach was designed to fabricate magnetic Fe(3)O(4)/phenol-formaldehyde (PF) core-shell microspheres for the first time. The structure of the Fe(3)O(4)/PF core-shell microspheres could be well controlled by the in situ polycondensation of phenol and formaldehyde with magnetic Fe(3)O(4) clusters as the seeds in an aqueous solution without any surfactants. The effect of synthetic parameters, such as the feeding amounts of phenol, the dosages of formaldehyde, the reaction temperatures, and the microwave heating time, on the morphologies and sizes of the Fe(3)O(4)/PF microspheres were investigated in details. The phenol-formaldehyde shell is found to be evenly coated on Fe(3)O(4) clusters within 10 min of the irradiation. The as-prepared microspheres were highly uniform in morphology, and the method was found to allow the shell thickness to be finely controlled in the range of 10-200 nm. The properties of the composite microspheres were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetic analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The as-prepared Fe(3)O(4)/PF microspheres were monodisperse and highly dispersible in water, ethanol, N,N-dimethyformamide, and acetone, a beneficial quality for the further functionalization and applications of the Fe(3)O(4)/PF microspheres.

  19. Surfactant media for constant-current coulometry. Application for the determination of antioxidants in pharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziyatdinova, Guzel, E-mail: [Analytical Chemistry Department, A.M. Butlerov Institute of Chemistry, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kremlyevskaya, 18, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Ziganshina, Endzhe; Budnikov, Herman [Analytical Chemistry Department, A.M. Butlerov Institute of Chemistry, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kremlyevskaya, 18, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Applicability of surfactants in constant-current coulometry is shown for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reactions of antioxidants with electrogenerated titrants in surfactant media are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water insoluble antioxidants can be determined in water media with addition of surfactants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coulometric determination of antioxidants in pharmaceutical dosage forms using surfactants media is developed. - Abstract: Effect of surfactant presence on electrochemical generation of titrants has been evaluated and discussed for the first time. Cationic (1-dodecylpyridinium and cetylpyridinium bromide), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate) and nonionic (Triton X100 and Brij{sup Registered-Sign} 35) surfactants as well as nonionic high molecular weight polymer (PEG 4000) do not react with the electrogenerated bromine, iodine and hexacyanoferrate(III) ions. The electrogenerated chlorine chemically interact with Triton X100 and Brij{sup Registered-Sign} 35. The allowable range of surfactants concentrations providing 100% current yield has been found. Chain-breaking low molecular weight antioxidants (ascorbic acid, rutin, {alpha}-tocopherol and retinol) were determined by reaction with the electrogenerated titrants in surfactant media. Nonionic and cationic surfactants can be used for the determination of antioxidants by reaction with the electrogenerated halogens. On contrary, cationic surfactants gives significantly overstated results of antioxidants determination with electrogenerated hexacyanoferrate(III) ions. The use of surfactants in coulometry of {alpha}-tocopherol and retinol provides their solubilization and allows to perform titration in water media. Simple, express and reliable coulometric approach for determination of {alpha}-tocopherol, rutin and ascorbic acid in pharmaceuticals using surfactant media has been developed. The relative standard deviation of the

  20. Innovation in surfactant therapy II: surfactant administration by aerosolization. (United States)

    Pillow, J Jane; Minocchieri, S


    Instilled bolus surfactant is the only approved surfactant treatment for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. However, recent trends towards increased utilization of noninvasive respiratory support for preterm infants with surfactant deficiency have created a demand for a similarly noninvasive means of administering exogenous surfactant. Past approaches to surfactant nebulization met with varying success due to inefficient aerosol devices resulting in low intrapulmonary delivery doses of surfactant with variable clinical effectiveness. The recent development of vibrating membrane nebulizers, coupled with appropriate positioning of the interface device, indicates that efficient delivery of aerosolized surfactant is now a realistic goal in infants. Evidence of clinical effect despite low total administered dose in pilot studies, together with suggestions of enhanced homogeneity of pulmonary distribution indicate that this therapy may be applied in a cost-effective manner, with minimal patient handling and disruption. These studies need to be subjected to appropriately designed randomized controlled trials. Further work is also required to determine the optimum delivery route (mask, intranasal prong, nasopharyngeal or laryngeal), dosing amount and redosing interval.

  1. Patterning of the turtle shell. (United States)

    Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E; Cebra-Thomas, Judith; Gilbert, Scott F


    Interest in the origin and evolution of the turtle shell has resulted in a most unlikely clade becoming an important research group for investigating morphological diversity in developmental biology. Many turtles generate a two-component shell that nearly surrounds the body in a bony exoskeleton. The ectoderm covering the shell produces epidermal scutes that form a phylogenetically stable pattern. In some lineages, the bones of the shell and their ectodermal covering become reduced or lost, and this is generally associated with different ecological habits. The similarity and diversity of turtles allows research into how changes in development create evolutionary novelty, interacting modules, and adaptive physiology and anatomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Water repellency induced by pulmonary surfactants. (United States)

    Hills, B A


    1. Pure cotton fabric was partially carboxylated to produce a tough, porous, hydrophilic sub-phase to stimulate the epithelial membrane of the alveolar wall from a permeability standpoint. 2. Two of the predominant pulmonary surfactants, dipalmitoyl lecithin (DPL) and dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE), were found to inhibit wetting of this synthetic membrane and of human cutaneous epithelium as manifest by a large contact angle. 3. When treated with DPL at physiological concentrations, the porous synthetic membrane was found to support a head of saline well in excess of systolic pulmonary artery pressure with no penetration and could do so for periods well in excess of 1 hr; untreated control samples allowed almost immediate fluid filtration. 4. Filtration could be initiated in the DPL-treated membranes by wetting the reverse side, confirming that the threshold pressure for fluid penetration was afforded by capillarity and, hence, by water repellency induced by the surfactant. 5. Water repellency induced by the amphoteric surfactants occurring naturally in the lung is discussed as a possible factor contributing to the pressure threshold to be exceeded for alveolar oedema to form. 6. Evidence is reviewed and several advantages discussed for the implied concept of an essentially dry lining to the alveolus with a discontinuous liquid layer largely confined to convex corners which could slowly resolve any oedema by surface forces.

  3. Interaction of nonionic surfactant AEO9 with ionic surfactants*



    The interaction in two mixtures of a nonionic surfactant AEO9 (C12H25O(CH2CH2O)9H) and different ionic surfactants was investigated. The two mixtures were AEO9/sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and AEO9/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at molar fraction of AEO9, α AEO9=0.5. The surface properties of the surfactants, critical micelle concentration (CMC), effectiveness of surface tension reduction (γ CMC), maximum surface excess concentration (Γ max) and minimum area per...

  4. MicroShell Minimalist Shell for Xilinx Microprocessors (United States)

    Werne, Thomas A.


    MicroShell is a lightweight shell environment for engineers and software developers working with embedded microprocessors in Xilinx FPGAs. (MicroShell has also been successfully ported to run on ARM Cortex-M1 microprocessors in Actel ProASIC3 FPGAs, but without project-integration support.) Micro Shell decreases the time spent performing initial tests of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) designs, simplifies running customizable one-time-only experiments, and provides a familiar-feeling command-line interface. The program comes with a collection of useful functions and enables the designer to add an unlimited number of custom commands, which are callable from the command-line. The commands are parameterizable (using the C-based command-line parameter idiom), so the designer can use one function to exercise hardware with different values. Also, since many hardware peripherals instantiated in FPGAs have reasonably simple register-mapped I/O interfaces, the engineer can edit and view hardware parameter settings at any time without stopping the processor. MicroShell comes with a set of support scripts that interface seamlessly with Xilinx's EDK tool. Adding an instance of MicroShell to a project is as simple as marking a check box in a library configuration dialog box and specifying a software project directory. The support scripts then examine the hardware design, build design-specific functions, conditionally include processor-specific functions, and complete the compilation process. For code-size constrained designs, most of the stock functionality can be excluded from the compiled library. When all of the configurable options are removed from the binary, MicroShell has an unoptimized memory footprint of about 4.8 kB and a size-optimized footprint of about 2.3 kB. Since MicroShell allows unfettered access to all processor-accessible memory locations, it is possible to perform live patching on a running system. This can be useful, for instance, if a bug is

  5. Surfactant enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, J.H.; Scamehorn, J.F.


    Surfactant-enhanced waterflooding is a novel EOR method aimed to improve the volumetric sweep efficiencies in reservoirs. The technique depends upon the ability to induce phase changes in surfactant solutions by mixing with surfactants of opposite charge or with salts of appropriate type. One surfactant or salt solution is injected into the reservoir. It is followed later by injection of another surfactant or salt solution. The sequence of injections is arranged so that the two solutions do not mix until they are into the permeable regions well away from the well bore. When they mix at this point, by design they form a precipitate or gel-like coacervate phase, plugging this permeable region, forcing flow through less permeable regions of the reservoir, improving sweep efficiency. The selectivity of the plugging process is demonstrated by achieving permeability reductions in the high permeable regions of Berea sandstone cores. Strategies were set to obtain a better control over the plug placement and the stability of plugs. A numerical simulator has been developed to investigate the potential increases in oil production of model systems. Furthermore, the hardness tolerance of anionic surfactant solutions is shown to be enhanced by addition of monovalent electrolyte or nonionic surfactants. 34 refs., 32 figs., 8 tabs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Pirog


    Full Text Available It was shown literature and own experimental data concerning the use of microbial surface active glycolipids (rhamno-, sophoro- and trehalose lipids and lipopeptides for water and soil purification from oil and other hydrocarbons, removing toxic heavy metals (Cu2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, degradation of complex pollution (oil and other hydrocarbons with heavy metals, and the role of microbial surfactants in phytoremediation processes. The factors that limit the use of microbial surfactants in environmental technologies are discussed. Thus, at certain concentrations biosurfactant can exhibit antimicrobial properties and inhibit microorganisms destructing xenobiotics. Microbial biodegradability of surfactants may also reduce the effectiveness of bioremediation. Development of effective technologies using microbial surfactants should include the following steps: monitoring of contaminated sites to determine the nature of pollution and analysis of the autochthonous microbiota; determining the mode of surfactant introduction (exogenous addition of stimulation of surfactant synthesis by autochthonous microbiota; establishing an optimal concentration of surfactant to prevent exhibition of antimicrobial properties and rapid biodegradation; research both in laboratory and field conditions.

  7. [Surfactant replacement therapy with a minimally invasive technique: Experience in a tertiary hospital]. (United States)

    Canals Candela, F J; Vizcaíno Díaz, C; Ferrández Berenguer, M J; Serrano Robles, M I; Vázquez Gomis, C; Quiles Durá, J L


    Surfactant delivered using a minimally invasive technique, known as MIST (Minimally Invasive Surfactant Therapy) is a method which allows surfactant to be administered to a patient connected to non-invasive respiratory support. This is an increasingly used therapy in Neonatal Units that reduces the intubation rate and the pathology associated with intubation and allows the surfactant to be administered to the patients who clinically need it. In years 2013 and 2014 in the Hospital General Universitario de Elche surfactant was delivered using this method to 19 patients, five of whom were 28 or less weeks of gestation age at birth. A comparison is made with a historical cohort consisting of 28 patients with Respiratory Distress Syndrome treated initially with non-invasive respiratory support. No incidents were recorded that caused the interruption of the administration. A reduction in the fraction of inspired oxygen was observed in all cases after surfactant administration. Fewer intubations in the first 72 hours of life were found in the treatment group compared to the control group (42% vs. 54%). The experience recorded in the Hospital General Universitario de Elche shows that the administration of surfactant using a MIST technique is a reproducible method of treatment, which allows the surfactant distribution during spontaneous breathing with non invasive respiratory support. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method for computation of impinging droplet with soluble surfactants and dynamic contact angle

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesan, Sashikumaar


    An arbitrary Lagrangian--Eulerian (ALE) finite element scheme for computations of soluble surfactant droplet impingement on a horizontal surface is presented. The numerical scheme solves the time-dependent Navier--Stokes equations for the fluid flow, scalar convection-diffusion equation for the surfactant transport in the bulk phase, and simultaneously, surface evolution equations for the surfactants on the free surface and on the liquid-solid interface. The effects of surfactants on the flow dynamics are included into the model through the surfactant-dependent surface tension and dynamic contact angle. In particular, the dynamic contact angle of the droplet is defined as a function of surfactants using the nonlinear equation of state for surface tension. Further, the surface forces are included in the model using the Boussinesq-Scriven law that allows to incorporate the Marangoni effects without evaluating the gradients of surfactant concentration on the free surface. In addition to a mesh convergence study ...

  9. Electrokinetic investigation of surfactant adsorption. (United States)

    Bellmann, C; Synytska, A; Caspari, A; Drechsler, A; Grundke, K


    Fuerstenau [D.W. Fuerstenau, in: M.L. Hair (Ed.), Dekker, New York, 1971, p. 143] has already discussed the role of hydrocarbon chain of surfactants, the effect of alkyl chain length, chain structure and the pH of the solution on the adsorption process of surfactants. Later Kosmulski [M. Kosmulski, Chemical Properties of Material Surfaces, Surfactant Science Series, vol. 102, Dekker, New York, Basel, 2001] included the effect of surfactant concentration, equilibration time, temperature and electrolyte in his approaches. Certainly, the character of the head groups of the surfactant and the properties of the adsorbent surface are the basis for the adsorption process. Different surfactants and adsorbents cause different adsorption mechanisms described firstly by Rosen [M.J. Rosen, Surfactants and Interfacial Phenomena, second ed., Wiley, New York, 1989]. These adsorption mechanisms and their influencing factors were studied by electrokinetic investigations. Here only changes of the charges at the surfaces could be detected. To control the results of electrokinetic investigations they were compared with results from ellipsometric measurements. In the case of surfactant adsorption the chain length was vitally important. It could be shown by the adsorption of alkyl trimethyl ammonium bromides onto polymer films spin coated at wafer surfaces. The influence of the chain length depending on surface properties of the polymer film was studied. Streaming potential measurements were applied for these investigations. The obtained results enabled us to calculate the molar cohesive free energy per mol of CH2-group in the alkaline chain of the surfactant if all other specific adsorption effects were neglected.

  10. Effect of surfactants on shear-induced gelation and gel morphology of soft strawberry-like particles. (United States)

    Xie, Delong; Arosio, Paolo; Wu, Hua; Morbidelli, Massimo


    The role of surfactant type in the aggregation and gelation of strawberry-like particles induced by intense shear without any electrolyte addition is investigated. The particles are composed of a rubbery core, partially covered by a plastic shell, and well stabilized by fixed (sulfate) charges in the end group of the polymer chains originating from the initiator. In the absence of any surfactant, after the system passes through a microchannel at a Peclet number equal to 220 and a particle volume fraction equal to 0.15, not only shear-induced gelation but also partial coalescence among the particles occurs. The same shear-induced aggregation/gelation process has been carried out in the presence of an ionic (sulfonate) surfactant or a nonionic (Tween 20) steric surfactant. It is found that for both surfactants shear-induced gelation does occur at low surfactant surface density but the conversion of the primary particles to the clusters constituting the gel decreases as the surfactant surface density increases. When the surfactant surface density increases above certain critical values, shear-induced gelation and eventually even aggregation do not occur any longer. For the sulfonate surfactant, this was explained in the literature by the non-DLVO, short-range repulsive hydration forces generated by the adsorbed surfactant layer. In this work, it is shown that the steric repulsion generated by the adsorbed Tween 20 layer can also protect particles from aggregation under intense shear. Moreover, the nonionic steric surfactant can also protect the strawberry-like particles from coalescence. This implies a decrease in the fractal dimension of the clusters constituting the gel from 2.76 to 2.45, which cannot be achieved using the ionic sulfonate surfactant.

  11. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Detergent Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Jelen


    Full Text Available Detergent surfactantscan be found in wastewater in relevant concentrations. Most of them are known as ready degradable under aerobic conditions, as required by European legislation. Far fewer surfactants have been tested so far for biodegradability under anaerobic conditions. The natural environment is predominantly aerobic, but there are some environmental compartments such as river sediments, sub-surface soil layer and anaerobic sludge digesters of wastewater treatment plants which have strictly anaerobic conditions. This review gives an overview on anaerobic biodegradation processes, the methods for testing anaerobic biodegradability, and the anaerobic biodegradability of different detergent surfactant types (anionic, nonionic, cationic, amphoteric surfactants.

  12. NIF Double Shell outer-shell experiments (United States)

    Merritt, E. C.; Montgomery, D. S.; Kline, J. L.; Daughton, W. S.; Wilson, D. C.; Dodd, E. S.; Renner, D. B.; Cardenas, T.; Batha, S. H.


    At the core of the Double Shell concept is the kinetic energy transfer from the outer shell to the inner shell via collision. This collision sets both the implosion shape of the inner shell, from imprinting of the shape of the outer shell, as well as the maximum energy available to compress the DT fuel. Therefore, it is crucial to be able to control the time-dependent shape of the outer shell, such that the outer shell is nominally round at the collision time. We present the experiment results from our sub-scale ( 1 MJ) NIF outer-shell only shape tuning campaign, where we vary shape by changing a turn-on time delay between the same pulse shape on the inner and outer cone beams. This type of shape tuning is unique to this platform and only possible since the Double Shell design uses a single-shock drive (4.5 ns reverse ramp pulse). The outer-shell only targets used a 5.75 mm diameter standard near-vacuum NIF hohlraum with 0.032 mg/cc He gas fill, and a Be capsule with 0.4% uniform Cu dopant, with 242 um thick ablator. We also present results from a third outer-shell only shot used to measure shell trajectory, which is critical in determining the shell impact time. This work conducted under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  13. Treatment with exogenous surfactant stimulates endogenous surfactant synthesis in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, JEH; Carnielli, VP; Janssen, DJ; Wattimena, JLD; Hop, WC; Sauer, PJ; Zimmermann, LJI


    Objective: Treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) with exogenous surfactant has greatly improved clinical outcome. Some infants require multiple doses, and it has not been studied whether these large amounts of exogenous surfactant disturb endogenous surfactant metabol

  14. Electrochemical Oscillations Induced by Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟俊红; 贺占博


    A new type of electrochemical oscillation induced by surfactant was observed in experiments. The electrochemical system is a Daniell cell with a copper rod in CuSO4 aqueous and an aluminum rod in Al(NO3)3 aqueous as electrodes. The surfactants are CTAB, TX-100, SLS. The addition of trace surfactant solution by a micro-syringe made the original monotonously changing electrochemical system produce obvious periodic phenomena. At the mean time, the copper ion selective electrode and Hg2SO4 reference electrode were used to monitor the copper electrode reaction and determine its rate constant k of first order reaction. According to the experimental results of electrode reaction kinetics, the possible mechanism was found to be the polarization induced from the directional adsorption of trace surfactant on the electrode surface. That is the electrochemical oscillations.

  15. Persurf, a New Method to Improve Surfactant Delivery: A Study in Surfactant Depleted Rats



    PURPOSE: Exogenous surfactant is not very effective in adults with ARDS, since surfactant does not reach atelectatic alveoli. Perfluorocarbons (PFC) can recruit atelectatic areas but do not replace impaired endogenous surfactant. A surfactant-PFC-mixture could combine benefits of both therapies. The aim of the proof-of-principal-study was to produce a PFC-in-surfactant emulsion (Persurf) and to test in surfactant depleted Wistar rats whether Persurf achieves I.) a more homogenous pulmonary di...

  16. Shape-tunable core-shell microparticles. (United States)

    Klein, Matthias K; Saenger, Nicolai R; Schuetter, Stefan; Pfleiderer, Patrick; Zumbusch, Andreas


    Colloidal polymer particles are an important class of materials finding use in both everyday and basic research applications. Tailoring their composition, shape, and functionality is of key importance. In this article, we describe a new class of shape-tunable core-shell microparticles. They are composed of a cross-linked polystyrene (PS) core and a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) shell of varying thickness. In the first step, we prepared highly cross-linked PS cores, which are subsequently transferred into a nonpolar dispersant. They serve as the seed dispersion for a nonaqueous dispersion polymerization to generate the PMMA shell. The shape of the particles can subsequently be manipulated. After the shell growth stage, the spherical PS/PMMA core-shell colloids exhibit an uneven and wrinkled surface. An additional tempering procedure allows for smoothing the surface of the core-shell colloids. This results in polymer core-shell particles with a perfectly spherical shape. In addition to this thermal smoothing of the PMMA shell, we generated a selection of shape-anisotropic core-shell particles using a thermomechanical stretching procedure. Because of the unique constitution, we can selectively interrogate molecular vibrations in the PS core or the PMMA shell of the colloids using nonlinear optical microscopy techniques. This is of great interest because no photobleaching occurs, such that the particles can be tracked in real space over long times.

  17. Mathematical Modelling of Surfactant Self-assembly at Interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Morgan, C. E.


    © 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. We present a mathematical model to describe the distribution of surfactant pairs in a multilayer structure beneath an adsorbed monolayer. A mesoscopic model comprising a set of ordinary differential equations that couple the rearrangement of surfactant within the multilayer to the surface adsorption kinetics is first derived. This model is then extended to the macroscopic scale by taking the continuum limit that exploits the typically large number of surfactant layers, which results in a novel third-order partial differential equation. The model is generalized to allow for the presence of two adsorbing boundaries, which results in an implicit free-boundary problem. The system predicts physically observed features in multilayer systems such as the initial formation of smaller lamellar structures and the typical number of layers that form in equilibrium.

  18. Remediation of sandy soils using surfactant solutions and foams. (United States)

    Couto, Hudson J B; Massarani, Guilio; Biscaia, Evaristo C; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L


    Remediation of sandy soils contaminated with diesel oil was investigated in bench-scale experiments. Surfactant solution, regular foams and colloidal gas aphrons were used as remediation fluids. An experimental design technique was used to investigate the effect of relevant process variables on remediation efficiency. Soils prepared with different average particle sizes (0.04-0.12 cm) and contaminated with different diesel oil contents (40-80 g/kg) were used in experiments conducted with remediation fluids. A mathematical model was proposed allowing for the determination of oil removal rate-constant (k(v)) and oil content remaining in the soil after remediation (C(of)) as well as estimation of the percentage of oil removed. Oil removal efficiencies obtained under the central experimental design conditions were 96%, 88% and 35% for aphrons, regular foams and surfactant solutions, respectively. High removal efficiencies were obtained using regular foams and aphrons, demanding small amounts of surfactant.

  19. Surfactants enhance recovery of poorly soluble drugs during microdialysis sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koplin, Sebastian; Kumpugdee-Vollrath, Mont; Bauer-Brandl, Annette


    Aim of this project was to investigate the applicability of a recently developed in vitro microdialysis-sampling approach in connection with a dissolution-/permeation (D/P) system, especially the impact of surfactants within the perfusion fluid. The D/P-system is based on side-by-side chambers...... drug-dissolution (-release) and drug permeation. Furthermore, it should allow quantification of the unbound (free) drug concentration. In the first step, it was assessed, if the addition of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) to the perfusate of the microdialysis system affects...... celecoxib, i.e. the fraction of drug, which is not associated with taurocholate surfactant micelles. In buffer, the measured concentrations matched the overall CXB concentrations. By the use of SDS-containing perfusates microdialysis sampling enabled reliable quantification of minute amounts of free CXB...

  20. Biomimicry of surfactant protein C. (United States)

    Brown, Nathan J; Johansson, Jan; Barron, Annelise E


    Since the widespread use of exogenous lung surfactant to treat neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, premature infant survival and respiratory morbidity have dramatically improved. Despite the effectiveness of the animal-derived surfactant preparations, there still remain some concerns and difficulties associated with their use. This has prompted investigation into the creation of synthetic surfactant preparations. However, to date, no clinically used synthetic formulation is as effective as the natural material. This is largely because the previous synthetic formulations lacked analogues of the hydrophobic proteins of the lung surfactant system, SP-B and SP-C, which are critical functional constituents. As a result, recent investigation has turned toward the development of a new generation of synthetic, biomimetic surfactants that contain synthetic phospholipids along with a mimic of the hydrophobic protein portion of lung surfactant. In this Account, we detail our efforts in creating accurate mimics of SP-C for use in a synthetic surfactant replacement therapy. Despite SP-C's seemingly simple structure, the predominantly helical protein is extraordinarily challenging to work with given its extreme hydrophobicity and structural instability, which greatly complicates the creation of an effective SP-C analogue. Drawing inspiration from Nature, two promising biomimetic approaches have led to the creation of rationally designed biopolymers that recapitulate many of SP-C's molecular features. The first approach utilizes detailed SP-C structure-activity relationships and amino acid folding propensities to create a peptide-based analogue, SP-C33. In SP-C33, the problematic and metastable polyvaline helix is replaced with a structurally stable polyleucine helix and includes a well-placed positive charge to prevent aggregation. SP-C33 is structurally stable and eliminates the association propensity of the native protein. The second approach follows the same design

  1. Partition and water/oil adsorption of some surfactants. (United States)

    Tadmouri, Rawad; Zedde, Chantal; Routaboul, Corinne; Micheau, Jean-Claude; Pimienta, Véronique


    Adsorption isotherms have been determined at the water/oil interface for five biphasic systems involving surfactants (non-ionic and ionic) present in both phases at partition equilibrium. The systems studied were polyoxyethylene(23)lauryl ether (Brij35) in water/hexane and four ionic surfactants, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and a series of three tetraalkylammonium dodecylsulfate (TEADS, TPADS, and TBADS) in water/CH 2Cl 2. Interfacial tension measurements performed at the water/air and water/oil interfaces provided all the necessary information for the determination of the adsorption parameters by taking partition into account. These measurements also allowed the comparison of the adsorption properties at both interfaces which showed an increase of the adsorption equilibrium constant and a decrease of the maximum surface concentration at the water/oil interface compared to water/air. The values of the critical aggregation concentration showed, in all cases, that only the surfactant dissolved in the aqueous phase contribute to the decrease of the water/oil interfacial tension. In the case of the four ionic surfactants, the critical aggregation concentration obtained in biphasic conditions were lowered because of the formation of mixed surfactant-CH 2Cl 2 aggregates.

  2. Shell Analysis Manual (United States)


    loading (e. g. shallow shell theory , Geckeler’s approximation for symmetrically loaded shells, etc.) Although the Shear Deformation and Specialized...interest. Included are the Reissner-Meissner equations, Geckeler’s approximations, shallow - shell theory , Donnell’s theory, and others. A. General Shells of

  3. Surfactant for pediatric acute lung injury. (United States)

    Willson, Douglas F; Chess, Patricia R; Notter, Robert H


    This article reviews exogenous surfactant therapy and its use in mitigating acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in infants, children, and adults. Biophysical and animal research documenting surfactant dysfunction in ALI/ARDS is described, and the scientific rationale for treatment with exogenous surfactant is discussed. Major emphasis is placed on reviewing clinical studies of surfactant therapy in pediatric and adult patients who have ALI/ARDS. Particular advantages from surfactant therapy in direct pulmonary forms of these syndromes are described. Also discussed are additional factors affecting the efficacy of exogenous surfactants in ALI/ARDS.

  4. Surfactant-induced dermatitis: comparison of corneosurfametry with predictive testing on human and reconstructed skin. (United States)

    Piérard, G E; Goffin, V; Hermanns-Lê, T; Arrese, J E; Piérard-Franchimont, C


    Surfactants elicit alterations in the stratum corneum. Predictive tests that avoid animal experimentation are needed. This study compares three methods of rating and predicting shampoo-induced irritation. Corneosurfametry entails collection of stratum corneum followed by brief contact with diluted surfactants and measurement of variations in staining of samples. Corneosurfametry appears to correlate well with in vivo testing in volunteers with sensitive skin. However, corneosurfametry presents less interindividual variability than in vivo testing and allows better discrimination among mild products. Morphologic information about surfactant-induced loosening of corneocytes may be increased by testing surfactants on human skin equivalent. Results are similar to those provided by specimens used for corneosurfametry. The corneosurfametric prediction of surfactant irritancy correlates with in vivo testing and with in vitro evaluation on human skin equivalent.

  5. Microchannel emulsification using gelatin and surfactant-free coacervate microencapsulation. (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kei; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Shono, Atsushi; Satoh, Kazumi


    In this study, we investigated the use of microchannel (MC) emulsifications in producing monodisperse gelatin/acacia complex coacervate microcapsules of soybean oil. This is considered to be a novel method for preparing monodisperse O/W and W/O emulsions. Generally, surfactants are necessary for MC emulsification, but they can also inhibit the coacervation process. In this study, we investigated a surfactant-free system. First, MC emulsification using gelatin was compared with that using decaglycerol monolaurate. The results demonstrated the potential use of gelatin for MC emulsification. MC emulsification experiments conducted over a range of conditions revealed that the pH of the continuous phase should be maintained above the isoelectric point of the gelatin. A high concentration of gelatin was found to inhibit the production of irregular-sized droplets. Low-bloom gelatin was found to be suitable for obtaining monodisperse emulsions. Finally, surfactant-free monodisperse droplets prepared by MC emulsification were microencapsulated with coacervate. The microcapsules produced by this technique were observed with a confocal laser scanning microscope. Average diameters of the inner cores and outer shells were 37.8 and 51.5 microm; their relative standard deviations were 4.9 and 8.4%.

  6. Shell Models of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Plunian, Franck; Frick, Peter


    Shell models of hydrodynamic turbulence originated in the seventies. Their main aim was to describe the statistics of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in spectral space, using a simple set of ordinary differential equations. In the eighties, shell models of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence emerged based on the same principles as their hydrodynamic counter-part but also incorporating interactions between magnetic and velocity fields. In recent years, significant improvements have been made such as the inclusion of non-local interactions and appropriate definitions for helicities. Though shell models cannot account for the spatial complexity of MHD turbulence, their dynamics are not over simplified and do reflect those of real MHD turbulence including intermittency or chaotic reversals of large-scale modes. Furthermore, these models use realistic values for dimensionless parameters (high kinetic and magnetic Reynolds numbers, low or high magnetic Prandtl number) allowing extended inertial range and accu...

  7. Exposure to polymers reverses inhibition of pulmonary surfactant by serum, meconium, or cholesterol in the captive bubble surfactometer. (United States)

    López-Rodríguez, Elena; Ospina, Olga Lucía; Echaide, Mercedes; Taeusch, H William; Pérez-Gil, Jesús


    Dysfunction of pulmonary surfactant in the lungs is associated with respiratory pathologies such as acute respiratory distress syndrome or meconium aspiration syndrome. Serum, cholesterol, and meconium have been described as inhibitory agents of surfactant's interfacial activity once these substances appear in alveolar spaces during lung injury and inflammation. The deleterious action of these agents has been only partly evaluated under physiologically relevant conditions. We have optimized a protocol to assess surfactant inhibition by serum, cholesterol, or meconium in the captive bubble surfactometer. Specific measures of surface activity before and after native surfactant was exposed to inhibitors included i), film formation, ii), readsorption of material from surface-associated reservoirs, and iii), interfacial film dynamics during compression-expansion cycling. Results show that serum creates a steric barrier that impedes surfactant reaching the interface. A mechanical perturbation of this barrier allows native surfactant to compete efficiently with serum to form a highly surface-active film. Exposure of native surfactant to cholesterol or meconium, on the other hand, modifies the compressibility of surfactant films though optimal compressibility properties recover on repetitive compression-expansion cycling. Addition of polymers like dextran or hyaluronic acid to surfactant fully reverses inhibition by serum. These polymers also prevent surfactant inhibition by cholesterol or meconium, suggesting that the protective action of polymers goes beyond the mere enhancement of interfacial adsorption as described by depletion force theories.

  8. Surfactant recovery from water using foam fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tharapiwattananon, N.; Osuwan, S. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand); Scamehorn, J.F. [Inst. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)] [and others


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of foam fractionation to recover surfactant from water. A simple continuous mode foam fractionation was used and three surfactants were studied (two anionic and one cationic). The effects of air flow rate, foam height, liquid height, liquid feed surfactant concentration, and sparger porosity were studied. This technique was shown to be effective in either surfactant recovery or the reduction of surfactant concentration in water to acceptable levels. As an example of the effectiveness of this technique, the cetylpyridinium chloride concentration in water can be reduced by 90% in one stage with a liquid residence time of 375 minutes. The surfactant concentration in the collapsed foam is 21.5 times the feed concentration. This cationic surfactant was easier to remove from water by foam fractionation than the anionic surfactants studied.

  9. Synthesis of carbohydrate-based surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemberton, Jeanne E.; Polt, Robin L.; Maier, Raina M.


    The present invention provides carbohydrate-based surfactants and methods for producing the same. Methods for producing carbohydrate-based surfactants include using a glycosylation promoter to link a carbohydrate or its derivative to a hydrophobic compound.

  10. Effects of Concentration and Conformation of Surfactants on Phase Separation of Surfactant-Water-Oil Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁银权; 邹宪武; 刘昊阳


    The effects of surfactants on the phase separation of surfactant-water-oil systems have been investigated by using discontinuous molecular dynamic simulations. The phase separation speed and equilibrium configuration are dependent on the surfactant concentration and conformation. The equilibrium concentration of surfactants at the interface remains constant. With the increasing surfactant concentration, the equilibrium configuration crosses over from the disperse phase to the bicontinuous one. The crossover concentration is estimated. The conformation of the surfactant has little effect on the equilibrium concentration of surfactants at the interface,while it affects the equilibrium configuration after phase separation.

  11. Complex Formation Between Polyelectrolytes and Ionic Surfactants



    The interaction between polyelectrolyte and ionic surfactant is of great importance in different areas of chemistry and biology. In this paper we present a theory of polyelectrolyte ionic-surfactant solutions. The new theory successfully explains the cooperative transition observed experimentally, in which the condensed counterions are replaced by ionic-surfactants. The transition is found to occur at surfactant densities much lower than those for a similar transition in non-ionic polymer-sur...

  12. Multiple shells in IRC+10216: shell properties (United States)

    Mauron, N.; Huggins, P. J.


    We report on the properties of the multiple shells in the circumstellar envelope of IRC+10216, using deep optical imaging, including data from the Hubble Space Telescope. The intensity profiles confirm the presence of thin ( ~ 0farcs5 -3'' ec), limb-brightened shells in the envelope, seen in stellar and ambient Galactic light scattered by dust. The shells are spaced at irregular intervals of ~ 5'' ec-20'' ec, corresponding to time scales of 200-800 yr, although intervals as short as ~ 1'' ec (40 yr) are seen close to the star. The location of the main shells shows a good correlation with high-resolution, molecular line maps of the inner envelope, indicating that the dust and gas are well coupled. The shell/intershell density contrast is typically ~ 3, and we find that the shells form the dominant mass component of the circumstellar envelope. The shells exhibit important evolutionary effects: the thickness increases with increasing radius, with an effective dispersion velocity of 0.7 km s-1 and there is evidence for shell interactions. Despite the presence of bipolar structure close to the star, the global shell pattern favors a roughly isotropic, episodic mass loss mechanism, with a range of time scales. Based on observations made with the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope, operated by CNRS, NRCC and UH, and on dearchived observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, operated by AURA Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555

  13. Surfactant-directed polypyrrole/CNT nanocables: synthesis, characterization, and enhanced electrical properties. (United States)

    Zhang, Xuetong; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Rongming; Zhu, Tao; Liu, Zhongfan


    We describe here a new approach to the synthesis of size-controllable polypyrrole/carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocables by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization directed by the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or the nonionic surfactant polyethylene glycol mono-p-nonylphenyl ether (Opi-10). When carbon nanotubes are dispersed in a solution containing a certain concentration of CTAB or Opi-10, the surfactant molecules are adsorbed and arranged regularly on the CNT surfaces. On addition of pyrrole, some of the monomer is adsorbed at the surface of CNTs and/or wedged between the arranged CTAB or Opi-10 molecules. When ammonium persulfate (APS) is added, pyrrole is polymerized in situ at the surfaces of the CNTs (core layer) and ultimately forms the outer shell of the nanocables. Such polypyrrole/CNT nanocables show enhanced electrical properties; a negative temperature coefficient of resistance at 77-300 K and a negative magnetoresistance at 10-200 K were observed.

  14. Ultrathin polycrystalline hematite and goethite-hematite core-shell nanorods. (United States)

    Cavaliere-Jaricot, S; Brioude, A; Miele, P


    We have developed a facile synthesis route to 1D structures of ultrathin polycrystalline hematite and goethite-hematite core-shells. One-dimensional structures of pure hematite and the goethite-hematite core-shell with very small diameters were synthesized in aqueous solution at low temperature with a simple, rapid method based on the oxidation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles without using surfactants.

  15. Binding of cationic surfactants to humic substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishiguro, M.; Tan, W.; Koopal, L.K.


    Commercial surfactants are introduced into the environment either through waste products or site-specific contamination. The amphiphilic nature of both surfactants and humic substances (HS) leads to their mutual attraction especially when surfactant and HS are oppositely charged. Binding of the cati

  16. Surfactant analysis in oil-containing fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronsveld, J.; Faber, M.J. (Koninklijke Shell Exploratie en Produktie Laboratorium, Rijswijk (Netherlands))

    The total surfactant concentration in aqueous phase samples can be analysed with a potentiometric titration. In enhanced oil recovery research, however, the surfactant is produced not only in aqueous phase samples but also in oleic phase samples. The oleic constituents in the oliec phase samples interfere in the surfactant analysis and, therefore, the titration method has been adapted. (orig.).

  17. Surfactant adsorption to soil components and soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishiguro, Munehide; Koopal, Luuk K.


    Soils are complex and widely varying mixtures of organic matter and inorganic materials; adsorption of surfactants to soils is therefore related to the soil composition. We first discuss the properties of surfactants, including the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surfactant adsorption on

  18. Highly efficient hyperbranched CNT surfactants: influence of molar mass and functionalization. (United States)

    Bertels, Ellen; Bruyninckx, Kevin; Kurttepeli, Mert; Smet, Mario; Bals, Sara; Goderis, Bart


    End-group-functionalized hyperbranched polymers were synthesized to act as a carbon nanotube (CNT) surfactant in aqueous solutions. Variation of the percentage of triphenylmethyl (trityl) functionalization and of the molar mass of the hyperbranched polyglycerol (PG) core resulted in the highest measured surfactant efficiency for a 5000 g/mol PG with 5.6% of the available hydroxyl end-groups replaced by trityl functions, as shown by UV-vis measurements. Semiempirical model calculations suggest an even higher efficiency for PG5000 with 2.5% functionalization and maximal molecule specific efficiency in general at low degrees of functionalization. Addition of trityl groups increases the surfactant-nanotube interactions in comparison to unfunctionalized PG because of π-π stacking interactions. However, at higher functionalization degrees mutual interactions between trityl groups come into play, decreasing the surfactant efficiency, while lack of water solubility becomes an issue at very high functionalization degrees. Low molar mass surfactants are less efficient compared to higher molar mass species most likely because the higher bulkiness of the latter allows for a better CNT separation and stabilization. The most efficient surfactant studied allowed dispersing 2.85 mg of CNT in 20 mL with as little as 1 mg of surfactant. These dispersions, remaining stable for at least 2 months, were mainly composed of individual CNTs as revealed by electron microscopy.

  19. Characterization of chlorophyll derivatives in micelles of polymeric surfactants aiming photodynamic applications (United States)

    Gerola, Adriana Passarella; de Morais, Flavia Amanda Pedroso; Costa, Paulo Fernando A.; Kimura, Elza; Caetano, Wilker; Hioka, Noboru


    The spectrophotometric properties of chlorophylls' derivatives (Chls) formulated in the Pluronics® F-127 and P-123 were evaluated and the results have shown that the Chls were efficiently solubilized in these drug delivery systems as monomers. The relative location of the Chls in the Pluronics® was estimated from the Stokes shift and micropolarity of the micellar environment. Chls with phytyl chain were located in the micellar core, where the micropolarity is similar to ethanol, while phorbides' derivatives (without phytyl chain) were located in the outer shell of the micelle, i.e., more polar environment. In addition, the thermal stability of the micellar formulations was evaluated through electronic absorption, fluorescence emission and resonance light scattering with lowering the temperature. The Chls promote the stability of the micelles at temperatures below the Critical Micellar Temperature (CMT) of these surfactants. For F-127 formulations, the water molecules drive through inside the nano-structure at temperatures below the CMT, which increased the polarity of this microenvironment and directly affected the spectrophotometric properties of the Chls with phytyl chain. The properties of the micellar microenvironment of P-123, with more hydrophobic core due to the small PEO/PPO fraction, were less affected by lowering the temperature than for F-127. These results enable us to better understand the Chls behavior in micellar copolymers and allowed us to design new drug delivery system that maintains the photosensitizer's properties for photodynamic applications.

  20. Persurf, a new method to improve surfactant delivery: a study in surfactant depleted rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Burkhardt

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Exogenous surfactant is not very effective in adults with ARDS, since surfactant does not reach atelectatic alveoli. Perfluorocarbons (PFC can recruit atelectatic areas but do not replace impaired endogenous surfactant. A surfactant-PFC-mixture could combine benefits of both therapies. The aim of the proof-of-principal-study was to produce a PFC-in-surfactant emulsion (Persurf and to test in surfactant depleted Wistar rats whether Persurf achieves I. a more homogenous pulmonary distribution and II. a more homogenous recruitment of alveoli when compared with surfactant or PFC alone. METHODS: Three different PFC were mixed with surfactant and phospholipid concentration in the emulsion was measured. After surfactant depletion, animals either received 30 ml/kg of PF5080, 100 mg/kg of stained (green dye Curosurf™ or 30 ml/kg of Persurf. Lungs were fixated after 1 hour of ventilation and alveolar aeration and surfactant distribution was estimated by a stereological approach. RESULTS: Persurf contained 3 mg/ml phospholipids and was stable for more than 48 hours. Persurf-administration improved oxygenation. Histological evaluation revealed a more homogenous surfactant distribution and alveolar inflation when compared with surfactant treated animals. CONCLUSIONS: In surfactant depleted rats administration of PFC-in-surfactant emulsion leads to a more homogenous distribution and aeration of the lung than surfactant alone.

  1. Generation of a mesoporous silica MSU shell onto solid core silica nanoparticles using a simple two-step sol-gel process. (United States)

    Allouche, Joachim; Dupin, Jean-Charles; Gonbeau, Danielle


    Silica core-shell nanoparticles with a MSU shell have been synthesized using several non-ionic poly(ethylene oxide) based surfactants via a two step sol-gel method. The materials exhibit a typical worm-hole pore structure and tunable pore diameters between 2.4 nm and 5.8 nm.

  2. Simulations of impinging droplets with surfactant-dependent dynamic contact angle (United States)

    Ganesan, Sashikumaar


    An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) finite element scheme for computations of soluble surfactant droplet impingement on a horizontal surface is presented. The numerical scheme solves the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations for the fluid flow, scalar convection-diffusion equation for the surfactant transport in the bulk phase, and simultaneously, surface evolution equations for the surfactants on the free surface and on the liquid-solid interface. The effects of surfactants on the flow dynamics are included into the model through the surface tension and surfactant-dependent dynamic contact angle. In particular, the dynamic contact angle (θd) of the droplet is defined as a function of the surfactant concentration at the contact line and the equilibrium contact angle (θe0) of the clean surface using the nonlinear equation of state for surface tension. Further, the surface forces are included into the model as surface divergence of the surface stress tensor that allows to incorporate the Marangoni effects without calculating the surface gradient of the surfactant concentration on the free surface. In addition to a mesh convergence study and validation of the numerical results with experiments, the effects of adsorption and desorption surfactant coefficients on the flow dynamics in wetting, partially wetting and non-wetting droplets are studied in detail. It is observed that the effects of surfactants are more in wetting droplets than in the non-wetting droplets. Further, the presence of surfactants at the contact line reduces the equilibrium contact angle further when θe0 is less than 90°, and increases it further when θe0 is greater than 90°. Nevertheless, the presence of surfactants has no effect on the contact angle when θe0 = 90 °. The numerical study clearly demonstrates that the surfactant-dependent contact angle has to be considered, in addition to the Marangoni effect, in order to study the flow dynamics and the equilibrium states of surfactant

  3. Physical properties of botanical surfactants. (United States)

    Müller, Lillian Espíndola; Schiedeck, Gustavo


    Some vegetal species have saponins in their composition with great potential to be used as natural surfactants in organic crops. This work aims to evaluate some surfactants physical properties of Quillaja brasiliensis and Agave angustifolia, based on different methods of preparation and concentration. The vegetal samples were prepared by drying and grinding, frozen and after chopped or used fresh and chopped. The neutral bar soap was used as a positive control. The drying and grinding of samples were the preparation method that resulted in higher foam column height in both species but Q. brasiliensis was superior to A. angustifolia in all comparisons and foam index was 2756 and 1017 respectively. Critical micelle concentration of Q. brasiliensis was 0.39% with the superficial tension of 54.40mNm(-1) while neutral bar soap was 0.15% with 34.96mNm(-1). Aspects such as genetic characteristics of the species, environmental conditions, and analytical methods make it difficult to compare the results with other studies, but Q. brasiliensis powder has potential to be explored as a natural surfactant in organic farming. Not only the surfactants physical properties of botanical saponins should be taken into account but also its effect on insects and diseases control when decided using them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Interactions of Ovalbumin with Ionic Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xia; YAN Hui; GUO Rong


    The interactions of ovalbumin (OVA) with one anionic surfactant,sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS),and two cationic surfactants,dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB),in water have been studied through fluorescence and UV-Vis spectroscopies and transmission electronic microscopy,combined with the measurement of conductivity.OVA can increase the critical micelle concentrations (cmc) of SDS and CTAB but has little effect on that of DTAB.The interaction between surfactant monomer and OVA is greater than that between surfactant micelles and OVA.Moreover,SDS can make OVA unfolded while cationic surfactants cannot.

  5. Surfactant gene polymorphisms and interstitial lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelidis Panagiotis


    Full Text Available Abstract Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, which is present in the alveolar lining fluid and is essential for normal lung function. Alterations in surfactant composition have been reported in several interstitial lung diseases (ILDs. Furthermore, a mutation in the surfactant protein C gene that results in complete absence of the protein has been shown to be associated with familial ILD. The role of surfactant in lung disease is therefore drawing increasing attention following the elucidation of the genetic basis underlying its surface expression and the proof of surfactant abnormalities in ILD.

  6. Influence of Surfactant-polymer Complexes on Crystallization and Aggregation of CaCO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Yan; GUO Yu-peng; ZHAO Xu; WANG Zi-chen


    Hollow calcium carbonate(CaCO3) microspheres with different morphologies were synthesized via the precipitation reaction of calcium chloride with sodium carbonate in the presence of different surfactant-polymer complexes.The selected anionic surfactants were sodium dodecyl sulfonate(SDS) and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate(SDBS),respectively.The selected water-soluble polymers were polyacrylic acid(PAA) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone(PVP).In this work,SDS-PVP "pearl-necklace model" micellar complex was formed via hydrophobic effectiveness between SDS and PVP and it served as the spherical template to generate spherical CaCO3 aggregates with hollow microspheres composed of about 500 nm irregular shaped particles.SDS-PAA complexes and SDBS-PAA complexes formed "core-shell model" aggregates with calcium ions serving as the medium to link the anionic surfactant and the polymer.SDS-PAA "core-shell model" aggregates would act as templates for hollow CaCO3 microspheres consisting of 30-50 nm irregular shaped crystallites.SDBS-PAA "core-shell model" aggregates served as the spherical aggregate templates to generate spherical CaCO3 aggregates consisted of many small spherical particles which had grown together.All the obtained CaCO3 hollow microspheres are calcite particles.This research may provide new insight into the control of morphologies of hollow CaCO3 microspheres in the presence of surfactantpolymer complexes.

  7. Paraboloid Shell As Footing


    Al Ansari, Mohammed S.


    A simplified method for the design of paraboloid shell footing base on the displacement of the shell's crown where the column axial load is transferred to the footing has been developed. A case study was presented to demonstrate the use of the proposed method and to illustrate its capabilities. The results of the proposed method confirm the ability of the shell model in determining accurate and practical results for the design of paraboloid shell footing. Base on the analytical results of thi...

  8. Statistical Mechanics of Thin Spherical Shells (United States)

    Košmrlj, Andrej; Nelson, David R.


    We explore how thermal fluctuations affect the mechanics of thin amorphous spherical shells. In flat membranes with a shear modulus, thermal fluctuations increase the bending rigidity and reduce the in-plane elastic moduli in a scale-dependent fashion. This is still true for spherical shells. However, the additional coupling between the shell curvature, the local in-plane stretching modes, and the local out-of-plane undulations leads to novel phenomena. In spherical shells, thermal fluctuations produce a radius-dependent negative effective surface tension, equivalent to applying an inward external pressure. By adapting renormalization group calculations to allow for a spherical background curvature, we show that while small spherical shells are stable, sufficiently large shells are crushed by this thermally generated "pressure." Such shells can be stabilized by an outward osmotic pressure, but the effective shell size grows nonlinearly with increasing outward pressure, with the same universal power-law exponent that characterizes the response of fluctuating flat membranes to a uniform tension.

  9. An anionic surfactant for EOR applications (United States)

    Sagir, Muhammad; Tan, Isa M.; Mushtaq, Muhammad


    This work is to investigate the new anionic surfactants for the Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) application. Sulfonated anionic surfactant was produced by attaching SO3 to an ethoxylated alcohol to increase the performance of the surfactant. Methallyl chloride and ethoxylated alcohol was reacted followed by the reaction with sodium bisulfite to produce anionic sulfonated surfactant in 80.3 % yield. The sulfonation reaction parameters such as reactants mole ratio, reaction temperature and catalyst amount were optimized. The generation and stability of foam from the synthesized surfactant is also tested and results are reported. The synthesized novel surfactant was further investigated for the effect on the CO2 mobility in porous media and the findings are presented here. This in house developed surfactant has a great potential for CO2- EOR applications.

  10. A double injection ADSA-CSD methodology for lung surfactant inhibition and reversal studies. (United States)

    Saad, Sameh M I; Policova, Zdenka; Dang, Andrew; Acosta, Edgar J; Hair, Michael L; Neumann, A Wilhelm


    This paper presents a continuation of the development of a drop shape method for film studies, ADSA-CSD (Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis-Constrained Sessile Drop). ADSA-CSD has certain advantages over conventional methods. The development presented here allows complete exchange of the subphase of a spread or adsorbed film. This feature allows certain studies relevant to lung surfactant research that cannot be readily performed by other means. The key feature of the design is a second capillary into the bulk of the drop to facilitate addition or removal of a secondary liquid. The development will be illustrated through studies concerning lung surfactant inhibition. After forming a sessile drop of a basic lung surfactant preparation, the bulk phase can be removed and exchanged for one containing different inhibitors. Such studies mimic the leakage of plasma and blood proteins into the alveolar spaces altering the surface activity of lung surfactant in a phenomenon called surfactant inhibition. The resistance of the lung surfactant to specific inhibitors can be readily evaluated using the method. The new method is also useful for surfactant reversal studies, i.e. the ability to restore the normal surface activity of an inhibited lung surfactant film by using special additives. Results show a distinctive difference between the inhibition when an inhibitor is mixed with and when it is injected under a preformed surfactant film. None of the inhibitors studied (serum, albumin, fibrinogen, and cholesterol) were able to penetrate a preexisting film formed by the basic preparation (BLES and protasan), while all of them can alter the surface activity of such preparation when mixed with the preparation. Preliminary results show that reversal of serum inhibition can be easily achieved and evaluated using the modified methodology.

  11. The formation of host-guest complexes between surfactants and cyclodextrins. (United States)

    Valente, Artur J M; Söderman, Olle


    Cyclodextrins are able to act as host molecules in supramolecular chemistry with applications ranging from pharmaceutics to detergency. Among guest molecules surfactants play an important role with both fundamental and practical applications. The formation of cyclodextrin/surfactant host-guest compounds leads to an increase in the critical micelle concentration and in the solubility of surfactants. The possibility of changing the balance between several intermolecular forces, and thus allowing the study of, e.g., dehydration and steric hindrance effects upon association, makes surfactants ideal guest molecules for fundamental studies. Therefore, these systems allow for obtaining a deep insight into the host-guest association mechanism. In this paper, we review the influence on the thermodynamic properties of CD-surfactant association by highlighting the effect of different surfactant architectures (single tail, double-tailed, gemini and bolaform), with special emphasis on cationic surfactants. This is complemented with an assessment of the most common analytical techniques used to follow the association process. The applied methods for computation of the association stoichiometry and stability constants are also reviewed and discussed; this is an important point since there are significant discrepancies and scattered data for similar systems in the literature. In general, the surfactant-cyclodextrin association is treated without reference to the kinetics of the process. However, there are several examples where the kinetics of the process can be investigated, in particular those where volumes of the CD cavity and surfactant (either the tail or in special cases the head group) are similar in magnitude. This will also be critically reviewed.

  12. Soap opera : polymer-surfactant interactions on thin film surfaces /

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, B. H. (Byram H.); Johal, M. S. (Malkiat S.); Wang, H. L. (Hsing-Lin); Robinson, J. M. (Jeanne M.)


    Surfactants are macromolecules with unique properties. They commonly contain a polar head group with a nonpolar hydrocarbon chain. These properties allow surfactants to solubilize greases and other nonpolar molecules. One particular way that this is accomplished is through the formation of micelles. Micelles are formed at the critical micelle concentration (cmc), which varies depending upon the nature of the surfactant and also the media in which the surfactant resides. These micelles can take a variety of shapes, but are generally characterized by surrounding the grease with the nonpolar hydrocarbon chains, exposing only the polarized head groups to the media, usually water. This property of easy solubilization has made surfactants a very attractive industrial agent, They are used most conventionally as industrial cleaning agents and detergents. However, they also have lesser-known applications in conjunction with polymers and other macromolecular mixtures, often creating a system with novel properties, such as increased solubilization and smoother mixture consistency. A recently developed field has investigated the self-assembly of polymers and polyelectrolytes onto thin film surfaces. There are many reasons for studying this process, such as for second harmonic generation purposes and bioassays. In this study, the interaction between the anionic polyelectrolyte poly[1-[4-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo)benzenesulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt] (PAZO) and two surfactants of opposite charge, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and Dodecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (DTAB), in their assembly onto thin film surfaces was investigated. The kinetics of adsorbance onto the thin films was examined, followed by construction of 10-bilayer films using an alternating layer of the cationic polyelectrolyte poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) to provide the electrostatic means for the PAZO/surfactant combination to assemble onto the thin film. The kinetics of adsorption is being


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This research presents a novel hybrid process for removing organic chemicals from contaminated water. The process uses surfactant to carry out two unit operations (1) Extraction; (2) Foam flotation. In the first step, surfactant is used to extract most of the amounts of organic contaminants in the stream. In the second step, foam flotation is used to further reduce organic contaminants and recover surfactant from the stream. The process combines the advantages of extraction and foam flotation, which allows the process not only to handle a wide range of organic contaminants, but also to effectively treat a wide range of the concentration of organic contaminants in the stream and reduce it to a very low level. Surfactant regeneration can be done by conventional methods. This process is simple and low cost. The wastes are recoverable. The objective of this research is to develop an environmentally innocuous process for the wastewater or reclaimed water treatment with the ability to handle a wide range of organic contaminants, also to effectively treat a wide range of the concentration of organic contaminants in contaminated water and reduce it to a very low level, finally, provides simpler, less energy cost and economically-practical process design. Another purpose is to promote the environmental concern in minority students and encourage minority students to become more involved in environmental engineering research.

  14. Temperature dependence of transport and equilibrium properties of alkylpyridinium surfactants in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Mohsin Ahmad; Dar, Aijaz Ahmed; Amin, Adil; Rashid, Peer Irfan [Department of Chemistry, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal Srinagar - 190006, J and K (India); Rather, Ghulam Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal Srinagar - 190006, J and K (India)], E-mail:


    Conductivity measurements at varying concentrations and temperatures for two alkyl pyridinium surfactants-dodecylpyridinium chloride (DPC) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in aqueous medium have been performed. The resulting data in the lower concentration range were used for the determination of limiting transport parameters of the surfactant ions. Temperature dependence of limiting ion conductance {lambda}{sub +(surf.cation)}{sup 0} and limiting ion mobility u{sub +(surf.cation)}{sup 0} of surfactant ions were used for determination of standard partial molar enthalpy of activation for ion migration ({delta}H{sub {lambda}{sub +0}}) and the change in activation energy for translational mobility ({delta}E{sub trans}{sup 0}) of water molecules from surfactant ion hydration shell. The conductivity data at higher concentrations were used for determination of equilibrium micellar parameters, viz. critical micelle concentration (cmc), degree of counter ion dissociation ({alpha}), and aggregation number (n). Comparison of such parameters of the two surfactants at different temperatures was made in the light of molecular structure, ion-solvent, ion-ion, and solvent-solvent interactions.

  15. Impact of cationic surfactant on the self-assembly of sodium caseinate. (United States)

    Vinceković, Marko; Curlin, Marija; Jurašin, Darija


    The impact of a cationic surfactant, dodecylammonium chloride (DDACl), on the self-assembly of sodium caseinate (SC) has been investigated by light scattering, zeta potential, and rheological measurements as well as by microscopy (transmission electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy). In SC dilute solutions concentration-dependent self-assembly proceeds through the formation of spherical associates and their aggregation into elongated structures composed of connected spheres. DDACl interacts with SC via its hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, inducing changes in SC self-assembled structures. These changes strongly depend on the surfactant aggregation states (monomeric or micellar) as well as concentration ratio of both components, leading to the formation of soluble and insoluble complexes of nano- to microdimensions. DDACl monomers interact with SC self-assembled entities in a different way compared to their micelles. Surfactant monomers form soluble complexes (similar to surfactant mixed micelles) at lower SC concentration but insoluble gelatinous complexes at higher SC concentration. At surfactant micellar concentration soluble complexes with casein chains wrapped around surfactant micelles are formed. This study suggests that the use of proper cationic surfactant concentration will allow modification and control of structural changes of SC self-assembled entities.

  16. Adsorption of dimeric surfactants in lamellar silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcerzak, Mateusz; Pietralik, Zuzanna [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Domka, Ludwik [Department of Metalorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznań (Poland); Skrzypczak, Andrzej [Institute of Chemical Technology, Poznań University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, 60-965 Poznań (Poland); Kozak, Maciej, E-mail: [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)


    Highlights: • The intercalation of dimeric surfactants changed the morphology of MMT samples. • XRD indicated structures formed by surfactant molecules in interlayer space. • The four-step thermal decomposition of dimeric surfactant, confirms intercalation. - Abstract: The adsorption of different types of cationic surfactants in lamellar silicates changes their surface character from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. This study was undertaken to obtain lamellar silicates modified by a series of novel dimeric (gemini) surfactants of different length alkyl chains and to characterise these organophilised materials. Synthetic sodium montmorillonite SOMASIF® ME 100 (M) and enriched bentonite of natural origin (Nanoclay – hydrophilic bentonite®) were organophilised with dimeric (gemini) surfactants (1,1′-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(alkoxymethyl)imidazolium dichlorides). As a result of surfactant molecule adsorption in interlamellar space, the d-spacing (d{sub 001}) increased from 0.97 nm (for the anhydrous structure) to 2.04 nm. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the modified systems reveals bands assigned to the stretching vibrations of the CH{sub 2} and CH{sub 3} groups and the scissoring vibrations of the NH group from the structure of the dimeric surfactants. Thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) studies imply a four-stage process of surfactant decomposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images provide information on the influence of dimeric surfactant intercalation into the silicate structures. Particles of the modified systems show a tendency toward the formation of irregularly shaped agglomerates.

  17. Surfactants in tribology, v.3

    CERN Document Server

    Biresaw, Girma


    The manufacture and use of almost every consumer and industrial product rely on application of advanced knowledge in surface science and tribology. These two disciplines are of critical importance in major economic sectors, such as mining, agriculture, manufacturing (including metals, plastics, wood, computers, MEMS, NEMS, appliances), construction, transportation, and medical instruments, transplants, and diagnostic devices. An up-to-date reference with contributions by experts in surface science and tribology, Surfactants in Tribology, Volume 3 discusses some of the underlying tribological a

  18. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Detergent Surfactants


    Erich Jelen; Ute Merrettig-Bruns


    Detergent surfactantscan be found in wastewater in relevant concentrations. Most of them are known as ready degradable under aerobic conditions, as required by European legislation. Far fewer surfactants have been tested so far for biodegradability under anaerobic conditions. The natural environment is predominantly aerobic, but there are some environmental compartments such as river sediments, sub-surface soil layer and anaerobic sludge digesters of wastewater treatment plants which have str...

  19. DNA-surfactant complexes: self-assembly properties and applications. (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Zheng, Lifei; Ma, Chao; Göstl, Robert; Herrmann, Andreas


    Over the last few years, DNA-surfactant complexes have gained traction as unique and powerful materials for potential applications ranging from optoelectronics to biomedicine because they self-assemble with outstanding flexibility spanning packing modes from ordered lamellar, hexagonal and cubic structures to disordered isotropic phases. These materials consist of a DNA backbone from which the surfactants protrude as non-covalently bound side chains. Their formation is electrostatically driven and they form bulk films, lyotropic as well as thermotropic liquid crystals and hydrogels. This structural versatility and their easy-to-tune properties render them ideal candidates for assembly in bulk films, for example granting directional conductivity along the DNA backbone, for dye dispersion minimizing fluorescence quenching allowing applications in lasing and nonlinear optics or as electron blocking and hole transporting layers, such as in LEDs or photovoltaic cells, owing to their extraordinary dielectric properties. However, they do not only act as host materials but also function as a chromophore itself. They can be employed within electrochromic DNA-surfactant liquid crystal displays exhibiting remarkable absorptivity in the visible range whose volatility can be controlled by the external temperature. Concomitantly, applications in the biological field based on DNA-surfactant bulk films, liquid crystals and hydrogels are rendered possible by their excellent gene and drug delivery capabilities. Beyond the mere exploitation of their material properties, DNA-surfactant complexes proved outstandingly useful for synthetic chemistry purposes when employed as scaffolds for DNA-templated reactions, nucleic acid modifications or polymerizations. These promising examples are by far not exhaustive but foreshadow their potential applications in yet unexplored fields. Here, we will give an insight into the peculiarities and perspectives of each material and are confident to

  20. Surfactant inhibition in acute respiratory failure : consequences for exogenous surfactant therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.P. Eijking (Eric)


    textabstractThe neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is characterized by immaturity of the lung, resulting in relative or absolute absence of pulmonary surfactant. Worldwide, neonates suffering from RDS have been treated successfully with exogenous surfactant preparations. Currently, exogeno

  1. Calcium Phosphate Bone Cements Including Sugar Surfactants: Part Two—Injectability, Adhesive Properties and Biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Briand-Mesange


    Full Text Available Addition of sugar surfactants, sucrose fatty acid esters and alkylpolyglucosides to a calcium phosphate cement, designed for bone reconstruction, is described. Thanks to their adsorption at the surface of the calcium phosphate particles, the sugar surfactants allowed a full injectability and brought a very good workability. Injectability was measured by monitoring force-distance curves. With some of the selected sugar surfactants adhesive properties of the cement pastes were also observed, which were measured by tack tests. Finally, some properties related to biological applications are described, including gentamicine release and osteoblast viability experiments. The whole study demonstrates that addition of these mild surfactants improved several properties of the calcium phosphate cement, without impairing function.

  2. Electronic structure and mesoscopic simulations of nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactants. a combined DFT and DPD study. (United States)

    Valencia, Diego; Aburto, Jorge; García-Cruz, Isidoro


    The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of ethylene oxide (EO) chains on the properties of a series of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE) surfactants. We performed a theoretical study of NPE surfactants by means of density functional theory (DFT) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). Both approximations were used separately to obtain different properties. Four NPEs were selected for this purpose (EO = 4, 7, 11 and 15 length chains). DFT methods provided some electronic properties that are related to the EO units. One of them is the solvation Gibbs energy, which exhibited a linear trend with EO chain length. DPD calculations allow us to observe the dynamic behavior in water of the NPE surfactants. We propose a coarse-grained model which properly simulates the mesophases of each surfactant. This model can be used in other NPEs applications.

  3. Electronic Structure and Mesoscopic Simulations of Nonylphenol Ethoxylate Surfactants. A Combined DFT and DPD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro García-Cruz


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of ethylene oxide (EO chains on the properties of a series of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE surfactants. We performed a theoretical study of NPE surfactants by means of density functional theory (DFT and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD. Both approximations were used separately to obtain different properties. Four NPEs were selected for this purpose (EO = 4, 7, 11 and 15 length chains. DFT methods provided some electronic properties that are related to the EO units. One of them is the solvation Gibbs energy, which exhibited a linear trend with EO chain length. DPD calculations allow us to observe the dynamic behavior in water of the NPE surfactants. We propose a coarse-grained model which properly simulates the mesophases of each surfactant. This model can be used in other NPEs applications.

  4. Cationic versus anionic surfactant in tuning the structure and interaction of nanoparticle, protein, and surfactant complexes. (United States)

    Mehan, Sumit; Aswal, Vinod K; Kohlbrecher, Joachim


    The structure and interaction in complexes of anionic Ludox HS40 silica nanoparticle, anionic bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein, and cationic dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) surfactant have been studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The results are compared with similar complexes having anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant (Mehan, S; Chinchalikar, A. J.; Kumar, S.; Aswal, V. K.; Schweins, R. Langmuir 2013, 29, 11290). In both cases (DTAB and SDS), the structure in nanoparticle-protein-surfactant complexes is predominantly determined by the interactions of the individual two-component systems. The nanoparticle-surfactant (mediated through protein-surfactant complex) and protein-surfactant interactions for DTAB, but nanoparticle-protein (mediated through protein-surfactant complex) and protein-surfactant interactions for SDS, are found to be responsible for the resultant structure of nanoparticle-protein-surfactant complexes. Irrespective of the charge on the surfactant, the cooperative binding of surfactant with protein leads to micellelike clusters of surfactant formed along the unfolded protein chain. The adsorption of these protein-surfactant complexes for DTAB on oppositely charged nanoparticles gives rise to the protein-surfactant complex-mediated aggregation of nanoparticles (similar to that of DTAB surfactant). It is unlike that of depletion-induced aggregation of nanoparticles with nonadsorption of protein-surfactant complexes for SDS in similarly charged nanoparticle systems (similar to that of protein alone). The modifications in nanoparticle aggregation as well as unfolding of protein in these systems as compared to the corresponding two-component systems have also been examined by selectively contrast matching the constituents.

  5. Surfactant-enhanced cellulose nanocrystal Pickering emulsions. (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Ballinger, Sarah; Pelton, Robert; Cranston, Emily D


    The effect of surfactants on the properties of Pickering emulsions stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) was investigated. Electrophoretic mobility, interfacial tension, confocal microscopy and three-phase contact angle measurements were used to elucidate the interactions between anionic CNCs and cationic alkyl ammonium surfactants didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Both surfactants were found to adsorb onto CNCs with concentration-dependent morphology. At low concentrations, individual surfactant molecules adsorbed with alkyl tails pointing outward leading to hydrophobic CNCs. At higher concentrations, above the surfactant's apparent critical micelle concentration, surfactant aggregate morphologies on CNCs were inferred and the hydrophobicity of CNCs decreased. DMAB, which has two alkyl tails, rendered the CNCs more hydrophobic than CTAB which has only a single alkyl tail, at all surfactant concentrations. The change in CNC wettability from surfactant adsorption was directly linked to emulsion properties; adding surfactant increased the emulsion stability, decreased the droplet size, and controlled the internal phase of CNC Pickering emulsions. More specifically, a double transitional phase inversion, from oil-in-water to water-in-oil and back to oil-in-water, was observed for emulsions with CNCs and increasing amounts of DMAB (the more hydrophobic surfactant). With CNCs and CTAB, no phase inversion was induced. This work represents the first report of CNC Pickering emulsions with surfactants as well as the first CNC Pickering emulsions that can be phase inverted. The ability to surface modify CNCs in situ and tailor emulsions by adding surfactants may extend the potential of CNCs to new liquid formulations and extruded/spray-dried materials.

  6. Using biologically soft surfactants for dust suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachenko, N.G.; Kolodiichak, V.K.; Motrii, A.E.; Severin, V.D.


    This article discusses environmental aspects of using surfactants in coal mines for dust suppression. Surfactants for underground black coal mines in the USSR are divided into three classes: so-called soft surfactants with a decomposition period from 1 to 3 days, hard surfactants with decomposition exceeding a month and an intermediary group. The decomposition process is analyzed; the role played by fermentation is stressed. Environmental effects of surfactant decomposition are evaluated. Selected surfactants tested in Soviet laboratories are described. The results of experimental use of diethanolamide as a surfactant for water injection in coal seams are evaluated. Wetting time amounts to 1 s when a 0.2% concentration is used. When surfactant concentration in water is reduced to 0.05% wetting time does not change; when concentration decreases to 0.025% wetting time increases to 3 s. Surfactant efficiency is investigated under operational conditions in a Donbass mine. Specifications of the working face, mining system and air pollution caused by a shearer loader are discussed. When diethanolamide is used dust suppression efficiency ranges from 86.4 to 90.4%. During the tests diethanolamide concentration in water was 0.05%.

  7. Remediation using trace element humate surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Taylor, Steven Cheney; Bruhn, Debra Fox


    A method of remediation at a remediation site having one or more undesirable conditions in which one or more soil characteristics, preferably soil pH and/or elemental concentrations, are measured at a remediation site. A trace element humate surfactant composition is prepared comprising a humate solution, element solution and at least one surfactant. The prepared trace element humate surfactant composition is then dispensed onto the remediation site whereby the trace element humate surfactant composition will reduce the amount of undesirable compounds by promoting growth of native species activity. By promoting native species activity, remediation occurs quickly and environmental impact is minimal.

  8. Surfactant nebulisation : lung function, surfactant distribution and pulmonary blood flow distribution in lung lavaged rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Peter H.; Heikamp, A; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto


    Objective: Surfactant nebulisation is a promising alternative to surfactant instillation in newborns with the respiratory distress syndrome. Although less surfactant is deposited in the lung, it improves gas exchange, probably due to a superior distribution. We hypothesize that a more uniform distri

  9. Biophysical inhibition of pulmonary surfactant function by polymeric nanoparticles: role of surfactant protein B and C. (United States)

    Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Ruppert, Clemens; Schmehl, Thomas; Günther, Andreas; Seeger, Werner


    The current study investigated the mechanisms involved in the process of biophysical inhibition of pulmonary surfactant by polymeric nanoparticles (NP). The minimal surface tension of diverse synthetic surfactants was monitored in the presence of bare and surface-decorated (i.e. poloxamer 407) sub-100 nm poly(lactide) NP. Moreover, the influence of NP on surfactant composition (i.e. surfactant protein (SP) content) was studied. Dose-elevations of SP advanced the biophysical activity of the tested surfactant preparation. Surfactant-associated protein C supplemented phospholipid mixtures (PLM-C) were shown to be more susceptible to biophysical inactivation by bare NP than phospholipid mixture supplemented with surfactant protein B (PLM-B) and PLM-B/C. Surfactant function was hindered owing to a drastic depletion of the SP content upon contact with bare NP. By contrast, surface-modified NP were capable of circumventing unwanted surfactant inhibition. Surfactant constitution influences the extent of biophysical inhibition by polymeric NP. Steric shielding of the NP surface minimizes unwanted NP-surfactant interactions, which represents an option for the development of surfactant-compatible nanomedicines.

  10. Surfactant nebulisation : lung function, surfactant distribution and pulmonary blood flow distribution in lung lavaged rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Peter H.; Heikamp, A; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto


    Objective: Surfactant nebulisation is a promising alternative to surfactant instillation in newborns with the respiratory distress syndrome. Although less surfactant is deposited in the lung, it improves gas exchange, probably due to a superior distribution. We hypothesize that a more uniform distri

  11. Biomineralisation in Mollusc shells (United States)

    Dauphin, Y.; Cuif, J. P.; Salomé, M.; Williams, C. T.


    and polysaccharides, with a large range of molecular weights. Proteins are rich in acidic aminoacids (aspartic and glutamic acids). Sugars are usually sulphated, and very acidic. Several hundreds of proteins and sugars are present in the SOM. The compositions of IOM and SOM are characteristic for each layer present in a shell. Topographical relationships of mineral and organic components are visible at different scales of observation. SEM images of etched surfaces display the growth line rhythmicity and concordance between adjacent microstructural units. EPMA maps show similar chemical growth lines in various structures. Whatever the taxa, the average thickness of growth lines is about 2-3 µm, indicating an inner biological rhythm, not dependant on the environmental conditions. Such growth lines are observed in deep sea molluscs at depth where diurnal changes in light and temperature are absent. However, the role of the environment is shown by larger periodicities. Sulphur deserves a special interest, because it is associated with the organic matrices. Electrophoretic data have shown that acidic sulphated sugars are abundant in some layers. XANES analyses confirm these results. New microscopic techniques allow us to obtain images at a submicrometer scale. AFM images show that all the microstructural units (i.e. tablets, prisms etc.), calcite or aragonite, are composed of small sub-spherical granules with a diameter typically of about 50 nm. These granules are surrounded by a thin cortex (about 8 nm) of organic and/or amorphous material, and are organo-composite material as shown by phase images. They do not have crystalline shapes, despite the fact that the units they build are often monocrystalline. Molecular biology and genetic studies confirm that the control of the biomineralisation process is exerted at the scale of the whole organism: the expression of genes encoding major shell matrix proteins clearly indicates a regular separation of calcite and aragonite

  12. Evaluation of a common commercial surfactant in a water recycle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rector, T.; Jackson, A.; Rainwater, K. [Texas Tech Univ., Water Resources Center, Texas (United States); Pickering, S. [Johnson Space Center, NASA, Houston, Texas (United States)


    The fate of a common commercial surfactant was investigated in the biological reactors of a water recycle system. A NO{sub 2}{sup -} reducing packed-bed bioreactor was employed to evaluate degradation of surfactant present in a typical greywater stream. The research was conducted to determine if an alternative commercial surfactant could be used in a biological water recycle system proposed for space travel in place of the current surfactant. The commercial soap used in the research was Pert Plus for Kids (PPK), which contains sodium laureth sulfate (SLES) as the active surfactant. Experiments included a combination of microcosm studies as well as a continuous-flow packed-bed bioreactor. The hydraulic retention time of the packed-bed bioreactor was varied through changes in flow rate to yield different steady-state values for NO{sub 2}-N, TOC, and COD. Steady-state values will allow the determination of the bacterial kinetic parameters. Initial results suggest that the commercial surfactant may be difficult to treat in the time frame of typical biological systems. NO{sub 2}{sup -} reduction was favorable in the packed-bed reactor, but TOC removal rates did not correspond to the NO{sub 2}{sup -} removal. It is theorized that, due to its high K{sub oc} value (1200), SLES has an affinity to absorb to the media contained in the bed, which in turn allows for adsorption of the surfactant. Future research will include development of an isotherm model to characterize the adsorption rates and correlate them to surfactant removal. (author)

  13. Spiral Shell Collection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In 1988 Zheng Haigen, a seaman with the Towboat Company of the Shanghai Salvage Bureau, began collecting spiral shells. Today he has more than 600 in his collection. The most valuable are the rare parrot shell and a shell whose spirals wind counter-clockwise. In 1991 a miniature conch with a diameter of 0.31 millimeters that he found buried in tons of sand made the Guinness Book of World Records.

  14. Off-Shell Tachyons


    Tang, Yi-Lei


    The idea that the new particles invented in some models beyond the standard model can appear only inside the loops is attractive. In this paper, we fill these loops with off-shell tachyons, leading to a solution of the zero results of the loop diagrams involving the off-shell non-tachyonic particles. We also calculate the Passarino-Veltman $A_0^o$ and $B_0^o$ of the off-shell tachyons.

  15. Shell-like structures

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm


    In this volume, scientists and researchers from industry discuss the new trends in simulation and computing shell-like structures. The focus is put on the following problems: new theories (based on two-dimensional field equations but describing non-classical effects), new constitutive equations (for materials like sandwiches, foams, etc. and which can be combined with the two-dimensional shell equations), complex structures (folded, branching and/or self intersecting shell structures, etc.) and shell-like structures on different scales (for example: nano-tubes) or very thin structures (similar

  16. Production Technology and Physicochemical Properties of Composition Containing Surfactant Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Novochadov


    Full Text Available The article describes a production method of substance containing great amount of phospolipids (up to 36 % and surfactant proteins (up to 2 % in terms of lyophilisate composition. Basic physical and chemical characteristics of the substance (density, viscosity, surface tension and the coefficient of sliding friction indicate a high lubricant capacity of the derived product. These properties are kept when mixed with native human synovial fluid in the ratio of 1 to 9 inclusive. The obtained data allows to consider the derived composition, containing surfactant proteins and phospholipids, a variety of bionic lubricant suitable for testing as a potential equivalent of synovial fluid which can be used in traumatology and orthopedics, a cosmetic component or agent which increases the stability of the cell suspension during culturing in bioreactors.

  17. Droplet Deformation in an Extensional Flow: The Role of Surfactant Physical Chemistry (United States)

    Stebe, Kathleen J.


    Surfactant-induced Marangoni effects strongly alter the stresses exerted along fluid particle interfaces. In low gravity processes, these stresses can dictate the system behavior. The dependence of Marangoni effects on surfactant physical chemistry is not understood, severely impacting our ability to predict and control fluid particle flows. A droplet in an extensional flow allows the controlled study of stretching and deforming interfaces. The deformations of the drop allow both Marangoni stresses, which resist tangential shear, and Marangoni elasticities, which resist surface dilatation, to develop. This flow presents an ideal model system for studying these effects. Prior surfactant-related work in this flow considered a linear dependence of the surface tension on the surface concentration, valid only at dilute surface concentrations, or a non-linear framework at concentrations sufficiently dilute that the linear approximation was valid. The linear framework becomes inadequate for several reasons. The finite dimensions of surfactant molecules must be taken into account with a model that includes surfaces saturation. Nonideal interactions between adsorbed surfactant molecules alter the partitioning of surfactant between the bulk and the interface, the dynamics of surfactant adsorptive/desorptive exchange, and the sensitivity of the surface tension to adsorbed surfactant. For example, cohesion between hydrocarbon chains favors strong adsorption. Cohesion also slows the rate of desorption from interfaces, and decreases the sensitivity of the surface tension to adsorbed surfactant. Strong cohesive interactions result in first order surface phase changes with a plateau in the surface tension vs surface concentration. Within this surface concentration range, the surface tension is decoupled from surface concentration gradients. We are engaged in the study of the role of surfactant physical chemistry in determining the Marangoni stresses on a drop in an extensional

  18. Hemolysis by surfactants--A review. (United States)

    Manaargadoo-Catin, Magalie; Ali-Cherif, Anaïs; Pougnas, Jean-Luc; Perrin, Catherine


    An overview of the use of surfactants for erythrocyte lysis and their cell membrane action mechanisms is given. Erythrocyte membrane characteristics and its association with the cell cytoskeleton are presented in order to complete understanding of the erythrocyte membrane distortion. Cell homeostasis disturbances caused by surfactants might induce changes starting from shape modification to cell lysis. Two main mechanisms are hypothesized in literature which are osmotic lysis and lysis by solubilization even if the boundary between them is not clearly defined. Another specific mechanism based on the formation of membrane pores is suggested in the particular case of saponins. The lytic potency of a surfactant is related to its affinity for the membrane and the modification of the lipid membrane curvature. This is to be related to the surfactant shape defined by its hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties but also by experimental conditions. As a consequence, prediction of the hemolytic potency of a given surfactant is challenging. Several studies are focused on the relation between surfactant erythrolytic potency and their physico-chemical parameters such as the critical micellar concentration (CMC), the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB), the surfactant membrane/water partition coefficient (K) or the packing parameter (P). The CMC is one of the most important factors considered even if a lytic activity cut-off effect points out that the only consideration of CMC not enough predictive. The relation K.CMC must be considered in addition to the CMC to predict the surfactant lytic capacity within the same family of non ionic surfactant. Those surfactant structure/lytic activity studies demonstrate the requirement to take into account a combination of physico-chemical parameters to understand and foresee surfactant lytic potency.

  19. Limit-point buckling analyses using solid, shell and elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killpack, Marc; Abed-Meraim, Farid [CNRS, Metz Cedex (France)


    In this paper, the recently-developed solid-shell element SHB8PS is used for the analysis of a representative set of popular limit-point buckling benchmark problems. For this purpose, the element has been implemented in Abaqus/Standard finite element software and the modified Riks method was employed as an efficient path-following strategy. For the benchmark problems tested, the new element shows better performance compared to solid elements and often performs as well as state-of-the-art shell elements. In contrast to shell elements, it allows for the accurate prescription of boundary conditions as applied to the actual edges of the structure.

  20. Structured fluids polymers, colloids, surfactants

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Thomas A


    Over the last thirty years, the study of liquids containing polymers, surfactants, or colloidal particles has developed from a loose assembly of facts into a coherent discipline with substantial predictive power. These liquids expand our conception of what condensed matter can do. Such structured-fluid phenomena dominate the physical environment within living cells. This book teaches how to think of these fluids from a unified point of view showing the far-reaching effects ofthermal fluctuations in producing forces and motions. Keeping mathematics to a minimum, the book seeks the simplest expl

  1. Innovation in surfactant therapy I: surfactant lavage and surfactant administration by fluid bolus using minimally invasive techniques. (United States)

    Dargaville, Peter A


    Innovation in the field of exogenous surfactant therapy continues more than two decades after the drug became commercially available. One such innovation, lung lavage using dilute surfactant, has been investigated in both laboratory and clinical settings as a treatment for meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Studies in animal models of MAS have affirmed that dilute surfactant lavage can remove meconium from the lung, with resultant improvement in lung function. In human infants both non-randomised studies and two randomised controlled trials have demonstrated a potential benefit of dilute surfactant lavage over standard care. The largest clinical trial, performed by our research group in infants with severe MAS, found that lung lavage using two 15-ml/kg aliquots of dilute surfactant did not reduce the duration of respiratory support, but did appear to reduce the composite outcome of death or need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. A further trial of lavage therapy is planned to more precisely define the effect on survival. Innovative approaches to surfactant therapy have also extended to the preterm infant, for whom the more widespread use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has meant delaying or avoiding administration of surfactant. In an effort to circumvent this problem, less invasive techniques of bolus surfactant therapy have been trialled, including instillation directly into the pharynx, via laryngeal mask and via brief tracheal catheterisation. In a recent clinical trial, instillation of surfactant into the trachea using a flexible feeding tube was found to reduce the need for subsequent intubation. We have developed an alternative method of brief tracheal catheterisation in which surfactant is delivered via a semi-rigid vascular catheter inserted through the vocal cords under direct vision. In studies to date, this technique has been relatively easy to perform, and resulted in rapid improvement in lung function and reduced need for

  2. On the mesoscopic origins of high viscosities in some polyelectrolyte-surfactant mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Ingo, E-mail: [Stranski-Laboratorium für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 124, Sekr. TC 7, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin (ILL), F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Farago, Bela; Schweins, Ralf; Falus, Peter; Sharp, Melissa [Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin (ILL), F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Prévost, Sylvain [Stranski-Laboratorium für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 124, Sekr. TC 7, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Gradzielski, Michael, E-mail: [Stranski-Laboratorium für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 124, Sekr. TC 7, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)


    Oppositely charged polyelectrolyte (PE) surfactant mixtures allow the control of rheological parameters of a solution even at fairly low concentrations. For example, addition of 0.3 wt. % of anionic surfactant to a 1 wt. % solution of the polycation JR 400 increases the viscosity by 4 orders of magnitude. Recently, we could show that this increase is related to the formation of mixed, rod-like PE/surfactant aggregates which interconnect several polyelectrolyte chains [Hoffmann et al., Europhys. Lett. 104, 28001 (2013)]. In this paper, we refine our structural model of the aggregates to obtain a more consistent picture of their internal structure for different anionic surfactants. Combining small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and neutron spin-echo (NSE) allows us to determine the size of the aggregates. By comparing different contrasts, the internal structure of the aggregates can be elucidated and it is seen that the PE in the aggregates retains a relatively high freedom of movement. We proceeded to investigate the influence of the surfactant concentration and the surfactant type on structure and dynamics of the mixed aggregates. It is seen that the structural parameters of the aggregates depend very little on the surfactant concentration and headgroup. However, it is crucial to incorporate a sufficient amount of PE in the aggregates to increase the viscosity of the aggregates. By comparing viscous samples at 1 wt. % PE concentration with samples at a PE concentration of 0.3 wt. %, where no significant increase in viscosity is observed, we find that similar aggregates are formed already at this lower PE concentrations. However, the amount of PE incorporated in them is insufficient to interconnect several PE chains and therefore, they do not increase viscosity. So, our detailed investigation combining contrast variation SANS and NSE does not only allow to explain the viscosity behavior but also to deduced detailed information regarding the structures and

  3. Surfactant Adsorption: A Revised Physical Chemistry Lab (United States)

    Bresler, Marc R.; Hagen, John P.


    Many physical chemistry lab courses include an experiment in which students measure surface tension as a function of surfactant concentration. In the traditional experiment, the data are fit to the Gibbs isotherm to determine the molar area for the surfactant, and the critical micelle concentration is used to calculate the Gibbs energy of micelle…

  4. Surfactant effects on soil aggregate tensile strength (United States)

    Little is known regarding a soil aggregate's tensile strength response to surfactants that may be applied to alleviate soil water repellency. Two laboratory investigations were performed to determine surfactant effects on the tensile strength of 1) Ap horizons of nine wettable, agricultural soils co...

  5. Generalized synthesis of mesoporous shells on zeolite crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yu


    A simple and generalized synthetic approach is developed for creating mesoporous shells on zeolite crystals. This method allows for the tailoring of thickness, pore size, and composition of the mesoporous shell, and can be applied to zeolites of various structures, compositions, and crystal sizes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Metathesis depolymerization for removable surfactant templates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zifer, Thomas (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Wheeler, David Roger; Rahimian, Kamayar; McElhanon, James Ross (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Long, Timothy Michael; Jamison, Gregory Marks; Loy, Douglas Anson (Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, NM); Kline, Steven R. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD); Simmons, Blake Alexander (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)


    Current methodologies for the production of meso- and nanoporous materials include the use of a surfactant to produce a self-assembled template around which the material is formed. However, post-production surfactant removal often requires centrifugation, calcination, and/or solvent washing which can damage the initially formed material architecture(s). Surfactants that can be disassembled into easily removable fragments following material preparation would minimize processing damage to the material structure, facilitating formation of templated hybrid architectures. Herein, we describe the design and synthesis of novel cationic and anionic surfactants with regularly spaced unsaturation in their hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails and the first application of ring closing metathesis depolymerization to surfactant degradation resulting in the mild, facile decomposition of these new compounds to produce relatively volatile nonsurface active remnants.

  7. Solid mesostructured polymer-surfactant films at the air-liquid interface. (United States)

    Pegg, Jonathan C; Eastoe, Julian


    Pioneering work by Edler et al. has spawned a new sub-set of mesostructured materials. These are solid, self-supporting films comprising surfactant micelles encased within polymer hydrogel; composite polymer-surfactant films can be grown spontaneously at the air-liquid interface and have defined and controllable mesostructures. Addition of siliconalkoxide to polymer-surfactant mixtures allows for the growth of mesostructured hybrid polymer-surfactant silica films that retain film geometry after calcinations and exhibit superior mechanical properties to typically brittle inorganic films. Growing films at the air-liquid interface provides a rapid and simple means to prepare ordered solid inorganic films, and to date the only method for generating mesostructured films thick enough (up to several hundred microns) to be removed from the interface. Applications of these films could range from catalysis to encapsulation of hydrophobic species and drug delivery. Film properties and mesostructures are sensitive to surfactant structure, polymer properties and polymer-surfactant phase behaviour: herein it will be shown how film mesostructure can be tailored by directing these parameters, and some interesting analogies will be drawn with more familiar mesostructured silica materials.

  8. "SP-G", a putative new surfactant protein--tissue localization and 3D structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Rausch

    Full Text Available Surfactant proteins (SP are well known from human lung. These proteins assist the formation of a monolayer of surface-active phospholipids at the liquid-air interface of the alveolar lining, play a major role in lowering the surface tension of interfaces, and have functions in innate and adaptive immune defense. During recent years it became obvious that SPs are also part of other tissues and fluids such as tear fluid, gingiva, saliva, the nasolacrimal system, and kidney. Recently, a putative new surfactant protein (SFTA2 or SP-G was identified, which has no sequence or structural identity to the already know surfactant proteins. In this work, computational chemistry and molecular-biological methods were combined to localize and characterize SP-G. With the help of a protein structure model, specific antibodies were obtained which allowed the detection of SP-G not only on mRNA but also on protein level. The localization of this protein in different human tissues, sequence based prediction tools for posttranslational modifications and molecular dynamic simulations reveal that SP-G has physicochemical properties similar to the already known surfactant proteins B and C. This includes also the possibility of interactions with lipid systems and with that, a potential surface-regulatory feature of SP-G. In conclusion, the results indicate SP-G as a new surfactant protein which represents an until now unknown surfactant protein class.

  9. Microwave corneosurfametry: a minute assessment of the skin compatibility of surfactant-containing products. (United States)

    Goffin, V; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E


    Surfactants may elicit several undesirable effects on the skin. The stratum corneum is one of the targets showing primary changes after a short contact with detergents. Corneosurfametry was introduced as an ex vivo bioassay to assess the interaction and compatibility of surfactants with human stratum corneum. The present work introduces a variant of the regular corneosurfametry test. Microwaving set at 750 W for 30 s was used to shorten the duration of the technical procedure and to allow the rating of neat surfactant-containing products. The color of samples (L.* and Chroma C*) was measured to derive the colorimetric index of mildness (CIM), the values of which rise from 0 to 70 with increasing surfactant mildness toward human stratum corneum. Data were compared with standard corneosurfametry performed at 20 and 40°C. Data indicate that increasing the temperature of the test solutions and microwaving alter the CIM values of most surfactants. Only the most gentle products are little affected. An overall good correlation exists between the regular and microwave corneosurfametry data. Microwave corneosurfametry is a new sensitive tool for predicting skin compatibility of surfactants.

  10. A Computational Study of the Rheology and Structure of Surfactant Covered Droplets (United States)

    Maia, Joao; Boromand, Arman

    Using different types of surface-active agents are ubiquitous in different industrial applications ranging from cosmetic and food industries to polymeric nano-composite and blends. This allows to produce stable multiphasic systems like foams and emulsions whose stability and shelf-life are directly determined by the efficiency and the type of the surfactant molecules. Moreover, presence and self-assembly of these species on an interface will display complex dynamics and structural evolution under different processing conditions. Analogous to bulk rheology of complex systems, surfactant covered interfaces will response to an external mechanical forces or deformation differently depends on the molecular configuration and topology of the system constituents. Although the effect of molecular configuration of the surface-active molecules on the planar interfaces has been studied both experimentally and computationally, it remains challenging from both experimental and computational aspects to track efficiency and effectiveness of different surfactant molecules with different molecular geometries on curved interfaces. Using Dissipative Particle Dynamics, we have studies effectiveness and efficiency of different surfactant molecules on a curved interface in equilibrium and far from equilibrium. Interfacial tension is calculated for linear and branched surfactant with different hydrophobic and hydrophilic tail and head groups with different branching densities. Deformation parameter and Taylor plots are obtained for individual surfactant molecules under shear flow.

  11. Immobilization of fungal laccase onto a nonionic surfactant-modified clay material: application to PAH degradation. (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Tang; Lee, Jiunn-Fwu; Liu, Keng-Hua; Liao, Yi-Fen; Yang, Vivian


    Nonionic surfactant-modified clay is a useful absorbent material that effectively removes hydrophobic organic compounds from soil/groundwater. We developed a novel material by applying an immobilized fungal laccase onto nonionic surfactant-modified clay. Low-water-solubility polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (naphthalene/phenanthrene) were degraded in the presence of this bioactive material. PAH degradation by free laccase was higher than degradation by immobilized laccase when the surfactant concentration was allowed to form micelles. PAH degradation by immobilized laccase on TX-100-modified clay was higher than on Brij35-modified clay. Strong laccase degradation of PAH can be maintained by adding surfactant monomers or micelles. The physical adsorption of nonionic surfactants onto clay plays an important role in PAH degradation by laccase, which can be explained by the structure and molecular interactions of the surfactant with the clay and enzyme. A system where laccase is immobilized onto TX-100-monomer-modified clay is a good candidate bioactive material for in situ PAHs bioremediation.

  12. Lithography-free shell-substrate isolation for core-shell GaAs nanowires. (United States)

    Haggren, Tuomas; Perros, Alexander Pyymaki; Jiang, Hua; Huhtio, Teppo; Kakko, Joona-Pekko; Dhaka, Veer; Kauppinen, Esko; Lipsanen, Harri


    A facile and scalable lithography-free technique(5) for the rapid construction of GaAs core-shell nanowires incorporating shell isolation from the substrate is reported. The process is based on interrupting NW growth and applying a thin spin-on-glass (SOG) layer to the base of the NWs and resuming core-shell NW growth. NW growth occurred in an atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) system with gold nanoparticles used as catalysts for the vapour-liquid-solid growth. It is shown that NW axial core growth and radial shell growth can be resumed after interruption and even exposure to air. The SOG residues and native oxide layer that forms on the NW surface are shown to prevent or perturb resumption of epitaxial NW growth if not removed. Both HF etching and in situ annealing of the air-exposed NWs in the MOVPE were shown to remove the SOG residues and native oxide layer. While both procedures are shown capable of removing the native oxide and enabling resumption of epitaxial NW growth, in situ annealing produced the best results and allowed construction of pristine core-shell NWs. No growth occurred on SOG and it was observed that axial NW growth was more rapid when a SOG layer covered the substrate. The fabricated p-core/n-shell NWs exhibited diode behaviour upon electrical testing. The isolation of the NW shells from the substrate was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and electrical measurements. The crystal quality of the regrown core-shell NWs was verified with a high resolution transmission electron microscope. The reported technique potentially provides a pathway using MOVPE for scalable and high-throughput production of shell-substrate isolated core-shell NWs on an industrial scale.

  13. Summer/winter variability of the surfactants in aerosols from Grenoble, France (United States)

    Baduel, Christine; Nozière, Barbara; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc


    Many atmospheric aerosols seem to contain strong organic surfactants likely to enhance their cloud-forming properties. Yet, few techniques allow for the identification and characterization of these compounds. Recently, we introduced a double extraction method to isolate the surfactant fraction of atmospheric aerosol samples, and evidenced their very low surface tension (≤30 mN m -1). In this work, this analytical procedure was further optimized. In addition to an optimized extraction and a reduction of the analytical time, the improved method led to a high reproducibility in the surface tension curves obtained (shapes and minimal values), illustrated by the low uncertainties on the values, ±10% or less. The improved method was applied to PM 10 aerosols from the urban area of Grenoble, France collected from June 2009 to January 2010. Significant variability was observed between the samples. The minimum surface tension obtained from the summer samples was systematically lower (30 mN m -1) than that of the winter samples (35-45 mN m -1). Sharp transitions in the curves together with the very low surface tensions suggested that the dominating surfactants in the summer samples were biosurfactants, which would be consistent with the high biogenic activity in that season. One group of samples from the winter also displayed sharp transitions, which, together with the slightly higher surface tension, suggested the presence of weaker, possibly man-made, surfactants. A second group of curves from the winter did not display any clear transition but were similar to those of macromolecular surfactants such as polysaccharides or humic substances from wood burning. These surfactants are thus likely to originate from wood burning, the dominating source for aerosols in Grenoble in winter. These observations thus confirm the presence of surfactants from combustion processes in urban aerosols reported by other groups and illustrates the ability of our method to distinguish between

  14. Fibrinogen stability under surfactant interaction. (United States)

    Hassan, Natalia; Barbosa, Leandro R S; Itri, Rosangela; Ruso, Juan M


    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), circular dichroism (CD), difference spectroscopy (UV-vis), Raman spectroscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements have been performed in the present work to provide a quantitatively comprehensive physicochemical description of the complexation between bovine fibrinogen and the sodium perfluorooctanoate, sodium octanoate, and sodium dodecanoate in glycine buffer (pH 8.5). It has been found that sodium octanoate and dodecanoate act as fibrinogen destabilizer. Meanwhile, sodium perfluorooctanoate acts as a structure stabilizer at low molar concentration and as a destabilizer at high molar concentration. Fibrinogen's secondary structure is affected by all three studied surfactants (decrease in α-helix and an increase in β-sheet content) to a different extent. DSC and UV-vis revealed the existence of intermediate states in the thermal unfolding process of fibrinogen. In addition, SAXS data analysis showed that pure fibrinogen adopts a paired-dimer structure in solution. Such a structure is unaltered by sodium octanoate and perfluoroctanoate. However, interaction of sodium dodecanoate with the fibrinogen affects the protein conformation leading to a complex formation. Taken together, all results evidence that both surfactant hydrophobicity and tail length mediate the fibrinogen stability upon interaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Shell Model Description of Neutron-Deficient Sn Isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erdal Dikmen


    The shell model calculations in the sdgh major shell for the neutron-deficient 106,107,108,109Sn isotopes have been carried out by using CD-Bonn and Nijmegenl two-body effective nucleon-nucleon interactions. The single-shell states and the corresponding matrix elements needed for describing Sn isotopes are reconstructed to calculate the coefficient of fractional parantage by reducing the calculation requirements. This reconstruction allows us to do the shell model calculations of the neutron deficient Sn isotopes in very reasonable time. The results are compared to the recent high-resolution experimental data and found to be in good agreement with experiments.

  16. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance. (United States)


    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility planning in accordance with appendix B of this subpart. (b) Advance of allowance to potential grant... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right to...

  17. Multilayered composite microgels synthesized by surfactant-free seeded polymerization. (United States)

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Yamagata, Tomoyo; Murai, Masaki


    We report on a simple and rapid method to produce multilayered composite microgels. Thermosensitive microgels were synthesized by aqueous free radical precipitation polymerization using N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) as a monomer. Using the microgels as cores, surfactant-free seeded polymerization of an oil-soluble monomer, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), was carried out at 70 °C, where the microgels were highly deswollen in water. All of the oil-soluble monomers were polymerized, and the resultant polymers were attached on the pre-existing microgel cores, resulting in hard shell formation. It is worth mentioning that secondary particles of oil-soluble monomers have never been formed during the polymerization. The composite microgels were characterized by electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. In particular, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements revealed that the surface of the composite microgels was composed of a hydrogel layer, although microgel cores were covered by polyGMA shell. The mechanism of the trilayered composite microgel formation will be discussed.

  18. Surfactant-Associated Bacteria in the Sea Surface Microlayer and their Effect on Remote Sensing Technology (United States)

    Kurata, N.; Vella, K.; Tartar, A.; Matt, S.; Shivji, M.; Perrie, W. A.; Soloviev, A.


    Synthetic aperture radar remote sensing captures various fine-scale features on the ocean surface such as coastal discharges, oil pollution, vessel traffic, algal blooms and sea slicks. Although numerous factors potentially affect the synthetic aperture radar imaging process, the influence of biogenic and anthropogenic surfactants has been suggested as one of the primary parameters, especially under relatively low wind conditions. Surfactants have a tendency to dampen the short gravity-capillary ocean waves causing the sea surface to smoothen, thus allowing the radar to detect areas of surfactants. Surfactants are found in sea slicks, which are the accumulation of organic material shaped as elongated bands on the ocean's surface. Sea slicks are often observable with the naked eye due to their glassy appearance and can also be seen on synthetic aperture radar images as dark scars. While the sources of surfactants can vary, some are known to be of marine bacteria origin. Countless numbers of marine bacteria are present in the oceanic environment, and their biogeochemical contributions cannot be overlooked. Not only does marine-bacteria produce surfactants, but they also play an important role in the transformation of surfactants. In this study, we profiled the surfactant-associated bacteria composition within the biogenic thin layer of the ocean surface more commonly referred as the sea surface microlayer. Bacterial samples were collected from the sea surface microlayer for comparative analysis from both within and outside of sea slick areas as well as the underlying subsurface water. The bacterial microlayer sampling coincided with synthetic aperture radar satellite, RADARSAT-2, overpasses to demonstrate the simultaneous in-situ measurements during a satellite image capture. The sea surface microlayer sampling method was designed to enable aseptic bacterial sampling. A 47 mm polycarbonate membrane was utilized at each sampling site to obtain a snapshot of the

  19. Newtonian to non-Newtonian flow transition in lung surfactants (United States)

    Sadoughi, Amir; Hirsa, Amir; Lopez, Juan


    The lining of normal lungs is covered by surfactants, because otherwise the surface tension of the aqueous layer would be too large to allow breathing. A lack of functioning surfactants can lead to respiratory distress syndrome, a potentially fatal condition in both premature infants and adults, and a major cause of death in the US and world-wide. We use a home-built Brewster angle microscope on an optically accessible deep channel viscometer to simultaneously observe the mesoscale structures of DPPC, the primary constituent of lung surfactant, on water surface and measure the interfacial velocity field. The measured interfacial velocity is compared to Navier-Stokes computations with the Boussinesq-Scriven surface model. Results show that DPPC monolayer behaves i) purely elastically at low surface pressures on water, ii) viscoelastically at modest surface pressures, exhibiting non-zero surface shear viscosity that is independent of the shear rate and flow inertia, and iii) at surface pressures approaching film collapse, DPPC loses its fluid characteristics, and a Newtonian surface model no longer captures its hydrodynamics.

  20. Synthesis of Mesoporous Titania with Surfactant and its Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Benkacem


    Full Text Available A mesoporous titania was obtained by gelation from Ti-alkoxide in acidic solutions with addition of surfactant cetyltrimetylammonium bromide (CH3(CH215N(CH33Br using a sol-gel process. The effects of surfactant concentration on synthesis of mesoporous titania were studied. The structural characterisation was studied by differential thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. Studies by X-ray diffraction showed that crystallisation of TiO2 powder occurs at 200°C, above 200°C we obtained a mixture of two forms-Anatase and rutile. The textural characterisation by nitrogen adsorption-desorption allowed us to observe the variation of the surface area, porous volume and pore diameters according to temperature and [CTAB]/[Ti-alkoxide] molar ratio. The analysis of the results shows that addition of surfactant residue increases considerably its pore diameters. The deposit thin layers has been realized with a sol prepared with the destabilization of colloidal solutions process. Scanning electron-spectroscopy observation for thermally treated (at 400 and 600°C samples, showed homogeneous layers without cracking.

  1. Metabolism of exogenously administered natural surfactant in the newborn lamb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatz, T.; Ikegami, M.; Jobe, A.


    (/sup 3/H)-Palmitate labeled natural lamb surfactant and free (/sup 14/C)-choline were mixed with the lung fluid of 11 term lambs at cesarean section, before the first breath. After receiving the isotope, the lambs were delivered, allowed to breathe spontaneously, and were subsequently sacrificed from 5 min to 96 h of age. Alveolar washes, lung homogenates, microsomal and lamellar body fractions of lungs, and pulmonary alveolar macrophages were examined for the presence of labeled phosphatidylcholine. Analysis of the labeled natural surfactant kinetic data revealed an apparent t 1/2 of phosphatidylcholine in the whole lung of 6.0 days. This half-life can be interpreted only as a rough estimate. Appearance of considerable (/sup 3/H) labeled phosphatidylcholine in the lung homogenates demonstrated uptake of phosphatidylcholine from alveoli into lung tissue. The surfactant-associated label in homogenates was localized preferentially to lamellar body fractions. Some of the administered (/sup 14/C)-choline appeared in phosphatidylcholine. Almost all of this labeled phosphatidylcholine was associated with the homogenate. Extremely small % of administered (3H) and (14C) were found in pulmonary alveolar macrophages.

  2. Genotoxicity induced by saponified coconut oil surfactant in prokaryote systems. (United States)

    Petta, Tirzah Braz; de Medeiros, Sílvia Regina Batistuzzo; do Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella


    Surfactants are amphiphilic substances with special properties and chemical structures that allow a reduction in interfacial tension, which permits an increase in molecule solubilization. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) is an important characteristic of surfactants that determines their aggregate state, which is generally related to its functional mechanism. In this work the genotoxic potential of saponified coconut oil (SCO), a surfactant obtained from Cocos nucifera, was analyzed using prokaryote systems. DNA strand breaks were not observed after treatment of a plasmid with SCO. Negative results were also obtained in the SOS Chromotest using Escherichia coli strains PQ35 and PQ37. A moderate toxicity of SCO was observed after treatment of strain CC104 with a concentration above its CMC, in which micelles were found. Nevertheless, this treatment was not cytotoxic to a CC104mutMmutY strain. Furthermore, in this DNA repair-deficient strain treatment with a SCO dose below its CMC, in which only monomers were found, demonstrated the possibility of an antioxidant effect, since a reduction in spontaneous mutagenesis frequency was observed. Finally, in an Ames test without metabolic activation mutagenicity induction was observed in strains TA100 and TA104 with treatment doses below the CMC. The cytotoxic, antioxidant and mutagenic effects of SCO can be influenced by the aggregational state.

  3. Surfactant replacement therapy--economic impact. (United States)

    Pejaver, R K; al Hifzi, I; Aldussari, S


    Surfactant replacement is an effective treatment for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. (RDS). As widespread use of surfactant is becoming a reality, it is important to assess the economic implications of this new form of therapy. A comparison study was carried out at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Northwest Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Among 75 infants who received surfactant for RDS and similar number who were managed during time period just before the surfactant was available, but by set criteria would have made them eligible for surfactant. All other management modalities except surfactant were the same for all these babies. Based on the intensity of monitoring and nursing care required by the baby, the level of care was divided as: Level IIIA, IIIB, Level II, Level I. The cost per day per bed for each level was calculated, taking into account the use of hospital immovable equipment, personal salaries of nursing, medical, ancillary staff, overheads and maintenance, depreciation and replacement costs. Medications used, procedures done, TPN, oxygen, were all added to individual patient's total expenditure. 75 infants in the Surfactant group had 62 survivors. They spent a total of 4300 days in hospital. (av 69.35) Out of which 970 d (av 15.65 per patient) were ventilated days. There were 56 survivors in the non-surfactant group of 75. They had spent a total of 5023 days in the hospital (av 89.69/patient) out of which 1490 were ventilated days (av 26.60 d). Including the cost of surfactant (two doses), cost of hospital stay for each infant taking the average figures of stay would be SR 118, 009.75 per surfactant treated baby and SR 164, 070.70 per non-surfactant treated baby. The difference of 46,061 SR is 39.03% more in non-surfactant group. One Saudi rial = 8 Rs (approx at the time study was carried out.) Medical care cost varies from place to place. However, it is definitely cost-effective where surfactant is concerned. Quality adjusted

  4. Surfactant-soil interactions during surfactant-amended remediation of contaminated soils by hydrophobic organic compounds: a review. (United States)

    Laha, Shonali; Tansel, Berrin; Ussawarujikulchai, Achara


    Surfactants are amphiphilic molecules that reduce aqueous surface tension and increase the solubility of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs). Surfactant-amended remediation of HOC-contaminated soils and aquifers has received significant attention as an effective treatment strategy - similar in concept to using soaps and detergents as washing agents to remove grease from soiled fabrics. The proposed mechanisms involved in surfactant-amended remediation include: lowering of interfacial tension, surfactant solubilization of HOCs, and the phase transfer of HOC from soil-sorbed to pseudo-aqueous phase. However, as with any proposed chemical countermeasures, there is a concern regarding the fate of the added surfactant. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding nonionic micelle-forming surfactant sorption onto soil, and serves as an introduction to research on that topic. Surfactant sorption onto soil appears to increase with increasing surfactant concentration until the onset of micellization. Sorbed-phase surfactant may account for the majority of added surfactant in surfactant-amended remediation applications, and this may result in increased HOC partitioning onto soil until HOC solubilization by micellar phase surfactant successfully competes with increased HOC sorption on surfactant-modified soil. This review provides discussion of equilibrium partitioning theory to account for the distribution of HOCs between soil, aqueous phase, sorbed surfactant, and micellar surfactant phases, as well as recently developed models for surfactant sorption onto soil. HOC partitioning is characterized by apparent soil-water distribution coefficients in the presence of surfactant.

  5. Different effects of surfactant proteins B and C - implications for development of synthetic surfactants. (United States)

    Curstedt, Tore; Johansson, Jan


    Treatment of premature newborn rabbits with synthetic surfactants containing a surfactant protein C analogue in a simple phospholipid mixture gives similar tidal volumes as treatment with poractant alfa (Curosurf(R)) but ventilation with a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is needed for this synthetic surfactant to stabilize the alveoli at end-expiration. The effect on lung gas volumes seems to depend on the structure of the peptide since treatment with a synthetic surfactant containing the 21-residue peptide (LysLeu(4))(4)Lys (KL(4)) gives low lung gas volumes in experiments also performed with PEEP. Surfactant preparations containing both surfactant proteins B and C or their analogues prevent alveolar collapse at end-expiration even if ventilated without PEEP. Treatment of premature newborn rabbits with different natural surfactants indicates that both the lipid composition and the proteins are important in order to stabilize the alveoli at end-expiration. Synthetic surfactants containing two peptides may be able to replace natural surfactants within the near future but more trials need to be performed before any conclusion can be drawn about the ideal composition of this new generation of synthetic surfactants.

  6. Exogenous Pulmonary Surfactant as a Vehicle for Antimicrobials: Assessment of Surfactant-Antibacterial Interactions In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Birkun


    Full Text Available Owing to its unique surface-active properties, an exogenous pulmonary surfactant may become a promising drug delivery agent, in particular, acting as a vehicle for antibiotics in topical treatment of pneumonia. The purpose of this study was to assess a mutual influence of natural surfactant preparation and three antibiotics (amikacin, cefepime, and colistimethate sodium in vitro and to identify appropriate combination(s for subsequent in vivo investigations of experimental surfactant/antibiotic mixtures. Influence of antibiotics on surface-active properties of exogenous surfactant was assessed using the modified Pattle method. Effects of exogenous surfactant on antibacterial activity of antimicrobials against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated using conventional microbiologic procedures. Addition of amikacin or cefepime to surfactant had no significant influence on surface-active properties of the latter. Obvious reduction of surface-active properties was confirmed for surfactant/colistimethate composition. When suspended with antibiotics, surfactant either had no impact on their antimicrobial activity (amikacin or exerted mild to moderate influence (reduction of cefepime bactericidal activity and increase of colistimethate bacteriostatic activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Considering favorable compatibility profile, the surfactant/amikacin combination is advisable for subsequent investigation of joint surfactant/antibacterial therapy in animals with bacterial pneumonia.

  7. Calculation of tubular joints as compound shells (United States)

    Golovanov, A. I.

    A scheme for joining isoparametric finite shell elements with a bend in the middle surface is described. A solution is presented for the problem of the stress-strain state of a T-joint loaded by internal pressure. A refined scheme is proposed for calculating structures of this kind with allowance for the stiffness of the welded joint.

  8. Fluorescence emission of pyrene in surfactant solutions. (United States)

    Piñeiro, Lucas; Novo, Mercedes; Al-Soufi, Wajih


    The systematic description of the complex photophysical behaviour of pyrene in surfactant solutions in combination with a quantitative model for the surfactant concentrations reproduces with high accuracy the steady-state and the time resolved fluorescence intensity of pyrene in surfactant solutions near the cmc, both in the monomer and in the excimer emission bands. We present concise model equations that can be used for the analysis of the pyrene fluorescence intensity in order to estimate fundamental parameters of the pyrene-surfactant system, such as the binding equilibrium constant K of pyrene to a given surfactant micelle, the rate constant of excimer formation in micelles, and the equilibrium constant of pyrene-surfactant quenching. The values of the binding equilibrium constant K(TX100)=3300·10³ M⁻¹ and K(SDS)=190·10³ M⁻¹ for Triton X-100 (TX100) and SDS micelles, respectively, show that the partition of pyrene between bulk water and micelles cannot be ignored, even at relatively high surfactant concentrations above the cmc. We apply the model to the determination of the cmc from the pyrene fluorescence intensity, especially from the intensity ratio at two vibronic bands in the monomer emission or from the ratio of excimer to monomer emission intensity. We relate the finite width of the transition region below and above the cmc with the observed changes in the pyrene fluorescence in this region.

  9. Tunable, antibacterial activity of silicone polyether surfactants. (United States)

    Khan, Madiha F; Zepeda-Velazquez, Laura; Brook, Michael A


    Silicone surfactants are used in a variety of applications, however, limited data is available on the relationship between surfactant structure and biological activity. A series of seven nonionic, silicone polyether surfactants with known structures was tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli BL21. The compounds varied in their hydrophobic head, comprised of branched silicone structures with 3-10 siloxane linkages and, in two cases, phenyl substitution, and hydrophilic tail of 8-44 poly(ethylene glycol) units. The surfactants were tested at three concentrations: below, at, and above their Critical Micelle Concentrations (CMC) against 5 concentrations of E. coli BL21 in a three-step assay comprised of a 14-24h turbidometric screen, a live-dead stain and viable colony counts. The bacterial concentration had little effect on antibacterial activity. For most of the surfactants, antibacterial activity was higher at concentrations above the CMC. Surfactants with smaller silicone head groups had as much as 4 times the bioactivity of surfactants with larger groups, with the smallest hydrophobe exhibiting potency equivalent to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Smaller PEG chains were similarly associated with higher potency. These data link lower micelle stability and enhanced permeability of smaller silicone head groups to antibacterial activity. The results demonstrate that simple manipulation of nonionic silicone polyether structure leads to significant changes in antibacterial activity.

  10. A study of surfactant-assisted waterflooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scamehorn, J F; Harwell, J H


    In surfactant-assisted waterflooding, a surfactant slug is injected into a reservoir, followed by a brine spacer, followed by second surfactant slug. The charge on the surfactant in the first slug has opposite sign to that in the second slug. When the two slugs mix in the reservoir, a precipitate or coacervate is formed which plugs the permeable region of the reservoir. Subsequently injected water or brine is forced through the low permeability region of the reservoir, increasing sweep efficiency of the waterflood, compared to a waterflood not using surfactants. In this part of the work, two major tasks are performed. First, core floods are performed with oil present to demonstrate the improvement in incremental oil production, as well as permeability modification. Second, a reservoir simulation model will be proposed to further delineate the optimum strategy for implementation of the surfactant-assisted waterflooding, as well as indicate the reservoir types for which it would be most effective. Surfactants utilized were sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyl pyridinium chloride. 44 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Influence of surfactants in forced dynamic dewetting. (United States)

    Henrich, Franziska; Fell, Daniela; Truszkowska, Dorota; Weirich, Marcel; Anyfantakis, Manos; Nguyen, Thi-Huong; Wagner, Manfred; Auernhammer, Günter K; Butt, Hans-Jürgen


    In this work we show that the forced dynamic dewetting of surfactant solutions depends sensitively on the surfactant concentration. To measure this effect, a hydrophobic rotating cylinder was horizontally half immersed in aqueous surfactant solutions. Dynamic contact angles were measured optically by extrapolating the contour of the meniscus to the contact line. Anionic (sodium 1-decanesulfonate, S-1DeS), cationic (cetyl trimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) and nonionic surfactants (C4E1, C8E3 and C12E5) with critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) spanning four orders of magnitude were used. The receding contact angle in water decreased with increasing velocity. This decrease was strongly enhanced when adding surfactant, even at surfactant concentrations of 10% of the critical micelle concentration. Plots of the receding contact angle-versus-velocity almost superimpose when being plotted at the same relative concentration (concentration/CMC). Thus the rescaled concentration is the dominating property for dynamic dewetting. The charge of the surfactants did not play a role, thus excluding electrostatic effects. The change in contact angle can be interpreted by local surface tension gradients, i.e. Marangoni stresses, close to the three-phase contact line. The decrease of dynamic contact angles with velocity follows two regimes. Despite the existence of Marangoni stresses close to the contact line, for a dewetting velocity above 1-10 mm s(-1) the hydrodynamic theory is able to describe the experimental results for all surfactant concentrations. At slower velocities an additional steep decrease of the contact angle with velocity was observed. Particle tracking velocimetry showed that the flow profiles do not differ with and without surfactant on a scales >100 μm.

  12. Synthesis of ZSM-5@Ordered Mesoporous Silica Composites by Dodecylamine Surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Kuoyan; YU Haijun; FENG Guanglin; WANG Changguo; DAI Ya


    The core-shell structures of ZSM-5 coated with mesoporous silica were synthesized by means of dodecylamine (DDA) surfactant. The results show that the mesoporous silica shells are coated on ZSM-5 cores and result in the formation of hierarchical porous structures. The thickness of the coating shell can be controlled by changing the adding amount of TEOS. The core-shell composites with the thickness of 35 nm possess high surface areas (about 528 m2·g-1), large pores (about 3.5 nm in diameter) on the silica shells. The composite molecular sieves display higher adsorption capacity for benzene (140.2 mg·g-1) and butyraldehyde (213.7 mg·g-1) than that of pristine ZSM-5 for benzene (99.2 mg·g-1) and butyraldehyde (134.7 mg·g-1). The composite molecular sieves show a wide application foreground for harmful gas adsorbent for environmental protection.

  13. Surfactant-Assisted Coal Liquefaction (United States)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.


    Obtaining liquid fuels from coal which are economically competitive with those obtained from petroleum based sources is a significant challenge for the researcher as well as the chemical industry. Presently, the economics of coal liquefaction are not favorable because of relatively intense processing conditions (temperatures of 430 degrees C and pressures of 2200 psig), use of a costly catalyst, and a low quality product slate of relatively high boiling fractions. The economics could be made more favorable by achieving adequate coal conversions at less intense processing conditions and improving the product slate. A study has been carried out to examine the effect of a surfactant in reducing particle agglomeration and improving hydrodynamics in the coal liquefaction reactor to increase coal conversions...

  14. ESL Based Cylindrical Shell Elements with Hierarchical Shape Functions for Laminated Composite Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae S. Ahn


    Full Text Available We introduce higher-order cylindrical shell element based on ESL (equivalent single-layer theory for the analysis of laminated composite shells. The proposed elements are formulated by the dimensional reduction technique from three-dimensional solid to two-dimensional cylindrical surface with plane stress assumption. It allows the first-order shear deformation and considers anisotropic materials due to fiber orientation. The element displacement approximation is established by the integrals of Legendre polynomials with hierarchical concept to ensure the C0-continuity at the interface between adjacent elements as well as C1-continuity at the interface between adjacent layers. For geometry mapping, cylindrical coordinate is adopted to implement the exact mapping of curved shell configuration with a constant curvature with respect to any direction in the plane. The verification and characteristics of the proposed element are investigated through the analyses of three cylindrical shell problems with different shapes, loadings, and boundary conditions.

  15. Gemini surfactants from natural amino acids. (United States)

    Pérez, Lourdes; Pinazo, Aurora; Pons, Ramon; Infante, Mrosa


    In this review, we report the most important contributions in the structure, synthesis, physicochemical (surface adsorption, aggregation and phase behaviour) and biological properties (toxicity, antimicrobial activity and biodegradation) of Gemini natural amino acid-based surfactants, and some potential applications, with an emphasis on the use of these surfactants as non-viral delivery system agents. Gemini surfactants derived from basic (Arg, Lys), neutral (Ser, Ala, Sar), acid (Asp) and sulphur containing amino acids (Cys) as polar head groups, and Geminis with amino acids/peptides in the spacer chain are reviewed.

  16. Liquid-liquid extraction for surfactant-contaminant separation and surfactant reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, M.A. [Surbec Environmental, Norman, OK (United States); Sabatini, D.A.; Harwell, J.H. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)


    Liquid-liquid extraction was investigated for use with surfactant enhanced subsurface remediation. A surfactant liquid-liquid extraction model (SLLEM) was developed for batch equilibrium conditions based on contaminant partitioning between micellar, water, and solvent phases. The accuracy of this fundamental model was corroborated with experimental results (using naphthalene and phenanthrene as contaminants and squalane as the extracting solvent). The SLLEM model was then expanded to nonequilibrium conditions. The effectiveness of this nonequilibrium model was corroborated with experimental results from continuous flow hollow fiber membrane systems. The validated models were used to conduct a sensitivity analysis evaluating the effects of surfactants on the removal of the contaminants in liquid-liquid extraction systems. In addition, liquid-liquid extraction is compared to air stripping for surfactant-contaminant separation. Finally, conclusions are drawn as to the impact of surfactants on liquid-liquid extraction processes, and the significance of these impacts on the optimization of surfactant-enhanced subsurface remediation.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Zirconia Nanocrystallites by Cationic Surfactant and Anionic Surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Study on nanomaterials has attracted great interests in recent years. In this article,zirconia nanocrystallites of different structures have been successfully synthesized via hydrothermal methods with cationic surfactant (CTAB) and anionic surfactant (SDS), respectively. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC-TG), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-vis) and N2 adsorption-desorption analyses are used for their structure characteristics. The results show that the cationic surfactant has a distinctive direction effect on the formation of zirconia nanocrystallites, while the anionic surfactant has a self-assembly synergistic effect on them. The sample synthesized with the cationic surfactant presents good dispersion with the main phase of tetragonal zirconia, and the average nanocryst al size is around 15nm after calcination at 500 ℃. While the sample synthesized with the anionic surfactant exhibits a worm-like mesoporous structure with pure tetragonal phase after calcination at 500 ℃ and with good thermal stability.

  18. Studies on the electrocapillary curves of anionic surfactants in presence of non-ionic surfactants. (United States)

    Bembi, R; Goyal, R N; Malik, W U


    Polyoxyethylated non-ionic surfactants such as Tween 20, Tween 40, Nonidet P40 and Nonex 501 have been supposed to be associated with cationic characteristics. Studies on the effect of these surfactants on the electrocapillary curves of the anionic surfactants Aerosol IB, Manaxol OT and sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), show that the electrocapillary maxima shift towards positive potentials. The order of adsorption of the anionic surfactants is SLS > Manaxol OT > Aerosol IB while the shift in maxima is in the order Aerosol IB ~ Manaxol OT > SLS which confirms association of cationic characteristics with the micelles of these non-ionic surfactants. The magnitude of the shift in electrocapillary maxima is Nonex 501 > Nonidet P40 > Tween 20 > Tween 40 which may be the order of magnitude of the positive charge carried by these non-ionic surfactants.

  19. Elastic platonic shells. (United States)

    Yong, Ee Hou; Nelson, David R; Mahadevan, L


    On microscopic scales, the crystallinity of flexible tethered or cross-linked membranes determines their mechanical response. We show that by controlling the type, number, and distribution of defects on a spherical elastic shell, it is possible to direct the morphology of these structures. Our numerical simulations show that by deflating a crystalline shell with defects, we can create elastic shell analogs of the classical platonic solids. These morphologies arise via a sharp buckling transition from the sphere which is strongly hysteretic in loading or unloading. We construct a minimal Landau theory for the transition using quadratic and cubic invariants of the spherical harmonic modes. Our approach suggests methods to engineer shape into soft spherical shells using a frozen defect topology.

  20. Hybrid pulmonary surfactant-coated nanogels mediate efficient in vivo delivery of siRNA to murine alveolar macrophages. (United States)

    De Backer, Lynn; Naessens, Thomas; De Koker, Stefaan; Zagato, Elisa; Demeester, Jo; Grooten, Johan; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Raemdonck, Koen


    The local delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to the lungs may provide a therapeutic solution to a range of pulmonary disorders. Resident alveolar macrophages (rAM) in the bronchoalveolar lumen play a critical role in lung inflammatory responses and therefore constitute a particularly attractive target for siRNA therapeutics. However, achieving efficient gene silencing in the lung while avoiding pulmonary toxicity requires appropriate formulation of siRNA in functional nanocarriers. In this study, we evaluated pulmonary surfactant-coated dextran nanogels for the delivery of siRNA to rAM upon pharyngeal aspiration in BALB/c mice. Both the surfactant-coated and uncoated nanogels achieved high levels of siRNA uptake in rAM, yet only the surfactant-coated formulation could significantly reduce gene expression on the protein level. Surfactant-coated nanogels induced a profound downregulation of target mRNA levels, reaching 70% knockdown with ~1mgkg(-1) siRNA dose. In addition, only mild acute pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses were detected one day after nanoparticle aspiration, accompanied by a moderate neutrophil infiltration in the bronchoalveolar lumen. The latter could be substantially reduced by removal of excess surfactant from the formulation. Overall, our hybrid core-shell nanoparticles have demonstrated safe and effective siRNA delivery to rAM, providing a new therapeutic approach for treatment of inflammatory pathologies in the lung.

  1. Linux Command Line and Shell Scripting Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Richard


    The authoritative guide to Linux command line and shell scripting?completely updated and revised [it's not a guide to Linux as a whole ? just to scripting] The Linux command line allows you to type specific Linux commands directly to the system so that you can easily manipulate files and query system resources, thereby permitting you to automate commonly used functions and even schedule those programs to run automatically. This new edition is packed with new and revised content, reflecting the many changes to new Linux versions, including coverage of alternative shells to the default bash shel

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Monodisperse Metallodielectric SiO2@Pt@SiO2 Core-Shell-Shell Particles. (United States)

    Petrov, Alexey; Lehmann, Hauke; Finsel, Maik; Klinke, Christian; Weller, Horst; Vossmeyer, Tobias


    Metallodielectric nanostructured core-shell-shell particles are particularly desirable for enabling novel types of optical components, including narrow-band absorbers, narrow-band photodetectors, and thermal emitters, as well as new types of sensors and catalysts. Here, we present a facile approach for the preparation of submicron SiO2@Pt@SiO2 core-shell-shell particles. As shown by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, the first steps of this approach allow for the deposition of closed and almost perfectly smooth platinum shells onto silica cores via a seeded growth mechanism. By choosing appropriate conditions, the shell thickness could be adjusted precisely, ranging from ∼3 to ∼32 nm. As determined by X-ray diffraction, the crystalline domain sizes of the polycrystalline metal shells were ∼4 nm, regardless of the shell thickness. The platinum content of the particles was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and for thin shells consistent with a dense metal layer of the TEM-measured thickness. In addition, we show that the roughness of the platinum shell strongly depends on the storage time of the gold seeds used to initiate reductive platinum deposition. Further, using polyvinylpyrrolidone as adhesion layer, it was possible to coat the metallic shells with very homogeneous and smooth insulating silica shells of well-controlled thicknesses between ∼2 and ∼43 nm. After depositing the particles onto silicon substrates equipped with interdigitated electrode structures, the metallic character of the SiO2@Pt particles and the insulating character of the SiO2 shells of the SiO2@Pt@SiO2 particles were successfully demonstrated by charge transport measurements at variable temperatures.

  3. Dynamic Analysis of Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Steele


    Full Text Available Shell structures are indispensable in virtually every industry. However, in the design, analysis, fabrication, and maintenance of such structures, there are many pitfalls leading to various forms of disaster. The experience gained by engineers over some 200 years of disasters and brushes with disaster is expressed in the extensive archival literature, national codes, and procedural documentation found in larger companies. However, the advantage of the richness in the behavior of shells is that the way is always open for innovation. In this survey, we present a broad overview of the dynamic response of shell structures. The intention is to provide an understanding of the basic themes behind the detailed codes and stimulate, not restrict, positive innovation. Such understanding is also crucial for the correct computation of shell structures by any computer code. The physics dictates that the thin shell structure offers a challenge for analysis and computation. Shell response can be generally categorized by states of extension, inextensional bending, edge bending, and edge transverse shear. Simple estimates for the magnitudes of stress, deformation, and resonance in the extensional and inextensional states are provided by ring response. Several shell examples demonstrate the different states and combinations. For excitation frequency above the extensional resonance, such as in impact and acoustic excitation, a fine mesh is needed over the entire shell surface. For this range, modal and implicit methods are of limited value. The example of a sphere impacting a rigid surface shows that plastic unloading occurs continuously. Thus, there are no short cuts; the complete material behavior must be included.

  4. Synthesis of novel quaternary ammonium surfactants containing adamantane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wei Guo; Xing Zhong; Hua Zhu; Li Juan Feng; Ying De Cui


    A series of novel quaternary ammonium surfactants containing adamantane were designed and synthesized from 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid.The structures of target surfactants were confirmed by 1H NMR,elements analysis and FTIR.Surface properties of these surfactants were investigated.Due to the lipophilicity of adamantane,the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and C20 values of the synthesized quaternary ammonium surfactants are lower than that of conventional quaternary ammonium surfactants.

  5. Lung surfactant levels are regulated by Ig-Hepta/GPR116 by monitoring surfactant protein D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Fukuzawa

    Full Text Available Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins, which is secreted from the alveolar type II epithelial cell and coats the surface of alveoli as a thin layer. It plays a crucial role in the prevention of alveolar collapse through its ability to reduce surface tension. Under normal conditions, surfactant homeostasis is maintained by balancing its release and the uptake by the type II cell for recycling and the internalization by alveolar macrophages for degradation. Little is known about how the surfactant pool is monitored and regulated. Here we show, by an analysis of gene-targeted mice exhibiting massive accumulation of surfactant, that Ig-Hepta/GPR116, an orphan receptor, is expressed on the type II cell and sensing the amount of surfactant by monitoring one of its protein components, surfactant protein D, and its deletion results in a pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and emphysema-like pathology. By a coexpression experiment with Sp-D and the extracellular region of Ig-Hepta/GPR116 followed by immunoprecipitation, we identified Sp-D as the ligand of Ig-Hepta/GPR116. Analyses of surfactant metabolism in Ig-Hepta(+/+ and Ig-Hepta(-/- mice by using radioactive tracers indicated that the Ig-Hepta/GPR116 signaling system exerts attenuating effects on (i balanced synthesis of surfactant lipids and proteins and (ii surfactant secretion, and (iii a stimulating effect on recycling (uptake in response to elevated levels of Sp-D in alveolar space.

  6. Lung surfactant levels are regulated by Ig-Hepta/GPR116 by monitoring surfactant protein D. (United States)

    Fukuzawa, Taku; Ishida, Junji; Kato, Akira; Ichinose, Taro; Ariestanti, Donna Maretta; Takahashi, Tomoya; Ito, Kunitoshi; Abe, Jumpei; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Wakana, Shigeharu; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Hirose, Shigehisa


    Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins, which is secreted from the alveolar type II epithelial cell and coats the surface of alveoli as a thin layer. It plays a crucial role in the prevention of alveolar collapse through its ability to reduce surface tension. Under normal conditions, surfactant homeostasis is maintained by balancing its release and the uptake by the type II cell for recycling and the internalization by alveolar macrophages for degradation. Little is known about how the surfactant pool is monitored and regulated. Here we show, by an analysis of gene-targeted mice exhibiting massive accumulation of surfactant, that Ig-Hepta/GPR116, an orphan receptor, is expressed on the type II cell and sensing the amount of surfactant by monitoring one of its protein components, surfactant protein D, and its deletion results in a pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and emphysema-like pathology. By a coexpression experiment with Sp-D and the extracellular region of Ig-Hepta/GPR116 followed by immunoprecipitation, we identified Sp-D as the ligand of Ig-Hepta/GPR116. Analyses of surfactant metabolism in Ig-Hepta(+/+) and Ig-Hepta(-/-) mice by using radioactive tracers indicated that the Ig-Hepta/GPR116 signaling system exerts attenuating effects on (i) balanced synthesis of surfactant lipids and proteins and (ii) surfactant secretion, and (iii) a stimulating effect on recycling (uptake) in response to elevated levels of Sp-D in alveolar space.

  7. Preparation of porous carbon particle with shell/core structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Porous carbon particles with a shell/core structure have been prepared successfully by controlled precipitation of the polymer from droplets of oil-in-water emulsion, followed by curing and carbonization. The droplets of the oil phase are composed of phenolic resin (PFR, a good solvent (ethyl acetate and porogen (Poly(methyl methacrylate, PMMA. The microstructure was characterized in detail by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, nitrogen adsorption, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA. The obtained carbon particles have a capsular structure with a microporous carbon shell and a mesoporous carbon core. The BET surface area and porous volume are calculated to be 499 m2g-1 and 0.56 cm3g-1, respectively. The effects of the amount of porogen (PMMA, co-solvent (acetone and surfactant on the resultant structure were studied in detail.

  8. Synthesis of core-shell composites using an inverse surfmer. (United States)

    Armando Zaragoza-Contreras, E; Stockton-Leal, Margarita; Hernández-Escobar, Claudia A; Hoshina, Yusuke; Guzmán-Lozano, Josué F; Kobayashi, Takaomi


    Anilinium dodecylsulfate was prepared from aniline and sodium dodecylsulfate. The critical micellar concentration of the salt was determined using electrical conductimetry, which revealed that the change of countercation, sodium by anilinium, reduced the critical micellar concentration with respect to the conventional counterpart, sodium dodecylsulfate. The anilinium dodecylsulfate was used as the surfmer in the synthesis of polystyrene/polyaniline core-shell composites, first performing as the surfactant to stabilize the emulsion polymerization of styrene, and later as the monomer to synthesize polyaniline via oxidative polymerization. Here, the surfmer function was directed toward the external phase instead of to the internal phase, as with conventional surfmers with carbon-carbon double bonds. Consequently, the term inverse surfmer is proposed. Analyses of its composite microstructure using electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the core-shell arrangement.

  9. Effects of Interactions Among Surfactants,Water and Oil on Equilibrium Configuration of Surfactant-Water-Oil Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Yin-quan; SUN Zhi-bo; XIE Yun; ZOU Xian-wu


    The distribution and configuration of surfactants at interface in surfactant-water-oil systems have been investigated using discontinuous molecular dynamic simulations. There exists a certain equilibrium concentration of surfactants at interface for the systems with certain interactions among surfactant, water and oil. The interface length and equilibrium morphology of the systems are dependent on the equilibrium concentration of surfactants at interface and the total amount of surfactants. The interaction strengths among surfactant, water and oil determine the equilibrium concentration of surfactants at interface. Three typical configurations of surfactants at interface have been observed: ① surfactant molecules are perpendicular to the interface and arranged closely; ② perpendicular to the interface and arranged at interval of two particles; ③ lie down in the interface partly.

  10. Aggregation of sulfosuccinate surfactants in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magid, L.J.; Daus, K.A.; Butler, P.D.; Quincy, R.B.


    The aggregation of sodium di-n-alkyl sulfosuccinates in water (H/sub 2/O and D/sub 2/O at 45/sup 0/C) has been investigated. A self-consistent picture of the dependence of sodium ion binding on surfactant concentration is obtained from emf measurements, conductimetry, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements. The concentration dependence of the micellar agregation number for the sulfosuccinates and related double-tailed surfactants depends markedly on surfactant solubility. A sphere-to-disk transition in micellar shape, which might have been expected as a precursor to formation of a lamellar mesophase, was not observed as the surfactant concentration was increased. 8 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Investigation of a polyether trisiloxane surfactant


    Michel, Amandine


    Thanks to their adaptability and high efficiency compared to traditional carbon based surfactants, silicone surfactants are a success in many different applications, from pesticides to cosmetics, polyurethane foam, textile and car care products. In spite of those numerous applications, no analytical method existed for their trace determination in environmental samples and no data have been available regarding their environmental occurrence and fate. An analytical method for the trace ana...

  12. Surfactant apoprotein in nonmalignant pulmonary disorders.


    Singh, G.; Katyal, S. L.


    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lungs exhibiting a variety of nonmalignant disorders were studied by immunoperoxidase staining using antibodies specific for surfactant apoprotein, IgG, IgM, IgA, albumin, fibrinogen, and lysozyme. Normal Type II pneumocytes showed staining for surfactant apoprotein in the perinuclear region only. The extent and intensity of staining for apoprotein was markedly increased in reactive Type II pneumocytes. This increase appeared to be a nonspecific reaction to l...

  13. Morphological alterations of exogenous surfactant inhibited by meconium can be prevented by dextran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stichtenoth Guido


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant dysfunction due to inhibition is involved in the pathophysiology of meconium aspiration syndrome. Dextran addition has been shown to reverse exogenous surfactant inactivation by meconium, but the precise mechanisms and the morphological correlate of this effect are yet unknown. Morphological surfactant analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and stereology allows the differentiation of active (large aggregates = LA and inactive (small aggregates = SA subtypes. Methods To determine the in vitro effects of meconium and dextran addition on the morphology of a modified porcine natural surfactant (Curosurf, Curosurf samples were either incubated alone or together with meconium or with meconium and dextran, fixed and processed for TEM. Volume fractions of surfactant subtypes [lamellar body-like forms (LBL, multilamellar vesicles (MV, unilamellar vesicles (UV] were determined stereologically. Results All preparations contained LBL and MV (corresponding to LA as well as UV (corresponding to SA. The volume fraction of UV increased with addition of meconium and decreased with further addition of dextran. Correspondingly, the UV/(LBL+MV ratio (resembling the SA/LA ratio increased when meconium was added and decreased when dextran was added to the surfactant-meconium mixture. Conclusion Meconium causes alterations in the ultrastructural composition of Curosurf that can be visualized and analyzed by TEM and stereology. These alterations resemble an increase in the SA/LA ratio and are paralleled by an increase in minimum surface tension. Dextran prevents these effects and may therefore be a useful additive to exogenous surfactant preparations to preserve their structural and functional integrity, thereby improving their resistance to inactivation.

  14. Enthalpy of interaction and binding isotherms of non-ionic surfactants onto micellar amphiphilic polymers (amphipols). (United States)

    Diab, C; Winnik, F M; Tribet, C


    The interactions in water between short amphiphilic macromomolecules, known as amphipols, and three neutral surfactants (detergents), dodecylmaltoside (DM), n-octylthioglucoside (OTG), and n-octyltetraethyleneoxide (C8E4), have been assessed by static and dynamic light-scattering (SLS and DLS), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The amphipols selected are random copolymers of the hydrophobic n-octylacrylamide (25-30 mol %), a charged hydrophilic monomer, either acrylic acid ( approximately 35 mol %) or a phosphorylcholine-modified acrylamide (40-70 mol %), and, optionally, N-isopropylacrylamide (30-40 mol %). In water, the copolymers form micelles of small size (hydrodynamic radius: approximately 5 nm). Neutral surfactants, below their critical micellar concentration (cmc), form mixed micelles with the amphipols irrespective of the chemical structure of the detergent or the polymer. The fraction of detergent in the surfactant/polymer complexes increases significantly (cooperatively) as the surfactant concentration nears the cmc. The ITC data, together with data gathered by CE, were fitted via a regular mixing model, which allowed us to predict the detergent concentration in equilibrium with complexes and the heat evolved upon transfer of detergent from water into a mixed surfactant/polymer complex. The enthalpy of transfer was found to be almost equal to the enthalpy of micellization, and the regular mixing model points to a near-ideal mixing behavior for all systems. Amphipols are promising tools in biochemistry where they are used, together with neutral surfactants, for the stabilization and handling of proteins. This study provides guidelines for the optimization of current protein purification protocols and for the formulations of surfactant/polymer systems used in pharmaceutics, cosmetics, and foodstuffs.

  15. Surfactant enhanced removal of PCE in a nominally two-dimensional, saturated, stratified porous medium (United States)

    Walker, R. C.; Hofstee, C.; Dane, J. H.; Hill, W. E.


    Although surfactant enhanced remediation of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) by pump-and-treat technology has been studied extensively in the laboratory with one-dimensional columns, very few multi-dimensional investigations have been reported. In this study we focus on the removal of perchloroethylene (PCE) from a two-dimensional, saturated porous medium containing a low permeability sand layer situated in an otherwise high permeability sand. A PCE spill was applied at the surface of the porous medium and allowed to redistribute until static equilibrium was achieved. The porous medium was then flushed with various surfactant and co-solvent formulations injected at the PCE source location and extracted at the bottom of the porous medium using a configuration similar to that of Abdul and Ang [Abdul, S.A., Ang, C.C., 1994. In situ surfactant washing of polychlorinated biphenyls and oils from a contaminated field site: Phase II. Pilot study. Ground Water 32, 727-734]. Effluent samples were analyzed for dissolved PCE concentrations. Volumetric water and PCE content values were determined at a number of locations by means of dual-energy gamma radiation measurements. Once surfactant flushing had started, PCE moved as a distinct separate phase ahead of the surfactant front. Most of this downward moving PCE accumulated on top of the low permeability sand layer. Some PCE, however, passed quickly through this layer and subsequently through the high permeability sand below it. Movement of some of the PCE into and through the low permeability sand layer was attributed to local heterogeneities combined with reduced interfacial tensions associated with the surfactant formulation. Clean-up of PCE in most of the high permeability sand was considered to be effective. PCE accumulated on top of the fine layer, however, posed a significant challenge to remediation and required several pumping configurations and surfactant/co-solvent formulations before most of it was removed.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Tong; Chao-yang Wang; Bi-ye Ren; Xin-xing Liu; Fang Zeng


    Our recent studies concerning the binding of ionic surfactants on oppositely charged polyelectrolytes observed with fluorescence techniques are reviewed. The cationic surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB),dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC), and nonionic surfactant octaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12E8) were allowed to bind on anionic poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) (PAMPS) and its pyrene and/or naphthalene labeled copolymers. The relative excimer emission intensity IE/IM of a cationic probe 1-pyrenemethylamine hydrochloride were chosen to monitor the binding process and the conformation change of surfactant-bound polyelectrolytes. The 1:1aggregation of polyelectrolyte-CTAB with respect to the charge was found as long as the CTAB concentration was slightly higher than its critical aggregation concentration (CAC). The intermolecular NRET indicated that the CTAB-bound polyelectrolytes aggregated together through the hydrophobic interaction between the CTAB tails. However, neither 1:1polyelectrolyte-DTAC aggregation nor intermolecular aggregation of DTAC-bound polyelectrolyte was observed owing to its weaker hydrophobicity of 12 carbon atoms in the tail, which is shorter than that of CTAB. As known from the fluorescence results, nonionic surfactant C12E8 did not bind on the anionic polyelectrolytes, but the presence of PAMPS promoted the micelle formation for C12E8 at the CAC slightly below its critical micelle concentration (CMC). The solid complex of dansyl labeled AMPS copolymer-surfactant exhibited a decrease in local polarity with increasing charge density of the polyelectrolyte or with alkane tail length of the surfactant. SAXS suggested a lamella structure for the AMPS copolymersurfactant solid complexes with a long period of 3.87 nm for CTAB and 3.04 nm for DTAC, respectively.

  17. Evaluation of Surfactant Effects on Newborns

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    N. Khalessi


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: One of the standard therapies in neonates with severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS is surfactant administration in early course of therapy that cause reduction in mortality, pneumothorax and need to mechanical ventilation. In this study that was carried out in Aliasghar Hospital NICU in 1994-1995 & 2001-2002, the goal was to compare two groups of neonates with severe RDS that had been ventilated in the first 24 hours but one group had received surfactant and the other group (7 years ago was deprived of this substance. Materials & Methods: In our study, 36 neonates that received surfactant and 52 neonates with only mechanical ventilation therapy were compared. Data collected and analyzed using SPSS.Results: We found that mortality in patients with surfactant administration was significantly lower compared to the second group who did not receive surfactant. There were not any significant differences in incidences of HIV, pneumothorax, sepsis, and PDA and also course of hospitalization and need to ventilation between two groups. Conclusion: As a result, all of these findings reflect obligatory surfactant administration in sever RDS in NICU under observation of an educated expert.

  18. Nonlinear water waves with soluble surfactant (United States)

    Lapham, Gary; Dowling, David; Schultz, William


    The hydrodynamic effects of surfactants have fascinated scientists for generations. This presentation describes an experimental investigation into the influence of a soluble surfactant on nonlinear capillary-gravity waves in the frequency range from 12 to 20 Hz. Waves were generated in a plexiglass wave tank (254 cm long, 30.5 cm wide, and 18 cm deep) with a triangular plunger wave maker. The tank was filled with carbon- and particulate-filtered water into which the soluble surfactant Triton-X-100® was added in known amounts. Wave slope was measured nonintrusively with a digital camera running at 225 fps by monitoring the position of light beams which passed up through the bottom of the tank, out through the wavy surface, and onto a white screen. Wave slope data were reduced to determine wave damping and the frequency content of the wave train. Both were influenced by the presence of the surfactant. Interestingly, a subharmonic wave occurring at one-sixth the paddle-driving frequency was found only when surfactant was present and the paddle was driven at amplitudes high enough to produce nonlinear waves in clean water. Although the origins of this subharmonic wave remain unclear, it appears to be a genuine manifestation of the combined effects of the surfactant and nonlinearity.

  19. Spinodal Decomposition in Mixtures Containing Surfactants (United States)

    Melenekvitz, J.


    Spinodal decomposition in mixtures containing two immiscible liquids (A and B) plus surfactant was investigated using a recently developed (J. Melenkevitz and S. H. Javadpour, J. Chem. Phys., 107, 623 (1997).) 3-component Ginzburg-Landau model. The time dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equations governing the evolution of structure were numerically integrated in 2-dimensions. We found the growth rate of the average domain size, R(t), decreased with increasing surfactant concentration over a wide range of relative amounts of A and B. This can be attributed to the surfactant accumulating at the growing interface between the immiscible liquids, which leads to a reduction in the surface tension. At late times, the growth rate was noticeably altered when thermal fluctuations were added to the numerical simulations. In this case, power law behavior was observed for R(t) at late times, R(t) ~ t^α, with the exponent α decreasing as the amount of surfactant increased. The dynamics at early times were determined by linearizing the TDGL equations about a uniformly mixed state. The growth rate at ealry times was found to be strongly dependent on the model parameters describing the surfactant miscibility in A and B and the surfactant strength. Comparison with recent measurements on SBR / PB mixtures with added PB-SBR diblock copolymer will also be presented.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore K. Mohanty


    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Imbibition in an originally oil-wet 2D capillary is the fastest in the case of Alf-38 and slowest in the case of DTAB (among the surfactants studied). Force of adhesion studies and contact angle measurements show that greater wettability alteration is possible with these anionic surfactants than the cationic surfactant studied. The water imbibition rate does not increase monotonically with an increase in the surfactant concentration. A numerical model has been developed that fits the rate of imbibition. Plans for the next quarter include conducting simulation and imbibition studies.

  1. Ion Specificity and Micellization of Ionic Surfactants: A Monte Carlo Study

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Alexandre P dos; Levin, Yan


    We develop a simulation method which allows us to calculate the critical micelle concentrations for ionic surfactants in the presence of different salts. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The simulations are performed on a simple cubic lattice. The anionic interactions with the alkyl chains are taken into account based on the previously developed theory of the interfacial tensions of hydrophobic interfaces: the kosmotropic anions do not interact with the hydrocarbon tails of ionic surfactants, while chaotropic anions interact with the alkyl chains through a dispersion potential proportional to the anionic polarizability.

  2. Selection and evaluation of adsorbents for the removal of anionic surfactants from laundry rinsing water



    Low-cost adsorbents were tested to remove anionic surfactants from laundry rinsing water to allow re-use of water. Adsorbents were selected corresponding to the different surfactant adsorption mechanisms. Equilibrium adsorption studies of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) show that ionic interaction results in a high maximum adsorption capacity on positively charged adsorbents of 0.6–1.7 g LAS/g. Non-ionic interactions, such as hydrophobic interactions of LAS with non-ionic resins or activ...

  3. Synthesis of composite particles through emulsion polymerization based on silica/fluoroacrylate-siloxane using anionic reactive and nonionic surfactants. (United States)

    Qu, Ailan; Wen, Xiufang; Pi, Pihui; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Zhuoru


    The composite particles with core/shell structure resulting from the combination of silica seed and hydrophobic copolymer (dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate (DFMA), gamma-methacryloxypropyltriisopropoxidesilane (MAPTIPS), methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate) were synthesized by emulsion polymerization. The amount of the silica seeds, concentration of reactive surfactant, as well as the addition of DFMA and MAPTIPS, have strong influences on the morphology of composite particles. It has been shown that it would be possible to produce stable organic/inorganic composite particles with inhomogeneous core/shell structure encapsulated by hydrophobic fluorinated acrylate even though using unmodified silica particles and admixture of anionic and nonionic surfactants. However, there was an obvious difference on the morphologies of core-shell structure whether the DFMA and MAPTIPS were added or not. It was concluded that two kinds of polymerization approaches might coexist in the presence of DFMA and MAPTIPS for raw silica. One clear advantage of this process is that there is only one silica bead for each composite particle. This kind of stable core-shell structural hybrid latex is useful for preparing high performance hydrophobic coating.

  4. Silicone antifoam performance enhancement by nonionic surfactants in potato medium. (United States)

    Christiano, Steven P; Fey, Kenneth C


    The ability of a silicone antifoam to retard foaming in a liquor prepared from potatoes is enhanced by the addition of ethoxylated nonionic surfactants. The enhancement is non-linear for surfactant concentration, with all 12 surfactants tested possessing a concentration at which foam heights strongly diminish, referred to as the surfactant critical antifoaming concentration (SCAFC). SCAFCs vary between surfactants, with lower values indicating better mass efficiency of antifoaming enhancement. SCAFCs decrease with degree of ethoxylation and decrease with the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance for ethoxylated nonionic surfactants. Surfactant addition produces a mixed water-surface layer containing surfactant and surface-active components in the potato medium. Surface tension reduction does not correlate well with antifoam performance enhancement. A model is proposed where surfactant adsorption promotes desorption of surface-active potato medium components from the water surface. At the SCAFC, desorption is not complete, yet the rate of bubble rupture is sufficiently enhanced to provide excellent foam control.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Addition-Fragmentation Reactive Surfactant (TRANSURF) for Use in Free-Radical Emulsion Polymerizations. (United States)

    Wilkinson, Terence S.; Boonstra, Armin; Montoya-Goñi, Amaia; van Es, Steven; Monteiro, Michael J.; German, Anton L.


    The synthesis and characterization of a new type of chain-transfer-active surfactant (i.e., TRANSURF) is reported. The compound was designed on the basis of the chemistry of macromers, which undergo free-radical chain-transfer addition-fragmentation reactions. In effect this allows incorporation of the surfactant molecule into the polymer backbone, and thus reduces the influence of surfactant migration during film formation. Surfactants of this type, containing two hydrophilic head groups, can have a marked influence on the polymer and latex properties (e.g., molecular weight distributions and particle size). Characterization of the physical properties of this surfactant was therefore carried out using surface tension, conductivity, and fluorescence techniques. Because of the surfactant's unusual "bolaform" (alpha, omega) (Zana, R., in "Structure-Performance Relationships in Surfactants" (K. Esumi and M. Ueno, Eds.), Surfactant Science Series 70, Dekker, New York, 1997) structure the micelle formation process has been found to be quite different from that of the conventional surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). From the surface tension data a flat molecular conformation was evident at 1x10(-3) mol dm(-3) (131 Å(2) surface area), which we assumed to correspond to the low aggregation number of premicellar aggregates. There is evidence to suggest formation of a larger volume of the microdomains in these micelles compared to that in SDS. At higher TRANSURF concentrations, however, we find no clear indication of a switch to a "wicket"-type conformation, although such conformational changes cannot be ruled out. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  6. Interactions of organic contaminants with mineral-adsorbed surfactants (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Chen, B.; Tao, S.; Chiou, C.T.


    Sorption of organic contaminants (phenol, p-nitrophenol, and naphthalene) to natural solids (soils and bentonite) with and without myristylpyridinium bromide (MPB) cationic surfactant was studied to provide novel insight to interactions of contaminants with the mineral-adsorbed surfactant. Contaminant sorption coefficients with mineral-adsorbed surfactants, Kss, show a strong dependence on surfactant loading in the solid. At low surfactant levels, the Kss values increased with increasing sorbed surfactant mass, reached a maximum, and then decreased with increasing surfactant loading. The Kss values for contaminants were always higher than respective partition coefficients with surfactant micelles (Kmc) and natural organic matter (Koc). At examined MPB concentrations in water the three organic contaminants showed little solubility enhancement by MPB. At low sorbed-surfactant levels, the resulting mineral-adsorbed surfactant via the cation-exchange process appears to form a thin organic film, which effectively "adsorbs" the contaminants, resulting in very high Kss values. At high surfactant levels, the sorbed surfactant on minerals appears to form a bulklike medium that behaves essentially as a partition phase (rather than an adsorptive surface), with the resulting Kss being significantly decreased and less dependent on the MPB loading. The results provide a reference to the use of surfactants for remediation of contaminated soils/sediments or groundwater in engineered surfactant-enhanced washing.

  7. From shell logs to shell scripts


    Jacobs, Nico; Blockeel, Hendrik


    Analysing the use of a Unix command shell is one of the classic applications in the domain of adaptive user interfaces and user modelling. Instead of trying to predict the next command from a history of commands, we automatically produce scripts that automate frequent tasks. For this we use an ILP association rule learner. We show how to speedup the learning task by dividing it into smaller tasks, and the need for a preprocessing phase to detect frequent subsequences in the data. We illustrat...

  8. Selection and evaluation of adsorbents for the removal of anionic surfactants from laundry rinsing water. (United States)

    Schouten, Natasja; van der Ham, Louis G J; Euverink, Gert-Jan W; de Haan, André B


    Low-cost adsorbents were tested to remove anionic surfactants from laundry rinsing water to allow re-use of water. Adsorbents were selected corresponding to the different surfactant adsorption mechanisms. Equilibrium adsorption studies of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) show that ionic interaction results in a high maximum adsorption capacity on positively charged adsorbents of 0.6-1.7 gLAS/g. Non-ionic interactions, such as hydrophobic interactions of LAS with non-ionic resins or activated carbons, result in a lower adsorption capacity of 0.02-0.6 gLAS/g. Negatively charged materials, such as cation exchange resins or bentonite clay, have negligible adsorption capacities for LAS. Similar results are obtained for alpha olefin sulfonate (AOS). Cost comparison of different adsorbents shows that an inorganic anion exchange material (layered double hydroxide) and activated carbons are the most cost-effective materials in terms of the amount of surfactant adsorbed per dollar worth of adsorbent.

  9. The effect of fatty acid surfactants on the uptake of ozone to aqueous halogenide particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rouvière


    Full Text Available The reactive uptake of ozone to deliquesced potassium iodide aerosol particles coated with linear saturated fatty acids (C9, C12, C15, C18 and C20 as surfactants was studied. The experiments were performed in an aerosol flow tube at 293 K and atmospheric pressure. The uptake coefficient on pure deliquesced KI aerosol was γ=(1.10±0.20×10−2 at 72–75% relative humidity. In presence of organic coatings, the uptake coefficient decreased significantly for long straight chain surfactants (>C15, while it was only slightly reduced for the short ones (C9, C12. We linked the kinetic results to the monolayer properties of the surfactants, and specifically to the phase state of the monolayer formed (liquid expanded or liquid condensed state. We also investigated the effect of organic films to mixed deliquesced aerosol composed of a variable mixture of KI and NaCl, which allowed determining the resistance exerted to O3 at the aqueous surface by the two longer chained surfactants pentadecanoic acid (C15 and stearic acid (C18. Finally, the effect of two-component coatings, consisting of a mixture of long and short chained surfactants, was also studied.

  10. Critical interaction strength for surfactant-induced mesomorphic structures in polymer-surfactant systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruokolainen, J.; Torkkeli, M.; Serimaa, R.; Vahvaselka, S.; Saariaho, M.; ten Brinke, G.; Ikkala, O.; Vahvaselkä, Sakari


    The critical interaction strength to induce mesomorphic structures in flexible polymers by complexing with surfactants is determined by using surfactants with different hydrogen-bonding strengths;. Two essential requirements have to be satisfied: (i) the association has to be strong enough, otherwis

  11. Surfactant nebulization versus instillation during high frequency ventilation in surfactant-deficient rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Peter H.; Heikamp, A; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto


    Surfactant nebulization improves lung function at low alveolar doses of surfactant. However, efficiency of nebulization is low, and lung deposition seems to depend on lung aeration. High frequency ventilation (HFV) has been shown to improve lung aeration. We hypothesize that the combination of HFV a

  12. Surfactant Enhanced Electroremediation of Phenanthrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘鹏; 杨建刚; 等


    Removal of hydrophobic organic contaminants(HOCs) form soil of low permeability by electroremediation was investigated by using phenanthrene and kaolinite as a model system.Tween 80 was added into the purging solution in order to enhance the solubility of phenanthrene.The effects of pH on the adsorption of phenanthrene and Tween 80 on kaolinite and the magnitude of ζ-potential of kaolinite were examined,respectively.The effects of electric field strength indicated by electric current on the electroremediation behavior,including the pH of purging solution,the conductivity,phenanthrene concentration and flow rate of effluent,were experimentally investigated,repectively,In case of an electric field of 25mA applied for 72 hours,over 90% of phenanthrene was removed from 424g(dry mass)of kaolinite at an energy consumption of 0.148kW.h.The experimental results described in present study show that the addition of surfactant into purging solution greatly enhances the removel of HOCs by electroremediation.

  13. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore K. Mohanty


    There are many fractured carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). The process of using dilute anionic surfactants in alkaline solutions has been investigated in this work for oil recovery from fractured oil-wet carbonate reservoirs both experimentally and numerically. This process is a surfactant-aided gravity drainage where surfactant diffuses into the matrix, lowers IFT and contact angle, which decrease capillary pressure and increase oil relative permeability enabling gravity to drain the oil up. Anionic surfactants have been identified which at dilute concentration of 0.05 wt% and optimal salinity can lower the interfacial tension and change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil. The force of adhesion in AFM of oil-wet regions changes after anionic surfactant treatment to values similar to those of water-wet regions. The AFM topography images showed that the oil-wetting material was removed from the surface by the anionic surfactant treatment. Adsorption studies indicate that the extent of adsorption for anionic surfactants on calcite minerals decreases with increase in pH and with decrease in salinity. Surfactant adsorption can be minimized in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (20-42% OOIP in 50 days; up to 60% in 200 days) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Small (<10%) initial gas saturation does not affect significantly the rate of oil recovery in the imbibition process, but larger gas saturation decreases the oil recovery rate. As the core permeability decreases, the rate of oil recovery reduces

  14. Sensational spherical shells (United States)

    Lee, M. C.; Kendall, J. M., Jr.; Bahrami, P. A.; Wang, T. G.


    Fluid-dynamic and capillary forces can be used to form nearly perfect, very small spherical shells when a liquid that can solidify is passed through an annular die to form an annular jet. Gravity and certain properties of even the most ideal materials, however, can cause slight asymmetries. The primary objective of the present work is the control of this shell formation process in earth laboratories rather than space microgravity, through the development of facilities and methods that minimize the deleterious effects of gravity, aerodynamic drag, and uncontrolled cooling. The spherical shells thus produced can be used in insulation, recyclable filter materials, fire retardants, explosives, heat transport slurries, shock-absorbing armor, and solid rocket motors.

  15. Microemulsion-based lycopene extraction: Effect of surfactants, co-surfactants and pretreatments. (United States)

    Amiri-Rigi, Atefeh; Abbasi, Soleiman


    Lycopene is a potent antioxidant that has received extensive attention recently. Due to the challenges encountered with current methods of lycopene extraction using hazardous solvents, industry calls for a greener, safer and more efficient process. The main purpose of present study was application of microemulsion technique to extract lycopene from tomato pomace. In this respect, the effect of eight different surfactants, four different co-surfactants, and ultrasound and enzyme pretreatments on lycopene extraction efficiency was examined. Experimental results revealed that application of combined ultrasound and enzyme pretreatments, saponin as a natural surfactant, and glycerol as a co-surfactant, in the bicontinuous region of microemulsion was the optimal experimental conditions resulting in a microemulsion containing 409.68±0.68 μg/glycopene. The high lycopene concentration achieved, indicates that microemulsion technique, using a low-cost natural surfactant could be promising for a simple and safe separation of lycopene from tomato pomace and possibly from tomato industrial wastes.

  16. Selection of surfactant in remediation of DDT-contaminated soil by comparison of surfactant effectiveness. (United States)

    Guo, Ping; Chen, Weiwei; Li, Yueming; Chen, Tao; Li, Linhui; Wang, Guanzhu


    With an aim to select the most appropriate surfactant for remediation of DDT-contaminated soil, the performance of nonionic surfactants Tween80, TX-100, and Brij35 and one anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) in enhancement of DDT water solubility and desorption of DDT from contaminated soil and their adsorption onto soil and ecotoxicities were investigated in this study. Tween80 had the highest solubilizing and soil-washing ability for DDT among the four experimental surfactants. The adsorption loss of surfactants onto soil followed the order of TX-100 > Tween80 > Brij35 > SDBS. The ecotoxicity of Tween80 to ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was lowest. The overall performance considering about the above four aspects suggested that Tween80 should be selected for the remediation of DDT-contaminated soil, because Tween80 had the greatest solubilizing and soil-washing ability for DDT, less adsorption loss onto soil, and the lowest ecotoxicity in this experiment.

  17. Use of isothermal titration calorimetry to study surfactant aggregation in colloidal systems. (United States)

    Loh, Watson; Brinatti, César; Tam, Kam Chiu


    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a general technique that allows for precise and highly sensitive measurements. These measurements may provide a complete and accurate thermodynamic description of association processes in complex systems such as colloidal mixtures. This review will address uses of ITC for studies of surfactant aggregation to form micelles, with emphasis on the thermodynamic studies of homologous surfactant series. We will also review studies on surfactant association with polymers of different molecular characteristics and with colloidal particles. ITC studies on the association of different homologous series of surfactants provide quantitative information on independent contribution from their apolar hydrocarbon chains and polar headgroups to the different thermodynamic functions associated with micellization (Gibbs energy, enthalpy and entropy). Studies on surfactant association to polymers by ITC provide a comprehensive description of the association process, including examples in which particular features revealed by ITC were elucidated by using ancillary techniques such as light or X-ray scattering measurements. Examples of uses of ITC to follow surfactant association to biomolecules such as proteins or DNA, or nanoparticles are also highlighted. Finally, recent theoretical models that were proposed to analyze ITC data in terms of binding/association processes are discussed. This review stresses the importance of using direct calorimetric measurements to obtain and report accurate thermodynamic data, even in complex systems. These data, whenever possible, should be confirmed and associated with other ancillary techniques that allow elucidation of the nature of the transformations detected by calorimetric results, providing a complete description of the process under scrutiny. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Review on Progress in QSPR Studies for Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwu Wang


    Full Text Available This paper presents a review on recent progress in quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR studies of surfactants and applications of various molecular descriptors. QSPR studies on critical micelle concentration (cmc and surface tension (γ of surfactants are introduced. Studies on charge distribution in ionic surfactants by quantum chemical calculations and its effects on the structures and properties of the colloids of surfactants are also reviewed. The trends of QSPR studies on cloud point (for nonionic surfactants, biodegradation potential and some other properties of surfactants are evaluated .

  19. The use of surfactant in lung transplantation. (United States)

    Amital, Anat; Shitrit, David; Raviv, Yael; Saute, Milton; Medalion, Benjamin; Bakal, Llana; Kramer, Mordechai R


    Lung transplantation impairs surfactant activity, which may contribute to primary graft dysfunction (PGD). Prompted by studies in animals and a few reports in humans, this study sought to determine if the administration of surfactant during transplantation serves as an effective preventive measure. An open, randomized, controlled prospective design was used. Forty-two patients scheduled for single (n=38) or double (n=4) lung transplantation at a major tertiary medical center were randomly assigned to receive, or not, intraoperative surfactant treatment. In the treated group, bovine surfactant was administered at a dose of 20 mg phospholipids/kg through bronchoscope after the establishment of bronchial anastomosis. The groups were compared for oxygenation (PaO2/FiO2), chest X-ray findings, PGD grade, and outcome. Compared with the untreated group, the patients who received surfactant were characterized by better postoperative oxygenation mean PaO2/FiO2 (418.8+/-123.8 vs. 277.9+/-165 mm Hg, P=0.004), better chest radiograph score, a lower PGD grade (0.66 vs. 1.86, P=0.005), fewer cases of severe PGD (1 patient vs. 12, P<0.05), earlier extubation (by 2.2 hr; 95% CI 1.1-4.3 hr, P=0.027), shorter intensive care unit stay (by 2.3 days; 95% CI 1.47-3.74 days, P=0.001), and better vital capacity at 1 month (61% vs. 50%, P=0.022). One treated and 2 untreated patients died during the first postoperative month. Surfactant instillation during lung transplantation improves oxygenation, prevents PGD, shortens intubation time, and enhances early posttransplantation recovery. Further, larger studies are needed to assess whether surfactant should be used routinely in lung transplantation.

  20. Surfactants and the Mechanics of Respiration (United States)

    Jbaily, Abdulrahman; Szeri, Andrew J.


    Alveoli are small sacs found at the end of terminal bronchioles in human lungs with a mean diameter of 200 μm. A thin layer of fluid (hypophase) coats the inner face of an alveolus and is in contact with the air in the lungs. The thickness of this layer varies among alveoli, but is in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 μm for many portions of the alveolar network. The interfacial tension σ at the air-hypophase interface tends to favor collapse of the alveolus, and resists its expansion during inhalation. Type II alveolar cells synthesize and secrete a mixture of phospholipids and proteins called pulmonary surfactant. These surfactant molecules adsorb to the interface causing σ of water at body temperature is 70 mN/m and falls to an equilibrium value of 25 mN/m when surfactants are present. Also, in a dynamic sense, it is known that σ is reduced to near 0 during exhalation when the surfactant film compresses. In this work, the authors develop a mechanical and transport model of the alveolus to study the effect of surfactants on various aspects of respiration. The model is composed of three principal parts: (i) air movement into and out of the alveolus; (ii) a balance of linear momentum across the two-layered membrane of the alveolus (hypophase and elastic wall); and (iii) a pulmonary surfactant transport problem in the hypophase. The goal is to evaluate the influence of pulmonary surfactant on respiratory mechanics.

  1. Stress Resultant Based Elasto-Viscoplastic Thick Shell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Woelke


    Full Text Available The current paper presents enhancement introduced to the elasto-viscoplastic shell formulation, which serves as a theoretical base for the finite element code EPSA (Elasto-Plastic Shell Analysis [1–3]. The shell equations used in EPSA are modified to account for transverse shear deformation, which is important in the analysis of thick plates and shells, as well as composite laminates. Transverse shear forces calculated from transverse shear strains are introduced into a rate-dependent yield function, which is similar to Iliushin's yield surface expressed in terms of stress resultants and stress couples [12]. The hardening rule defined by Bieniek and Funaro [4], which allows for representation of the Bauschinger effect on a moment-curvature plane, was previously adopted in EPSA and is used here in the same form. Viscoplastic strain rates are calculated, taking into account the transverse shears. Only non-layered shells are considered in this work.

  2. Process to make core-shell structured nanoparticles (United States)

    Luhrs, Claudia; Phillips, Jonathan; Richard, Monique N


    Disclosed is a process for making a composite material that contains core-shell structured nanoparticles. The process includes providing a precursor in the form of a powder a liquid and/or a vapor of a liquid that contains a core material and a shell material, and suspending the precursor in an aerosol gas to produce an aerosol containing the precursor. In addition, the process includes providing a plasma that has a hot zone and passing the aerosol through the hot zone of the plasma. As the aerosol passes through the hot zone of the plasma, at least part of the core material and at least part of the shell material in the aerosol is vaporized. Vapor that contains the core material and the shell material that has been vaporized is removed from the hot zone of the plasma and allowed to condense into core-shell structured nanoparticles.

  3. Low-Q whispering gallery modes in anisotropic metamaterial shells

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Torrent, Daniel; Sánchez-Dehesa, José


    Anisotropic and inhomogeneous metamaterial shells are studied in order to exploit all their resonant mode richness. These multilayer structures are based on a cylindrical distribution of radially dependent constitutive parameters including an inner void cavity. Shell, cavity and whispering gallery modes are characterized, and special attention is paid to the latter ones. The whispering gallery modes are created at the boundary layers of the shell with the background and energy localization is produced with highly radiative characteristics. These low-Q resonant states have frequencies that are independent of the shell thickness. However, their quality factors can be controlled by the number of layers forming the shell, which allows confining electromagnetic waves at the interface layers (internal or external), and make them suitable for the harvesting of electromagnetic energy.

  4. On the Regularization of On-Shell Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Benincasa, Paolo; Gordo, David


    In this letter we discuss a regularization scheme for the integration of generic on-shell forms. The basic idea is to extend the three-particle amplitudes to the space of unphysical helicities keeping the dimension of the related coupling constant fixed, and construct on-shell forms out of them. We briefly discuss the analytic structure of the extended on-shell diagrams, both at tree level and one loop. Furthermore, we propose an integration contour which, applied to the relevant on-shell forms, allows to extract the four-particle amplitudes in Lorentz signature at one loop. With this contour at hand, we explicitly apply our procedure to this case obtaining the IR divergences as poles in the deformation parameter space, as well as the correct functional form for the finite term. This procedure provides a natural regularization for generic on-shell diagrams.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Interactions of collagen fibres (made from Beef Achilles tendons )with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS),sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS),cetylpyridinium bromide(CPB)and Igepal CA-720 were studied.Sorptions isotherms of all ionic surfactants under different reaction conditions were found out.At suitable conditions S-isotherms were obtained,while under isoeletric conditions isotherms were logaritmic.Igepal had no sorption.The interaction of surfactants with collagen is connected with its mass changes. Changes depend on reaction conditions,namely pH and ionic strenght of reaction solution.Degree of swelling(αm)was used for the description of these changes.At pH=3,in absence SDBS and under low ionic strenghts,a high swelling was attained.An addition of SDBS to reaction mixture led to vigerous deswelling and when the bound amount of SDBS reached about 1 mmol.g-1 αm became independent on a futher bound SDBS.With higher ionic strenghts αm was independent on the equilibrium bound amount of SDBS.Under isoeletric conditions changes of αm were markedly smaller than in acid region and had the opposite character.%研究了十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)、二十烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)、溴化十六烷基吡啶翁(CPB)和Igepal CA-720等表面活性剂与胶原(来源于牛跟腱)间的相互作用.发现了不同的反应条件下,上述离子性表面活性剂的吸附等温线,得到了适当条件下的吸附等温线,同时发现在等电条件下等温线呈对数关系,Igepal没有吸附.表面活性剂与胶原的作用情况与其质量的变化是相互关联的,这种变化取决于反应条件,即pH值和反应溶液中的离子强度,胶原的膨胀程度(am)被用来描述这种变化.在pH3.0,无SDBS存在且在低的离子强度下,胶原得到了大的膨胀:加入SDBS将会导致强烈的消肿作用,并且当胶原对SDBS的结合量达到1mmol/g时,am的值将不再随SDBS结合量的进一步增加而变化.在高的离子

  6. History of surfactant up to 1980. (United States)

    Obladen, Michael


    Remarkable insight into disturbed lung mechanics of preterm infants was gained in the 18th and 19th century by the founders of obstetrics and neonatology who not only observed respiratory failure but also designed devices to treat it. Surfactant research followed a splendid and largely logical growth curve. Pathological changes in the immature lung were characterized in Germany by Virchow in 1854 and by Hochheim in 1903. The Swiss physiologist von Neergard fully understood surfactant function in 1929, but his paper was ignored for 25 years. The physical properties of surfactant were recognized in the early 1950s from research on warfare chemicals by Pattle in Britain and by Radford and Clements in the United States. The causal relationship of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and surfactant deficiency was established in the USA by Avery and Mead in 1959. The Australian obstetrician Liggins induced lung maturity with glucocorticoids in 1972, but his discovery was not fully believed for another 20 years. A century of basic research was rewarded when Fujiwara introduced surfactant substitution in Japan in 1980 for treatment and prevention of RDS.

  7. Recovering hydrocarbons with surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; Whittington, L.E.; Ledoux, W.A.; Debons, F.E.


    This patent describes a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of surfactants produced from lignin, the surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen creating a reduction reaction mixture comprising oil soluble lignin phenols, the reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reduction mixture, and converting the lignin phenols into lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of alkoxylation, sulfonation, sulfation, aklylation, sulfomethylation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  8. Foaming behaviour of polymer-surfactant solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes-MartInez, Alfredo [Departamento de Investigacion en PolImeros y Materiales, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Maldonado, Amir [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 1626, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)


    We study the effect of a non-ionic amphiphilic polymer (PEG-100 stearate also called Myrj 59) on the foaming behaviour of aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate or SDS). The SDS concentration was kept fixed while the Myrj 59 concentration was varied. Measurements of foamability, surface tension and electrical conductivity were carried out. The results show two opposite effects depending on the polymer concentration: foamability is higher when the Myrj 59 concentration is low; however, it decreases considerably when the polymer concentration is increased. This behaviour is due to the polymer adsorption at the air/liquid interface at lower polymer concentrations, and to the formation of a polymer-surfactant complex in the bulk at higher concentrations. The results are confirmed by surface tension and electrical conductivity measurements, which are interpreted in terms of the microstructure of the polymer-surfactant solutions. The observed behaviour is due to the amphiphilic nature of the studied polymer. The increased hydrophobicity of Myrj 59, compared to that of water-soluble polymers like PEG or PEO, increases its 'reactivity' towards SDS, i.e. the strength of its interaction with this anionic surfactant. Our results show that hydrophobically modified polymers have potential applications as additives in order to control the foaming properties of surfactant solutions.

  9. Surfactant apoprotein in nonmalignant pulmonary disorders. (United States)

    Singh, G.; Katyal, S. L.


    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lungs exhibiting a variety of nonmalignant disorders were studied by immunoperoxidase staining using antibodies specific for surfactant apoprotein, IgG, IgM, IgA, albumin, fibrinogen, and lysozyme. Normal Type II pneumocytes showed staining for surfactant apoprotein in the perinuclear region only. The extent and intensity of staining for apoprotein was markedly increased in reactive Type II pneumocytes. This increase appeared to be a nonspecific reaction to lung injury. The intra-alveolar material in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis stained intensely for surfactant apoprotein, indicating that the accumulated proteinaceous material contained pulmonary surfactant. Type II pneumocytes in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis exhibited hyperplasia as well as hypertrophy. The few macrophages in lung affected by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis stained intensely for lysozyme. The excessive intraalveolar accumulation of proteinaceous material in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis may be the result of both an over-production as well as a deficient removal of pulmonary surfactant. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 p[57]-a PMID:7004201

  10. 2-DE using hemi-fluorinated surfactants. (United States)

    Starita-Geribaldi, Mireille; Thebault, Pascal; Taffin de Givenchy, Elisabeth; Guittard, Frederic; Geribaldi, Serge


    The synthesis of hemi-fluorinated zwitterionic surfactants was realized and assessed for 2-DE, a powerful separation method for proteomic analysis. These new fluorinated amidosulfobetaine (FASB-p,m) were compared to their hydrocarbon counterparts amidosulfobetaine (ASB-n) characterized by a hydrophilic polar head, a hydrophobic and lipophilic tail, and an amido group as connector. The tail of these FASB surfactants was in part fluorinated resulting in the modulation of its lipophilicity (or oleophobicity). Their effect on the red blood cell (RBC) membrane showed a specific solubilization depending on the length of the hydrophobic part. A large number of polypeptide spots appeared in the 2-DE patterns by using FASB-p,m. The oleophobic character of these surfactants was confirmed by the fact that Band 3, a highly hydrophobic transmembrane protein, was not solubilized by these fluorinated structures. The corresponding pellet was very rich in Band 3 and could then be solubilized by using a strong detergent such as amidosulfobetaine with an alkyl tail containing 14 carbon atoms (ASB-14). Thus, these hemi-fluorinated surfactants appeared as powerful tools when used at the first step of a two-step solubilization strategy using a hydrocarbon homologous surfactant in the second step.

  11. Surfactant effects on SF6 hydrate formation. (United States)

    Lee, Bo Ram; Lee, Ju Dong; Lee, Hyun Ju; Ryu, Young Bok; Lee, Man Sig; Kim, Young Seok; Englezos, Peter; Kim, Myung Hyun; Kim, Yang Do


    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) has been widely used in a variety of industrial processes, but it is one of the most potent greenhouse gases. For this reason, it is necessary to separate or collect it from waste gas streams. One separation method is through hydrate crystal formation. In this study, SF(6) hydrate was formed in aqueous surfactant solutions of 0.00, 0.01, 0.05, 0.15 and 0.20 wt% to investigate the effects of surfactants on the hydrate formation rates. Three surfactants, Tween 20 (Tween), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LABS), were tested in a semi-batch stirred vessel at the constant temperature and pressures of 276.2 K and 0.78 MPa, respectively. All surfactants showed kinetic promoter behavior for SF(6) hydrate formation. It was also found that SF(6) hydrate formation proceeded in two stages with the second stage being the most rapid. In situ Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed that the increased gas consumption rate with the addition of surfactant was possibly due to the increased gas filling rate in the hydrate cavity.

  12. Syntheses of surfactants from oleochemical epoxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwel Siegfried


    Full Text Available Sugar-based surfactants were obtained in good yields (up to 100% under mild conditions (70°C, methanol or mixtures of methanol and water by ring-opening of terminal epoxides with aminopolyols, derived from glucose. Reaction of N-methyl glucamine with epoxides from even-numbered C4-C18 alpha-olefins or from terminal unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters leads to linear products, while corresponding reactions with N-dodecyl glucamine or glucamine yield surfactants with different Y-structures. Products obtained by conversion of omega-epoxy fatty acid methyl esters were saponificated with NaOH or hydrolyzed enzymatically to sodium salts or free acids respectively, which are amphoteric surfactants. Studies of the surfactants at different pH-values demonstrate different surface active properties in aqueous solutions. Critical micelle concentrations (c.m.c. in a range between 2 and 500mg/l and surface tensions of 25-40mN/m were measured for several of the synthesized sugar-based surfactants. The ring-opening products are rather poor foamers, whereas some of the corresponding hydrobromides show good foaming properties.

  13. Self-assembly thermodynamics of pH-responsive amino-acid-based polymers with a nonionic surfactant. (United States)

    Bogomolova, Anna; Keller, Sandro; Klingler, Johannes; Sedlak, Marian; Rak, Dmytro; Sturcova, Adriana; Hruby, Martin; Stepanek, Petr; Filippov, Sergey K


    The behavior of pH-responsive polymers poly(N-methacryloyl-l-valine) (P1), poly(N-methacryloyl-l-phenylalanine) (P2), and poly(N-methacryloylglycyne-l-leucine) (P3) has been studied in the presence of the nonionic surfactant Brij98. The pure polymers phase-separate in an acidic medium with critical pHtr values of 3.7, 5.5, and 3.4, respectively. The addition of the surfactant prevents phase separation and promotes reorganization of polymer molecules. The nature of the interaction between polymer and surfactant depends on the amino acid structure in the side chain of the polymer. This effect was investigated by dynamic light scattering, isothermal titration calorimetry, electrophoretic measurements, small-angle neutron scattering, and infrared spectroscopy. Thermodynamic analysis revealed an endothermic association reaction in P1/Brij98 mixture, whereas a strong exothermic effect was observed for P2/Brij98 and P3/Brij98. Application of regular solution theory for the analysis of experimental enthalpograms indicated dominant hydrophobic interactions between P1 and Brij98 and specific interactions for the P2/Brij98 system. Electrophoretic and dynamic light scattering measurements support the applicability of the theory to these cases. The specific interactions can be ascribed to hydrogen bonds formed between the carboxylic groups of the polymer and the oligo(ethylene oxide) head groups of the surfactant. Thus, differences in polymer-surfactant interactions between P1 and P2 polymers result in different structures of polymer-surfactant complexes. Specifically, small-angle neutron scattering revealed pearl-necklace complexes and "core-shell" structures for P1/Brij98 and P2/Brij98 systems, respectively. These results may help in the design of new pH-responsive site-specific micellar drug delivery systems or pH-responsive membrane-disrupting agents.

  14. Simulation for double shell pinch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Gang-Hua; Hu Xi-Jing; Sun Cheng-Wei


    Basic shock phenomena are presented in a composite pinch, a hybrid of the Z-pinch. The successive transfer of current within the plasma structure is demonstrated by our calculations. Properties of the shock wave are described.The current distribution between the two shells after the outer shell hitting the inner shell is also discussed.

  15. Temporal structures in shell models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, F.


    The intermittent dynamics of the turbulent Gledzer, Ohkitani, and Yamada shell-model is completely characterized by a single type of burstlike structure, which moves through the shells like a front. This temporal structure is described by the dynamics of the instantaneous configuration of the shell...

  16. Shaving a Shell: Effect of Manipulated Sculpture and Feeding on Shell Growth and Sculpture Development in Nucella lamellosa (Muricidae: Ocenebrinae). (United States)

    Webster, Nicole B; Palmer, A Richard


    Gastropod shell sculpture offers a novel tool for studying morphological patterning. Existing shell features may be manipulated experimentally to test how alteration affects subsequent shell growth and form. Axial sculpture occurs in many gastropod groups, and spacing of sculpture may be regular or irregular. But how gastropods control sculpture placement during shell growth is unknown. We studied the growth and positioning of axial lamellae in the muricid Nucella lamellosa, and compared these to the superficially similar axial varices seen in other muricids. First, we tested whether the feeding rate had any effect on the rate of addition or positioning of new lamellae. Second, we tested what effect previous shell sculpture had on lamellar placement, and shell growth in general, by removing all shell sculpture and allowing snails to grow over the "shaved" shell surface. Lamellar growth appeared to be relatively plastic; spacing was highly variable both within and among individual snails, and 1-2 weeks were required to complete the addition of a new lamella. Body growth rate was the primary determinant of lamellar growth; past lamellae had no effect on placement of new lamellae or rate of shell length increase. Feeding rate and body size affected only growth in shell length, and had no direct effect on spacing or on the rate of addition of new lamellae. The growth of axial lamellae in N. lamellosa differed from that of varices by exhibiting neither a) regular spacing nor b) a growth hiatus after completion of a lamella. Significantly, despite the obvious impediment of previous sculpture to future shell growth, removal of this sculpture had no observable effect on the rate of body growth or on any aspect of subsequent lamellar growth.

  17. Recent Advances in Shell Evolution with Shell-Model Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Utsuno, Yutaka; Tsunoda, Yusuke; Shimizu, Noritaka; Honma, Michio; Togashi, Tomoaki; Mizusaki, Takahiro


    Shell evolution in exotic nuclei is investigated with large-scale shell-model calculations. After presenting that the central and tensor forces produce distinctive ways of shell evolution, we show several recent results: (i) evolution of single-particle-like levels in antimony and cupper isotopes, (ii) shape coexistence in nickel isotopes understood in terms of configuration-dependent shell structure, and (iii) prediction of the evolution of the recently established $N=34$ magic number towards smaller proton numbers. In any case, large-scale shell-model calculations play indispensable roles in describing the interplay between single-particle character and correlation.

  18. Interaction of Fluorocarbon Containing Hydrophobically Modified Polyelectrolyte with Nonionic Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO,Jin-Feng(郭金峰); ZHUANG,Dong-Qing(庄东青); ZHOU,Hui(周晖); ZHANG,Yun-Xiang(章云祥)


    The interaction of fluorocarbon containing hydrophobically modified polyelectrolyte (FMPAANa) with two kinds of nonionic surfactants (hydrogenated and fluorinated) in a semidilute (0.5 wt% ) aqueous solution had been studied by rheological measurements. Association behavior was found in both systems. The hydrophobic interaction of FMPAANa with fluorinated surfactant (FC171) is much stronger than that with hydrogenated surfactant (NP7.5) at low surfactant concentrations. The interaction is strengthened by surfactants being added for the density of active junctions increased. Whereas distinct phenomena for FC171 and NP7. 5 start to be found as the surfactants added over their respective certain concentration. The interaction of polyelectrolyte with fluorinated surfactant increases dramatical ly while that with hydrogenated surfactant decreases.

  19. Synthesis of mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite by using zwitterions surfactant (United States)

    Mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite (mn-HAP) was successfully synthesized via a novel micelle-templating method using lauryl dimethylaminoacetic acid as zwitterionic surfactant. The systematic use of such a surfactant in combination with microwave energy inputenables the precise contr...

  20. Polyelectrolyte surfactant aggregates and their deposition on macroscopic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Voisin, D


    Oppositely charged surfactant and polyelectrolyte are present in hair shampoos and conditioners, together with particles (e.g. anti-dandruff agents for scalp) and droplets (e.g. silicone oil for the hair). These are normally formulated at high surfactant concentrations, beyond the flocculation region for the polyelectrolyte concentration used. However, on dilution with water, during application, flocs are formed which carry the particles and droplets to the scalp and hair. The addition of an anionic surfactant to an aqueous solution of cationic polyelectrolyte, at a given concentration, can lead to the formation of polyelectrolyte-surfactant 'particles', in which the surfactant 'binds' to the polyelectrolyte. This occurs from the critical association concentration (CAC), up to the surfactant concentration corresponding to maximum binding. Within this range of surfactant concentrations, the surfactant bound to the polyelectrolyte is thought to associate to form what might be termed 'internal micelles'. Each po...

  1. Fullerene surfactants and their use in polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jen, Kwan-Yue; Yip, Hin-Lap; Li, Chang-Zhi


    Fullerene surfactant compounds useful as interfacial layer in polymer solar cells to enhance solar cell efficiency. Polymer solar cell including a fullerene surfactant-containing interfacial layer intermediate cathode and active layer.

  2. Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 PowerShell cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Jonas


    This book is written in a Cookbook-style format and provides practical, immediately usable task-based recipes that show you how to manage and maintain your Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 environment with Windows PowerShell 3. Each chapter of the book is written so that it can be used as a desktop reference, or it can be read from beginning to end, allowing you to build a solid foundation for building scripts in your Exchange environment.This Cookbook is for messaging professionals who want to learn how to build real-world scripts with Windows PowerShell 3 and the Exchange Management Shell. If

  3. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation (United States)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.


    A phase 2 study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the second quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs with Illinois number 6 coal at processing temperatures of 300, 325, and 350 C, and pressures of 1800 psig; analysis of the filter cake and the filtrate obtained from the treated slurry in each run; and correlation of the coal conversions and the liquid yield quality to the surfactant concentration. An increase in coal conversions and upgrading of the liquid product quality due to surfactant addition was observed for all runs.

  4. Nanotube Dispersions Made With Charged Surfactant (United States)

    Kuper, Cynthia; Kuzma, Mike


    Dispersions (including monodispersions) of nanotubes in water at relatively high concentrations have been formulated as prototypes of reagents for use in making fibers, films, and membranes based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Other than water, the ingredients of a dispersion of this type include one or more charged surfactant(s) and carbon nanotubes derived from the HiPco(TradeMark) (or equivalent) process. Among reagents known to be made from HiPco(TradeMark)(or equivalent) SWNTs, these are the most concentrated and are expected to be usable in processing of bulk structures and materials. Test data indicate that small bundles of SWNTs and single SWNTs at concentrations up to 1.1 weight percent have been present in water plus surfactant. This development is expected to contribute to the growth of an industry based on applied carbon nanotechnology. There are expected to be commercial applications in aerospace, avionics, sporting goods, automotive products, biotechnology, and medicine.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirog T. P.


    Full Text Available The literature and own experimental data on the synthesis of microbial surfactants of different chemical nature (rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, manozylerythritollipids, lipopeptides at various waste (vegetable oil and fat, sugar, dairy industry, agriculture, forestry, biodiesel, as well as waste — fried vegetable oils are presented. Most suitable substrates for the synthesis of microbial surfactants are oil containing waste that, unlike, for example, lignocellulose, whey, technical glycerol do not require pre-treatment and purification. Replacing traditional substrates for the biosynthesis of surfactant with industrial waste will help to reduce the cost of technology by several times, dispose of unwanted waste, solve the problem of storage or disposal of large amounts of waste from the food industry, agricultural sector and companies that produce biodiesel, which spent large amount of energy and money for such needs

  6. Natural surfactants used in cosmetics: glycolipids. (United States)

    Lourith, N; Kanlayavattanakul, M


    Cosmetic surfactant performs detergency, wetting, emulsifying, solubilizing, dispersing and foaming effects. Adverse reactions of chemical synthesis surfactant have an effect on environment and humans, particularly severe in long term. Biodegradability, low toxicity and ecological acceptability which are the benefits of naturally derived surfactant that promises cosmetic safety are, therefore, highly on demand. Biosurfactant producible from microorganisms exhibiting potential surface properties suitable for cosmetic applications especially incorporate with their biological activities. Sophorolipids, rhamnolipids and mannosylerythritol lipids are the most widely used glycolipids biosurfactant in cosmetics. Literatures and patents relevant to these three glycolipids reviewed were emphasizing on the cosmetic applications including personal care products presenting the cosmetic efficiency, efficacy and economy benefits of glycolipids biosurfactant.

  7. First application of core-shell Ag@Ni magnetic nanocatalyst for transfer hydrogenation reactions of aromatic nitro and carbonyl compounds (United States)

    A magnetic separable core-shell Ag@Ni nanocatalyst was prepared by a simple one-pot synthetic route using oleylamine both as solvent and reducing agent and triphenylphosphine as surfactant. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by several techniques such as X-ray diffr...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell... of the shell, measured in the direction of the crack....

  9. A Review on Progress in QSPR Studies for Surfactants


    Zhengwu Wang; Xiaoyi Zhang; Jiwei Hu


    This paper presents a review on recent progress in quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) studies of surfactants and applications of various molecular descriptors. QSPR studies on critical micelle concentration (cmc) and surface tension (γ) of surfactants are introduced. Studies on charge distribution in ionic surfactants by quantum chemical calculations and its effects on the structures and properties of the colloids of surfactants are also reviewed. The trends of QSPR studies o...

  10. Surfactant-Polymer Interaction for Improved Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabitto, Jorge; Mohanty, Kishore K.


    The goal of this research was to use the interaction between a surfactant and a polymer for efficient displacement of tertiary oil by improving slug integrity, oil solubility in the displacing fluid and mobility control. Surfactant-polymer flooding has been shown to be highly effective in laboratory-scale linear floods. The focus of this proposal is to design an inexpensive surfactant-polymer mixture that can efficiently recover tertiary oil by avoiding surfactant slug degradation and viscous/heterogeneity fingering.

  11. Elastic turbulence in a shell model of polymer solution

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Samriddhi Sankar


    We show that, at low inertia and large elasticity, shell models of viscoelastic fluids develop a chaotic behaviour with properties similar to those of elastic turbulence. The low dimensionality of shell models allows us to explore a wide range both in polymer concentration and in Weissenberg number. Our results demonstrate that the physical mechanisms at the origin of elastic turbulence do not rely on the boundary conditions or on the geometry of the mean flow.

  12. Dynamic Study of Gemini Surfactant and Single-chain Surfactant at Air/Water Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Jian CHEN; Gui Ying XU; Shi Ling YUAN; Hai Ying SUN


    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation are used to study the properties of gemini surfactant of ethyl-α,ω-bis(dodecyldimethylammonium bromide) (C12C2C12) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) at the air/water interface, respectively. In the two systems,the surfactant concentrations are both 28 wt. %, and other conditions are also the same. After reaching the thermodynamic equilibrium, the concentration profiles, the radial distributions functions (RDF) and the mean squared displacement (MSD) are investigated. Theresults reveal that the surface activity of C12C2C12 suffactant is higher than DTAB surfactant.

  13. Surfactant therapy in late preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yurdakök


    Full Text Available Late preterm (LPT neonates are at a high risk for respiratory distress soon after birth due to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, transient tachypnea of the newborn, persistent pulmonary hypertension, and pneumonia along with an increased need for surfactant replacement therapy, continuous positive airway pressure, and ventilator support when compared with the term neonates. In the past, studies on outcomes of infants with respiratory distress have primarily focused on extremely premature infants, leading to a gap in knowledge and understanding of the developmental biology and mechanism of pulmonary diseases in LPT neonates. Surfactant deficiency is the most frequent etiology of RDS in very preterm and moderately preterm infants, while cesarean section and lung infection play major roles in RDS development in LPT infants. The clinical presentation and the response to surfactant therapy in LPT infants may be different than that seen in very preterm infants. Incidence of pneumonia and occurrence of pneumothorax are significantly higher in LPT and term infants. High rates of pneumonia in these infants may result in direct injury to the type II alveolar cells of the lung with decreasing synthesis, release, and processing of surfactant. Increased permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane to both fluid and solutes is known to result in entry of plasma proteins into the alveolar hypophase, further inhibiting the surface properties of surfactant. However, the oxygenation index value do not change dramatically after ventilation or surfactant administration in LPT infants with RDS compared to very preterm infants. These finding may indicate a different pathogenesis of RDS in late preterm and term infants. In conclusion, surfactant therapy may be of significant benefit in LPT infants with serious respiratory failure secondary to a number of insults. However, optimal timing and dose of administration are not so clear in this group. Additional

  14. Influence of surfactant concentration on nanohydroxyapatite growth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Gopi; J Indira; S Nithiya; L Kavitha; U Kamachi Mudali; K Kanimozhi


    Nanohydroxyapatite particles with different morphologies were synthesized through a microwave coupled hydrothermal method using CTAB as a template. A successful synthesis of nanosized HAP spheres, rods and fibres is achieved through this method by controlling the concentration of the surfactant. The concentration of the surfactant was tuned in such a way that the desired HAP nanostructures were obtained. The resultant powders were sintered at 900 °C in order to obtain phase pure HAP particles. The results obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques have substantiated the formation of nanosized HAP spheres and fibres.

  15. Two-dimensional photonic crystal surfactant detection. (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Tao; Smith, Natasha; Asher, Sanford A


    We developed a novel two-dimensional (2-D) crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal sensing material for the visual detection of amphiphilic molecules in water. A close-packed polystyrene 2-D array monolayer was embedded in a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-based hydrogel film. These 2-D photonic crystals placed on a mirror show intense diffraction that enables them to be used for visual determination of analytes. Binding of surfactant molecules attaches ions to the sensor that swells the PNIPAAm-based hydrogel. The resulting increase in particle spacing red shifts the 2-D diffracted light. Incorporation of more hydrophobic monomers increases the sensitivity to surfactants.

  16. Importance of viscosity parameters in electrospinning: Of monolithic and core-shell fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Sandeep Kumar, E-mail:; Venkatraman, Subbu S.


    Electrospun polymeric fibers are attractive candidates in the development of scaffolds for the tissue engineering and for providing new systems for delivery of bioactive molecules. Co-axial fibers have emerged as an efficient tool to protect the core material from the adverse conditions of electrospinning process, to spin difficult-to-process fluids and to generate fibers with much more control of the delivery of encapsulated bioactive molecules. Currently, there is very little reported work on the optimization of the processing parameters of electrospinning, especially core-shell electrospinning. This study extends the understanding of the role of solution viscosity as a vital material parameter for electrospinning of fibers. The spinning solutions were characterized for viscosity and optical imaging of the compound Taylor cone for spinnability, and the fibers were imaged by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Our experimental results, using PLGA as the model polymer, confirm that the solution concentration be above the entanglement concentration (C{sub e}) to obtain uniform beadless monolithic fibers; for core-shell fibers, the shell solution must fulfill the above criterion for spinnability and, further, the ratio of the viscosities of core and shell solutions ({eta}{sub core}/{eta}{sub shell}) has to be greater than a threshold value to get a stable compound Taylor cone and therefore to obtain uniform beadless core-shell fibers. Addition of surfactant led to reduction of the threshold {eta}{sub core}/{eta}{sub shell} (from 0.55 to 0.18) for the PVA-PLGA system. - Graphical abstract: A workable range of {eta}{sub core}/{eta}{sub shell} values exists for co-electrospinning in addition to other viscosity requirements for electrospinning of core and shell solutions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To produce uniform beadless fibers, the concentration of the polymer solution must be above entanglement concentration (C{sub e}). Black


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blandamer, M.J; Briggs, B.; Cullis, P.M.; Engberts, J.B.F.N.; Kacperska, A.


    Interactions of both cationic and anionic surfactants with vesicles formed by dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DOAB) and by sodium didodecylphosphate (DDP) have been probed using differential scanning microcalorimetry. The scans show that the surfactants are incorporated into the vesicle bilayer

  18. Vesicle-Surfactant Interactions : Effects of Added Surfactants on the Gel to Liquid-crystal Transition for Two Vesicular Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blandamer, Michael J.; Briggs, Barbara; Cullis, Paul M.; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Kacperska, Anna


    Interactions of both cationic and anionic surfactants with vesicles formed by dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DOAB) and by sodium didodecylphosphate (DDP) have been probed using differential scanning microcalorimetry. The scans show that the surfactants are incorporated into the vesicle bilayer

  19. Synthesis and Properties of Novel Cationic Maleic Diester Polymerizable Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Three new cationic polymerizable surfactants are synthesized by the reaction of alkylmaleic hemiester with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride. Their structures are confirmed by 1H NMR, IR and elements analysis. The values of CMC and gCMC of these surfactants have been measured. One can obtain nearly monodisperse polystyrene latex by emulsion polymerization using the polymerizable surfactant.

  20. Surfactant phosphatidylcholine metabolism in preterm infants studied with stable isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.H. Bunt (Jan Erik)


    textabstractAIM OF THE STUDIES 1. To develop and use a novel method to study surfactant metabolism in preterm and older infants. (chapters 3 and 4). 2. To study endogenous surfactant synthesis in relation to prenatal glucocorticosteroids. (chapters 5 and 6). 3. To study the influence of surfactant

  1. Effects of selected surfactants on soil microbial activity (United States)

    Surfactants (surface-active agents) facilitate and accentuate the emulsifying, dispersing, spreading, and wetting properties of liquids. Surfactants are used in industry to reduce the surface tension of liquid and to solubilize compounds. For agricultural pest management, surfactants are an import...

  2. Secondary oil recovery process. [two separate surfactant slugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgatter, W.S.


    Oil recovery by two separate surfactant slugs is greater than for either one alone. One slug contains a surfactant(s) in either oil or water. The other slug contains surfactant(s) in thickened water. The surfactants are sodium petroleum sulfonate (Promor SS20), polyoxyethylene sorbitan trioleate (Tween 85), lauric acid diethanolamide (Trepoline L), and sodium tridecyl sulfate polyglycol ether (Trepenol S30T). The thickener is carboxymethyl cellulose (Hercules CMC 70-S Medium thickener) or polyvinyl alcohol (Du Pont Elvanol 50-42). Consolidated sandstone cores were flooded with water, followed with Hawes crude, and finally salt water (5 percent sodium chloride) which recovered about 67 percent of the crude. A maximum of 27.5 percent of the residual oil was recovered by surfactant(s) in oil or water followed by fresh water, then surfactant(s) plus thickener in water followed by fresh water. Either surfactant slug may be injected first. Individually, each of the surfactant slugs can recover from about 3 to 11 percent less residual oil than their total recovery when used consecutively.

  3. Surfactant phosphatidylcholine metabolism in preterm infants studied with stable isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.H. Bunt (Jan Erik)


    textabstractAIM OF THE STUDIES 1. To develop and use a novel method to study surfactant metabolism in preterm and older infants. (chapters 3 and 4). 2. To study endogenous surfactant synthesis in relation to prenatal glucocorticosteroids. (chapters 5 and 6). 3. To study the influence of surfactant t

  4. Understanding self-assembly of charged-neutral block copolymer (BCP) and surfactant complexes using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation (United States)

    Goswami, Monojoy; Sumpter, Bobby; Kilbey, Michael

    Here we report the formation of phase separated BCP-surfactant complexes resulting from the electrostatic self-assembly of charge-neutral block copolymers with oppositely charged surfactants. Complexation behaviors of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes has gained considerable attention in the field of soft condensed matter physics due to their potential application as functional nanomaterials for batteries, wastewater treatment and drug delivery systems. Numerous experiments have examined the self-assembled structures resulting from complexation of charge-neutral BCP and surfactants, however, there is a lack of comprehensive understanding at the fundamental level. To help bridge this gap, we use, MD simulations to study self-assembly and dynamics of the BCP-surfactant complex at the molecular level. Our results show an overcharging effect in BCPs with hydrophobic neutral blocks and a formation of core-shell colloidal structure. Hydrophilic neutral blocks, on the other hand, show stable, hairy colloidal structures with neutral blocks forming a loosely-bound, fuzzy outer layer. Our results qualitatively agree with previous SANS and SAXS experiments. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division.

  5. Solubilisation of different medium chain esters in zwitterionic surfactant solutions--effects on phase behaviour and structure. (United States)

    Barth, A; Prévost, S; Popig, J; Dzionara, M; Hedicke, G; Gradzielski, M


    We studied the effect of solubilisation of methyl esters with different chains of medium length into the binary surfactant system tetradecyldimethylamine oxide/water at constant surfactant concentration of 200 mM. As esters we employed valeric, capronic, enanthic, and pelargonic methyl ester, thereby decreasing the polarity. Always a phase sequence L(1)-L(α)-L(1) is observed with increasing ester concentration, where the L(α)-phase increases in extent and goes to much lower temperatures with increasing chain length of the ester. Viscosity measurements show a maximum at intermediate concentrations of additive that is independent of the type of ester. From SANS measurements detailed information about the structural changes occurring during the rod-to-sphere transition in the system of the shortest additive is deduced, which proceeds first through a pronounced rod growth. Interestingly, for the different esters an almost constant value of the volumic solubilisation capacity is observed, in agreement with the relatively constant interfacial tension. For the different esters no effect on the radius and the area requirement at the amphiphilic interface is observed at the solubilisation boundary. The microemulsions present here are spherical aggregates where the ester is partitioned between core and shell. From the SANS and interfacial tension data the effective bending constants of the surfactant monolayers were deduced and they show that the extension of the L(α)-phase is directly related to a corresponding increase in the bending constants of the surfactant/ester monolayers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vietnam recommended dietary allowances 2007. (United States)

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Hoan, Pham Van


    It has been well acknowledged that Vietnam is undergoing a nutrition transition. With a rapid change in the country's reform and economic growth, food supply at the macronutrient level has improved. Changes of the Vietnamese diet include significantly more foods of animal origin, and an increase of fat/oils, and ripe fruits. Consequently, nutritional problems in Vietnam now include not only malnutrition but also overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases related to nutrition and lifestyles. The recognition of these shifts, which is also associated with morbidity and mortality, was a major factor in the need to review and update the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for the Vietnamese population. This revised RDA established an important science-based tool for evaluation of nutrition adequacy, for teaching, and for scientific communications within Vietnam. It is expected that the 2007 Vietnam RDA and its conversion to food-based dietary guidelines will facilitate education to the public, as well as the policy implementation of programs for prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases and addressing the double burden of both under and over nutrition.

  7. BOWOOSS: bionic optimized wood shells with sustainability (United States)

    Pohl, Göran


    In architecture, shell construction is used for the most efficient, large spatial structures. Until now the use of wood rather played a marginal role, implementing those examples of architecture, although this material offers manifold advantages, especially against the background of accelerating shortage of resources and increasing requirements concerning the energy balance. Regarding the implementation of shells, nature offers a wide range of suggestions. The focus of the examinations is on the shells of marine plankton, especially of diatoms, whose richness in species promises the discovery of entirely new construction principles. The project is targeting at transferring advantageous features of these organisms on industrial produced, modular wood shell structures. Currently a transfer of these structures in CAD - models is taking place, helping to perform stress analysis by computational methods. Micro as well as macro structures are the subject of diverse consideration, allowing to draw the necessary conclusions for an architectural design. The insights of these tests are the basis for the development of physical models on different scales, which are used to verify the different approaches. Another important aim which is promoted in the project is to enhance the competitiveness of timber construction. Downsizing of the prefabricated structural elements leads to considerable lower transportation costs as abnormal loads can be avoided as far as possible and means of transportation can be loaded with higher efficiency so that an important contribution to the sustainability in the field of architecture can also be made.

  8. Blended Isogeometric Shells (United States)


    possibilities that heretofore have not been investigated, namely, “rigid bodies” [7]. Another need for the use of these techniques is in multi-patch NURBS meshes... techniques is completely satisfactory in all cases. Even if they can be used successfully in certain situations they can give rise to reduced critical...condition which is violated at the patch boundaries. The C0 boundaries between patches behave like piano hinges for thin shell formulations, and

  9. Off-Shell Supersymmetry


    Ho, Chiu Man; Okada, Nobuchika


    Supersymmetry does not dictate the way we should quantize the fields in the supermultiplets, and so we have the freedom to quantize the Standard Model (SM) particles and their superpartners differently. We propose a generalized quantization scheme under which a particle can only appear off-shell, while its contributions to quantum corrections are exactly the same as those in the usual quantum field theory. We apply this quantization scheme solely to the sparticles in the $R$-parity preserving...

  10. Thermodynamics of non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100-cationic surfactants mixtures at the cloud point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batigoec, Cigdem [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Trakya University, 22030 Edirne (Turkey); Akbas, Halide, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Trakya University, 22030 Edirne (Turkey); Boz, Mesut [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Trakya University, 22030 Edirne (Turkey)


    Highlights: > Non-ionic surfactants are used as emulsifier and solubilizate in such as textile, detergent and cosmetic. > Non-ionic surfactants occur phase separation at temperature as named the cloud point in solution. > Dimeric surfactants have attracted increasing attention due to their superior surface activity. > The positive values of {Delta}G{sub cp}{sup 0} indicate that the process proceeds nonspontaneous. - Abstract: This study investigates the effects of gemini and conventional cationic surfactants on the cloud point (CP) of the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) in aqueous solutions. Instead of visual observation, a spectrophotometer was used for measurement of the cloud point temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters of these mixtures were calculated at different cationic surfactant concentrations. The gemini surfactants of the alkanediyl-{alpha}-{omega}-bis (alkyldimethylammonium) dibromide type, on the one hand, with different alkyl groups containing m carbon atoms and an ethanediyl spacer, referred to as 'm-2-m' (m = 10, 12, and 16) and, on the other hand, with -C{sub 16} alkyl groups and different spacers containing s carbon atoms, referred to as '16-s-16' (s = 6 and 10) were synthesized, purified and characterized. Additions of the cationic surfactants to the TX-100 solution increased the cloud point temperature of the TX-100 solution. It was accepted that the solubility of non-ionic surfactant containing polyoxyethylene (POE) hydrophilic chain was a maximum at the cloud point so that the thermodynamic parameters were calculated at this temperature. The results showed that the standard Gibbs free energy ({Delta}G{sub cp}{sup 0}), the enthalpy ({Delta}H{sub cp}{sup 0}) and the entropy ({Delta}S{sub cp}{sup 0}) of the clouding phenomenon were found positive in all cases. The standard free energy ({Delta}G{sub cp}{sup 0}) increased with increasing hydrophobic alkyl chain for both gemini and conventional cationic

  11. Charge regulation as a stabilization mechanism for shell-like assemblies of polyoxometalates. (United States)

    Verhoeff, Aletta A; Kistler, Melissa L; Bhatt, Anish; Pigga, Joe; Groenewold, Jan; Klokkenburg, Mark; Veen, Sandra; Roy, Soumyajit; Liu, Tianbo; Kegel, Willem K


    We show that the equilibrium size of single-layer shells composed of polyoxometalate macroions is inversely proportional to the dielectric constant of the medium in which they are dispersed. This behavior is consistent with a stabilization mechanism based on Coulomb repulsion combined with charge regulation. We estimate the cohesive energy per bond between macroions on the shells to be approximately -6kT. This number is extracted from analysis based on a charge regulation model in combination with a model for defects on a sphere. The value of the cohesive bond energy is in agreement with the model-independent critical aggregate concentration. This observation points to a new class of thermodynamically stable shell-like objects. We point out the possible relevance our findings have for certain surfactant systems.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Li; Qing-bin Meng; Zhan-yong Li; Ying-li An; Xiao-xia Zhu


    Monodispersed microspheres with polystyrene as the core and poly(acrylamide-co-N-acryloxysuccinimide) as the shell were synthesized by a two-step surfactant-free emulsion copolymerization. The core-shell morphology of the microspheres was shown by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Rabbit immunoglobulin G (as antigen) was covalently coupled onto the microspheres by the reaction between succinimide-activated ester groups on the shell of the microspheres and amino groups of the antigen molecules. The size of particles was characterized by dynamic light scattering technique and was found to vary upon bioconjugation and interaction with proteins. The binding process was shown to be specific to goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G (as antibody) and reversible upon the addition of free antigen into the system.

  13. Molecular dynamics of surfactant protein C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez, Eunice; Santana, Alberto; Cruz, Anthony


    Surfactant protein C (SP-C) is a membrane-associated protein essential for normal respiration. It has been found that the alpha-helix form of SP-C can undergo, under certain conditions, a transformation from an alpha-helix to a beta-strand conformation that closely resembles amyloid fibrils, which...

  14. Titration procedure for low ethoxylated nonionic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschmann, N. [Anorganisch-Chemisches Inst., Lehrstuhl fuer Analytische Chemie, Muenster Univ. (Germany); Huelskoetter, F. [Anorganisch-Chemisches Inst., Lehrstuhl fuer Analytische Chemie, Muenster Univ. (Germany)


    Highly lipophilic surfactants are frequently used as emulsifiers for preparing oil-in-water emulsions (e.g. coolants lubricants). Typical surfactants used for this purpose are low ethoxylated alcohols and ethoxylated alkylphenols. Due to the low degree of ethoxylation they cannot be analysed by conventional methods. The method described in this article is based on the introduction of an anionic group into the molecule by a derivatization reaction. The reaction product can be determined by conventional titration methods for anionic surfactants without any modification. The use of the new method for other nonionic surfactants like sorbitan esters, (ethoxylated) fatty acid amides or glycerol fatty acid partial esters is also described as well as the sample preparation for coolants lubricants. (orig.) [Deutsch] Lipophile Tenside werden haeufig zur Herstellung von Oel-in-Wasser-Emulsionen verwandt, wie sie beispielsweise in Kuehlschmiermitteln eingesetzt werden. Typische Vertreter dieser Tenside sind niedrig ethoxylierte Fettalkohole und Alkylphenole. Wegen ihres geringen Ethoxylierungsgrades koennen sie mit den konventionellen Methoden nicht analytisch bestimmt werden. Die hier beschriebene Analysenmethode beruht auf der Derivatisierung der Ethoxylate zu entsprechenden anionischen Tensiden (Ethersulfate). Diese koennen ohne weiteres mit den etablierten Titrationsverfahren bestimmt werden. Die Anwendung dieses neuen Verfahrens auf die Bestimmung anderer nichtionischer Tenside - Sorbitanester, (ethoxylierte) Fettsaeureamide und Partialglyceride - wird ebenso beschrieben wie die Probenvorbereitung fuer die Analyse von Kuehlschmiermitteln. (orig.)

  15. Mitoxantrone-Surfactant Interactions: A Physicochemical Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Enache


    Full Text Available Mitoxantrone is a synthetic anticancer drug used clinically in the treatment of different types of cancer. It was developed as a doxorubicin analogue in a program to find drugs with improved antitumor activity and decreased cardiotoxicity compared with the anthracyclines. As the cell membrane is the first barrier encountered by anticancer drugs before reaching the DNA sites inside the cells and as surfactant micelles are known as simple model systems for biological membranes, the drugs-surfactant interaction has been the subject of great research interest. Further, quantitative understanding of the interactions of drugs with biomimicking structures like surfactant micelles may provide helpful information for the control of physicochemical properties and bioactivities of encapsulated drugs in order to design better delivery systems with possible biomedical applications. The present review describes the physicochemical aspects of the interactions between the anticancer drug mitoxantrone and different surfactants. Mitoxantrone-micelle binding constants, partitions coefficient of the drug between aqueous and micellar phases and the corresponding Gibbs free energy for the above processes, and the probable location of drug molecules in the micelles are discussed.

  16. Photosensitive surfactants: micellization and interaction with DNA. (United States)

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Roxlau, Julian; Brezesinski, Gerald; Lomadze, Nino; Santer, Svetlana


    Recently, photosensitive surfactants have re-attracted considerable attention. It has been shown that their association with oppositely charged biologically important polyelectrolytes, such as DNA or microgels, can be efficiently manipulated simply by light exposure. In this article, we investigate the self-assembly of photosensitive surfactants as well as their interactions with DNA by calorimetric and spectroscopic methods. Critical micelle concentration (CMC), standard micellization enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy were determined in different conditions (ionic strengths and temperatures) for a series of cationic surfactants with an azobenzene group in their tail. It is shown, that aggregation forces of photosensitive units play an important role in the micellization giving the major contribution to the micellization enthalpy. The onset of the aggregation can be traced from shift of the absorption peak position in the UV-visible spectrum. Titration UV-visible spectroscopy is used as an alternative, simple, and sensitive approach to estimate CMC. The titration UV-visible spectroscopy was also employed to investigate interactions (CAC: critical aggregation concentration, precipitation, and colloidal stabilization) in the DNA-surfactant complex.

  17. Porcine lung surfactant protein B gene (SFTPB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete


    The porcine surfactant protein B (SFTPB) is a single copy gene on chromosome 3. Three different cDNAs for the SFTPB have been isolated and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence comparison revealed six nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), four synonymous SNPs and an in-frame deletion of 69...

  18. Photosensitive surfactants: Micellization and interaction with DNA (United States)

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Roxlau, Julian; Brezesinski, Gerald; Lomadze, Nino; Santer, Svetlana


    Recently, photosensitive surfactants have re-attracted considerable attention. It has been shown that their association with oppositely charged biologically important polyelectrolytes, such as DNA or microgels, can be efficiently manipulated simply by light exposure. In this article, we investigate the self-assembly of photosensitive surfactants as well as their interactions with DNA by calorimetric and spectroscopic methods. Critical micelle concentration (CMC), standard micellization enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy were determined in different conditions (ionic strengths and temperatures) for a series of cationic surfactants with an azobenzene group in their tail. It is shown, that aggregation forces of photosensitive units play an important role in the micellization giving the major contribution to the micellization enthalpy. The onset of the aggregation can be traced from shift of the absorption peak position in the UV-visible spectrum. Titration UV-visible spectroscopy is used as an alternative, simple, and sensitive approach to estimate CMC. The titration UV-visible spectroscopy was also employed to investigate interactions (CAC: critical aggregation concentration, precipitation, and colloidal stabilization) in the DNA-surfactant complex.

  19. Surfactant protein D is proatherogenic in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Grith Lykke; Madsen, Jens; Kejling, Karin


    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an important innate immune defense molecule that mediates clearance of pathogens and modulates the inflammatory response. Moreover, SP-D is involved in lipid homeostasis, and pulmonary accumulation of phospholipids has previously been observed in SP-D-deficient (Spd...

  20. Topological transformation of a surfactant bilayer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, T.D.; Olsson, U.; Mortensen, K.


    Surfactant lamellar phases are often complicated by the formation of multilamellar (onions) under shear, which can originate simply by shaking the sample. A systematic study has been performed on the C10E3-D2O system in which different bilayer structures under a steady shear flow were investigated...

  1. Physicochemical characteristics of PFC surfactants for dry decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Jin; Lee, Chi Woo [Korea University, Seoul (Korea)


    Even the trace amount of the used nuclear fuels of high radioactivity are hazardous to the earth and humans. Perfluorocarbons and perfluorocarbon surfactants are emerging to be efficient chemicals in the dry decontamination process of the used fuels of high radioactivity. The theme was undertaken to increase the knowledge on perfluorocarbon surfactants to develop the perfluorocarbon system in the dry decontamination process in Korea. Several cationic and anionic pfc surfactants were synthesized. Effects of pfc surfactants on electrochemical etching of silicon were investigated to form porous silicons. Forces were measured between silicon surfaces and AFM tip in the absence and presence of pfc surfactants. 7 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  2. Thermally stable surfactants and compositions and methods of use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, David J. (Woodridge, IL)


    There are provided novel thermally stable surfactants for use with fillers in the preparation of polymer composites and nanocomposites. Typically, surfactants of the invention are urethanes, ureas or esters of thiocarbamic acid having a hydrocarbyl group of from 10 to 50 carbons and optionally including an ionizable or charged group (e.g., carboxyl group or quaternary amine). Thus, there are provided surfactants having Formula I: ##STR00001## wherein the variables are as defined herein. Further provided are methods of making thermally stable surfactants and compositions, including composites and nanocomposites, using fillers coated with the surfactants.

  3. Minimally Invasive Surfactant Therapy and Noninvasive Respiratory Support. (United States)

    Kribs, Angela


    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) caused by surfactant deficiency is major cause for neonatal mortality and short- and long-term morbidity of preterm infants. Continuous positive airway pressure and other modes of noninvasive respiratory support and intubation and positive pressure ventilation with surfactant therapy are efficient therapies for RDS. Because continuous positive airway pressure can fail in severe surfactant deficiency, and because traditional surfactant therapy requires intubation and positive pressure ventilation, this entails a risk of lung injury. Several strategies to combine noninvasive respiratory therapy with minimally invasive surfactant therapy have been described. Available data suggest that those strategies may improve outcome of premature infants with RDS.

  4. Structural study of surfactant-dependent interaction with protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehan, Sumit; Aswal, Vinod K., E-mail: [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kohlbrecher, Joachim [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 PSI Villigen (Switzerland)


    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the complex structure of anionic BSA protein with three different (cationic DTAB, anionic SDS and non-ionic C12E10) surfactants. These systems form very different surfactant-dependent complexes. We show that the structure of protein-surfactant complex is initiated by the site-specific electrostatic interaction between the components, followed by the hydrophobic interaction at high surfactant concentrations. It is also found that hydrophobic interaction is preferred over the electrostatic interaction in deciding the resultant structure of protein-surfactant complexes.

  5. Palm oil based surfactant products for petroleum industry (United States)

    Permadi, P.; Fitria, R.; Hambali, E.


    In petroleum production process, many problems causing reduced production are found. These include limited oil recovery, wax deposit, asphaltene deposit, sludge deposit, and emulsion problem. Petroleum-based surfactant has been used to overcome these problems. Therefore, innovation to solve these problems using surfactant containing natural materials deserves to be developed. Palm oil-based surfactant is one of the potential alternatives for this. Various types of derivative products of palm oil-based surfactant have been developed by SBRC IPB to be used in handling problems including surfactant flooding, well stimulation, asphaltene dissolver, well cleaning, and wax removal found in oil and gas industry.

  6. Surfactant Sensors in Biotechnology; Part 1 – Electrochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Sak-Bosnar


    Full Text Available An overview on electrochemical surfactant sensors is given with special attention to papers published since 1993. The importance of surfactants in modern biotechnology is stressed out. Electrochemical sensors are usually divided according to the measured physical quantity to potentiometric, amperometric, conductometric and impedimetric surfactant sensors. The last ones are very few. Potentiometric surfactant sensors are the most numerous due to their simplicity and versatility. They can be used either as end-point titration sensors or as direct EMF measurement sensors, in batch or flow-through mode. Some amperometric surfactant sensors are true biosensors that use microorganisms or living cells.

  7. Dimeric Surfactants: Promising Ingredients of Cosmetics and Toiletries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar


    Full Text Available Surfactants are an essential ingredient for cosmetic, toiletries and personal care products for enhancing their performance. Dimeric surfactants demonstrate superiority compared to conventional surfactants in all areas of application. Dimeric surfactants are extremely promising for utilization in various cosmetic formulations viz. shampoo, lotions, creams, conditioners etc. These surfactants possess extremely unique surface properties viz. lower surface tension, unique micellization, low critical micelle concentration (CMC and antimicrobial activity, higher solubilization etc. Dimerics enhance the performances of cosmetics in an extraordinary manner and provide eco-friendly preparations for human epidermis.

  8. Multivariate design for the evaluation of lipid and surfactant composition effect for optimisation of lipid nanoparticles. (United States)

    Martins, Susana; Tho, Ingunn; Souto, Eliana; Ferreira, Domingos; Brandl, Martin


    Physicochemical properties of lipid nanoparticles (LN), such as size, size distribution and surface charge, have a major influence both, on in vitro stability and delivery of the incorporated drug in vivo. With the purpose of understanding how these properties are influenced by variations of LN composition (e.g. lipid and surfactant type and concentration) 2(2) factorial designs with centre point were applied for several types of lipids and surfactants in the present study. Tested factors and levels were the type and concentration of lipid (cetyl palmitate, Dynasan 114 and Witepsol E85) at the concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15%, in combination with type and concentration of surfactant (polysorbate 20, 40, 60 and 80 and poloxamer 188 and 407) at concentrations of 0.8%, 1.2% and 2.0%. Responses measured within the design space were the mean size and polydispersity index (photon correlation spectroscopy), content of microparticles (optical single particle sizing), macroscopic appearance, pH and zeta potential on the day of production, 1 and 2 years after production. Multivariate evaluation and modelling were performed starting with a principal component analysis (PCA) and followed by partial least square regression analysis (PLS) to assess both qualitative and quantitative influence of the investigated factors in the LN. Our study showed that both, lipid and surfactant concentration and the type of surfactant are crucial parameters for the particle size of the LN prepared by high pressure homogenisation (HPH). For LN stability during 2 years both, lipid and surfactant types and concentrations were identified as the most relevant parameters. Among the surfactants most suitable for producing LN with small sizes were the polysorbates and the lipid yielding best storage stability was cetyl palmitate. Furthermore, the models allowed the prediction of the mean size of LN that could be achieved with a certain lipid/surfactant combination and concentration. The obtained

  9. Adsorption of surfactants and polymers at interfaces (United States)

    Rojas, Orlando Jose

    Surface tension and high-resolution laser light scattering experiments were used to investigate the adsorption of isomeric sugar-based surfactants at the air/liquid interface in terms of surfactant surface packing and rheology. Soluble monolayers of submicellar surfactant solutions exhibited a relatively viscous behavior. It was also proved that light scattering of high-frequency thermally-induced capillary waves can be utilized to study surfactant exchange between the surface and the bulk solution. Such analysis revealed the existence of a diffusional relaxation mechanism. A procedure based on XPS was developed for quantification, on an absolute basis, of polymer adsorption on mica and Langmuir-Blodgett cellulose films. The adsorption of cationic polyelectrolytes on negatively-charged solid surfaces was highly dependent on the polymer ionicity. It was found that the adsorption process is driven by electrostatic mechanisms. Charge overcompensation (or charge reversal) of mica occurred after adsorption of polyelectrolytes of ca. 50% charge density, or higher. It was demonstrated that low-charge-density polyelectrolytes adsorb on solid surfaces with an extended configuration dominated by loops and tails. In this case the extent of adsorption is limited by steric constraints. The conformation of the polyelectrolyte in the adsorbed layer is dramatically affected by the presence of salts or surfactants in aqueous solution. The phenomena which occur upon increasing the ionic strength are consistent with the screening of the electrostatic attraction between polyelectrolyte segments and solid surface. This situation leads to polyelectrolyte desorption accompanied by both an increase in the layer thickness and the range of the steric force. Adsorbed polyelectrolytes and oppositely charged surfactants readily associate at the solid/liquid interface. Such association induces polyelectrolyte desorption at a surfactant concentration which depends on the polyelectrolyte charge

  10. Corrosion inhibition property of polyester-groundnut shell biodegradable composite. (United States)

    Sounthari, P; Kiruthika, A; Saranya, J; Parameswari, K; Chitra, S


    The use of natural fibers as reinforcing materials in thermoplastics and thermoset matrix composites provide optimistic environmental profits with regard to ultimate disposability and better use of raw materials. The present work is focused on the corrosion inhibition property of a polymer matrix composite produced by the use of groundnut shell (GNS) waste. Polyester (PE) was synthesized by condensation polymerization of symmetrical 1,3,4-oxadiazole and pimelic acid using sodium lauryl sulfate as surfactant. The polyester-groundnut shell composite (PEGNS) was prepared by ultrasonication method. The synthesized polyester-groundnut shell composite was characterized by FT-IR, TGA and XRD analysis. The corrosion inhibitory effect of PEGNS on mild steel in 1M H2SO4 was investigated using gravimetric method, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization, atomic absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that PEGNS inhibited mild steel corrosion in acid solution and indicated that the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration and decrease with increasing temperature. The composite inhibited the corrosion of mild steel through adsorption following the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Changes in the impedance parameters Rt, Cdl, Icorr, Ecorr, ba and bc suggested the adsorption of PEGNS onto the mild steel surface, leading to the formation of protective film.

  11. Synthesis and properties evaluation of sulfobetaine surfactant with double hydroxyl (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Luo, Gang; Zhang, Ze; Li, Sisi; Wang, Chengwen


    A series of sulfobetaine surfactants {N-[(3-alkoxy-2-hydroxyl)propoxy] ethyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-hydroxyl)propyl sulfonate} ammonium chloride were synthesized with raw materials containing linear saturated alcohol, N,N-dimethylethanolamine, sodium 3-chloro-2-hydroxyl propane sulfonic acid and epichlorohydrin. The molecule structures of sulfobetaine surfactants were characterized by FTIR, 1HNMR and elemental analysis. Surface tension measurements can provide us information about the surface tension at the CMC (γCMC), pC20, Γmax and Amin. The pC20 values of sulfobetaine surfactants increase with the hydrophobic chain length increasing. Amin values of the surfactants decrease with increasing hydrophobic chain length from 10 to 14. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surface tension (γCMC) values of the sulfobetaine surfactants decrease with increasing hydrophobic chain length from 10 to 16. The lipophilicity of surfactant was enhanced with the increase of the carbon chain, however, the ability of anti-hard water was weakened. The minimum oil/water interfacial tension of four kinds of sulfobetaine surfactants is 10-2-10-3 mN/m magnitude, which indicates that the synthesized bis-hydroxy sulfobetaine surfactants have a great ability to reduce interfacial tension in the surfactant flooding system. The surface tension (γCMC) values of synthesized surfactants were lower compared with conventional anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfonate.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope; Richard E. Jackson


    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. Also, the addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine.

  13. Shell model calculations of 109Sb in the sdgh shell (United States)

    Dikmen, E.; Novoselsky, A.; Vallieres, M.


    The energy spectra of the antimony isotope 109Sb in the sdgh shell are calculated in the nuclear shell model approach by using the CD-Bonn nucleon-nucleon interaction. The modified Drexel University parallel shell model code (DUPSM) was used for the calculations with maximum Hamiltonian dimension of 762 253 of 5.14% sparsity. The energy levels are compared to the recent experimental results. The calculations were done on the Cyborg Parallel Cluster System at Drexel University.

  14. Multi-Shell Shell Model for Heavy Nuclei


    Sun, Yang; Wu, Cheng-Li


    Performing a shell model calculation for heavy nuclei has been a long-standing problem in nuclear physics. Here we propose one possible solution. The central idea of this proposal is to take the advantages of two existing models, the Projected Shell Model (PSM) and the Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model (FDSM), to construct a multi-shell shell model. The PSM is an efficient method of coupling quasi-particle excitations to the high-spin rotational motion, whereas the FDSM contains a successful t...

  15. Optical nanosphere sensor based on shell-by-shell fabrication for removal of toxic metals from human blood. (United States)

    El-Safty, S A; Abdellatef, S; Ismael, M; Shahat, A


    Because toxic heavy metals tend to bioaccumulate, they represent a substantial human health hazard. Various methods are used to identify and quantify toxic metals in biological tissues and environment fluids, but a simple, rapid, and inexpensive system has yet to be developed. To reduce the necessity for instrument-dependent analysis, we developed a single, pH-dependent, nanosphere (NS) sensor for naked-eye detection and removal of toxic metal ions from drinking water and physiological systems (i.e., blood). The design platform for the optical NS sensor is composed of double mesoporous core-shell silica NSs fabricated by one-pot, template-guided synthesis with anionic surfactant. The dense shell-by-shell NS construction generated a unique hierarchical NS sensor with a hollow cage interior to enable accessibility for continuous monitoring of several different toxic metal ions and efficient multi-ion sensing and removal capabilities with respect to reversibility, longevity, selectivity, and signal stability. Here, we examined the application of the NS sensor for the removal of toxic metals (e.g., lead ions from a physiological system, such as human blood). The findings show that this sensor design has potential for the rapid screening of blood lead levels so that the effects of lead toxicity can be avoided.

  16. An effective theory on the light shell (United States)

    Sajjad, Aqil

    We describe work on the construction of an effective field theory on a spherical light shell. The motivation arises from classical electromagnetism: If a collision produces charged particles with zero net charge emerging simultaneously from a point and instantaneously accelerating to the speed of light, then the electromagnetic fields due to these charges lie entirely on a spherical shell expanding at the speed of light. We show that this also applies to classical color radiation from high-energy collisions that produce colored particles. Specifically, the color fields produced in such a process are associated with a non-linear sigma-model on the 2D light shell with specific symmetry-breaking terms. The quantum version of such a picture exhibits asymptotic freedom and should therefore be a useful starting point for a light-shell effective theory for QCD. We start in the simplified context of zero-flavor scalar quantum electrodynamics. Our effective theory has 3 major ingredients: breaking down the fields into soft and hard sectors with the large energy of the hard fields in the radial direction scaled out, a special gauge called light-shell gauge in which the picture simplifies, and a gauge-invariant source defined on a spherical light shell having infinitesimal radius. We match the fields between the effective theory and the full theory, meaning zero-flavor scalar QED. This allows us to compute the amplitude for the production of any number of scalars from the gauge-invariant source. We then find the tree-level amplitude for the emission of a photon using our effective theory and show that our result agrees with the full theory. To calculate loop effects in our effective theory, we need the photon propagator in light-shell gauge. We derive this propagator and use it to calculate the 1-loop correction to the amplitude for the production of a scalar and anti-scalar pair arising from virtual photon effects. This reduces to a pair of purely angular integrals in the


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebone T. Moeti; Ramanathan Sampath


    This final technical report describes work performed under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-97FT97278 during the period October 01, 1997 to August 31, 2001 which covers the total performance period of the project. During this period, detailed information on optimal salinity, temperature, emulsion morphologies, effectiveness for surfactant retention and oil recovery was obtained for an Alcohol Ethoxycarboxylate (AEC) surfactant to evaluate its performance in flooding processes. Tests were conducted on several AEC surfactants and NEODOX (23-4) was identified as the most suitable hybrid surfactant that yielded the best proportion in volume for top, middle, and bottom phases when mixed with oil and water. Following the selection of this surfactant, temperature and salinity scans were performed to identify the optimal salinity and temperature, and the temperature and salinity intervals in which all three phases coexisted. NEODOX 23-4 formed three phases between 4 and 52.5 C. It formed an aqueous rich microemulsion phase at high temperatures and an oleic rich microemulsion phase at low temperatures--a characteristic of the ionic part of the surfactant. The morphology measurement system was set-up successfully at CAU. The best oil/water/surfactant system defined by the above phase work was then studied for emulsion morphologies. Electrical conductivities were measured for middle and bottom phases of the NEODOX 23-4/dodecane/10mM water system and by mixing measured volumes of the middle phase into a fixed volume of the bottom phase and vice versa at room temperature. Electrical conductivity of the mixture decreased as the fraction of volume of the middle phase was increased and vice versa. Also inversion phenomena was observed. These experiments were then repeated for bottom/middle (B/M) and middle/bottom (M/B) conjugate pair phases at 10, 15, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 C. Electrical conductivity measurements were then compared with the predictions of the conductivity model developed in

  18. Surfactant Facilitated Spreading of Aqueous Drops on Hydrophobic Surfaces (United States)

    Kumar, Nitin; Couzis, Alex; Maldareili, Charles; Singh, Bhim (Technical Monitor)


    Microgravity technologies often require aqueous phases to spread over nonwetting hydrophobic solid surfaces. Surfactants facilitate the wetting of water on hydrophobic surfaces by adsorbing on the water/air and hydrophobic solid/water interfaces and lowering the surface tensions of these interfaces. The tension reductions decrease the contact angle, which increases the equilibrium wetted area. Hydrocarbon surfactants; (i.e., amphiphiles with a hydrophobic moiety consisting of an extended chain of (aliphatic) methylene -CH2- groups attached to a large polar group to give aqueous solubility) are capable of reducing the contact angles on surfaces which are not very hydrophobic, but do not reduce significantly the contact angles of the very hydrophobic surfaces such as parafilm, polyethylene or self assembled monolayers. Trisiloxane surfactants (amphiphiles with a hydrophobe consisting of methyl groups linked to a trisiloxane backbone in the form of a disk ((CH3)3-Si-O-Si-O-Si(CH3)3) and an extended ethoxylate (-(OCH2CH2)a-) polar group in the form of a chain with four or eight units) can significantly reduce the contact angle of water on a very hydrophobic surface and cause rapid and complete (or nearly complete) spreading (termed superspreading). The overall goal of the research described in this proposal is to establish and verify a theory for how trisiloxanes cause superspreading, and then use this knowledge as a guide to developing more general hydrocarbon based surfactant systems which superspread. We propose that the trisiloxane surfactants superspread because their structure allows them to strongly lower the high hydrophobic solid/aqueous tension when they adsorb to the solid surface. When the siloxane adsorbs, the hydrophobic disk parts of the molecule adsorb onto the surface removing the surface water. Since the cross-sectional area of the disk is larger than that of the extended ethoxylate chain, the disks can form a space-filling mat on the surface which

  19. Surfactant-modified flowerlike layered double hydroxide-coated magnetic nanoparticles for preconcentration of phthalate esters from environmental water samples. (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Liu, Shuangliu; Wang, Peifang; Tang, Zhi; Niu, Hongyun; Cai, Yaqi; Wu, Fengchang; Wang, Hao; Meng, Wei; Giesy, John P


    A novel type of layered, flowerlike magnetic double hydroxide (MLDH) nanoparticles modified by surfactants has been successfully synthesized and was applied as an effective sorbent for pre-concentration of several phthalate ester pollutants (PAEs) from water prior to quantification. The MLDH was obtained via a simple ultrasound-assisted method by using silica coated Fe3O4 as the core and anisotropic Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH) nanocrystals as the shell to which analytes were absorbed. Orientation and dimensionality hierarchical structure as well as the large expandable interlayer free space and positive charge of the Mg-Al LDH shell make it easier to form anionic surfactant micelles on its surface via self-assembly. Due to its high adsorption area, compared with non-mesoporous nano solid-phase extraction agents, mesoporous channel shell and reduction diffusion path, MLDH exhibited high extraction efficiency of organic target residues. Under optimized conditions, with a total of 30mg of adsorbant added to from samples containing 400mL water from the environment recoveries of DPP, DBP, DCP and DOP were consistent with ranges of 69-101%, 79-101%, 86-102% and 63-100%, respectively. Standard deviations of recoveries ranged from 1 to 7%, respectively and the method was sensitive with limits of detection of 12.3, 18.7, 36.5 and 15.6ngL(-1). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of use of surfactant-modified MLDH nanoparticles and its application as adsorbent to pre-concentration of PAEs from environmental water samples prior to instrumental analyses.

  20. Precursor Mediated Synthesis of Nanostructured Silicas: From Precursor-Surfactant Ion Pairs to Structured Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hesemann


    Full Text Available The synthesis of nanostructured anionic-surfactant-templated mesoporous silica (AMS recently appeared as a new strategy for the formation of nanostructured silica based materials. This method is based on the use of anionic surfactants together with a co-structure-directing agent (CSDA, mostly a silylated ammonium precursor. The presence of this CSDA is necessary in order to create ionic interactions between template and silica forming phases and to ensure sufficient affinity between the two phases. This synthetic strategy was for the first time applied in view of the synthesis of surface functionalized silica bearing ammonium groups and was then extended on the formation of materials functionalized with anionic carboxylate and bifunctional amine-carboxylate groups. In the field of silica hybrid materials, the “anionic templating” strategy has recently been applied for the synthesis of silica hybrid materials from cationic precursors. Starting from di- or oligosilylated imidazolium and ammonium precursors, only template directed hydrolysis-polycondensation reactions involving complementary anionic surfactants allowed accessing structured ionosilica hybrid materials. The mechanistic particularity of this approach resides in the formation of precursor-surfactant ion pairs in the hydrolysis-polycondensation mixture. This review gives a systematic overview over the various types of materials accessed from this cooperative ionic templating approach and highlights the high potential of this original strategy for the formation of nanostructured silica based materials which appears as a complementary strategy to conventional soft templating approaches.

  1. Hydrogenated/fluorinated catanionic surfactants as potential templates for nanostructure design. (United States)

    Hassan, Natalia; Ruso, Juan M; Piñeiro, Ángel


    The structure and physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles spontaneously formed within aqueous mixtures of the hydrogenated/fluorinated catanionic surfactant cetyltrimetylammonium perfluorooctanoate in the absence of counterions as a function of its concentration are investigated by a combined experimental/computational study at room temperature. Apparent molar volumes, isentropic apparent molar compressibilities, and dynamic light scattering measurements together with transmission and cryo-scanning electron as well as confocal laser microscopy images, and computational molecular dynamics simulations indicate that a variety of structures of different sizes coexist in solution with vesicles of ∼160 nm diameter. Interestingly, the obtained nanostructures were observed to self-assemble from a random distribution of monomers in a time scale easily accessible by atomistic classical molecular dynamics simulations, allowing to provide a comprehensive structural and dynamic characterization of the surfactant molecules at atomic level within the different aggregates. Overall, it is demonstrated that the use of mixed fluorinated hydrogenated surfactant systems represents an easy strategy for the design of specific nanoscale structures. The detailed structural analysis provided in the present work is expected to be useful as a reference to guide the design of new nanoparticles based on different hydrogenated/fluorinated catanionic surfactants.

  2. Enhanced dispersion of multiwall carbon nanotubes in natural rubber latex nanocomposites by surfactants bearing phenyl groups. (United States)

    Mohamed, Azmi; Anas, Argo Khoirul; Bakar, Suriani Abu; Ardyani, Tretya; Zin, Wan Manshol W; Ibrahim, Sofian; Sagisaka, Masanobu; Brown, Paul; Eastoe, Julian


    Here is presented a systematic study of the dispersibility of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in natural rubber latex (NR-latex) assisted by a series of single-, double-, and triple-sulfosuccinate anionic surfactants containing phenyl ring moieties. Optical polarising microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectroscopy have been performed to obtain the dispersion-level profiles of the MWCNTs in the nanocomposites. Interestingly, a triple-chain, phenyl-containing surfactant, namely sodium 1,5-dioxo-1,5-bis(3-phenylpropoxy)-3-((3-phenylpropoxy)carbonyl) pentane-2-sulfonate (TCPh), has a greater capacity the stabilisation of MWCNTs than a commercially available single-chain sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) surfactant. TCPh provides significant enhancements in the electrical conductivity of nanocomposites, up to ∼10(-2) S cm(-1), as measured by a four-point probe instrument. These results have allowed compilation of a road map for the design of surfactant architectures capable of providing the homogeneous dispersion of MWCNTs required for the next generation of polymer-carbon-nanotube materials, specifically those used in aerospace technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation and Evaluation of Monodisperse Nonionic Surfactants Based on Fluorine-Containing Dicarbamates. (United States)

    Mureau; Trabelsi; Guittard; Geribaldi


    Novel bipodal surfactants of fluorine-containing carbamate type were synthesized with satisfactory yields from the action of fluorinated diisocyanates on oligooxyethylmonomethylated ethers without solvent. The synthetic pathways via malonic intermediates were elaborated in order to use low-price commercially available compounds such as 2-F-alkylethyl iodides and oligooxyethylmonomethylated ethers as starting materials. This new class of nonionic surfactants contains one hydrophobic part and one oleophobic part, and shows peculiar properties due to the presence of two hydrophilic parts (bipodal). All these compounds are monodisperse, i.e, include a perfectly defined number of oxyethylene units. Compared with their bipodal homologues previously described within the F-alkylated series, these new structures were easily obtained from commercial raw materials and are stable against pH media. The evaluation of their behavior at the air-water interface has been studied by measurements of surface tension versus concentration. This allows us to show clearly the variation of the critical micelle concentration (cmc) from 1.1x10(-5) to 9.8x10(-3) mol.l(-1), and of the surface area per surfactant molecule versus studied structures. The dicarbamates of oligooxyethylmonomethylether of 3-(F-alkyl)propyl so realized exhibit noteworthy properties as nonionic fluorinated surfactants. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. Skin capacitance imaging and corneosurfametry. A comparative assessment of the impact of surfactants on stratum corneum. (United States)

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, Emmanuelle; Loussouarn, Geneviève; Haubrechts, Christelle; Léger, Didier Saint; Piérard, Gérald E


    Silicon image sensor (SIS) technology was recently introduced as an innovative tool (SkinChip, L'Oréal) providing sensitive imaging of the skin capacitance. This method can detect discrete focal variations in skin surface hydration, and thus early discrete manifestations of skin irritation induced by surfactants. In the present in vivo study, 2 neat and diluted shampoos, and 5% and 10% sodium laurylsulfate solutions were tested on human skin. Each surfactant solution was gently rubbed on the skin using wet hair wicks mimicking the casual use of a shampoo on the scalp. Clinical and SIS evaluations were carried out. In addition, the same products were tested using the ex vivo corneosurfametry bioassay performed on human stratum corneum (SC) harvested by cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings. The colourimetric index of mildness (CIM) was measured on these samples. The product reactivity with the SC was recognized by darker skin capacitance images, and by both lowered SkinChip-generated values and lowered CIM values. The extent in changes varied according to the nature of the test products and their concentrations. The SkinChip image changes likely corresponded to the acute surfactant-induced water swelling of the corneocytes. Skin capacitance imaging and corneosurfametry allow to disclose discrete surfactant-induced alterations of corneocytes.

  5. Multi-shell effective interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Tsunoda, Naofumi; Hjorth-Jensen, Morten; Otsuka, Takaharu


    Background: Effective interactions, either derived from microscopic theories or based on fitting selected properties of nuclei in specific mass regions, are widely used inputs to shell-model studies of nuclei. Until recently, most shell-model calculations have been confined to a single oscillator shell. Recent interest in nuclei away from the stability line, requires however larger shell-model spaces. Since the derivation of microscopic effective interactions has been limited to degenerate model spaces, there are both conceptual and practical limits to present shell-model calculations that utilize such interactions. Purpose: The aim of this work is to present a novel microscopic method to calculate effective interactions for the nuclear shell model. Its main difference from existing theories is that it can be applied not only to degenerate model spaces but also to non-degenerate model spaces. Methods: The formalism is presented in the form of many-body perturbation theory based on the recently developed Exten...

  6. Shell Biorefinery: Dream or Reality? (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Yang, Huiying; Yan, Ning


    Shell biorefinery, referring to the fractionation of crustacean shells into their major components and the transformation of each component into value-added chemicals and materials, has attracted growing attention in recent years. Since the large quantities of waste shells remain underexploited, their valorization can potentially bring both ecological and economic benefits. This Review provides an overview of the current status of shell biorefinery. It first describes the structural features of crustacean shells, including their composition and their interactions. Then, various fractionation methods for the shells are introduced. The last section is dedicated to the valorization of chitin and its derivatives for chemicals, porous carbon materials and functional polymers. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic


    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells are subject to a wrinkling instability. We study wrinkling in depth, presenting scaling laws for the critical indentation at which wrinkling occurs and the number of wrinkles formed in terms of the internal pressurization and material properties of the shell. These results are validated by numerical simulations. We show that the evolution of the wrinkle length with increasing indentation can be understood for highly pressurized shells from membrane theory. These results suggest that the position and number of wrinkles may be used in combination to give simple methods for the estimation of the mechanical properties of highly pressurized shells. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  8. The notes on thin shells

    CERN Document Server

    Iofa, Mikhail Z


    Geometry of the spacetime with a spherical shell embedded in it is studied in two coordinate systems - in Kodama-Schwarzschild coordinates and in Gaussian normal coordinates. We consider transformations between the coordinate systems as in the 4D spacetime so as at the surface $\\S$ swept in the spacetime by the spherical shell. Extrinsic curvatures of the surface swept by the shell are calculated in both coordinate systems. Applications to the Israel junction conditions are discussed.

  9. Shell effects in nuclear magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratyev, V.N.; Maruyama, Toshiki; Chiba, Satoshi [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)


    The magnetization of nuclei in strong magnetic fields associated with magnetars' is considered within the shell model. It is demonstrated that the magnetic field gives rise to a phase-shift of the shell-oscillations in nuclear masses shifting significantly the nuclear magic numbers of the iron region towards smaller mass numbers. Shell-effects are found to result in anomalies of the nuclear magnetization. Such anomalies resemble the behavior associated with a phase transition. (author)

  10. Polymer-surfactant complexes for microencapsulation of vitamin E and its release. (United States)

    Sharipova, A A; Aidarova, S B; Grigoriev, D; Mutalieva, B; Madibekova, G; Tleuova, A; Miller, R


    Microencapsulation of vitamin E directly from oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions was carried out by means of a novel practically relevant approach. For the first time, a preformed polyelectrolyte-surfactant complex (sodium polystyrene sulfonate/dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide) was simultaneously used as an electrosteric emulsion stabilizer and as a charged precursor for the following build up of microcapsules. Subsequently, a layer-by-layer technique was applied to emulsions leading to the formation of core-shell microcapsules with oily cores and polyelectrolyte shells. The effect of the complexes on the process of emulsion formation and on the stability and characteristics of the resulting emulsions was investigated by measurements of dynamic and equilibrium interfacial tension, size distribution (DLS) and interfacial charge (zeta-potential). The resulting microcapsules were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), Cryo-SEM, size distribution and zeta-potential measurements on each stage of the shell assembly. The release kinetics of vitamin E was monitored during the consecutive steps of the encapsulation procedure using UV-vis spectroscopy and showed the progressive enhancement of sustainability. The developed approach may be promising for the practical use in the cosmetic and food industry.

  11. Application of peptide gemini surfactants as novel solubilization surfactants for photosystems I and II of cyanobacteria. (United States)

    Koeda, Shuhei; Umezaki, Katsunari; Noji, Tomoyasu; Ikeda, Atsushi; Kawakami, Keisuke; Kondo, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Shen, Jian-Ren; Taga, Keijiro; Dewa, Takehisa; Ito, Shigeru; Nango, Mamoru; Tanaka, Toshiki; Mizuno, Toshihisa


    We designed novel peptide gemini surfactants (PG-surfactants), DKDKC12K and DKDKC12D, which can solubilize Photosystem I (PSI) of Thermosynecoccus elongatus and Photosystem II (PSII) of Thermosynecoccus vulcanus in an aqueous buffer solution. To assess the detailed effects of PG-surfactants on the original supramolecular membrane protein complexes and functions of PSI and PSII, we applied the surfactant exchange method to the isolated PSI and PSII. Spectroscopic properties, light-induced electron transfer activity, and dynamic light scattering measurements showed that PSI and PSII could be solubilized not only with retention of the original supramolecular protein complexes and functions but also without forming aggregates. Furthermore, measurement of the lifetime of light-induced charge-separation state in PSI revealed that both surfactants, especially DKDKC12D, displayed slight improvement against thermal denaturation below 60 °C compared with that using β-DDM. This degree of improvement in thermal resistance still seems low, implying that the peptide moieties did not interact directly with membrane protein surfaces. By conjugating an electron mediator such as methyl viologen (MV(2+)) to DKDKC12K (denoted MV-DKDKC12K), we obtained derivatives that can trap the generated reductive electrons from the light-irradiated PSI. After immobilization onto an indium tin oxide electrode, a cathodic photocurrent from the electrode to the PSI/MV-DKDKC12K conjugate was observed in response to the interval of light irradiation. These findings indicate that the PG-surfactants DKDKC12K and DKDKC12D provide not only a new class of solubilization surfactants but also insights into designing other derivatives that confer new functions on PSI and PSII.

  12. Synthesis of highly magnetic iron nanoparticles suitable for field structuring using a β-diketone surfactant (United States)

    Huber, Dale L.; Venturini, Eugene L.; Martin, James E.; Provencio, Paula P.; Patel, Rina J.


    We describe the synthesis of highly magnetic iron nanoparticles using a novel surfactant, a β-diketone. We have produced 6 nm iron nanoparticles with an unusually high saturation magnetization of more than 80% the value of bulk iron. Additionally, we measured a particle susceptibility of 14 (MKS units), which is far above the value possible for micron-scale spherical particles. These properties will allow for formation of composites that can be highly structured by magnetic fields.

  13. Synthesis of highly magnetic iron nanoparticles suitable for field structuring using a {beta}-diketone surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, D.L. E-mail:; Venturini, E.L.; Martin, J.E.; Provencio, P.P.; Patel, R.J


    We describe the synthesis of highly magnetic iron nanoparticles using a novel surfactant, a {beta}-diketone. We have produced 6 nm iron nanoparticles with an unusually high saturation magnetization of more than 80% the value of bulk iron. Additionally, we measured a particle susceptibility of 14 (MKS units), which is far above the value possible for micron-scale spherical particles. These properties will allow for formation of composites that can be highly structured by magnetic fields.

  14. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  15. 7 CFR 51.2289 - Shell. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell. 51.2289 Section 51.2289 Agriculture Regulations... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2289 Shell. Shell means the outer shell and/or the woody partition from between the halves of the kernel, and any fragments of either....

  16. Advances in the Manufacture of Omega-scale Double-shell Targets (United States)

    Bono, M.


    The double-shell ignition target design consists of a low-Z outer shell that absorbs hohlraum-generated x-rays, implodes, and collides with a high-Z inner shell containing DT fuel. Efforts are continuing to field scaled ignition-like double shells on the Omega laser facility over a range of inner-shell Z. Previous ignition-like double-shell implosions on Omega used a low-Z CH inner shell [1]. The current target contains a higher-Z glass inner shell of diameter 216 microns, which is supported by SiO2 aerogel inside a Br-doped CH ablator shell of diameter 550 microns. Fielding double-shell targets has historically been limited by the ability to successfully fabricate them, but several technological advances have recently been made in the manufacturing process. The inner capsule will be cast in SiO2 aerogel of density 50 mg/cc, whose outer contour will be machined concentric to the inner capsule. This piece will then be assembled between two hemispherical ablator shells that mate at a step-joint with an adhesive-filled gap of thickness 100 nm. Three-dimensional tomographs made of each target using an x-ray micro-tomography system will allow precise characterization of the targets. [1] P. Amendt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 065004 (2005).

  17. Assembly of Robust Bacterial Microcompartment Shells Using Building Blocks from an Organelle of Unknown Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassila, JK; Bernstein, SL; Kinney, JN; Axen, SD; Kerfeld, CA


    Bacterial microconnpartnnents (BMCs) sequester enzymes from the cytoplasmic environment by encapsulation inside a selectively permeable protein shell. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that many bacteria encode BMC clusters of unknown function and with diverse combinations of shell proteins. The genome of the halophilic myxobacterium Haliangium ochraceum encodes one of the most atypical sets of shell proteins in terms of composition and primary structure. We found that microconnpartnnent shells could be purified in high yield when all seven H. ochraceum BMC shell genes were expressed from a synthetic operon in Escherichia coll. These shells differ substantially from previously isolated shell systems in that they are considerably smaller and more homogeneous, with measured diameters of 39 2 nm. The size and nearly uniform geometry allowed the development of a structural model for the shells composed of 260 hexagonal units and 13 hexagons per icosahedral face. We found that new proteins could be recruited to the shells by fusion to a predicted targeting peptide sequence, setting the stage for the use of these remarkably homogeneous shells for applications such as three-dimensional scaffolding and the construction of synthetic BMCs. Our results demonstrate the value of selecting from the diversity of BMC shell building blocks found in genomic sequence data for the construction of novel compartments. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller


    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A mixture of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. The mixture is single phase for higher salinity or calcium concentrations than that for either surfactant used alone. This makes it possible to inject the surfactant slug with polymer close to optimal conditions and yet be single phase. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. It uses partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide for mobility control. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of naphthenic soap and significant reduction of synthetic surfactant adsorption. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT takes advantage of the observation that the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Even for a fixed ratio of soap to surfactant, the range of salinity for low IFT was wider than that reported for surfactant systems in the literature. Low temperature, forced displacement experiments in dolomite and silica sandpacks demonstrate that greater than 95% recovery of the waterflood remaining oil is possible with 0.2% surfactant concentration, 0.5 PV surfactant slug, with no alcohol. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the role of soap/surfactant ratio on passage of the profile through the ultralow IFT region, the importance of a wide salinity range of low IFT, and the importance of the viscosity of the surfactant slug. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs as well as a

  19. Effect of lipophilic tail architecture and solvent engineering on the structure of trehalose-based nonionic surfactant reverse micelles. (United States)

    Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Sato, Takaaki; Dulle, Martin; Glatter, Otto; Aramaki, Kenji


    We use small-angle X-ray scattering and dynamic light scattering to investigate the structural and dynamical properties of trehalose polyisostearate, abbreviated as TQ-n (n = 3, 5, and 7), in different organic solvents, where n represents the number of isosterate chains per surfactant molecule. TQ-n spontaneously assembles into reverse micelles without addition of water at 25 °C. We found that for TQ-5 and TQ-7, steric hindrance of the lipophilic surfactant tail causes significant reduction of the aggregation number, whose scheme is clearly distinguished from the modification of the critical packing parameter. Increasing the hydrocarbon chain length of oils from octane to hexadecane favors one-dimensional micellar growth, leading to the formation of rodlike micelles due to different penetration tendencies of oils into the lipophilic shell of the surfactant. Subtle differences in solvent polarity also plays a crucial role in the micellar size, which is decreased when liquid paraffin is replaced with squalene. A further decrease is attained in more polar mixed triglyceride oils. A rising temperature also results in the same direction. The extrapolated structure factor to the zero scattering vector, S(q → 0), for the TQ-3/decane systems almost exactly follows that predicted for hard spheres, demonstrating that osmotic compressibility of the system is well explained if accounting for the excluded volume. However, we found that the effective diffusion coefficient decreases with surfactant concentration, which is an opposite trend to what is expected for hard spheres. This apparent contradiction is likely to be due to the occurrence of transient interdigitation between the lipophilic tails of neighboring reverse micelles at higher concentration. Our data highlight the relevance of the concept of "tunable reverse micellar geometry" in the novel trehalose-based nonionic surfactant binary mixtures, in which lipophilic tail architecture, solvent engineering, concentration

  20. Stability of emulsion at the presence of polycomplexes based on polyacrilic and polymethacrilyc acids and nonionic surfactant OP-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Omarova


    Full Text Available Stability of straight and reverse emulsions based on polyacrilic and polymethacrilyc acids and nonionic surfactant OP-10 was studied. Detergency of these polycomplexes on oil substrate covered on solid surfaces of different nature were considered. The results obtained allow explain the mechanism of exlusion of non-polar liquids from capillary-porous systems.

  1. Pulmonary surfactant adsorption is increased by hyaluronan or polyethylene glycol. (United States)

    Taeusch, H William; Dybbro, Eric; Lu, Karen W


    In acute lung injuries, inactivating agents may interfere with transfer (adsorption) of pulmonary surfactants to the interface between air and the aqueous layer that coats the interior of alveoli. Some ionic and nonionic polymers reduce surfactant inactivation in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we tested directly whether an ionic polymer, hyaluronan, or a nonionic polymer, polyethylene glycol, enhanced adsorption of a surfactant used clinically. We used three different methods of measuring adsorption in vitro: a modified pulsating bubble surfactometer; a King/Clements device; and a spreading trough. In addition we measured the effects of both polymers on surfactant turbidity, using this assay as a nonspecific index of aggregation. We found that both hyaluronan and polyethylene glycol significantly increased the rate and degree of surfactant material adsorbed to the surface in all three assays. Hyaluronan was effective in lower concentrations (20-fold) than polyethylene glycol and, unlike polyethylene glycol, hyaluronan did not increase apparent aggregation of surfactant. Surfactant adsorption in the presence of serum was also enhanced by both polymers regardless of whether hyaluronan or polyethylene glycol was included with serum in the subphase or added to the surfactant applied to the surface. Therefore, endogenous polymers in the alveolar subphase, or exogenous polymers added to surfactant used as therapy, may both be important for reducing inactivation of surfactant that occurs with various lung injuries.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope; Richard E. Jackson


    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactants makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. Also, the addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluted to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. A dual-porosity version is demonstrated as a potential scale-up tool for fractured reservoirs.

  3. Modeling of surfactant transport and adsorption in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, F.T.H.


    When surfactant solution is flowing in a reservoir formation, surfactants will be diluted by flow dispersion, retained in dead-end pores, adsorbed on rock surfaces, or precipitated due to ion exchange. The loss of surfactant will be detrimental to the performance of gas foam. Information of surfactant concentration profiles in reservoir formations is essential for gas foaming technique development. The major objective of this research is to investigate with mathematical models the transport and dynamic adsorption of surfactants in porous media. The mathematical models have taken into account the convection, dispersion, capacitance, and adsorption effects on concentrations of surfactants. Numerical methods and computer programs have been developed which can be used to match experimental results and to determine the characterization parameters in the models. The models can be included in foam simulation programs to calculate surfactant concentration profiles in porous media. A flow experimental method was developed to measure the effluent surfactant concentration, which will be used to determine the model parameters. Commercial foaming agent Alipal CD-128 was used in this study. Equilibrium adsorption and surfactant precipitation have been tested. Tracer solutions with a nonadsorbing solute such as dextrose and sucrose were used to determine the dispersion parameters for the experimental sandpack; thus, the adsorption of the surfactant in the test sand can be identified with an adequate model. 49 refs., 21 figs.

  4. Next Generation Surfactants for Improved Chemical Flooding Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura Wesson; Prapas Lohateeraparp; Jeffrey Harwell; Bor-Jier Shiau


    The principle objective of this project was to characterize and test current and next generation high performance surfactants for improved chemical flooding technology, focused on reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian-aged (Penn) sands. In order to meet this objective the characteristic curvatures (Cc) of twenty-eight anionic surfactants selected for evaluation for use in chemical flooding formulations were determined. The Cc values ranged from -6.90 to 2.55 with the majority having negative values. Crude oil samples from nine Penn sand reservoirs were analyzed for several properties pertinent to surfactant formulation for EOR application. These properties included equivalent alkane carbon numbers, total acid numbers, and viscosity. The brine samples from these same reservoirs were analyzed for several cations and for total dissolved solids. Surfactant formulations were successfully developed for eight reservoirs by the end of the project period. These formulations were comprised of a tertiary mixture of anionic surfactants. The identities of these surfactants are considered proprietary, but suffice to say the surfactants in each mixture were comprised of varying chemical structures. In addition to the successful development of surfactant formulations for EOR, there were also two successful single-well field tests conducted. There are many aspects that must be considered in the development and implementation of effective surfactant formulations. Taking into account these other aspects, there were four additional studies conducted during this project. These studies focused on the effect of the stability of surfactant formulations in the presence of polymers with an associated examination of polymer rheology, the effect of the presence of iron complexes in the brine on surfactant stability, the potential use of sacrificial agents in order to minimize the loss of surfactant to adsorption, and the effect of electrolytes on surfactant adsorption. In these last four studies

  5. Core/shell composites with polystyrene cores and meso-silica shells as abrasives for improved chemical mechanical polishing behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yang, E-mail:; Qin, Jiawei; Wang, Yayun; Li, Zefeng [Changzhou University, School of Material Science and Engineering (China)


    The core/shell-structured organic/inorganic composite abrasive has an important potential application in damage-free chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) due to its non-rigid mechanical property. In this work, the PS/{sub M}SiO{sub 2} composites, containing polystyrene (PS) sphere (211 ± 4 nm) cores and mesoporous silica shells (31 ± 3 nm in thickness) were synthesized through directed surface sol–gel process of tetraethylorthosilicate on the polymer cores in the presence of the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant. For comparison, the conventional core/shell PS/{sub N}SiO{sub 2} composites with non-porous silica shells were also prepared via a modified Stöber procedure that involved the hydrolysis of TEOS under acidic condition. The physical properties of the samples were examined by small-angle X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption–desorption. As novel abrasives, the core/shell-structured PS/{sub M}SiO{sub 2} composites were introduced into the CMP process for silicon oxide films. The oxide-CMP performance among conventional solid silica particles, PS/{sub N}SiO{sub 2} composites, and novel PS/{sub M}SiO{sub 2} composites was explored by atomic force microscopy. Polishing results indicated that the substrate revealed a comparable root-mean-square surface roughness (0.25 ± 0.03 and 0.22 ± 0.02 nm, respectively) after CMP with PS/{sub N}SiO{sub 2} and PS/{sub M}SiO{sub 2} abrasives under the same polishing conditions. However, the material removal rate of the PS/{sub M}SiO{sub 2} composites (123 ± 15 nm/min) was about three times larger than that of the PS/{sub N}SiO{sub 2} composites (47 ± 13 nm/min). The reduced surface roughness and improved removal rate might be due to the optimization of the physical and/or chemical environments in the local contacting region between abrasives

  6. Surfactant solutions and porous substrates: spreading and imbibition. (United States)

    Starov, Victor M


    nitrocellulose membranes. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 264 (2003) 481-489]: the overall time of the spreading of drops of SDS solution over dry thin porous substrates decreases with the increase of surfactant concentration; the difference between advancing and hydrodynamic receding contact angles decreases with the surfactant concentration increase; the constancy of the contact angle during the third stage of spreading has nothing to do with the hysteresis of contact angle, but determined by the hydrodynamic reasons. It is shown using independent spreading experiments of the same drops on nonporous nitrocellulose substrate that the static receding contact angle is equal to zero, which supports the conclusion on the hydrodynamic nature of the hydrodynamic receding contact angle on porous substrates. In Section 3, a theory is developed to describe a spontaneous imbibition of surfactant solutions into hydrophobic capillaries, which takes into account the micelle disintegration and the concentration decreasing close to the moving meniscus as a result of adsorption, as well as the surface diffusion of surfactant molecules [N.V. Churaev, G.A. Martynov, V.M. Starov, Z.M. Zorin, Colloid Polym. Sci. 259 (1981) 747]. The theory predictions are in good agreement with the experimental investigations on the spontaneous imbibition of the nonionic aqueous surfactant solution, Syntamide-5, into hydrophobized quartz capillaries. A theory of the spontaneous capillary rise of surfactant solutions in hydrophobic capillaries is presented, which connects the experimental observations with the adsorption of surfactant molecules in front of the moving meniscus on the bare hydrophobic interface [V.J. Starov, Colloid Interface Sci. 270 (2003)]. In Section 4, capillary imbibition of aqueous surfactant solutions into dry porous substrates is investigated from both theoretical and experimental points of view in the case of partial wetting [V. Straov, S. Zhdanov, M. Velarde, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 273 (2004

  7. Multi-Shell Shell Model for Heavy Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Y; Sun, Yang; Wu, Cheng-Li


    Performing a shell model calculation for heavy nuclei has been a long-standing problem in nuclear physics. Here we propose one possible solution. The central idea of this proposal is to take the advantages of two existing models, the Projected Shell Model (PSM) and the Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model (FDSM), to construct a multi-shell shell model. The PSM is an efficient method of coupling quasi-particle excitations to the high-spin rotational motion, whereas the FDSM contains a successful truncation scheme for the low-spin collective modes from the spherical to the well-deformed region. The new shell model is expected to describe simultaneously the single-particle and the low-lying collective excitations of all known types, yet keeping the model space tractable even for the heaviest nuclear systems.

  8. Creating biocompatible oil-water interfaces without synthesis: direct interactions between primary amines and carboxylated perfluorocarbon surfactants. (United States)

    DeJournette, Cheryl J; Kim, Joonyul; Medlen, Haley; Li, Xiangpeng; Vincent, Luke J; Easley, Christopher J


    Currently, one of the most prominent methods used to impart biocompatibility to aqueous-in-oil droplets is to synthesize a triblock copolymer surfactant composed of perfluoropolyether and polyether blocks. The resulting surfactants (EA surfactant, KryJeffa, etc.) allow generation of highly biocompatible droplet surfaces while maintaining the heat stability of the starting material. However, production of these surfactants requires expertise in synthetic organic chemistry, creating a barrier to widespread adoption in the field. Herein, we describe a simple alternative to synthetic modification of surfactants to impart biocompatibility. We have observed that aqueous-in-oil droplet surfaces can be made biocompatible and heat stable by merely exploiting binding interactions between polyetherdiamine additives in the aqueous phase and carboxylated perfluorocarbon surfactants in the oil phase. Droplets formed under these conditions are shown to possess biocompatible surfaces capable of supporting picoliter-scale protein assays, droplet polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and droplet DNA amplification with isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). Droplets formed with polyetherdiamine aqueous additives are stable enough to withstand temperature cycling during PCR (30-40 cycles at 60-94 °C) while maintaining biocompatibility, and the reaction efficiency of RPA is shown to be similar to that with a covalently modified surfactant (KryJeffa). The binding interaction was confirmed with various methods, including FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and fluorescence microscopy. Overall, our results suggest that, by simply introducing a commercially-available, polyetherdiamine additive (Jeffamine ED-900) to the aqueous phase, researchers can avoid synthetic methods in generating biocompatible droplet surfaces capable of supporting DNA and protein analysis at the subnanoliter scale.

  9. Moving liquid surfactant as a way of assessing the properties of surfactant, liquids and surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, A O; Titov, O P; Titov, M O; Karbainov, A N, E-mail: [RUSSIA. GOU VPO East Siberian State Technological University (Russian Federation)


    In the study of surface phenomena of the main and only instrumentally-defined parameters are surface tension and wetting angle, including in the field of nanotechnology. These indicators were introduced more than 200 years ago, and any new inventions in this field was no more. The university developed a new method and device for determining the surface activity. The basis of the method and device is the use of video cameras to record the droplet size and changes on the surface of the liquid layer of known thickness from the impact of drops of surfactant (surfactant). Committed changes are then processed using computer software and calculated parameters, which can be characterized by a surfactant and surface properties, which is fluid and very liquid. Determine the surface tension or contact angle is not necessary. Measures of surface activity using the method and device are: 1. The amount of fluid that can move one kilogram of surfactant. The value of this index varies from tens of nanometers to hundreds of thousands of units. The indicator can be converted to energy units, joules. 2. The amount of fluid confined by a surface per unit time is calculated based on the first indicator, complements the characterization of surfactant and may be an indicator of surface characteristics and fluid. 3. Propagation speed of the capillary and microwaves. This indicator complements the first two.

  10. Hydrogels of sodium alginate in cationic surfactants: Surfactant dependent modulation of encapsulation/release toward Ibuprofen. (United States)

    Jabeen, Suraya; Chat, Oyais Ahmad; Maswal, Masrat; Ashraf, Uzma; Rather, Ghulam Mohammad; Dar, Aijaz Ahmad


    The interaction of cetyltrimethylammoium bromide (CTAB) and its gemini homologue (butanediyl-1,4-bis (dimethylcetylammonium bromide), 16-4-16 with biocompatible polymer sodium alginate (SA) has been investigated in aqueous medium. Addition of K2CO3 influences viscoelastic properties of surfactant impregnated SA via competition between electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Viscosity of these polymer-surfactant systems increases with increase in concentration of K2CO3, and a cryogel is formed at about 0.5M K2CO3 concentration. The thermal stability of gel (5% SA+0.5M K2CO3) decreases with increase in surfactant concentration, a minimum is observed with increase in 16-4-16 concentration. The impact of surfactant addition on the alginate structure vis-à-vis its drug loading capability and release thereof was studied using Ibuprofen (IBU) as the model drug. The hydrogel with 16-4-16 exhibits higher IBU encapsulation and faster release in comparison to the one containing CTAB. This higher encapsulation-cum-faster release capability has been related to micelle mediated solubilization and greater porosity of the hydrogel with gemini surfactant.

  11. Biomechanics of turtle shells: how whole shells fail in compression. (United States)

    Magwene, Paul M; Socha, John J


    Turtle shells are a form of armor that provides varying degrees of protection against predation. Although this function of the shell as armor is widely appreciated, the mechanical limits of protection and the modes of failure when subjected to breaking stresses have not been well explored. We studied the mechanical properties of whole shells and of isolated bony tissues and sutures in four species of turtles (Trachemys scripta, Malaclemys terrapin, Chrysemys picta, and Terrapene carolina) using a combination of structural and mechanical tests. Structural properties were evaluated by subjecting whole shells to compressive and point loads in order to quantify maximum load, work to failure, and relative shell deformations. The mechanical properties of bone and sutures from the plastral region of the shell were evaluated using three-point bending experiments. Analysis of whole shell structural properties suggests that small shells undergo relatively greater deformations before failure than do large shells and similar amounts of energy are required to induce failure under both point and compressive loads. Location of failures occurred far more often at sulci than at sutures (representing the margins of the epidermal scutes and the underlying bones, respectively), suggesting that the small grooves in the bone created by the sulci introduce zones of weakness in the shell. Values for bending strength, ultimate bending strain, Young's modulus, and energy absorption, calculated from the three-point bending data, indicate that sutures are relatively weaker than the surrounding bone, but are able to absorb similar amounts of energy due to higher ultimate strain values. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. O/W emulsions stabilised by both low molecular weight surfactants and colloidal particles: The effect of surfactant type and concentration. (United States)

    Pichot, R; Spyropoulos, F; Norton, I T


    The stability against coalescence of O/W emulsions in the presence of both surfactants and colloidal particles was investigated. In particular the effect of the surfactant type and concentration in these emulsifier mixtures on the O/W emulsions' stability was studied. Two types of surfactants were selected; those that have the ability to stabilise O/W emulsions on their own (O/W surfactants) and those that cannot (W/O surfactants). Tween 60 and Sodium Caseinate were selected as the O/W surfactants and lecithin as the W/O surfactant. Oil-in-water emulsions prepared with both particles and any of the three surfactants were stable against coalescence but, depending on the type of surfactant, the behaviour of the systems was found to depend on surfactant concentration. The droplet sizes of emulsions stabilised by mixed emulsifier systems containing low concentrations of O/W surfactants (Tween 60 or Sodium Caseinate) were smaller than those solely stabilised by either the surfactant or particles alone. At intermediate O/W surfactants concentrations, the droplet sizes of the emulsions increased. Further increases in the O/W surfactants' concentration, resulted in the complete removal of particles from the interface with the system now behaving as a surfactant-only stabilised emulsion. The behaviour of emulsions stabilised by emulsifier mixtures containing W/O surfactants was not dependent on the concentration of surfactant: no removal of particles was observed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular Mechanisms of ZnO Nanoparticle Dispersion in Solution: Modeling of Surfactant Association, Electrostatic Shielding and Counter Ion Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Duchstein

    Full Text Available Molecular models of 5 nm sized ZnO/Zn(OH2 core-shell nanoparticles in ethanolic solution were derived as scale-up models (based on an earlier model created from ion-by-ion aggregation and self-organization and subjected to mechanistic analyses of surface stabilization by block-copolymers. The latter comprise a poly-methacrylate chain accounting for strong surfactant association to the nanoparticle by hydrogen bonding and salt-bridges. While dangling poly-ethylene oxide chains provide only a limited degree of sterical hindering to nanoparticle agglomeration, the key mechanism of surface stabilization is electrostatic shielding arising from the acrylates and a halo of Na+ counter ions associated to the nanoparticle. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal different solvent shells and distance-dependent mobility of ions and solvent molecules. From this, we provide a molecular rationale of effective particle size, net charge and polarizability of the nanoparticles in solution.

  14. Bending elasticity of charged surfactant layers: the effect of mixing. (United States)

    Bergström, L Magnus


    Expressions have been derived from which the spontaneous curvature (H(0)), bending rigidity (k(c)), and saddle-splay constant (k(c)) of mixed monolayers and bilayers may be calculated from molecular and solution properties as well as experimentally available quantities such as the macroscopic hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfacial tension. Three different cases of binary surfactant mixtures have been treated in detail: (i) mixtures of an ionic and a nonionic surfactant, (ii) mixtures of two oppositely charged surfactants, and (iii) mixtures of two ionic surfactants with identical headgroups but different tail volumes. It is demonstrated that k(c)H(0), k(c), and k(c) for mixtures of surfactants with flexible tails may be subdivided into one contribution that is due to bending properties of an infinitely thin surface as calculated from the Poisson-Boltzmann mean field theory and one contribution appearing as a result of the surfactant film having a finite thickness with the surface of charge located somewhat outside the hydrophobic-hydrophilic interface. As a matter of fact, the picture becomes completely different as finite layer thickness effects are taken into account, and as a result, the spontaneous curvature is extensively lowered whereas the bending rigidity is raised. Furthermore, an additional contribution to k(c) is present for surfactant mixtures but is absent for k(c)H(0) and k(c). This contribution appears as a consequence of the minimization of the free energy with respect to the composition of a surfactant layer that is open in the thermodynamic sense and must always be negative (i.e., k(c) is generally found to be brought down by the process of mixing two or more surfactants). The magnitude of the reduction of k(c) increases with increasing asymmetry between two surfactants with respect to headgroup charge number and tail volume. As a consequence, the bending rigidity assumes the lowest values for layers formed in mixtures of two oppositely charged

  15. Molecular dynamics study of the effect of calcium ions on the monolayer of SDC and SDSn surfactants at the vapor/liquid interface. (United States)

    Yan, Hui; Guo, Xin-Li; Yuan, Shi-Ling; Liu, Cheng-Bu


    The effect of Ca(2+) ions on the hydration shell of sodium dodecyl carboxylate (SDC) and sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDSn) monolayer at vapor/liquid interfaces was studied using molecular dynamics simulations. For each surfactant, two different surface concentrations were used to perform the simulations, and the aggregation morphologies and structural details have been reported. The results showed that the aggregation structures relate to both the surface coverage and the calcium ions. The divalent ions can screen the interaction between the polar head and Na(+) ions. Thus, Ca(2+) ions locate near the vapor/liquid interface to bind to the headgroup, making the aggregations much more compact via the salt bridge. The potential of mean force (PMF) between Ca(2+) and the headgroups shows that the interaction is decided by a stabilizing solvent-separated minimum in the PMF. To bind to the headgroup, Ca(2+) should overcome the energy barrier. Among contributions to the PMF, the major repulsive interaction was due to the rearrangement of the hydration shell after the calcium ions entered into the hydration shell of the headgroup. The PMFs between the headgroup and Ca(2+) in the SDSn systems showed higher energy barriers than those in the SDC systems. This result indicated that SDSn binds the divalent ions with more difficulty compared with SDC, so the ions have a strong effect on the hydration shell of SDC. That is why sulfonate surfactants have better efficiency in salt solutions with Ca(2+) ions for enhanced oil recovery.

  16. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles (United States)

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K.; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F.


    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like `top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and `bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated.

  17. Preparation and evaluation of sulphonamide nonionic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M. H. M.


    Alkyl (octyl, decyl and dodecyl; C{sub 8}, C{sub 1}0 and C{sub 1}2) benzene sulphonyl chloride was used in the preparation of a novel series of nonionic surfactants (IV-VI)a-c, (VII-IX) a-c and (X-XII)a-c. The preparations were completed by reacting each alkyl (C{sub 8}, C{sub 1}0 and C{sub 1}2) benzene sulphonyl chloride with ethanolamine to give (I-III) respectively. The resulting products were reacted separately with ethylene oxide in the presence of different (base KOH, Lewis acid SnCl4 and k10 clay) catalysts to produce different moles of nonionic surfactants (5, 7 and 9) in sequence corresponding to (IV-VI)a-c, (VII-IX) a-c and (X-XII)a-c respectively. The chemical structures of prepared nonionic surfactants were elucidated by IR and 1HNMR spectra. The surface activity, biodegradability and biological activities of the prepared compounds were investigated. The obtained data show that these compounds have good surface and biological activities as well as reasonable biodegradability properties. (Author) 30 refs.

  18. Shell Trumpets from Western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Novella


    Full Text Available Marine shells have been used as musical instruments in almost all parts of the world (Izikowitz 1935, including Mesoamerica, where large univalves, also called conch shells in the literature, had a utilitarian function as trumpets. Their use is well documented in most cultural areas of Mesoamerica, as in Western Mexico, through their various occurrences in archaeological contexts and museums collections.

  19. Shell model and spectroscopic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poves, P. [Madrid Univ. Autonoma and IFT, UAM/CSIC, E-28049 (Spain)


    In these lectures, I introduce the notion of spectroscopic factor in the shell model context. A brief review is given of the present status of the large scale applications of the Interacting Shell Model. The spectroscopic factors and the spectroscopic strength are discussed for nuclei in the vicinity of magic closures and for deformed nuclei. (author)

  20. Estimation hydrophilic-lipophilic balance number of surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawignya, Harsa, E-mail: [Chemical Engineering Department Diponegoro University (Indonesia); Chemical Engineering Departement University of Pembangunan Nasional Yogyakarta (Indonesia); Prasetyaningrum, Aji, E-mail:; Kusworo, Tutuk D.; Pramudono, Bambang, E-mail: [Chemical Engineering Department Diponegoro University (Indonesia); Dyartanti, Endah R. [Chemical Engineering Department Diponegoro University (Indonesia); Chemical Enginering Departement Sebelas Maret University (Indonesia)


    Any type of surfactant has a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance number (HLB number) of different. There are several methods for determining the HLB number, with ohysical properties of surfactant (solubility cloud point and interfacial tension), CMC methods and by thermodynamics properties (Free energy Gibbs). This paper proposes to determined HLB numbers from interfelation methods. The result of study indicated that the CMC method described by Hair and Moulik espesially for nonionic surfactant. The application of exess Gibbs free energy and by implication activity coefficient provides the ability to predict the behavior of surfactants in multi component mixtures of different concentration. Determination of HLB number by solubility and cloud point parameter is spesific for anionic and nonionic surfactant but this methods not available for cationic surfactants.

  1. Influence of metacide - surfactant complexes on agricultural crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orynkul Esimova


    Full Text Available The complexes based on surfactants and polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (metacide are important for agriculture. This paper considers compositions of known bactericidal metacide with different surfactants: anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulphate (DDSNa and nonionic surfactant Tween 80 (monooleate of oxyethylenated anhydrosorbitols. The effect of individual components and associates of metacide and surfactants on productivity and infection of cereals was studied. According to the study, the highest productivity and infection rate were shown by the associate of metacide and Tween-80. At concentration of Tween-80 in aqueous solution equal to 0.001% in combination with metacide, efficiency was 98% at 0% infection. The surface tension and the wetting of metacide, DDSNa, Tween-80, and associates of metacide with surfactants were studied. In comparison with individual components, metacide-DDSNa and metacide-Tween-80 associates have higher surface activity.

  2. [Pulmonary surfactant homeostasis associated genetic abnormalities and lung diseases]. (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaojing; Sun, Xiuzhu; Du, Weihua; Hao, Haisheng; Zhao, Xueming; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Huabin; Liu, Yan


    Pulmonary surfactant (PS) is synthesized and secreted by alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) cells, which is a complex compound formed by proteins and lipids. Surfactant participates in a range of physiological processes such as reducing the surface tension, keeping the balance of alveolar fluid, maintaining normal alveolar morphology and conducting host defense. Genetic disorders of the surfactant homeostasis genes may result in lack of surfactant or cytotoxicity, and lead to multiple lung diseases in neonates, children and adults, including neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. This paper has provided a review for the functions and processes of pulmonary surfactant metabolism, as well as the connection between disorders of surfactant homeostasis genes and lung diseases.

  3. Branched alkyl alcohol propoxylated sulfate surfactants for improved oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.; Iglauer, S.; Shuler, P.; Tang, Y. [California Institute of Technology, Covina, CA (US). Power, Environmental and Energy Research (PEER) Center; Goddard, W.A. III [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States). Materials and Process Simulation Center


    This investigation considers branched alkyl alcohol propoxylated sulfate surfactants as candidates for chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications. Results show that these anionic surfactants may be preferred candidates for EOR as they can be effective at creating low interfacial tension (IFT) at dilute concentrations, without requiring an alkaline agent or cosurfactant. In addition, some of the formulations exhibit a low IFT at high salinity, and hence may be suitable for use in more saline reservoirs. Adsorption tests onto kaolinite clay indicate that the loss of these surfactants can be comparable to or greater than other types of anionic surfactants. Surfactant performance was evaluated in oil recovery core flood tests. Selected formulations recovered 35-50% waterflood residual oil even with dilute 0.2 wt% surfactant concentrations from Berea sandstone cores. (orig.)

  4. Rheological properties of ovalbumin hydrogels as affected by surfactants addition. (United States)

    Hassan, Natalia; Messina, Paula V; Dodero, Veronica I; Ruso, Juan M


    The gel properties of ovalbumin mixtures with three different surfactants (sodium perfluorooctanoate, sodium octanoate and sodium dodecanoate) have been studied by rheological techniques. The gel elasticities were determined as a function of surfactant concentration and surfactant type. The fractal dimension of the formed structures was evaluated from plots of storage modulus against surfactant concentration. The role of electrostatic, hydrophobic and disulfide SS interactions in these systems has been demonstrated to be the predominant. The viscosity of these structures tends to increase with surfactant concentration, except for the fluorinated one. Unfolded ovalbumin molecules tend to form fibrillar structures that tend to increase with surfactant concentration, except for the fluorinated one. This fact has been related to the particular nature of this molecule.

  5. Gemini imidazolium surfactants: synthesis and their biophysiochemical study. (United States)

    Kamboj, Raman; Singh, Sukhprit; Bhadani, Avinash; Kataria, Hardeep; Kaur, Gurcharan


    New gemini imidazolium surfactants 9-13 have been synthesized by a regioselective epoxy ring-opening reaction under solvent-free conditions. The surface properties of these new gemini surfactants were evaluated by surface tension and conductivity measurements. These surfactants have been found to have low critical micelle concentration (cmc) values as compared to other categories of gemini cationic surfactants and also showed the tendency to form premicellar aggregates in solution at sufficiently low concentration below their cmc values. The thermal degradation of these surfactants was determined by thermograviometry analysis (TGA). These new cationic surfactants have a good DNA binding capability as determined by agarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide exclusion experiments. They have also been found to have low cytotoxicity by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the C6 glioma cell line.

  6. Effects of silicon surfactant in rigid polyurethane foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The rigid polyurethane foams (RPUFs have been fabricated from high functional crude 4,4’-di-phenylmethane diisocyanate (CMDI and polypropylene glycols (PPGs for a wide range of surfactant concentration with an environmently friendly blowing agent (HFC 365mfc. Cream time, gel time, and tack-free time increased with the addition of surfactant. Foam density decreased rapidly to a minimum at 0.5 pphp (part per hundred polyol surfactant due to the increased blowing efficiency with surfactant. Surface tension rapidly decreased to an asymptotic value at 2 pphp surfactant. In accordance with this, cell size decreased and closed cell content increased rapidly to constant values at low surfactant concentrations (<1 pphp. The decrease of cell size was accompanied by the decrease of thermal conductivity to give a linear relatiohship between the two implying that the series model of heat transfer is applicable.

  7. Controlled Isotropic and Anisotropic Shell Growth in β-NaLnF4 Nanocrystals Induced by Precursor Injection Rate. (United States)

    Fischer, Stefan; Swabeck, Joseph K; Alivisatos, A Paul


    Precise morphology and composition control is vital for designing multifunctional lanthanide-doped core/shell nanocrystals. Herein, we report controlled isotropic and anisotropic shell growth techniques in hexagonal sodium rare-earth tetrafluoride (β-NaLnF4) nanocrystals by exploiting the kinetics of the shell growth. A drastic change of the shell morphology was observed by changing the injection rate of the shell precursors while keeping all other reaction conditions constant. We obtained isotropic shell growth for fast sequential injection and a preferred growth of the shell layers along the crystal's c-axis [001] for slow dropwise injection. Using this slow shell growth technique, we have grown rod-like shells around different almost spherical core nanocrystals. Bright and efficient upconversion was measured for both isotropic and rod-like shells around β-NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Yb(3+)/Er(3+) and Yb(3+)/Tm(3+). Photoluminescence upconversion quantum yield and lifetime measurements reveal the high quality of the core/shell nanocrystal. Furthermore, multishell rod-like nanostructures have been prepared with optically active cores and tips separated by an inert intermediate shell layer. The controlled anisotropic shell growth allows the design of new core/multishell nanostructures and enables independent investigations of the chemistry and physics of different nanocrystal facets.

  8. Surfactant modified SnO2 nanostructured thin film for improved sensing performance of LPG and ammonia (United States)

    Kumari, K. Prasanna; Thomas, Boben


    SnO2 nanostructured thin films have been successfully synthesized by way of spray pyrolysis from surfactant added solution. The X-ray diffraction pattern discloses the tetragonal rutile phase of the deposited SnO2 films, which experience a grain size reduction from 35 nm to 19 nm, on the addition of PVP surfactant in precursor. Gas sensing investigations on the surfactant modified film show considerable LPG and NH3 response at a lower operating temperature of 150°C. Quick response (˜20s) and fast recovery (˜30s) are the main features of these sensors. The measurement of AC conductivity of the sample allows understanding the conduction mechanism and sensing action for to enhance the detection sensitivity greatly.

  9. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    . This modelling technique is used to model a plate shell structure with a span of 11.5 meters in the FE software \\textsc{Abaqus}. The structure is analyzed with six different connection details with varying stiffness characteristics, to investigate the influence of these characteristics on the structural effects...... University, a script has been developed for an automated generation of a given plate shell geometry and a corresponding finite element (FE) model. A suitable FE modelling technique is proposed, suggesting a relatively simple method of modelling the connection detail's stiffness characteristics....... Based on these investigations, and FE analysis of other plate shell models, the structural behaviour is described. Possible methods of estimating the stresses in a given plate shell structure are proposed. The non-linear behaviour of a plate shell structure is investigated for varying parameters...

  10. Ceria/silicon carbide core–shell materials prepared by miniemulsion technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Borchardt


    Full Text Available For the first time we present the synthesis of CeO2/Si(OC core–shell particles prepared by the miniemulsion technique. The Si(OC core was obtained by means of a polycarbosilane precursor (SMP10, which was subsequently functionalized with ceria and pyrolyzed to the ceramic. The size of these particles could easily be adjusted by varying the surfactants and the surfactant concentration, or by the addition of comonomers. Hence particle sizes ranged from 100 to 1000 nm, tunable by the preparation conditions. All materials were characterized by photon cross correlation spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and elemental mapping investigations. Furthermore, first catalytic tests were carried out by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO of methane, and the activity of this material in lowering the onset temperature of methane combustion by 262 K was documented.

  11. Synthesis of soft shell poly(styrene) colloids for filtration experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinge, Mogens

    Separating a solid from a liquid is an important unit operation in many different industries e.g. mining, chemical, pharmaceutical and food industries. Solid liquid separation can roughly be divided into three groups. 1) Separation by gravity forces e.g. sedimentation, centrifugation, 2) Separation...... of the core-shell colloids on the filtration dewatering behavior. The third and final series has been chosen to investigate the effect from a non-ionic water swollen material. The model colloids from series one and two were synthesized by a free-radicale surfactant-free emulsion co-polymerization process...... of acrylic acid monomer added to the synthesis. Further it was shown that it is possible to increase the PS core diameter by increasing the ionic strength of the synthesis solution. The model colloids from series three were synthesized by a two step free-radical surfactant-free emulsion polymerization (SFEP...

  12. Effect of Surfactants on the Deformation and Detachment of Oil Droplets in a Model Laminar Flow Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fréville V.


    Full Text Available Sugar-based surfactants are increasingly present in the development of eco-friendly detergents due to current regulations and consumer demand. In order to assess the degreasing performance of these new surfactants, the behavior of model oil droplets subjected to the action of a flow of surfactant solutions of different concentrations was studied in a laminar flow cell and related to the physico-chemical properties measured at the liquid/liquid (interfacial tension and solid/liquid/liquid interfaces (contact angle. With the surfactant solutions and the model oils employed in this study, three main behaviors were observed when a critical flow rate was reached: elongation, fragmentation or spontaneous detachment of the droplet. The analysis of the results leads to a correlation between the droplet behavior and the balance of the forces applied on the droplet in its initial position, in particular the gravity force Fg, which tends to move the oil droplet upwards (given the density difference, and the capillary force Fc, which tends to keep the droplet spherical. A state diagram could be established, based on the dimensionless Bond number (Fg/Fc and cosθ, θ being the initial contact angle of the drop on the surface before the establishment of the flow. One can thus predict the droplet behavior as a function of the system initial characteristics. The results allowed the comparison of degreasing performance of the different surfactants used and illustrated the potential of AlkylPolyPentosides (APP for detergent formulations.

  13. Effect of surfactants on surface activity and rheological properties of type I collagen at air/water interface. (United States)

    Kezwoń, Aleksandra; Góral, Ilona; Frączyk, Tomasz; Wojciechowski, Kamil


    We describe the effect of three synthetic surfactants (anionic - sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic - cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and nonionic - Triton X-100 (TX-100)) on surface properties of the type I calf skin collagen at the air/water interface in acidic solutions (pH 1.8). The protein concentration was fixed at 5×10(-6)molL(-1) and the surfactant concentration was varied in the range 5×10(-6)molL(-1)-1×10(-4)molL(-1), producing the protein/surfactant mixtures with molar ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20. An Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis (ADSA) method was used to determine the dynamic surface tension and surface dilatational moduli of the mixed adsorption layers. Two spectroscopic techniques: UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorimetry allowed us to determine the effect of the surfactants on the protein structure. The thermodynamic characteristic of the mixtures was studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Modification of the collagen structure by SDS at low surfactant/protein ratios has a positive effect on the mixture's surface activity with only minor deterioration of the rheological properties of the adsorbed layers. The collagen/CTAB mixtures do not show that pronounced improvement in surface activity, while rheological properties are significantly deteriorated. The mixtures with non-ionic TX-100 do not show any synergistic effects in surface activity.

  14. Investigation of Polymer-Surfactant and Polymer-Drug-Surfactant Miscibility for Solid Dispersion. (United States)

    Gumaste, Suhas G; Gupta, Simerdeep Singh; Serajuddin, Abu T M


    In a solid dispersion (SD), the drug is generally dispersed either molecularly or in the amorphous state in polymeric carriers, and the addition of a surfactant is often important to ensure drug release from such a system. The objective of this investigation was to screen systematically polymer-surfactant and polymer-drug-surfactant miscibility by using the film casting method. Miscibility of the crystalline solid surfactant, poloxamer 188, with two commonly used amorphous polymeric carriers, Soluplus® and HPMCAS, was first studied. Then, polymer-drug-surfactant miscibility was determined using itraconazole as the model drug, and ternary phase diagrams were constructed. The casted films were examined by DSC, PXRD and polarized light microscopy for any crystallization or phase separation of surfactant, drug or both in freshly prepared films and after exposure to 40°C/75% RH for 7, 14, and 30 days. The miscibility of poloxamer 188 with Soluplus® was <10% w/w, while its miscibility with HPMCAS was at least 30% w/w. Although itraconazole by itself was miscible with Soluplus® up to 40% w/w, the presence of poloxamer drastically reduced its miscibility to <10%. In contrast, poloxamer 188 had minimal impact on HPMCAS-itraconazole miscibility. For example, the phase diagram showed amorphous miscibility of HPMCAS, itraconazole, and poloxamer 188 at 54, 23, and 23% w/w, respectively, even after exposure to 40°C/75% RH for 1 month. Thus, a relatively simple and practical method of screening miscibility of different components and ultimately physical stability of SD is provided. The results also identify the HPMCAS-poloxamer 188 mixture as an optimal surface-active carrier system for SD.

  15. [Liposome phospholipid substitution and lung function in surfactant deprived rats]. (United States)

    Obladen, M


    In vivo activity of an artificial surfactant was studied in surfactant depleted rats. After tenfold alveolar lavage, PaO2, tidal volume, and compliance of the respiratory system fell to one third of initial value. Substitution of large unilamellar vesicles containing 90% Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and 10% unsaturated phosphatidylglycerol largely restored oxygenation and lung mechanics in most animals. Complete normalization with weaning from the ventilator, however, was achieved neither with liposomes nor with natural surfactant concentrate.

  16. The Role of Surfactant in Respiratory Distress Syndrome



    The key feature of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the insufficient production of surfactant in the lungs of preterm infants. As a result, researchers have looked into the possibility of surfactant replacement therapy as a means of preventing and treating RDS. We sought to identify the role of surfactant in the prevention and management of RDS, comparing the various types, doses, and modes of administration, and the recent development. A PubMed search was carried out up to March 2012 u...

  17. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope


    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A combination of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT is more challenging since the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the interdependence of the various components for oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. It has been modified to represent the effects of a change in wettability. Simulated case studies demonstrate the effects of wettability.

  18. Synthesis of SnS/In2S3 core-shell nanoparticles (United States)

    Prastani, C.; Nanu, M.; Nanu, D.; Schropp, R. E. I.; Rath, J. K.


    In this letter a new type of core-shell structure is presented. The core is made of tin-sulfide by colloidal route. The shell, made of indium-sulfide, by chemical bath deposition. These core-shell nanoparticles have been characterized by transmission electron microscope to study the size and the shape. High resolution TEM has allowed to determine the structure of the core and the shell. The chemical composition has been analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In the end the optical absorption investigated by UV-vis changing the deposition time and temperature. Finally, the influence of these parameters on the band gap has been investigated.

  19. Surface corrections to the shell-structure of the moment of inertia

    CERN Document Server

    Gorpinchenko, D V; Bartel, J; Blocki, J P


    The moment of inertia for nuclear collective rotations is derived within a semiclassical approach based on the Inglis cranking and the Strutinsky shell-correction methods, improved by surface corrections within the non-perturbative periodic-orbit theory. For adiabatic (statistical-equilibrium) rotations it was approximated by the generalized rigid-body moment of inertia accounting for the shell corrections of the particle density. An improved phase-space trace formula allows to express the shell components of the moment of inertia more accurately in terms of the free-energy shell correction with their ratio evaluated within the extended Thomas-Fermi effective-surface approximation.

  20. Nonlinear Elastic Deformation of Thin Composite Shells of Discretely Variable Thickness (United States)

    Lutskaya, I. V.; Maksimyuk, V. A.; Storozhuk, E. A.; Chernyshenko, I. S.


    A method for analyzing the stress-strain state of nonlinear elastic orthotropic thin shells with reinforced holes and shells of discretely variable thickness is developed. The reference surface is not necessarily the midsurface. The constitutive equations are derived using Lomakin's theory of anisotropic plasticity. The methods of successive approximations and variational differences are used. The Kirchhoff-Love hypotheses are implemented using Lagrange multipliers. The method allows analyzing the stress-strain state of shells with arbitrarily varying thickness and ribbed shells. The numerical results are presented in the form of tables and analyzed

  1. Composite shell spacecraft seat (United States)

    Barackman, Victor J. (Inventor); Pulley, John K. (Inventor); Simon, Xavier D. (Inventor); McKee, Sandra D. (Inventor)


    A two-part seat (10) providing full body support that is specific for each crew member (30) on an individual basis. The two-part construction for the seat (10) can accommodate many sizes and shapes for crewmembers (30) because it is reconfigurable and therefore reusable for subsequent flights. The first component of the two-part seat construction is a composite shell (12) that surrounds the crewmember's entire body and is generically fitted to their general size in height and weight. The second component of the two-part seat (10) is a cushion (20) that conforms exactly to the specific crewmember's entire body and gives total body support in more complex environment.

  2. Surfactant/Supercritical Fluid Cleaning of Contaminated Substrates (United States)

    White, Gary L.


    CFC's and halogenated hydrocarbon solvents have been the solvents of choice to degrease and otherwise clean precision metal parts to allow proper function. Recent regulations have, however, rendered most of these solvents unacceptable for these purposes. New processes which are being used or which have been proposed to replace these solvents usually either fail to remove water soluble contaminants or produce significant aqueous wastes which must then be disposed of. In this work, a new method for cleaning surfaces will be investigated. Solubility of typical contaminants such as lubricating greases and phosphatizing bath residues will be studied in several surfactant/supercritical fluid solutions. The effect of temperature, pressure, and the composition of the cleaning mixture on the solubility of oily, polar, and ionic contaminants will be investigated. A reverse micellar solution in a supercritical light hydrocarbon solvent will be used to clean samples of industrial wastes. A reverse micellar solution is one where water is dissolved into a non-polar solvent with the aid of a surfactant. The solution will be capable of dissolving both water-soluble contaminants and oil soluble contaminants. Once the contaminants have been dissolved into the solution they will be separated from the light hydrocarbon and precipitated by a relatively small pressure drop and the supercritical solvent will be available for recycle for reuse. The process will be compared to the efficacy of supercritical CO2 cleaning by attempting to clean the same types of substrates and machining wastes with the same contaminants using supercritical CO2. It is anticipated that the supercritical CO2 process will not be capable of removing ionic residues.

  3. Surfactant irritation: in vitro corneosurfametry and in vivo bioengineering. (United States)

    Gabard, B; Chatelain, E; Bieli, E; Haas, S


    Irritant reactions to surfactants, cleansing products, soaps and detergents are common in clinical and occupational dermatology. Mildness has become a major benefit claimed, and testing for mildness now ranks among the first concerns of the manufacturing industry. A wealth of publications deals with this problem, trying to improve the methodology, reduce the costs of testing and facilitate decision-making. Differences in vivo can be measured clinically and/or instrumentally. This is difficult, as commercially available products are generally safe to use and none are harsh in the absolute sense. Nineteen different products (syndets, shampoos, personal cleansers), all claiming to be mild, were tested in vitro by a newly introduced method, corneosurfametry. For evaluating the aggressiveness of the products, the calculation of an index of irritation (IOI) was proposed. A concentration-effect curve of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as standard and model surfactant was obtained. Some of the products were further tested in vivo with a flex wash test and with a soap chamber test and compared to SLS. Bioengineering methods (transepidermal water loss TEWL, skin color) were used to evaluate the results. The results of the corneosurfametry allowed us to classify the products in three categories, with increasing aggressiveness towards the stratum corneum, according to their IOIs. The in vivo tests were not able to discriminate between the products, but ranks from the results of the bioengineering measurements showed a good correlation between TEWL changes, but not between colour changes, and IOIs from corneosurfametry. Corneosurfametry emerged as a simple, low-cost and fast method for ranking commercial products according to their mildness. However, the skin bioengineering techniques showed that some products could lead to skin reactions, such as erythema, that could not be detected by the in vitro technique.

  4. Multi-shelled Hollow Metal-Organic Frameworks. (United States)

    Liu, Wenxian; Huang, Jijiang; Yang, Qiu; Wang, Shiji; Sun, Xiaoming; Zhang, Weina; Liu, Junfeng; Huo, Fengwei


    Hollow metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising materials with sophisticated structures, such as multiple shells, that cannot only enhance the properties of MOFs but also endow them with new functions. Herein, we show a rational strategy to fabricate multi-shelled hollow chromium (III) terephthalate MOFs (MIL-101) with single-crystalline shells through step-by-step crystal growth and subsequent etching processes. This strategy relies on the creation of inhomogeneous MOF crystals in which the outer layer is chemically more robust than the inner layer and can be selectively etched by acetic acid. The regulation of MOF nucleation and crystallization allows the tailoring of the cavity size and shell thickness of each layer. The resultant multi-shelled hollow MIL-101 crystals show significantly enhanced catalytic activity during styrene oxidation. The insight gained from this systematic study will aid in the rational design and synthesis of other multi-shelled hollow structures and the further expansion of their applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Internal resonance of axially moving laminated circular cylindrical shells (United States)

    Wang, Yan Qing; Liang, Li; Guo, Xing Hui


    The nonlinear vibrations of a thin, elastic, laminated composite circular cylindrical shell, moving in axial direction and having an internal resonance, are investigated in this study. Nonlinearities due to large-amplitude shell motion are considered by using Donnell's nonlinear shallow-shell theory, with consideration of the effect of viscous structure damping. Differently from conventional Donnell's nonlinear shallow-shell equations, an improved nonlinear model without employing Airy stress function is developed to study the nonlinear dynamics of thin shells. The system is discretized by Galerkin's method while a model involving four degrees of freedom, allowing for the traveling wave response of the shell, is adopted. The method of harmonic balance is applied to study the nonlinear dynamic responses of the multi-degrees-of-freedom system. When the structure is excited close to a resonant frequency, very intricate frequency-response curves are obtained, which show strong modal interactions and one-to-one-to-one-to-one internal resonance phenomenon. The effects of different parameters on the complex dynamic response are investigated in this study. The stability of steady-state solutions is also analyzed in detail.

  6. AARC Clinical Practice Guideline. Surfactant replacement therapy: 2013. (United States)

    Walsh, Brian K; Daigle, Brandon; DiBlasi, Robert M; Restrepo, Ruben D


    We searched the MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases for English-language randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and articles investigating surfactant replacement therapy published between January 1990 and July 2012. By inspection of titles, references having no relevance to the clinical practice guideline were eliminated. The update of this clinical practice guideline is based on 253 clinical trials and systematic reviews, and 12 articles investigating surfactant replacement therapy. The following recommendations are made following the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation scoring system: 1: Administration of surfactant replacement therapy is strongly recommended in a clinical setting where properly trained personnel and equipment for intubation and resuscitation are readily available. 2: Prophylactic surfactant administration is recommended for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in which surfactant deficiency is suspected. 3: Rescue or therapeutic administration of surfactant after the initiation of mechanical ventilation in infants with clinically confirmed RDS is strongly recommended. 4: A multiple surfactant dose strategy is recommended over a single dose strategy. 5: Natural exogenous surfactant preparations are recommended over laboratory derived synthetic suspensions at this time. 6: We suggest that aerosolized delivery of surfactant not be utilized at this time.

  7. Effects of Surfactant Adsorption on Surficial Wettability of Nonwoven Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Bing; TANG Bing; LI Rui-xia; WU Da-cheng


    All types of surfactants (cationic, anionic and nonionic)reported in this paper could enhance the surficiai wettability of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nonwoven fabrics. However, the effects of cationic and nonionic surfactants were better.The longer the treatment time of surfactants on the nonwoven fabrics, the better the surficial wettability.The surficial rewetting time would no longer change above a certain treatment time. The rewettability of nonwoven fabrics could be evidently improved just when the concentration of surfactants was just above the CMC,except for sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). The finer the fibers and the looser the structures, the better the surficial rewettability of nonwoven fabrics.

  8. Interactions in Calcium Oxalate Hydrate/Surfactant Systems. (United States)

    Sikiric; Filipovic-Vincekovic; Babic-Ivancić Vdović Füredi-Milhofer


    Phase transformation of calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) into the thermodynamically stable monohydrate (COM) in anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) and cationic (dodecylammonium chloride) surfactant solutions has been studied. Both surfactants inhibit, but do not stop transformation from COD to COM due to their preferential adsorption at different crystal faces. SDS acts as a stronger transformation inhibitor. The general shape of adsorption isotherms of both surfactants at the solid/liquid interface is of two-plateau-type, but differences in the adsorption behavior exist. They originate from different ionic and molecular structures of crystal surfaces and interactions between surfactant headgroups and solid surface. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  9. Effects of Surfactant on Solubility and Microbial Conversion of Steroid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Enhancing the dispersion and dissolution of substrate particles in substrate/water suspension is a feasible way to improve steroid bioconversion. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of applying surfactant to microbial conversion system on the dispersion, solubilization and in turn bioconversion of steroid substrate. The model system is hydroxylation of substrate 16α-,17α-epoxy-4-pregnene-3,20-dine by microbial enzymes from Rhizopus nigricanl. The results show that the presence of substrate leads to an increase in critical micelle concentration (CMC) of surfactant PSE compared with the normal CMC of PSE in aqueous solution. The grinding time during substrate suspension preparation affects the substrate aqueous solubility differently with the varied surfactant concentrations while barely making any difference in substrate solubility in the absence of surfactant. The properly prolonged grinding time can make up for the loss in substrate solubility arising from the reduction in surfactant concentration. The surfactant complexes composed of surfactants PSE and MGE at appropriate ratios are screened out with orthodoxy experiment method, the interaction between PSE and MGE exerts the most prominent effects on substrate bioconversion, and the surfactant complexes show more beneficial effects on steroid bioconversion than the surfactant PSE used alone.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this study, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) together with Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the complexes, where the hydrobiotites (Xinjiang) were modified by single-chain surfactants octyltrimethylammonium bromide (OTMA) and octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ODTMA). XRD patterns showed that the structure of complexes was significantly influenced by the surfactant concentration and the alkyl chain length, because obvious changes took place in the basal spacing. Furthermore, according to the XRD results, several arrangements of surfactant molecules within the hydrobiotite interlayer space were deduced. The FTIR spectrum indicated that the surfactant contents in complexes dramatically increased with the alkyl chain length. The SPM micrographs demonstrated that the surfaces of complexes prepared at lower surfactant concentration were relatively flat compared with that prepared at higher concentration, while those with higher surfactant concentration had much steeper surface due to the alkyl chain length. It was concluded that structure and morphology of surfactant/hydrobiotite complexes depend not only on the surfactant concentration, but also strongly on the surfactant species.

  11. Biomimetic synthesis of raspberry-like hybrid polymer-silica core-shell nanoparticles by templating colloidal particles with hairy polyamine shell. (United States)

    Pi, Mengwei; Yang, Tingting; Yuan, Jianjun; Fujii, Syuji; Kakigi, Yuichi; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Cheng, Shiyuan


    The nanoparticles composed of polystyrene core and poly[2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PDEA) hairy shell were used as colloidal templates for in situ silica mineralization, allowing the well-controlled synthesis of hybrid silica core-shell nanoparticles with raspberry-like morphology and hollow silica nanoparticles by subsequent calcination. Silica deposition was performed by simply stirring a mixture of the polymeric core-shell particles in isopropanol, tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) and water at 25 degrees C for 2.5h. No experimental evidence was found for nontemplated silica formation, which indicated that silica deposition occurred exclusively in the PDEA shell and formed PDEA-silica hybrid shell. The resulting hybrid silica core-shell particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetry, aqueous electrophoresis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. TEM studies indicated that the hybrid particles have well-defined core-shell structure with raspberry morphology after silica deposition. We found that the surface nanostructure of hybrid nanoparticles and the composition distribution of PDEA-silica hybrid shell could be well controlled by adjusting the silicification conditions. These new hybrid core-shell nanoparticles and hollow silica nanoparticles would have potential applications for high-performance coatings, encapsulation and delivery of active organic molecules.


    The relative environmental toxicities of synthetic and biogenic surfactants used in oil spill remediation efforts are not well understood. Acute and chronic toxicities of three synthetic surfactants and three microbially produced surfactants were determined and compared in this s...

  13. Nanocellulose Derivative/Silica Hybrid Core-Shell Chiral Stationary Phase: Preparation and Enantioseparation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhang


    Full Text Available Core-shell silica microspheres with a nanocellulose derivative in the hybrid shell were successfully prepared as a chiral stationary phase by a layer-by-layer self-assembly method. The hybrid shell assembled on the silica core was formed using a surfactant as template by the copolymerization reaction of tetraethyl orthosilicate and the nanocellulose derivative bearing triethoxysilyl and 3,5-dimethylphenyl groups. The resulting nanocellulose hybrid core-shell chiral packing materials (CPMs were characterized and packed into columns, and their enantioseparation performance was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that CPMs exhibited uniform surface morphology and core-shell structures. Various types of chiral compounds were efficiently separated under normal and reversed phase mode. Moreover, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran as mobile phase additives could obviously improve the resolution during the chiral separation processes. CPMs still have good chiral separation property when eluted with solvent systems with a high content of tetrahydrofuran and chloroform, which proved the high solvent resistance of this new material.

  14. C-reactive protein increases membrane fluidity and distorts lipid lateral organization of pulmonary surfactant. Protective role of surfactant protein A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saenz, Alejandra; Lopez-Sanchez, Almudena; Mojica-Lazaro, Jonas


    The purpose of this study was to investigate how surfactant membranes can be perturbed by C-reactive protein (CRP) and whether surfactant protein A (SP-A) might overcome CRP-induced surfactant membrane alterations. The effect of CRP on surfactant surface adsorption was evaluated in vivo after int...

  15. Non-Linear Dynamics and Stability of Circular Cylindrical Shells Containing Flowing Fluid. Part i: Stability (United States)



    The study presented is an investigation of the non-linear dynamics and stability of simply supported, circular cylindrical shells containing inviscid incompressible fluid flow. Non-linearities due to large-amplitude shell motion are considered by using the non-linear Donnell's shallow shell theory, with account taken of the effect of viscous structural damping. Linear potential flow theory is applied to describe the fluid-structure interaction. The system is discretiszd by Galerkin's method, and is investigated by using a model involving seven degrees of freedom, allowing for travelling wave response of the shell and shell axisymmetric contraction. Two different boundary conditions are applied to the fluid flow beyond the shell, corresponding to: (i) infinite baffles (rigid extensions of the shell), and (ii) connection with a flexible wall of infinite extent in the longitudinal direction, permitting solution by separation of variables; they give two different kinds of dynamical behaviour of the system, as a consequence of the fact that axisymmetric contraction, responsible for the softening non-linear dynamical behaviour of shells, is not allowed if the fluid flow beyond the shell is constrained by rigid baffles. Results show that the system loses stability by divergence.

  16. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and Classing...

  17. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-522). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may be...

  18. Factors Affecting the Stability of Crude and Transmission Oil Emulsion Swith Surfactant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Martínez Martín


    Full Text Available Crude oil emulsions with surfactant solutions are used to transport this for piping systems. The applicationof this technique requires that the emulsions remain stable during the pumping period and haveseparated after transporting the crude. In this paper, experimental assays were performed using differentconcentrations of surfactant, and mixing types settling conditions. They were employed as the continuousphase two substances: oil transmission and Cuban crude oil. The strong infl uence of the concentrationand type of mixing on the stability of the emulsions was observed. The results demonstrate the similaritiesin thermalhydraulic fl uid parameters objects of study. Allowing infer the approximate behavior of theCuban crude oil from experimental work with transmission oil.

  19. Effective Surfactants Blend Concentration Determination for O/W Emulsion Stabilization by Two Nonionic Surfactants by Simple Linear Regression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hassan, A K


    ...°. Applying the simple linear regression least squares method statistical analysis to the temperature-conductivity obtained data determines the effective surfactants blend concentration required...

  20. Experimental contribution to the understanding of the dynamics of spreading of Newtonian fluids: effect of volume, viscosity and surfactant. (United States)

    Roques-Carmes, Thibault; Mathieu, Vincent; Gigante, Alexandra


    The dynamics of drop spreading of glycerol-water mixtures with and without surfactant on hydrophilic glass surfaces has been investigated. The influence of different factors, such as viscosity, drop volume and non-ionic alkyl (8-16) glucoside (Plantacare) surfactant concentration on the number and the nature of the spreading regimes is systematically investigated. More than 25 spreading experiments have been performed in order to obtain clear trends. The results confirm the existence of several spreading regimes for the duration of an experiment (200 s). For each regime, the radius can be expressed by a power law of the form R=Kt(n). Both n and K are necessary to identify the regime. The experimental data are compared with the analytical predictions of the combined theory of spreading. One of the main results of this study is that the nature of the regimes is strongly affected by the drop volume, the viscosity and the surfactant concentration. This behavior is not predicted by the theory. For drop volume less than or equal to 15 microL, a succession of two different regimes which depend on the viscosity and surfactant concentration are observed in the following order: a molecular-kinetic regime followed by a hydrodynamic regime (for high viscosity in the presence of surfactant) or a hydrodynamic regime and lastly a final asymptotic regime corresponding to a long relaxation time to equilibrium (for high viscosity in absence of surfactant and for low viscosity regardless of the presence of surfactant). The spreading follows quantitatively the predictions of the theory. Our results demonstrate that the theory is still valid for low viscosity liquids and in the presence of surfactant. The contact angle for which the crossover between molecular-kinetic regime and hydrodynamic regime occurs is thoroughly estimated since the theories do not allow the exact calculation of this value. Here for the first time, an empirical power law exponent (n=0.08+/-0.05) is proposed for

  1. Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of Pt Monolayer on Pd Tetrahedral Nanocrystals with CO-adsorption-induced Removal of Surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong K.; Vukmirovic M.B.; Ma C.; Zhu Y.; Adzic R.R.


    We synthesized the Pt monolayer shell-Pd tetrahedral core electrocatalysts that are notable for their high activity and stable performance. A small number of low-coordination sites and defects, and high content of the (1 1 1)-oriented facets on Pd tetrahedron makes them a suitable support for a Pt monolayer to obtain an active O{sub 2} reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalyst. The surfactants, used to control size and shape of Pd tetrahedral nanoparticles, are difficult to remove and cause adverse effects on the ORR. We describe a simple and noninvasive method to synthesize high-purity tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals (TH Pd) by combining a hydrothermal route and CO adsorption-induced removal of surfactants. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), used as a protecting and reducing agent in hydrothermal reactions, is strongly bonded to the surface of the resulting nanocrystals. We demonstrate that PVP was displaced efficiently by adsorbed CO. A clean surface was achieved upon CO stripping at a high potential (1.0 V vs RHE). It played a decisive role in improving the activity of the Pt monolayer/TH Pd electrocatalyst for the ORR. Furthermore, the results demonstrate a versatile method for removal of surfactants from various nanoparticles that severely limited their applications.

  2. Anti-cancer drug loaded iron-gold core-shell nanoparticles (Fe@Au) for magnetic drug targeting. (United States)

    Kayal, Sibnath; Ramanujan, Raju Vijayaraghavan


    Magnetic drug targeting, using core-shell magnetic carrier particles loaded with anti-cancer drugs, is an emerging and significant method of cancer treatment. Gold shell-iron core nanoparticles (Fe@Au) were synthesized by the reverse micelle method with aqueous reactants, surfactant, co-surfactant and oil phase. XRD, XPS, TEM and magnetic property measurements were utilized to characterize these core-shell nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements showed that the particles were superparamagnetic at room temperature and that the saturation magnetization decreased with increasing gold concentration. The anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded onto these Fe@Au nanoparticle carriers and the drug release profiles showed that upto 25% of adsorbed drug was released in 80 h. It was found that the amine (-NH2) group of DOX binds to the gold shell. An in vitro apparatus simulating the human circulatory system was used to determine the retention of these nanoparticle carriers when exposed to an external magnetic field. A high percentage of magnetic carriers could be retained for physiologically relevant flow speeds of fluid. The present findings show that DOX loaded gold coated iron nanoparticles are promising for magnetically targeted drug delivery.

  3. Surfactant enhanced disinfection of the human norovirus surrogate, tulane virus with organic acids and surfactant (United States)

    Human infection with foodborne viruses can occur following consumption of contaminated food, person-to-person body contact, or release of aerosols. Combinatorial treatments of surfactants and organic acids may have synergistic or additive mechanisms to inactivate foodborne viruses and prevent outbr...

  4. Evaluation of Clay and Fumed Silica Nanoparticles on Adsorption of Surfactant Polymer during Enhanced Oil Recovery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheraghian, Goshtasp


    .... The effects of nano concentration on static adsorption of surfactant were investigated at variable condition polymer and surfactant concentration and nanoparticles are critical parameters influence...

  5. Hematite Core Nanoparticles with Carbon Shell: Potential for Environmentally Friendly Production from Iron Mining Sludge (United States)

    Stević, Dragana; Mihajlović, Dijana; Kukobat, Radovan; Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Sagisaka, Kento; Kaneko, Katsumi; Atlagić, Suzana Gotovac


    Hematite nanoparticles with amorphous, yet relatively uniform carbon shell, were produced based exclusively on the waste sludge from the iron mine as the raw material. The procedure for acid digestion-based purification of the sludge with the full recovery of acid vapors and the remaining non-toxic rubble is described. Synthesis of the hematite nanoparticles was performed by the arrested precipitation method with cationic surfactant. The particles were thoroughly characterized and the potential of their economical production for the battery industry is indicated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Strugała-Wilczek


    Established methods show low limit of detection, good precision and good correctness. The described full automatic method takes effect in short-time analysis, small sample volume required for testing and waste restriction. Proposed flow injection system comply with requirements and may be successfully applied in monitoring studies as well as in the routine laboratory analysis. Rapid determination of water and waste water quality by the SFA for the content of surfactants allows an adequate response in case of exceeding the permissible concentrations, even according to the most restricted requirements.

  7. Neonatal varicella pneumonia, surfactant replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Ahmadpour-kacho


    Full Text Available Background: Chickenpox is a very contagious viral disease that caused by varicella-zoster virus, which appears in the first week of life secondary to transplacental transmission of infection from the affected mother. When mother catches the disease five days before and up to two days after the delivery, the chance of varicella in neonate in first week of life is 17%. A generalized papulovesicular lesion is the most common clinical feature. Respiratory involvement may lead to giant cell pneumonia and respiratory failure. The mortality rate is up to 30% in the case of no treatment, often due to pneumonia. Treatment includes hospitalization, isolation and administration of intravenous acyclovir. The aim of this case report is to introduce the exogenous surfactant replacement therapy after intubation and mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in neonatal chickenpox pneumonia and respiratory distress. Case Presentation: A seven-day-old neonate boy was admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Amirkola Children’s Hospital, Babol, north of Iran, with generalized papulovesicular lesions and respiratory distress. His mother has had a history of Varicella 4 days before delivery. He was isolated and given supportive care, intravenous acyclovir and antibiotics. On the second day, he was intubated and connected to mechanical ventilator due to severe pneumonia and respiratory failure. Because of sever pulmonary involvement evidenced by Chest X-Ray and high ventilators set-up requirement, intratracheal surfactant was administered in two doses separated by 12 hours. He was discharged after 14 days without any complication with good general condition. Conclusion: Exogenous surfactant replacement therapy can be useful as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of respiratory failure due to neonatal chickenpox.

  8. Size separation of analytes using monomeric surfactants (United States)

    Yeung, Edward S.; Wei, Wei


    A sieving medium for use in the separation of analytes in a sample containing at least one such analyte comprises a monomeric non-ionic surfactant of the of the general formula, B-A, wherein A is a hydrophilic moiety and B is a hydrophobic moiety, present in a solvent at a concentration forming a self-assembled micelle configuration under selected conditions and having an aggregation number providing an equivalent weight capable of effecting the size separation of the sample solution so as to resolve a target analyte(s) in a solution containing the same, the size separation taking place in a chromatography or electrophoresis separation system.

  9. The Krafft temperature of surfactant solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Jelena Ž.


    Full Text Available Our main motivation to revisit the solution properties of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide is related to the clear requirement for better control of the adsorption parameters to form uniform self-assembled monolayers on muscovite mica substrates. To readily monitor the temporal evolution of structural details in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide solutions, we realized a rather simple conductivity experiment. Conductivity measurements were carried out as a function of temperature, to look closer into the Krafft temperature behavior of this surfactant. We measured the electrical conductivity of different concentrations of aqueous cetyltrimethylammonium bromide solutions, below and above the critical micells concentration.

  10. Pro Windows PowerShell

    CERN Document Server

    Deshev, Hristo


    Targeted at professionals who handle a lot of repetitive tasks, this title serves as not only a tutorial, but also a reference. It shows how PowerShell can help professionals script most system administration tasks and reduce their burden.

  11. Instant Windows PowerShell

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Vinith


    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A practical, hands-on tutorial approach that explores the concepts of PowerShell in a friendly manner, taking an adhoc approach to each topic.If you are an administrator who is new to PowerShell or are looking to get a good grounding in these new features, this book is ideal for you. It's assumed that you will have some experience in PowerShell and Windows Server, as well being familiar with the PowerShell command-line.

  12. Polymeric surfactants for enhanced oil recovery : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raffa, Patrizio; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Picchioni, Francesco

    Chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is surely a topic of interest, as conventional oil resources become more scarce and the necessity of exploiting heavy and unconventional oils increases. EOR methods based on polymer flooding, surfactant-polymer flooding and alkali-surfactant-polymer flooding are

  13. Endogenous surfactant turnover in preterm infants measured with stable isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.H. Bunt (Jan Erik); L.J.I. Zimmermann (Luc); J.L.D. Wattimena (Josias); R.H.Th. van Beek (Ron); P.J.J. Sauer (Pieter); V.P. Carnielli (Virgilio)


    textabstractWe studied surfactant synthesis and turnover in vivo in preterm infants using the stable isotope [U-13C]glucose, as a precursor for the synthesis of palmitic acid in surfactant phosphatidylcholine (PC). Six preterm infants (birth weight, 916 +/- 244 g; gesta

  14. Physical principles for developing a synthetic lung surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaehnig, F. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biologie, Tuebingen (Germany, F.R.)); Obladen, M. (Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Kinderklinik)


    The physical principles for developing a synthetic lung surfactant to treat the respiratory distress syndrome are discussed. Requirements for the lipid composition and preparation of the synthetic surfactant are detailed, leading to the conclusion that a suspension of large unilamellar vesicles consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and a small amount of unsaturated lipid is a promising choice.

  15. Polyfluorinated alkyl phosphate ester surfactants - current knowledge and knowledge gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Vinggaard, Anne Marie


    information on fluorochemicals. Polyfluorinated alkyl phosphate ester surfactants (PAPs) belong to the group of polyfluorinated alkyl surfactants. They have been detected in indoor dust and are widely used in food-contact materials, from which they have the ability to migrate into food. Toxicological data...

  16. New Focuses on Surfactants for Personal Care Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan


    @@ Global output of surfactants is already more than 12 million tons a year today. There are more than 10 000 varieties in the portfolio. The total market sales value is over US$10 billion. The output of surfactants in China is more than 1.5 million tons a year in recent years. China can manufacture more than 3 380 varieties.

  17. Colloidal stability influenced by inhomogeneous surfactant assemblies in confined spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jodar-Reyes, A.B.; Leermakers, F.A.M.


    Recently, a molecular-level self-consistent field approach was used to show that some surfactants assemblies (with local cylindrical structure) can bridge between two surfaces that in turn are covered by surfactant bilayers. The stability of such a connection is related to a higher end-cap (free) en

  18. Studies on the Cloud Points of Nonionic Surfactants with QSPR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Mei-ling; WANG Zheng-wu; ZHANG Ge-xin; GU Jin; CUN Zhe; TAO Fu-ming


    With quantum chemical parameters, topological indexes, and physical ehemistry parameters as descriptors, a quantitative structure-property relationship(QSPR) has been found for the cloud points of four series of nonionic surfactants(a total of 65 surfactants). The best-regressed model includes six descriptors, and the correlation coefficient of multiple determination is as high as 0. 962.

  19. Surfactant-assisted liquefaction of particulate carbonaceous substances (United States)

    Hsu, G. C. (Inventor)


    A slurry of carbonaceous particles such as coal containing an oil soluble polar substituted oleophilic surfactant, suitably an amine substituted long chain hydrocarbon, is liquefied at high temperature and high hydrogen presence. The pressure of surfactant results in an increase in yield and the conversion product contains a higher proportion of light and heavy oils and less asphaltene than products from other liquefaction processes.

  20. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements. (United States)

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J


    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation.

  1. A liquid CO2-compatible hydrocarbon surfactant: experiment and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, S.; Kleijn, J.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Leermakers, F.A.M.


    Surfactants soluble in liquid CO2 are rare and knowledge on interfacial and self-assembly behaviour is fragmented. We found that polyoxyethylene (5) isooctylphenyl ether is interfacially active at the water–liquid CO2 interface. Water–liquid CO2 interfacial tension was measured at various surfactant

  2. New Y-shaped surfactants from renewable resources. (United States)

    Ali, Tammar Hussein; Hussen, Rusnah Syahila Duali; Heidelberg, Thorsten


    A series of sugar-based surfactants, involving a single hydrophobic chain (C12) and two side-by-side arranged head groups, was prepared form simple glucose precursors. All surfactants were highly water soluble and exhibited exclusively micellar assemblies. This behavior makes them interesting candidates for oil in water emulsifiers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Predictive model of cationic surfactant binding to humic substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishiguro, M.; Koopal, L.K.


    The humic substances (HS) have a high reactivity with other components in the natural environment. An important factor for the reactivity of HS is their negative charge. Cationic surfactants bind strongly to HS by electrostatic and specific interaction. Therefore, a surfactant binding model is devel

  4. Effect of Gemini-type surfactant on methane hydrate formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, K.E.; Park, J.M.; Kim, C.U.; Chae, H.J.; Jeong, S.Y. [Korea Research Inst. of Chemical Technology, Jang-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Natural gas hydrates are formed from water and natural gas molecules at particular temperatures and pressures that become ice-like inclusion compounds. Gas hydrates offer several benefits such as energy resource potential and high storage capacity of natural gas in the form of hydrates. However, the application of natural gas hydrates has been deterred by its low formation rate and low conversion ratio of water into hydrate resulting in low actual storage capacity. This paper presented an experimental study to determine the effect of adding a novel Gemini-type surfactant on methane hydrate formation. The experimental study was described with reference to the properties of prepared diols and properties of prepared disulfonates. Gemini surfactant is the family of surfactant molecules possessing more than one hydrophobic tail and hydrophilic head group. They generally have better surface-active properties than conventional surfactants of equal chain length. The paper presented the results of the study in terms of the reactions of diols with propane sultone; storage capacity of hydrate formed with and without surfactant; and methane hydrate formation with and without disulfonate. It was concluded that the methane hydrate formation was accelerated by the addition of novel anionic Gemini-type surfactants and that hydrate formation was influenced by the surfactant concentration and alkyl chain length. For a given concentration, the surfactant with the highest chain length demonstrated the highest formation rate and storage capacity. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  5. Method of separating a surfactant from a liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, A.W.; Lems, S.


    The present invention relates to a method of separating a surfactant from a liquid, such as a wastewater stream from an industrial laundry. In accordance with the invention, the liquid is cooled to below the Krafft temperature of the surfactant and subjected to centrifugal forces for the separation

  6. Binding of alkylpyridinium chloride surfactants to sodium polystyrene sulfonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishiguro, M.; Koopal, L.K.


    Binding of cationic surfactants to anionic polymers is well studied. However, the surfactant binding characteristics at very low concentration near the start of binding and at high concentration, where charge compensation may Occur. are less well known. Therefore, the binding characteristics of

  7. Enrichment of surfactant from its aqueous solution using ultrasonic atomization. (United States)

    Takaya, Haruko; Nii, Susumu; Kawaizumi, Fumio; Takahashi, Katsuroku


    Dilute aqueous solutions of dodecyl-benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt (DBS-Na) and polyoxyethylenenonylphenyl ethers (PONPEs) were ultrasonically atomized. The surfactants were concentrated in collected mist droplets. The enrichment ratio increased with decreasing surfactant concentration. Depending on the surfactant's molecular weight and affinity to water, different enrichment ratio was observed in the range of low feed concentrations. For anionic surfactant, DBS-Na, the enrichment ratio was significantly improved by KCl addition and a peak appeared on the plot of the ratio against KCl concentration. Addition of NaCl or CaCl2 . 2H2O to the surfactant solution also enhanced the enrichment ratio; however, the effect was relatively small. Such behaviors of the ratio were interpreted as enhanced interfacial adsorption of the surfactant and a lack of supply of surfactant monomers from liquid bulk because of slow breaking of surfactant micelles. Time required for collecting an amount of mist was also observed. Among the three salt systems, the time for KCl system was twice as long as others. This fact suggested that the formation of smaller droplets in KCl system.

  8. Coupled Transport of PAH and Surfactants in Natural Aquifer Material (United States)

    Danzer, J.; Grathwohl, P.


    Surfactants in aqueous solution adsorb onto mineral surfaces and form micelles above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) due to their physico-chemical properties. Hydrophobic organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have a high affinity for the adsorbed surfactant layers (monomers, hemimicelles and admicelles) and to the micelles in the mobile aqueous phase. The transport of PAHs is controlled by the concentration of the surfactant and the partition coefficients, of the PAHs between water and admicelles (adsolubilization: K adm) and water and micelles (solubilization: K mic), respectively. These partition coefficients were measured in laboratory batch and column experiments using phenanthrene as a chemical probe for the PAHs, a non-ionic surfactant (Terrasurf G50), natural aquifer sand (River Neckar Alluvium: RNA) and its petrographic subcomponents. The sorption of the surfactant can be described by a linear isotherm for concentrations below the CMC and a sorption maximum above the CMC, which both depend on the grain size and the surfactant accessible internal surface area of the particles. K adm was found to be higher than K mic. Both depend on the surfactant's properties, such as alkyl chain length, polar headgroup or ethoxylation. In column experiments an increasing retardation of phenanthrene was observed up to the CMC followed by a facilitated transport at surfactant concentration several times the CMC.

  9. Polymeric surfactants for enhanced oil recovery : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raffa, Patrizio; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Picchioni, Francesco


    Chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is surely a topic of interest, as conventional oil resources become more scarce and the necessity of exploiting heavy and unconventional oils increases. EOR methods based on polymer flooding, surfactant-polymer flooding and alkali-surfactant-polymer flooding are

  10. Perfluoroalkyl Epoxides: Synthesis and Conversion into Ionic Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamid Ayari


    Full Text Available Perfluoroalkylated surfactants having a quaternary ammonium surrounded by three hydroxyl groups as hydrophilic moiety and a perfluoroalkyl chain as tail were obtained by coupling diethanolamine with perfluoroalkylated epoxide followed by quaternisation. The amphiphilic properties of these surfactants were investigated by measuring their surface and interfacial tensions.

  11. New mechanisms for phase separation in polymer-surfactant mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Currie, E.P.K.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Borisov, O.V.


    The cooperative association of ionic surfactants with polymer chains leads to quite novel features in the phase behaviour of polymer solutions. Using an analytic mean-field model, we analyze phase equilibria in solutions of neutral polymers mixed with ionic surfactants. We predict the possibilities


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the features of surfactant flooding, a mathematical model for surfactant flooding is established. The adsorption-retention, convection diffusion of surfactant and influence of concentration change upon relative permeability curve are included in the model. The novel description of adsorption quantity of surfactant and relative permeability curve are presented, which enhance the coincidence between mathematical model and field practice, the relative errors of main development indexes are within 6%. The model is applied to the numerical research of the surfactant flooding in the untabulated beds of Xing1-3 surfactant flooding pilot site of No.4 Oil Production Company of Daqing Oilfield, the influences of surfactant concentration, injection quantity, slug combination mode upon the development effect and economic benefit are quantitatively analyzed, the injection scheme is optimized as follows: surfactant concentration is 0.5%, slug volume is 0.02 PV, slug combination mode is 2 slugs. After the implementation of scheme in oilfield, the cumulative increase of oil is 2186.0 t, up to nearly 30%.

  13. Polymeric surfactants for enhanced oil recovery : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raffa, Patrizio; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Picchioni, Francesco


    Chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is surely a topic of interest, as conventional oil resources become more scarce and the necessity of exploiting heavy and unconventional oils increases. EOR methods based on polymer flooding, surfactant-polymer flooding and alkali-surfactant-polymer flooding are

  14. Windows PowerShell desired state configuration revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Chaganti, Ravikanth


    Desired State Configuration (DSC) is a powerful new configuration management platform that makes it easier than ever to perform cross-platform configuration management of your infrastructure, whether on-premise or in the cloud. DSC provides the management platform and Application Programming Interface (API) that can be used with any programming language. Windows PowerShell Desired State Configuration Revealed will take you through this new technology from start to finish and demonstrates the DSC interfaces through Windows PowerShell. DSC allows you to manage target devices by simply declarin

  15. Ion Structure Near a Core-Shell Dielectric Nanoparticle (United States)

    Ma, Manman; Gan, Zecheng; Xu, Zhenli


    A generalized image charge formulation is proposed for the Green's function of a core-shell dielectric nanoparticle for which theoretical and simulation investigations are rarely reported due to the difficulty of resolving the dielectric heterogeneity. Based on the formulation, an efficient and accurate algorithm is developed for calculating electrostatic polarization charges of mobile ions, allowing us to study related physical systems using the Monte Carlo algorithm. The computer simulations show that a fine-tuning of the shell thickness or the ion-interface correlation strength can greatly alter electric double-layer structures and capacitances, owing to the complicated interplay between dielectric boundary effects and ion-interface correlations.

  16. L-shell radiative transition rates by selective synchrotron ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonetto, R D [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas Dr. Jorge J. Ronco, CONICET-UNLP, Calle 47 No. 257-Cc 59 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Carreras, A C [Facultad de Matematica, AstronomIa y FIsica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria (5000) Cordoba (Argentina); Trincavelli, J [Facultad de Matematica, AstronomIa y FIsica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria (5000) Cordoba (Argentina); Castellano, G [Facultad de Matematica, AstronomIa y FIsica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria (5000) Cordoba (Argentina)


    Relative L-shell radiative transition rates were obtained for a number of decays in Gd, Dy, Er, Yb, Hf, Ta and Re by means of a method for refining atomic and experimental parameters involved in the spectral analysis of x-ray irradiated samples. For this purpose, pure samples were bombarded with monochromatic synchrotron radiation tuning the incident x-ray energy in order to allow selective ionization of the different atomic shells. The results presented are compared to experimental and theoretical values published by other authors. A good general agreement was found and some particular discrepancies are discussed.

  17. ControlShell - A real-time software framework (United States)

    Schneider, Stanley A.; Ullman, Marc A.; Chen, Vincent W.


    ControlShell is designed to enable modular design and impplementation of real-time software. It is an object-oriented tool-set for real-time software system programming. It provides a series of execution and data interchange mechansims that form a framework for building real-time applications. These mechanisms allow a component-based approach to real-time software generation and mangement. By defining a set of interface specifications for intermodule interaction, ControlShell provides a common platform that is the basis for real-time code development and exchange.

  18. Rotating thin-shell wormhole (United States)

    Ovgun, A.


    We construct a rotating thin-shell wormhole using a Myers-Perry black hole in five dimensions, using the Darmois-Israel junction conditions. The stability of the wormhole is analyzed under perturbations. We find that exotic matter is required at the throat of the wormhole to keep it stable. Our analysis shows that stability of the rotating thin-shell wormhole is possible if suitable parameter values are chosen.

  19. 40 Years of Shell Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Shell has been using scenario planning for four decades. During that time these scenarios have helped the company and governments across the world to make better strategic choices. Scenarios provide lenses that help see future prospects more clearly, make richer judgments and be more sensitive to uncertainties. Discover how the Shell Scenarios team has helped guide decision makers at major moments in history and get a peek at the team future focus, including the intricate relationship between energy, water and food.

  20. Rotating Thin-Shell Wormhole

    CERN Document Server

    Ovgun, A


    In this article, we construct rotating thin shell wormhole using a Myers-Perry black hole in five dimensions. The stability of the wormhole is analyzed under perturbations follows from the Darmois-Israel junction conditions. We find that it required exotic matter at the throat to keep throat of wormhole stable. Our analysis shows that the stability of the rotating thin-shell wormhole is available with choosing suitable values of parameters.

  1. The heterogeneous ice shell thickness of Enceladus (United States)

    Lucchetti, Alice; Pozzobon, Riccardo; Mazzarini, Francesco; Cremonese, Gabriele; Massironi, Matteo


    Saturn's moon Enceladus is the smallest Solar System body that presents an intense geologic activity on its surface. Plumes erupting from Enceladus' South Polar terrain (SPT) provide direct evidence of a reservoir of liquid below the surface. Previous analysis of gravity data determined that the ice shell above the liquid ocean must be 30-40 km thick from the South Pole up to 50° S latitude (Iess et al., 2014), however, understand the global or regional nature of the ocean beneath the ice crust is still challenging. To infer the thickness of the outer ice shell and prove the global extent of the ocean, we used the self-similar clustering method (Bonnet et al., 2001; Bour et al., 2002) to analyze the widespread fractures of the Enceladus's surface. The spatial distribution of fractures has been analyzed in terms of their self-similar clustering and a two-point correlation method was used to measure the fractal dimension of the fractures population (Mazzarini, 2004, 2010). A self-similar clustering of fractures is characterized by a correlation coefficient with a size range defined by a lower and upper cut-off, that represent a mechanical discontinuity and the thickness of the fractured icy crust, thus connected to the liquid reservoir. Hence, this method allowed us to estimate the icy shell thickness values in different regions of Enceladus from SPT up to northern regions.We mapped fractures in ESRI ArcGis environment in different regions of the satellite improving the recently published geological map (Crow-Willard and Pappalardo, 2015). On these regions we have taken into account the fractures, such as wide troughs and narrow troughs, located in well-defined geological units. Firstly, we analyzed the distribution of South Polar Region fracture patterns finding an ice shell thickness of ~ 31 km, in agreement with gravity measurements (Iess et al., 2014). Then, we applied the same approach to other four regions of the satellite inferring an increasing of the ice

  2. Clean Air Markets - Allowances Query Wizard (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowances Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at The Allowances...

  3. Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory contains measured data on holdings and transactions of allowances under the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), a...

  4. Theory of interfacial phase transitions in surfactant systems (United States)

    Shukla, K. P.; Payandeh, B.; Robert, M.


    The spin-1 Ising model, which is equivalent to the three-component lattice gas model, is used to study wetting transitions in three-component surfactant systems consisting of an oil, water, and a nonionic surfactant. Phase equilibria, interfacial profiles, and interfacial tensions for three-phase equilibrium are determined in mean field approximation, for a wide range of temperature and interaction parameters. Surfactant interaction parameters are found to strongly influence interfacial tensions, reducing them in some cases to ultralow values. Interfacial tensions are used to determine whether the middle phase, rich in surfactant, wets or does not wet the interface between the oil-rich and water-rich phases. By varying temperature and interaction parameters, a wetting transition is located and found to be of the first order. Comparison is made with recent experimental results on wetting transitions in ternary surfactant systems.

  5. Fate and effects of amphoteric surfactants in the aquatic environment. (United States)

    Garcia, M Teresa; Campos, Encarna; Marsal, Agustí; Ribosa, Isabel


    Amphoteric surfactants form part of specialty surfactants available for formulators to improve or design new formulations in response to environmental, toxicity, safety and performance demands. Nevertheless, limited information on the ecological properties of amphoterics is available. In the present work, the aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and the aquatic toxicity of different types of amphoteric surfactants (three alkyl betaines, one alkylamido betaine and three alkyl imidazoline derivatives) were studied. The amphoteric surfactants tested were readily biodegradable under aerobic conditions (CO2 headspace test) and alkylamido betaines and alkyl imidazoline derivatives were also easily biodegradable under anaerobic conditions (test based on the ECETOC method). Toxicity to Photobacterium phosphoreum and Daphnia magna increased with the fatty chain length of the surfactant. The EC50 toxicity values of the amphoterics tested were higher than 5 mg/L, and alkyl imidazoline derivatives, with EC50 values from 20 to > 200 mg/L, showed the lowest aquatic toxicity.

  6. Pulmonary Surfactants for Acute and Chronic Lung Diseases (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Rozenberg


    Full Text Available Part 2 of the review considers the problem of surfactant therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in adults and young and old children. It gives information on the results of surfactant therapy and prevention of ARDS in patients with severe concurrent trauma, inhalation injuries, complications due to complex expanded chest surgery, or severe pneumonias, including bilateral pneumonia in the presence of A/H1N1 influenza. There are data on the use of a surfactant in obstetric care and prevention of primary graft dysfunction during lung transplantation. The results of longterm use of surfactant therapy in Russia, suggesting that death rates from ARDS may be substantially reduced (to 20% are discussed. Examples of surfactant therapy for other noncritical lung diseases, such as permanent athelectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and asthma, as well tuberculosis, are also considered.

  7. Micellization of monomeric and poly-ω-methacryloyloxyundecyltrimethylammonium surfactants. (United States)

    FitzGerald, Paul A; Chatjaroenporn, Khwanrat; Zhang, Xiaoli; Warr, Gregory G


    We have used small-angle neutron scattering to study how micelle morphology of the tail-polymerizable surfactants MUTAB and MUTAC (ω-methacryloyloxyundecyltrimethylammonium bromide and chloride) is affected by classic self-assembly modifiers such as temperature changes, salt addition, and counterion exchange, as a function of their conversion from monomer into polymer amphiphile in aqueous solution. Contrary to common assumptions about polymerized surfactants, these systems remain in dynamic equilibrium under all conditions examined and at all conversions (except for a small amount of high-molecular-weight precipitation by MUTAC). Counterintuitively, the polymerized methacrylate backbone has little influence on aggregate morphology, except for the formation of rod-like mixed micelles of polymerized and unpolymerized surfactant at intermediate conversions. The addition of salt produces a transition to rod-like micelles at all conversions except in the unpolymerized surfactant, which has some characteristics of an asymmetric bolaform surfactant and retains its spheroidal geometry under almost all conditions.

  8. Aqueous foam surfactants for geothermal drilling fluids: 1. Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rand, P.B.


    Aqueous foam is a promising drilling fluid for geothermal wells because it will minimize damage to the producing formation and would eliminate the erosion problems of air drilling. Successful use of aqueous foam will require a high foaming surfactant which will: (1) be chemically stable in the harsh thermal and chemical environment, and (2) form stable foams at high temperatures and pressures. The procedures developed to generate and test aqueous foams and the effects of a 260/sup 0/C temperature cycle on aqueous surfactant solutions are presented. More than fifty selected surfactants were evaluated with representatives from the amphoteric, anionic, cationic, and nonionic classes included. Most surfactants were severely degraded by this temperature cycle; however, some showed excellent retention of their properties. The most promising surfactant types were the alkyl and alkyl aryl sulfonates and the ethoxylated nonionics.

  9. Enhanced solubilization of curcumin in mixed surfactant vesicles. (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kansal, S K; Chaudhary, Ganga Ram; Mehta, S K


    Self-assemblies of equimolar double and single chain mixed ionic surfactants, with increasing numbers of carbon atoms of double chain surfactant, were analyzed on the basis of fluorescence and conductivity results. Attempts were also made to enhance the solubilization of curcumin in aqueous equimolar mixed surfactant systems. Mixed surfactant assembly was successful in retarding the degradation of curcumin in alkaline media (only 25-28 40% degraded in 10h at pH 13). Fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence quenching methods were employed to predict the binding position and mechanism of curcumin with self-assemblies. Results indicate that the interactions take place according to both dynamic and static quenching mechanisms and curcumin was distributed in a palisade layer of mixed aggregates. Antioxidant activity (using DPPH radical) and biocompatibility (using calf-thymus DNA) of curcumin-loaded mixed surfactant formulations were also evaluated. The prepared systems improved the stability, solubility and antioxidant activity of curcumin and additionally are biocompatible.

  10. Micellization properties of cardanol as a renewable co-surfactant. (United States)

    Fontana, Antonella; Guernelli, Susanna; Zaccheroni, Nelsi; Zappacosta, Romina; Genovese, Damiano; De Crescentini, Lucia; Riela, Serena


    With the aim to improve the features of surfactant solutions in terms of sustainability and renewability we propose the use of hydrogenated natural and sustainable plant-derived cardanol as an additive to commercial surfactants. In the present study we demonstrated that its addition, in amounts as high as 10%, to commercial surfactants of different charge does not significantly affect surfactant properties. Conversely, the presence of hydrogenated cardanol can strongly affect spectrophotometric determination of CMC if preferential interactions with the dyes used take place. This latter evidence may be profitably exploited in surfactant manufacturing by considering that the concurrent presence of a rigid organic molecule such as Orange OT and 10% hydrogenated cardanol decreases the CMC of CTAB up to 65 times.

  11. Structure-interfacial properties relationship and quantification of the amphiphilicity of well-defined ionic and non-ionic surfactants using the PIT-slope method. (United States)

    Ontiveros, Jesús F; Pierlot, Christel; Catté, Marianne; Molinier, Valérie; Salager, Jean-Louis; Aubry, Jean-Marie


    The Phase Inversion Temperature of a reference C10E4/n-Octane/Water system exhibits a quasi-linear variation versus the mole fraction of a second surfactant S2 added in the mixture. This variation was recently proposed as a classification tool to quantify the Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) of commercial surfactants. The feasibility of the so-called PIT-slope method for a wide range of well-defined non-ionic and ionic surfactants is investigated. The comparison of various surfactants having the same dodecyl chain tail allows to rank the polar head hydrophilicity as: SO3Na⩾SO4Na⩾NMe3Br>E2SO3Na≈CO2Na⩾E1SO3Na⩾PhSO3Na>Isosorbide(exo)SO4Na≫IsosorbideendoSO4Na≫E8⩾NMe2O>E7>E6⩾Glucosyl>E5⩾Diglyceryl⩾E4>E3>E2≈Isosorbide(exo)>Glyceryl>Isosorbide(endo). The influence on the surfactant HLB of other structural parameters, i.e. hydrophobic chain length, unsaturation, replacement of Na(+) by K(+) counterion, and isomerism is also investigated. Finally, the method is successfully used to predict the optimal formulation of a new bio-based surfactant, 1-O-dodecyldiglycerol, when performing an oil scan at 25 °C.

  12. Stellar Populations of Shell Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Carlsten, S; Zenteno, A


    We present a study of the inner (out to $\\sim$1 R$_{\\mathrm{eff}}$) stellar populations of 9 shell galaxies. We derive stellar population parameters from long slit spectra by both analyzing the Lick indices of the galaxies and by fitting Single Stellar Population model spectra to the full galaxy spectra. The results from the two methods agree reasonably well. Many of the shell galaxies in our sample appear to have lower central $\\mathrm{Mg}_{2}$ index values than non-shell galaxies of the same central velocity dispersion, which is likely due to a past interaction event. Our shell galaxy sample shows a relation between central metallicity and velocity dispersion that is consistent with previous samples of non-shell galaxies. Analyzing the metallicity gradients in our sample, we find an average metallicity gradient of -0.16$\\pm$0.10 dex per decade in radius. We compare this with formation models to constrain the merging history of shell galaxies. We argue that our galaxies likely have undergone major mergers in...

  13. Delivery and performance of surfactant replacement therapies to treat pulmonary disorders. (United States)

    El-Gendy, Nashwa; Kaviratna, Anubhav; Berkland, Cory; Dhar, Prajnaparamita


    Lung surfactant is crucial for optimal pulmonary function throughout life. An absence or deficiency of surfactant can affect the surfactant pool leading to respiratory distress. Even if the coupling between surfactant dysfunction and the underlying disease is not always well understood, using exogenous surfactants as replacement is usually a standard therapeutic option in respiratory distress. Exogenous surfactants have been extensively studied in animal models and clinical trials. The present article provides an update on the evolution of surfactant therapy, types of surfactant treatment, and development of newer-generation surfactants. The differences in the performance between various surfactants are highlighted and advanced research that has been conducted so far in developing the optimal delivery of surfactant is discussed.

  14. Preparation of hydrosol suspensions of elemental and core-shell nanoparticles by co-deposition with water vapour from the gas-phase in ultra-high vacuum conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binns, Chris, E-mail: [University of Leicester, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Prieto, Pilar [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de F Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I sica Aplicada C-XII (Spain); Baker, Stephen; Howes, Paul [University of Leicester, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Dondi, Ruggero [University of Leicester, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom); Burley, Glenn [University of Strathclyde, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry (United Kingdom); Lari, Leonardo; Kroeger, Roland; Pratt, Andrew [University of York, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Aktas, Sitki [University of Leicester, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Mellon, John K. [University of Leicester, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine (United Kingdom)


    We report a new method to produce liquid suspensions of nanoparticles by co-deposition with water vapour from the gas-phase in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. The water is injected from outside the vacuum as a molecular beam onto a substrate maintained at 77 K and forms an ice layer with a UHV vapour pressure. Molecular dynamics simulations confirm that the nanoparticles are soft-landed close to the surface of the growing ice layer. We show that the un-agglomerated size distribution within the liquid is similar to the gas-phase size distribution and demonstrate that the inclusion of surfactants in the injected water prevents agglomeration. The method allows the flexibility and tight size control available with gas-phase production methods to be applied to making nanoparticle suspensions with any desired properties. This is important for practical applications, especially in medicine. We have extended the method to include core-shell nanoparticles, in which there is flexible control over the core size and shell thickness and free choice of the material in either. Here, we report the production of suspensions of Cu, Ag and Au elemental nanoparticles and Fe-Au and Fe-Fe-oxide core-shell nanoparticles with diameters in the range 5-15 nm. We demonstrate the power of the method in practical applications in the case of Fe-Fe-oxide nanoparticles, which have a specific absorption rate of an applied oscillating magnetic field that is significantly higher than available Fe-oxide nanoparticle suspensions and the highest yet reported. These will thus have a very high-performance in the treatment of tumours by magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia.

  15. Synthesis and Surface Properties of Silica Spheres with Core Shell Structure by One Convenient Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Das


    Full Text Available Earlier, we have published a paper on the preparation of silica sphere using propanol as cosurfactant. We report here a highly cost-effective method of preparation of mesoporous silica spheres with core shell structure using sodium silicate as silica precursor, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB as surfactant, and methanol as cosurfactant. Thus after removal of the template by dissolutions or/and activation at higher temperature, mesoporous silica spheres with core shell structure were obtained. The products prepared with methanol to CTAB molar ratio 8.5 : 1 were confirmed to give best results. All the spherical products have very large surface area (∼589–1044 m2/g, pore volume (∼0.98–1.41 cm3/g, and ordered pore structure.

  16. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses...

  17. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for stress...

  18. Isogeometric shell formulation based on a classical shell model

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti


    This paper constitutes the first steps in our work concerning isogeometric shell analysis. An isogeometric shell model of the Reissner-Mindlin type is introduced and a study of its accuracy in the classical pinched cylinder benchmark problem presented. In contrast to earlier works [1,2,3,4], the formulation is based on a shell model where the displacement, strain and stress fields are defined in terms of a curvilinear coordinate system arising from the NURBS description of the shell middle surface. The isogeometric shell formulation is implemented using the PetIGA and igakit software packages developed by the authors. The igakit package is a Python package used to generate NURBS representations of geometries that can be utilised by the PetIGA finite element framework. The latter utilises data structures and routines of the portable, extensible toolkit for scientific computation (PETSc), [5,6]. The current shell implementation is valid for static, linear problems only, but the software package is well suited for future extensions to geometrically and materially nonlinear regime as well as to dynamic problems. The accuracy of the approach in the pinched cylinder benchmark problem and present comparisons against the h-version of the finite element method with bilinear elements. Quadratic, cubic and quartic NURBS discretizations are compared against the isoparametric bilinear discretization introduced in [7]. The results show that the quadratic and cubic NURBS approximations exhibit notably slower convergence under uniform mesh refinement as the thickness decreases but the quartic approximation converges relatively quickly within the standard variational framework. The authors future work is concerned with building an isogeometric finite element method for modelling nonlinear structural response of thin-walled shells undergoing large rigid-body motions. The aim is to use the model in a aeroelastic framework for the simulation of flapping wings.

  19. Heat-regulated foaming in surfactant solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pletnev, M.Y.; Eremina, L.D.; Vlasenko, I.G.


    This article examines the mechanism of the foam-inhibiting action resulting from the use of propylene oxide derivatives in solutions both of anionic and of nonionic surfactants. The objective is the creation of a detergent composition with heat-regulated foaming, which would foam well at 30-50/sup 0/ and poorly at 80-90/sup 0/, which is the usual temperature of washing machines. It is demonstrated that foaming can be regulated by the variation of the cloud points of solutions with the aid of additions of polypropylene glycols and their alkyl derivatives or block copolymers in solutions of surfactants. Foaming and foam stability decrease sharply above the cloud points of the solutions due to the foam-inhibiting action of the coacervate phase on the coexisting foam-forming solution. The foam inhibition of polypropylene glycols increases and becomes apparent at lower concentrations with the increase of the average molecular weight of the hydrophobic blocks, the increase of their relative content (in block copolymers with oxyethylene groups), and upon the introduction of alkyl groups.

  20. Investigations into surfactant/gas hydrate relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Rudy; Zhang, Guochang; Dearman, Jennifer; Woods, Charles [Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)


    Gas hydrates have unique physical properties portending useful industrial applications of gas storage, gas separation, or water desalination. When gas hydrates were found in the early 1990s to occur naturally and abundantly in seafloors, three other primary interests and concerns emerged: potential new energy source, climate threat from their greenhouse gases, and seafloor instabilities. This paper presents research showing how anionic synthetic surfactants helped develop an industrial gas hydrate storage process for natural gas and how naturally-occurring in-situ anionic biosurfactants influence the formation and placement of gas hydrates in ocean sediments. The catalytic effects, mechanisms, and surface specificities imparted by synthetic surfactants in the gas storage process and imparted by biosurfactants in porous media are discussed. The Bacillus subtilis bacterium that is indigenous to gas hydrate mounds in the Gulf of Mexico was cultured in the laboratory. Its biosurfactant was separated and found to catalyze gas hydrates in porous media. The experiments indicate that seafloor-biosurfactants can be produced rapidly in-situ to achieve threshold concentrations whereby hydrates are promoted. The biosurfactants accumulate and promote hydrate formation on specific mineral surfaces such as sodium montmorillonite. (author)

  1. A multicenter, randomized trial comparing synthetic surfactant with modified bovine surfactant extract in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, E; Vollman, J; Giebner, D; Maurer, M; Dreyer, G; Bailey, L; Anderson, M; Mefford, L; Beaumont, E; Sutton, D; Puppala, B; Mangurten, HH; Secrest, J; Lewis, WJ; Carteaux, P; Bednarek, F; Welsberger, S; Gosselin, R; Pantoja, AF; Belenky, A; Campbell, P; Patole, S; Duenas, M; Kelly, M; Alejo, W; Lewallen, P; DeanLieber, S; Hanft, M; Ferlauto, J; Newell, RW; Bagwell, J; Levine, D; Lipp, RW; Harkavy, K; Vasa, R; Birenbaum, H; Broderick, KA; Santos, AQ; Long, BA; Gulrajani, M; Stern, M; Hopgood, G; Hegyi, T; Alba, J; Christmas, L; McQueen, M; Nichols, N; Brown, M; Quissell, BJ; Rusk, C; Marks, K; Gifford, K; Hoehn, G; Pathak, A; Marino, B; Hunt, P; Fox, [No Value; Sharpstein, C; Feldman, B; Johnson, N; Beecham, J; Balcom, R; Helmuth, W; Boylan, D; Frakes, C; Magoon, M; Reese, K; Schwersenski, J; Schutzman, D; Soll, R; Horbar, JD; Leahy, K; Troyer, W; Juzwicki, C; Anderson, P; Dworsky, M; Reynolds, L; Urrutia, J; Gupta, U; Adray, C


    Objective. To compare the efficacy of a synthetic surfactant (Exosurf Neonatal, Burroughs-Wellcome Co) and a modified bovine surfactant extract (Survanta, Ross Laboratories) in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Design. Multicenter, randomized trial. Setting. Thirty-eight

  2. A multicenter, randomized trial comparing synthetic surfactant with modified bovine surfactant extract in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, E; Vollman, J; Giebner, D; Maurer, M; Dreyer, G; Bailey, L; Anderson, M; Mefford, L; Beaumont, E; Sutton, D; Puppala, B; Mangurten, HH; Secrest, J; Lewis, WJ; Carteaux, P; Bednarek, F; Welsberger, S; Gosselin, R; Pantoja, AF; Belenky, A; Campbell, P; Patole, S; Duenas, M; Kelly, M; Alejo, W; Lewallen, P; DeanLieber, S; Hanft, M; Ferlauto, J; Newell, RW; Bagwell, J; Levine, D; Lipp, RW; Harkavy, K; Vasa, R; Birenbaum, H; Broderick, KA; Santos, AQ; Long, BA; Gulrajani, M; Stern, M; Hopgood, G; Hegyi, T; Alba, J; Christmas, L; McQueen, M; Nichols, N; Brown, M; Quissell, BJ; Rusk, C; Marks, K; Gifford, K; Hoehn, G; Pathak, A; Marino, B; Hunt, P; Fox, [No Value; Sharpstein, C; Feldman, B; Johnson, N; Beecham, J; Balcom, R; Helmuth, W; Boylan, D; Frakes, C; Magoon, M; Reese, K; Schwersenski, J; Schutzman, D; Soll, R; Horbar, JD; Leahy, K; Troyer, W; Juzwicki, C; Anderson, P; Dworsky, M; Reynolds, L; Urrutia, J; Gupta, U; Adray, C


    Objective. To compare the efficacy of a synthetic surfactant (Exosurf Neonatal, Burroughs-Wellcome Co) and a modified bovine surfactant extract (Survanta, Ross Laboratories) in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Design. Multicenter, randomized trial. Setting. Thirty-eight

  3. Facile synthesis of near-monodisperse Ag@Ni core-shell nanoparticles and their application for catalytic generation of hydrogen. (United States)

    Guo, Huizhang; Chen, Yuanzhi; Chen, Xiaozhen; Wen, Ruitao; Yue, Guang-Hui; Peng, Dong-Liang


    Magnetically recyclable Ag-Ni core-shell nanoparticles have been fabricated via a simple one-pot synthetic route using oleylamine both as solvent and reducing agent and triphenylphosphine as a surfactant. As characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the as-synthesized Ag-Ni core-shell nanoparticles exhibit a very narrow size distribution with a typical size of 14.9 ± 1.2 nm and a tunable shell thickness. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy study shows that the formation of a Ni shell on Ag core can damp the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the Ag core and lead to a red-shifted SPR absorption peak. Magnetic measurement indicates that all the as-synthesized Ag-Ni core-shell nanoparticles are superparamagnetic at room temperature, and their blocking temperatures can be controlled by modulating the shell thickness. The as-synthesized Ag-Ni core-shell nanoparticles exhibit excellent catalytic properties for the generation of H(2) from dehydrogenation of sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions. The hydrogen generation rate of Ag-Ni core-shell nanoparticles is found to be much higher than that of Ag and Ni nanoparticles of a similar size, and the calculated activation energy for hydrogen generation is lower than that of many bimetallic catalysts. The strategy employed here can also be extended to other noble-magnetic metal systems.

  4. Investigation of adsorption of surfactant at the air-water interface with quantum chemistry method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN MeiLing; WANG ZhengWu; WANG HaiJun; ZHANG GeXin; TAO FuMing


    Density functional theory (DFT) of quantum chemistry was used to optimize the configuration of the anionic surfactant complexes CH3(CH2)7OSO-3(H2O)n (n=0-6) and calculate their molecular frequencies at the B3LYP/6-311+G* level. The interaction of CH3(CH2)7OSO-3 with 1 to 6 water molecules was investigated at the air-water interface with DFT. The results revealed that the hydration shell was formed in the form of H-bond between the hydrophilic group of CH3(CH2)7OSO-3 and 6 waters. The strength of H-bonds belongs to medium. Binding free energy revealed that the hydration shell was stable. The increase of the number of water molecules will cause increases of the total charge of hydrophilic group and S10-O9-C8 bond angle, but decreases of the alkyl chain length and the bond lengths of S10-O11,S10-O12 as well as S10-O13, respectively.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of core–shell TiO{sub 2} to enhance the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jinghui; Zhou, Han; Zhang, Fan; Fan, Tongxiang, E-mail:; Zhang, Di


    Graphical abstract: Core–shell TiO{sub 2} with interior cavity was synthesized by a hydrothermal approach to enhance the photocatalytic performance. - Highlights: • Core–shell TiO{sub 2} with interior cavity can be synthesized by hydrothermal approach. • Multiple reflection of incident light in cavity can increase the absorption. • Rutile can optimize the bandgap and delay the charge recombination. - Abstract: A hydrothermal approach was designed to synthesize core–shell TiO{sub 2} with interior cavity by making sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) as the surfactant and the mixture of water and ethanol as the solvent. The control experiment of solvent reveals ethanol and water are responsible for the formation of sphere and interior cavity, respectively. Besides, SDS can assist the growth of core–shell structure, and the sizes of sphere and interior cavity can be tuned by regulating the reaction time or temperature. UV–vis absorption proves core–shell structure with interior cavity can increase the absorption of incident light to enhance the optical activity of final product. The calculated bandgap and photoluminescence (PL) analyses reveal the coexistence of rutile in final product can optimize the bandgap to 3.03 eV and delay the charge recombination. As a result, an effective photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under full spectrum irradiation can be harvested by the as-synthesized core–shell spheres to reach a quantum yield, approximately 9.57% at 340 nm wavelength.

  6. Stress Analysis of Ellipsoidal Shell with Inner Guide Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Wei Zhang; Xiao-Song Wang; Meng Chen; Shi-Jian Yuan


    In order to overcome stress concentration and increase fatigue life of ellipsoidal shells with inner guide structure, the stress analysis for strength check is very important. Owing to the main sectional profile with ellipsoidal shape, the stress distribution for perfect ellipsoidal shell is firstly conducted based on the theoretical calculation and strain gauges measurement. The experiment results show that the stresses increase gradually from pole region to equatorial plane, but still within elastic range. Secondly, strain gauge measurement for ellipsoidal shells with inner guide structure is conducted. The results show that stresses are concentrated at the vicinity of bottom plate and beyond elastic range, so the structural redesign is needed. Finally based on the analysis mentioned above, a redesigned structure with local thickening is proposed. Experimental research shows that the stress varies more even after structural redesign and within allowable range. Numerical simulation shows that both the deformation and fatigue life after redesign are acceptable.

  7. The binding and insertion of imidazolium-based ionic surfactants into lipid bilayers: the effects of the surfactant size and salt concentration. (United States)

    Lee, Hwankyu; Jeon, Tae-Joon


    Imidazolium-based ionic surfactants with hydrocarbon tails of different sizes were simulated with lipid bilayers at different salt concentrations. Starting with the random position of ionic surfactants outside the bilayer, surfactants with long tails mostly insert into the bilayer, while those with short tails show the insertion of fewer surfactant molecules, indicating the effect of the tail length. In particular, surfactants with a tail of two or four hydrocarbons insert and reversibly detach from the bilayer, while the inserted longer surfactants cannot be reversibly detached because of the strong hydrophobic interaction with lipid tails, in quantitative agreement with experiments. Longer surfactants insert more deeply and irreversibly into the bilayer and thus increase lateral diffusivities of the bilayer, indicating that longer surfactants more significantly disorder lipid bilayers, which also agrees with experiments regarding the effect of the tail length of ionic surfactants on membrane permeability and toxicity. Addition of NaCl ions weakens the electrostatic interactions between headgroups of surfactants and lipids, leading to the binding of fewer surfactants into the bilayer. In particular, our simulation findings indicate that insertion of ionic surfactants can be initiated by either the hydrophobic interaction between tails of surfactants and lipids or the electrostatic binding between imidazolium heads and lipid heads, and the strength of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions depends on the tail length of surfactants.

  8. A detailed view of the gas shell around R Sculptoris with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Maercker, M; Brunner, M; De Beck, E; Humphreys, E M; Kerschbaum, F; Lindqvist, M; Olofsson, H; Ramstedt, S


    Thermal pulses are fundamental to the chemical evolution of AGB stars and their circumstellar envelopes. A further consequence of thermal pulses is the formation of detached shells of gas and dust around the star. We aim to determine the physical properties of the detached gas shell around R Sculptoris, in particular the shell mass and temperature, and to constrain the evolution of the mass-loss rate during and after a thermal pulse. We analyse CO(1-0), CO(2-1), and CO(3-2) emission, observed by. The spatial resolution of the ALMA data allows us to separate the detached shell emission from the extended emission inside the shell. We perform radiative transfer modelling of both components to determine the shell properties and the post-pulse mass-loss properties. The ALMA data show a gas shell with a radius of 19.5" expanding at 14.3km/s. The different scales probed by the ALMA Cycle 0 array show that the shell must be entirely filled with gas, contrary to the idea of a detached shell. The comparison to single-d...

  9. Large deformation of liquid capsules enclosed by thin shells immersed in the fluid (United States)

    Le, Duc-Vinh; Tan, Zhijun


    The deformation of a liquid capsule enclosed by a thin shell in a simple shear flow is studied numerically using an implicit immersed boundary method. We present a thin-shell model for computing the forces acting on the shell middle surface during the deformation within the framework of the Kirchhoff-Love theory of thin shells. This thin-shell model takes full account of finite-deformation kinematics which allows thickness stretching as well as large deflections and bending strains. For hyperelastic materials, the plane-stress assumption is used to compute the hydrostatic pressure and the incompressibility condition yields the thickness strain component and the corresponding change in the thickness. The stresses developing over the cross-section of the shell are integrated over the thickness to yield the stress and moment resultants which are then used to compute the forces acting on the shell middle surface. The immersed boundary method is employed for calculating the hydrodynamics and fluid-structure interaction effects. The location of the thin shell is updated implicitly using the Newton-Krylov method. The present numerical technique has been validated by several examples including an inflation of a spherical shell and deformations of spherical and oblate spheroidal capsules in the shear flow.

  10. [Development of a ballistic furnace for shell production]. Annual report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, R; Isakov, A I


    During the fourth contract year, the authors continued to develop Ballistic technology of shell formation. A new upgraded version of Ballistic Furnace with longer hot zone (1.56m) and cooling one (1.2m) had been finally assembled, and a lot of shell formation experiments had been carried out. The change of the Ballistic Furnace configuration has led to significant changing in operational conditions suitable for shells production. They had found optimal operational conditions for some grades of initial granules giving them high yield of good shells. Serious attention was paid on initial granules preparation. In the experiments some unexpected results were obtained--first of all it was a strong influence of temperature profile, an initial granule velocity and a trajectory angle on good quality shells yield. Those observations made them consider some additional physical phenomena (initial granule defragmentation and gas convection inside hot zone) to explain good shell formation. Appropriate estimations of the velocity of possible convectional gas currents in the hot zone, strength of formed shells, thermal stress in an initial granule caused by its fast heating in the ballistic furnace etc. were made. Good quality shells up to 2mm in diameters with high yield were produced. Although a production of good quality shells in diameter range > 1.8 mm stays an easy job, their experience led them to declare that Ballistic technology hasn't reach its boundaries, and future development will allow them to obtain perfect results.

  11. Influence of lipid shell physicochemical properties on ultrasound-induced microbubble destruction. (United States)

    Borden, Mark A; Kruse, Dustin E; Caskey, Charles F; Zhao, Shukui; Dayton, Paul A; Ferrara, Katherine W


    We present the first study of the effects of monolayer shell physicochemical properties on the destruction of lipid-coated microbubbles during insonification with single, one-cycle pulses at 2.25 MHz and low-duty cycles. Shell cohesiveness was changed by varying phospholipid and emulsifier composition, and shell microstructure was controlled by postproduction processing. Individual microbubbles with initial resting diameters between 1 and 10 microm were isolated and recorded during pulsing with bright-field and fluorescence video microscopy. Microbubble destruction occurred through two modes: acoustic dissolution at 400 and 600 kPa and fragmentation at 800 kPa peak negative pressure. Lipid composition significantly impacted the acoustic dissolution rate, fragmentation propensity, and mechanism of excess lipid shedding. Less cohesive shells resulted in micron-scale or smaller particles of excess lipid material that shed either spontaneously or on the next pulse. Conversely, more cohesive shells resulted in the buildup of shell-associated lipid strands and globular aggregates of several microns in size; the latter showed a significant increase in total shell surface area and lability. Lipid-coated microbubbles were observed to reach a stable size over many pulses at intermediate acoustic pressures. Observations of shell microstructure between pulses allowed interpretation of the state of the shell during oscillation. We briefly discuss the implications of these results for therapeutic and diagnostic applications involving lipid-coated microbubbles as ultrasound contrast agents and drug/gene delivery vehicles.

  12. Thermal and magnetic properties of iron oxide colloids: influence of surfactants (United States)

    Soares, Paula I. P.; Lochte, Frederik; Echeverria, Coro; Pereira, Laura C. J.; Coutinho, Joana T.; Ferreira, Isabel M. M.; Novo, Carlos M. M.; Borges, João P. M. R.


    Iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have been extensively studied in the last few decades for several biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic drug delivery and hyperthermia. Hyperthermia is a technique used for cancer treatment which consists in inducing a temperature of about 41-45 °C in cancerous cells through magnetic NPs and an external magnetic field. Chemical precipitation was used to produce iron oxide NPs 9 nm in size coated with oleic acid and trisodium citrate. The influence of both stabilizers on the heating ability and in vitro cytotoxicity of the produced iron oxide NPs was assessed. Physicochemical characterization of the samples confirmed that the used surfactants do not change the particles’ average size and that the presence of the surfactants has a strong effect on both the magnetic properties and the heating ability. The heating ability of Fe3O4 NPs shows a proportional increase with the increase of iron concentration, although when coated with trisodium citrate or oleic acid the heating ability decreases. Cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that both pristine and trisodium citrate Fe3O4 samples do not reduce cell viability. However, oleic acid Fe3O4 strongly reduces cell viability, more drastically in the SaOs-2 cell line. The produced iron oxide NPs are suitable for cancer hyperthermia treatment and the use of a surfactant brings great advantages concerning the dispersion of NPs, also allowing better control of the hyperthermia temperature.

  13. Effect of Surfactant Concentration in the Emulsions on the Process of Oleophilic Porous Structures Imbibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtyka Olga S.


    Full Text Available The spontaneous imbibition has been a subject of the scientific interest being a background process for numerous industrial technologies and occurring in the natural environment. In literature the experimental and theoretical results regarding this phenomenon describe a media imbibition with single-phase liquids and the relation between the process rate and media characteristics. The imbibition of oleophilic porous structures with two-phase liquids, only one phase of which was wetting, is an objective of the current publication. The main purpose is to estimate the influence of both surfactant fraction and the dispersed phase concentration on the mentioned process. The imbibition rate was investigated during model experiments with stabilized oil-in-water emulsions having the dispersed phase concentrations of 10 vol%, 30 vol% and 50 vol%. The prepared emulsions differed with fraction of the added surfactant, i.e. 1 vol%, 2 vol% and 5 vol%. The obtained results allowed to conclude that at the him≥0.02 m, the dispersed phase concentration and viscosity decreased versus height. However, the raise of the surfactant fraction caused the increase of mass and height of the imbibed emulsions in porous medium. Moreover, this provided increasing of viscosity and a change of emulsions behaviour as a liquid.

  14. Oligomannuronates from Seaweeds as Renewable Sources for the Development of Green Surfactants (United States)

    Benvegnu, Thierry; Sassi, Jean-François

    The development of surfactants based on natural renewable resources is a concept that is gaining recognition in detergents, cosmetics, and green chemistry. This new class of biodegradable and biocompatible products is a response to the increasing consumer demand for products that are both "greener", milder, and more efficient. In order to achieve these objectives, it is necessary to use renewable low-cost biomass that is available in large quantities and to design molecular structures through green processes that show improved performance, favorable ecotoxicological properties and reduced environmental impact. Within this context, marine algae represent a rich source of complex polysaccharides and oligosaccharides with innovative structures and functional properties that may find applications as starting materials for the development of green surfactants or cosmetic actives. Thus, we have developed original surfactants based on mannuronate moieties derived from alginates (cell-wall polyuronic acids from brown seaweeds) and fatty hydrocarbon chains derived from vegetable resources. Controlled chemical and/or enzymatic depolymerizations of the algal polysaccharides give saturated and/or unsaturated functional oligomannuronates. Clean chemical processes allow the efficient transformation of the oligomers into neutral or anionic amphiphilic molecules. These materials represent a new class of surface-active agents with promising foaming/emulsifying properties.

  15. Effect of added surfactant on interfacial tension and spontaneous emulsification in alkali/acidic oil systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, J.; Bernard, C.; Wasan, D.T. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)


    An experimental investigation of the buffered surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding system chemistry was undertaken to determine the influence of various species present on interfacial tension as a function of pH and ionic strength. Phase behavior tests that monitor the extent of emulsification are sufficient to determine the region of low interfacial tension. Optimization of interfacial tension by adjustment of the ionic strength alone may not necessarily provide the lowest interfacial tension under the best conditions. The pH should be simultaneously optimized along with ionic strength to allow better control over attainment of low interfacial tension. The dominant mechanism by which added surfactant aids in the reduction of interfacial tension is the formation of mixed micelles with the ionized acid. Although added surfactant partitioning from the influence of the un-ionized acid and ionic strength will affect interfacial behavior, the formation of mixed micelles plays a dominant role. Middle-phase formation is possible with a low acid oil using a petroleum sulfonate at a proper pH and ionic strength.

  16. Fabrication of Au-Pd Core-shell Nanoparticles using Au Thin-Film Dewetting at High Temperature and Chemical Synthesis Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Gyu; Lee, Hye-Jung; Oh, Yong-Jun [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Au-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have received a lot of attention in the fields of catalysts and hydrogen sensors. In this study, Au-Pd core-shell NP arrays were successfully fabricated using two steps: formation of the ordered array of Au NPs cores via solid-state dewetting of a Au thin film on a topographic silica substrate, and Pd shell formation via chemical synthesis using two different surfactants (CTAB and CTAC). Using the CTAB surfactant in particular, a 2-D composite structure comprised of an ordered array of Au-Pd NPs, with smaller Pd NPs on the nanoscopic gaps between the Au-Pd NPs, could be formed. This structure is expected to have potential application in resistance-base hydrogen sensors.

  17. Perfluorinated Alcohols Induce Complex Coacervation in Mixed Surfactants. (United States)

    Jenkins, Samuel I; Collins, Christopher M; Khaledi, Morteza G


    Recently, we reported a unique and nearly ubiquitous phenomenon of inducing simple and complex coacervation in solutions of a broad variety of individual and mixed amphiphiles and over a wide range of concentrations and mole fractions. This paper describes a novel type of biphasic separation in aqueous solutions of mixed cationic-anionic (catanionic) surfactants induced by hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP). The test cases included mixtures of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) (surfactants with different carbon chain lengths) as well as dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) with SDS (surfactants with the same carbon chain lengths). The CTAB-SDS-HFIP coacervate systems can be produced at many different mole ratios of surfactant, but DTAB-SDS-HFIP formed only coacervates at equimolar (1:1) mole ratios of DTAB and SDS. The phase-transition behavior of both systems was studied over a wide range of surfactant and HFIP concentrations at the stoichiometric (1:1) mole ratio of cationic/anionic surfactants. The chemical compositions of each of the two phases (aqueous-rich and coacervate phases) were studied with regard to the concentrations of HFIP, water, and individual surfactants. It is revealed that the surfactant-rich phase (coacervate phase) contains a large percentage of fluoroalcohol relative to the aqueous phase and is enriched in both surfactants but contains a small percentage of water. Surprisingly, the concentration of water in the coacervate phase increases as the total HFIP concentration is increased while the concentration of HFIP in the coacervate phase remains relatively constant, which means a larger amount of water associated with HFIP molecules is extracted into the coacervate phase, which results in the growth of the phase. The volume of the coacervate phase increases with an increase in surfactant concentration and total HFIP %. The coacervate phase is highly enriched in the two amphiphilic ions (DTA(+) and DS

  18. High Oxygen Concentrations Adversely Affect the Performance of Pulmonary Surfactant. (United States)

    Smallwood, Craig D; Boloori-Zadeh, Parnian; Silva, Maricris R; Gouldstone, Andrew


    Although effective in the neonatal population, exogenous pulmonary surfactant has not demonstrated a benefit in pediatric and adult subjects with hypoxic lung injury despite a sound physiologic rationale. Importantly, neonatal surfactant replacement therapy is administered in conjunction with low fractional FIO2 while pediatric/adult therapy is administered with high FIO2 . We suspected a connection between FIO2 and surfactant performance. Therefore, we sought to assess a possible mechanism by which the activity of pulmonary surfactant is adversely affected by direct oxygen exposure in in vitro experiments. The mechanical performance of pulmonary surfactant was evaluated using 2 methods. First, Langmuir-Wilhelmy balance was utilized to study the reduction in surface area (δA) of surfactant to achieve a low bound value of surface tension after repeated compression and expansion cycles. Second, dynamic light scattering was utilized to measure the size of pulmonary surfactant particles in aqueous suspension. For both experiments, comparisons were made between surfactant exposed to 21% and 100% oxygen. The δA of surfactant was 21.1 ± 2.0% and 35.8 ± 2.0% during exposure to 21% and 100% oxygen, respectively (P = .02). Furthermore, dynamic light-scattering experiments revealed a micelle diameter of 336.0 ± 12.5 μm and 280.2 ± 11.0 μm in 21% and 100% oxygen, respectively (P < .001), corresponding to a ∼16% decrease in micelle diameter following exposure to 100% oxygen. The characteristics of pulmonary surfactant were adversely affected by short-term exposure to oxygen. Specifically, surface tension studies revealed that short-term exposure of surfactant film to high concentrations of oxygen expedited the frangibility of pulmonary surfactant, as shown with the δA. This suggests that reductions in pulmonary compliance and associated adverse effects could begin to take effect in a very short period of time. If these findings can be demonstrated in vivo, a role for


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Under certain conditions, the dynamic equatioins of membrane shells and the dynamic equations of flexural shells are obtained from dynamic equations of Koiter shells by the method of asymptotic analysis.

  20. Surfactant-thermal syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties of Mn-Ge-sulfides/selenides

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Guodong


    Although either surfactants or amines have been investigated to direct the crystal growth of metal chalcogenides, the synergic effect of organic amines and surfactants to control the crystal growth has not been explored. In this report, several organic bases (hydrazine monohydrate, ethylenediamine (en), 1,2-propanediamine (1,2-dap), and 1,3-propanediamine (1,3-dap)) have been employed as structure-directing agents (SDAs) to prepare four novel chalcogenides (Mn3Ge2S7(NH3)4 (1), [Mn(en)2(H2O)][Mn(en)2MnGe3Se9] (2), (1,2-dapH)2{[Mn(1,2-dap)2]Ge2Se7} (3), and (1,3-dapH)(puH)MnGeSe4(4) (pu = propyleneurea) under surfactant media (PEG-400). These as-prepared new crystalline materials provide diverse metal coordination geometries, including MnS3N tetrahedra, MnGe2Se7 trimer, and MnGe3Se10 T2 cluster. Compounds 1-3 have been fully characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), powder XRD, UV-vis spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Moreover, magnetic measurements for compound 1 showed an obvious antiferromagnetic transition at ∼9 K. Our research not only enriches the structural chemistry of the transitional-metal/14/16 chalcogenides but also allows us to better understand the synergic effect of organic amines and surfactants on the crystallization of metal chalcogenides.

  1. Constrained sessile drop as a new configuration to measure low surface tension in lung surfactant systems. (United States)

    Yu, Laura M Y; Lu, James J; Chan, Yawen W; Ng, Amy; Zhang, Ling; Hoorfar, Mina; Policova, Zdenka; Grundke, Karina; Neumann, A Wilhelm


    Existing methodology for surface tension measurements based on drop shapes suffers from the shortcoming that it is not capable to function at very low surface tension if the liquid dispersion is opaque, such as therapeutic lung surfactants at clinically relevant concentrations. The novel configuration proposed here removes the two big restrictions, i.e., the film leakage problem that is encountered with such methods as the pulsating bubble surfactometer as well as the pendant drop arrangement, and the problem of the opaqueness of the liquid, as in the original captive bubble arrangement. A sharp knife edge is the key design feature in the constrained sessile drop that avoids film leakage at low surface tension. The use of the constrained sessile drop configuration in conjunction with axisymmetric drop shape analysis to measure surface tension allows complete automation of the setup. Dynamic studies with lung surfactant can be performed readily by changing the volume of a sessile drop, and thus the surface area, by means of a motor-driven syringe. To illustrate the validity of using this configuration, experiments were performed using an exogenous lung surfactant preparation, bovine lipid extract surfactant (BLES) at 5.0 mg/ml. A comparison of results obtained for BLES at low concentration between the constrained sessile drop and captive bubble arrangement shows excellent agreement between the two approaches. When the surface area of the BLES film (0.5 mg/ml) was compressed by about the same amount in both systems, the minimum surface tensions attained were identical within the 95% confidence limits.

  2. Discourse of the form and concentration of surfactants to ensure the sustainability foam-emulsive products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction. Development of dry mixes for making spumy and emulsion products are topical, because nowadays there is a tendency to minimize the time spent on the process of cooking, which is achieved by the use of semi finished products high degree of readiness. Materials and methods. Foaming ability was determined by the method of multiplicity of the foam, the stability of unstable foam-by the half-life method of foam, highly resistant foam - as a ratio of the height of the column of foam after exposure for 24 hours. Results. Was determined the influence of sunflower oil on the foaming ability and half-life foam of systems «sodium caseinate-oil». It was found that getting systems with high index of foaming capacity and foam stability in the presence of oil in the system is impossible without the use of low molecular weight surfactants. Substantiated recommendations regarding the feasibility of using two surfactants in systems «sodium caseinate-surfactants-oil», which provide the necessary kinship surfaces air, fat and water phases. it has been found that the use of 2,5...3,5% mono-and diglycerides of fatty acid sand Lecithin’s 0.15...0.25% in the content of sodium caseinate about 0.5% allows to receive the stable foam-emulsive systems containing sunflower oil 7...8% and foaming ability about 640±1%. Conclusions. It is established that for ensuring high indicators foaming capacity and stability of foam-emulsive systems required the use of low-molecular surfactants. The research results, is recommended to use when developing technology of foam-emulsive products.

  3. Discourse of the form and concentration of surfactants to ensure the sustainability foam-emulsive products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kotlyar


    Full Text Available Introduction. Development of dry mixes for making spumy and emulsion products are topical, because nowadays there is a tendency to minimize the time spent on the process of cooking, which is achieved by the use of semi finished products high degree of readiness. Materials and methods. Foaming ability was determined by the method of multiplicity of the foam, the stability of unstable foam-by the half-life method of foam, highly resistant foam - as a ratio of the height of the column of foam after exposure for 24 hours. Results. Was determined the influence of sunflower oil on the foaming ability and half-life foam of systems «sodium caseinate-oil». It was found that getting systems with high index of foaming capacity and foam stability in the presence of oil in the system is impossible without the use of low molecular weight surfactants. Substantiated recommendations regarding the feasibility of using two surfactants in systems «sodium caseinate-surfactants-oil», which provide the necessary kinship surfaces air, fat and water phases. it has been found that the use of 2,5...3,5% mono-and diglycerides of fatty acid sand Lecithin’s 0.15...0.25% in the content of sodium caseinate about 0.5% allows to receive the stable foam-emulsive systems containing sunflower oil 7...8% and foaming ability about 640±1%. Conclusions. It is established that for ensuring high indicators foaming capacity and stability of foam-emulsive systems required the use of low-molecular surfactants. The research results, is recommended to use when developing technology of foam-emulsive products. Introduction

  4. Surfactants, not size or zeta-potential influence blood-brain barrier passage of polymeric nanoparticles. (United States)

    Voigt, Nadine; Henrich-Noack, Petra; Kockentiedt, Sarah; Hintz, Werner; Tomas, Jürgen; Sabel, Bernhard A


    Nanoparticles (NP) can deliver drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), but little is known which of the factors surfactant, size and zeta-potential are essential for allowing BBB passage. To this end we designed purpose-built fluorescent polybutylcyanoacrylate (PBCA) NP and imaged the NP's passage over the blood-retina barrier - which is a model of the BBB - in live animals. Rats received intravenous injections of fluorescent PBCA-NP fabricated by mini-emulsion polymerisation to obtain various NP's compositions that varied in surfactants (non-ionic, anionic, cationic), size (67-464nm) and zeta-potential. Real-time imaging of retinal blood vessels and retinal tissue was carried out with in vivo confocal neuroimaging (ICON) before, during and after NP's injection. Successful BBB passage with subsequent cellular labelling was achieved if NP were fabricated with non-ionic surfactants or cationic stabilizers but not when anionic compounds were added. NP's size and charge had no influence on BBB passage and cell labelling. This transport was not caused by an unspecific opening of the BBB because control experiments with injections of unlabelled NP and fluorescent dye (to test a "door-opener" effect) did not lead to parenchymal labelling. Thus, neither NP's size nor chemo-electric charge, but particle surface is the key factor determining BBB passage. This result has important implications for NP engineering in medicine: depending on the surfactant, NP can serve one of two opposite functions: while non-ionic tensides enhance brain up-take, addition of anionic tensides prevents it. NP can now be designed to specifically enhance drug delivery to the brain or, alternatively, to prevent brain penetration so to reduce unwanted psychoactive effects of drugs or prevent environmental nanoparticles from entering tissue of the central nervous system.

  5. Micelles in mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate and a bolaform surfactant. (United States)

    Muzzalupo, Rita; Gente, Giacomo; La Mesa, Camillo; Caponetti, Eugenio; Chillura-Martino, Delia; Pedone, Lucia; Saladino, Maria Luisa


    Mixtures composed of water, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and a bolaform surfactant with two aza-crown ethers as polar headgroups (termed Bola C-16) were investigated by modulating the mole ratios between the components. The two surfactants have ionic and nonionic, but ionizable, headgroups, respectively. The ionization is due to the complexation of alkali ions by the aza-crown ether unit(s). Structural, thermodynamic, and transport properties of the above mixtures were investigated. Results from surface tension, translational self-diffusion, and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) are reported and discussed. Interactions between the two surfactants to form mixed micelles result in a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic contributions. These effects are reflected in the size and shape of the aggregates as well as in transport properties. The translational diffusion of the components in mixed micelles, in particular, depends on the Bola C-16/SDS mole ratio. Nonideality of mixing of the two components was inferred from the dependence of the critical micelle concentration, cmc, on the mole fraction of Bola C-16. This behavior is also reflected in surface adsorption and in the area per polar headgroup at the air-water interface. SANS data analysis for the pure components gives results in good agreement with previous findings. An analysis of data relative to mixed systems allows us to compute some structural parameters of the mixed aggregates. The dependence of aggregation numbers, nu(T), on the Bola C-16/SDS mole ratio displays a maximum that depends on the overall surfactant content and is rationalized in terms of the nonideality of mixing. Aggregates grow perpendicularly to the major rotation axis, as formerly observed in the Bola C-16 system, and become progressively ellipsoidal in shape.

  6. Effects of surfactants and thermodynamic activity of model active ingredient on transport over plant leaf cuticle. (United States)

    Fagerström, Anton; Kocherbitov, Vitaly; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Westbye, Peter; Bergström, Karin; Engblom, Johan


    The main objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of molecular transport across the cuticle of Clivia leaves. In vitro diffusion methodology was used to investigate the transport of a systemic fungicide, tebuconazole, over a model silicone membrane, enzymatically isolated cuticle membranes, and dermatomed leaves. It was shown that dermatomed leaves may replace enzymatically isolated cuticles. Furthermore, the effects of two surfactants, C(10)EO(7) and C(8)G(1.6), on the fungicide transport were investigated. Tebuconazole cuticle permeation was described using Fick's first law of diffusion, expressed by the thermodynamic activity of the solute in the membrane. A new method for calculation of diffusion coefficients in the membrane is proposed. To access the thermodynamic activity of the fungicide in the membranes, sorption isotherms of tebuconazole in the membrane materials studied were recorded. The thermodynamic activity of the fungicide in aqueous solutions was calculated from solubility data. For that purpose, the effect of surfactants on tebuconazole solubility was studied. The results show that addition of surfactants allows for higher concentrations of tebuconazole available for penetration. Nonetheless, at a fixed fungicide thermodynamic activity, all formulations produced the same flux over the silicone membrane independently on the fungicide concentration. This shows that the driving force across non-responding membranes is the gradient of thermodynamic activity, rather than the gradient of the fungicide concentration. In case of leaves, surfactants induced the same quantitative increase in both flux and diffusion coefficient of solute in the cuticle, while the cuticle-water partition coefficient was unaffected.

  7. Solid crystal network of self-assembled cyclodextrin and nonionic surfactant pseudorotaxanes. (United States)

    Guerrero-Martínez, Andrés; Avila, David; Martínez-Casado, Francisco J; Ripmeester, John A; Enright, Gary D; De Cola, Luisa; Tardajos, Gloria


    The title system allows the straightforward formation of three-dimensional crystals of self-assembled pseudorotaxanes formed by the nonionic surfactant Igepal CO-520 and beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) in aqueous solution. The work involves a combination of X-ray powder diffraction, high resolution electron transmission microscopy, and (13)C CP/MAS NMR studies of the solid crystal, supported by single crystal structural analysis. The results indicate a lamellar self-assembly of pseudorotaxanes with preferential orientation and disorder in the structure. For the single crystal, the unit cell was found to be triclinic (P1) and contains a beta-CD dimer. The surfactant molecules are located in the channel formed by these dimers along the c axis of the crystal network. The individual pseudorotaxane structure is formed by a dimer of beta-CDs threaded by the oxyethylene hydrophilic segment of Igepal CO-520, and a beta-CD dimer that binds the hydrophobic region of the surfactant. Thus, as in a CD polyrotaxane structure, this system results in an ordered self-assembly of pseudorotaxanes through the formation of a network of hydrogen bonds between head-to-head beta-CD dimers. Moreover, the analysis of the (1)H NMR spectra in solutions of pseudorotaxanes formed by beta-CD and Igepals with different lengths of the hydrophilic tails indicates equal stoichiometry patterns of both oxyethyelene and hydrophobic regions for the different supramolecules. Whereas the common hydrophobic moiety threads two macrocycles, the ratio between complexed oxyehtlyene segments and beta-CD is 2.5 for the hydrophilic tails. All these results show that nonionic surfactants can be used as alternative and effective linear threads to polymers and copolymers in the synthesis of supramolecular polyrotaxane solid crystals with CDs.

  8. Black hole entropy off-shell vs on-shell

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, V P; Zelnikov, A I


    Different methods of calculation of quantum corrections to the thermodynamical characteristics of a black hole are discussed and compared. The relation between on-shell and off-shell approaches is established. The off-shell methods are used to explicitly demonstrate that the thermodynamical entropy S^{TD} of a black hole, defined by the first thermodynamical law, differs from the statistical-mechanical entropy S^{SM}, determined as S^{SM}=-\\mbox{Tr}(\\hat{\\rho}^H\\ln\\hat{\\rho}^H) for the density matrix \\hat{\\rho}^H of a black hole. It is shown that the observable thermodynamical black hole entropy can be presented in the form S^{TD}=\\pi {\\bar r}_+^2+S^{SM}-S^{SM}_{Rindler}. Here {\\bar r}_+ is the radius of the horizon shifted because of the quantum backreaction effect, and S^{SM}_{Rindler} is the statistical-mechanical entropy calculated in the Rindler space.

  9. Studies on Thin-shells and Thin-shell Wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Övgün, Ali


    The study of traversable wormholes is very hot topic for the past 30 years. One of the best possible way to make traversable wormhole is using the thin-shells to cut and paste two spacetime which has tunnel from one region of space-time to another, through which a traveler might freely pass in wormhole throat. These geometries need an exotic matter which involves a stress-energy tensor that violates the null energy condition. However, this method can be used to minimize the amount of the exotic matter. The goal of this thesis study is to study on thin-shell and thin-shell wormholes in general relativity in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions. We also investigate the stability of such objects.

  10. Characterization of Phase and Emulsion Behavior, Surfactant Retention, and Oil Recovery for Novel Alcohol Ethoxycarboxylate Surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeti, Lebone T.; Sampath, Ramanathan


    Electrical conductivity measurements for middle, bottom, and top phases, as well as bottom/middle, and middle/bottom conjugate pair phases of the NEODOX 23-4/dodecane/10mM water system were continued from the previous reporting period. Electrical conductivity of the mixture decreased as the fraction of volume of the middle phase was increased and vice versa. Also inversion phenomena was observed. Following this, more emulsion studies at various temperatures were progresses. A theoretical model to predict the conductivity measurements using Maxwell equations was developed and sensitivity analyses to test the performance of the model was completed. Surtek, Golden, CO, our industrial partner in this project, investigated the suitability of the surfactant for enhanced oil recovery employing coreflooding techniques and observed lower surfactant and hydrocarbon recovery for NEODOX 23-4.

  11. Surfactant and nonlinear drop dynamics in microgravity (United States)

    Jankovsky, Joseph Charles


    Large amplitude drop dynamics in microgravity were conducted during the second United States Microgravity Laboratory mission carried onboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (20 October-5 November 1995). Centimeter- sized drops were statically deformed by acoustic radiation pressure and released to oscillate freely about a spherical equilibrium. Initial aspect ratios of up to 2.0 were achieved. Experiments using pure water and varying aqueous concentrations of Triton-X 100 and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were performed. The axisymmetric drop shape oscillations were fit using the degenerate spherical shape modes. The frequency and decay values of the fundamental quadrupole and fourth order shape mode were analyzed. Several large amplitude nonlinear oscillation dynamics were observed. Shape entrainment of the higher modes by the fundamental quadrupole mode occurred. Amplitude- dependent effects were observed. The nonlinear frequency shift, where the oscillation frequency is found to decrease with larger amplitudes, was largely unaffected by the presence of surfactants. The percentage of time spent in the prolate shape over one oscillation cycle was found to increase with oscillation amplitude. This prolate shape bias was also unaffected by the addition of surfactants. These amplitude-dependent effects indicate that the nonlinearities are a function of the bulk properties and not the surface properties. BSA was found to greatly enhance the surface viscoelastic properties by increasing the total damping of the oscillation, while Triton had only a small influence on damping. The surface concentration of BSA was found to be diffusion-controlled over the time of the experiments, while the Triton diffusion rate was very rapid. Using the experimental frequency and decay values, the suface viscoelastic properties of surface dilatational viscosity ( ks ) and surface shear viscosity ( ms ) were found for varying surfactant concentrations using the transcendental equation of Lu

  12. Preparation and evaluation of sulphonamide nonionic surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, M. H. M.


    Full Text Available Alkyl (octyl, decyl and dodecyl; C8,C10 and C12 benzene sulphonyl chloride was used in the preparation of a novel series of nonionic surfactants (IV-VIa-c, (VII-IX a-c and (X-XIIa-c. The preparations were completed by reacting each alkyl (C8,C10 and C12 benzene sulphonyl chloride with ethanolamine to give (I-III respectively. The resulting products were reacted separately with ethylene oxide in the presence of different (base KOH, Lewis acid SnCl4 and k10 clay catalysts to produce different moles of nonionic surfactants (5, 7 and 9 in sequence corresponding to (IV-VIa-c, (VII-IX a-c and (X-XIIa-c respectively. The chemical structures of prepared nonionic surfactants were elucidated by IR and 1HNMR spectra. The surface activity, biodegradability and biological activities of the prepared compounds were investigated. The obtained data show that these compounds have good surface and biological activities as well as reasonable biodegradability properties.Cloruros de sulfonilbenceno alquilados (octil, decil, dodecil; C8, C10 y C12 fueron usados en la preparación de una nueva serie de surfactantes no iónicos (IV-VIa-c, (VII-IX a-c and (X-XIIa-c. Las preparaciones fueron completadas por reacción de cada cloruro de sulfonilbenceno alquilado (C8, C10 y C12 con etanolamina para dar los compuestos (IIII, respectivamente. Los anteriores productos reaccionaron separadamente con óxido de etileno en presencia de diferentes catalizadores (la base KOH, el ácido de Lewis SnCl4 y la arcilla k10 para producir secuencialmente diferentes surfactantes no iónicos con distintos moles de óxido de etileno (5, 7 y 9: (IV-VIa-c, (VII-IXa-c and (X-XIIa-c, respectivamente. La estructura química de los surfactantes no iónicos preparados fueron elucidadas mediante sus espectros de IR y 1H RMN. Las propiedades tensoactivas, biodegradabilidad y actividad biológica de los compuestos preparados fueron investigados. Los datos obtenidos muestran que estos compuestos tienen

  13. Delta Shell: Integrated Modeling by Example (United States)

    Donchyts, G.; Jagers, B.; Baart, F.; Geer, P. V.


    We present the integrated modeling environment Delta Shell. It supports the full workflow of integrated environmental modeling: setup, configuration, simulation, analysis and reporting of results. Many components of the environment can be reused independently, allowing development of scientific, geospatial and other applications focused on data analysis, editing, visualization and storage. One of the unique features is that the Delta Shell environment integrates models from many different fields, such as hydrodynamics, hydrology, morphology, ecology, water quality, geospatial and decision support systems. This integration is possible due to flexible general data types, lightweight model coupling framework, the plugin system and the inclusion of a number of high quality open source components. Here we will use the open source morphological model XBeach as an example showing how to integrate models into the Delta Shell environment. Integration of XBeach adds a graphical interface which can be used to make testing coastal safety for complicated coastal areas easier. By using this example, we give an overview of the modeling framework and its possibilities. To increase the usability, the model is integrated with a coastal profile data set covering the whole coast of the Netherlands. This gives the end user a system to easily use the model for scanning the safety of the Dutch coast. The reuse of the components of the environment individually or combined is encouraged. They are available as separate components and have minimal or no dependencies on other components. This includes libraries to work with scientific multidimensional data, geospatial data (in particular geospatial coverages: values of some quantities defined on a spatial domain), editors, visualisation of time-dependent data and the modeling framework (projects, data linking, workflow management, model integration). Most components and the XBeach example are available as open source.

  14. Rheology of cellulose nanofibrils in the presence of surfactants. (United States)

    Quennouz, Nawal; Hashmi, Sara M; Choi, Hong Sung; Kim, Jin Woong; Osuji, Chinedum O


    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) present unique opportunities for rheology modification in complex fluids. Here we systematically consider the effect of ionic and non-ionic surfactants on the rheology of dilute CNF suspensions. Neat suspensions are transparent yield-stress fluids which display strong shear thinning and power-law dependence of modulus on concentration, G' ∼ c(2.1). Surfactant addition below a critical mass concentration cc produces an increase in the gel modulus with retention of optical clarity. Larger than critical concentrations induce significant fibril aggregation leading to the loss of suspension stability and optical clarity, and to aggregate sedimentation. The critical concentration was the lowest for a cationic surfactant (DTAB), cc ≈ 0.08%, while suspension stability was retained for non-ionic surfactants (Pluronic F68, TX100) at concentrations up to 8%. The anionic surfactant SDS led to a loss of stability at cc ≈ 1.6% whereas suspension stability was not compromised by anionic SLES up to 8%. Dynamic light scattering data are consistent with a scenario in which gel formation is driven by micelle-nanofibril bridging mediated by associative interactions of ethoxylated surfactant headgroups with the cellulose fibrils. This may explain the strong difference between the properties of SDS and SLES-modified suspensions. These results have implications for the use of CNFs as a rheology modifier in surfactant-containing systems.

  15. The effect of surfactant on pollutant biosorption of Trametes versicolor (United States)

    Gül, Ülküye Dudu; Silah, Hülya; Akbaş, Halide; Has, Merve


    The major problem concerning industrial wastewater is treatment of dye and heavy metal containing effluents. Industrial effluents are also contained surfactants that are used as levelling, dispersing and wetting agents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of surfactant on textile dye biosorption properties of a white rot fungus named Trametes versicolor. Reactive dyes are commonly used in textile industry because of their advantages such as brightness and excellent color fastness. A recative textile dye, called Everzol Black, was used in this study. The low-cost mollasses medium is used for fungal growth. The usage of mollases, the sugar refinery effluent as a source of energy and nutrients, gained importance because of reducing the cost and also reusing another waste. In biosorption process the effect of surfactant on dye removal properties of T. versicolor was examined as a function of pH, dye consentration and surfactant concentration. The results of this study showed that the surfactant enhanced the dye removal capacity of Trametes versicolor. The dye and surfactant molecules were interacted electrostatically and these electrostatic interactions improved dye removal properties of filamentous fungus T. versicolor. The results of this study recommended the use of surfactants as an inducer in textile wastewater treatment technologies.

  16. Surfactant aggregation and its application to drag reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwigsson, I.


    A number of different drag-reducing (DR) surfactants: nonionics, zwitterionics and ampholytics suitable for use in both cool and hot water solution are described. These surfactants have been tested under various conditions common in district energy distribution. The surfactants described are environmentally more acceptable than the organic salts of quaternary ammonium compounds which have so far dominated as DR surfactants. The micellar phase formed in water by the surfactant system cetylpyridinium chloride/sodium salicylate has been investigated with surfactant self-diffusion (NMR) measurements and cryo-transmission electron microscopy. Results from this study support the hypothesis that worm-like micellar systems form a network before the phase boundary, when the first liquid crystalline phase formed is a bicontinuous cubic phase. A series of surfactants similar to the one used in the DR experiments has been examined in dilute solutions. Critical micellar concentration and the size of these micelles are investigated as a function of the amphiphile concentration, the pH and salt concentration. Adsorption properties on silica of zwitterionic dodecyl-N,N-dimethylammonio alkanoates, with polymethylene interchange arms of different lengths, have been investigated with an in situ ellipsometry technique. The use of two-tone frequency modulation spectroscopy as a general method for the determination of water activity has been initiated. 173 refs, 6 figs

  17. Sublethal effect of agronomical surfactants on the spider Pardosa agrestis. (United States)

    Niedobová, Jana; Hula, Vladimír; Michalko, Radek


    In addition to their active ingredients, pesticides contain also additives - surfactants. Use of surfactants has been increasing over the past decade, but their effects on non-target organisms, especially natural enemies of pests, have been studied only very rarely. The effect of three common agrochemical surfactants on the foraging behavior of the wolf spider Pardosa agrestis was studied in the laboratory. Differences in short-term, long-term, and overall cumulative predatory activities were investigated. We found that surfactant treatment significantly affected short-term predatory activity but had no effect on long-term predatory activity. The surfactants also significantly influenced the cumulative number of killed prey. We also found the sex-specific increase in cumulative kills after surfactants treatment. This is the first study showing that pesticide additives have a sublethal effect that can weaken the predatory activity of a potential biological control agent. More studies on the effects of surfactants are needed to understand how they affect beneficial organisms in agroecosystems.

  18. Surfactants in atmospheric aerosols and rainwater around lake ecosystem. (United States)

    Razak, Intan Suraya; Latif, Mohd Talib; Jaafar, Shoffian Amin; Khan, Md Firoz; Mushrifah, Idris


    This study was conducted to determine the composition of surfactants in atmospheric aerosols and rainwater in the vicinity of Lake Chini, Malaysia. Samples of atmospheric aerosol and rainwater were collected between March and September 2011 using a high volume air sampler (HVAS) and glass bottles equipped with funnel. Colorimetric analysis was undertaken to determine the concentration of anionic surfactants as methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and cationic surfactants as disulphine blue active substances (DBAS). The water-soluble ionic compositions were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for cations (Na, K, Mg and Ca) and ion chromatography equipped with a conductivity detector for anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3(-), and SO4(2-)) and the Nessler Method was used to obtain the NH4(+) concentrations. The source apportionment of MBAS and DBAS in atmospheric aerosols was identified using a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR). The results revealed that the concentrations of surfactants in atmospheric aerosols and rainwater were dominated by anionic surfactants as MBAS. The concentration of surfactants as MBAS and DBAS was dominated in fine mode compared to coarse mode aerosols. Using PCA/MLR analysis, two major sources of atmospheric surfactants to Lake Chini were identified as soil dust (75 to 93%) and biomass burning (2 to 22%).

  19. Sorptive affinity of ionic surfactants on silt loamy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchao Qi


    Full Text Available Due to their broad applications, ionic surfactants have already been released into or utilized in soil and environmental systems. However, current understanding on the sorption behavior of surfactants onto soils is still limited. This work systematically investigated the sorption kinetics and isotherms of one cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, and one anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, onto a silt loamy soil to determine the governing sorption mechanisms. The pseudo-second-order rate equation described the sorption kinetics data better than the pseudo-first-order rate equation. Experimental data showed that the sorption equilibrium for CTAB and SDS were reached at 24 and 240 h, respectively. Langmuir equation was better than Freundlich equation in simulating the sorption isotherms of CTAB and SDS on the soil. Soil Langmuir maximum sorption capacity of CTAB was much higher than that to SDS. When the experimental temperature increased, the sorption of CTAB and SDS on the soil decreased. In addition, the sorptive process of the surfactants on the soil was spontaneous and exothermal, as indicated by the absolute values of Gibbs free energy and enthalpy. The results also indicated that physical sorption was the dominant mechanism for the sorption of the two surfactants on the soil. Findings from this work are crucial to understand the environmental behaviors of ionic surfactants.

  20. Characterization and control of surfactant-mediated Norovirus interactions. (United States)

    Mertens, Brittany S; Velev, Orlin D


    Understanding of the colloidal interactions of Norovirus particles in aqueous medium could provide insights on the origins of the notorious stability and infectivity of these widespread viral agents. We characterized the effects of solution pH and surfactant type and concentration on the aggregation, dispersion, and disassembly of Norovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) using dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. Owing to net negative surface charge of the VLPs at neutral pH, low concentrations of cationic surfactant tend to aggregate the VLPs, whereas low concentrations of anionic surfactant tend to disperse the particles. Increasing the concentration of these surfactants beyond their critical micelle concentration leads to virus capsid disassembly and breakdown of aggregates. Non-ionic surfactants, however, had little effect on virus interactions and likely stabilized them additionally in suspension. The data were interpreted on the basis of simple models for surfactant binding and re-charging of the virus capsid. We used zeta potential data to characterize virus surface charge and interpret the mechanisms behind these demonstrated surfactant-virus interactions. The fundamental understanding and control of these interactions will aid in practical formulations for virus inactivation and removal from contaminated surfaces.