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Sample records for surfactant molar ratio

  1. Molar concentration-depth profiles at the solution surface of a cationic surfactant reconstructed with angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuangye; Morgner, Harald

    2011-01-01

    In the current work, we first reconstructed the molar fraction-depth profiles of cation and anion near the surface of tetrabutylammonium iodide dissolved in formamide by a refined calculation procedure, based on angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. In this calculation procedure, both the transmission functions of the core levels and the inelastic mean free paths of the photoelectrons have been taken into account. We have evaluated the partial molar volumes of surfactant and solvent by the densities of such solutions with different bulk concentrations. With those partial molar volumes, the molar concentration-depth profiles of tetrabutylammonium ion and iodide ion were determined. The surface excesses of both surfactant ions were then achieved directly by integrating these depth profiles. The anionic molar concentration-depth profiles and surface excesses have been compared with their counterparts determined by neutral impact ion scattering spectroscopy. The comparisons exhibit good agreements. Being capable of determining molar concentration-depth profiles of surfactant ions by core levels with different kinetic energies may extend the applicable range of ARXPS in investigating solution surfaces.

  2. Effect of Molecular Weight and Molar Ratio of Dextran on Self-Assembly of Dextran Stearate Polymeric Micelles as Nanocarriers for Etoposide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Varshosaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphiphilic polymer surfactants are composed of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers and are widely used in targeted drug delivery. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of the effect of molecular weight and molar ratio of dextran on physicochemical properties of dextran stearate polymeric micelles. Dextran stearate was synthesized by acylation of dextran with stearoyl chloride. Etoposide loaded polymeric micelles were prepared by dialysis method. The resulting micelles were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, critical micelle concentration (CMC, drug loading capacity, and release efficiency. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of micelles were studied in CT-26 colorectal carcinoma cell line. Molecular weight and molar ratio of dextran-stearate were impressive on zeta potential, CMC, drug loading capacity, and release efficiency. Unlike polymer molecular weight, molar ratio of stearate had a significant effect on cytotoxicity and particle size of etoposide loaded micelles. Although molecular weight of dextran had no significant effect on cytotoxicity of micelles on CT-26 cells, it had drastic attributes for stability of polymeric micelles. Consequently, both variables of molecular weight of dextran and molar ratio of stearate should be taken into account to have a stable and effective micelle of dextran-stearate.

  3. Synthesis and electrochemical analysis of polyaniline/TiO2 composites prepared with various molar ratios between aniline monomer and para-toluenesulfonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Misoon; Kim, Seok

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Polyaniline (PANI)/TiO 2 composites were prepared by in situ polymerization using para-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA). The composites showed different morphology and specific capacitances as a function of aniline concentration, which are related to the morphology (shape or size) of particles. Scheme of the formation of composites consisting of PANI film and the micelle structures is shown. Highlights: ► PANI/TiO 2 composite were prepared with a different concentration of monomer and dopant. ► Aniline/acid ratio influenced the morphological and electrochemical properties. ► The composites showed different capacitances as a function of aniline concentrations. ► Aniline/acid ratio could influence on the dispersion and surface roughness of particles. - Abstract: Polyaniline (PANI)/titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) composites were prepared with a chemical oxidation polymerization of aniline monomer (ANI) with various molar ratios between ANI and para toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA). To find an effect of the [ANI]:[p-TSA] molar ratio on the electrochemical properties of the prepared PANI/TiO 2 composites, the composites were synthesized under same conditions except the p-TSA concentrations. The prepared composite films had more homogeneous TiO 2 dispersion with changing [ANI]:[p-TSA] molar ratios from 6:1 to 1:1. p-TSA surfactant-like doping acid helped the dispersion of TiO 2 particles in the PANI matrix. PANI covering the TiO 2 surfaces was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Prepared PANI films on the TiO 2 particles had the smoothest surface when the ANI and p-TSA had 1:1 molar ratio in the reaction solution. The composite prepared with molar ratio [ANI]:[p-TSA] of 3:1 had the highest capacitance (800 F g −1 ) among the prepared composites.

  4. Influence of alcohol: oil molar ratio on the production of ethyl esters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of alcohol:oil molar ratio on the canola oil transesterification reaction in solvent-free medium using free lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus and Burkholderia cepacia was studied. The experiments conducted in batch reactor for 72 h at 37°C in cosolvent-free reaction system with ethanol addition in three ...

  5. Formation of polyelectrolyte complexes with diethylaminoethyl dextran: charge ratio and molar mass effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cerf, Didier; Pepin, Anne Sophie; Niang, Pape Momar; Cristea, Mariana; Karakasyan-Dia, Carole; Picton, Luc

    2014-11-26

    The formation of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) between carboxymethyl pullulan and DEAE Dextran, was investigated, in dilute solution, with emphasis on the effect of charge density (molar ratio or pH) and molar masses. Electrophoretic mobility measurements have evidenced that insoluble PECs (neutral electrophoretic mobility) occurs for charge ratio between 0.6 (excess of polycation) and 1 (stoichiometry usual value) according to the pH. This atypical result is explained by the inaccessibility of some permanent cationic charge when screened by pH dependant cationic ones (due to the Hoffman alkylation). Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) indicates an endothermic formation of PEC with a binding constant around 10(5) L mol(-1). Finally asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation coupled on line with static multi angle light scattering (AF4/MALS) evidences soluble PECs with very large average molar masses and size around 100 nm, in agreement with scrambled eggs multi-association between various polyelectrolyte chains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of alcohol to oil molar ratios and the type of alcohol on biodiesel production using transesterification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Atadashi Musa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The nature of alcohol and alcohol to oil molar ratio plays an important role on the method of biodiesel production. As a result, this paper examined different alcohols commonly used for the production of biodiesel fuel with more emphasis on methanol and ethanol. Further the different alcohol to oil molar ratios used for the production of biodiesel have been extensively discussed and reported. Also the effects of alcohol to molar ratios on biodiesel refining process and its physicochemical properties were investigated.

  7. Determination of Ca/P molar ratio in hydroxyapatite (HA) by X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scapin, Marcos A.; Guilhen, Sabine N.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Ap. F., E-mail: mascapin@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a mineral composed of calcium phosphate employed for endodontics, restorative dentistry and other applications in orthopedics and prosthesis. Additionally, this biomaterial is an inexpensive but efficient adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals and other unwanted species of contaminated liquid effluents. This is especially interesting when low-cost effective remediation is required. A Ca / P molar ratio of 1.667 is consistent with the theoretical Ca / P ratio for calcium hydroxyapatite with a compositional formula of Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}, which properties are well discussed in the literature. The aim of this work was to implement and validate a methodology for simultaneous determination of major and minor constituents in the hydroxyapatite (HA) as well as providing the Ca / P molar ratio. To accomplish these achievements, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (WDXRF) was applied. This is a non-destructive technique that requires no chemical treatment, enabling fast chemical analysis in a wide variety of samples, with no hazardous waste being generated as a result of the process of determination. A standard reference material from NIST (SRM 1400 – Bone Ash) was used to validate the methodology for the determination of magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, zinc, strontium and the Ca / P ratio in HA samples by WDXRF. The Z-score test was applied as a statistical tool and showed that the calculated values were of less than 1.8 for all the measured analytes. (author)

  8. Determination of Ca/P molar ratio in hydroxyapatite (HA) by X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Marcos A.; Guilhen, Sabine N.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Ap. F.

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a mineral composed of calcium phosphate employed for endodontics, restorative dentistry and other applications in orthopedics and prosthesis. Additionally, this biomaterial is an inexpensive but efficient adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals and other unwanted species of contaminated liquid effluents. This is especially interesting when low-cost effective remediation is required. A Ca / P molar ratio of 1.667 is consistent with the theoretical Ca / P ratio for calcium hydroxyapatite with a compositional formula of Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , which properties are well discussed in the literature. The aim of this work was to implement and validate a methodology for simultaneous determination of major and minor constituents in the hydroxyapatite (HA) as well as providing the Ca / P molar ratio. To accomplish these achievements, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (WDXRF) was applied. This is a non-destructive technique that requires no chemical treatment, enabling fast chemical analysis in a wide variety of samples, with no hazardous waste being generated as a result of the process of determination. A standard reference material from NIST (SRM 1400 – Bone Ash) was used to validate the methodology for the determination of magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, zinc, strontium and the Ca / P ratio in HA samples by WDXRF. The Z-score test was applied as a statistical tool and showed that the calculated values were of less than 1.8 for all the measured analytes. (author)

  9. Selenium:Mercury Molar Ratios in Freshwater Fish from Tennessee: Individual, Species, and Geographical Variations have Implications for Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, C.; Donio, M.; Pittfield, T.

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrates, including humans, can experience adverse effects from mercury consumed in fish. Humans often prefer large predatory fish that bioaccumulate high mercury levels. Recent attention has focused on the role of selenium countering mercury toxicity, but there is little research on the selenium:mercury molar ratios in freshwater fish. We examine selenium:mercury molar ratios in freshwater fish from Tennessee at Poplar Creek which receives ongoing inputs of mercury from the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge Y-12 facility. Our objective was to determine variation of the ratios within species that might affect the protectiveness of selenium against mercury toxicity. Within species, the ratio was correlated significantly and positively with fish length only for two species. There was great individual variation in the selenium:mercury molar ratio within each species, except striped bass. The lack of a clear relationship between the selenium:mercury molar ratio and fish length, and the intraspecific variation, suggests that it would be difficult to use the molar ratio in predicting either the risk from mercury toxicity or in devising consumption advisories. PMID:22456727

  10. Selenium: Mercury Molar Ratios in Freshwater Fish in the Columbia River Basin: Potential Applications for Specific Fish Consumption Advisories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Leanne K; Eagles-Smith, Collin; Harding, Anna K; Kile, Molly; Stone, Dave

    2017-07-01

    Fish provide a valuable source of beneficial nutrients and are an excellent source of low fat protein. However, fish are also the primary source of methylmercury exposure in humans. Selenium often co-occurs with mercury and there is some evidence that selenium can protect against mercury toxicity yet States issue fish consumption advisories based solely on the risks that methylmercury pose to human health. Recently, it has been suggested the selenium: mercury molar ratio be considered in risk management. In order for agencies to utilize the ratio to set consumption guidelines, it is important to evaluate the variability in selenium and mercury in different fish species. We examined 10 different freshwater fish species found within the Columbia River Basin in order to determine the inter- and intra-specific variability in the selenium: mercury molar ratios and the selenium health benefit values. We found significant variation in selenium: mercury molar ratios. The mean molar ratios for each species were all above 1:1, ranging from 3.42:1 in Walleye to 27.2:1 in Chinook salmon. There was a positive correlation between both mercury and selenium with length for each fish species apart from yellow perch and rainbow trout. All species had health benefit values greater than 2. We observed considerable variability in selenium: mercury molar ratios within fish species collected in the Columbia River Basin. Although incorporating selenium: mercury molar ratios into fish consumption holds the potential for refining advisories and assessing the risk of methylmercury exposure, the current understanding of how these ratios apply is insufficient, and further understanding of drivers of variability in the ratios is needed.

  11. Selenium: Mercury molar ratios in freshwater fish in the Columbia River Basin: Potential applications for specific fish consumption advisories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Leanne K.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Harding, Anna K.; Kile, Molly; Stone, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Fish provide a valuable source of beneficial nutrients and are an excellent source of low fat protein. However, fish are also the primary source of methylmercury exposure in humans. Selenium often co-occurs with mercury and there is some evidence that selenium can protect against mercury toxicity yet States issue fish consumption advisories based solely on the risks that methylmercury pose to human health. Recently, it has been suggested the selenium: mercury molar ratio be considered in risk management. In order for agencies to utilize the ratio to set consumption guidelines, it is important to evaluate the variability in selenium and mercury in different fish species. We examined 10 different freshwater fish species found within the Columbia River Basin in order to determine the inter- and intra-specific variability in the selenium: mercury molar ratios and the selenium health benefit values. We found significant variation in selenium: mercury molar ratios. The mean molar ratios for each species were all above 1:1, ranging from 3.42:1 in Walleye to 27.2:1 in Chinook salmon. There was a positive correlation between both mercury and selenium with length for each fish species apart from yellow perch and rainbow trout. All species had health benefit values greater than 2. We observed considerable variability in selenium: mercury molar ratios within fish species collected in the Columbia River Basin. Although incorporating selenium: mercury molar ratios into fish consumption holds the potential for refining advisories and assessing the risk of methylmercury exposure, the current understanding of how these ratios apply is insufficient, and further understanding of drivers of variability in the ratios is needed.

  12. Influence of Ni/Co molar ratio on electromagnetic properties and microwave absorption performances for Ni/Co paraffin composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, S.J., E-mail: shaojiuyan@126.com [Department of Structural Steel, Functional Materials and Heat Treatment Processing, AVIC Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Aviation Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Stealth Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Dai, S.L. [The Office of AVIC Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Ding, H.Y.; Wang, Z.Y. [Aviation Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Stealth Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Liu, D.B [Department of Structural Steel, Functional Materials and Heat Treatment Processing, AVIC Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Ni and Co metallic microparticles with submicron size were synthesized with a simple wet chemical reduction method at a relatively low temperature. Then their morphologies and structures were characterized by SEM and XRD. Ni metallic microparticles have spherical-shape morphology with fcc crystalline structure, however, Co has a distinct leaf-like morphology with the fcc and hcp mixed phases crystalline structures. For the characterization of their electromagnetic properties, paraffin matrix composites containing different molar ratio Ni and Co mixture powder as fillers were prepared. It was found that both the electromagnetic properties and electromagnetic microwave absorption performances of absorber layer were remarkably influenced by Ni/Co molar ratio. The electromagnetic microwave absorption performances were significantly improved by blending Ni and Co metallic microparticles into paraffin matrix with changing Ni/Co molar ratio, and enhanced mechanism were discussed. - Highlights: • Ni and Co microparticles were synthesized by a wet chemical reduction method. • EM properties of absorber were remarkably influenced by Ni/Co molar ratio. • EMA performances can be adjusted by artificially changing Co/Ni molar ratio. • Enhanced EMA performances result from multiple EM attenuation mechanisms.

  13. Bioactivity tests of calcium phosphates with variant molar ratios of main components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluta, Klaudia; Sobczak-Kupiec, Agnieszka; Półtorak, Olga; Malina, Dagmara; Tyliszczak, Bożena

    2018-03-09

    Calcium phosphates constitute attractive materials of biomedical applications. Among them particular attention is devoted to bioactive hydroxyapatite (HAp) and bioresorbable tricalcium phosphate (TCP) that possess ability to bind to living bones and can be used clinically as important bone substitutes. Notably, in vivo bone bioactivity can be predicted from apatite formation of bone immersed in SBF fluids. Thus, analyses of behavior of calcium phosphates immersed in various bio fluids are of great importance. Recently, stoichiometric HAp and TCP structures have been widely studied, whereas only limited number of publications have been devoted to analyses of nonstoichiometric calcium phosphates. Here, we report physicochemical analysis of natural and synthetic phosphates with variable Ca/P molar ratios. Subsequently attained structures were subjected to incubation in either artificial saliva or Ringer's fluids. Both pH and conductivity of such fluids were determined before and after incubation. Furthermore, the influence of the Ca/P values on such parameters was exemplified. Physicochemical analysis of received materials was performed by XRD and FT-IR characterization techniques. Their potential antibacterial activity and behavior in the presence of infectious microorganisms as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was also evaluated. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Corneal Stromal Cell Growth on Gelatin/Chondroitin Sulfate Scaffolds Modified at Different NHS/EDC Molar Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Yang Lai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A nanoscale modification strategy that can incorporate chondroitin sulfate (CS into the cross-linked porous gelatin materials has previously been proposed to give superior performance for designed corneal keratocyte scaffolds. The purpose of this work was to further investigate the influence of carbodiimide chemistry on the characteristics and biofunctionalities of gelatin/CS scaffolds treated with varying N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS/1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC molar ratios (0-1 at a constant EDC concentration of 10 mM. Results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and dimethylmethylene blue assays consistently indicated that when the NHS to EDC molar ratio exceeds a critical level (i.e., 0.5, the efficiency of carbodiimide-mediated biomaterial modification is significantly reduced. With the optimum NHS/EDC molar ratio of 0.5, chemical treatment could achieve relatively high CS content in the gelatin scaffolds, thereby enhancing the water content, glucose permeation, and fibronectin adsorption. Live/Dead assays and interleukin-6 mRNA expression analyses demonstrated that all the test samples have good cytocompatibility without causing toxicity and inflammation. In the molar ratio range of NHS to EDC from 0 to 0.5, the cell adhesion ratio and proliferation activity on the chemically modified samples significantly increased, which is attributed to the increasing CS content. Additionally, the materials with highest CS content (0.143 ± 0.007 nmol/10 mg scaffold showed the greatest stimulatory effect on the biosynthetic activity of cultivated keratocytes. These findings suggest that a positive correlation is noticed between the NHS to EDC molar ratio and the CS content in the biopolymer matrices, thereby greatly affecting the corneal stromal cell growth.

  15. Phosphorus release from anaerobic peat soil during convective discharge – effect of soil Fe:P molar ratio and preferential flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsmann, Ditte M.; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    soils (TOC from 5 to 39%) with a gradient in Fe:P molar ratio (molar ratio between bicarbonate dithionite extractable Fe and P (FeBD:PBD) from 3 to 112) and degree of non-equilibrium (preferential) flow. Short-term batch incubation experiments (21 days) indicated that concurrent Fe and P release...

  16. Anomalous viscosity behavior of a bicelle system with various molar ratios of short-and long-chain phospholipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jimmy S.; Oweimreen, Ghassan A.

    2003-01-01

    Viscosity versus temperature curves were obtained for five DMPC/DHPC/H2O bilayer systems with DMPC/DHPC molar ratios of 3.2, 2.8, 2.5, 2.0 and 1.5. The curves showed the viscosity maxima that shifted to higher temperatures as the mole fraction of DHPC increased. The maxima are extremely high for the first three systems and are estimated to be no less than 600 Pa,s. The shift to higher temperature is explained in terms of decrease in the the coalescence of the bicells as the mole fraction of DHPC increases. The maxima are attributed to two competing effects; the normal decrease in viscosity with temperature is counterbalanced at low to moderate temperatures with an increase in viscosity resulting from coalescence. Such coalescence increases as the DMPC /DHPC molar ratio increases. (author)

  17. Morphology evolution of gold nanoparticles as function of time, temperature, and Au(III)/sodium ascorbate molar ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priolisi, Ornella, E-mail: ornella.priolisi@depretto.gov.it [ITIS “De Pretto” (Italy); Fabrizi, Alberto, E-mail: fabrizi@gest.unipd.it [University of Padova, Department of Management and Engineering (Italy); Deon, Giovanna, E-mail: giovanna.deon@depretto-vi.it [ITIS “De Pretto” (Italy); Bonollo, Franco, E-mail: bonollo@gest.unipd.it [University of Padova, Department of Management and Engineering (Italy); Cattini, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.cattini@unimore.it [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Engineering Enzo Ferrari (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    In this work the morphology evolution of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), obtained by direct reduction, was studied as a function of time, temperature, and Au(III)/sodium ascorbate molar ratio. The NPs morphology was examined by transmission electron microscope with image analysis, while time evolution was investigated by visible and near-infrared absorption spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. It is found that initially formed star-like NPs transform in more spheroidal particles and the evolution appears more rapid by increasing the temperature while a large amount of reducing agent prevents the remodeling of AuNPs. An explication of morphology evolution is proposed.

  18. Co-production of acetone and ethanol with molar ratio control enables production of improved gasoline or jet fuel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Zachary C; Bormann, Sebastian; Sreekumar, Sanil; Grippo, Adam; Toste, F Dean; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S

    2016-10-01

    The fermentation of simple sugars to ethanol has been the most successful biofuel process to displace fossil fuel consumption worldwide thus far. However, the physical properties of ethanol and automotive components limit its application in most cases to 10-15 vol% blends with conventional gasoline. Fermentative co-production of ethanol and acetone coupled with a catalytic alkylation reaction could enable the production of gasoline blendstocks enriched in higher-chain oxygenates. Here we demonstrate a synthetic pathway for the production of acetone through the mevalonate precursor hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA. Expression of this pathway in various strains of Escherichia coli resulted in the co-production of acetone and ethanol. Metabolic engineering and control of the environmental conditions for microbial growth resulted in controllable acetone and ethanol production with ethanol:acetone molar ratios ranging from 0.7:1 to 10.0:1. Specifically, use of gluconic acid as a substrate increased production of acetone and balanced the redox state of the system, predictively reducing the molar ethanol:acetone ratio. Increases in ethanol production and the molar ethanol:acetone ratio were achieved by co-expression of the aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE) from E. coli MG1655 and by co-expression of pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhB) from Z. mobilis. Controlling the fermentation aeration rate and pH in a bioreactor raised the acetone titer to 5.1 g L(-1) , similar to that obtained with wild-type Clostridium acetobutylicum. Optimizing the metabolic pathway, the selection of host strain, and the physiological conditions employed for host growth together improved acetone titers over 35-fold (0.14-5.1 g/L). Finally, chemical catalysis was used to upgrade the co-produced ethanol and acetone at both low and high molar ratios to higher-chain oxygenates for gasoline and jet fuel applications. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2079-2087. © 2016 Wiley

  19. Continuous production of biofuel from refined and used palm olein oil with supercritical methanol at a low molar ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakdasri, Winatta; Sawangkeaw, Ruengwit; Ngamprasertsith, Somkiat

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Continuous production of biofuel in SCM at low molar ratio was studied. • The actual density of mixture was applied to calculate residence times. • The maximum FAME of 80–90% was observed for refined and used palm oils. • The glycerol–methanol reaction showed a positive effect in fuel yield. - Abstract: The high energy consumption and high environmental impact in the supercritical methanol (SCM) process primarily originates from the preheating of reactants and the recovery of excess alcohols. This work demonstrated the synthesis of biofuel using a lowered methanol to oil molar ratio of 12:1, instead of the 40:1–42:1 ratios that are commonly employed in conventional SCM. The apparent density of the reacting mixture was measured and applied to accurately calculate residence times in a continuous reactor. The effects of residence time were considered from 10 to 25 min. The results revealed that excessive residence times reduced the ester content, especially for unsaturated esters, in the resulting biofuel. A residence time of 20 min was recommended to simultaneously achieve a maximum ester content of 90% and a triglyceride conversion of up to 99%. Used palm olein oil with high free fatty acid (4.56 wt.%) can be employed as a feedstock and give a maximum ester content of 80%. In addition, the side reaction between glycerol and methanol at 400 °C and 15 MPa showed a positive effect in increasing fuel yield by 2%–7%

  20. Selenium and mercury molar ratios in commercial fish from New Jersey and Illinois: variation within species and relevance to risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2013-07-01

    There is an emerging consensus that people consuming large amounts of fish with selenium:mercury ratios below 1 are at higher risk from mercury toxicity. As the relative amount of selenium increases compared to mercury, risk may be lowered, but it is unclear how much excess selenium is required. It would be useful if the selenium:mercury ratio was relatively consistent within a species, but this has not been the case in our studies of wild-caught fish. Since most people in developed countries and urban areas obtain their fish and other seafood commercially, we examined selenium:mercury molar ratios in commercial fish purchased in stores and fish markets in central New Jersey and Chicago. There was substantial interspecific and intraspecific variation in molar ratios. Across species the selenium:mercury molar ratio decreased with increasing mean mercury levels, but selenium variation also contributed to the ratio. Few samples had selenium:mercury molar ratios below 1, but there was a wide range in ratios, complicating the interpretation for use in risk management and communication. Before ratios can be used in risk management, more information is needed on mercury:selenium interactions and mutual bioavailability, and on the relationship between molar ratios and health outcomes. Further, people who are selenium deficient may be more at risk from mercury toxicity than others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Selenium and mercury molar ratios in commercial fish from New Jersey and Illinois: Variation within species and relevance to risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging consensus that people consuming large amounts of fish with selenium:mercury ratios below 1 may be at higher risk from mercury toxicity. As the relative amount of selenium increases compared to mercury, risk may be lowered, but it is unclear how much excess selenium is required. It would be useful if the selenium:mercury ratio was relatively consistent within a species, but this has not been the case in our studies of wild-caught fish. Since most people in developed countries and urban areas obtain their fish and other seafood commercially, we examined selenium:mercury molar ratios in commercial fish purchased in stores and fish markets in central New Jersey and Chicago. There was substantial interspecific and intraspecific variation in molar ratios. Across species the selenium:mercury molar ratio decreased with increasing mean mercury levels, but selenium variation also contributed to the ratio. Few samples had selenium:mercury molar ratios below 1, but there was a wide range in ratios, complicating the interpretation for use in risk management and communication. Before ratios can be used in risk management, more information is needed on mercury:selenium interactions and mutual bioavailability, and on the relationship between molar ratios and health outcomes. Further, people who are selenium deficient may be more at risk from mercury toxicity than others. PMID:23541437

  2. Molar volume, excess enthalpy, and Prigogine-Defay ratio of some silicate glasses with different (P,T) histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondraczek, Lothar; Behrens, Harald

    2007-10-21

    Structural relaxation in silicate glasses with different (p,T) histories was experimentally examined by differential scanning calorimetry and measurements of molar volume under ambient pressure. Temperature and pressure-dependent rates of changes in molar volume and generation of excess enthalpy were determined for sodium trisilicate, soda lime silicate, and sodium borosilicate (NBS) compositions. From the derived data, Prigogine-Defay ratios are calculated and discussed. Changes of excess enthalpy are governed mainly by changes in short-range structure, as is shown for NBS where boron coordination is highly sensitive to pressure. For all three glasses, it is shown how the relaxation functions that underlie volume, enthalpy, and structural relaxation decouple for changes in cooling rates and pressure of freezing, respectively. The magnitude of the divergence between enthalpy and volume may be related to differences in structural sensitivity to changes in the (p,V,T,t) space on different length scales. The findings suggest that the Prigogine-Defay ratio is related to the magnitude of the discussed decoupling effect.

  3. Selenium and mercury molar ratios in saltwater fish from New Jersey: Individual and species variability complicate use in human health fish consumption advisories☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Balancing risk versus benefits to humans and other organisms from consuming fish is a national concern in the USA, as well as in many other parts of the world. Protecting public health is both a federal and state responsibility, and states respond by issuing fish consumption advisories, particularly for mercury. Recently it has been emphasized that the protective role of selenium against mercury toxicity depends on their molar ratios, which should be evaluated as an indication of selenium’s protective capacity, and incorporated in risk assessments for fish consumption. However, there is no single “protective” ratio agreed upon. In this paper we examine the selenium:mercury (Se:Hg) molar ratios in a wide range of saltwater fish caught and eaten by recreational fishers along the New Jersey coast. We were particularly interested in interspecific and intraspecific variability, and whether the molar ratios were consistent within a species, allowing for its use in managing risk. The selenium–mercury molar ratio showed significant variation among and within fish species. The molar ratio decreased with the size of the fish species, decreased with the mercury levels, and within a fish species, the selenium:mercury ratio decreased with fish size. As an essential element, selenium undergoes some homeostatic regulation, but it is also highly toxic. Within species, mercury level tends to increase with size, accounting for the negative relationship between size and ratio. This variability may make it difficult to use the selenium:mercury molar ratio in risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication at this time, and more information is needed on how mercury and selenium actually interact and on the relationship between the molar ratios and health outcomes. PMID:22405995

  4. Adsorption of tetracycline on Fe (hydr)oxides: effects of pH and metal cation (Cu2+, Zn2+ and Al3+) addition in various molar ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Liang-Ching; Liu, Yu-Ting; Syu, Chien-Hui; Huang, Mei-Hsia; Teah, Heng Yi

    2018-01-01

    Iron (Fe) (hydr)oxides control the mobility and bioavailability of tetracycline (TC) in waters and soils. Adsorption of TC on Fe (hydr)oxides is greatly affected by polyvalent metals; however, impacts of molar metal/TC ratios on TC adsorptive behaviours on Fe (hydr)oxides remain unclear. Results showed that maximum TC adsorption on ferrihydrite and goethite occurred at pH 5–6. Such TC adsorption was generally promoted by the addition of Cu2+, Zn2+ and Al3+. The greatest increase in TC adsorption was found in the system with molar Cu/TC ratio of 3 due to the formation of Fe hydr(oxide)–Cu–TC ternary complexes. Functional groups on TC that were responsible for the complexation with Cu2+shifted from phenolic diketone groups at Cu/TC molar ratio adsorption at a molar Al/TC ratio of 1. However, TC adsorption decreased for Al/TC molar ratio > 1 as excess Al3+ led to the competitive adsorption with Al/TC complexes. For the Zn2+ addition, no significant correlation was found between TC adsorption capacity and molar Zn/TC ratios. PMID:29657795

  5. Potential Moderating Effects of Selenium on Mercury Uptake and Selenium:Mercury Molar Ratios in Fish From Oak Ridge and Savannah River Site - 12086

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Donio, Mark [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8082 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8082 (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Rutgers University and Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Mercury contamination is an important remediation issue at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and to a lesser extent at other DOE sites because of the hazard it presents, potential consequences to humans and eco-receptors, and completed pathways, to offsite receptors. Recent work has emphasized that selenium might ameliorate the toxicity of mercury, and we examine the selenium:mercury (Se:Hg) molar ratios in fish from Oak Ridge, and compare them to Se:Hg molar ratios in fish from the Savannah River. Selenium/mercury molar ratios varied considerably among and within fish species. There was considerable variation in the molar ratios for individual fish (as opposed to mean ratios by species) for freshwater fish from both sites. The inter-individual variation in molar ratios indicates that such that the molar ratios of mean Se and Hg concentrations may not be representative. Even for fish species with relatively low mercury levels, some individual fish have molar ratios less than unity, the value sometime thought to be protective. Selenium levels varied narrowly regardless of fish size, consistent with homeostatic regulation of this essential trace element. The data indicate that considerable attention will need to be directed toward variations and variances, as well as the mechanisms of the interaction of selenium and mercury, before risk assessment and risk management policies can use this information to manage mercury pollution and risk. Even so, if there are high levels of selenium in the fish from Poplar Creek on Oak Ridge, then the potential exists for some amelioration of adverse health effects, on the fish themselves, predators that eat them, and people who consume them. This work will aid DOE because it will allow managers and scientists to understand another aspect that affects fate and transport of mercury, as well as the potential effects of methylmercury in fish for human and ecological receptors. The variability within fish

  6. Phytate/calcium molar ratio does not predict accessibility of calcium in ready-to-eat dishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erba, Daniela; Manini, Federica; Meroni, Erika; Casiraghi, Maria C

    2017-08-01

    Phytic acid (PA), a naturally occurring compound of plant food, is generally considered to affect mineral bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of the PA/calcium molar ratio as a predictive factor of calcium accessibility in composed dishes and their ingredients. Dishes were chosen whose ingredients were rich in Ca (milk or cheese) or in PA (whole-wheat cereals) in order to consider a range of PA/Ca ratios (from 0 to 2.4) and measure Ca solubility using an in vitro approach. The amounts of soluble Ca in composed dishes were consistent with the sum of soluble Ca from ingredients (three out of five meals) or higher. Among whole-wheat products, bread showed higher Ca accessibility (71%, PA/Ca = 1.1) than biscuits (23%, PA/Ca = 0.9) and pasta (15%, PA/Ca = 1.5), and among Ca-rich ingredients, semi-skimmed milk displayed higher Ca accessibility (64%) than sliced cheese (50%) and Parmesan (38%). No significant correlation between the PA/Ca ratio and Ca accessibility was found (P = 0.077). The reliability of the PA/Ca ratio for predicting the availability of calcium in composed dishes is unsatisfactory; data emphasized the importance of the overall food matrix influence on mineral accessibility. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The Optimization of Copper Sulfate and Tincalconite Molar Ratios on the Hydrothermal Synthesis of Copper Borates

    OpenAIRE

    E. Moroydor Derun; N. Tugrul; F. T. Senberber; A. S. Kipcak; S. Piskin

    2014-01-01

    In this research, copper borates are synthesized by the reaction of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) and tincalconite (Na2O4B7.10H2O). The experimental parameters are selected as 80oC reaction temperature and 60 of reaction time. The effect of mole ratio of CuSO4.5H2O to Na2O4B7.5H2O is studied. For the identification analyses X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques are used. At the end of the experiments, synthesized...

  8. Interspecific and intraspecific variation in selenium:mercury molar ratios in saltwater fish from the Aleutians: Potential protection on mercury toxicity by selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn

    2014-01-01

    A number of factors affect the consumption risk from mercury in fish, including mercury levels, seasonal patterns of mercury concentrations, human consumption patterns, and sensitive populations (e.g. pregnant women, fetuses, young children, and yet unknown genetic factors). Recently the protective effects of selenium on methylmercury toxicity have been publicized, particularly for saltwater fish. We examine levels of mercury and selenium in several species of fish and seabirds from the Aleutians (Alaska), determine selenium:mercury molar ratios, and examine species-specific and individual variation in the ratios as a means of exploring the use of the ratio in risk assessment and risk management. Variation among species was similar for mercury and selenium. There was significant inter-specific and intraspecific variation in selenium:mercury molar ratios for fish, and for birds. The mean selenium:mercury molar ratios for all fish and bird species were above 1, meaning there was an excess of selenium relative to mercury. It has been suggested that an excess of selenium confers some protective advantage for salt water fish, although the degree of excess necessary is unclear. The selenium:mercury molar ratio was significantly correlated negatively with total length for most fish species, but not for dolly varden. Some individuals of Pacific cod, yellow irish lord, rock greenling, Pacific halibut, dolly varden, and to a lesser extent, flathead sole, had selenium:mercury ratios below 1. No bird muscle had an excess of mercury (ratio below 1), and only glaucous-winged gull and pigeon guillemot had ratios between 1 and 5. There was a great deal of variation in selenium:mercury molar ratios within fish species, and within bird species, making it difficult and impractical to use these ratios in risk assessment or management, for fish advisories, or for consumers, particularly given the difficulty of interpreting the ratios. PMID:22664537

  9. Structural, Surface Morphology and Optical Properties of ZnS Films by Chemical Bath Deposition at Various Zn/S Molar Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Peng Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ZnS thin films were prepared on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition at various Zn/S molar ratios from 1/50 to 1/150. The effects of Zn/S molar ratio in precursor on the characteristics of ZnS films were demonstrated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical transmittance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. It was found that more voids were formed in the ZnS film prepared using the precursor with Zn/S molar ratio of 1/50, and the other ZnS films showed the denser structure as the molar ratio was decreased from 1/75 to 1/150. From the analyses of chemical bonding states, the ZnS phase was indeed formed in these films. Moreover, the ZnO and Zn(OH2 also appeared due to the water absorption on film surface during deposition. This would be helpful to the junction in cell device. With changing the Zn/S molar ratio from 1/75 to 1/150, the ZnS films demonstrate high transmittance of 75–88% in the visible region, indicating the films are potentially useful in photovoltaic applications.

  10. Influence of variation in molar ratio on co-amorphous drug-amino acid systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katrine Birgitte Tarp; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Löbmann, Korbinian

    2016-01-01

    Molecular interactions were investigated within four different co-amorphous drug-amino acid systems, namely indomethacin-tryptophan (Ind-Trp), furosemide-tryptophan (Fur-Trp), indomethacin-arginine (Ind-Arg) and furosemide-arginine (Fur-Arg). The co-amorphous systems were prepared by ball milling...... observed in the 50mol% drug (1:1M ratio) mixtures, with the exception of co-amorphous Ind-Arg where the interactions within the 40mol% drug samples appear equally strong. A particularly large deviation between the theoretical and actual Tgs was observed within co-amorphous Ind-Arg and Fur-Arg systems......-amorphous mixture without additional interactions. The modified equation described the Tgs of the co-amorphous Ind-Arg with excess Arg less well indicating possible further interactions; however, the FTIR and ssNMR data did not support the presence of additional intermolecular drug-amino acid interactions....

  11. Na/Cl molar ratio changes during a salting cycle and its application to the estimation of sodium retention in salted watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongbing; Huffine, Maria; Husch, Jonathan; Sinpatanasakul, Leeann

    2012-08-01

    Using soil column experiments and data from natural watersheds, this paper analyzes the changes in Na/Cl molar ratios during a salting cycle of aqueous-soil systems. The soil column experiments involved introducing NaCl salt at various initial concentrations into multiple soil columns. At the start of a salting cycle in the column experiments, sodium was adsorbed more than chloride due to cation exchange processes. As a result, the initial Na/Cl molar ratio in column effluent was lower than 1, but increased thereafter. One-dimensional PHREEQC geochemical transport simulations also were conducted to further quantify these trends under more diverse scenarios. The experimentally determined Na/Cl molar ratio pattern was compared to observations in the annual salting cycle of four natural watersheds where NaCl is the dominant applied road deicing salt. Typically, Na/Cl molar ratios were low from mid-winter to early spring and increased after the bulk of the salt was flushed out of the watersheds during the summer, fall and early winter. The established relationship between the Na/Cl molar ratios and the amount of sodium retention derived from the column experiments and computer simulations present an alternative approach to the traditional budget analysis method for estimating sodium retention when the experimental and natural watershed patterns of Na/Cl molar ratio change are similar. Findings from this study enhance the understanding of sodium retention and help improve the scientific basis for future environmental policies intended to suppress the increase of sodium concentrations in salted watersheds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. C:N:P Molar Ratios, Sources and 14C Dating of Surficial Sediments from the NW Slope of Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe de la Lanza Espino

    Full Text Available The surficial sediments recovered from 12 sites located near the channel axis of the Florida Straits and the lower slope off NW Cuba were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC, nitrogen (TN, phosphorus (TP, elemental C:N:P ratios, C and N isotopic values, and 14C dating. The depth profiles of TOC, TN, and TP (0-18 cm displayed a downcore trend and a significant variation. The TOC values were low (0.15 to 0.62%; 66 to 516 µmol g(-1. Sites near the island's lower slope had lower TOC average concentrations (158-333 µmol g(-1 than those closer to the channel axis (averaging 341-516 µmol g(-1; p <0.05. The TN concentrations near the lower slope attained 0.11% (80 µmol g(-1, whereas, towards the channel axis, they decreased to 0.07% (55 µmol g(-1; p<0.05. The C:N ratios ranged from 1.9 to 10.2. The mean molar C:N ratio (5.4 indicated a marine hemipelagic deposition. The TP was lower at sites near the lower slope (38.4 to 50.0 µmol gv; 0.12% to 0.16% than those near the channel axis (50.0 to 66 µmol g(-1; 0.15 to 0.21%. C:P fluctuated from 7.7 to 14.1 in the surficial sediment layer. The bulk organic δ13Corg and δ15N values confirmed pelagic organic sources, and the 14C dating revealed that the sediments were deposited during the Holocene (1000-5000 yr BP. We suggest that the hydrodynamic conditions in the Straits influence vertical and advective fluxes of particulate organic material trapped in the mixed-layer, which reduces the particulate matter flux to the seabed.

  13. Adsorption of Nitrite and Nitrate Ions from an Aqueous Solution by Fe-Mg-Type Hydrotalcites at Different Molar Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Nagai, Noriaki; Kariya, Yukine; Nagahashi, Eri; Kobayashi, Yuhei; Nakamura, Takehiro; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we prepared Fe-Mg-type hydrotalcites (Fe-HT3.0 and Fe-HT5.0) with different molar ratios and evaluated their adsorption capability for nitrite and nitrate ions from aqueous solution. Fe-HT is a typical hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxide. Adsorption isotherms, as well as the effects of contact time and pH were investigated, and it was found that Fe-HT can adsorb larger amounts of nitrite and nitrate ions than Al-HT (normal-type hydrotalcite). Adsorption isotherm data were fitted to both Freundlich (correlation coefficient: 0.970-1.000) and Langmuir (correlation coefficient: 0.974-0.999) equations. Elemental analysis and binding energy of Fe-HT surface before and after adsorption indicated that the adsorption mechanism was related to the interaction between the adsorbent surface and anions. In addition, the ion exchange process is related to the adsorption mechanism. The adsorption amount increased with increasing temperature (7-25°C). The experimental data fit the pseudo-second-order model better than the pseudo-first-order model. The effect of pH on adsorption was not significant, which suggested that Fe-HT could be used over a wide pH range (4-12). These results indicate that Fe-HT is a good adsorbent for the removal of nitrite and nitrate ions from aqueous solution.

  14. Effect of ammonium carbonate to metal ions molar ratio on synthesis and sintering of Nd:YAG nanopowders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Chen, Cong; Dai, Jiawei; Hu, Zewang; Chen, Haohong; Li, Jiang

    2018-06-01

    Using the nanopowders synthesized by a reverse co-precipitation method, neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) transparent ceramics were fabricated by vacuum sintering method. The influence of ammonium carbonate to metal ions (NH4HCO3/M3+) molar ratio (R value) on the properties of Nd:YAG precursors and powders, as well as the densification, microstructure, and transmittance of the resultant ceramics was systematically investigated. The results show that the precursors have similar compositions and the calcined powders have pure Y3Al5O12 (YAG) phase. However, the R value is closely related to the morphologies of the precursors and powders. It is found that the powder with R = 3.0 has strongest agglomeration and the powders with R = 3.2-4.0 show better dispersity. Using these powders as starting materials, the corresponding ceramics were sintered at 1720 °C for 20 h in vacuum. As a result, the ceramic with R = 3.2 obtains the best transmittance of about 72% at the wavelength of 1064 nm. The grain growth exponent and activation energy of the Nd:YAG ceramics fabricated from the powder with R = 3.2 were also studied.

  15. Defluoridation of drinking water by combined electrocoagulation: effects of the molar ratio of alkalinity and fluoride to Al(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua-Zhang; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Jun; Ni, Jin-Ren

    2009-03-01

    The defluoridation efficiency (epsilon(F)) of electrocoagulation (EC) is closely related to the pH level of the F(-)-containing solution. The pH level usually needs to be adjusted by adding acid in order to obtain the highest epsilon(F) for the F(-)-containing groundwater. The use of combined EC (CEC), which is the combination of chemical coagulation with EC, was proposed to remove fluoride from drinking water for the first time in this study. The optimal scheme for the design and operation of CEC were obtained through experiments on the treatment of F(-)-containing groundwater. It was found, with OH(-) being the only alkalinity of the raw water, that the highest efficiency would be obtained when the molar ratio of alkalinity and fluoride to Al(III) (gamma(Alkalinity+F)) was controlled at 3.0. However, when the raw water contained HCO(3)(-) alkalinity, a correction coefficient was needed to correct the concentration of HCO(3)(-) to obtain the optimal defluoridation condition of gamma(Alkalinity+F)=3.0 for CEC. The correction coefficient of HCO(3)(-) concentration was concluded as 0.60 from the experiment. For the practical F(-)-containing groundwater treatment, CEC can achieve similar epsilon(F) as an acid-adding EC process. The consumption of aluminum electrode was decreased in CEC. The energy consumption also declined greatly in CEC, which is less than one third of that in the acid-adding EC process.

  16. Molar ratios of therapeutic water-soluble phenothiazine⋅water-insoluble phospholipid adducts reveal a Fibonacci correlation and a putative link for structure–activity relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyzer, Hendrik; Fey, S. J.; Thornton, Barry

    2015-01-01

    1,2diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospholipids (PL) with even-numbered symmetric saturated diacyl chains with the headgroups choline (PC), glycerol (PG), serine (PS), ethanolamine (PE), phosphatidic acid (PA). We observed water soluble products with replicable molar ratios (MR) that could be divided into two...

  17. Effect of NH4-N/P and Ca/P molar ratios on the reactive crystallization of calcium phosphates for phosphorus recovery from wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasenko, Liubov; Qu, Haiyan

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the effects of operational parameters, initial phosphorus concentration and molar ratios of Ca/P and NH4-N/P (further in the text N/P), on the nature and purity of precipitated phosphorus products have been investigated in an artificial system that mimics the supernatant in wastewater...

  18. Influence of S/Mn molar ratio on the morphology and optical property of γ-MnS thin films prepared by microwave hydrothermal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xin; Li-yun, Cao; Jian-feng, Huang; Jia, Liu; Jie, Fei; Chun-yan, Yao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The influence of the precursor solution molar ratio of S/Mn. ► The degree of orientation of the γ-MnS film decrease slightly with increasing the S/Mn from 2.0 to 4.0. ► Film quality is strongly affected by the initial nucleation. ► The absorption edge obviously shifts to a higher wavelength with the increase of the S/Mn molar ratio from 2.0 to 4.0. - Abstract: Well crystallized γ-MnS thin films were successfully synthesized at low temperature and short processing time via a novel microwave hydrothermal (M-H) process without any complexing agent by using manganese chloride and thioacetamide as source materials. The influence of different S/Mn molar ratio in the precursor solution on the phase compositions, morphologies and optical properties of the as-deposited films was investigated. The as-deposited γ-MnS thin films were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis). Results show that the wurtzite phase γ-MnS thin films with good crystallization can be achieved when S/Mn molar ratio is controlled at 2.0–4.0. The deposited γ-MnS thin films exhibit (1 0 0) orientation growth with the thickness of 300–500 nm. With the increase of S/Mn molar ratio from 2.0 to 4.0, the orientation growth is weakened while the dense and uniform of the as-deposited γ-MnS thin films are obviously improved and the corresponding band gap of the thin films increase from 3.88 to 3.97 eV.

  19. Decreased Serum IGF-1/IGFBP-3 Molar Ratio is Associated with Executive Function Behaviors in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Wang, Pin; Han, Jing; Xia, Wenqing; Cai, Rongrong; Sun, Haixia; Sun, Jie; Wang, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, through insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway, is involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease. This study aimed to assess the association of serum IGF-1 and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 levels with cognition status and to determine whether IGF-1 rs972936 polymorphism is associated with T2DM with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A total of 150 T2DM patients, 75 satisfying the MCI diagnostic criteria and 75 exhibiting healthy cognition, were enrolled in this study. The cognitive function of the subjects was extensively assessed. Serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were measured through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio was calculated. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the IGF-1-(rs972936) gene were analyzed. Serum IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio in MCI patients was significantly lower than that in the control group (p = 0.003). Significant negative correlations were found between IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio and Trail Making Test A and B (TMT-A and TMT-B) scores (p = 0.003; p function. Further multiple step-wise regression analysis revealed that the TMT-A or TMT-B score was significantly associated only with serum IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio (p = 0.016; p IGF-1 rs972936 polymorphism between MCI and control groups. A low serum IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio is associated with the pathogenesis of MCI, particularly executive function in T2DM populations. Further investigation with a large population size should be conducted to confirm this observed association.

  20. Mercury and selenium levels, and selenium:mercury molar ratios of brain, muscle and other tissues in bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) from New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn; Gochfeld, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A number of contaminants affect fish health, including mercury and selenium, and the selenium: mercury molar ratio. Recently the protective effects of selenium on methylmercury toxicity have been publicized, particularly for consumption of saltwater fish. Yet the relative ameliorating effects of selenium on toxicity within fish have not been examined, nor has the molar ratio in different tissues, (i.e. brain). We examined mercury and selenium levels in brain, kidney, liver, red and white muscle, and skin and scales in bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) from New Jersey to determine whether there were toxic levels of either metal, and we computed the selenium: mercury molar ratios by tissues. Total mercury averaged 0.32 ± 0.02 ppm wet weight in edible muscle and 0.09 ± 0.01 ppm in brain. Selenium concentration averaged 0.37 ± 0.03 in muscle and 0.36 ± 0.03 ppm in brain. There were significant differences in levels of mercury, selenium, and selenium: mercury molar ratios, among tissues. Mercury and selenium levels were correlated in kidney and skin/scales. Mercury levels were highest in kidney, intermediate in muscle and liver, and lowest in brain and skin/scales; selenium levels were also highest in kidney, intermediate in liver, and were an order of magnitude lower in the white muscle and brain. Mercury levels in muscle, kidney and skin/scales were positively correlated with fish size (length). Selenium levels in muscle, kidney and liver were positively correlated with fish length, but in brain; selenium levels were negatively correlated with fish length. The selenium: mercury molar ratio was negatively correlated with fish length for white muscle, liver, kidney, and brain, particularly for fish over 50 cm in length, suggesting that older fish experience less protective advantages of selenium against mercury toxicity than smaller fish, and that consumers of bluefish similarly receive less advantage from eating larger fish. PMID:23202378

  1. Mercury and selenium in European catfish (Silurus glanis) from Northern Italian Rivers: can molar ratio be a predictive factor for mercury toxicity in a top predator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrone, S; Benedetto, A; Brizio, P; Prearo, M; Abete, M C

    2015-01-01

    The study of mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in fish is crucially important for evaluating the extent of contamination in freshwater environments, and the possible health risk posed for humans when the antagonistic interactions of these two elements are considered. Several factors affect the risk of mercury intake from fish consumption, including mercury levels, human consumption patterns, and sensitive populations (e.g., pregnant women, foetuses, young children and unknown genetic factors). The protective effects of selenium on mercury toxicity have been extensively publicised in recent years, particularly targeting fish consumers. In this study, mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations were determined in the muscle of European catfish (Silurus glanis) collected from North Italian Rivers. Differences in mercury and selenium levels, as a function of size, gender and location were investigated. Hg was strongly related to length, gender and location, while Se levels are not dependent on fish size or location. The mean Se/Hg molar ratio was strongly affected by location, and significantly related to length and age. Selenium was in molar excess of mercury in all sites, with a rank order of mean Se/Hg molar ratio of the Parma River (2.55)>Po River (1.71)>Tanaro River (1.66)>Bormida River (1.36). However, in 37% of analyzed samples, Hg exceeded the maximum level set by 1881/2006/EC and 629/2008/EC in fish muscle. The molar ratio of Se/Hg was 0.5mg/kg), and therefore the mean molar ratio cannot be considered as a safety criterion in top predator fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A new method for the determination of the nitrogen content of nitrocellulose based on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alinat, Elodie; Delaunay, Nathalie; Archer, Xavier; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Gareil, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New insights into the nitrocellulose alkaline denitration mechanism. • Linear correlation for molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions and nitrogen content. • Capillary electrophoresis monitoring of nitrite and nitrate ions. • Applications to explosive and non-explosive nitrocellulose-containing samples. • Improved performances (including safety) over classical methods. - Abstract: A new method was proposed to determine the nitrogen content of nitrocelluloses (NCs). It is based on the finding of a linear relationship between the nitrogen content and the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis. Capillary electrophoresis was used to monitor the concentration of nitrite and nitrate ions. The influences of hydrolysis time and molar mass of NC on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions were investigated, and new insights into the understanding of the alkaline denitration mechanism of NCs, underlying this analytical strategy is provided. The method was then tested successfully with various explosive and non-explosive NC-containing samples such as various daily products and smokeless gunpowders. Inherently to its principle exploiting a concentration ratio, this method shows very good repeatability in the determination of nitrogen content in real samples with relative standard deviation (n = 3) inferior to 1.5%, and also provides very significant advantages with respect to sample extraction, analysis time (1 h for alkaline hydrolysis, 3 min for electrophoretic separation), which was about 5 times shorter than for the classical Devarda's method, currently used in industry, and safety conditions (no need for preliminary drying NC samples, mild hydrolysis conditions with 1 M sodium hydroxide for 1 h at 60 °C)

  3. A new method for the determination of the nitrogen content of nitrocellulose based on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alinat, Elodie, E-mail: elodie.alinat@chimie-paristech.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech, Laboratory of Physicochemistry of Electrolytes, Colloids and Analytical Sciences (PECSA), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Central Laboratory of Police Prefecture (LCPP), 39 bis rue de Dantzig, 75015 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7195 PECSA, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Delaunay, Nathalie, E-mail: nathalie.delaunay@espci.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech, Laboratory of Physicochemistry of Electrolytes, Colloids and Analytical Sciences (PECSA), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7195 PECSA, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Archer, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.archer@interieur.gouv.fr [Central Laboratory of Police Prefecture (LCPP), 39 bis rue de Dantzig, 75015 Paris (France); Mallet, Jean-Maurice, E-mail: jean-maurice.mallet@es.fr [École Normale Supérieure-PSL Research University, Département de Chimie, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7203 LBM, F-75005 Paris (France); Gareil, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.gareil@chimie-paristech.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech, Laboratory of Physicochemistry of Electrolytes, Colloids and Analytical Sciences (PECSA), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7195 PECSA, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • New insights into the nitrocellulose alkaline denitration mechanism. • Linear correlation for molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions and nitrogen content. • Capillary electrophoresis monitoring of nitrite and nitrate ions. • Applications to explosive and non-explosive nitrocellulose-containing samples. • Improved performances (including safety) over classical methods. - Abstract: A new method was proposed to determine the nitrogen content of nitrocelluloses (NCs). It is based on the finding of a linear relationship between the nitrogen content and the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis. Capillary electrophoresis was used to monitor the concentration of nitrite and nitrate ions. The influences of hydrolysis time and molar mass of NC on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions were investigated, and new insights into the understanding of the alkaline denitration mechanism of NCs, underlying this analytical strategy is provided. The method was then tested successfully with various explosive and non-explosive NC-containing samples such as various daily products and smokeless gunpowders. Inherently to its principle exploiting a concentration ratio, this method shows very good repeatability in the determination of nitrogen content in real samples with relative standard deviation (n = 3) inferior to 1.5%, and also provides very significant advantages with respect to sample extraction, analysis time (1 h for alkaline hydrolysis, 3 min for electrophoretic separation), which was about 5 times shorter than for the classical Devarda's method, currently used in industry, and safety conditions (no need for preliminary drying NC samples, mild hydrolysis conditions with 1 M sodium hydroxide for 1 h at 60 °C)

  4. The interactions between ionic surfactants and phosphatidylcholine vesicles: Conductometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Heng-Kwong; Tseng, Wen Liang

    2001-11-01

    The interaction between ionic surfactants and phosphatidylcholine vesicles, which are prepared without addition of buffer and salt, is investigated by conductivity measurements. On the basis of the vesicle acting as a trap of charge carriers, the bilayer/aqueous phase partition coefficient K and the surfactant/lipid molar ratio Re of nine surfactants are determined. The thermodynamic consistency is satisfied by the measured parameters. The effects of the alkyl chain length (C10-C16) and ionic head group are then studied. The inverse partition coefficient K-1 is linearly related to the critical micelle concentration. The solubilizing ability Reb is a consequence of the competition between the surfactant incorporation into the bilayer and the formation of micelles. Consequently, the K parameter rises whereas the Reb parameter declines as the chain length is increased. The influence due to addition of salt is also discussed.

  5. Effect of Cu/In molar ratio on the microstructural and optical properties of microcrystalline CuInS2 prepared by solvothermal route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Kajari; Panda, Subhendu K.; Gorai, Soma; Mishra, Pratima; Chaudhuri, Subhadra

    2008-01-01

    Synthesis and characterization of CuInS 2 powder sample prepared by a simple and convenient solvothermal method is reported. The influence of the variation of Cu/In molar ratio from 0.69 to 1.25 on the particle morphology, crystal structure and optical properties of CuInS 2 samples was studied. The X-ray diffraction studies indicated that the samples were polycrystalline in nature. SEM images of the samples revealed that the copper-rich products were uniform microspheres with smooth surfaces, whereas microspheres formed by network of interconnected flakes were obtained for indium-rich products. The optical band gaps (E g ) of the products decreased from 1.60 to 1.43 eV with variation of Cu/In molar ratio. The variation of the Urbach tail width with Cu/In molar ratio indicated that the density of the defects is much higher for the indium-rich CuInS 2 , which was clearly revealed from Raman measurements

  6. Nutritional status and phytate:zinc and phytate x calcium:zinc dietary molar ratios of lacto-ovo vegetarian Trappist monks: 10 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, B F; Smith, S A; Howard, M P; Ellis, R; Smith, J C

    1988-12-01

    A nutrition assessment of 16 members of a community of lacto-ovo vegetarian Trappist monks was conducted in 1977. Plasma zinc was found to be low-normal, which was attributed primarily to high intakes of phytate-containing foods. Individual and group counseling were instituted over a 10-year period in an attempt to emphasize the importance of wise food selection within the constraints of lacto-ovo vegetarianism. In 1987, a more comprehensive nutrition assessment of 21 members of the same community was performed. Food composites were analyzed, and 3-day instead of 24-hour dietary records were kept. Intakes of phytate-containing foods had decreased from 4,569 to 972 mg/day; intake of dietary zinc had increased from 7.4 to 9.7 mg/day; and the phytate:zinc molar ratio had decreased from 67 to 14 for the years 1977 and 1987, respectively. An analyzed phytate:zinc molar ratio of 9.8 and an analyzed phytate x calcium:zinc molar ratio of 0.3 were representative of the 1987 community. Both were within normal ranges. Plasma zinc had risen to upper-normal levels. The 1987 nutrition assessment showed that it is possible to be adequately nourished with a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet provided one has proper knowledge of the phytate-containing foods and the methods for compensating with foods of greater mineral density (primarily zinc).

  7. Effects of concentration, temperature and solvent composition on density and apparent molar volume of the binary mixtures of cationic-anionic surfactants in methanol-water mixed solvent media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Ajaya; Chatterjee, Sujeet Kumar; Niraula, Tulasi Prasad

    2013-01-01

    The accurate measurements on density of the binary mixtures of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulphate in pure water and in methanol(1) + water (2) mixed solvent media containing (0.10, 0.20, and 0.30) volume fractions of methanol at 308.15, 318.15, and 323.15 K are reported. The concentrations are varied from (0.03 to 0.12) mol.l(-1) of sodium dodecyl sulphate in presence of ~ 5.0×10(-4) mol.l(-1) cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. The results showed almost increase in the densities with increasing surfactant mixture concentration, also the densities are found to decrease with increasing temperature over the entire concentration range, investigated in a given mixed solvent medium and these values are found to decrease with increasing methanol content in the solvent composition. The concentration dependence of the apparent molar volumes appear to be negligible over the entire concentration range, investigated in a given mixed solvent medium and the apparent molar volumes increase with increasing temperature and are found to decrease with increasing methanol content in the solvent composition.

  8. Metal organic framework synthesis in the presence of surfactants : Towards hierarchical MOFs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seoane, B.; Dikhtiarenko, A.; Mayoral, A.; Tellez, C.; Coronas, J.; Kapteijn, F.; Gascon, J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of synthesis pH and H2O/EtOH molar ratio on the textural properties of different aluminium trimesate metal organic frameworks (MOFs) prepared in the presence of the well-known cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at 120 °C was studied with the purpose of obtaining a

  9. Molar Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weeks of pregnancy Ovarian cysts Anemia Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) Causes A molar pregnancy is caused by an ... have this complication than a partial molar pregnancy. Prevention If you've had a molar pregnancy, talk ...

  10. Possible effects of insulin-like growth factor-I, IGF-binding protein-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio on mammographic density: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggiorini, M L; Cipolla, V; Borgoni, G; Nofroni, I; Pala, A; de Felice, C

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the possible effects of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio on mammographic density and assess whether this relationship was similar in subgroups of pre- and postmenopausal women. A group of 341 Italian women of childbearing age or naturally postmenopausal who had performed mammographic examination at the section of radiology of our department a maximum three months prior to recruitment were enrolled. A blood sample was drawn for determination of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 levels and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio was calculated. On the basis of recent mammograms the women were divided into two groups: dense breast (DB) and non-dense breast (NDB). To assess the association between mammographic density and IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and Molar ratio Student's t-test was employed before and after stratified by menopausal status. The analysis of the relationship between mammographic density and plasma levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio showed that IGF-1 levels and molar ratio varied in the two groups resulting in higher mean values in the DB group whereas IGFBP-3 showed similar values in both groups (DB and NDB). After stratification of the study population by menopausal status, no association was found. Our study provides strong evidence of a crude association between breast density, and plasma levels of IGF-1 and molar ratio. IGF-1 and molar ratio might increase mammographic density and thus the risk of developing breast cancer.

  11. A study on the determination of Ca/P molar ratio in calcium-hydroxyapatite by alpha excited x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Yoshihiko; Iwata, Shiro.

    1979-01-01

    Nondestructive powdery calcium-hydroxyapatite (HAp) target was prepared by electrodeposition method. The powdery HAp was deposited on the copper electrode plate of cathode in the electrodeposition solution such as ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, etc. The experiments were carried out as functions of different electrodeposition solution, ethyl alcohol concentration, distance between anode and cathode, electrodeposition time and HAp amount added in bath, and distribution of HAp on the copper electrode plate obtained from each experiment was investigated by alpha excited X-ray fluorescence analysis. Ca/P molar ratio of thin HAp target prepared with this method was determined by alpha excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The nondestructive HAp targets of thickness in the range of 5 mu g/cm 2 to 10 mg/cm 2 were easily prepared with comparatively simple apparatus. The HAp on the copper electrode plate was uniform thickness over 15 x 20 mm copper plate within 5%. The Ca/P molar ratio of HAp was 1.64 +- 0.05, which agreed well with stoichiometric value of 1.67 in HAp within standard deviation. (author)

  12. MOLAR UPRIGHTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Erwansyah

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The mesial tipping of molar is frequently found in orthodontic cases. This molar malposition must be corrected since it may cause periodontal disorders, occlusal interferences, and temporomandibular joint dysfunction, and is often needed in planning a fixed bridge. This paper is a literature study to discuss about appliance designs, indication, and contraindications, and complication and treatment protocols of molar uprighting by fixed orthodontic appliances. By knowing the techniques of molar uprighting, the moments mentioned above can be avoided.

  13. Glycerol capped PbS/CdS core/shell nanoparticles at different molar ratio and its application in biosensors: An optical properties study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, D., E-mail: ddasphy014@gmail.com; Hussain, A. M. P. [Department of Physics, Cotton College, Guwahati, Assam, India- 781001 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Glycerol capped PbS/CdS core/shell type nanoparticles fabricated with two different molar ratios are characterized for study of structural and optical properties. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern exhibits cubic phased polycrystalline nanocrystals. The calculated grain sizes from Williamson-Hall plot were found to be around 6 nm with increased strain. HRTEM investigation confirms the formation of core/shell nanostructures and the sizes of the particles were found to be around 7 nm which is in good agreement with the results of the W-H plot. An increase of band gap with the decrease in precursor concentration is confirmed from the blue shift in the absorption spectra and also from Tauc plot. A clear blue shifted intense emission is observed in the photoluminescence spectra with decrease in particle size. Intense luminescence from the core/shell nanostructure may be applied in bio labelling and biosensors.

  14. Formation of copper nanoparticles in mordenite s with variable SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} molar ratios under redox treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petranovskii, V.; Avalos, M. [UNAM, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22800 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Stoyanov, E. [University of California, Department of Chemistry, Riverside, 92521 California (United States); Gurin, V. [Belarusian State University, Research Institute for Physical Chemical Problems, Minsk 220080 (Belarus); Katada, N. [Tottori University, Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Tottori 680-8552 (Japan); Hernandez, M. A. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Departamento de Investigacion en Zeolitas, Ciudad Universitaria, Puebla (Mexico); Pestryakov, A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Chavez R, F.; Zamorano U, R. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Departamento de Fisica, Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Portillo, R., E-mail: vitalii@cnyn.unam.mx [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Ciudad Universitaria, Puebla (Mexico)

    2013-05-01

    A series of protonated copper-containing mordenite s with different SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} molar ratios (MR) in the range of 10{<=}MR{<=}206 was prepared by ion exchange in copper nitrate aqueous solution. The electron paramagnetic resonance of hydrated copper Mordenite s series testifies of several Cu{sup 2+} ion sites. Hydrogen reduction of copper ions incorporated into the mordenite s was shown to lead to different reduced copper species including small metallic particles inter alia. The structural properties and acidity of mordenite s were characterized. The optical appearance of the copper particles showed strong but nonmonotonic dependence on the MR value, in line with the variation in acidity of this series of mordenite s. Correlations between mordenite properties and the formation of different reduced copper species are discussed. (Author)

  15. Modelling Chemical Kinetics of Soybean Oil Transesterification Process for Biodiesel Production: An Analysis of Molar Ratio between Alcohol and Soybean Oil Temperature Changes on the Process Conversion Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Tait

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model describing chemical kinetics of transesterification of soybean oil for biodiesel production has been developed. The model is based on the reverse mechanism of transesterification reactions and describes dynamics concentration changes of triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, biodiesel, and glycerol production. Reaction rate constants were written in the Arrhenius form. An analysis of key process variables such as temperature and molar ratio soybean oil- alcohol using response surface analysis was performed to achieve the maximum soybean conversion rate to biodiesel. The predictive power of the developed model was checked for the very wide range of operational conditions and parameters values by fitting different experimental results for homogeneous catalytic and non-catalytic processes published in the literature. A very good correlation between model simulations and experimental data was observed.

  16. Synthesis of geopolymer from spent FCC: Effect of SiO2/Al2O<3 and Na2O/SiO2 molar ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trochez, J. J.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the feasibility of using a spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (SFCC as precursor for the production of geopolymers. The mechanical and structural characterization of alkali-activated SFCC binders formulated with different overall (activator + solid precursor SiO2/Al2O3 and Na2O/SiO2 molar ratios are reported. Formation of an aluminosilicate ‘geopolymer’ gel is observed under all conditions of activation used, along with formation of zeolites. Increased SiO2/Al2O3 induces the formation of geopolymers with reduced mechanical strength, for all the Na2O/SiO2 ratios assessed, which is associated with excess silicate species supplied by the activator. This is least significant at increased alkalinity conditions (higher Na2O/SiO2 ratios, as larger extents of reaction of the spent catalyst are achieved. SiO2/Al2O3 and Na2O/SiO2 ratios of 2.4 and 0.25, respectively, promote the highest compressive strength (67 MPa. This study elucidates the great potential of using SFCC as precursor to produce sustainable ceramic-like materials via alkali-activation.Este artículo estudia la factibilidad de usar un catalizador gastado del proceso de craqueo (SFCC para la producción de geopolímeros. Se evalúan las características mecánicas y estructurales de los geopolímeros producidos con diferentes relaciones molares (activador + precursor solido de SiO2/Al2O3 y Na2O/SiO2. La formación de un gel geopolimérico de tipo aluminosilicato se observa a las diferentes condiciones evaluadas, así como la formación de zeolitas. Un incremento en la relación SiO2/Al2O3 genera geopolímeros de baja resistencia mecánica, a las diferentes relaciones molares Na2O/SiO2 evaluadas, como consecuencia del exceso de especies silicato provenientes del activador. Este efecto es menos significativo al incrementar las condiciones de alcalinidad (mayores relaciones Na2O/SiO2, ya que un mayor grado de reacción del catalizador gastado es alcanzado. Las

  17. Circulating levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio and colorectal adenomas: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeong Sook; Keum, NaNa; Zhang, Xuehong; Cho, Eunyoung; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2015-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) promotes cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis, and is thereby implicated in carcinogenesis. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) may antagonize IGF-1 action, leading to inhibition of the potential tumorigenicity of IGF-1. We conducted this meta-analysis to estimate the association between IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio and the risk of colorectal adenomas (CRAs). Further, we investigated whether this association was different between occurrent and recurrent CRA, by adjustment for obesity, and by advanced CRA. Pubmed and Embase were searched up to April, 2015 to identify relevant observational studies and summary odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was estimated using a random-effects model. A total of 12 studies (11 studies including 3038 cases for IGF-1, 12 studies including 3208 cases for IGFBP-3, and 7 studies including 1867 cases for IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio) were included in this meta-analysis. The summary ORs of occurrent CRA for the highest versus lowest category of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio were 1.13 (95% CI: 0.95-1.34), 0.99 (0.84-1.16), and 1.05 (0.86-1.29), respectively. Higher IGF-1 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio were significantly associated with decreased risk of recurrent CRA (OR for IGF-1=0.60 [95% CI: 0.42-0.85]; IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio=0.65 [0.44-0.96]). A stratified analysis by advancement of occurrent CRA produced a significant summary OR of IGF-1 for advanced CRA (OR=2.21 [1.08-4.52]) but not for non-advanced CRA (OR=0.89 [0.55-1.45]). We did not find significant publication bias or heterogeneity. Circulating levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and their molar ratio were not associated with the risk of occurrence of CRA, but IGF-1 was associated with the increased risk for occurrence of advanced CRA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Exploring the possibility to store the mixed oxygen-hydrogen cluster in clathrate hydrate in molar ratio 1:2 (O2+2H2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan; Du, Qi-Shi; Xie, Neng-Zhong; Li, Jian-Xiu; Huang, Ri-Bo

    2017-05-01

    An interesting possibility is explored: storing the mixture of oxygen and hydrogen in clathrate hydrate in molar ratio 1:2. The interaction energies between oxygen, hydrogen, and clathrate hydrate are calculated using high level quantum chemical methods. The useful conclusion points from this study are summarized as follows. (1) The interaction energies of oxygen-hydrogen mixed cluster are larger than the energies of pure hydrogen molecular cluster. (2) The affinity of oxygen molecules with water molecules is larger than that of the hydrogen molecules with water molecules. (3) The dimension of O 2 -2H 2 interaction structure is smaller than the dimension of CO 2 -2H 2 interaction structure. (4) The escaping energy of oxygen molecules from the hydrate cell is larger than that of the hydrogen molecules. (5) The high affinity of the oxygen molecules with both the water molecules and the hydrogen molecules may promote the stability of oxygen-hydrogen mixture in the clathrate hydrate. Therefore it is possible to store the mixed (O 2 +2H 2 ) cluster in clathrate hydrate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Barium recovery by crystallization in a fluidized-bed reactor: effects of pH, Ba/P molar ratio and seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chia-Chi; Reano, Resmond L; Dalida, Maria Lourdes P; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2014-06-01

    The effects of process conditions, including upward velocity inside the column, the amount of added seed and seed size, the pH value of the precipitant or the phosphate stream and the Ba/P molar ratio in a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) were studied with a view to producing BaHPO₄ crystals of significant size and maximize the removal of barium. XRD were used to identify the products that were collected from the FBR. Experimental results show that an upward velocity of 48 cmmin(-1) produced the largest BaHPO₄ crystals with a size of around 0.84-1.0mm. The addition of seed crystals has no effect on barium removal. The use of a seed of a size in the ranges unseededbarium was removed at pH 8.4-8.6 and [Ba]/[P]=1.0. The XRD results show that a significant amount of barium phosphate (Ba₃(PO₄)₂) was obtained at pH 11. The compounds BaHPO₄ and BaO were present at a pH of below 10. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of NO2 predictions by the plume volume molar ratio method (PVMRM) and ozone limiting method (OLM) in AERMOD using new field observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, Elizabeth M; Tino, Vincent R; Hanna, Steven R; Egan, Bruce A

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) plume volume molar ratio method (PVMRM) and the ozone limiting method (OLM) are in the AERMOD model to predict the 1-hr average NO2/NO(x) concentration ratio. These ratios are multiplied by the AERMOD predicted NO(x) concentration to predict the 1-hr average NO2 concentration. This paper first briefly reviews PVMRM and OLM and points out some scientific parameterizations that could be improved (such as specification of relative dispersion coefficients) and then discusses an evaluation of the PVMRM and OLM methods as implemented in AERMOD using a new data set. While AERMOD has undergone many model evaluation studies in its default mode, PVMRM and OLM are nondefault options, and to date only three NO2 field data sets have been used in their evaluations. Here AERMOD/PVMRM and AERMOD/OLM codes are evaluated with a new data set from a northern Alaskan village with a small power plant. Hourly pollutant concentrations (NO, NO2, ozone) as well as meteorological variables were measured at a single monitor 500 m from the plant. Power plant operating parameters and emissions were calculated based on hourly operator logs. Hourly observations covering 1 yr were considered, but the evaluations only used hours when the wind was in a 60 degrees sector including the monitor and when concentrations were above a threshold. PVMRM is found to have little bias in predictions of the C(NO2)/C(NO(x)) ratio, which mostly ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 at this site. OLM overpredicted the ratio. AERMOD overpredicts the maximum NO(x) concentration but has an underprediction bias for lower concentrations. AERMOD/PVMRM overpredicts the maximum C(NO2) by about 50%, while AERMOD/OLM overpredicts by a factor of 2. For 381 hours evaluated, there is a relative mean bias in C(NO2) predictions of near zero for AERMOD/PVMRM, while the relative mean bias reflects a factor of 2 overprediction for AERMOD/OLM. This study was initiated because the new stringent 1-hr NO2

  1. Influence of ZnO seed layer precursor molar ratio on the density of interface defects in low temperature aqueous chemically synthesized ZnO nanorods/GaN light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnoor, Hatim, E-mail: hatim.alnoor@liu.se; Iandolo, Donata; Willander, Magnus; Nur, Omer [Department of Science and Technology (ITN), Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping (Sweden); Pozina, Galia; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr; Liu, Xianjie [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-583 81 Linköping (Sweden)

    2016-04-28

    Low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis (LT-ACS) of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) has been attracting considerable research interest due to its great potential in the development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The influence of the molar ratio of the zinc acetate (ZnAc): KOH as a ZnO seed layer precursor on the density of interface defects and hence the presence of non-radiative recombination centers in LT-ACS of ZnO NRs/GaN LEDs has been systematically investigated. The material quality of the as-prepared seed layer as quantitatively deduced by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is found to be influenced by the molar ratio. It is revealed by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence that the seed layer molar ratio plays a significant role in the formation and the density of defects at the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterostructure interface. Consequently, LED devices processed using ZnO NRs synthesized with molar ratio of 1:5 M exhibit stronger yellow emission (∼575 nm) compared to those based on 1:1 and 1:3 M ratios as measured by the electroluminescence. Furthermore, seed layer molar ratio shows a quantitative dependence of the non-radiative defect densities as deduced from light-output current characteristics analysis. These results have implications on the development of high-efficiency ZnO-based LEDs and may also be helpful in understanding the effects of the ZnO seed layer on defect-related non-radiative recombination.

  2. Time-dependent fracture probability of bilayer, lithium-disilicate-based glass-ceramic molar crowns as a function of core/veneer thickness ratio and load orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusavice, Kenneth J.; Jadaan, Osama M.; Esquivel–Upshaw, Josephine

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports on bilayer ceramic crown prostheses suggest that fractures of the veneering ceramic represent the most common reason for prosthesis failure. Objective The aims of this study were to test the hypotheses that: (1) an increase in core ceramic/veneer ceramic thickness ratio for a crown thickness of 1.6 mm reduces the time-dependent fracture probability (Pf) of bilayer crowns with a lithium-disilicate-based glass-ceramic core, and (2) oblique loading, within the central fossa, increases Pf for 1.6-mm-thick crowns compared with vertical loading. Materials and methods Time-dependent fracture probabilities were calculated for 1.6-mm-thick, veneered lithium-disilicate-based glass-ceramic molar crowns as a function of core/veneer thickness ratio and load orientation in the central fossa area. Time-dependent fracture probability analyses were computed by CARES/Life software and finite element analysis, using dynamic fatigue strength data for monolithic discs of a lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic core (Empress 2), and ceramic veneer (Empress 2 Veneer Ceramic). Results Predicted fracture probabilities (Pf) for centrally-loaded 1,6-mm-thick bilayer crowns over periods of 1, 5, and 10 years are 1.2%, 2.7%, and 3.5%, respectively, for a core/veneer thickness ratio of 1.0 (0.8 mm/0.8 mm), and 2.5%, 5.1%, and 7.0%, respectively, for a core/veneer thickness ratio of 0.33 (0.4 mm/1.2 mm). Conclusion CARES/Life results support the proposed crown design and load orientation hypotheses. Significance The application of dynamic fatigue data, finite element stress analysis, and CARES/Life analysis represent an optimal approach to optimize fixed dental prosthesis designs produced from dental ceramics and to predict time-dependent fracture probabilities of ceramic-based fixed dental prostheses that can minimize the risk for clinical failures. PMID:24060349

  3. Time-dependent fracture probability of bilayer, lithium-disilicate-based, glass-ceramic, molar crowns as a function of core/veneer thickness ratio and load orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusavice, Kenneth J; Jadaan, Osama M; Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine F

    2013-11-01

    Recent reports on bilayer ceramic crown prostheses suggest that fractures of the veneering ceramic represent the most common reason for prosthesis failure. The aims of this study were to test the hypotheses that: (1) an increase in core ceramic/veneer ceramic thickness ratio for a crown thickness of 1.6mm reduces the time-dependent fracture probability (Pf) of bilayer crowns with a lithium-disilicate-based glass-ceramic core, and (2) oblique loading, within the central fossa, increases Pf for 1.6-mm-thick crowns compared with vertical loading. Time-dependent fracture probabilities were calculated for 1.6-mm-thick, veneered lithium-disilicate-based glass-ceramic molar crowns as a function of core/veneer thickness ratio and load orientation in the central fossa area. Time-dependent fracture probability analyses were computed by CARES/Life software and finite element analysis, using dynamic fatigue strength data for monolithic discs of a lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic core (Empress 2), and ceramic veneer (Empress 2 Veneer Ceramic). Predicted fracture probabilities (Pf) for centrally loaded 1.6-mm-thick bilayer crowns over periods of 1, 5, and 10 years are 1.2%, 2.7%, and 3.5%, respectively, for a core/veneer thickness ratio of 1.0 (0.8mm/0.8mm), and 2.5%, 5.1%, and 7.0%, respectively, for a core/veneer thickness ratio of 0.33 (0.4mm/1.2mm). CARES/Life results support the proposed crown design and load orientation hypotheses. The application of dynamic fatigue data, finite element stress analysis, and CARES/Life analysis represent an optimal approach to optimize fixed dental prosthesis designs produced from dental ceramics and to predict time-dependent fracture probabilities of ceramic-based fixed dental prostheses that can minimize the risk for clinical failures. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation of nanocrystalline MgO by surfactant assisted precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei, Mehran; Khajenoori, Majid; Nematollahi, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Nanocrystalline magnesium oxide with high surface area. → MgO prepared with surfactant showed different morphologies compared with the sample prepared without surfactant. → MgO prepared with surfactant showed a plate-like shape. → Refluxing temperature and time and the surfactant to metal molar ratio affect the textural properties of MgO. -- Abstract: Nanocrystalline magnesium oxide with high surface area was prepared by a simple precipitation method using pluronic P123 triblock copolymer (Poly (ethylene glycol)-block, Poly (propylene glycol)-block, Poly (ethylene glycol)) as surfactant and under refluxing conditions. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N 2 adsorption (BET) and scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM). The obtained results revealed that the refluxing time and temperature and the molar ratio of surfactant to metal affect the structural properties of MgO, because of the changes in the rate and extent of P123 adsorption on the prepared samples. The results showed that the addition of surfactant is effective to prepare magnesium oxide with high surface area and affects the morphology of the prepared samples. With increasing the P123/MgO molar ratio to 0.05 the pore size distribution was shifted to larger size. The sample prepared with addition of surfactant showed a plate-like shape which was completely different with the morphology of the sample prepared without surfactant. The formation of nanoplate-like MgO was related to higher surface density of Mg ions on the (0 0 1) plane than that on the other planes of the Mg(OH) 2 crystal. The (0 0 1) plane would be blocked preferentially by the adsorbed P123 molecules during the growing process of Mg(OH) 2 nanoentities and the growth on the (0 0 1) plane would be markedly restricted, and the consequence is the generation of nanoplate-like MgO. In addition, increase in refluxing temperature and time increased the specific surface area

  5. Preparation of nanocrystalline MgO by surfactant assisted precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, Mehran, E-mail: rezaei@kashanu.ac.ir [Catalyst and Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajenoori, Majid; Nematollahi, Behzad [Catalyst and Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} Nanocrystalline magnesium oxide with high surface area. {yields} MgO prepared with surfactant showed different morphologies compared with the sample prepared without surfactant. {yields} MgO prepared with surfactant showed a plate-like shape. {yields} Refluxing temperature and time and the surfactant to metal molar ratio affect the textural properties of MgO. -- Abstract: Nanocrystalline magnesium oxide with high surface area was prepared by a simple precipitation method using pluronic P123 triblock copolymer (Poly (ethylene glycol)-block, Poly (propylene glycol)-block, Poly (ethylene glycol)) as surfactant and under refluxing conditions. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption (BET) and scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM). The obtained results revealed that the refluxing time and temperature and the molar ratio of surfactant to metal affect the structural properties of MgO, because of the changes in the rate and extent of P123 adsorption on the prepared samples. The results showed that the addition of surfactant is effective to prepare magnesium oxide with high surface area and affects the morphology of the prepared samples. With increasing the P123/MgO molar ratio to 0.05 the pore size distribution was shifted to larger size. The sample prepared with addition of surfactant showed a plate-like shape which was completely different with the morphology of the sample prepared without surfactant. The formation of nanoplate-like MgO was related to higher surface density of Mg ions on the (0 0 1) plane than that on the other planes of the Mg(OH){sub 2} crystal. The (0 0 1) plane would be blocked preferentially by the adsorbed P123 molecules during the growing process of Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoentities and the growth on the (0 0 1) plane would be markedly restricted, and the consequence is the generation of nanoplate-like MgO. In addition, increase in refluxing temperature and time

  6. Membrane-surfactant interactions. The role of surfactant in mitochondrial complex III-phospholipid-Triton X-100 mixed micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valpuesta, J.M.; Arrondo, J.L.; Barbero, M.C.; Pons, M.; Goni, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    Complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase) was purified from beef heart mitochondria in the form of protein-phospholipid-Triton X-100 mixed micelles (about 1:80:100 molar ratio). Detergent may be totally removed by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and the resulting lipoprotein complexes retain full enzyme activity. In order to understand the role of surfactant in the mixed micelles, and the interaction of Triton X-100 with integral membrane proteins and phospholipid bilayers, both the protein-lipid-surfactant mixed micelles and the detergent-free lipoprotein system were examined from the point of view of particle size and ultrastructure, enzyme activity, tryptophan fluorescence quenching, 31P NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The NMR and IR spectroscopic studies show that surfactant withdrawal induces a profound change in phospholipid architecture, from a micellar to a lamellar-like phase. However, electron microscopic observations fail to reveal the existence of lipid bilayers in the absence of detergent. We suggest that, under these conditions, the lipid:protein molar ratio (80:1) is too low to permit the formation of lipid bilayer planes, but the relative orientation and mobility of phospholipids with respect to proteins is similar to that of the lamellar phase. Protein conformational changes are also detected as a consequence of surfactant removal. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates an increase of peptide beta-structure in the absence of Triton X-100; changes in the amide II/amide I intensity ratio are also detected, although the precise meaning of these observations is unclear

  7. The effect of Cu/Zn molar ratio on CO{sub 2} hydrogenation over Cu/ZnO/ZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaharun, Salina, E-mail: salinashaharun@gmail.com, E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my; Shaharun, Maizatul S., E-mail: salinashaharun@gmail.com, E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my; Taha, Mohd F., E-mail: faisalt@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Mohamad, Dasmawati, E-mail: dasmawati@kck.usm.my [School of Dental Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to methanol is an attractive way to recycle and utilize CO{sub 2}. A series of Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2} catalysts (CZAZ) containing different molar ratios of Cu/Zn were prepared by the co-precipitation method and investigated in a stirred slurry autoclave system. The catalysts were characterized by temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive analysis (FESEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption. Higher surface area, SA{sub BET} values (42.6–59.9 m{sup 2}/g) are recorded at low (1) and high (5) Cu/Zn ratios with the minimum value of 35.71 m{sup 2}/g found for a Cu/Zn of 3. The reducibility of the metal oxides formed after calcination of catalyst samples was also affected due to change in metal-support interaction. At a low reaction temperature of 443 K, total gas pressure of 3.0 MPa and 0.1 g/mL of the CZAZ catalyst, the selectivity to methanol decreased as the Cu/Zn molar ratio increased, and the maximum selectivity of 67.73 was achieved at Cu/Zn molar ratio of 1. With a reaction time of 3h, the best performing catalyst was CZAZ75 with Cu/Zn molar ratio of 5 giving methanol yield of 79.30%.

  8. Separation process for lanthanides based on solvation properties of non ionic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draye, M.; Favre-Reguillon, A.; Foos, J.; Cote, G.

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, cloud-point extraction is used with a lipophilic chelating agent (8-hydroxyquinoline) to extract and separate lanthanum (III) and gadolinium (III) from an aqueous solution. The methodology used is based on the formation of lanthanide (III) organic complexes that are soluble in a micellar phase of non-ionic surfactant. The lanthanide (III) complexes are then extracted into the surfactant-rich phase at a temperature above the cloud-point temperature. The cloud-point temperature, the structure of the lipophilic part of the nonionic surfactant and the chelating agent - metal molar ratio are identified as factors determining the extraction efficiency and selectivity. With Triton X-114, high selectivity and decontamination factor for Gd(III) is observed indicating that micelle mediated extraction involving cloud-point extraction is promising for the specific separation of actinide ions from nuclear waste solution. (authors)

  9. Influence of Zn/Fe Molar Ratio on Optical and Magnetic Properties of ZnO and ZnFe2O4 Nanocrystal as Calcined Products of Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ahmed Ali Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The coprecipitation method has been used to synthesize layered double hydroxide (Zn-Fe-LDH nanostructure at different Zn2+/Fe3+ molar ratios. The structural properties of samples were studied using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD. LDH samples were calcined at 600°C to produce mixed oxides (ZnO and ZnFe2O4. The crystallite size of mixed oxide was found in the nanometer scale (18.1 nm for ZnFe2O4 and 43.3 nm for ZnO. The photocatalytic activity of the calcination products was investigated using ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-VIS-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The magnetic properties of calcined LDHs were investigated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The calcined samples showed a paramagnetic behavior for all Zn2+/Fe3+ molar ratios. The effect of molar ratio on magnetic susceptibility of the calcined samples was also studied.

  10. Influência do agente de cloração do catalisador à base de veodímio e da razão molar Cl: Nd na polimerização do butadieno Influence of the chlorinating agent of neodymium based catalysts and Cl: Nd molar ratio on butadiene polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia N. Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi utilizado um sistema catalítico composto por hidreto de diisobutilalumínio (DIBAH, versatato de neodímio (NdV e um agente de cloração para avaliar a influência da fonte de cloro e da razão molar Cl:Nd nas características da reação de polimerização (conversão e constante de velocidade de propagação e do polibutadieno (massa molecular e microestrutura. Os agentes de cloração estudados foram cloreto de t-butila (t-BuCl, sesquicloreto de etilalumínio (EASC e cloreto de dietilalumínio (DEAC. As razões molares Cl:Nd utilizadas foram: 1:1, 3:1 e 5:1 para o t-BuCl; 0,5:1, 1:1 e 3:1 para o EASC e 1:1, 1,5:1, 3:1 e 5:1 para o DEAC. Foi observada a existência, para cada agente de cloração, de um valor ótimo de razão molar Cl:Nd para o qual a conversão foi máxima. O DEAC apresentou uma maior conversão em relação aos outros agentes de cloração; em contrapartida, o t-BuCl produziu polibutadienos com maior teor de unidades 1,4-cis e maior massa molecular (n e wIn this work catalyst systems consisting of diisobutylaluminium hydride (DIBAH, neodymium versatate (NdV and a chlorinating agent were employed to study the influence of the chloride source and Cl:Nd molar ratio on 1,3-butadiene polymerization and polybutadiene's characteristics (molecular weight and microstructure. The chloride sources studied were t-butyl chloride, ethylaluminium sesquichloride (EASC and diethylaluminium chloride (DEAC. The Cl:Nd molar ratios used were 1:1, 3:1 e 5:1 for t-butyl chloride; 0.5:1, 1:1 and 3:1 for EASC and 1:1, 1.5:1, 3:1 and 5:1 for DEAC. A maximum value of Cl:Nd molar ratio exists. Moreover, DEAC showed to be more reactive than EASC and t-BuCl but t-BuCl produced higher molecular weight and cis-1,4 units contents.

  11. Periodicity in the BrO/SO2 molar ratios in the volcanic gas plume of Cotopaxi and its correlation with the Earth tides during the eruption in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinger, Florian; Bobrowski, Nicole; Warnach, Simon; Bredemeyer, Stefan; Hidalgo, Silvana; Arellano, Santiago; Galle, Bo; Platt, Ulrich; Wagner, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    We evaluated NOVAC (Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change) gas emission data from the 2015 eruption of the Cotopaxi volcano (Ecuador) for BrO/SO2 molar ratios. The BrO/SO2 molar ratios were very small prior to the phreatomagmatic explosions in August 2015, significantly higher after the explosions, and continuously increasing until the end of the unrest period in December 2015. These observations together with similar findings in previous studies at other volcanoes (Mt. Etna, Nevado del Ruiz, Tungurahua) suggest a possible link between a drop in BrO/SO2 and a future explosion. In addition, the observed relatively high BrO/SO2 molar ratios after December 2015 imply that bromine degassed predominately after sulfur from the magmatic melt. Furthermore, statistical analysis of the data revealed a conspicuous periodic pattern with a periodicity of about 2 weeks in a 3-month time series. While the time series is too short to rule out a chance recurrence of transient geological or meteorological events as a possible origin for the periodic signal, we nevertheless took this observation as a motivation to examine the influence of natural forcings with periodicities of around 2 weeks on volcanic gas emissions. One strong aspirant with such a periodicity are the Earth tides, which are thus central in this study. We present the BrO/SO2 data, analyse the reliability of the periodic signal, discuss a possible meteorological or eruption-induced origin of this signal, and compare the signal with the theoretical ground surface displacement pattern caused by the Earth tides. Our central result is the observation of a significant correlation between the BrO/SO2 molar ratios with the north-south and vertical components of the calculated tide-induced surface displacement with correlation coefficients of 47 and 36 %, respectively. From all other investigated parameters, only the correlation between the BrO/SO2 molar ratios and the relative humidity in the local

  12. Periodicity in the BrO∕SO2 molar ratios in the volcanic gas plume of Cotopaxi and its correlation with the Earth tides during the eruption in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dinger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated NOVAC (Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change gas emission data from the 2015 eruption of the Cotopaxi volcano (Ecuador for BrO∕SO2 molar ratios. The BrO∕SO2 molar ratios were very small prior to the phreatomagmatic explosions in August 2015, significantly higher after the explosions, and continuously increasing until the end of the unrest period in December 2015. These observations together with similar findings in previous studies at other volcanoes (Mt. Etna, Nevado del Ruiz, Tungurahua suggest a possible link between a drop in BrO∕SO2 and a future explosion. In addition, the observed relatively high BrO∕SO2 molar ratios after December 2015 imply that bromine degassed predominately after sulfur from the magmatic melt. Furthermore, statistical analysis of the data revealed a conspicuous periodic pattern with a periodicity of about 2 weeks in a 3-month time series. While the time series is too short to rule out a chance recurrence of transient geological or meteorological events as a possible origin for the periodic signal, we nevertheless took this observation as a motivation to examine the influence of natural forcings with periodicities of around 2 weeks on volcanic gas emissions. One strong aspirant with such a periodicity are the Earth tides, which are thus central in this study. We present the BrO∕SO2 data, analyse the reliability of the periodic signal, discuss a possible meteorological or eruption-induced origin of this signal, and compare the signal with the theoretical ground surface displacement pattern caused by the Earth tides. Our central result is the observation of a significant correlation between the BrO∕SO2 molar ratios with the north–south and vertical components of the calculated tide-induced surface displacement with correlation coefficients of 47 and 36 %, respectively. From all other investigated parameters, only the correlation between the BrO∕SO2 molar

  13. Theoretical insight into the binding energy and detonation performance of ε-, γ-, β-CL-20 cocrystals with β-HMX, FOX-7, and DMF in different molar ratios, as well as electrostatic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui-Zhi; Zhang, Shu-Hai; Ren, Fu-de; Gou, Rui-Jun; Gao, Li

    2016-06-01

    Molecular dynamics method was employed to study the binding energies on the selected crystal planes of the ε-, γ-, β-conformation 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (ε-, γ-, β-CL-20) cocrystal explosives with 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene (FOX-7), 1,3,5,7-tetranitro- 1,3,5,7-tetrazacyclooctane with β-conformation (β-HMX) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in different molar ratios. The oxygen balance, density, detonation velocity, detonation pressure, and surface electrostatic potential were analyzed. The results indicate that the binding energies E b (*) and stabilities are in the order of 1:1 > 2:1 > 3:1 > 5:1 > 8:1 (CL-20:FOX-7/β-HMX/DMF). The values of E b (*) and stabilities of the energetic-nonenergetic CL-20/DMF cocrystals are far larger than those of the energetic-energetic CL-20/FOX-7 and CL-20/β-HMX, and those of CL-20/β-HMX are the smallest. For CL-20/FOX-7 and CL-20/β-HMX, the largest E b (*) appears in the cocrystals with the 1:1, 1:2 or 1:3 molar ratio, and the stabilities of the cocrystals with the excess ratio of CL-20 are weaker than those in the cocrystals with the excess ratio of FOX-7 or β-HMX. In CL-20/FOX-7, CL-20 prefers adopting the γ-form, and ε-CL-20 is the preference in CL-20/β-HMX, and ε-CL-20 and β-CL-20 can be found in CL-20/DMF. The CL-20/FOX-7 and CL-20/β-HMX cocrystals with low molar ratios can meet the requirements of low sensitive high energetic materials. Surface electrostatic potential reveals the nature of the sensitivity change upon the cocrystal formation. Graphical Abstract MD method was employed to study the binding energies on the selected crystal planes in the ε-, γ-, β-CL-20 cocrystals with FOX-7, β-HMX and DMF in different molar ratios. Surface electrostatic potential reveals the nature of the sensitivity change in cocrystals.

  14. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiza Abdul Razak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced.

  15. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Razak, Rafiza; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Hardjito, Djwantoro; Yahya, Zarina

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA) using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud) and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value) of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced. PMID:26006238

  16. Effect of molar ratios of MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the sintering behavior and thermal shock resistance of MgOAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}SiO{sub 2} composite ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Dong, E-mail: 1078155409@qq.com [School of High Temperature Materials and Magnesium Resource Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Luo, Xudong, E-mail: luoxudongs@aliyun.com [School of High Temperature Materials and Magnesium Resource Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Guodong [School of High Temperature Materials and Magnesium Resource Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Xie, Zhipeng [Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-01-01

    In order to determine the relationship between the property of MgOAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}SiO{sub 2} composite ceramics and molar ratios of MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, especially the sintering behavior and thermal shock resistance, the MgOAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}SiO{sub 2} composite ceramics were fabricated with micro-size MgO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder and nano-size SiO{sub 2} as main raw materials. The sample was characterized by phase analysis, densification and thermal shock times. Moreover, field emission scanning electron microscope was also conducted to study microstructure of the samples before and after thermal shock. Effect of different molar ratios of MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the sintering behavior and thermal shock resistance of composite ceramics were investigated. The results showed that the sample possess better sintering behavior and thermal shock resistance with the molar ratio of MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} equal to 2/1. Grains of periclase and spinel were directly bonded together, resulting in a dense and compact microstructure, and the bulk density of obtained sample reached 3.4 g/cm{sup 3}. The microstructure of sample after thermal shock revealed that the crack propagation path was deflected and bifurcated, the main-crack propagation was restricted and more fracture energy was consumed, the thermal shock resistance of composite ceramics was greatly improved. - Highlights: • Effect of MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the composite ceramic was firstly researched with 1 mol% SiO{sub 2}. • Microcracks for a short distance by interlinking can eliminate the crack propagation. • The composite ceramic have optimal synthetic property with MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was 2/1.

  17. The effect of CaO/SiO2 molar ratio of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses on their structure and reactivity in alkali activated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharczyk, Sylwia; Sitarz, Maciej; Zajac, Maciej; Deja, Jan

    2018-04-05

    The influence of CaO/SiO 2 molar ratio of calcium aluminosilicate glasses on resulting structure and reactivity was investigated. Chemical compositions of glasses were chosen to mimic the composition of the fly ash and slag amorphous phase. Understanding the reactivity of these materials is of high importance allowing further development of the composite cements to limit the environmental footprint of cement industry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy were employed to examine the structure of glasses. Reactivity of the glasses was analyzed on paste samples after 1, 2, 7, 28 and 90days of curing by means of thermogravimetry (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR. Spectroscopic results emphasize dependence of the structure on the chemical composition of the glasses. The higher CaO/SiO 2 the more depolymerized the glass network is, though there is no direct correlation with the reactivity. Significant differences in reactivity is observed primarily between the glasses of peraluminous (CaO/Al 2 O 3 1). Amongst the pastes made of glasses of percalcic region a higher degree of reaction at later ages is observed for the paste containing glass of lower CaO/SiO 2 molar ratio. This is due to both degree of depolimerization and the nature of these glasses (pozzolanic and hydraulic materials). No difference of degree of reaction has been observed within the glasses of CaO/SiO 2 lower than 1. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of CaO/SiO2 molar ratio of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses on their structure and reactivity in alkali activated system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharczyk, Sylwia; Sitarz, Maciej; Zajac, Maciej; Deja, Jan

    2018-04-01

    The influence of CaO/SiO2 molar ratio of calcium aluminosilicate glasses on resulting structure and reactivity was investigated. Chemical compositions of glasses were chosen to mimic the composition of the fly ash and slag amorphous phase. Understanding the reactivity of these materials is of high importance allowing further development of the composite cements to limit the environmental footprint of cement industry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy were employed to examine the structure of glasses. Reactivity of the glasses was analyzed on paste samples after 1, 2, 7, 28 and 90 days of curing by means of thermogravimetry (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR. Spectroscopic results emphasize dependence of the structure on the chemical composition of the glasses. The higher CaO/SiO2 the more depolymerized the glass network is, though there is no direct correlation with the reactivity. Significant differences in reactivity is observed primarily between the glasses of peraluminous (CaO/Al2O3 1). Amongst the pastes made of glasses of percalcic region a higher degree of reaction at later ages is observed for the paste containing glass of lower CaO/SiO2 molar ratio. This is due to both degree of depolimerization and the nature of these glasses (pozzolanic and hydraulic materials). No difference of degree of reaction has been observed within the glasses of CaO/SiO2 lower than 1.

  19. Deciduous molar hypomineralization and molar incisor hypomineralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfrink, M.E.C.; ten Cate, J.M.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Moll, H.A.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. This study focused on the relationship between Deciduous Molar Hypomineralization (DMH) and Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH). First permanent molars develop

  20. Biomimetic oligosaccharide and peptide surfactant polymers designed for cardiovascular biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Mark Andrew

    A common problem associated with cardiovascular devices is surface induced thrombosis initiated by the rapid, non-specific adsorption of plasma proteins onto the biomaterial surface. Control of the initial protein adsorption is crucial to achieve the desired longevity of the implanted biomaterial. The cell membrane glycocalyx acts as a non-thrombogenic interface through passive (dense oligosaccharide structures) and active (ligand/receptor interactions) mechanisms. This thesis is designed to investigate biomimicry of the cell glycocalyx to minimize non-specific protein adsorption and promote specific ligand/receptor interactions. Biomimetic macromolecules were designed through the molecular-scale engineering of polymer surfactants, utilizing a poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) backbone to which hydrophilic (dextran, maltose, peptide) and hydrophobic alkyl (hexanoyl or hexanal) chains are simultaneously attached. The structure was controlled through the molar feed ratio of hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic groups, which also provided control of the solution and surface-active properties. To mimic passive properties, a series of oligomaltose surfactants were synthesized with increasing saccharide length (n = 2, 7, 15 where n is number of glucose units) to investigate the effect of coating height on protein adsorption. The surfactants were characterized by infra red (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies for structural properties and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle goniometry for surface activity. Protein adsorption under dynamic flow (5 dyn/cm2) was reduced by 85%--95% over the bare hydrophobic substrate; platelet adhesion dropped by ˜80% compared to glass. Peptide ligands were incorporated into the oligosaccharide surfactant to promote functional activity of the passive coating. The surfactants were synthesized to contain 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% peptide ligand density and were stable on hydrophobic surfaces. The peptide surface density was

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanoporous Carbon Materials; The Effect of Surfactant Concentrations and Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoofeh Geranmayeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous carbon framework was synthesized using phenol and formaldehyde as carbon precursors and triblock copolymer (pluronic F127 as soft template via evaporation induced self-assembly. Hexagonal mesoporous carbon with specific surface area of 350 m2/g through optimizing the situation was obtained. The effects of different surfactant/phenol molar ratio and presence of salts on specific surface area, pore size and pore volume for all the prepared samples were studied by means of the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET formalism, powder X-ray diffraction technique and FT-IR spectroscopy.

  2. Effects of H2O/Na2O molar ratio on the strength of alkaline activated ground blast furnace slag-ultrafine palm oil fuel ash based concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, Moruf Olalekan; Megat Johari, Megat Azmi; Ahmad, Zainal Arifin; Maslehuddin, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of H 2 O/Na 2 O on GBFS-POFA alkaline activated concrete are investigated. • High H 2 O/Na 2 O contents enhance dissolutions/workability at the expense of strength. • Lower H 2 O/Na 2 O molar ratios aid compressive strength of the products. • Increase in H 2 O/Na 2 O favours the reactivity of Ca and the products molecular bonds. • Low H 2 O/Na 2 O positively affects the microstructural density of the products. - Abstract: Effects of H 2 O/Na 2 O molar ratios (MRs) on the developed alkaline activated pozzolanic solid wastes (PMs)-ultrafine palm oil fuel ash (UPOFA) and ground blast furnace slag (GBFS)-were studied by using the constant mass of combined activators (10 M NaOH aq + Na 2 SiO 3aq of silica-modulus (Ms = SiO 2 /Na 2 O) of 3.3).The free water content (FWC) expressed as FWC/(PMs) varied from 0.02 to 0.1 by mass while the total H 2 O/Na 2 O MRs ranged from 18.9 to 23.1 The findings revealed that increase in H 2 O/Na 2 O MRs negatively affects the strength but positively impact the mixture workability (consistency). The microstructural morphology examination using Scanning Electron Microscope coupled with Energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM + EDS) reveals the contribution of H 2 O/Na 2 O MRs to the product nature, compactness, and the reactivity of Ca 2+ and Al 3+ while Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy indicates that H 2 O/Na 2 O ratios contributed to the product amorphousity and carbonation process but sparingly affected its formed polymerized structural units (SiQ n (mAl), n = 2 and 3)

  3. Dependences of molar volumes in solids, partial molal and hydrated ionic volumes of alkali halides on covalent and ionic radii and the golden ratio

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heyrovská, Raji

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 436, č. 1-3 (2007), s. 287-293 ISSN 0009-2614 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : alkali halides * ionic hydration * golden ratio Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.207, year: 2007

  4. Spontaneous vesicle phase formation by pseudogemini surfactants in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Nan; Shi, Lijuan; Lu, Fei; Xie, Shuting; Zheng, Liqiang

    2014-08-14

    The phase behavior of a kind of pseudogemini surfactant in aqueous solutions, formed by the mixture of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and butane-1,4-bis (methylimidazolium bromide) ([mim-C4-mim]Br2) or butane-1,4-bis(methylpyrrolidinium bromide) ([mpy-C4-mpy]Br2) in a molar ratio of 2 : 1, is reported in the present work. When [mim-C4-mim]Br2 or [mpy-C4-mpy]Br2 is mixed with SDBS in aqueous solutions, one cationic [mim-C4-mim]Br2 or [mpy-C4-mpy]Br2 molecule "bridges" two SDBS molecules by noncovalent interactions (e.g. electrostatic, π-π stacking, and σ-π interactions), behaving like a pseudogemini surfactant. Vesicles can be formed by this kind of pseudogemini surfactant, determined by freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM) or cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The mixed system of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with [mim-C4-mim]Br2 or [mpy-C4-mpy]Br2 was also constructed, and only micelles were observed. We infer that a pseudogemini surfactant is formed under the synergic effect of electrostatic, π-π stacking, and σ-π interactions in the SDBS/[mim-C4-mim]Br2/H2O system, while electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic interactions may provide the directional force for vesicle formation in the SDBS/[mpy-C4-mpy]Br2/H2O system.

  5. Chemometric study of the effects of PtRu:BH4-molar ratio and solvent used in the preparation of PtRu/C electrocatalysts for for direct methanol fuel cell anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polanco, N.S.O.; Neto, A.O.; Spinace, E.V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tusi, M.M. [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Santiago, RS (Brazil); Brandalise, M. [Instituto Federal Fluminense (IFF), Campos dos Goyracazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    PtRu/C electrocatalysts were prepared by borohydride reduction method and a chemometric study was performed to evaluate the influence of the solvent (water and isopropyl alcohol) and amount of reducing agent (PtRu:BH4- molar ratios of 5 and 15) in maximum power density. In borohydride reduction method, a solution containing sodium hydroxide and sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is added to a mixture containing water, isopropyl alcohol, metallic precursors and the carbon support Vulcan XC72. The obtained materials were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEA's) were produced and tests in single direct methanol fuel cells were performed. The amount of sodium borohydride used in the reduction showed more influence on the maximum power density than the change of solvent of the reaction. (author)

  6. Effect of different processes and Ti/Zn molar ratios on the structure, morphology, and enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performance of Ti3+ self-doped titanium-zinc hybrid oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Rongrong; Wang, Qingyao; Gao, Shanmin; Wang, Zeyan; Huang, Baibiao; Dai, Ying; Lu, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Ti3+ self-doped titanium-zinc hybrid oxides with different phase compositions and morphologies were successfully synthesized using Zn powder as the reductant and Zn source by a chemical-reduction precipitation method with subsequent thermal treatment. The fabricated Ti3+ self-doped TiO2(A)/TiO2(R), TiO2(A)/TiO2(R)/ZnTiO3, and TiO2(A)/ZnO heterojunctions were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The effects of various Ti/Zn molar ratios and preparation processes on the structural, morphological, optical, photocurrent and photocatalytic properties of the resultant samples were investigated systematically. Results reveal that Ti3+ self-doping enhances the photoabsorption capability of titanium-zinc hybrid oxides in the visible-light region. Moreover, different processes and Ti/Zn molar ratios play great influences on the structure, morphology, optical, photocurrent and photocatalytic properties of the final products. Ti3+ self-doped titanium-zinc hybrid oxides exhibit excellent photocurrent and photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2 and ZnTiO3 under visible-light irradiation (λ ≥ 400 nm). The most active Ti3+ self-doped titanium-zinc hybrid oxides photoanode presents significantly improved water splitting performance. The synergistic effect between the Ti3+ self-doped and heterojunctions is responsible for the enhanced performance of these materials.

  7. Influence of the Ti concentration and of the Ti:Mo molar ratio, in the efficiency of the 99 Mo - 99m Tc generator, at basis of gels of titanium molybdates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes R, O.; Monroy G, F.; Martinez C, T.

    2003-01-01

    The 99m Tc, continues being the radionuclide more used in nuclear medicine to world scale. The production of this radioisotope, is carried out by means of generators 99 Mo/ 99m Tc that get ready commercially with 99 Mo of high specific activity, adsorbed in alumina (2 mg 99 Mo/g alumina) and that they are elutriated every 23 hours. In an alternative way, it is intended to use gels of titanium molybdates, as matrices of this generators. The gels are synthesized starting from solutions of ammonium molybdates and of titanium tetrachloride in aqueous media. These gels allow to incorporate until 25% of molybdenum in their structure, being been able to use 99 Mo of low specific activity that can be obtained starting from the reaction 98 Mo (n, γ) 99 Mo. With the object of producing generators of medium activity, with the base of gels of titanium molybdates, intends in this work, to study the influence of two synthesis parameters of these gels: the concentration of the titanium solutions and the molar ratio Ti: Mo. The decrease of the concentration of the titanium solution, used during the synthesis of the gels, is converted in an efficiency decrease and radionuclide purity of the generators, as well as an increment so much of the volume of elutriation, as of the pH of the elutriates. The gels that contain an major number of titanium moles, regarding the molybdenum moles, present a greater radionuclide purity, but they diminish their efficiency. The best characteristics for the gels synthesis of titanium molybdates are: a molar ratio 1:1 for Ti and Mo, and to use solutions of titanium whose concentration is near at 1 M. (Author)

  8. Effect of the Molar Ratio of B2O3 to Bi2O3 in Al Paste with Bi2O3-B2O3-ZnO Glass on Screen Printed Contact Formation and Si Solar Cell Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bit-Na; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Chang, Hyo Sik; Hong, Hyun Seon; Ryu, Sung-Soo; Lee, Heon

    2013-10-01

    In this study, eco-friendly Pb-free Bi2O3-B2O3-ZnO glass frits were chosen as an inorganic additive for the Al paste used in Si solar cells. The effects of the molar ratio of Bi2O3 to B2O3 in the glass composition on the electrical resistance of the Al electrode and on the cell performance were investigated. The results showed that as the molar ratio of Bi2O3 to B2O3 increased, the glass transition temperature and softening temperature decreased because of the reduced glass viscosity. In Al screen-printed Si solar cells, as the molar ratio of Bi2O3 to B2O3 increased, the sheet electrical resistance of the Al electrode decreased and the cell efficiency increased. The uniformity and thickness of the back-surface field was significantly influenced by the glass composition.

  9. Effect of [Al] and [In] molar ratio in solutions on the growth and microstructure of electrodeposition Cu(In,Al)Se{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kuo-Chan; Liu, Chien-Lin; Hung, Pin-Kun [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Houng, Mau-Phon, E-mail: mphoung@eembox.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2013-05-15

    In this paper, the cyclic voltammetric studies were used to realize the element's reduction potential and chemical reaction mechanism for presuming the formation routes of quaternary Cu(In,Al)Se{sub 2} crystals. Thereafter, the prior adjustment of deposited potential from −0.6 V to −1.0 V can be identified a suitable potential as co-electrodeposition. The material characteristics of Cu(In,Al)Se{sub 2} films are dominated by the percentage of aluminum content. Thus, the influence of aluminum and indium concentrations in solutions on the percentage composition, surface morphology, structural and crystal properties, and optical energy band gap of Cu(In,Al)Se{sub 2} films were investigated. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) indicated that the ratio of Al to (Al + In) in Cu(In,Al)Se{sub 2} films varied from 0.21 to 0.42 when adjusting aluminum and indium concentrations in solutions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the surface morphology changed from round-like structures into cauliflower-like structures and became rough when the aluminum concentration increased and indium concentration decreased in solutions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed three preferred growth orientations along the (1 1 2), (2 0 4/2 2 0), and (1 1 6/3 1 2) planes for all species. The (αhυ){sup 2} versus hυ plots (UV–Visible) shows that the optical energy band gap of the Cu(In,Al)Se{sub 2} films can be successfully controlled from 1.17 eV to 1.48 eV by adjusting the aluminum and indium concentrations. Furthermore, the shift of the (1 1 2) peak in the XRD patterns and variation of optical band gap are evidence that the incorporation of aluminum atoms into the crystallitic CuInSe{sub 2} forms Cu(In,Al)Se{sub 2} crystals.

  10. Nanoparticle self-assembly in mixtures of phospholipids with styrene/maleic acid copolymers or fluorinated surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Carolyn; Arenas, Rodrigo Cuevas; Frotscher, Erik; Keller, Sandro

    2015-12-01

    Self-assembling nanostructures in aqueous mixtures of bilayer-forming lipids and micelle-forming surfactants are relevant to in vitro studies on biological and synthetic membranes and membrane proteins. Considerable efforts are currently underway to replace conventional detergents by milder alternatives such as styrene/maleic acid (SMA) copolymers and fluorinated surfactants. However, these compounds and their nanosized assemblies remain poorly understood as regards their interactions with lipid membranes, particularly, the thermodynamics of membrane partitioning and solubilisation. Using 19F and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, static and dynamic light scattering, and isothermal titration calorimetry, we have systematically investigated the aggregational state of a zwitterionic bilayer-forming phospholipid upon exposure to an SMA polymer with a styrene/maleic acid ratio of 3 : 1 or to a fluorinated octyl phosphocholine derivative called F6OPC. The lipid interactions of SMA(3 : 1) and F6OPC can be thermodynamically conceptualised within the framework of a three-stage model that treats bilayer vesicles, discoidal or micellar nanostructures, and the aqueous solution as distinct pseudophases. The exceptional solubilising power of SMA(3 : 1) is reflected in very low membrane-saturating and solubilising polymer/lipid molar ratios of 0.10 and 0.15, respectively. Although F6OPC saturates bilayers at an even lower molar ratio of 0.031, this nondetergent does not solubilise lipids even at >1000-fold molar excess, thus highlighting fundamental differences between these two types of mild membrane-mimetic systems. We rationalise these findings in terms of a new classification of surfactants based on bilayer-to-micelle transfer free energies and discuss practical implications for membrane-protein research.Self-assembling nanostructures in aqueous mixtures of bilayer-forming lipids and micelle-forming surfactants are relevant to in vitro studies on biological and

  11. Perfectly Wetting Mixtures of Surfactants from Renewable Resources: The Interaction and Synergistic Effects on Adsorption and Micellization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumała, Patrycja; Mówińska, Alicja

    This paper presents a study of the surface properties of mixtures of surfactants originating from renewable sources, i.e., alkylpolyglucoside (APG), ethoxylated fatty alcohol (AE), and sodium soap (Na soap). The main objective was to optimize the surfactant ratio which produces the highest wetting properties during the analysis of the solution of the individual surfactants, two- and three-component mixtures, and at different pH values. The results showed the existence of a synergistic effect in lowering the interfacial tension, critical micelle concentration and the formation of mixed micelles in selected solutions. We found that best wetting properties were measured for the binary AE:APG mixtures. It has been demonstrated that slightly lower contact angles values were observed on Teflon and glass surfaces for the AE:APG:soap mixtures but the results were obtained for higher concentration of the components. In addition, all studied solutions have very good surface properties in acidic, basic and neural media. However, the AE:soap (molar ratio of 1:2), AE:APG (2:1) and AE:APG:soap (1:1:1) compositions improved their wetting power at pH 7 on the aluminium and glass surfaces, as compared to solutions at other pH values tested (selected Θ values close to zero-perfectly wetting liquids). All described effects detected would allow less surfactant to be used to achieve the maximum capacity of washing, wetting or solubilizing while minimizing costs and demonstrating environmental care.

  12. [Hyperthyroidism in molar pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufettal, H; Mahdoui, S; Noun, M; Hermas, S; Samouh, N

    2014-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a rare complication of molar pregnancy. We report a 39-year-old woman who presented a thyrotoxic syndrome accompanying a molar pregnancy. Serum thyroid hormones were elevated and returned to normal level after uterine evacuation of a molar pregnancy. The authors detail the role of thyroid stimulating property of human gonadotropin chorionic hormone and its structural changes during the gestational trophoblastic diseases. These changes give the latter the thyroid stimulating properties and signs of hyperthyroidism. Molar pregnancy may be a cause of hyperthyroidism. The diagnosis of molar pregnancy should be a mention to thyrotoxicosique syndrome in a woman of childbearing age. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  13. Deposition and separation of W and Mo from aqueous solutions with simultaneous hydrogen production in stacked bioelectrochemical systems (BESs): Impact of heavy metals W(VI)/Mo(VI) molar ratio, initial pH and electrode material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liping; Li, Ming; Pan, Yuzhen; Quan, Xie; Yang, Jinhui; Puma, Gianluca Li

    2018-04-16

    The deposition and separation of W and Mo from aqueous solutions with simultaneous hydrogen production was investigated in stacked bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) composed of microbial electrolysis cell (1#) serially connected with parallel connected microbial fuel cell (2#). The impact of W/Mo molar ratio (in the range 0.01 mM : 1 mM and vice-versa), initial pH (1.5 to 4.0) and cathode material (stainless steel mesh (SSM), carbon rod (CR) and titanium sheet (TS)) on the BES performance was systematically investigated. The concentration of Mo(VI) was more influential than W(VI) in determining the rate of deposition of both metals and the rate of hydrogen production. Complete metal recovery was achieved at equimolar W/Mo ratio of 0.05 mM : 0.05 mM. The rates of metal deposition and hydrogen production increased at acidic pH, with the fastest rates at pH 1.5. The morphology of the metal deposits and the valence of the Mo were correlated with W/Mo ratio and pH. CR cathodes (2#) coupled with SSM cathodes (1#) achieved a significant rate of hydrogen production (0.82 ± 0.04 m 3 /m 3 /d) with W and Mo deposition (0.049 ± 0.003 mmol/L/h and 0.140 ± 0.004 mmol/L/h (1#); 0.025 ± 0.001 mmol/L/h and 0.090 ± 0.006 mmol/L/h (2#)). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of solutol HS 15, Cremophor EL and novel ethoxylated fatty acid surfactants as multidrug resistance modification agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, L E; Balasubramanian, M; Emanuele, R M; Clodfelter, K E; Coon, J S

    1995-08-09

    Some well-known fatty acid ester surfactants, e.g., Cremophor EL and Solutol HS 15, are modulators of multidrug resistance in vitro and in vivo. Because they are polydisperse, and their active component(s) have not been identified, the therapeutic potential of such surfactants is unclear. To better define the active components of Solutol HS 15 and to make more potent surfactant multidrug resistance modulators, highly purified C-18 fatty acids were esterified with ethylene oxide at 5-200 molar ratios. Unexpectedly, ethylene oxide esters of pure 12-hydroxy stearic acid, the major components of Solutol HS 15, displayed negligible resistance modification activity compared with Solutol HS 15 itself or to stearic and oleic acid esters synthesized under identical conditions. Since oleic acid esters appeared to have good activity, a series of these compounds was prepared to determine the optimal ethylene oxide/fatty acid ratio. The optimal ratio was found to be 20 mole ethylene oxide: I mole fatty acid, with a steep decline in activity for products made with ratios above and below the optimum. The most active oleic acid ester, designated CRL 1337, was 8.4-fold as potent as Solutol HS 15 and over 19-fold as potent as Cremophor EL in promoting rhodamine 123 accumulation in multidrug-resistant KB 8-5-11 cells in vitro. Our results show that the structure of the hydrophobic domain (fatty acid) of surfactants as well as its hydrophile-lipophile balance are critical in determining the potency of surfactants as reversing agents.

  15. Colorimetric study of malvidin-3-O-glucoside copigmented by phenolic compounds: The effect of molar ratio, temperature, pH, and ethanol content on color expression of red wine model solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Yang, Xue-Shan; Li, Ning-Ning; Zhu, Xia; Sheng, Wen-Jun; He, Fei; Duan, Chang-Qing; Han, Shun-Yu

    2017-12-01

    In the recent research, the copigmentations of malvidin-3-O-glucoside with eight types of phenolic copigments have been investigated. The influence of the pigment/copigment molar ratio, the reaction temperature, the pH and the ethanol content of solutions has been examined. The results showed that the copigmentation effect was dependent on not only the particular structures of the phenolic compounds but also the factors of the reaction systems. The increase of the copigment concentration can strengthen the copigmentation effect, improve the solution color, and enhance the red-purple features. Different temperatures had different influences on the copigmentation reactions. The destruction of the copigmentation complexes can result in the hypsochromic shift of the reaction solution when the temperature was higher than 20°C. The bathochromic shift of the solution gradually progressed with the increase of the pH value. A significant copigmentation feature was spotted when pH reached 3.0, which demonstrates obvious red-purple characterization. The addition of the ethanol weakened the copigmentation effect. According to measurement through color analysis, it was found that the color differences caused by ethanol in red wine were typically attributed to quantitative changes. Remarkably, all of the above delicate color deviations caused by the structural or environmental factors can be precisely and conveniently depicted via the CIELAB space analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization by Sem, EDS and micro-Raman of the influence of the molar ratio SiO2/Al2O3 and reduction temperature on the system CuZSM5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez R, F.; Rodriguez I, I.; Petranovskii, V.

    2014-01-01

    The morphological and spectroscopic changes caused by reduction of ion-exchanged CuZSM5 samples with SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 molar ratios (MR) of 30 and 70 in H 2 flow at 150 and 350 grades C are discussed. the nominal copper loading was of 1% by weight. Scanning electron microscopy of CuZSM5 sample set showed that the treatment in reducing atmosphere at 350 grades C produces particle agglomeration and smoother surface texture that treatment at 150 grades C, this effect was more pronounced for the sample with MR 30. Furthermore, the particles corresponding to the sample with MR 30 are of irregular shape and have rough texture (cubic or rectangular crystals, protrusions) while the particles of the sample with MR 70 are in the majority of spherical smooth texture (leaf-shaped crystals/platelet, reclining). Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental analysis reveals a heterogeneous distribution of copper as well other elements in each sample. The micro-Raman spectroscopy shows some changes in the vibrational modes for the studied samples. (Author)

  17. Association between Peritonsillar Abscess and Molar Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shayani Nasab

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peritonsillar abscess is the most common deep neck infections that are related with periodontal disease which has the same pathogenesis. We determined the relationship between peritonsillar infection and molar caries. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 33 consecutive patients whom referred to Hamadan university clinic of otolaryngologic for peritonsillar abscess were examined by otolaryngologist and dentist who investigated relationship between peritonsillar infection and molar caries. Results: There were 27 males and 6 females with mean age 26.7+_7 years. The frequency caries on ipsilateral peritonsillar infection sides was in relation to molars caries on opposite sides (conterol group. This corrolation was significant with odds ratio 2.5. Conclusion: Molar caries were seen 2.5 times more likely to have peritonsillar infection compared with normal molar sides. Key Words: Peritonsillar abscess, Infection, Periodontal disease, Dental caries

  18. Nonionic Fluorinated Surfactant Removal from Mesoporous Film Using sc-CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez Panduro, Elvia A; Assaker, Karine; Beuvier, Thomas; Blin, Jean-Luc; Stébé, Marie-José; Konovalov, Oleg; Gibaud, Alain

    2017-01-25

    Surfactant templated silica thin films were self-assembled on solid substrates by dip-coating using a partially fluorinated surfactant R 8 F (EO) 9 as the liquid crystal template. The aim was 2-fold: first we checked which composition in the phase diagram was corresponding to a 2D rectangular highly ordered crystalline phase and second we exposed the films to sc-CO 2 to foster the removal of the surfactant. The films were characterized by in situ X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) under CO 2 pressure from 0 to 100 bar at 34 °C. GISAXS patterns reveal the formation of a 2-D rectangular structure at a molar ratio R 8 F (EO) 9 /Si equal to 0.1. R 8 F (EO) 9 micelles have a cylindrical shape, which have a core/shell structure ordered in a hexagonal system. The core contains the R 8 F part and the shell is a mixture of (EO) 9 embedded in the silica matrix. We further evidence that the extraction of the template using supercritical carbon dioxide can be successfully achieved. This can be attributed to both the low solubility parameter of the surfactants and the fluorine and ethylene oxide CO 2 -philic groups. The initial 2D rectangular structure was well preserved after depressurization of the cell and removal of the surfactant. We attribute the very high stability of the rinsed film to the large value of the wall thickness relatively to the small pore size.

  19. Third molar development: measurements versus scores as age predictor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevissen, P W; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2011-10-01

    Human third molar development is widely used to predict chronological age of sub adult individuals with unknown or doubted age. For these predictions, classically, the radiologically observed third molar growth and maturation is registered using a staging and related scoring technique. Measures of lengths and widths of the developing wisdom tooth and its adjacent second molar can be considered as an alternative registration. The aim of this study was to verify relations between mandibular third molar developmental stages or measurements of mandibular second molar and third molars and age. Age related performance of stages and measurements were compared to assess if measurements added information to age predictions from third molar formation stage. The sample was 340 orthopantomograms (170 females, 170 males) of individuals homogenously distributed in age between 7 and 24 years. Mandibular lower right, third and second molars, were staged following Gleiser and Hunt, length and width measurements were registered, and various ratios of these measurements were calculated. Univariable regression models with age as response and third molar stage, measurements and ratios of second and third molars as predictors, were considered. Multivariable regression models assessed if measurements or ratios added information to age prediction from third molar stage. Coefficients of determination (R(2)) and root mean squared errors (RMSE) obtained from all regression models were compared. The univariable regression model using stages as predictor yielded most accurate age predictions (males: R(2) 0.85, RMSE between 0.85 and 1.22 year; females: R(2) 0.77, RMSE between 1.19 and 2.11 year) compared to all models including measurements and ratios. The multivariable regression models indicated that measurements and ratios added no clinical relevant information to the age prediction from third molar stage. Ratios and measurements of second and third molars are less accurate age predictors

  20. Hypomineralized Second Primary Molars as Predictor of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negre-Barber, A.; Montiel-Company, J. M.; Boronat-Catalá, M.; Catalá-Pizarro, M.; Almerich-Silla, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect of dental enamel that shares features with hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPM). Prior to permanent tooth eruption, second primary molars could have predictive value for permanent molar and incisor hypomineralization. To assess this possible relationship, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 8 and 9 years from the INMA cohort in Valencia (Spain). A calibrated examiner (linear-weighted Kappa 0.83) performed the intraoral examinations at the University of Valencia between November 2013 and 2014, applying the diagnostic criteria for MIH and HSPM adopted by the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. 100 children (24.2%) presented MIH and 60 (14.5%) presented HSPM. Co-occurrence of the two defects was observed in 11.1% of the children examined. The positive predictive value was 76.7% (63.9–86.6) and the negative predictive value 84.7% (80.6–88.3). The positive likelihood ratio (S/1-E) was 10.3 (5.9–17.9) and the negative likelihood ratio (1-S/E) 0.57 (0.47–0.68). The odds ratio was 18.2 (9.39–35.48). It was concluded that while the presence of HSPM can be considered a predictor of MIH, indicating the need for monitoring and control, the absence of this defect in primary dentition does not rule out the appearance of MIH. PMID:27558479

  1. Effects of alkyl polyglycoside, a nonionic surfactant, and forage-to-concentrate ratio on rumen fermentation, amino acid composition of rumen content, bacteria and plasma in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bo; Tan, Zhiliang; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng; Tan, Chuanyan; Zhong, Rongzhen; Hea, Zhixiong; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, the effects of different forage-to-concentrate ratios (F:C) and an alkyl polyglycoside (APG) supplementation on parameters of rumen and blood metabolism were investigated in goats. A 2 x 2 factorial experiment was arranged within a 4 x 4 Latin square design (four 22-day periods), using four wether goats equipped with permanent ruminal cannulas. The experimental diets included two F:C levels (40:60 vs. 60:40), and two APG supplementation levels (None or 13 ml APG daily per animal). Rumen contents and blood samples were collected at the end of each period. Dietary F:C alteration affected plasma urea and influenced the proportions of leucine, histidine, arginine, glycine, proline, alanine, valine, phenylalanine, cysteine and tyrosine in rumen content, and the proportions of methionine, threonine and proline in solid-associated bacteria (SAB) significantly. Dietary APG decreased the proportions of valine and phenylalanine in rumen content, and the histidine content of liquid-associated bacteria. The interaction between dietary F:C and APG was significant for the proportions of glycine and alanine in rumen content, and the proportions of lysine and threonine in SAB. The proportion of lysine was greater, but the proportion of threonine was less in SAB for goats fed high F:C diet without APG supplementation. The proportions of plasma free amino acids and glucose concentration were not affected by experimental treatments. These results indicated that dietary APG addition affected the amino acid composition of the rumen content and ruminal bacteria, but this depended on the dietary F:C ratio. It is necessary to validate the effectiveness of dietary APG supplementation in further studies with more animals.

  2. Removable molar power arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Attachment of force elements from the gingival hook of maxillary molar tubes during the retraction of the anterior teeth is very common in orthodontic practice. As the line of force passes below the center of resistance (CR of molar, it results its mesial tipping and also anchorage loss. To overcome this problem, the line of force should pass along the CR of molar. This article highlights a method to overcome this problem by attaching a removable power arm to the headgear tube of molar tube during the retraction of the anterior teeth.

  3. Effect of Zn/Sn molar ratio on the microstructural and optical properties of Cu2Zn1-xSnxS4 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvenkadam, S.; Prabhakaran, S.; Sujay Chakravarty; Ganesan, V.; Vasant Sathe; Santhosh Kumar, M. C.; Leo Rajesh, A.

    2018-03-01

    Quaternary kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) compound is one of the most promising semiconductor materials consisting of abundant and eco-friendly elements for absorption layer in thin film solar cells. The effect of Zn/Sn ratio on Cu2Zn1-xSnxS4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) thin films were studied by deposited by varying molar volumes in the precursor solution of zinc and tin was carried out in proportion of (1-x) and x respectively onto soda lime glass substrates kept at 573 K by using chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The GIXRD pattern revealed that the films having composites of Cu2ZnSnS4, Cu2SnS3, Sn2S3, CuS and ZnS phases. The crystallinity and grain size were found to increase by increasing the x value and the preferential orientation along (103), (112), (108) and (111) direction corresponding to CZTS, Cu2SnS3, CuS, and ZnS phases respectively. Micro-Raman spectra exposed a prominent peak at 332 cm-1 corresponding to the CZTS phase. Atomic force microscopy was employed to study the grain size and roughness of the deposited thin films. The optical band gap was found to lie between 1.45 and 2.25 eV and average optical absorption coefficient was found to be greater than 105 cm-1. Hall measurements exhibited that all the deposited Cu2Zn1-xSnxS4 films were p type and the resistivity lies between 10.9 ×10-2Ωcm and 149.6 × 10-2Ωcm .

  4. DNA compaction by azobenzene-containing surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Kopyshev, Alexey; Lomadze, Nino; Santer, Svetlana; Morozova, Elena; Lysyakova, Ludmila; Kasyanenko, Nina

    2011-01-01

    We report on the interaction of cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant with DNA investigated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and atomic force microscopy. The properties of the surfactant can be controlled with light by reversible switching of the azobenzene unit, incorporated into the surfactant tail, between a hydrophobic trans (visible irradiation) and a hydrophilic cis (UV irradiation) configuration. The influence of the trans-cis isomerization of the azobenzene on the compaction process of DNA molecules and the role of both isomers in the formation and colloidal stability of DNA-surfactant complexes is discussed. It is shown that the trans isomer plays a major role in the DNA compaction process. The influence of the cis isomer on the DNA coil configuration is rather small. The construction of a phase diagram of the DNA concentration versus surfactant/DNA charge ratio allows distancing between three major phases: colloidally stable and unstable compacted globules, and extended coil conformation. There is a critical concentration of DNA above which the compacted globules can be hindered from aggregation and precipitation by adding an appropriate amount of the surfactant in the trans configuration. This is because of the compensation of hydrophobicity of the globules with an increasing amount of the surfactant. Below the critical DNA concentration, the compacted globules are colloidally stable and can be reversibly transferred with light to an extended coil state.

  5. Spectrophotometric Microdetermination of Thorium(IV and Uranium(VI with Chrome Azurol-S in Presence of Cationic Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Upase

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cationic surfactant, cetyldimethylethylammonium bromide (CDMEAB, sensitize the color reactions of Th(IV and U(VI with chrome azurol-S(CRAS. Formation of water soluble deeply colored ternary complexes of metal ions show large bathochromic shift. Same stoichiometric composition of ternary complexes with 1:2:4 molar ratio (M-CRAS-CDMEAB have been observed for both the metal ions and are responsible for enhancement in molar absorptivities and sensitivities at shifted wavelength. The ternary complexes of thorium(IV and uranium(VI exhibit absorption maxima at 640 and 620 nm with molar absorptivities 85500 and 69600 L.mol-1.cm-2 respectively. Beer’s law were obeyed in concentration range 0.12-0.185 ppm for Th(IV and 0.13-0.162 ppm for U(VI in presence of CDMEAB. Conditional formation constants and various analytical parameters have been evaluated and compared the results of binary and ternary complexes. Enhancement in the molar absorptivities in presence of CDMEAB clearly indicated the usefulness of these colored reactions for microdetermination.

  6. Surfactants in tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Biresaw, Girma

    2014-01-01

    Surface science and tribology play very critical roles in many industries. Manufacture and use of almost all consumer and industrial products rely on the application of advanced surface and tribological knowledge. The fourth in a series, Surfactants in Tribology, Volume 4 provides an update on research and development activities connecting surfactants and tribological phenomena. Written by renowned subject matter experts, the book demonstrates how improved design of surfactants can be harnessed to control tribological phenomena. Profusely illustrated and copiously referenced, the chapters also

  7. Investigation of formation constant of complex of a new synthesized tripodal ligand with Cu2+ using rank annihilation factor analysis in surfactant media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Golbedaghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex formation between a newly synthesized tripodal ligand and the cation Cu2+ in water and surfactant media was studied spectrophotometrically using rank annihilation factor analysis (RAFA. According to molar ratio data the stoichiometry of complexation between the ligand and the cation Cu2+ was 1:1. Formation constant of this complex was derived using RAFA on spectrophotometric data. The performance of the method has been evaluated by using synthetic data. Also concentration and spectral profiles of ligand and complex can be obtained by using the stability constant and appropriate equations. The effect of surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB and Triton X-100 on complex formation constant of Cu2+ with the ligand was investigated.

  8. Dynamic covalent surfactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minkenberg, C.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis the development of surfactant aggregates with fast exchange dynamics between the aggregated and non-aggregated state is described. Dynamic surfactant exchange plays an important role in natural systems, for instance in cell signaling, cell division, and uptake and release of cargo.

  9. A novel cetyltrimethyl ammonium silver bromide complex and silver bromide nanoparticles obtained by the surfactant counterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian-Hao; Luo, Xiao-Hong; Lu, Shu-Xia; Zhang, Jing-Chang; Cao, Wei-Liang

    2007-03-01

    A novel cetyltrimethyl ammonium silver bromide (CTASB) complex has been prepared simply through the reaction of silver nitrate with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) in aqueous solution at room temperature by controlling the concentration of CTAB and the molar ratio of CTAB to silver nitrate in the reaction solution, in which halogen in CTAB is used as surfactant counterion. The structure and thermal behavior of cetyltrimethyl ammonium silver bromide have been investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV/vis spectroscopy, thermal analysis (TG-DTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the complex possesses a metastable layered structure. Upon heating the CTASB aqueous dispersion to above 80 degrees C, the structure change of the complex took place and CTAB-capped nanosized silver bromide particles further formed.

  10. Results, meta-analysis and a first evaluation of UNOxR, the urinary nitrate-to-nitrite molar ratio, as a measure of nitrite reabsorption in experimental and clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikas, Dimitrios; Hanff, Erik; Bollenbach, Alexander; Kruger, Ruan; Pham, Vu Vi; Chobanyan-Jürgens, Kristine; Wedekind, Dirk; Arndt, Tanja; Jörns, Anne; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Princen, Hans M G; Lücke, Thomas; Mariotti, François; Huneau, Jean-François; Ückert, Stefan; Frölich, Jürgen C; Lenzen, Sigurd

    2018-05-04

    We recently found that renal carbonic anhydrase (CA) is involved in the reabsorption of inorganic nitrite (NO 2 - ), an abundant reservoir of nitric oxide (NO) in tissues and cells. Impaired NO synthesis in the endothelium and decreased NO bioavailability in the circulation are considered major contributors to the development and progression of renal and cardiovascular diseases in different conditions including diabetes. Isolated human and bovine erythrocytic CAII and CAIV can convert nitrite to nitrous acid (HONO) and its anhydride N 2 O 3 which, in the presence of thiols (RSH), are further converted to S-nitrosothiols (RSNO) and NO. Thus, CA may be responsible both for the homeostasis of nitrite and for its bioactivation to RSNO/NO. We hypothesized that enhanced excretion of nitrite in the urine may contribute to NO-related dysfunctions in the renal and cardiovascular systems, and proposed the urinary nitrate-to-nitrite molar ratio, i.e., U NOx R, as a measure of renal CA-dependent excretion of nitrite. Based on results from clinical and experimental animal studies, here, we report on a first evaluation of U NOx R. We determined U NOx R values in preterm neonates, healthy children, and adults, in children suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), in elderly subjects suffering from chronic rheumatic diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), coronary artery disease (CAD), or peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). We also determined U NOx R values in healthy young men who ingested isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), pentaerythrityl tetranitrate (PETN), or inorganic nitrate. In addition, we tested the utility of U NOx R in two animal models, i.e., the LEW.1AR1-iddm rat, an animal model of human T1DM, and the APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a model of human dyslipidemia. Mean U NOx R values were lower in adult patients with rheumatic diseases (187) and in T2DM patients of the DALI study (74) as compared to healthy elderly adults

  11. Morphological control of seedlessly-synthesized gold nanorods using binary surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Lucien; Ye, Sunjie; Moorcroft, Samuel C. T.; Critchley, Kevin; Coletta, P. Louise; Evans, Stephen D.

    2018-04-01

    High purity gold nanorods (AuNRs) with tunable morphology have been synthesized through a binary-surfactant seedless method, which enables the formation of monocrystalline AuNRs with diameters between 7 and 35 nm. The protocol has high shape yield and monodispersity, demonstrating good reproducibility and scalability allowing synthesis of batches 0.5 l in volume. Morphological control has been achieved through the adjustment of the molar concentrations of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and sodium oleate in the growth solution, providing fine tuning of the optical scattering and absorbance properties of the AuNRs across the visible and NIR spectrum. Sodium oleate was found to provide greatest control over the aspect ratio (and hence optical properties) with concentration changes between 10 and 23 mM leading to variation in the aspect ratio between 2.8 and 4.8. Changes in the geometry of the end-caps were also observed as a result of manipulating the two surfactant concentrations.

  12. Adsorption of proteins at the solution/air interface influenced by added nonionic surfactants at very low concentrations for both components. 3. Dilational surface rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainerman, V B; Aksenenko, E V; Lylyk, S V; Lotfi, M; Miller, R

    2015-03-05

    The influence of the addition of the nonionic surfactants C12DMPO, C14DMPO, C10OH, and C10EO5 at concentrations between 10(-5) and 10(-1) mmol/L to solutions of β-casein (BCS) and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) at a fixed concentration of 10(-5) mmol/L on the dilational surface rheology is studied. A maximum in the viscoelasticity modulus |E| occurs at very low surfactant concentrations (10(-4) to 10(-3) mmol/L) for mixtures of BCS with C12DMPO and C14DMPO and for mixtures of BLG with C10EO5, while for mixture of BCS with C10EO5 the value of |E| only slightly increased. The |E| values calculated with a recently developed model, which assumes changes in the interfacial molar area of the protein molecules due to the interaction with the surfactants, are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. A linear dependence exists between the ratio of the maximum modulus for the mixture to the modulus of the single protein solution and the coefficient reflecting the influence of the surfactants on the adsorption activity of the protein.

  13. Influence of the Ti concentration and of the Ti:Mo molar ratio, in the efficiency of the {sup 99} Mo - {sup 99m} Tc generator, at basis of gels of titanium molybdates; Influencia de la concentracion de Ti y de la relacion molar Ti:Mo, en la eficiencia del generador {sup 99} Mo - {sup 99m} Tc a base de geles de molibdatos de titanio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes R, O.; Monroy G, F.; Martinez C, T. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: ocielcr@hotmail.com

    2003-07-01

    The {sup 99m} Tc, continues being the radionuclide more used in nuclear medicine to world scale. The production of this radioisotope, is carried out by means of generators {sup 99} Mo/{sup 99m} Tc that get ready commercially with {sup 99} Mo of high specific activity, adsorbed in alumina (2 mg {sup 99} Mo/g alumina) and that they are elutriated every 23 hours. In an alternative way, it is intended to use gels of titanium molybdates, as matrices of this generators. The gels are synthesized starting from solutions of ammonium molybdates and of titanium tetrachloride in aqueous media. These gels allow to incorporate until 25% of molybdenum in their structure, being been able to use {sup 99} Mo of low specific activity that can be obtained starting from the reaction {sup 98} Mo (n, {gamma}) {sup 99} Mo. With the object of producing generators of medium activity, with the base of gels of titanium molybdates, intends in this work, to study the influence of two synthesis parameters of these gels: the concentration of the titanium solutions and the molar ratio Ti: Mo. The decrease of the concentration of the titanium solution, used during the synthesis of the gels, is converted in an efficiency decrease and radionuclide purity of the generators, as well as an increment so much of the volume of elutriation, as of the pH of the elutriates. The gels that contain an major number of titanium moles, regarding the molybdenum moles, present a greater radionuclide purity, but they diminish their efficiency. The best characteristics for the gels synthesis of titanium molybdates are: a molar ratio 1:1 for Ti and Mo, and to use solutions of titanium whose concentration is near at 1 M. (Author)

  14. Pulmonary surfactant and lung transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, Michiel Elardus

    1997-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant lowers the surface tension at the air-water interface inside the alveolus. This is achieved by adsorption of surfactant phospholipids at the air-water interface, a process controlled by surfactant-associated proteins, such as SP-A. In this way, surfactant prevents collapse of

  15. Entropy of adsorption of mixed surfactants from solutions onto the air/water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.-W.; Chen, J.-H.; Zhou, N.-F.

    1995-01-01

    The partial molar entropy change for mixed surfactant molecules adsorbed from solution at the air/water interface has been investigated by surface thermodynamics based upon the experimental surface tension isotherms at various temperatures. Results for different surfactant mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium tetradecyl sulfate, decylpyridinium chloride and sodium alkylsulfonates have shown that the partial molar entropy changes for adsorption of the mixed surfactants were generally negative and decreased with increasing adsorption to a minimum near the maximum adsorption and then increased abruptly. The entropy decrease can be explained by the adsorption-orientation of surfactant molecules in the adsorbed monolayer and the abrupt entropy increase at the maximum adsorption is possible due to the strong repulsion between the adsorbed molecules.

  16. Ruptured tubal molar pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-19

    May 19, 2011 ... In most instances, moles develop within the uterine cavity, but may occur at ... Patients with tubal molar pregnancy are very difficult to distinguish .... There was a left-sided adnexal mass, whose size could not be appreciated ...

  17. Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfrink, M.; Weerheijm, K.L.

    2013-01-01

    Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (mih) wordt omschreven als een hypomineralisatie (van systemische oorsprong) van één tot vier blijvende eerste molaren, vaak in combinatie met aangedane incisieven. mih-molaren zijn fragieler en cariësgevoeliger dan gewone molaren. Een kenmerk van mih-molaren is een

  18. Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfrink, M.; Weerheijm, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) wordt gedefinieerd als een hypomineralisatie van systemische oorsprong van één tot vier blijvende eerste molaren, vaak in combinatie met aangedane incisieven. MIH-molaren zijn fragieler en cariësgevoeliger dan gewone molaren. Een kenmerk van MIH-molaren is een

  19. Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfrink, M.; Weerheijm, K.

    2011-01-01

    Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (mih ) wordt gedefinieerd als een hypomineralisatie van systemische oorsprong van één tot vier blijvende eerste molaren, vaak in combinatie met aangedane incisieven. mih -molaren zijn fragieler en cariësgevoeliger dan gewone molaren. Een kenmerk van mih -molaren is

  20. Phase behavior, rheological property, and transmutation of vesicles in fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon surfactant mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zaiwu; Qin, Menghua; Chen, Xiushan; Liu, Changcheng; Li, Hongguang; Hao, Jingcheng

    2012-06-26

    We present a detailed study of a salt-free cationic/anionic (catanionic) surfactant system where a strongly alkaline cationic surfactant (tetradecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide, TTAOH) was mixed with a single-chain fluorocarbon acid (nonadecafluorodecanoic acid, NFDA) and a hyperbranched hydrocarbon acid [di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid, DEHPA] in water. Typically the concentration of TTAOH is fixed while the total concentration and mixing molar ratio of NFDA and DEHPA is varied. In the absence of DEHPA and at a TTAOH concentration of 80 mmol·L(-1), an isotropic L(1) phase, an L(1)/L(α) two-phase region, and a single L(α) phase were observed successively with increasing mixing molar ratio of NFDA to TTAOH (n(NFDA)/n(TTAOH)). In the NFDA-rich region (n(NFDA)/n(TTAOH) > 1), a small amount of excess NFDA can be solubilized into the L(α) phase while a large excess of NFDA eventually leads to phase separation. When NFDA is replaced gradually by DEHPA, the mixed system of TTAOH/NFDA/DEHPA/H(2)O follows the same phase sequence as that of the TTAOH/NFDA/H(2)O system and the phase boundaries remain almost unchanged. However, the viscoelasticity of the samples in the single L(α) phase region becomes higher at the same total surfactant concentration as characterized by rheological measurements. Cryo-transmission electron microscopic (cryo-TEM) observations revealed a microstructural evolution from unilamellar vesicles to multilamellar ones and finally to gaint onions. The size of the vesicle and number of lamella can be controlled by adjusting the molar ratio of NFDA to DEHPA. The dynamic properties of the vesicular solutions have also been investigated. It is found that the yield stress and the storage modulus are time-dependent after a static mixing process between the two different types of vesicle solutions, indicating the occurrence of a dynamic fusion between the two types of vesicles. The microenvironmental changes induced by aggregate transitions were probed by

  1. Use of mixtures containing nonionic surfactants in the destabilization of petroleum emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansur, Claudia R.E.; Mauro, Aparecida C.; Aquino, Aline S.; Lechuga, Fernanda C.; Gonzalez, Gaspar; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas; Gonzalez, Gaspar [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    During the petroleum dehydration process, it is necessary to used chemical demulsifiers in order to break the w/o emulsions that are formed in the oil field. These demulsifiers products are, in many cases, surfactants based poly(ethylene oxide-propylene oxide) block copolymers (PEO-PPO), with different EO/PO molar ratio. In this work were correlate the structure and the properties of PEO-PPO block copolymers with their performance as petroleum emulsion-destabilizing agent. Moreover, it was used an additive in the formulations, known as hydrotrope, in order to increase the solubility of these copolymers in aqueous solution. The results showed that the copolymer branched, whose hydrophilic segments (PEO and OH) are in an external adjacent position, present the higher solubility, in spite of to own EO/PO ratio similar to the others copolymers and the highest molar mass. Moreover, this copolymer presented the best efficiency in the emulsion destabilization. The addition of the hydrotrope NaBMGS to the PEO-PPO copolymers aqueous solutions caused the solubility increasing of these compounds in water. Such additive being used in the demulsifier formulation provoked an efficiency improving on the emulsion breaking process. (author)

  2. Relationship between mandibular condyle and angle fractures and the presence of mandibular third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Deuk-Hyun; Kim, Su-Gwan; Moon, Seong-Yong; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek

    2015-02-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the impact of mandibular third molars on the occurrence of angle and condyle fractures. This was a retrospective investigation using patient records and radiographs. The sample set consisted of 440 patients with mandibular fractures. Eruption space, depth and angulation of the third molar were measured. Of the 144 angle fracture patients, 130 patients had third molars and 14 patients did not. The ratio of angle fractures when a third molar was present (1.26 : 1) was greater than when no third molar was present (0.19 : 1; odds ratio, 6.58; Pcondyle fractures patients, the third molar was present in 84 patients and absent in 57 patients. The ratio of condyle fractures when a third molar was present (0.56 : 1) was lower than when no third molar was present (1.90 : 1; odds ratio, 0.30; Pfractures with third molars and the ratio of condyle fractures without a third molar were statistically significant. The occurrence of angle and condyle fractures was more affected by the continuity of the cortical bone at the angle than by the depth of a third molar. These results demonstrate that a third molar can be a determining factor in angle and condyle fractures.

  3. Poly(ethylene oxide) surfactant polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacheethasanee, Katanchalee; Wang, Shuwu; Qiu, Yongxing; Marchant, Roger E

    2004-01-01

    We report on a series of structurally well-defined surfactant polymers that undergo surface-induced self-assembly on hydrophobic biomaterial surfaces. The surfactant polymers consist of a poly(vinyl amine) backbone with poly(ethylene oxide) and hexanal pendant groups. The poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) was synthesized by hydrolysis of poly(N-vinyl formamide) following free radical polymerization of N-vinyl formamide. Hexanal and aldehyde-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) were simultaneously attached to PVAm via reductive amination. Surfactant polymers with different PEO:hexanal ratios and hydrophilic/hydrophobic balances were prepared, and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and XPS spectroscopies. Surface active properties at the air/water interface were determined by surface tension measurements. Surface activity at a solid surface/water interface was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy, showing epitaxially molecular alignment for surfactant polymers adsorbed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The surfactant polymers described in this report can be adapted for simple non-covalent surface modification of biomaterials and hydrophobic surfaces to provide highly hydrated interfaces.

  4. Intermolecular crosslinks mediate aggregation of phospholipid vesicles by pulmonary surfactant-associated protein SAP-35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, G.R.; Sawyer, J.; Whitsett, J.

    1987-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein, Mr=35,000 (SAP-35) is known to bind phospholipids and is hypothesized to function in the organization of surfactant lipid membranes. SAP-35 has been observed to accelerate the calcium-induced aggregation of phospholipid vesicles. In order to define the molecular domains of SAP-35 which function in phospholipid aggregation, they have measured the light scattering properties (400nm) of purified canine SAP-35-phospholipid vesicle suspensions. Accelerated aggregation of unilamellar vesicles, requires SAP-35 and at least 2mM free calcium. The initial rate of A 400 change is proportional to the amount of native SAP-35 added over lipid:protein molar ratios ranging from 100:1 to 5000:1. Removal of the SAP-35 collagen-like domain and a specific cysteine residue involved in intermolecular disulfide bonding by bacterial collagenase digestion destroys the protein's lipid aggregation activity. Pre-incubation of SAP-35 with dithiothreitol (DTT) under nondenaturing conditions also results in a time-dependent loss of aggregation activity. Sucrose density gradient floatation of SAP-35 with 14 C dipalmitoyl phosphatidycholine labelled vesicles in the absence or presence of DTT suggests retention of SAP-35 lipid binding capacity. These data demonstrate the importance of SAP-35 triple helix and disulfide crosslinking integrity for the aggregation of unilamellar phospholipid vesicles

  5. Mixed micelles of polyethylene glycol (23) lauryl ether with ionic surfactants studied by proton 1D and 2D NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Chang; Zhao, Sui; Mao, Shi-Zhen; Yuan, Han-Zhen; Yu, Jia-Yong; Shen, Lian-Fang; Du, You-Ru

    2002-05-01

    (1)H NMR chemical shift, spin-lattice relaxation time, spin-spin relaxation time, self-diffusion coefficient, and two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement (2D NOESY) measurements have been used to study the nonionic-ionic surfactant mixed micelles. Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were used as the ionic surfactants and polyethylene glycol (23) lauryl ether (Brij-35) as the nonionic surfactant. The two systems are both with varying molar ratios of CTAB/Brij-35 (C/B) and SDS/Brij-35 (S/B) ranging from 0.5 to 2, respectively, at a constant concentration of 6 mM for Brij-35 in aqueous solutions. Results give information about the relative arrangement of the surfactant molecules in the mixed micelles. In the former system, the trimethyl groups attached to the polar heads of the CTAB molecules are located between the first oxy-ethylene groups next to the hydrophobic chains of Brij-35 molecules. These oxy-ethylene groups gradually move outward from the hydrophobic core of the mixed micelle with an increase in C/B in the mixed solution. In contrast to the case of the CTAB/Triton X-100 system, the long flexible hydrophilic poly oxy-ethylene chains, which are in the exterior part of the mixed micelles, remain coiled, but looser, surrounding the hydrophobic core. There is almost no variation in conformation of the hydrophilic chains of Brij-35 molecules in the mixed micelles of the SDS/Brij-35 system as the S/B increases. The hydrophobic chains of both CTAB and SDS are co-aggregated with Brij-35, respectively, in their mixed micellar cores.

  6. Effect of Gemini-type surfactant on methane hydrate formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, K.E.; Park, J.M.; Kim, C.U.; Chae, H.J.; Jeong, S.Y. [Korea Research Inst. of Chemical Technology, Jang-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Natural gas hydrates are formed from water and natural gas molecules at particular temperatures and pressures that become ice-like inclusion compounds. Gas hydrates offer several benefits such as energy resource potential and high storage capacity of natural gas in the form of hydrates. However, the application of natural gas hydrates has been deterred by its low formation rate and low conversion ratio of water into hydrate resulting in low actual storage capacity. This paper presented an experimental study to determine the effect of adding a novel Gemini-type surfactant on methane hydrate formation. The experimental study was described with reference to the properties of prepared diols and properties of prepared disulfonates. Gemini surfactant is the family of surfactant molecules possessing more than one hydrophobic tail and hydrophilic head group. They generally have better surface-active properties than conventional surfactants of equal chain length. The paper presented the results of the study in terms of the reactions of diols with propane sultone; storage capacity of hydrate formed with and without surfactant; and methane hydrate formation with and without disulfonate. It was concluded that the methane hydrate formation was accelerated by the addition of novel anionic Gemini-type surfactants and that hydrate formation was influenced by the surfactant concentration and alkyl chain length. For a given concentration, the surfactant with the highest chain length demonstrated the highest formation rate and storage capacity. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  7. Characterization by Sem, EDS and micro-Raman of the influence of the molar ratio SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and reduction temperature on the system CuZSM5; Caracterizacion por SEM, EDS y micro-Raman de la influencia de la relacion molar SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} y temperatura de reduccion sobre el sistema CuZSM5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez R, F. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Departamento de Fisica, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Rodriguez I, I. [Universidad de la Habana, Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales, Zapata y G. s/n, 10400 La Habana (Cuba); Petranovskii, V., E-mail: fchavez@esfm.ipn.mx [UNAM, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Apdo. Postal 14, 22800 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    The morphological and spectroscopic changes caused by reduction of ion-exchanged CuZSM5 samples with SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} molar ratios (MR) of 30 and 70 in H{sub 2} flow at 150 and 350 grades C are discussed. the nominal copper loading was of 1% by weight. Scanning electron microscopy of CuZSM5 sample set showed that the treatment in reducing atmosphere at 350 grades C produces particle agglomeration and smoother surface texture that treatment at 150 grades C, this effect was more pronounced for the sample with MR 30. Furthermore, the particles corresponding to the sample with MR 30 are of irregular shape and have rough texture (cubic or rectangular crystals, protrusions) while the particles of the sample with MR 70 are in the majority of spherical smooth texture (leaf-shaped crystals/platelet, reclining). Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental analysis reveals a heterogeneous distribution of copper as well other elements in each sample. The micro-Raman spectroscopy shows some changes in the vibrational modes for the studied samples. (Author)

  8. Gemini (dimeric) Surfactants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is in turn bonded to an identical hydrocarbon tail; alternatively,. ~. Tail spacer ... formed is dependent on surfactant structure, temperature, ionic strength and pH. The models of GS are .... micelle to the air/water interface. Moreover, GS can be ...

  9. Surfactants from petroleum paraffin wax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, T.M.; Hussein, M.H.; El Sayed, A.S.

    Paraffin wax from Egyptian petroleum was purified and then oxidized to fatty acids which were esterified to form their methyl esters, fractionated and then hydrolysed. The obtained fatty acids were converted into the corresponding primary amines which were converted with ethylene oxide to form nonionic surfactants. The prepared primary amines were also converted into tertiary amines and then converted into cationic surfactants through condensation with benzyl chloride or 1-chloromethylnaphthalene. Also, amine oxide surfactants were prepared by oxidation of the tertiary amines with hydrogen peroxide. The surface active properties of all the prepared surfactants were determined, and the effect of their chemical structure on the surfactant properties are discussed in this paper.

  10. Front-face fluorescence spectroscopy study of globular proteins in emulsions: displacement of BSA by a nonionic surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampon, V; Genot, C; Riaublanc, A; Anton, M; Axelos, M A V; McClements, D J

    2003-04-23

    The displacement of a globular protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA) from the surface of oil droplets in concentrated oil-in-water emulsions by a nonionic surfactant (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolauarate, Tween 20) was studied using front-face fluorescence spectroscopy (FFFS). This method relies on measurement of the change in intensity (I(MAX)) and wavelength (lambda(MAX)) of the maximum in the tryptophan emission spectrum. A series of oil-in-water emulsions (21 wt % n-hexadecane, 0.22 wt % BSA, pH 7.0) containing different molar ratios of Tween 20 to BSA (R = 0-131) were prepared. As the surfactant concentration was increased, the protein was progressively displaced from the droplet surfaces. At R > or = 66, the protein was completely displaced from the droplet surfaces. There was an increase in both I(MAX) and lambda(MAX) with increasing Tween 20 concentration up to R = 66, which correlated with the increase in the ratio of nonadsorbed to adsorbed protein. In contrast, there was a decrease in I(MAX) and lambda(MAX) with Tween 20 concentration in protein solutions and for R > or = 66 in the emulsions, which was attributed to binding of the surfactant to the protein. This study shows that FFFS is a powerful technique for nondestructively providing information about the interfacial composition of droplets in concentrated protein-stabilized emulsions in situ. Nevertheless, in general the suitability of the technique may also depend on protein type and the nature of the physicochemical matrix surrounding the proteins.

  11. A simplified treatment of surfactant effects on cloud drop activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raatikainen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved surface active species, or surfactants, have a tendency to partition to solution surface and thereby decrease solution surface tension. Activating cloud droplets have large surface-to-volume ratios, and the amount of surfactant molecules in them is limited. Therefore, unlike with macroscopic solutions, partitioning to the surface can effectively deplete the droplet interior of surfactant molecules.

    Surfactant partitioning equilibrium for activating cloud droplets has so far been solved numerically from a group of non-linear equations containing the Gibbs adsorption equation coupled with a surface tension model and an optional activity coefficient model. This can be a problem when surfactant effects are examined by using large-scale cloud models. Namely, computing time increases significantly due to the partitioning calculations done in the lowest levels of nested iterations.

    Our purpose is to reduce the group of non-linear equations to simple polynomial equations with well known analytical solutions. In order to do that, we describe surface tension lowering using the Szyskowski equation, and ignore all droplet solution non-idealities. It is assumed that there is only one surfactant exhibiting bulk-surface partitioning, but the number of non-surfactant solutes is unlimited. It is shown that the simplifications cause only minor errors to predicted bulk solution concentrations and cloud droplet activation. In addition, computing time is decreased at least by an order of magnitude when using the analytical solutions.

  12. (Surfactant + polymer) interaction parameter studied by (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data of quaternary aqueous solution containing surfactant, polymer, and salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroutan, Masumeh [Physical Chemistry Department, School of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, 14155-6455 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: foroutan@khayam.ut.ac.ir; Heidari, Nosrat; Mohammadlou, Maryam [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Uremia University, Uremia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sojahrood, Amin Jafari [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Uremia University, Uremia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data of quaternary aqueous system containing polyoxyethylene (20) cetyl ether (with abbreviation name Brij 58, non-ionic surfactant), diammonium hydrogen phosphate, and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) with three molar masses {l_brace}M{sub W} = (1000, 6000, and 35,000) g . mol{sup -1}{r_brace} have been determined experimentally at T = 313.15 K. Furthermore, the Flory-Huggins theory with two electrostatic terms (Debye-Hueckel and Pitzer-Debye-Hueckel equations) have been used to calculate the phase behavior of the quaternary systems and (surfactant + polymer) interaction parameter as well as interaction parameters between other species. Temperature dependency of the parameters of the Flory-Huggins theory has been obtained. Also an effort have been done to show that addition of PEG as well as increasing the temperature can shift the binodal curves of the ternary aqueous system containing surfactant and salt to lower mole fraction of salt. Also the effect of polymer molar mass on the binodal diagram displacement has been discussed.

  13. Dust as a surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A M; Schram, P P J M; Trigger, S A

    2003-01-01

    We argue that dust immersed in a plasma sheath acts as a surfactant. By considering the momentum balance in a plasma sheath, we evaluate the dependence of the plasma surface pressure on the dust density. It is shown that the dust may reduce the surface pressure, giving rise to a sufficiently strong tangential force. The latter is capable of confining the dust layer inside the sheath in the direction perpendicular to the ion flow

  14. MICROBIAL SURFACTANTS. I. GLYCOLIPIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirog T. Р.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The review is devoted to surface-active glycolipids. The general characteristics, the physiological role of the rhamnolipids, trehalose lipids, sophorolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids and their traditional producers — the representatives of the genera Pseudozyma, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus and Candida are given. The detailed analysis of the chemical structure, the stages of the biosynthesis and the regulation of some low molecular glycolipids are done. The own experimental data concerning the synthesis intensification, the physiological role and the practical use of Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactants, which are a complex of the glyco-, phospho-, amino- and neutral lipids (glycolipids of all strains are presented by trehalose mycolates are summarized. It was found that R. erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, A. calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactants have protective, antimicrobial and antiadhesive properties. It was shown that R. erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, A. calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactants preparation of cultural liquid intensified the degradation of oil in water due to the activation of the natural petroleum-oxidizing microflora.

  15. Biodegradability of bacterial surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Tânia M S; Procópio, Lorena C; Brandão, Felipe D; Carvalho, André M X; Tótola, Marcos R; Borges, Arnaldo C

    2011-06-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the biodegradability of different bacterial surfactants in liquid medium and in soil microcosms. The biodegradability of biosurfactants by pure and mixed bacterial cultures was evaluated through CO(2) evolution. Three bacterial strains, Acinetobacter baumanni LBBMA ES11, Acinetobacter haemolyticus LBBMA 53 and Pseudomonas sp. LBBMA 101B, used the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus sp. LBBMA 111A (mixed lipopeptide), Bacillus subtilis LBBMA 155 (lipopeptide), Flavobacterium sp. LBBMA 168 (mixture of flavolipids), Dietzia Maris LBBMA 191(glycolipid) and Arthrobacter oxydans LBBMA 201(lipopeptide) as carbon sources in minimal medium. The synthetic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was also mineralized by these microorganisms, but at a lower rate. CO(2) emitted by a mixed bacterial culture in soil microcosms with biosurfactants was higher than in the microcosm containing SDS. Biosurfactant mineralization in soil was confirmed by the increase in surface tension of the soil aqueous extracts after incubation with the mixed bacterial culture. It can be concluded that, in terms of biodegradability and environmental security, these compounds are more suitable for applications in remediation technologies in comparison to synthetic surfactants. However, more information is needed on structure of biosurfactants, their interaction with soil and contaminants and scale up and cost for biosurfactant production.

  16. Treating Intraradicular Pockets of molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lotfizade

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available It appears that until bone graft has not achieved 100% success, intraradicular diseases remain controversial and therefore, different treatment plans are suggested for them. Treating intraradicular diseases depend on many factors: maxillary molars are more prone to bone loss and have worse prognosis. To assess prognosis more carefully these factors should be considered: 1 bone loss: its apical depth, local or generalized 2 bone condition: buccal, lingual, mesial and distal aspects 3 tooth mobility: grades 2 and 3 have not good prognosis. Crown root ratio is also important. 4 the angle of divergence of roots: the more the roots are divergent, the better the prognosis would be. 5adjacent teeth health 6tooth position in jaws 7 age and general health of the patients 8 oral hygiene In general, teeth with 2 roots can be treated more effectively than 3 root ones. Maxillary first premolars are exceptions that do not respond to the treatments positively. We should look forward to the future investigations and findings.

  17. Surfactant-Mediated Growth Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerheim, H. L.; Sander, D.; Popescu, R.; Pan, W.; Kirschner, J.; Popa, I.

    2007-01-01

    The x-ray structure analysis of the oxygen-surfactant-mediated growth of Ni on Cu(001) identifies up to 0.15 monolayers of oxygen in subsurface octahedral sites. This questions the validity of the general view that surfactant oxygen floats on top of the growing Ni film. Rather, the surfactant action is ascribed to an oxygen-enriched zone extending over the two topmost layers. Surface stress measurements support this finding. Our results have important implications for the microscopic understanding of surfactant-mediated growth and the change of the magnetic anisotropy of the Ni films

  18. Molar Incisiv Hypomineralisasjon - MIH Litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Aisha Farnaz

    2017-01-01

    Introduksjon: MIH er definert som emaljehypomineralisering av systemisk opprinnelse der 1 til 4 av første permanente molarer er rammet. Incisiver er også ofte affiserte. Hensikten med denne litteraturstudien er å lage en oversikt over, og vurdere tilgjengelig litteratur om MIH, og bruke litteraturen som bakgrunn for å utarbeide en informasjonsbrosjyre om MIH. Materiale og metode: Det ble utført et elektronisk søk i PubMed med søkestrengene ”Molar incisor hypomineralization MIH” og ”Molar inci...

  19. Size of the lower third molar space in relation to age in Serbian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelić, Ksenija; Nedeljković, Nenad

    2013-10-01

    It is considered that the shortage of space is the major cause of the third molar impaction. The aim of this study was to establish the frequency of insufficient lower third molar eruption space in Serbian population, to question the differences in this frequency in the subjects of different age, to determine the influence of the lower third molar space (retromolar space) size on third molar eruption, and to investigate a possible correlation between the size of gonial angle and the space/third molar width ratio. Digital orthopantomograms were taken from 93 patients divided into two groups: early adult (16-18 years of age) and adult (18-26) patients. Retromolar space, mesiodistal third molar crown width, gonial angle and eruption levels were measured. The space/third molar width in early adult subjects was smaller (p third molars erupted in case of enough space in both age groups (p third molar width ratio is more favorable in adult subjects. Gonial angle is not in correlation with the retromolar space/third molar width ratio.

  20. Surfactant phosphatidylcholine metabolism and surfactant function in preterm, ventilated lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobe, A.H.; Ikegami, M.; Seidner, S.R.; Pettenazzo, A.; Ruffini, L.

    1989-01-01

    Preterm lambs were delivered at 138 days gestational age and ventilated for periods up to 24 h in order to study surfactant metabolism and surfactant function. The surfactant-saturated phosphatidylcholine pool in the alveolar wash was 13 +/- 4 mumol/kg and did not change from 10 min to 24 h after birth. Trace amounts of labeled natural sheep surfactant were mixed with fetal lung fluid at birth. By 24 h, 80% of the label had become lung-tissue-associated, yet there was no loss of label from phosphatidylcholine in the lungs when calculated as the sum of the lung tissue plus alveolar wash. De novo synthesized phosphatidylcholine was labeled with choline given by intravascular injection at 1 h of age. Labeled phosphatidylcholine accumulated in the lung tissue linearly to 24 h, and the labeled phosphatidylcholine moved through lamellar body to alveolar pools. The turnover time for alveolar phosphatidylcholine was estimated to be about 13 h, indicating an active metabolic pool. A less surface-active surfactant fraction recovered as a supernatant after centrifugation of the alveolar washes at 40,000 x g increased from birth to 10 min of ventilation, but no subsequent changes in the distribution of surfactant phosphatidylcholine in surfactant fractions occurred. The results were consistent with recycling pathway(s) that maintained surface-active surfactant pools in preterm ventilated lambs

  1. Endodontic treatment of a mandibular second molar with four roots – A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge N.R. Martins

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: A configuration with four roots is rare for the mandibular molars. This configuration has an incidence of 0.04% in the first lower molar with only three in vivo case reports available. For the second lower molar, no incidence ratio was found.

  2. Comparison of rSP-C surfactant with natural and synthetic surfactants after late treatment in a rat model of the acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, Dietrich; Germann, Paul-Georg; Hauschke, Dieter

    1998-01-01

    In a previous paper we showed that an SP-C containing surfactant preparation has similar activity as bovine-derived surfactants in a rat lung lavage model of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. In this study surfactant was given ten minutes after the last lavage (early treatment). In the present investigation we were interested how different surfactant preparations behave when they are administered 1 h after the last lavage (late treatment). Four protein containing surfactants (rSP-C surfactant, bLES, Infasurf and Survanta) were compared with three protein-free surfactants (ALEC, Exosurf and the phospholipid (PL) mixture of the rSP-C surfactant termed PL surfactant) with respect to their ability to improve gas exchange in this more stringent model when surfactant is given one hour after the last lavage. For better comparison of the surfactants the doses were related to phospholipids. The surfactants were given at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg kg−1 body weight. The surfactants were compared to an untreated control group that was only ventilated for the whole experimental period. Tracheotomized rats (8–12 per dose and surfactant) were pressure-controlled ventilated (Siemens Servo Ventilator 900C) with 100% oxygen at a respiratory rate of 30 breaths min−1, inspiration expiration ratio of 1 : 2, peak inspiratory pressure of 28 cmH2O at positive endexpiratory pressure (PEEP) of 8 cmH2O. Animals were ventilated for one hour after the last lavage and thereafter the surfactants were intratracheally instilled. During the whole experimental period the ventilation was not changed. Partial arterial oxygen pressures (PaO2, mmHg) at 30 min and 120 min after treatment were used for statistical comparison. All protein containing surfactants caused a dose-dependent increase of the reduced PaO2 values at 30 min after treatment. The protein-free surfactants showed only weak dose-dependent increase in PaO2 values at this time. This difference between the

  3. ADSORPTION OF SURFACTANT ON CLAYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surfactants used to enhance remediation of soils by soil washing are often lost in the process. Neither the amount nor the cause of this loss is known. It is assumed that clays present in the soil are responsible for the loss of the surfactant. In this papere, adsorption prope...

  4. Factors controlling leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum source rock using nonionic surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinlua, Akinsehinwa [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria). Fossil Fuels and Environmental Geochemistry Group; Jochmann, Maik A.; Qian, Yuan; Schmidt, Torsten C. [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Instrumental Analytical Chemistry; Sulkowski, Martin [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Inst. of Environmental Analytical Chemistry

    2012-03-15

    The extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from petroleum source rock by nonionic surfactants with the assistance of microwave irradiation was investigated and the conditions for maximum yield were determined. The results showed that the extraction temperatures and type of surfactant have significant effects on extraction yields of PAHs. Factors such as surfactant concentration, irradiation power, sample/solvent ratio and mixing surfactants (i.e., mixture of surfactant at specific ratio) also influence the extraction efficiencies for these compounds. The optimum temperature for microwave-assisted nonionic surfactant extraction of PAHs from petroleum source rock was 120 C and the best suited surfactant was Brij 35. The new method showed extraction efficiencies comparable to those afforded by the Soxhlet extraction method, but a reduction of the extraction times and environmentally friendliness of the new nonionic surfactant extraction system are clear advantages. The results also show that microwave-assisted nonionic surfactant extraction is a good and efficient green analytical preparatory technique for geochemical evaluation of petroleum source rock. (orig.)

  5. Fusion of mandibular third molar with supernumerary fourth molar

    OpenAIRE

    López Carriches, C.; Leco Berrocal, I.; Baca Pérez-Bryan, R.

    2008-01-01

    La fusión dental es la unión de dos gérmenes dentales normalmente separados, mientras que la geminación se define como el intento de división de un único germen dental. La fusión y geminación de molares es poco frecuente en la dentición permanente. Describimos un caso clínico de un tercer molar inferior derecho fusionado a un cuarto molar supernumerario en un paciente varón de 36 años que ha presentado repetidos episodios de pericoronaritis. Tras el estudio radiológico se realiza la exodoncia...

  6. Alveolar Thin Layer Flows and Surfactant Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumie, Ahmad; Jbaily, Abdulrahman; Szeri, Andrew J.

    2017-11-01

    Pulmonary surfactants play a vital role in everyday respiration. They regulate surface tension in the lungs by diffusing through the hypophase, a liquid layer that lines the interior surface of the alveoli, and adsorbing to the existing air-fluid interface. This decreases the equilibrium surface tension value by as much as a factor of 3, minimizing breathing effort and preventing lung collapse at the end of exhalation. Given that the hypophase thickness h lies within the range 0.1 μm < h <0.5 μm , and that the average alveolar radius R is 100 μm , for some purposes the hypophase may usefully be modeled as a fluid layer on a flat sheet representing the alveolar wall. Moreover, because of the large aspect ratio, the lubrication approximation can be applied. The aim of the present work is to study the interaction between the straining of the alveolar wall and the fluid flow in the hypophase. The analysis is governed by the relative magnitudes of the time scales of surfactant diffusion, adsorption, desorption, viscous dissipation and sheet straining. Cases of particular interest include non-uniform surfactant concentration at the interface, leading to Marangoni flows and a non-uniform hypophase thickness profile. The analytical formulation and numerical simulations are presented. This work is motivated by a need to understand alveolar deformation during breathing, and to do so in a way that derives from improved understanding of the fluid mechanics of the problem.

  7. Guanidinium ionic liquid-based surfactants as low cytotoxic extractants: Analytical performance in an in-situ dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for determining personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Fernández, Idaira; Pino, Verónica; Ayala, Juan H; Afonso, Ana M

    2017-05-01

    The IL-based surfactant octylguanidinium chloride (C 8 Gu-Cl) was designed and synthetized with the purpose of obtaining a less harmful surfactant: containing guanidinium as core cation and a relatively short alkyl chain. Its interfacial and aggregation behavior was evaluated through conductivity and fluorescence measurements, presenting a critical micelle concentration value of 42.5 and 44.6mmolL -1 , respectively. Cytotoxicity studies were carried out with C 8 Gu-Cl and other IL-based and conventional surfactants, specifically the analogue 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C 8 MIm-Cl), and other imidazolium- (C 16 MIm-Br) and pyridinium- (C 16 Py-Cl) based surfactants, together with the conventional cationic CTAB and the conventional anionic SDS. From these studies, C 8 Gu-Cl was the only one to achieve the classification of low cytotoxicity. An in situ dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method based on transforming the water-soluble C 8 Gu-Cl IL-based surfactant into a water-insoluble IL microdroplet via a simple metathesis reaction was then selected as the extraction/preconcentration method for a group of 6 personal care products (PCPs) present in cosmetic samples. The method was carried out in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and diode array detection (DAD). The method was properly optimized, requiring the use of only 30μL of C 8 Gu-Cl for 10mL of aqueous sample with a NaCl content of 8% (w/v) to adjust the ionic strength and pH value of 5. The metathesis reaction required the addition of the anion exchange reagent (bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide - 1:1 molar ratio), followed by vortex and centrifugation, and dilution of the final microdroplet up to 60μL with acetonitrile before the injection in the HPLC-DAD system. The optimum in situ DLLME-HPLC-DAD method takes ∼10min for the extraction step and ∼22min for the chromatographic separation, with analytical features of low detection limits: down to 0.4

  8. MICROBIAL SURFACTANTS IN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Pirog

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It was shown literature and own experimental data concerning the use of microbial surface active glycolipids (rhamno-, sophoro- and trehalose lipids and lipopeptides for water and soil purification from oil and other hydrocarbons, removing toxic heavy metals (Cu2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, degradation of complex pollution (oil and other hydrocarbons with heavy metals, and the role of microbial surfactants in phytoremediation processes. The factors that limit the use of microbial surfactants in environmental technologies are discussed. Thus, at certain concentrations biosurfactant can exhibit antimicrobial properties and inhibit microorganisms destructing xenobiotics. Microbial biodegradability of surfactants may also reduce the effectiveness of bioremediation. Development of effective technologies using microbial surfactants should include the following steps: monitoring of contaminated sites to determine the nature of pollution and analysis of the autochthonous microbiota; determining the mode of surfactant introduction (exogenous addition of stimulation of surfactant synthesis by autochthonous microbiota; establishing an optimal concentration of surfactant to prevent exhibition of antimicrobial properties and rapid biodegradation; research both in laboratory and field conditions.

  9. Surfactant Membrane Phases Containing Mixtures of Hydrocarbon and Fluorocarbon Surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Campo, Liliana; Warr, G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We describe the structure and stability of sponge and lamellar phases comprising mixtures of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon surfactants. Such mixtures can show limited miscibility with each other, forming for example coexisting populations of hydrocarbon rich and fluorocarbon rich micelles under some circumstances. Our system is based on the well-characterised lamellar and sponge phases of cetylpyridinium chloride, hexanol and 0.2M brine, into which the partially fluorinated surfactant N-1H,1H,2H,2H-tridecafluorooctylpyridinium chloride is incorporated. By probing the structures with SAXS (small angle x-ray scattering) and SANS (small angle neutron scattering) using contrast variation, and by characterizing the dynamic properties with dynamic light scattering, we will describe the effect of incorporating the fluorinated surfactant on the phase equilibria and properties of the surfactant membrane structures. (authors)

  10. Nutrient Composition and Phytate-Zinc Molar Ratio of Prepared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study is to provide information on the variety and nutrient content of prepared dishes offered preschool children living in rural villages. Materials and Methods: Respondents for this study were 116 preschool children living in University Agriculture Abeokuta [UNAAB] extension villages in Ogun State ...

  11. Endodontic management of a mandibular third molar fused with a fourth molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turell, I L; Zmener, O

    1999-05-01

    Developmental anomalies in permanent molars frequently require surgical intervention. A case of a mandibular third molar fused with a fourth molar which was successfully treated with conservative endodontic therapy is reported.

  12. The role of charge in the surfactant-assisted stabilization of the natural product curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zifan; Leung, Mandy H M; Kee, Tak W; English, Douglas S

    2010-04-20

    Colloidal solutions of surfactants that form micelles or vesicles are useful for solubilizing and stabilizing hydrophobic molecules that are otherwise sparingly soluble in aqueous solutions. In this paper we investigate the use of micelles and vesicles prepared from ionic surfactants for solubilizing and stabilizing curcumin, a medicinal natural product that undergoes alkaline hydrolysis in water. We identify spectroscopic signatures to evaluate curcumin partitioning and deprotonation in surfactant mixtures containing micelles or vesicles. These spectroscopic signatures allow us to monitor the interaction of curcumin with charged surfactants over a wide range of pH values. Titration data are presented to show the pH dependence of curcumin interactions with negatively and positively charged micelles and vesicles. In solutions of cationic micelles or positively charged vesicles, strong interaction between the Cur(-1) phenoxide ion and the positively charged surfactants results in a change in the acidity of the phenolic hydrogen and a lowering of the apparent lowest pK(a) value for curcumin. In the microenvironments formed by anionic micelles or negatively charged bilayers, our data indicates that curcumin partitions as the Cur(0) species, which is stabilized by interactions with the respective surfactant aggregates, and this leads to an increase in the apparent pK(a) values. Our results may explain some of the discrepancies within the literature with respect to reported pK(a) values and the acidity of the enolic versus phenolic protons. Hydrolysis rates, quantum yields, and molar absorption coefficients are reported for curcumin in a variety of solutions.

  13. Image analysis of the eruptive positions of third molars and adjacent second molars as indicators of age evaluation in Thai patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant May; Pramojanee, Sakarat; Thaiupathump, Trasapong

    2013-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the relationship between the stage of tooth eruption (both vertical and mesio-angular) and chronological age. Indirect digital panoramic radiographs were used to measure the distances from the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) of the second molars to the occlusal plane of the second molar teeth and of the adjacent third molars in 264 Thai males and 437 Thai females using ImageJ software. The ratio of those distances was calculated by patient age, and the correlation coefficient of the ratio of the third molar length to the second molar length was calculated. The correlation between the height of the vertically erupted upper third molar teeth and age was at the intermediate level. The age range of ≥15 to age determined from the eruptional height and actual chronological age was statistically significant. The mean age of the female subjects, in which the position of the right upper third molar teeth was at or above the DEJ of the adjacent second molar but below one half of its coronal height was 19.9±2.6 years. That for the left side was 20.2±2.7 years. The mean ages of the male subjects were 20.1±3.3 years and 19.8±2.7 years for the right and left sides, respectively. It might be possible to predict chronological age from the eruption height of the wisdom teeth.

  14. Biodegradation of surfactant bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitra, S.; Chandran, S.; Sasidhar, P.; Lal, K.B.; Amalraj, R.V.

    1991-01-01

    In nuclear industry, during decontamination of protective wears and contaminated materials, detergents are employed to bring down the level of radioactive contamination within safe limits. However, the surfactant present in these wastes interferes in the chemical treatment process, reducing the decontamination factor. Biodegradation is an efficient and ecologically safe method for surfactant removal. A surfactant degrading culture was isolated and inoculated separately into simulated effluents containing 1% yeast extract and 5-100 ppm sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and 1% yeast extract and 5-100 ppm of commercial detergent respectively. The growth of the bacterial culture and the degradation characteristics of the surfactant in the above effluents were monitored under both dynamic and static conditions. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  15. Treatment with exogenous surfactant stimulates endogenous surfactant synthesis in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, JEH; Carnielli, VP; Janssen, DJ; Wattimena, JLD; Hop, WC; Sauer, PJ; Zimmermann, LJI

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) with exogenous surfactant has greatly improved clinical outcome. Some infants require multiple doses, and it has not been studied whether these large amounts of exogenous surfactant disturb endogenous surfactant

  16. Molar development in sheep: morphology, radiography, microhardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhaud, G.; Nezit, J.

    1991-01-01

    The chronology of molar development is studied from radiographic and macroscopic observations on 48 south Pre-Alps were living under optimal nutritional conditions. It was found that the first molar started its development in utero, the second molar at one month after birth, and the third molar, at 9-10 months. The first molar emerged into the oral cavity at 3 months, the second at 9 months and the third molar at 18 months. The first molar began the development of its roots at 6-7 months, the second molar at 11-12 months and the third molar at 20-22 months. The first molar reached completion of the growth of its roots at 3.5-4 years, the second and the third molars at about 6 years. The molars show the particularity of being functional during the three months which follow their eruption although the development of the crown is not completed. Then the accelerated wear is only partially compensated by the growth of the roots. The study also shows how the combined effects of wear and dentine deposit in the pulp cavity affect the morphology of molars. It reveals the marked hardness of enamel (240 Vickers units) and the low resistance of dentine at the surface of attrition (30 Vickers units)

  17. Biomimicry of surfactant protein C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nathan J; Johansson, Jan; Barron, Annelise E

    2008-10-01

    Since the widespread use of exogenous lung surfactant to treat neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, premature infant survival and respiratory morbidity have dramatically improved. Despite the effectiveness of the animal-derived surfactant preparations, there still remain some concerns and difficulties associated with their use. This has prompted investigation into the creation of synthetic surfactant preparations. However, to date, no clinically used synthetic formulation is as effective as the natural material. This is largely because the previous synthetic formulations lacked analogues of the hydrophobic proteins of the lung surfactant system, SP-B and SP-C, which are critical functional constituents. As a result, recent investigation has turned toward the development of a new generation of synthetic, biomimetic surfactants that contain synthetic phospholipids along with a mimic of the hydrophobic protein portion of lung surfactant. In this Account, we detail our efforts in creating accurate mimics of SP-C for use in a synthetic surfactant replacement therapy. Despite SP-C's seemingly simple structure, the predominantly helical protein is extraordinarily challenging to work with given its extreme hydrophobicity and structural instability, which greatly complicates the creation of an effective SP-C analogue. Drawing inspiration from Nature, two promising biomimetic approaches have led to the creation of rationally designed biopolymers that recapitulate many of SP-C's molecular features. The first approach utilizes detailed SP-C structure-activity relationships and amino acid folding propensities to create a peptide-based analogue, SP-C33. In SP-C33, the problematic and metastable polyvaline helix is replaced with a structurally stable polyleucine helix and includes a well-placed positive charge to prevent aggregation. SP-C33 is structurally stable and eliminates the association propensity of the native protein. The second approach follows the same design

  18. Surfactant flooding of diesel-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.W.; Montemagno, C.D.; Shem, L.; Lewis, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    At one installation, approximately 60,000 gallons of No. 2 diesel fuel leaked into the subsurface environment, with contamination at depths of 6 to 34 m below the surface. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted to perform treatability studies for site remediation. The treatability studies focused on four separate phases: (1) leachability studies on the various contaminated soil borings, (2) air stripping studies, (3) bioremediation studies, and (4) surfactant screening/surfactant flooding studies. This paper summarizes the fourth phase of this research program after initial surfactant screening of 21 surfactants. Three of the surfactants were used for the surfactant flooding studies; the results from that phase of the research program are described

  19. Selectivity and stoichiometry boosting of beta-cyclodextrin in cationic/anionic surfactant systems: when host-guest equilibrium meets biased aggregation equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lingxiang; Yu, Caifang; Deng, Manli; Jin, Changwen; Wang, Yilin; Yan, Yun; Huang, Jianbin

    2010-02-18

    Cationic surfactant/anionic surfactant/beta-CD ternary aqueous systems provide a platform for the coexistence of the host-guest (beta-CD/surfactant) equilibrium and the biased aggregation (monomeric/aggregated surfactants) equilibrium. We report here that the interplay between the two equilibria dominates the systems as follows. (1) The biased aggregation equilibrium imposes an apparent selectivity on the host-guest equilibrium, namely, beta-CD has to always selectively bind the major surfactant (molar fraction > 0.5) even if binding constants of beta-CD to the pair of surfactants are quite similar. (2) In return, the host-guest equilibrium amplifies the bias of the aggregation equilibrium, that is, the selective binding partly removes the major surfactant from the aggregates and leaves the aggregate composition approaching the electroneutral mixing stoichiometry. (3) This composition variation enhances electrostatic attractions between oppositely charged surfactant head groups, thus resulting in less-curved aggregates. In particular, the present apparent host-guest selectivity is of remarkably high values, and the selectivity stems from the bias of the aggregation equilibrium rather than the difference in binding constants. Moreover, beta-CD is defined as a "stoichiometry booster" for the whole class of cationic/anionic surfactant systems, which provides an additional degree of freedom to directly adjust aggregate compositions of the systems. The stoichiometry boosting of the compositions can in turn affect or even determine microstructures and macroproperties of the systems.

  20. Fracture behavior of human molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, Amanda J; Lee, James J-W; Bush, Mark B

    2012-12-01

    Despite the durability of human teeth, which are able to withstand repeated loading while maintaining form and function, they are still susceptible to fracture. We focus here on longitudinal fracture in molar teeth-channel-like cracks that run along the enamel sidewall of the tooth between the gum line (cemento-enamel junction-CEJ) and the occlusal surface. Such fractures can often be painful and necessitate costly restorative work. The following study describes fracture experiments made on molar teeth of humans in which the molars are placed under axial compressive load using a hard indenting plate in order to induce longitudinal cracks in the enamel. Observed damage modes include fractures originating in the occlusal region ('radial-median cracks') and fractures emanating from the margin of the enamel in the region of the CEJ ('margin cracks'), as well as 'spalling' of enamel (the linking of longitudinal cracks). The loading conditions that govern fracture behavior in enamel are reported and observations made of the evolution of fracture as the load is increased. Relatively low loads were required to induce observable crack initiation-approximately 100 N for radial-median cracks and 200 N for margin cracks-both of which are less than the reported maximum biting force on a single molar tooth of several hundred Newtons. Unstable crack growth was observed to take place soon after and occurred at loads lower than those calculated by the current fracture models. Multiple cracks were observed on a single cusp, their interactions influencing crack growth behavior. The majority of the teeth tested in this study were noted to exhibit margin cracks prior to compression testing, which were apparently formed during the functional lifetime of the tooth. Such teeth were still able to withstand additional loading prior to catastrophic fracture, highlighting the remarkable damage containment capabilities of the natural tooth structure.

  1. Enhanced oil recovery with surfactant flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelow Sandersen, S.

    2012-05-15

    Understanding the underlying mechanisms of systems that exhibit liquid-liquid equilibrium (e.g. oil-brine systems) at reservoir conditions is an area of increasing interest within EOR. This is true both for complex surfactant systems as well as for oil and brine systems. It is widely accepted that an increase in oil recovery can be obtained through flooding, whether it is simple waterflooding, waterflooding where the salinity has been modified by the addition or removal of specific ions (socalled ''smart'' waterflooding) or surfactant flooding. High pressure experiments have been carried out in this work on a surfactant system (surfactant/ oil/ brine) and on oil/ seawater systems (oil/ brine). The high pressure experiments were carried out on a DBR JEFRI PVT cell, where a glass window allows observation of the phase behavior of the different systems at various temperatures and pressures inside the high pressure cell. Phase volumes can also be measured visually through the glass window using precision equipment. The surfactant system for which an experimental study was carried out consisted of the mixture heptane, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/ 1-butanol/ NaCl/ water. This system has previously been examined at ambient pressures and temperatures but this has been extended here to pressures up to 400 bar and to slightly higher temperatures (40 deg. C, 45 deg. C and 50 deg. C). Experiments were performed at constant salinity (6.56 %), constant surfactant-alcohol ratio (SAR) but with varying water-oil ratios (WOR). At all temperatures it was very clear that the effect of pressure was significant. The system changed from the two phase region, Winsor II, to the three phase region, Winsor III, as pressure increased. Increasing pressures also caused a shift from the three phase region (Winsor III), to a different two phase region, (Winsor I). These changes in equilibrium phase behavior were also dependent on the composition of the system. A number of

  2. Numerical approach for enhanced oil recovery with surfactant flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Keshtkar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The remained oil in the reservoir after conventional water-flooding processes, forms a dispersed phase in the form of oil drops which is trapped by capillary forces and is almost about 70% of the original oil in the place (OOIP. To reduce oil residual saturation in laboratory experiments and field projects, surfactant flooding is effective via decreasing the interfacial tension mobility ratio between oil and water phases. Estimation of the role of design variables, like chemical concentrations, partition coefficient and injection rate in different performance quantities, considering a heterogeneous and multiphase oil reservoir is a critical stage for optimal design. Increasing demand for oil production from water-flooded reservoirs has caused an increasing interest in surfactant-polymer (SP and alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP. Modeling minimizes the risk of high cost of chemicals by improving our insight of process. In the present paper, a surfactant compositional flood model for a three-component (water, petroleum and surfactant, two phase (aqueous and oleic system is studied. A homogeneous, two-dimensional, isothermal reservoir with no free gas or alkali is assumed. The governing equations are in three categories: the continuity equations for the transport of each component, Darcy's equation for the transport of each phase and other auxiliary equations. The equations are solved by finite-differences using a procedure implicit in pressure and explicit in saturation. The validation of the model is achieved through comparing the modeling results with CMG simulators and Buckley–Leverett theory. The results of modeling showed good agreement with CMG results, and the comparison with Buckley–Leverett theory is explained according to different assumptions. After validation of the model, in order to investigate sensitivity analysis, the effects of system variables (partition coefficient, surface tension, oil viscosity and surface injection

  3. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qui; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling

    2004-05-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding in the swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to the naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of the injected solution bypasses the target pore space containing oil. The objective of this work is to investigate whether combining these two technologies could broaden the applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium--polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 9.2 to 12.9.

  4. Synthesis of carbohydrate-based surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemberton, Jeanne E.; Polt, Robin L.; Maier, Raina M.

    2016-11-22

    The present invention provides carbohydrate-based surfactants and methods for producing the same. Methods for producing carbohydrate-based surfactants include using a glycosylation promoter to link a carbohydrate or its derivative to a hydrophobic compound.

  5. Biomimetic Fluorocarbon Surfactant Polymers Reduce Platelet Adhesion on PTFE/ePTFE Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuwu; Gupta, Anirban Sen; Sagnella, Sharon; Barendt, Pamela M.; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Marchant, Roger E.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a series of fluorocarbon surfactant polymers designed as surface-modifying agents for improving the thrombogenicity of ePTFE vascular graft materials by the reduction of platelet adhesion. The surfactant polymers consist of a poly(vinyl amine) backbone with pendent dextran and perfluoroundecanoyl branches. Surface modification is accomplished by a simple dip-coating process in which surfactant polymers undergo spontaneous surface-induced adsorption and assembly on PTFE/ePTFE surface. The adhesion stability of the surfactant polymer on PTFE was examined under dynamic shear conditions in PBS and human whole blood with a rotating disk system. Fluorocarbon surfactant polymer coatings with three different dextran to perfluorocarbon ratios (1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:2) were compared in the context of platelet adhesion on PTFE/ePTFE surface under dynamic flow conditions. Suppression of platelet adhesion was achieved for all three coated surfaces over the shear-stress range of 0–75 dyn/cm2 in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or human whole blood. The effectiveness depended on the surfactant polymer composition such that platelet adhesion on coated surfaces decreased significantly with increasing fluorocarbon branch density at 0 dyn/cm2. Our results suggest that fluorocarbon surfactant polymers can effectively suppress platelet adhesion and demonstrate the potential application of the fluorocarbon surfactant polymers as non-thrombogenic coatings for ePTFE vascular grafts. PMID:19323880

  6. Mineral-Surfactant Interactions for Minimum Reagents Precipitation and Adsorption for Improved Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Somasundaran

    2008-09-20

    /conformation of the adsorbed layers), as well as precipitation/abstraction characteristics. (3) Investigation of the role of dissolved species, especially multivalent ions, on interactions between reservoir minerals and surfactants and/or polymers leading to surfactant precipitation or activated adsorption. (4) Solution behavior tests--surface tension, interaction, ultra filtration, and other tests. (5) Surfactant-mineral interactions relative to adsorption, wettability, and electrophoresis. (6) Work on the effects of multivalent ions, pH, temperature, salinity, and mixing ratio on the adsorption. Developments of adsorption models to explain interactions between surfactants/polymers/minerals. (7) General guidelines for the use of certain surfactants, polymers and their mixtures in micelle flooding processes.

  7. CANINE ECTOPIC TREATMENT WITH FIRST MOLAR EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Margo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision to extract or not and the type of tooth must be analyzed carefully in orthodontic treatment. Preferable tooth to be extracted was the tooth with large caries or restoration. Usually the type of tooth to be extracted was second molar (if the third molar appears, incisor, first molar, and combination of several teeth. Orthodontic treatment with molar extraction is more difficult to treat and the result is usually compromise. There are several considerations in extracting first molar such as tooth with large caries or restoration, hypoplasia, periapical disease, large discrepancy, high maxilla-mandibular plane angle, and cases with anterior open bite. Nowadays, orthodontic cases with molar extraction do not prolong the treatment time compared to premolar extraction case, but the anchorage system must be considered carefully. The present case was treated with extraction of first molar to solve anterior crowding with maximum anchorage at the upper jaw and using Nance Holding Appliance.

  8. Adhesives for bonded molar tubes during fixed brace treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Declan T; Mandall, Nicky A; Mattick, Rye Cr; Hickman, Joy; Glenny, Anne-Marie

    2017-02-23

    date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials of participants with full arch fixed orthodontic appliance(s) with molar tubes, bonded to first or second permanent molars. Trials which compared any type of adhesive used to bond molar tubes (stainless steel or titanium) with any other adhesive, were included.Trials were also included where:(1) a tube was bonded to a molar tooth on one side of an arch and a band cemented to the same tooth type on the opposite side of the same arch;(2) molar tubes had been allocated to one tooth type in one patient group and molar bands to the same tooth type in another patient group. The selection of papers, decision about eligibility and data extraction were carried out independently and in duplicate without blinding to the authors, adhesives used or results obtained. All disagreements were resolved by discussion. Two trials (n = 190), at low risk of bias, were included in the review and both presented data on first time failure at the tooth level. Pooling of the data showed a statistically significant difference in favour of molar bands, with a hazard ratio of 2.92 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.80 to 4.72). No statistically significant heterogeneity was shown between the two studies. Data on first time failure at the patient level were also available and showed statistically different difference in favour of molar bands (risk ratio 2.30; 95% CI 1.56 to 3.41) (risk of event for molar tubes = 57%; risk of event for molar bands 25%).One trial presented data on decalcification again showing a statistically significant difference in favour of molar bands. No other adverse events identified. From the two well-designed and low risk of bias trials included in this review it was shown that the failure of molar tubes bonded with either a chemically-cured or light-cured adhesive was considerably higher than that of molar bands cemented with glass ionomer cement. One trial indicated that there was less

  9. Effect of chemical and biological surfactants on activated sludge of MBR system: microscopic analysis and foam test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodici, Marco; Di Bella, Gaetano; Nicosia, Salvatore; Torregrossa, Michele

    2015-02-01

    A bench-scale MBR unit was operated, under stressing condition, with the aim of stimulating the onset of foaming in the activated sludge. Possible synergies between synthetic surfactants in the wastewater and biological surfactants (Extra-Cellular Polymeric Substances, EPSs) were investigated by changing C/N ratio. The growth of filamentous bacteria was also discussed. The MBR unit provided satisfactory overall carbon removal overall efficiencies: in particular, synthetic surfactants were removed with efficiency higher than 90% and 95% for non-ionic and ionic surfactants, respectively. Lab investigation suggested also the importance to reduce synthetic surfactants presence entering into mixed liquor: otherwise, their presence can significantly worsen the natural foaming caused by biological surfactants (EPSs) produced by bacteria. Finally, a new analytic method based on "ink test" has been proposed as a useful tool to achieve a valuation of EPSs bound fraction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Binding of cationic surfactants to humic substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishiguro, M.; Tan, W.; Koopal, L.K.

    2007-01-01

    Commercial surfactants are introduced into the environment either through waste products or site-specific contamination. The amphiphilic nature of both surfactants and humic substances (HS) leads to their mutual attraction especially when surfactant and HS are oppositely charged. Binding of the

  11. Persurf, a new method to improve surfactant delivery: a study in surfactant depleted rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Burkhardt

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Exogenous surfactant is not very effective in adults with ARDS, since surfactant does not reach atelectatic alveoli. Perfluorocarbons (PFC can recruit atelectatic areas but do not replace impaired endogenous surfactant. A surfactant-PFC-mixture could combine benefits of both therapies. The aim of the proof-of-principal-study was to produce a PFC-in-surfactant emulsion (Persurf and to test in surfactant depleted Wistar rats whether Persurf achieves I. a more homogenous pulmonary distribution and II. a more homogenous recruitment of alveoli when compared with surfactant or PFC alone. METHODS: Three different PFC were mixed with surfactant and phospholipid concentration in the emulsion was measured. After surfactant depletion, animals either received 30 ml/kg of PF5080, 100 mg/kg of stained (green dye Curosurf™ or 30 ml/kg of Persurf. Lungs were fixated after 1 hour of ventilation and alveolar aeration and surfactant distribution was estimated by a stereological approach. RESULTS: Persurf contained 3 mg/ml phospholipids and was stable for more than 48 hours. Persurf-administration improved oxygenation. Histological evaluation revealed a more homogenous surfactant distribution and alveolar inflation when compared with surfactant treated animals. CONCLUSIONS: In surfactant depleted rats administration of PFC-in-surfactant emulsion leads to a more homogenous distribution and aeration of the lung than surfactant alone.

  12. Expressly fabricated molar tube bases: enhanced adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Tarun; Phull, Tarun Singh; Rana, Tarun; Kumar, Varun

    2014-06-01

    Clinicians, Orthodontists and their patients' parents often expect the best results in the shortest time span possible. Orthodontic bonding of molar tubes has been an acceptable risk in a modern era of refined biomaterials and instrumentation. Although many orthodontists still prefer banding to bonding, it is the failure rate of the tubes on molars which accounts to an impedance in molar bonding. One of the reasons for molar attachment failures is attributed to improper adaptation of the buccal tube base with or without increased thickness of composite. Merits of banding the second molars especially when these are the terminal teeth for anchorage have been overemphasized in the literature. The present article presents a simple and relatively less time consuming technique of preparing molar tubes to be bonded on tooth surfaces which may be quite difficult to isolate especially for bonding, for example, mandibular second molars. The increased surface area of the composite scaffold helps not only in enhanced bond strength but also serves to reduce the incidence of plaque accumulation given the dexterity of invitro preparation. The removal of the occlusal part of the molar tube scaffold helps in prevention of open / raised bite tendencies. The present innovation, therefore, is not merely serendipity but a structured technique to overcome a common dilemma for the clinical orthodontist. The present dictum of banding being superior to molar tube bonding may prove to be futile with trendsetting molar attachments. It is also an established fact that bonding proves to be a lesser expensive modality when compared to banding procedures.

  13. Reactive surfactants in heterophase polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guyot, A.; Tauer, K.; Asua, J.M.; Es, van J.J.G.S.; Gauthier, C.; Hellgren, A.C.; Sherrington, D.C.; Montoya-Goni, A.; Sjöberg, M.; Sindt, O.; Vidal, F.F.M.; Unzue, M.; Schoonbrood, H.A.S.; Schipper, E.T.W.M.; Lacroix-Desmazes, P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the work carried out during 3 years in a Network of the program "Human Capital and Mobility" of the European Union CHRX 93-0159 entitled "Reactive surfactants in heterophase polymerization for high performance polymers". A series of about 25 original papers will be published in

  14. Surfactant screening of diesel-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.W.; Montemagno, C.D.; Shem, L.; Lewis, B.-A.

    1992-01-01

    At one installation in California, approximately 60,000 gal of No. 2 diesel fuel leaked into the subsurface environment, resulting in contamination at depths from 6 to 34 m below the surface. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted to perform treatability studies for site remediation. This paper summarizes a surfactant screening/surfactant flooding research program in which 22 surfactants were screened for their effectiveness in mobilizing the organics from the contaminated soil prior to bioremediation. Anionic surfactants resulted in the greatest degree of diesel mobilization. The most promising surfactants will be employed on contaminated soil samples obtained from the site

  15. Surfactant gene polymorphisms and interstitial lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelidis Panagiotis

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, which is present in the alveolar lining fluid and is essential for normal lung function. Alterations in surfactant composition have been reported in several interstitial lung diseases (ILDs. Furthermore, a mutation in the surfactant protein C gene that results in complete absence of the protein has been shown to be associated with familial ILD. The role of surfactant in lung disease is therefore drawing increasing attention following the elucidation of the genetic basis underlying its surface expression and the proof of surfactant abnormalities in ILD.

  16. Surfactant -- Where Are We in 2003?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JF Lewis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactant research has progressed over the past several years to the extent that exogenous surfactant administration in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is now being evaluated. Unfortunately, clinical responses have been variable, and we now need to take a look at how surfactant is altered in this disease so that more effective treatment strategies can be developed. This review briefly discusses the biophysical and host defense properties of surfactant, the impact of mechanical ventilation (MV on the endogenous surfactant system and the most recent clinical data involving exogenous surfactant administration in patients with ARDS. Discussions regarding future directions of surfactant research both in ARDS and diseases other than acute lung injury are included.

  17. External and internal anatomy of third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerisoli, D M; de Souza, R A; de Sousa Neto, M D; Silva, R G; Pécora, J D

    1998-01-01

    The external and internal anatomy of 269 third molars (155 maxillary and 114 mandibular) were studied. The teeth were measured, classified according to their root number and shape and the internal anatomy was observed by the use of diaphanization. A great anatomical variability was found, with the presence of up to 5 roots in maxillary third molars and 3 roots in mandibular third molars. The number of root canals followed the same pattern.

  18. Pulpectomy procedures in primary molar teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Hany Mohamed Aly Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Premature loss of primary molars can cause a number of undesirable consequences including loss of arch length, insufficient space for erupting premolars and mesial tipping of the permanent molars. Pulpectomy of primary molar teeth is considered as a reasonable treatment approach to ensure either normal shedding or a long-term survival in instances of retention. Despite being a more conservative treatment option than extraction, efficient pulpectomy of bizarre and tortuous root canals encased ...

  19. Optimization of surfactant-aided remediation of industrially contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S.

    1996-01-01

    Soil matrices contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) abound at the sites of coke-oven gas plants, refineries, and many other major chemical industries. The removal of PAHs from soil using pure water, via soil washing (ex situ) or soil flushing (in situ), is quite ineffective due to their low solubility and hydrophobicity. However, addition of suitable surfactant(s) has been shown to increase the removal efficiency several fold. For the present work, the removal of PAHs occurring in industrially contaminated soil was studied. The objective was to use a nonionic surfactant solution for in situ soil flushing and to evaluate the optimal range of process parameters that can significantly increase the removal efficiency. The process parameters chosen were surfactant concentration, ratio of washing solution volume to soil weight, and temperature of washing solution. These parameters were found to have a significant effect on PAH removal from the contaminated soil and an optimal range was determined for each parameter under given washing conditions

  20. A PIV Study of Drop-interface Coalescence with Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weheliye, Weheliye Hashi; Dong, Teng; Angeli, Panagiota

    2017-11-01

    In this work, the coalescence of a drop with an aqueous-organic interface was studied by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The effect of surfactants on the drop surface evolution, the vorticity field and the kinetic energy distribution in the drop during coalescence were investigated. The coalescence took place in an acrylic rectangular box with 79% glycerol solution at the bottom and Exxsol D80 oil above. The glycerol solution drop was generated through a nozzle fixed at 2cm above the aqueous/oil interface and was seeded with Rhodamine particles. The whole process was captured by a high-speed camera. Different mass ratios of non-ionic surfactant Span80 to oil were studied. The increase of surfactant concentration promoted deformation of the interface before the rupture of the trapped oil film. At the early stages after film rupture, two counter-rotating vortices appeared at the bottom of the drop which then travelled to the upper part. The propagation rates, as well as the intensities of the vortices decreased at high surfactant concentrations. At early stages, the kinetic energy was mainly distributed near the bottom part of the droplet, while at later stages it was distributed near the upper part of the droplet. Programme Grant MEMPHIS, Chinese Scholarship Council (CSC).

  1. Permanent molars: Delayed development and eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathi R

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Delayed development and eruption of all the permanent molars is a rare phenomenon, which can cause disturbance in the developing occlusion. The eruption of permanent first and second molars is very important for the coordination of facial growth and for providing sufficient occlusal support for undisturbed mastication. In the case described, the first permanent molars were delayed in their development and were seen erupting at the age of nine and a half years. Severe disparity between the left and the right side of the dentition with respect to the rate of development of molars were also present.

  2. Dental lesions and restorative treatment in molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghiu Irina-Maria

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article review specific clinical issues of the molar teeth, as well as the therapeutic approach of their pathology. The dental pathology we face in the group of molars is related to: dental caries, dental trauma (crown and crown-root fractures, dental wear phenomena. The therapeutic approach of the molar teeth is represented by: restoration of the loss of hard dental tissues; endodontic treatments of pulpal and periapical complications; surgical treatment. The restorative treatments in molars are: direct restorations, with or without supplementary anchorage for obturations; inlay, onlay; prosthetic crown.

  3. Incidence of root canal treatment of second molars following adjacent impacted third molar extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yener Oguz

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Although the incidence is minimal, iatrogenic subluxation injuries occurring during the surgical removal of impacted third molars can lead to pulpal complications and a requirement for root canal treatment of adjacent second molars.

  4. Synergism and Physicochemical Properties of Anionic/Amphoteric Surfactant Mixtures with Nonionic Surfactant of Amine Oxide Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagojević, S. M.; Pejić, N. D.; Blagojević, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    The physicochemical properties of initial formulation, that is anionic/amphoteric surfactants mixture SLES/AOS/CAB (sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), α-olefin sulfonates (AOS) and cocamidopropyl betaine (CAB) at ratio 80 : 15 : 5) with nonionic surfactant of amine oxide type (lauramine oxide (AO)) in various concentration (1-5%) were studied. To characterize the surfactants mixture, the critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface tension (γ), foam volume, biodegradability and irritability were determined. This study showed that adding of AO in those mixtures lowered both γ and CMC as well as enhanced SLES/AOS/CAB foaming properties, but did not significantly affect biodegradability and irritability of initial formulation. Moreover, an increase in AO concentration has a meaningful synergistic effect on the initial formulation properties. All those results indicates that a nonionic surfactant of amine oxide type significantly improves the performance of anionic/amphoteric mixed micelle systems, and because of that anionic/amphoteric/nonionic mixture can be used in considerably lower concentrations as a cleaning formulation.

  5. Partial molar volumes of hydrogen and deuterium in niobium, vanadium, and tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.T.; Herro, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    The partial molar volumes of hydrogen and deuterium were measured in vanadium, niobium, and tantalum by a differential pressure technique. One-half of an electrolytically charged sample plat was compressed between hardened steel blocks in a hydraulic press. The activity of hydrogen in the hig pressure region was raised and caused hydrogen to diffuse into the low pressure region. The partia molar volume was calculated from the ratio of the hydrogen concentrations in the high and low pressure regions of the sample. Small isotope effects were found in the partial molar volume. Hydrogen had the larger volume in niobium and tantalum, but the reverse was true in vanadium

  6. Impact of cationic surfactant on the self-assembly of sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceković, Marko; Curlin, Marija; Jurašin, Darija

    2014-08-27

    The impact of a cationic surfactant, dodecylammonium chloride (DDACl), on the self-assembly of sodium caseinate (SC) has been investigated by light scattering, zeta potential, and rheological measurements as well as by microscopy (transmission electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy). In SC dilute solutions concentration-dependent self-assembly proceeds through the formation of spherical associates and their aggregation into elongated structures composed of connected spheres. DDACl interacts with SC via its hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, inducing changes in SC self-assembled structures. These changes strongly depend on the surfactant aggregation states (monomeric or micellar) as well as concentration ratio of both components, leading to the formation of soluble and insoluble complexes of nano- to microdimensions. DDACl monomers interact with SC self-assembled entities in a different way compared to their micelles. Surfactant monomers form soluble complexes (similar to surfactant mixed micelles) at lower SC concentration but insoluble gelatinous complexes at higher SC concentration. At surfactant micellar concentration soluble complexes with casein chains wrapped around surfactant micelles are formed. This study suggests that the use of proper cationic surfactant concentration will allow modification and control of structural changes of SC self-assembled entities.

  7. Adsorption of dimeric surfactants in lamellar silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcerzak, Mateusz; Pietralik, Zuzanna [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Domka, Ludwik [Department of Metalorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznań (Poland); Skrzypczak, Andrzej [Institute of Chemical Technology, Poznań University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, 60-965 Poznań (Poland); Kozak, Maciej, E-mail: mkozak@amu.edu.pl [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The intercalation of dimeric surfactants changed the morphology of MMT samples. • XRD indicated structures formed by surfactant molecules in interlayer space. • The four-step thermal decomposition of dimeric surfactant, confirms intercalation. - Abstract: The adsorption of different types of cationic surfactants in lamellar silicates changes their surface character from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. This study was undertaken to obtain lamellar silicates modified by a series of novel dimeric (gemini) surfactants of different length alkyl chains and to characterise these organophilised materials. Synthetic sodium montmorillonite SOMASIF® ME 100 (M) and enriched bentonite of natural origin (Nanoclay – hydrophilic bentonite®) were organophilised with dimeric (gemini) surfactants (1,1′-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(alkoxymethyl)imidazolium dichlorides). As a result of surfactant molecule adsorption in interlamellar space, the d-spacing (d{sub 001}) increased from 0.97 nm (for the anhydrous structure) to 2.04 nm. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the modified systems reveals bands assigned to the stretching vibrations of the CH{sub 2} and CH{sub 3} groups and the scissoring vibrations of the NH group from the structure of the dimeric surfactants. Thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) studies imply a four-stage process of surfactant decomposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images provide information on the influence of dimeric surfactant intercalation into the silicate structures. Particles of the modified systems show a tendency toward the formation of irregularly shaped agglomerates.

  8. Mini implant supported molar tubes: A novel method for attaching the molar tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin V Muralidhar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Banding or bonding procedures have been the only means of attaching molar tubes onto the permanent molar teeth till date in the field of orthodontics. This clinical innovation aims to include the use of mini implant for the purpose of attaching the molar tubes thereby eliminating the iatrogenic effects of banding and bonding of the teeth.

  9. Image analysis of the eruptive positions of third molars and adjacent second molars as indicators of age evaluation in Thai patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant May; Pramojanee, Sakarat; Thaiupathump, Trasapong

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the relationship between the stage of tooth eruption (both vertical and mesio-angular) and chronological age. Indirect digital panoramic radiographs were used to measure the distances from the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) of the second molars to the occlusal plane of the second molar teeth and of the adjacent third molars in 264 Thai males and 437 Thai females using ImageJ software. The ratio of those distances was calculated by patient age, and the correlation coefficient of the ratio of the third molar length to the second molar length was calculated. The correlation between the height of the vertically erupted upper third molar teeth and age was at the intermediate level. The age range of ≥15 to <16 years was noted to be the range in which the correlation between the chronological age determined from the eruptional height and actual chronological age was statistically significant. The mean age of the female subjects, in which the position of the right upper third molar teeth was at or above the DEJ of the adjacent second molar but below one half of its coronal height was 19.9±2.6 years. That for the left side was 20.2±2.7 years. The mean ages of the male subjects were 20.1±3.3 years and 19.8±2.7 years for the right and left sides, respectively. It might be possible to predict chronological age from the eruption height of the wisdom teeth.

  10. Image analysis of the eruptive positions of third molars and adjacent second molars as indicators of age evaluation in Thai patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant May; Pramojanee, Sakarat; Thaiupathump, Trasapong [Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2013-12-15

    This study was performed to determine the relationship between the stage of tooth eruption (both vertical and mesio-angular) and chronological age. Indirect digital panoramic radiographs were used to measure the distances from the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) of the second molars to the occlusal plane of the second molar teeth and of the adjacent third molars in 264 Thai males and 437 Thai females using ImageJ software. The ratio of those distances was calculated by patient age, and the correlation coefficient of the ratio of the third molar length to the second molar length was calculated. The correlation between the height of the vertically erupted upper third molar teeth and age was at the intermediate level. The age range of ≥15 to <16 years was noted to be the range in which the correlation between the chronological age determined from the eruptional height and actual chronological age was statistically significant. The mean age of the female subjects, in which the position of the right upper third molar teeth was at or above the DEJ of the adjacent second molar but below one half of its coronal height was 19.9±2.6 years. That for the left side was 20.2±2.7 years. The mean ages of the male subjects were 20.1±3.3 years and 19.8±2.7 years for the right and left sides, respectively. It might be possible to predict chronological age from the eruption height of the wisdom teeth.

  11. Physicochemical studies of mixed surfactant microemulsions with isopropyl myristate as oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Soumik; Kundu, Kaushik; Saha, Swapan K; Paul, Bidyut K

    2013-07-15

    The present study is focused on evaluation of interfacial compositions and thermodynamic properties of w/o mixed surfactant [(sodium dodecylsulfate, SDS/polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether, Brij-35)/1-pentanol (Pn)/isopropyl myristate (IPM)] microemulsions under various physicochemical conditions by the dilution method. The number of moles of Pn at the interface (n(a)(i)) and bulk oil (n(a)(o)), and various thermodynamic parameters [viz. standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG(o→i)(0)), standard enthalpy (ΔH(o→i)(0)), and standard entropy (ΔS(o→i)(0)) of the transfer of Pn from bulk oil to the interface] have been found to be dependent on the molar ratio of water to surfactant (ω), concentration of Brij-35 (X(Brij-35)), and temperature. Temperature-insensitive microemulsions with zero specific heat capacity (ΔC(p)(0))(o→i) have been formed at specific compositions. The intrinsic enthalpy change of the transfer process (ΔH(0))(o→i)* has been evaluated from linear correlation between ΔH(o→i)(0) and ΔS(o→i)(0) at different experimental temperatures. The present report also aims at a precise characterization on the basis of molecular interactions between the constituents and provides insight into the nature of the oil/water interfaces of these systems by conductivity and dynamic light scattering studies as a function of ω and X(Brij-35). Conductivity studies reveal that incorporation of Brij-35 in non-percolating water/SDS/Pn/IPM systems makes them favorable for ω-induced percolation behavior up to X(Brij-35) ≤ 0.5. But further addition of Brij-35 causes a decrease in conductivity with increasing ω. Furthermore, the hydrodynamic diameters of the microemulsion droplets increase with increase in both X(Brij-35) and ω. Correlations of the results in terms of the evaluated physicochemical parameters have been attempted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance enhancement of NdFeB nanoflakes prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling at low temperature by using different surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiaoxin; Jin, Kunpeng; Wang, Fang; Fang, Qiuli; Du, Juan; Xia, Weixing; Yan, Aru; Liu, J. Ping; Zhang, Jian

    2017-02-01

    Hard magnetic NdFeB submicron and nanoflakes were successfully prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling at room temperature (SABMRT) and low temperature (SABMLT) by using oleic acid (OA), oleylamine (OLA) and trioctylamine (TOA) as surfactant, respectively. Among the surfactants used, OA and OLA have similar effects on the morphology of the NdFeB nanoflakes milled at both room and low temperature. In the case of TOA, irregular micron-sized particles and submirco/nanoflakes were obtained for the NdFeB powders prepared by SABMRT and SABMLT, respectively. Samples prepared by SABMLT show better crystallinity and better degree of grain alignment than that prepared by SABMRT with the same surfactant. Comparing with the samples milled at RT, higher coercivity and larger remanence ratio were achieved in the NdFeB samples prepared at LT. The amounts of residual surfactants in final NdFeB powders were also calculated, which reveals that the final NdFeB powders milled at LT possess lower amount of residual surfactants than those milled at RT. It was found that lowering milling temperature of SABM would be a promising way for fabricating permanent magnetic materials with better hard magnetic properties.

  13. Morphologic study of the maxillary molars. Part II: Internal anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pécora, J D; Woelfel, J B; Sousa Neto, M D; Issa, E P

    1992-01-01

    The internal anatomy of three hundred and seventy (370) decalcified and cleared human maxillary molars was studied. Seventy-five percent of the first molars, 58% of the second molars and 68% of the third molars studied presented three (3) root canals and 25% of the first molars, 42% of the second molars and 32% of the third molars presented four (4) root canals. The authors observed that the incidence of two root canals in the mesiobuccal root was higher in second maxillary molars than in first maxillary molars.

  14. Phase transitions in surfactant monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casson, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    Two-dimensional phase transitions have been studied in surfactant monolayers at the air/water interface by sum-frequency spectroscopy and ellipsometry. In equilibrium monolayers of medium-chain alcohols C n H 2n+1 OH (n = 9-14) a transition from a two-dimensional crystalline phase to a liquid was observed at temperatures above the bulk melting point. The small population of gauche defects in the solid phase increased only slightly at the phase transition. A model of the hydrocarbon chains as freely rotating rigid rods allowed the area per molecule and chain tilt in the liquid phase to be determined. The area per molecule, chain tilt and density of the liquid phase all increased with increasing chain length, but for each chain length the density was higher than in a bulk liquid hydrocarbon. In a monolayer of decanol adsorbed at the air/water interface a transition from a two-dimensional liquid to a gas was observed. A clear discontinuity in the coefficient of ellipticity as a function of temperature showed that the transition is first-order. This result suggests that liquid-gas phase transitions in surfactant monolayers may be more widespread than once thought. A solid-liquid phase transition has also been studied in mixed monolayers of dodecanol with an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate) and with a homologous series of cationic surfactants (alkyltrimethylammonium bromides: C n TABs, n = 12, 14, 16). The composition and structure of the mixed monolayers was studied above and below the phase transition. At low temperatures the mixed monolayers were as densely packed as a monolayer of pure dodecanol in its solid phase. At a fixed temperature the monolayers under-went a first-order phase transition to form a phase that was less dense and more conformationally disordered. The proportion of ionic surfactant in the mixed monolayer was greatest in the high temperature phase. As the chain length of the C n TAB increased the number of conformational defects

  15. Effects of various surfactants on the dispersion stability and electrical conductivity of surface modified graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, Md. Elias [WCU Program, Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kuila, Tapas [Surface Engineering and Tribology, CSIR – Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 721 302 (India); Nayak, Ganesh Chandra [Department of Applied Chemistry, ISM Dhanbad, Dhanbad 826 004, Jharkhand (India); Kim, Nam Hoon [Department of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Bon-Cheol [Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Dunsan-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 864-9 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Hee, E-mail: jhl@chonbuk.ac.kr [WCU Program, Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Water dispersible graphene has been prepared using ionic and non-ionic surfactants. ► XPS and FTIR spectra analysis confirm surface modification and reduction of GO. ► The highest water dispersibility is observed in the graphene modified with of SDBS. ► The best properties of modified graphene is achieved with GO/surfactant ratio of two. -- Abstract: Ionic and non-ionic surfactant functionalized, water dispersible graphene were prepared to investigate the effects on the dispersion stability and electrical conductivity of graphene. In this study, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), sodium dodecyl sulfate and 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl) phenyl-polyethylene glycol (Triton X-100) were used as ionic and non-ionic surfactants. The effects of surfactant concentrations on the dispersibility and electrical conductivity of the surface modified graphene were investigated. The dispersion stability of SDBS functionalized graphene (SDBS-G) was found to be best in water at 1.5 mg ml{sup −1}. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicate that the presence of surfactants does not prevent the reduction of graphene oxide (GO). These measurements also demonstrated that the surfactants were present on the surface of graphene, resulting in the formation of functionalized graphene. The thickness of different functionalized graphene was measured by Atomic force microscopy and varied significantly with different surfactants. The thermal properties of the functionalized graphene were also found to be dependent on the nature of the surfactants. The electrical conductivity of SDBS-G (108 S m{sup −1}) was comparatively higher than SDS and Triton X-100 functionalized graphene.

  16. The Molecular Era of Surfactant Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the physiology, biochemistry, molecular and cell biology of the pulmonary surfactant system transformed the clinical care and outcome of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. The molecular era of surfactant biology provided genetic insights into the pathogenesis of pulmonary disorders, previously termed “idiopathic” that affect newborn infants, children and adults. Knowledge related to the structure and function of the surfactant proteins and their roles in alveolar ...

  17. The Biophysical Function of Pulmonary Surfactant

    OpenAIRE

    Rugonyi, Sandra; Biswas, Samares C.; Hall, Stephen B.

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant lowers surface tension in the lungs. Physiological studies indicate two key aspects of this function: that the surfactant film forms rapidly; and that when compressed by the shrinking alveolar area during exhalation, the film reduces surface tension to very low values. These observations suggest that surfactant vesicles adsorb quickly, and that during compression, the adsorbed film resists the tendency to collapse from the interface to form a three-dimensional bulk phase....

  18. Acute Pathophysiological Effects of Intratracheal Instillation of Budesonide and Exogenous Surfactant in a Neonatal Surfactant-depleted Piglet Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Feng Yang

    2010-08-01

    Conclusions: Intratracheal instillation of surfactant or surfactant plus budesonide can improve oxygenation and pulmonary histologic outcome in neonatal surfactant-depleted lungs. The additional use of budesonide does not disturb the function of the exogenous surfactant. Intratracheal administration of a corticosteroid combined with surfactant may be an effective method for alleviating local pulmonary inflammation in severe RDS.

  19. [Correlation between the lower first permanent molar axis and the premature loss of temporary molars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petcu, Ana; Maxim, A; Haba, Danisia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the impact of premature loss of temporary molars upon the longitudinal axis of the first permanent molar. The study sample was formed by 94 orthopanthomografies of child patients with premature loss of lower temporary molars (first or second) after clinical eruption of the first permanent molar. All panoramic radiographs have been realized with the same panoramic unit with 1.4% magnification coefficient and were analyzed using a standardized technique of tracing the images of teeth and bone on matte acetate paper. It was evaluated the angle between longitudinal axis of first permanent lower molar and occlusal plane. It was observed that premature loss of lower second deciduous molar modifies greater the vertical axis of first permanent molar (between 61 degrees and 79 degrees) then premature loss of first lower primary molar. This is perhaps because the loss of space in the case of premature exfoliation of first primary molar is due more to distal drift of canine then mesial drift of molars. The drift to mesial of first permanent molar is more accentuated proportional with the age at which appeared premature loss and so it is loss of leeway space.

  20. The influence of premature loss of temporary upper molars on permanent molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernei, E R; Maxim, Dana Cristiana; Zetu, Irina Nicoleta

    2015-01-01

    Premature loss of primary molars due to dental caries and their complications has been associated with space loss and eruptive difficulties, especially when the loss occurs early. The aim of our study was to determine the impact of premature loss of temporary upper molars upon the longitudinal axis of the first and second upper permanent molar. The study group included 64 patients 6-9 years old with premature loss of primary molars and a control group of 48 patients with intact temporary teeth. It was evaluated the angle between longitudinal axis of first and second upper permanent molars and occlusal plane. The sofware used is Easy Dent 4 Viewer®.The data were analyzed by using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 20.0; SPSS, Chicago, III). It was observed that premature loss of upper second deciduous molars modifies greater the vertical axis of the permanent molars than the premature loss of first upper primary molar. First upper primary molar loss cause an acceleration eruption of first premolar, which will produce a distal inclintion of the both permanent molars. The use of space maintainers after premature loss of the second upper temporary molar is a last solution in preventing tridimensional lesions in the dental arch and occlusion.

  1. Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar: Report of five rare cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souki, Bernardo Q.; Cheib, Paula L.; de Brito, Gabriela M.; Pinto, Larissa S. M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar is a rare condition that practitioners might face in the field of pediatric dentistry and orthodontics. The early diagnosis and extraction of the adjacent ectopic third molar have been advocated, and prior research has reported a high rate of spontaneous eruption following third molar removal. However, some challenges in the daily practice are that the early diagnosis of this type of tooth impaction is difficult with conventional radiographic examination, and sometimes the early surgical removal of the maxillary third molar must be postponed because of the risks of damaging the second molar. The objective of this study is to report a case series of five young patients with maxillary second molar impaction and to discuss the difficulty of early diagnosis with the conventional radiographic examination, and unpredictability of self-correction. PMID:26321848

  2. Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar: Report of five rare cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Q Souki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar is a rare condition that practitioners might face in the field of pediatric dentistry and orthodontics. The early diagnosis and extraction of the adjacent ectopic third molar have been advocated, and prior research has reported a high rate of spontaneous eruption following third molar removal. However, some challenges in the daily practice are that the early diagnosis of this type of tooth impaction is difficult with conventional radiographic examination, and sometimes the early surgical removal of the maxillary third molar must be postponed because of the risks of damaging the second molar. The objective of this study is to report a case series of five young patients with maxillary second molar impaction and to discuss the difficulty of early diagnosis with the conventional radiographic examination, and unpredictability of self-correction.

  3. Solubilization of Hydrophobic Dyes in Surfactant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Tehrani-Bagha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of surfactants for solubilization of hydrophobic organic dyes (mainly solvent and disperse dyes has been reviewed. The effect of parameters such as the chemical structures of the surfactant and the dye, addition of salt and of polyelectrolytes, pH, and temperature on dye solubilization has been discussed. Surfactant self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution and below the concentration where this occurs—the critical micelle concentration (CMC—there is no solubilization. Above the CMC, the amount of solubilized dye increases linearly with the increase in surfactant concentration. It is demonstrated that different surfactants work best for different dyes. In general, nonionic surfactants have higher solubilization power than anionic and cationic surfactants. It is likely that the reason for the good performance of nonionic surfactants is that they allow dyes to be accommodated not only in the inner, hydrocarbon part of the micelle but also in the headgroup shell. It is demonstrated that the location of a dye in a surfactant micelle can be assessed from the absorption spectrum of the dye-containing micellar solution.

  4. Remediation using trace element humate surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Taylor, Steven Cheney; Bruhn, Debra Fox

    2016-08-30

    A method of remediation at a remediation site having one or more undesirable conditions in which one or more soil characteristics, preferably soil pH and/or elemental concentrations, are measured at a remediation site. A trace element humate surfactant composition is prepared comprising a humate solution, element solution and at least one surfactant. The prepared trace element humate surfactant composition is then dispensed onto the remediation site whereby the trace element humate surfactant composition will reduce the amount of undesirable compounds by promoting growth of native species activity. By promoting native species activity, remediation occurs quickly and environmental impact is minimal.

  5. Fluorescent visualization of a spreading surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallest, David W; Lichtenberger, Adele M; Fox, Christopher J; Daniels, Karen E, E-mail: kdaniel@ncsu.ed [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The spreading of surfactants on thin films is an industrially and medically important phenomenon, but the dynamics are highly nonlinear and visualization of the surfactant dynamics has been a long-standing experimental challenge. We perform the first quantitative, spatiotemporally resolved measurements of the spreading of an insoluble surfactant on a thin fluid layer. During the spreading process, we directly observe both the radial height profile of the spreading droplet and the spatial distribution of the fluorescently tagged surfactant. We find that the leading edge of a spreading circular layer of surfactant forms a Marangoni ridge in the underlying fluid, with a trough trailing the ridge as expected. However, several novel features are observed using the fluorescence technique, including a peak in the surfactant concentration that trails the leading edge, and a flat, monolayer-scale spreading film that differs from concentration profiles predicted by current models. Both the Marangoni ridge and the surfactant leading edge can be described to spread as R{approx}t{sup {delta}}. We find spreading exponents {delta}{sub H}{approx}0.30 and {delta}{sub {Gamma}}{approx}0.22 for the ridge peak and surfactant leading edge, respectively, which are in good agreement with theoretical predictions of {delta}=1/4. In addition, we observe that the surfactant leading edge initially leads the peak of the Marangoni ridge, with the peak later catching up to the leading edge.

  6. Analysis of the mineral composition of hypomineralized first permanent molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinović Brankica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hypomineralization of molars and incisors (molar-incisor hypomineralization - MIH is defined as enamel hypomineralization of systemic origin of one or more of the four first permanent molars, which may be associated with changes in the maxillary, and less frequently in the permanent mandibular incisors. The aim of this study was to investigate the mineral content in hypomineralized teeth as a contribution to under-standing the origin of these changes, which will be important for effective restorative approach. Methods. A total of 10 extracted first permanent molars diagnosed with MIH were used in the study as the experimental group, and intact first premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons were used as the control group. A certain surface of hypomineralized аnd healthy enamel and dentin was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energydispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS. Results. By conducting quantitative chemical analysis of the distribution of the basic chemical elements, it was found that the concentration of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P was significantly higher in healthy enamel (Ca = 28.80 wt%, and P = 15.05 wt% compared to hypomineralized enamel (Ca = 27.60 wt% and P = 14.32 wt%. Carbon (C concentration was statistically significantly higher in hypomineralized enamel (C = 11.70 wt% compared to healthy enamel (C = 10.94 wt%. Hypomineralized and healthy enamel did not differ significantly regarding the ratio of calcium and phosphorus concentrations whereas the ratio of calcium and carbon concentrations was statistically significantly higher in healthy enamel compared to hypomineralized enamel. Conclusion. Concentration of the main chemical elements, primarily calcium and phosphorus, is significantly reduced in hypomineralized enamel whereas carbon concentration is increased compared to healthy enamel.

  7. Surfactant nebulisation : lung function, surfactant distribution and pulmonary blood flow distribution in lung lavaged rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Peter H.; Heikamp, A; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Surfactant nebulisation is a promising alternative to surfactant instillation in newborns with the respiratory distress syndrome. Although less surfactant is deposited in the lung, it improves gas exchange, probably due to a superior distribution. We hypothesize that a more uniform

  8. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite particles in catanionic mixed surfactants template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tari, Nesa Esmaeilian; Kashani Motlagh, Mohammad M.; Sohrabi, Beheshteh

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ►The mixture of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with different ratio were used as the template for synthesizing HAP particles. ► The overall morphology of the obtained powders at anionic-rich region (SDS:CTAB, 99:1) solution is rod like with high regularity. ► In the presence of cationic rich region (SDS:CTAB, 1:99) the resulted particles was sheet like. ► The resulted HAP nano particles in the presence of SDS were rod like but their morphology was less oriented than anionic-rich region. - Abstract: Different morphologies of nano hydroxyapatite particles, Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 (HAP) are prepared by precipitation method using CaCl 2 and H 3 PO 4 (water phase) and the mixture of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and anionic one sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as template. The mixture of these surfactants in two regions of cationic-rich and anionic-rich form the various aggregations as template. The results show that by changing the ratio of cationic to anionic surfactant in the mixture the morphology of the nano HAP can be controlled. The nano structure of products is studied by the means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transmission infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). With this system we could synthesize nano particles of hydroxyapatite with high crystallinity and least agglomeration.

  9. Changes in hydration of the stratum corneum are the most suitable indicator to evaluate the irritation of surfactants on the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, T; Shimotoyodome, Y; Nishijima, T; Sugata, K; Taguchi, H; Moriwaki, S

    2017-02-01

    Irritancy levels of surfactants on human skin have not been clarified completely. The relationships between skin damage and changes of skin properties caused by various surfactants were investigated using non-invasive measurements. Aqueous solutions of seven kinds of anionic, non-ionic, and amphoteric surfactants were exposed to the inside of forearm skin of 20 human subjects in two separate studies using the cup method. Hydration of the stratum corneum (SC), transepidermal water loss (TEWL), pH, skin surface roughness, and contents of the SC were measured before and after one exposure and after five and nine consecutive exposures to various surfactants. The discontinuation ratio of subjects for testing in each surfactant was determined by skin irritation symptoms and was defined as the degree of skin damage. Significant changes were observed only in hydration, TEWL, and natural moisturizing factors (NMF) content in the SC following surfactant exposure. A significant correlation was observed between the discontinuation ratio of each surfactant and the changes of hydration, TEWL, and NMF. Especially, the change of SC hydration showed an excellent correlation with the discontinuation ratio both for single (r = 0.942, P hydration of the SC is equivalent to the skin damage caused by surfactants, and therefore is the most suitable indicator to evaluate the irritation of surfactants on the skin. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Rare occurrence of the left maxillary horizontal third molar impaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rare occurrence of the left maxillary horizontal third molar impaction, the right maxillary third molar vertical impaction and the left mandibular third molar vertical impaction with inferior alveolar nerve proximity in a 30 year old female: a case report.

  11. Fusión de un tercer molar mandibular con un cuarto molar supernumerario Fusion of mandibular third molar with supernumerary fourth molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. López Carriches

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available La fusión dental es la unión de dos gérmenes dentales normalmente separados, mientras que la geminación se define como el intento de división de un único germen dental. La fusión y geminación de molares es poco frecuente en la dentición permanente. Describimos un caso clínico de un tercer molar inferior derecho fusionado a un cuarto molar supernumerario en un paciente varón de 36 años que ha presentado repetidos episodios de pericoronaritis. Tras el estudio radiológico se realiza la exodoncia del cordal semiincluido bajo anestesia local. Llevamos a cabo una revisión bibliográfica al respecto.Dental fusion is the union of two tooth buds that normally are separated, while gemination is defined as an attempt by a single tooth bud to divide. The fusion and gemination of molars is uncommon in permanent teeth. We report a clinical case of a right lower third molar fused to a supernumerary fourth molar in a 36-year-old male patient with repeated episodes of inflammation. After the radiologic study, the semi-impacted third molar was extracted under local anesthesia. The literature was reviewed.

  12. Structure of DNA-Cationic Surfactant Complexes at Hydrophobically Modified and Hydrophilic Silica Surfaces as Revealed by Neutron Reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenas Gomez, Marite; Wacklin, Hanna; Campbell, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    with dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on hydrophobic surfaces, where we show that DNA molecules are located on top of a self-assembled surfactant monolayer, with the thickness of the DNA layer and the surfactant DNA ratio determined by the surface coverage of the underlying...... interfacial structures, a higher concentration in relation to its cmc is required for the more soluble DTAB surfactant with a shorter alkyl chain than for CTAB. Our results suggest that the DNA Molecules Will spontaneously form a relatively dense, thin layer on top of a surfactant monolayer (hydrophobic...... surface) or a layer of admicelles (hydrophilic surface) as long as the surface concentration of surfactant is great enough to ensure a high interfacial-charge density. These findings have implications for bioanalytical and nanotechnology applications, which require the deposition of DNA layers with well...

  13. Behavior of microemulsion systems of virgin coconut oil (VCO) using igepal CO-520 and tween 80 surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safuan, A.; Hamdan, S.; Laili, C. R.

    2017-09-01

    Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) has been applied in many application and products. Formation of microemulsion region with surfactant was investigated by using phase diagram. The surfactants used are igepal CO-520 and tween 80. The studies showed that formation of microemulsion region were dependent on the behaviour of the surfactant toward VCO. The result showed that microemulsion regions were present in igepal CO-520 system formed a larger water-in-oil microemulsion region compared to tween 80 system. Certain weight ratios of VCO to surfactants were studied by using evaporation test in order to study the water loss of the microemulsion in ambient condition. The evaporation rate of samples was varies depending their compositon of VCO, surfactant and water.

  14. Autogenous transplantation of maxillary and mandibular molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Peter P

    2008-11-01

    Autogenous tooth transplantation has been used as a predictable surgical approach to correct malocclusion and replace edentulous areas. This article focuses on the surgical approach and technique for molar transplantation. Thirty-two patients aged between 11 and 25 years underwent 44 autogenous molar transplantations. The procedure involved transplantation of impacted or newly erupted third molars into the extraction sockets of nonrestorable molars and surgical removal and replacement of horizontally impacted molars into their proper vertical alignment. Five basic procedural concepts were applied: 1) atraumatic extraction, avoiding disruption of the root sheath and root buds; 2) apical contouring of bone at the transplantation site and maxillary sinus lift via the Summers osteotome technique, when indicated, for maxillary molars; 3) preparation of a 4-wall bony socket; 4) avoidance of premature occlusal interferences; and 5) stabilization of the tooth with placement of a basket suture. All 32 patients successfully underwent the planned procedure. To date, 2 patients have had localized infection that resulted in loss of the transplant. The remaining 42 transplants remain asymptomatic and functioning, with a mean follow-up period of 19 months. No infection, ankylosis, loss of the transplant, or root resorption has been noted. In addition, endodontic therapy has not been necessary on any transplanted teeth. Autogenous tooth transplantation has been discussed and described in the literature previously, with a primary focus on cuspid and bicuspid transplantation. The molar transplant is infrequently discussed in today's literature, possibly because of the preponderance of titanium dental implants. Autogenous molar transplantation is a viable procedure with low morbidity and excellent functional and esthetic outcomes. This report shows the successful transplantation of 42 of 44 molars in 32 patients with a mean follow-up period of 19 months.

  15. Treatment of ectopic first permanent molar teeth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessy, Joe

    2012-11-01

    Ectopic eruption of the first permanent molar is a relatively common occurence in the developing dentition. A range of treatment options are available to the clinician provided that diagnosis is made early. Non-treatment can result in premature exfoliation of the second primary molar, space loss and impaction of the second premolar. This paper will describe the management of ectopic first permanent molars, using clinical examples to illustrate the available treatment options. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This paper is relevant to every general dental practitioner who treats patients in mixed dentition.

  16. Mini-implant-supported Molar Distalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Goyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporary anchorage devices popularly called mini-implants or miniscrews are the latest addition to an orthodontist′s armamentarium. The following case report describes the treatment of a 16-year-old girl with a pleasant profile, moderate crowding and Angle′s Class II molar relationship. Maxillary molar distalization was planned and mini-implants were used to preserve the anterior anchorage. After 13 months of treatment, Class I molar and canine relation was achieved bilaterally and there was no anterior proclination. Thus, mini-implants provide a viable option to the clinician to carry out difficult tooth movements without any side effects.

  17. Treatment of ectopic first permanent molar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Joe; Al-Awadhi, E A; Dwyer, Lian O; Leith, Rona

    2012-11-01

    Ectopic eruption of the first permanent molar is a relatively common occurence in the developing dentition. A range of treatment options are available to the clinician provided that diagnosis is made early. Non-treatment can result in premature exfoliation of the second primary molar, space loss and impaction of the second premolar. This paper will describe the management of ectopic first permanent molars, using clinical examples to illustrate the available treatment options. This paper is relevant to every general dental practitioner who treats patients in mixed dentition.

  18. The premature loss of primary first molars: space loss to molar occlusal relationships and facial patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Stanley A; Askari, Marjan; Lewis, Patricia

    2015-03-01

    To investigate space changes with the premature loss of primary first molars and their relationship to permanent molar occlusion and facial forms. Two hundred twenty-six participants (ranging in age from 7 years 8 months to 8 years 2 months; 135 female, 91 male) met all inclusion criteria designed to study space loss as a result of the premature loss of the primary first molar. After 9 months, space loss was evaluated in relationship to molar occlusion and facial form. Statistical evaluation was performed with the paired t-test and with a two-way analysis of variance for independent groups. Patients with leptoprosopic facial form and end-on molar occlusions all exhibited a statistically significant difference when compared to controls in terms of space loss (P molar occlusion displayed space loss as well (P molar occlusion displayed space loss in the maxilla (P molar occlusions showed no significant difference in space loss. The relationship between the first permanent molar occlusion and facial form of the child has an influence on the loss of space at the primary first molar site.

  19. AXIAL MODIFICATIONS OF PERMANENT LOWER MOLARS AFTER PREMATURE LOSSES OF TEMPORARY MOLARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernei, E R; Mavru, R B; Zetu, Irina Nicoleta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the impact of premature loss of temporary lower molars upon the longitudinal axis of the first and second permanent molars. The study groups included 61 patients, 6-9 year olds with premature loss of primary molars and a control group of 24 patients with intact temporary teeth. We evaluated the angle between longitudinal axis of first and second lower permanent molars and occlusal plane. It was observed that premature loss of lower second deciduous molar modifies more the vertical axis of first and second permanent molars than the premature loss of first lower primary molar. Reducing space occurs mainly through mesial inclination of molars that separates the edentulous breach. Temporary loss of both lower first molars on the same quadrant causes an accelerated eruption of both premolars increasing the prevalence of eruption sequence: "4-5-3-7". The preservation of the occlusal morpho-functional complex using space maintainers mainly when the premature loss of the second primary molars occurs is the best interceptive treatment option.

  20. Production of a biological surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gladys Rosero

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the scale up work performed at the Colombian Petroleum Institute on a process to produce at pilot plant level a biosurfactant of the rhamnolipid type. By examination of both the activation conditions of the microorganism and design aspects of the broth, a stable condition was achieved which consistently triggers the production mechanisms and thus it was obtained a significant increment in biosurfactant productivity. The biological surfactant exhibited high efficiency in applications such as hydrocarbon biodegradation in saline environments, corrosion inhibition, and crude oil recovery from storage tank bottom sludges.

  1. Cooperative Effects of Zwitterionic-Ionic Surfactant Mixtures on the Interfacial Water Structure Revealed by Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuecong; Yang, Fangyuan; Chen, Shunli; Zhu, Xuefeng; Wang, Chuanyi

    2018-05-08

    Cooperative effects of a series of equimolar binary zwitterionic-ionic surfactant mixtures on the interfacial water structure at the air-water interfaces have been studied by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS). For zwitterionic surfactant palmityl sulfobetaine (SNC 16 ), anionic surfactant sodium hexadecyl sulfate (SHS), and cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with the same length of alkyl chain, significantly enhanced ordering of interfacial water molecules was observed for the zwitterionic-anionic surfactant mixtures SNC 16 -SHS, indicating that SNC 16 interacts more strongly with SHS than with CTAB because of the strong headgroup-headgroup electrostatic attraction for SNC 16 -SHS. Meanwhile, the SFG amplitude ratio of methyl and methylene symmetric stretching modes was used to verify the stronger interaction between SNC 16 and SHS. The conformational order indicator increased from 0.64 for SNC 16 to 7.17 for SNC 16 -SHS but only 0.94 for SNC 16 -CTAB. In addition, another anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was introduced to study the influence of chain-chain interaction. Decreased SFG amplitude of interfacial water molecules for SNC 16 -SDS was observed. Therefore, both the headgroup-headgroup electrostatic interaction and chain-chain van der Waals attractive interaction of the surfactants play an important role in enhancing the ordering of interfacial water molecules. The results provided experimental and theoretical bases for practical applications of the surfactants.

  2. Surfactant protein D in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Marianne; Juvonen, Pekka Olavi; Holmskov, Uffe

    2005-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a collectin that plays an important role in the innate immune system. The role of SP-D in the metabolism of surfactant is as yet quite unclear. The aims of this study were to establish normal values of SP-D in the umbilical cord blood and capillary blood of mature...

  3. Morphological alterations of exogenous surfactant inhibited by meconium can be prevented by dextran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stichtenoth Guido

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant dysfunction due to inhibition is involved in the pathophysiology of meconium aspiration syndrome. Dextran addition has been shown to reverse exogenous surfactant inactivation by meconium, but the precise mechanisms and the morphological correlate of this effect are yet unknown. Morphological surfactant analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and stereology allows the differentiation of active (large aggregates = LA and inactive (small aggregates = SA subtypes. Methods To determine the in vitro effects of meconium and dextran addition on the morphology of a modified porcine natural surfactant (Curosurf, Curosurf samples were either incubated alone or together with meconium or with meconium and dextran, fixed and processed for TEM. Volume fractions of surfactant subtypes [lamellar body-like forms (LBL, multilamellar vesicles (MV, unilamellar vesicles (UV] were determined stereologically. Results All preparations contained LBL and MV (corresponding to LA as well as UV (corresponding to SA. The volume fraction of UV increased with addition of meconium and decreased with further addition of dextran. Correspondingly, the UV/(LBL+MV ratio (resembling the SA/LA ratio increased when meconium was added and decreased when dextran was added to the surfactant-meconium mixture. Conclusion Meconium causes alterations in the ultrastructural composition of Curosurf that can be visualized and analyzed by TEM and stereology. These alterations resemble an increase in the SA/LA ratio and are paralleled by an increase in minimum surface tension. Dextran prevents these effects and may therefore be a useful additive to exogenous surfactant preparations to preserve their structural and functional integrity, thereby improving their resistance to inactivation.

  4. Antioxidant poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles made with α-tocopherol-ascorbic acid surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astete, Carlos E; Dolliver, Debra; Whaley, Meocha; Khachatryan, Lavrent; Sabliov, Cristina M

    2011-12-27

    The goal of the study was to synthesize a surfactant made of α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) of antioxidant properties dubbed as EC, and to use this surfactant to make poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles. Self-assembled EC nanostructures and PLGA-EC nanoparticles were made by nanoprecipitation, and their physical properties (size, size distribution, morphology) were studied at different salt concentrations, surfactant concentrations, and polymer/surfactant ratios. EC surfactant was shown to form self-assembled nanostructures in water with a size of 22 to 138 nm in the presence of sodium chloride, or 12 to 31 nm when synthesis was carried out in sodium bicarbonate. Polymeric PLGA-EC nanoparticles presented a size of 90 to 126 nm for 40% to 120% mass ratio PLGA to surfactant. For the same mass ratios, the PLGA-Span80 formed particles measured 155 to 216 nm. Span80 formed bilayers, whereas EC formed monolayers at the interfaces. PLGA-EC nanoparticles and EC showed antioxidant activity based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay measurements using UV and EPR techniques, antioxidant activity which is not characteristic to commercially available Span80. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for lipid peroxidation showed that PLGA nanoparticles with EC performed better as antioxidants than the EC nanoassembly or the free vitamin C. Nanoparticles were readily internalized by HepG2 cells and were localized in the cytoplasm. The newly synthesized EC surfactant was therefore found successful in forming uniform, small size polymeric nanoparticles of intrinsic antioxidant properties.

  5. Radiographic assessment of lower third molar eruption in different anteroposterior skeletal patterns and age-related groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Aleksandar; Lazic, Emira; Soldatovic, Ivan; Nedeljkovic, Nenad; Andric, Miroslav

    2015-07-01

    To analyze radiographic predictors for lower third molar eruption among subjects with different anteroposterior skeletal relations and of different age groups. In total, 300 lower third molars were recorded on diagnostic digital orthopantomograms (DPTs) and lateral cephalograms (LCs). The radiographs were grouped according to sagittal intermaxillary angle (ANB), subject age, and level of lower third molar eruption. The DPT was used to analyze retromolar space, mesiodistal crown width, space/width ratio, third and second molar angulation (α, γ), third molar inclination (β), and gonion angle. The LC was used to determine ANB, angles of maxillar and mandibular prognathism (SNA, SNB), mandibular plane angle (SN/MP), and mandibular lengths. A logistic regression model was created using the statistically significant predictors. The logistic regression analysis revealed a statistically significant impact of β angle and distance between gonion and gnathion (Go-Gn) on the level of lower third molar eruption (P third molar impaction rate was significantly higher in the adult subgroup with the Class II (62.3%) compared with Class III subjects (31.7%; P third molar eruption were measured in Class III subjects. For valid estimation of mandibular third molar eruption, certain linear and angular measures (β angle, Go-Gn), as well as the size of the retromolar space, need to be considered.

  6. Surfactant treatment before first breath for respiratory distress syndrome in preterm lambs: comparison of a peptide-containing synthetic lung surfactant with porcine-derived surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Zyl JM

    2013-08-01

    , 240 and 300 minutes after treatment. The study continued for 5 hours. Results: Surfactant treatment led to a significant improvement in oxygenation within 30 minutes, with the Synsurf group and the Curosurf® group having significantly higher ratios between arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2; P = 0.021 compared to that of the control (saline-treated animals. Dynamic compliance improved in the three groups over time, with no intergroup differences. All of the surfactant-treated animals survived, and one in the saline group died before the study ended. Histology between groups was not different, showing mild–moderate injury patterns. Discussion: Treatment with surfactants before first breath clearly resulted in improved systemic oxygenation within 30 minutes of instillation. Both Synsurf- and Curosurf®-treated animals experienced similar and more sustained improvement in oxygenation and decreased calculated shunt compared to saline-treated animals. Keywords: respiratory distress syndrome, preterm lambs, pulmonary surfactant, gas exchange, oxygenation

  7. Estudo das dispersões aquosas de nanotubos de carbono utilizando diferentes surfactantes Study of aqueous dispersions of carbon nanotubes using different surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella R. da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dispersion of carbon nanotubes in water for their utilization in nanoscale devices is a challenging task. Comparative studies on interaction and dispersion of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT using two different surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS, and polyoxyethylenesorbitanmonooleate, Tween 80 are presented. The interaction between carbon nanotubes and surfactants was studied by tensiometry, conductivimetry, and fluorimetry. The dispersions of MWNT in surfactants were characterized using a UV-vis spectrophotometer. For effective dispersion, the minimum weight ratio of MWNT to surfactant was 1:41 and 1:3 for SDS and Tween 80, respectively.

  8. Endodontic therapy for a fused mandibular molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotstein, I; Moshonov, J; Cohenca, N

    1997-06-01

    Variations in tooth morphology present a clinical challenge when endodontic treatment is required. A case of conservative endodontic therapy for a fused mandibular second and third molar is presented.

  9. A Molar Pregnancy within the Fallopian Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Allen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Discussion of the incidence of molar pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy. Role of salpingostomy and special considerations for postoperative care. Case. The patient is a 29-year-old G7P4 who presented with vaginal bleeding in the first trimester and was initially thought to have a spontaneous abortion. Ultrasound was performed due to ongoing symptoms and an adnexal mass was noted. She underwent uncomplicated salpingostomy and was later found to have a partial molar ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion. This case illustrates the rare occurrence of a molar ectopic pregnancy. There was no indication of molar pregnancy preoperatively and this case highlights the importance of submitting and reviewing pathological specimens.

  10. Surfactant screening of diesel-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.W.; Shem, L.; Montemagno, C.D.; Lewis, B.

    1991-01-01

    At one installation, approximately 60,000 gal of No. 2 diesel fuel leaked into the subsurface environment, with contamination at depths of 6 to 34 m below the surface. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted to perform treatability studies for site remediation. The treatability studies focused on four separate phases: (1) leachability studies on the various contaminated soil borings, (2) air stripping studies, (3) bioremediation studies, and (4) surfactant screening/surfactant flooding studies. This paper summarizes the fourth phase of the research program in which 21 surfactants were screened for possible use to mobilize the organics from the contaminated soil prior to bioremediation. Anionic surfactants resulted in the greatest degree of diesel mobilization. The most promising surfactants will be employed on actual contaminated soil samples obtained from the site

  11. Management of large losses of substances molars

    OpenAIRE

    Reynal, Florence

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to compare the different coronary restorative materials used for large tooth losses in primary molars. The first part of this thesis is dedicated to a description of the four main materials used in coronary restorations of molars : amalgam, glass-ionomer cements, resin-based composite and pedodontic crown. The second part is a systematic review of the literature. The aim is to compare the long-term survival rates of different restoration techniques, in order to help the practit...

  12. Microstructure of a tribosphenic molar - comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    ŠPOUTIL, František

    2010-01-01

    The proposed thesis concerns in the study of tribosphenic molar, the key apomorphy of mammalian clade, mainly in structure and development of its enamel coat. As the main model species served us European vespertilionid bat Myotis myotis. The aims of this thesis are: (1) to describe structure and microstructure of enamel in tribosphenic molars in detail; (2) to compare it with unicuspid teeth of the same dentition; (3) to describe mineralization process and enamel maturation in insectivorous d...

  13. Maxillary molar distalization with first class appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Namitha; Palukunnu, Biswas; Ravindran, Nidhi; Nair, Preeti P

    2014-02-27

    Non-extraction treatment has gained popularity for corrections of mild-to-moderate class II malocclusion over the past few decades. The distalization of maxillary molars is of significant value for treatment of cases with minimal arch discrepancy and mild class II molar relation associated with a normal mandibular arch and acceptable profile. This paper describes our experience with a 16-year-old female patient who reported with irregularly placed upper front teeth and unpleasant smile. The patient was diagnosed to have angles class II malocclusion with moderate maxillary anterior crowding, deep bite of 4 mm on a skeletal class II base with an orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible and normal growth pattern. She presented an ideal profile and so molar distalization was planned with the first-class appliance. Molars were distalised by 8 mm on the right and left quadrants and class I molar relation achieved within 4 months. The space gained was utilised effectively to align the arch and establish a class I molar and canine relation.

  14. Screening and Optimization of Bio surfactant Production by the Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainon Hamzah; Noramiza Sabturani; Shahidan Radiman

    2013-01-01

    Bio surfactants are amphiphilic compounds produced by microorganisms as secondary metabolite. The unique properties of bio surfactants make them possible to replace or to be added to synthetic surfactants which are mainly used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries and in environmental applications. In this study twenty hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were screened for bio surfactant production. All of the bacterial isolates were grown in mineral salt medium (MSM) with addition of 1 % (v/v) Tapis crude oil as carbon source. The presence of bio surfactant was determined by the drop-collapse test, microplate analysis, oil spreading technique, emulsification index (%EI24) and surface tension measurement. Only one isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa UKMP14T, was found to be positive for all the qualitative tests and reducing the surface tension of the medium to 49.5 dynes/ with emulsification index of 25.29 %. This isolate produced bio surfactant optimally at pH 9.0 and incubation temperature of 37 degree Celsius. Furthermore, P. aeruginosa UKMP14T when grown in MSM with addition of 1 % (v/v) glycerol and 1.3 g/ L ammonium sulphate with C/N ratio 14:1 produced bio surfactant with percentage of surface tension reduction at 55 % or 30.6 dynes/ cm with %EI24 of 43 %. This percentage of surface tension reduction represents an increasing reduction in surface tension of medium by 39 % over the value before optimization. This study showed that P. aeruginosa UKMP14T has the ability to biodegrade hydrocarbon and concurrently produce bio surfactant. (author)

  15. Comblike poly(ethylene oxide)/hydrophobic C6 branched chitosan surfactant polymers as anti-infection surface modifying agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai-ngam, Katanchalee

    2006-05-01

    A series of structurally well-defined poly(ethylene oxide)/hydrophobic C6 branched chitosan surfactant polymers that undergo surface induced self assembly on hydrophobic biomaterial surfaces were synthesized and characterized. The surfactant polymers consist of low molecular weight (Mw) chitosan backbone with hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and hydrophobic hexyl pendant groups. Chitosan was depolymerized by nitrous acid deaminative cleavage. Hexanal and aldehyde-terminated PEO chains were simultaneously attached to low Mw chitosan hydrochloride via reductive amination. The surfactant polymers were prepared with various ratios of the two side chains. The molecular composition of the surfactant polymers was determined by FT-IR and 1H NMR. Surface active properties at the air-water interface were determined by Langmuir film balance measurements. The surfactant polymers with PEO/hexyl ratios of 1:3.0 and 1:14.4 were used as surface modifying agents to investigate their anti-infection properties. E. coli adhesion on Silastic surface was decreased significantly by the surfactant polymer with PEO/hexyl 1:3.0. Surface growth of adherent E. coli was effectively suppressed by both tested surfactant polymers.

  16. Surfactant replacement therapy--economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejaver, R K; al Hifzi, I; Aldussari, S

    2001-06-01

    Surfactant replacement is an effective treatment for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. (RDS). As widespread use of surfactant is becoming a reality, it is important to assess the economic implications of this new form of therapy. A comparison study was carried out at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Northwest Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Among 75 infants who received surfactant for RDS and similar number who were managed during time period just before the surfactant was available, but by set criteria would have made them eligible for surfactant. All other management modalities except surfactant were the same for all these babies. Based on the intensity of monitoring and nursing care required by the baby, the level of care was divided as: Level IIIA, IIIB, Level II, Level I. The cost per day per bed for each level was calculated, taking into account the use of hospital immovable equipment, personal salaries of nursing, medical, ancillary staff, overheads and maintenance, depreciation and replacement costs. Medications used, procedures done, TPN, oxygen, were all added to individual patient's total expenditure. 75 infants in the Surfactant group had 62 survivors. They spent a total of 4300 days in hospital. (av 69.35) Out of which 970 d (av 15.65 per patient) were ventilated days. There were 56 survivors in the non-surfactant group of 75. They had spent a total of 5023 days in the hospital (av 89.69/patient) out of which 1490 were ventilated days (av 26.60 d). Including the cost of surfactant (two doses), cost of hospital stay for each infant taking the average figures of stay would be SR 118, 009.75 per surfactant treated baby and SR 164, 070.70 per non-surfactant treated baby. The difference of 46,061 SR is 39.03% more in non-surfactant group. One Saudi rial = 8 Rs (approx at the time study was carried out.) Medical care cost varies from place to place. However, it is definitely cost-effective where surfactant is concerned. Quality adjusted

  17. Pore Structure Control of Ordered Mesoporous Silica Film Using Mixed Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Jung Ha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials with nanosized and well-arranged pores have been researched actively in order to be applied to new technology fields. Especially, mesoporous material containing various pore structures is expected to have different pore structure. To form a mixed pore structure, ordered mesoporous silica films were prepared with a mixture of surfactant; Brij-76 and P-123 block copolymer. In mixed surfactant system, mixed pore structure was observed in the region of P-123/(Brij-76 + P-123 with about 50.0 wt.% while a single pore structure was observed in regions which have large difference in ratio between Brij-76 and P-123 through the X-ray diffraction analysis. Regardless of surfactant ratio, porosity was retained almost the same. It is expected that ordered mesoporous silica film with mixed pore structure can be one of the new materials which has distinctive properties.

  18. Rhamnolipids--next generation surfactants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Markus Michael; Kügler, Johannes H; Henkel, Marius; Gerlitzki, Melanie; Hörmann, Barbara; Pöhnlein, Martin; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2012-12-31

    The demand for bio-based processes and materials in the petrochemical industry has significantly increased during the last decade because of the expected running out of petroleum. This trend can be ascribed to three main causes: (1) the increased use of renewable resources for chemical synthesis of already established product classes, (2) the replacement of chemical synthesis of already established product classes by new biotechnological processes based on renewable resources, and (3) the biotechnological production of new molecules with new features or better performances than already established comparable chemically synthesized products. All three approaches are currently being pursued for surfactant production. Biosurfactants are a very promising and interesting substance class because they are based on renewable resources, sustainable, and biologically degradable. Alkyl polyglycosides are chemically synthesized biosurfactants established on the surfactant market. The first microbiological biosurfactants on the market were sophorolipids. Of all currently known biosurfactants, rhamnolipids have the highest potential for becoming the next generation of biosurfactants introduced on the market. Although the metabolic pathways and genetic regulation of biosynthesis are known qualitatively, the quantitative understanding relevant for bioreactor cultivation is still missing. Additionally, high product titers have been exclusively described with vegetable oil as sole carbon source in combination with Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Competitive productivity is still out of reach for heterologous hosts or non-pathogenic natural producer strains. Thus, on the one hand there is a need to gain a deeper understanding of the regulation of rhamnolipid production on process and cellular level during bioreactor cultivations. On the other hand, there is a need for metabolizable renewable substrates, which do not compete with food and feed. A sustainable bioeconomy approach should

  19. Study of the influence of surfactants on the activity coefficients and mass transfer coefficients of methanol in aqueous mixtures by reversed-flow gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsalos, Efthimios; Brezovska, Boryana; Sevastos, Dimitrios; Vagena, Artemis; Koliadima, Athanasia; Kapolos, John; Karaiskakis, George

    2017-11-17

    This work focuses on the influences of surfactants on the activity coefficients, γ, of methanol in binary mixtures with water, as well as on the mass transfer coefficients, k c , for the evaporation of methanol, which is a ubiquitous component in the troposphere, from mixtures of methanol with water at various surfactant's and methanol's concentrations. The technique used is the Reversed-Flow Gas Chromatography (R.F.G.C.), a version of Inverse Gas Chromatography, which allows determining both parameters by performing only one experiment for the k c parameter and two experiments for the γ parameter. The k c and γ values decrease in the presence of the three surfactants used (CTAB, SDS, TRITON X-100) at all methanol's and surfactant's concentrations. The decrease in the methanol's molar fraction, at constant number of surfactant films leads to a decrease in the k c and γ values, while the decrease in the surfactant's concentration, at constant methanol's molar fraction leads to an increase in both the k c and γ parameters. Mass transfer coefficients for the evaporation of methanol at the surfactant films, are also calculated which are approximately between 4 and 5 orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding mass transfer coefficients at the liquid films. Finally, thicknesses of the boundary layer of methanol in the mixtures of methanol with water were determined. The quantities found are compared with those given in the literature or calculated theoretically using various empirical equations. The precision of the R.F.G.C. method for measuring γ and k c parameters is approximately high (94.3-98.0%), showing that R.F.G.C. can be used with success not only for the thermodynamic study of solutions, but also for the interphase transport. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Surfactants tailored by the class Actinobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes H Kügler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gloablly, the drive towards the establishment of a bio-based economy has resulted in an increased need for bio-based applications. This, in turn, has served as a driving force for the discovery and application of novel biosurfactants. The class Actinobacteria represents a vast group of microorganisms with the ability to produce a diverse range of secondary metabolites, including surfactants. Understanding the extensive nature of the biosurfactants produced by actinobacterial strains can assist in finding novel biosurfactants with new potential applications. This review therefore presents a comprehensive overview of the knowledge available on actinobacterial surfactants, the chemical structures that have been completely or partly elucidated, as well as the identity of the biosurfactant-producing strains. Producer strains of not yet elucidated compounds are discussed, as well as the original habitats of all the producer strains, which seems to indicate that biosurfactant production is environmentally driven. Methodology applied in the isolation, purification and structural elucidation of the different types of surface active compounds, as well as surfactant activity tests, are also discussed. Overall, actinobacterial surfactants can be summarized to include the dominantly occurring trehalose-comprising surfactants, other non-trehalose containing glycolipids, lipopeptides and the more rare actinobacterial surfactants. The lack of structural information on a large proportion of actinobacterial surfactants should be considered as a driving force to further explore the abundance and diversity of these compounds. This would allow for a better understanding of actinobacterial surface active compounds and their potential for biotechnological application.

  1. Surfactants tailored by the class Actinobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kügler, Johannes H.; Le Roes-Hill, Marilize; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Globally the change towards the establishment of a bio-based economy has resulted in an increased need for bio-based applications. This, in turn, has served as a driving force for the discovery and application of novel biosurfactants. The class Actinobacteria represents a vast group of microorganisms with the ability to produce a diverse range of secondary metabolites, including surfactants. Understanding the extensive nature of the biosurfactants produced by actinobacterial strains can assist in finding novel biosurfactants with new potential applications. This review therefore presents a comprehensive overview of the knowledge available on actinobacterial surfactants, the chemical structures that have been completely or partly elucidated, as well as the identity of the biosurfactant-producing strains. Producer strains of not yet elucidated compounds are discussed, as well as the original habitats of all the producer strains, which seems to indicate that biosurfactant production is environmentally driven. Methodology applied in the isolation, purification and structural elucidation of the different types of surface active compounds, as well as surfactant activity tests, are also discussed. Overall, actinobacterial surfactants can be summarized to include the dominantly occurring trehalose-comprising surfactants, other non-trehalose containing glycolipids, lipopeptides and the more rare actinobacterial surfactants. The lack of structural information on a large proportion of actinobacterial surfactants should be considered as a driving force to further explore the abundance and diversity of these compounds. This would allow for a better understanding of actinobacterial surface active compounds and their potential for biotechnological application. PMID:25852670

  2. Tunable, antibacterial activity of silicone polyether surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Madiha F; Zepeda-Velazquez, Laura; Brook, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Silicone surfactants are used in a variety of applications, however, limited data is available on the relationship between surfactant structure and biological activity. A series of seven nonionic, silicone polyether surfactants with known structures was tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli BL21. The compounds varied in their hydrophobic head, comprised of branched silicone structures with 3-10 siloxane linkages and, in two cases, phenyl substitution, and hydrophilic tail of 8-44 poly(ethylene glycol) units. The surfactants were tested at three concentrations: below, at, and above their Critical Micelle Concentrations (CMC) against 5 concentrations of E. coli BL21 in a three-step assay comprised of a 14-24h turbidometric screen, a live-dead stain and viable colony counts. The bacterial concentration had little effect on antibacterial activity. For most of the surfactants, antibacterial activity was higher at concentrations above the CMC. Surfactants with smaller silicone head groups had as much as 4 times the bioactivity of surfactants with larger groups, with the smallest hydrophobe exhibiting potency equivalent to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Smaller PEG chains were similarly associated with higher potency. These data link lower micelle stability and enhanced permeability of smaller silicone head groups to antibacterial activity. The results demonstrate that simple manipulation of nonionic silicone polyether structure leads to significant changes in antibacterial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Predicting pathology in impacted mandibular third molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveek Mukherji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The rising incidence of the impacted mandibular third molars and their association with pathologies is now considered a public health problem. Aims and Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the position of impacted mandibular third molars that are prone to developing pathologies and to determine the frequency and type of pathological conditions associated with these impacted teeth to facilitate planning for their prophylactic removal. Materials and Methods: Consecutive panoramic radiographs and clinical examination of 300 patients with impacted mandibular third molars were collected. They were segregated according to Pell and Gregory’s classification, Winter’s classification, and according to their state of eruption. These were correlated with associated pathologies based on clinical and radiological criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics included computation of percentages, mean, and standard deviations. The statistical test applied for the analysis was Pearson’s Chi-square test (χ2. For this test, confidence interval and P value were set at 93% and ≤0.03, respectively. Results: The pathology most commonly associated with impacted third molars was pericoronitis, which had the highest frequency of occurrence in partially erupted, distoangular, and IA positioned (as per Pell and Gregory classification impacted teeth. Impacted mandibular third molars, which were in IA position, placed mesially, and partially erupted, were prone to develop pathologies such as dental caries and periodontitis. Conclusion: The clinical and radiographical features of impacted third molar may be correlated to the development of their pathological complications. The partially impacted mandibular third molars with mesioangularly aligned in IA position have the highest potential to cause pathological complications.

  4. Time-dependent changes in pulmonary surfactant function and composition in acute respiratory distress syndrome due to pneumonia or aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchenbuch Tim

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations to pulmonary surfactant composition have been encountered in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS. However, only few data are available regarding the time-course and duration of surfactant changes in ARDS patients, although this information may largely influence the optimum design of clinical trials addressing surfactant replacement therapy. We therefore examined the time-course of surfactant changes in 15 patients with direct ARDS (pneumonia, aspiration over the first 8 days after onset of mechanical ventilation. Methods Three consecutive bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL were performed shortly after intubation (T0, and four days (T1 and eight days (T2 after intubation. Fifteen healthy volunteers served as controls. Phospholipid-to-protein ratio in BAL fluids, phospholipid class profiles, phosphatidylcholine (PC molecular species, surfactant proteins (SP-A, -B, -C, -D, and relative content and surface tension properties of large surfactant aggregates (LA were assessed. Results At T0, a severe and highly significant reduction in SP-A, SP-B and SP-C, the LA fraction, PC and phosphatidylglycerol (PG percentages, and dipalmitoylation of PC (DPPC was encountered. Surface activity of the LA fraction was greatly impaired. Over time, significant improvements were encountered especially in view of LA content, DPPC, PG and SP-A, but minimum surface tension of LA was not fully restored (15 mN/m at T2. A highly significant correlation was observed between PaO2/FiO2 and minimum surface tension (r = -0.83; p Conclusion We concluded that a profound impairment of pulmonary surfactant composition and function occurs in the very early stage of the disease and only gradually resolves over time. These observations may explain why former surfactant replacement studies with a short treatment duration failed to improve outcome and may help to establish optimal composition and duration of surfactant administration in future

  5. Economic outcome for intensive care of infants of birthweight 500-999 g born in Victoria in the post surfactant era. The Victorian Infant Collaborative Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    To determine the incremental cost of improving the outcome for extremely low birthweight (ELBW, birthweight 500-999 g) infants born in Victoria after the introduction of exogenous surfactant (the post surfactant era). This was a geographically determined cohort study of ELBW children in Victoria, Australia of consecutive livebirths born in three distinct eras: (i) 1979-80 (n = 351); (ii) 1985-87 (n = 560); and (iii) 1991-92 (n = 429). Exogenous surfactant was first used in Victoria in March, 1991. The consumption of nursery resources per livebirth, and the survival and sensorineural disability rates at 2 years of age for each era were investigated. Utilities were assigned as follows: 0 for dead, 0.4 for severe disability, 0.6 for moderate disability, 0.8 for mild disability, and 1 for no disability. Utilities were multiplied for more than one disability. Dollar costs were assumed to be $1470 ($A 1992) per day of assisted ventilation, and one dose of exogenous surfactant was assumed to be equivalent to one third of a day of assisted ventilation. Cost-effectiveness (additional costs per additional survivor or life-year gained) and cost-utility (additional costs per additional quality-adjusted survivor or life-year gained) ratios were calculated for the pre-surfactant era (1985-87 vs 1979-80), and for the post surfactant era (1991-92 vs 1985-87). Considering only the costs incurred during the primary hospitalization, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility ratios were lower (i.e. economically better) in the post surfactant era than in the pre-surfactant era (pre-surfactant vs post surfactant; $7040 vs $4040 per life year gained; $6700 vs $5360 per quality-adjusted life year gained). Both ratios fell with increasing birthweight. In contrast with the pre-surfactant era, cost-utility ratios were less favourable than cost-effectiveness ratios in the post surfactant era. With costs for long-term care of severely disabled children added, both cost ratios were higher in the post

  6. Influence of surfactants in forced dynamic dewetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Franziska; Fell, Daniela; Truszkowska, Dorota; Weirich, Marcel; Anyfantakis, Manos; Nguyen, Thi-Huong; Wagner, Manfred; Auernhammer, Günter K; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-09-20

    In this work we show that the forced dynamic dewetting of surfactant solutions depends sensitively on the surfactant concentration. To measure this effect, a hydrophobic rotating cylinder was horizontally half immersed in aqueous surfactant solutions. Dynamic contact angles were measured optically by extrapolating the contour of the meniscus to the contact line. Anionic (sodium 1-decanesulfonate, S-1DeS), cationic (cetyl trimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) and nonionic surfactants (C 4 E 1 , C 8 E 3 and C 12 E 5 ) with critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) spanning four orders of magnitude were used. The receding contact angle in water decreased with increasing velocity. This decrease was strongly enhanced when adding surfactant, even at surfactant concentrations of 10% of the critical micelle concentration. Plots of the receding contact angle-versus-velocity almost superimpose when being plotted at the same relative concentration (concentration/CMC). Thus the rescaled concentration is the dominating property for dynamic dewetting. The charge of the surfactants did not play a role, thus excluding electrostatic effects. The change in contact angle can be interpreted by local surface tension gradients, i.e. Marangoni stresses, close to the three-phase contact line. The decrease of dynamic contact angles with velocity follows two regimes. Despite the existence of Marangoni stresses close to the contact line, for a dewetting velocity above 1-10 mm s -1 the hydrodynamic theory is able to describe the experimental results for all surfactant concentrations. At slower velocities an additional steep decrease of the contact angle with velocity was observed. Particle tracking velocimetry showed that the flow profiles do not differ with and without surfactant on a scales >100 μm.

  7. Small angle neutron scattering study of doxorubicin–surfactant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The binding affinity of doxorubicin within the micelle carrier is enhanced through complex formation of drug and anionic surfactant, aerosol OT (AOT). Electrostatic binding of doxorubicin with negatively charged surfactants leads to the formation of hydrophobic drug–surfactant complexes. Surfactant-induced partitioning of ...

  8. Bilateral maxillary fused second and third molars: a rare occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rui-Zhen; Wu, Jin-Tao; Wu, You-Nong; Smales, Roger J; Hu, Ming; Yu, Jin-Hua; Zhang, Guang-Dong

    2012-12-01

    This case report describes the diagnosis and endodontic therapy of maxillary fused second and third molars, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A 31-year-old Chinese male, with no contributory medical or family/social history, presented with throbbing pain in the maxillary right molar area following an unsuccessful attempted tooth extraction. Clinical examination revealed what appeared initially to be a damaged large extra cusp on the buccal aspect of the distobuccal cusp of the second molar. However, CBCT revealed that a third molar was fused to the second molar. Unexpectedly, the maxillary left third molar also was fused to the second molar, and the crown of an unerupted supernumerary fourth molar was possibly also fused to the apical root region of the second molar. Operative procedures should not be attempted without adequate radiographic investigation. CBCT allowed the precise location of the root canals of the right maxillary fused molar teeth to permit successful endodontic therapy, confirmed after 6 months.

  9. Oxygen from Hydrogen Peroxide. A Safe Molar Volume-Molar Mass Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedenbaugh, John H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a molar volume-molar mass experiment for use in general chemistry laboratories. Gives background technical information, procedures for the titration of aqueous hydrogen peroxide with standard potassium permanganate and catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to produce oxygen, and a discussion of the results obtained in three…

  10. Does fixed retention prevent overeruption of unopposed mandibular second molars in maxillary first molar extraction cases?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Halazonetis, Demetrios J; Booij, Johan W; Katsaros, Christos; Ren, Yijin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate whether multistranded fixed retainers prevented overeruption of unopposed mandibular second molars in maxillary first molar extraction cases. METHODS: The panoramic radiographs of 65 Class II Division 1 Caucasian Whites (28 females, 37

  11. SECOND MOLAR UPRIGHTING AFTER PREMATURE LOSS OF MANDIBULAR FIRST PERMANENT MOLAR--CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernei, E R; Mavru, R B; Zetui, Irina Nicoleta

    2015-01-01

    Uprighting a tipped molar by using an uprighting spring is a fundamental orthodontic treatment technique. Following a weak anchorage done only by the anterior teeth the permanent lower second molar will rotate around its center of resistance, and besides the distalizing movement will occur its extrusion. Following the reaction, the mandibular anterior teeth will have a movement of intrusion. All these elements will lead to anterior open bite. Correction of vertical problems has become easier with the advent of mini-implants. U.I patient aged 24 years presenting for aesthetic and functional disorders. Clinical examination reveals intraoral Class I molar malocclusion on the right sight, upper narrowing arch with a slight overbite, and the both permanent first molars on the left side lost prematurely. The tooth 37 is inclined at 600 degrees to the plane of occlusion. To avoid front opening occlusion we used an orthodontic miniscrew inserted between the canine and the first premolar on the same side to achieve the second molar up righting. Lower second molar uprighting was achieved without unwanted movements in anterior mandibular region and without molar extrusion. Using mini implants in uprighting a tipped molar will achieve the desired tooth movement and will reduce the number of unwanted side effects and eventually to improve patient's esthetics.

  12. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in

  13. Molar volume of eutectic solvents as a function of molar composition and temperature☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farouq S. Mjalli

    2016-01-01

    The conventional Rackett model for predicting liquid molar volume has been modified to cater for the effect of molar composition of the Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES). The experimental molar volume data for a group of commonly used DES has been used for optimizing the improved model. The data involved different molar compositions of each DES. The validation of the new model was performed on another set of DESs. The average relative deviation of the model on the training and validation datasets was approximately 0.1%while the Rackett model gave a relative deviation of more than 1.6%. The modified model deals with variations in DES molar com-position and temperature in a more consistent way than the original Rackett model which exhibits monotonic performance degradation as temperature moves away from reference conditions. Having the composition of the DES as a model variable enhances the practical utilization of the predicting model in diverse design and process simulation applications.

  14. Lung surfactant levels are regulated by Ig-Hepta/GPR116 by monitoring surfactant protein D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Fukuzawa

    Full Text Available Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins, which is secreted from the alveolar type II epithelial cell and coats the surface of alveoli as a thin layer. It plays a crucial role in the prevention of alveolar collapse through its ability to reduce surface tension. Under normal conditions, surfactant homeostasis is maintained by balancing its release and the uptake by the type II cell for recycling and the internalization by alveolar macrophages for degradation. Little is known about how the surfactant pool is monitored and regulated. Here we show, by an analysis of gene-targeted mice exhibiting massive accumulation of surfactant, that Ig-Hepta/GPR116, an orphan receptor, is expressed on the type II cell and sensing the amount of surfactant by monitoring one of its protein components, surfactant protein D, and its deletion results in a pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and emphysema-like pathology. By a coexpression experiment with Sp-D and the extracellular region of Ig-Hepta/GPR116 followed by immunoprecipitation, we identified Sp-D as the ligand of Ig-Hepta/GPR116. Analyses of surfactant metabolism in Ig-Hepta(+/+ and Ig-Hepta(-/- mice by using radioactive tracers indicated that the Ig-Hepta/GPR116 signaling system exerts attenuating effects on (i balanced synthesis of surfactant lipids and proteins and (ii surfactant secretion, and (iii a stimulating effect on recycling (uptake in response to elevated levels of Sp-D in alveolar space.

  15. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  16. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Fibonacci numbers, golden ratio, Sanskrit prosody, solar panel. Abstract. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany ...

  17. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- portion, we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful. The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found in many structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers. In this article, we explore this ...

  18. The contemporary management of third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyam, D M

    2018-03-01

    The management of third molars requires a significant assessment and decision process both for the patient and the clinician. The clinician must always identify the indication for third molar surgery, assess the risks of the proposed procedure, and then modify their plan to account for the patient's current and future health, their social and financial setting, and the patient's tolerance of risk. In doing this, the clinician can tailor a solution to meet the individual patient's needs. This decision to remove a third molar is made in the fluid setting of the patient's quality of life and requires regular review. This article gives the clinician the tools, the matrix, and the confidence to guide patients through this process, and outlines some of the pitfalls and common points of bias within the process. © 2018 Australian Dental Association.

  19. Loss of the First Permanent Molar: Risk Factors and Adolescent Oral Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daraí Bárbara Sánchez Montero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Foundation: the replacement of the primary dentition begins with the eruption of the first permanent molars that will be subjected to various risk factors.Objective: to determine the existing relation between the first permanent molar loss and the risk factors in adolescents from 12 to 14 years old. Method: a cross descriptive study was developed between October 20011 and March 2012. On a universe of 560 students, a simple random sampling was done and a sample of 185 patients was selected. On school visits dental exams were performed to determine the Clune index dental caries index, filled and missing teeth and the simplified index of oral hygiene. The estimated relative risk was used with prevalence odd ratio and prevalence ratio was calculated. The studied variables were: sex, oral hygiene habits, and habits of cariogenic diet bucodental health. Results: the loss of the first permanent molar predominated in the male sex with a 14.1 %. The prevailing risk factor was cariogenic diet which affected 57.3 of the population, where 80.6 of those who had a high consumption showed loss of the first permanent molar. Clune index (53,4 % in the female and 40 % in the male sex, dental caries, filled and lost teeth (1.7 % in female and 2.9 in the male sex were calculated. Conclusion: there is a direct relation between risk factors, poor oral hygiene and cariogenic feeding with the loss of the first permanent molar.

  20. The Accelerated Late Adsorption of Pulmonary Surfactant

    OpenAIRE

    Loney, Ryan W.; Anyan, Walter R.; Biswas, Samares C.; Rananavare, Shankar B.; Hall, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    Adsorption of pulmonary surfactant to an air−water interface lowers surface tension (γ) at rates that initially decrease progressively, but which then accelerate close to the equilibrium γ. The studies here tested a series of hypotheses concerning mechanisms that might cause the late accelerated drop in γ. Experiments used captive bubbles and a Wilhelmy plate to measure γ during adsorption of vesicles containing constituents from extracted calf surfactant. The faster fall in γ reflects faster...

  1. Poly(ethylene oxide) surfactant polymers

    OpenAIRE

    VACHEETHASANEE, KATANCHALEE; WANG, SHUWU; QIU, YONGXING; MARCHANT, ROGER E.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a series of structurally well-defined surfactant polymers that undergo surface-induced self-assembly on hydrophobic biomaterial surfaces. The surfactant polymers consist of a poly(vinyl amine) backbone with poly(ethylene oxide) and hexanal pendant groups. The poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) was synthesized by hydrolysis of poly(N-vinyl formamide) following free radical polymerization of N-vinyl formamide. Hexanal and aldehyde-terminated poly (ethyleneoxide) (PEO) were simultaneously att...

  2. Surfactant properties of human meibomian lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Millar, Thomas J

    2011-03-25

    Human meibomian lipids are the major part of the lipid layer of the tear film. Their surfactant properties enable their spread across the aqueous layer and help maintain a stable tear film. The purpose of this study was to investigate surfactant properties of human meibomian lipids in vitro and to determine effects of different physical conditions such as temperature and increased osmolarity, such as occur in dry eye, on these properties. Human meibomian lipids were spread on an artificial tear solution in a Langmuir trough. The lipid films were compressed and expanded to record the surface pressure-area (Π-A) isocycles. The isocycles were recorded under different physical conditions such as high pressure, increasing concentration and size of divalent cations, increasing osmolarity, and varying temperature. Π-A isocycles of meibomian lipids showed that they form liquid films that are compressible and multilayered. The isocycles were unaffected by increasing concentration or size of divalent cations and increasing osmolarity in the subphase. Temperature had a marked effect on the lipids. Increase in temperature caused lipid films to become fluid, an expected feature, but decrease in temperature unexpectedly caused expansion of lipids and an increase in pressure suggesting enhanced surfactant properties. Human meibomian lipids form highly compressible, non-collapsible, multilayered liquid films. These lipids have surfactants that allow them to spread across an aqueous subphase. Their surfactant properties are unaffected by increasing divalent cations or hyperosmolarity but are sensitive to temperature. Cooling of meibomian lipids enhances their surfactant properties.

  3. Controlled synthesis of gold nanostars by using a zwitterionic surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casu, Alberto; Cabrini, Elisa; Donà, Alice; Falqui, Andrea; Diaz-Fernandez, Yuri; Milanese, Chiara; Taglietti, Angelo; Pallavicini, Piersandro

    2012-07-23

    By replacing cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with the zwitterionic lauryl sulfobetaine (LSB) surfactant in the classical seed-growth synthesis, monocrystalline gold nanostars (m-NS) and pentatwinned gold asymmetric nanostars (a-NS) were obtained instead of nanorods. The main product under all synthetic conditions was a-NS, which have branches with high aspect ratios (AR), thus leading to LSPR absorptions in the 750-1150 nm range. The percentage of m-NS versus a-NS, the aspect ratio of the a-NS branches, and consequently the position of their LSPR absorption can be finely tuned simply by regulating the concentration of reductant, the concentration of surfactant, or the concentration of the "catalytic" Ag(+) cation. The m-NS have instead shorter and larger branches, the AR of which is poorly influenced by synthetic conditions and displays an LSPR positioned around 700 nm. A growth mechanism that involves the direct contact of the sulfate moiety of LSB on the surface of the nano-object is proposed, thereby implying preferential coating of the {111} Au faces with weak interactions. Consistent with this, we also observed the straightforward complete displacement of the LSB surfactant from the surface of the nanostars. This was obtained by the simple addition of thiols in aqueous solution to yield extremely stable coated a-NS and m-NS that are resistant to highly acidic, basic, and in similar to in vivo conditions. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite particles in catanionic mixed surfactants template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tari, Nesa Esmaeilian [Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Resalat Square, Hengam Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kashani Motlagh, Mohammad M., E-mail: M.Kashani@iust.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Resalat Square, Hengam Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sohrabi, Beheshteh [Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Resalat Square, Hengam Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mixture of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with different ratio were used as the template for synthesizing HAP particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The overall morphology of the obtained powders at anionic-rich region (SDS:CTAB, 99:1) solution is rod like with high regularity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the presence of cationic rich region (SDS:CTAB, 1:99) the resulted particles was sheet like. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resulted HAP nano particles in the presence of SDS were rod like but their morphology was less oriented than anionic-rich region. - Abstract: Different morphologies of nano hydroxyapatite particles, Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} (HAP) are prepared by precipitation method using CaCl{sub 2} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (water phase) and the mixture of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and anionic one sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as template. The mixture of these surfactants in two regions of cationic-rich and anionic-rich form the various aggregations as template. The results show that by changing the ratio of cationic to anionic surfactant in the mixture the morphology of the nano HAP can be controlled. The nano structure of products is studied by the means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transmission infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). With this system we could synthesize nano particles of hydroxyapatite with high crystallinity and least agglomeration.

  5. Thermodynamics of non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100-cationic surfactants mixtures at the cloud point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batigoec, Cigdem; Akbas, Halide; Boz, Mesut

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Non-ionic surfactants are used as emulsifier and solubilizate in such as textile, detergent and cosmetic. → Non-ionic surfactants occur phase separation at temperature as named the cloud point in solution. → Dimeric surfactants have attracted increasing attention due to their superior surface activity. → The positive values of ΔG cp 0 indicate that the process proceeds nonspontaneous. - Abstract: This study investigates the effects of gemini and conventional cationic surfactants on the cloud point (CP) of the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) in aqueous solutions. Instead of visual observation, a spectrophotometer was used for measurement of the cloud point temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters of these mixtures were calculated at different cationic surfactant concentrations. The gemini surfactants of the alkanediyl-α-ω-bis (alkyldimethylammonium) dibromide type, on the one hand, with different alkyl groups containing m carbon atoms and an ethanediyl spacer, referred to as 'm-2-m' (m = 10, 12, and 16) and, on the other hand, with -C 16 alkyl groups and different spacers containing s carbon atoms, referred to as '16-s-16' (s = 6 and 10) were synthesized, purified and characterized. Additions of the cationic surfactants to the TX-100 solution increased the cloud point temperature of the TX-100 solution. It was accepted that the solubility of non-ionic surfactant containing polyoxyethylene (POE) hydrophilic chain was a maximum at the cloud point so that the thermodynamic parameters were calculated at this temperature. The results showed that the standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG cp 0 ), the enthalpy (ΔH cp 0 ) and the entropy (ΔS cp 0 ) of the clouding phenomenon were found positive in all cases. The standard free energy (ΔG cp 0 ) increased with increasing hydrophobic alkyl chain for both gemini and conventional cationic surfactants; however, it decreased with increasing surfactant concentration.

  6. Changes in surfactant in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after hemithorax irradiation in patients with mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, M.; Maasilta, P.; Kivisaari, L.; Mattson, K.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that the surfactant system of the lung is affected shortly after irradiation. It is unclear, however, whether surfactant plays a role in the pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis. In the present study surfactant components (saturated phosphatidylcholine, surfactant protein A, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylinositol) and other phospholipids of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) were studied in four patients with pleural mesothelioma before and during hemithorax irradiation (70 Gy) as well as zero, 1, 2, 3, and 4 months following irradiation. The concentrations of these same components and of soluble proteins were also estimated in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) using urea as a marker of dilution. After radiotherapy, the concentrations of the surfactant components in ELF decreased to 12 to 55% of the control values before radiation, whereas the concentration of sphingomyelin in ELF increased ninefold. There were small changes in the other phospholipids. The concentration of soluble protein in ELF increased sevenfold. The minimum surface activity of crude BAL increased from 12 +/- 4 to 32 +/- 6 mN/m, and that of the sediment fraction of BAL increased from 7 +/- 4 to 22 +/- 6 mN/m, p less than 0.001. The protein-rich supernatant fraction of BAL from irradiated lung had a inhibitory effect on normal surfactant. There were significant correlations between the increasing severity of the radiologic changes on the one hand and, on the other, the saturated phosphatidylcholine/sphingomyelin ratio (p less than 0.001), the concentrations of soluble protein (p less than 0.001), and the concentrations of the surfactant components (p less than 0.02-0.001) in ELF

  7. Preformed crowns for decayed primary molar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Nicola P T; Ricketts, David; Chong, Lee Yee; Keightley, Alexander J; Lamont, Thomas; Santamaria, Ruth M

    2015-12-31

    measured in the studies: time to restoration failure or retreatment, patient satisfaction and costs. Crowns versus fillingsAll studies in this comparison used PMCs. One study reported outcomes in the short term and found no reports of major failure or pain in either group. There was moderate quality evidence that the risk of major failure was lower in the crowns group in the long term (risk ratio (RR) 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06 to 0.56; 346 teeth in three studies, one conventional and two using Hall Technique). Similarly, there was moderate quality evidence that the risk of pain was lower in the long term for the crown group (RR 0.15, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.67; 312 teeth in two studies).Discomfort associated with the procedure was lower for crowns fitted using the Hall Technique than for fillings (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.87; 381 teeth) (moderate quality evidence).It is uncertain whether there is a clinically important difference in the risk of gingival bleeding when using crowns rather than fillings, either in the short term (RR 1.69, 95% CI 0.61 to 4.66; 226 teeth) or long term (RR 1.74, 95% CI 0.99 to 3.06; 195 teeth, two studies using PMCs with conventional technique at 12 months) (low quality evidence). Crowns versus non-restorative caries treatmentOnly one study compared PMCs (fitted with the Hall Technique) with non-restorative caries treatment; the evidence quality was very low and we are therefore we are uncertain about the estimates. Metal crowns versus aesthetic crownsOne split-mouth study (11 participants) compared PMCs versus aesthetic crowns (stainless steel with white veneers). It provided very low quality evidence so no conclusions could be drawn. Crowns placed on primary molar teeth with carious lesions, or following pulp treatment, are likely to reduce the risk of major failure or pain in the long term compared to fillings. Crowns fitted using the Hall Technique may reduce discomfort at the time of treatment compared to fillings. The amount and

  8. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  9. Degradation of surfactants by sono-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashokkumar, M.; Grieser, F.; Vinodgopal, K.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The ultrasound induced decomposition of a commercially available polydisperse nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactant (Teric GN9) has been investigated. Nearly 90% mineralization and/or degradation into volatile products of the surfactant is achieved after sonication for 24 hours. Ultrasound has been found to be a useful tool to achieve a number of chemical processes. Linear and branched alkyl benzene sulfonates and alkyl nonylphenol ethoxylates are widely used surfactants which accumulated in the environment and contribute to a well-recognised pollution problem. We have investigated the use of ultrasound in the degradation of both types of surfactants with the aim of understanding the mechanism of degradation in order to optimise the decomposition process. In this presentation, we report on the sonochemical degradation of Teric GN9- polydisperse, a nonylphenol ethoxylate with an average of 9 ethylene oxide units. The ultrasound unit used for the degradation studies of the surfactant solutions was an Allied Signal (ELAC Nautik) RF generator and transducer with a plate diameter of 54.5 mm operated at 363 kHz in continuous wave mode at an intensity of 2 W/cm 2 . Ultrasound induced cavitation events generate primary radicals inside gas/vapour filled bubbles. Due to the extreme conditions (T ∼ 5000 K; P ∼ 100 atm) generated within the collapsing bubble, H and OH radicals are produced by the homolysis of water molecules, if water is the medium of sonication. These primary radicals attack the surfactant molecules adsorbed at the bubble/water interface. The initial rate of reaction of the surfactant was found to be dependent on the monomer concentration in solution below and above the critical micelle concentration of the surfactants. This result strongly suggests that the initial radical attack on the surfactants occurs at the cavitation bubble/solution interface, followed by oxidative decomposition and pyrolysis of volatile fragments of the surfactant within

  10. External and internal anatomy of mandibular molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, L F; Sousa Neto, M D; Fidel, S R; da Costa, W F; Pécora, J D

    1996-01-01

    The external and internal anatomy of 628 extracted, mandibular first and second molars was studied. The external anatomy was studied by measuring each tooth and by observing the direction of the root curvatures from the facial surface. The internal anatomy of the pulp cavity was studied by a method of making the teeth translucent.

  11. Remediation of soils polluted with lindane using surfactant-aided soil washing and electrochemical oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Morales, M; Braojos, M; Sáez, C; Cañizares, P; Rodrigo, M A

    2017-10-05

    In this work the complete treatment of soil spiked with lindane is studied using surfactant-aided soil-washing (SASW) to exhaust lindane from soil and electrolysis with diamond anodes to mineralize lindane from the soil washing fluid (SWF) waste. Results demonstrated that this technological approach is efficient and allow to remove this hazardous pollutant from soil. They also pointed out the significance of the ratio surfactant/soil in the efficiency of the SASW process and in the performance of the later electrolysis used to mineralize the pollutant. Larger values of this parameter lead to effluents that undergo a very efficient treatment which allows the depletion of lindane for applied charges lower than 15AhL -1 and the recovery of more than 70% of the surfactant for the regeneration of the SWF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Surfactant nebulization versus instillation during high frequency ventilation in surfactant-deficient rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Peter H.; Heikamp, A; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto

    Surfactant nebulization improves lung function at low alveolar doses of surfactant. However, efficiency of nebulization is low, and lung deposition seems to depend on lung aeration. High frequency ventilation (HFV) has been shown to improve lung aeration. We hypothesize that the combination of HFV

  13. Open lung ventilation preserves the response to delayed surfactant treatment in surfactant-deficient newborn piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veenendaal, Mariëtte B.; van Kaam, Anton H.; Haitsma, Jack J.; Lutter, René; Lachmann, Burkhard

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Delayed surfactant treatment (>2 hrs after birth) is less effective than early treatment in conventionally ventilated preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. The objective of this study was to evaluate if this time-dependent efficacy of surfactant treatment is also present

  14. Partition thermodynamics of ionic surfactants between phosphatidylcholine vesicle and water phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shin-Chi; Hung, Chia-Hui; Wang, Shun-Cheng; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2003-08-01

    The partition of ionic surfactants (sodium alkyl sulfate and alkyl trimethyl ammonium bromide) between phosphatidylcholine vesicles and aqueous phase is investigated by simple conductometry under different temperatures. The experimental results can be well represented by the proposed regular solution theory and the thermodynamic parameters satisfy the thermodynamic consistency. The deviation from ideal partition is manifested through the effective interaction energy between lipid and surfactant wb, which is O(kT) large. It is found that wb rises as the alkyl chain is decreased for a specified head group. This is attributed to significant mismatch of chain lengths between surfactant and lipid molecules. The partition coefficient K declines with increasing temperature. The energy barrier from bilayer to aqueous phase, Δμ/kT∝ln K, is in the range of 16-26 kJ/mol. As the alkyl chain length is decreased for a given head group, Δμ is lowered by 1.3-1.5 kJ/mol per methylene group. Two independent analyses are employed to confirm this result. Using the thermodynamic parameters determined from experiments, the internal energy, entropy, and free energy of the partition process can be derived. Partition is essentially driven by the internal energy gain. The solubilizing ability, which is represented by the maximum surfactant-lipid ratio in the bilayer, Reb also decreases in accord with the K parameter. It is because the change in temperature influences the surfactant incorporation into the bilayer more than the formation of micelles.

  15. Cellular uptake and processing of surfactant lipids and apoprotein SP-A by rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, S.L.; Wright, J.R.; Clements, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The intracellular pathways and the kinetics of metabolism of surfactant apoprotein and lipid, which may be recycled from the alveolar space, are largely unknown. We used a lipid-apoprotein complex made from liposomes of pure lipids in a ratio found in mammalian pulmonary surfactant plus surfactant apoprotein (SP-A, Mr = 26,000-36,000) to test some possible relationships in the recycling of these major surfactant components between intrapulmonary compartments. After intratracheal instillation of 80 microliters of an apoprotein-liposome mixture with separate radiolabels in the lipid and the apoprotein, rats were killed at times from 8 min to 4 h later. The lungs were lavaged with saline, and subcellular fractions were isolated on discontinuous sucrose density gradients. Both the [ 14 C]lipid radiolabel and the 125 I-apoprotein radiolabel demonstrated a time-dependent increase in radioactivity recovered in a lamellar body-enriched fraction. Uptake of the radiolabels into other subcellular fractions did not exhibit a clear-cut time dependence; more of the protein than the lipid radiolabel was found in the Golgi-rich and microsomal fractions. We conclude that both the lipid and apoprotein portions of lung surfactant are taken up by lung cells and are incorporated into secretory granules of the cells

  16. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2006-02-01

    There are many fractured carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). The process of using dilute anionic surfactants in alkaline solutions has been investigated in this work for oil recovery from fractured oil-wet carbonate reservoirs both experimentally and numerically. This process is a surfactant-aided gravity drainage where surfactant diffuses into the matrix, lowers IFT and contact angle, which decrease capillary pressure and increase oil relative permeability enabling gravity to drain the oil up. Anionic surfactants have been identified which at dilute concentration of 0.05 wt% and optimal salinity can lower the interfacial tension and change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil. The force of adhesion in AFM of oil-wet regions changes after anionic surfactant treatment to values similar to those of water-wet regions. The AFM topography images showed that the oil-wetting material was removed from the surface by the anionic surfactant treatment. Adsorption studies indicate that the extent of adsorption for anionic surfactants on calcite minerals decreases with increase in pH and with decrease in salinity. Surfactant adsorption can be minimized in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (20-42% OOIP in 50 days; up to 60% in 200 days) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Small (<10%) initial gas saturation does not affect significantly the rate of oil recovery in the imbibition process, but larger gas saturation decreases the oil recovery rate. As the core permeability decreases, the rate of oil recovery reduces

  17. A pH-responsive wormlike micellar system of a noncovalent interaction-based surfactant with a tunable molecular structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wanli; Wang, Pengxiang; Fan, Haiming; Yang, Hongbin; Dai, Caili; Yin, Xia; Zhao, Yilu; Guo, Shujun

    2017-02-08

    Responsive wormlike micelles are very useful in a number of applications, whereas it is still challenging to create dramatic viscosity changes in wormlike micellar systems. Here we developed a pH-responsive wormlike micellar system based on a noncovalent constructed surfactant, which is formed by the complexation of N-erucamidopropyl-N,N-dimethylamine (UC 22 AMPM) and citric acid at the molar ratio of 3 : 1 (EACA). The phase behavior, aggregate microstructure and viscoelasticity of EACA solutions were investigated by macroscopic appearance observation, rheological and cryo-TEM measurements. It was found that the phase behavior of EACA solutions undergoes transition from transparent viscoelastic fluids to opalescent solutions and then phase separation with white floaters upon increasing the pH. Upon increasing the pH from 2.03 to 6.17, the viscosity of wormlike micelles in the transparent solutions continuously increased and reached ∼683 000 mPa s at pH 6.17. As the pH was adjusted to 7.31, the opalescent solution shows a water-like flowing behaviour and the η 0 rapidly declines to ∼1 mPa s. Thus, dramatic viscosity changes of about 6 magnitudes can be triggered by varying the pH values without any deterioration of the EACA system. This drastic variation in rheological behavior is attributed to the pH dependent interaction between UC 22 AMPM and citric acid. Furthermore, the dependence on concentration and temperature of the rheological behavior of EACA solutions was also studied to assist in obtaining the desired pH-responsive viscosity changes.

  18. Validity of scoring caries and primary molar hypomineralization (DMH) on intraoral photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfrink, M E C; Veerkamp, J S J; Aartman, I H A; Moll, H A; Ten Cate, J M

    2009-11-01

    The aims of this study were to assess whether intraoral photographs could be used to score caries and hypomineralization on primary molars (Using adapted Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH)-criteria), and also to assess the reliability and validity in 3-7 year-old Dutch children of these scores by comparing them to direct clinical scorings. Cross-sectional study. In this study 62 children (38.7% girls) with a mean age of 4.96 years (SD 1.27) participated. The children were rated clinically by their own dentist (authors JV or ME) for caries reaching the dentine in their primary molars (WHO criteria) and also for primary molar hypomineralization using the adapted MIH-criteria. For the intraoral photographs, a digital intraoral camera was used. The two paediatric dentists rated all the intraoral photographs on caries and hypomineralizations on the second primary molars, using the same criteria for the clinical scoring as for the scoring of the photographs. They scored independently, at least 2 weeks after the initial clinical scoring to avoid observational bias with the clinical scoring. This clinical observation was used as the gold standard from which sensitivity, specificity, Positive Predictive Value (PPV), Negative Predictive Value (NPV) and the Positive and Negative Likelihood Ratio were computed. To test the intra-observer agreement 25 % of the photographs were scored again, at least 2 weeks after the initial scoring of the images. Inter- and intra-observer agreement were tested using Cohen's Kappa. The mean prevalence of clinically detected caries at tooth level was 46.7% and the mean prevalence of clinically detected hypomineralizations in second primary molars at tooth level was 21.8%. The sensitivity of assessing caries using intraoral photographs was 85.5%, the specificity 83.6%, the positive likelihood ratio 5.2 and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.17. For Primary Molar Hypomineralization (DMH) the sensitivity was 72.3%, the specificity 92.8%, the

  19. Variabilidad de las proporciones molares en poblaciones humanas: un abordaje empleando modelos del desarrollo y experimentales / Variability of molar proportions in human populations: insights from developmental models and experiments in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A. D´Addona

    2016-03-01

    experimental studies have not yet been integrated in the context of biological anthropology. In this sense, this paper proposes: a to evaluate the consistency between changes in molar proportions in human populations that exhibit a wide variation in tooth size and the predictions derived from an inhibitory cascade model of dental development, and b to analyze the effect of the systemic factors controlling the growth of the organism on the lower molars proportions using strains of Mus musculus. The crown area of the mandibular molars was estimated from the bucco-lingual and mesio-distal diameters. The results obtained for human populations showed that the pattern of variation in molar proportions is consistent with expectations derived from the inhibitory cascade model and that most groups exhibit a general trend towards molar size reduction in the antero-posterior direction. Also, a significant positive association between the total molar area and the molar ratios M2/M1 and M3/M1 was observed. In the experimental models, growth alteration caused by systemic factors (protein subnutrition and reduced growth hormone resulted in a reduction of total molar area associated with changes in molar proportions. The latter are consistent with an increased antero-posterior inhibition. Overall, these results suggest that alterations in the systemic factors that control molar area can produce changes in the proportion of activators and inhibitors, and contribute in turn to inter-population differentiation in molar proportions. Keywords: Inhibitory cascade model; dental size; experimental and comparative approach

  20. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and the Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding froin swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in

  1. Human dental age estimation combining third molar(s) development and tooth morphological age predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevissen, P W; Galiti, D; Willems, G

    2012-11-01

    In the subadult age group, third molar development, as well as age-related morphological tooth information can be observed on panoramic radiographs. The aim of present study was to combine, in subadults, panoramic radiographic data based on developmental stages of third molar(s) and morphological measurements from permanent teeth, in order to evaluate its added age-predicting performances. In the age range between 15 and 23 years, 25 gender-specific radiographs were collected within each age category of 1 year. Third molar development was classified and registered according the 10-point staging and scoring technique proposed by Gleiser and Hunt (1955), modified by Köhler (1994). The Kvaal (1995) measuring technique was applied on the indicated teeth from the individuals' left side. Linear regression models with age as response and third molar-scored stages as explanatory variables were developed, and morphological measurements from permanent teeth were added. From the models, determination coefficients (R (2)) and root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were calculated. Maximal-added age information was reported as a 6 % R² increase and a 0.10-year decrease of RMSE. Forensic dental age estimations on panoramic radiographic data in the subadult group (15-23 year) should only be based on third molar development.

  2. An innovative technique to distalize maxillary molar using microimplant supported rapid molar distalizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, enhancements in implants have made their use possible as a mode of absolute anchorage in orthodontic patients. In this paper, the authors have introduced an innovative technique to unilaterally distalize the upper left 1 st molar to obtain an ideal Class I molar relationship from a Class II existing molar relationship with an indigenous designed distalizer. Clinical Innovation: For effective unilateral diatalization of molar, a novel cantilever sliding jig assembly was utilized with coil spring supported by a buccally placed single micro implant. The results showed 3 mm of bodily distalization with 1 mm of intrusion and 2° of distal tipping of upper left 1 st molar in 1.5 months. Discussion: This appliance is relatively easy to insert, well-tolerated, and requires minimal patient cooperation compared to other present techniques of molar distalization. Moreover, it is particularly useful in cases that are Class II on one side and Class I on the other, with a minor midline discrepancy and nominal overjet. Patient acceptance level was reported to be within patients physiological and comfort limits.

  3. Mandibular molar crown-topography, a biological predisposing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mandibular molar crown-topography, a biological predisposing factor to development of caries – a post-mortem analysis of 2500 extracted lower permanent molars at the dental centre, University of Benin teaching hospital.

  4. Prevention of alveolar osteitis after third molar surgery: Comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevention of alveolar osteitis after third molar surgery: Comparative study of the ... for surgical extraction of lower third molar were prospectively, consecutively, and ... Information on demographic, types and level of impaction, indications for ...

  5. Variant Root Morphology of Third Mandibular Molar in Normal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isaac kipyator

    2017-11-12

    Nov 12, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. The mandibular third molar poses a challenge to dental surgeons due to it's unpredictable morphology ... treatment in the School of Dental Sciences since 2010. ... mandibular third molar include presence of three.

  6. History of surfactant up to 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Remarkable insight into disturbed lung mechanics of preterm infants was gained in the 18th and 19th century by the founders of obstetrics and neonatology who not only observed respiratory failure but also designed devices to treat it. Surfactant research followed a splendid and largely logical growth curve. Pathological changes in the immature lung were characterized in Germany by Virchow in 1854 and by Hochheim in 1903. The Swiss physiologist von Neergard fully understood surfactant function in 1929, but his paper was ignored for 25 years. The physical properties of surfactant were recognized in the early 1950s from research on warfare chemicals by Pattle in Britain and by Radford and Clements in the United States. The causal relationship of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and surfactant deficiency was established in the USA by Avery and Mead in 1959. The Australian obstetrician Liggins induced lung maturity with glucocorticoids in 1972, but his discovery was not fully believed for another 20 years. A century of basic research was rewarded when Fujiwara introduced surfactant substitution in Japan in 1980 for treatment and prevention of RDS. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Surfactant use with nitrate-based bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, B.H.; Hutchins, S.R.; West, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents results of an initial survey on the effect of six surfactants on the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in bioremediation applications using nitrate as the electron acceptor. Aquifer material from Park City, Kansas, was used for the study. The three atomic surfactants chosen were Steol CS-330, Dowfax 8390 and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS); the three nonionic surfactants were T-MAZ-60, Triton X-100, and Igepal CO-660. Both Steol CS-330 and T-MAZ-60 biodegraded under denitrifying conditions. The Steol inhibited biodegradation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes (BTEXTMB). Only toluene was rapidly degraded in the presence of T-MAZ-60. Biodegradation of all compounds, including toluene, appears to be inhibited by Dowfax 8390 and SDBS. No biodegradation of Dowfax 8390 or SDBS was observed. SDBS inhibited denitrification, but Dowfax 8390 did not. For the microcosms containing Triton X-100 or Igepal CO-660, removal of toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, 1,3,5-TMB, and 1,2,4-TMB were similar to their removals in the no-surfactant treatment. These two surfactants did not biodegrade, did not inhibit biodegradation of the alkylbenzenes, and did not inhibit denitrification. Further studies are continuing with aquifer material from Eglin Air Force Base

  8. Recovering hydrocarbons with surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; Whittington, L.E.; Ledoux, W.A.; Debons, F.E.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of surfactants produced from lignin, the surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen creating a reduction reaction mixture comprising oil soluble lignin phenols, the reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reduction mixture, and converting the lignin phenols into lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of alkoxylation, sulfonation, sulfation, aklylation, sulfomethylation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  9. Foaming behaviour of polymer-surfactant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes-MartInez, Alfredo; Maldonado, Amir

    2007-01-01

    We study the effect of a non-ionic amphiphilic polymer (PEG-100 stearate also called Myrj 59) on the foaming behaviour of aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate or SDS). The SDS concentration was kept fixed while the Myrj 59 concentration was varied. Measurements of foamability, surface tension and electrical conductivity were carried out. The results show two opposite effects depending on the polymer concentration: foamability is higher when the Myrj 59 concentration is low; however, it decreases considerably when the polymer concentration is increased. This behaviour is due to the polymer adsorption at the air/liquid interface at lower polymer concentrations, and to the formation of a polymer-surfactant complex in the bulk at higher concentrations. The results are confirmed by surface tension and electrical conductivity measurements, which are interpreted in terms of the microstructure of the polymer-surfactant solutions. The observed behaviour is due to the amphiphilic nature of the studied polymer. The increased hydrophobicity of Myrj 59, compared to that of water-soluble polymers like PEG or PEO, increases its 'reactivity' towards SDS, i.e. the strength of its interaction with this anionic surfactant. Our results show that hydrophobically modified polymers have potential applications as additives in order to control the foaming properties of surfactant solutions

  10. Efficacy and safety of combined piroxicam, dexamethasone, orphenadrine, and cyanocobalamin treatment in mandibular molar surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barroso A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Third molar extraction is a common procedure frequently accompanied by moderate or severe pain, and involves sufficient numbers of patients to make studies relatively easy to perform. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy and safety of the therapeutic combination of 10 mg piroxicam, 1 mg dexamethasone, 35 mg orphenadrine citrate, and 2.5 mg cyanocobalamin (Rheumazin® when compared with 20 mg piroxicam alone (Feldene® in mandibular third molar surgery. Eighty patients scheduled for removal of the third molar were included in this randomized and double-blind study. They received (vo Rheumazin or Feldene 30 min after tooth extraction and once daily for 4 consecutive days. Pain was determined by a visual analogue scale and by the need for escape analgesia (paracetamol. Facial swelling was evaluated with a measuring tape and adverse effects and patient satisfaction were recorded. There was no statistically significant difference in facial swelling between Rheumazin and Feldene (control group. Both drugs were equally effective in the control of pain, with Rheumazin displaying less adverse effects than Feldene. Therefore, Rheumazin appears to provide a better risk/benefit ratio in the mandibular molar surgery. Since the side effects resulting from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration are a severe limitation to the routine use of these drugs in clinical practice, our results suggest that Rheumazin can be a good choice for third molar removal treatment.

  11. Efficacy and safety of combined piroxicam, dexamethasone, orphenadrine, and cyanocobalamin treatment in mandibular molar surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Barroso

    Full Text Available Third molar extraction is a common procedure frequently accompanied by moderate or severe pain, and involves sufficient numbers of patients to make studies relatively easy to perform. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy and safety of the therapeutic combination of 10 mg piroxicam, 1 mg dexamethasone, 35 mg orphenadrine citrate, and 2.5 mg cyanocobalamin (Rheumazin® when compared with 20 mg piroxicam alone (Feldene® in mandibular third molar surgery. Eighty patients scheduled for removal of the third molar were included in this randomized and double-blind study. They received (vo Rheumazin or Feldene 30 min after tooth extraction and once daily for 4 consecutive days. Pain was determined by a visual analogue scale and by the need for escape analgesia (paracetamol. Facial swelling was evaluated with a measuring tape and adverse effects and patient satisfaction were recorded. There was no statistically significant difference in facial swelling between Rheumazin and Feldene (control group. Both drugs were equally effective in the control of pain, with Rheumazin displaying less adverse effects than Feldene. Therefore, Rheumazin appears to provide a better risk/benefit ratio in the mandibular molar surgery. Since the side effects resulting from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration are a severe limitation to the routine use of these drugs in clinical practice, our results suggest that Rheumazin can be a good choice for third molar removal treatment.

  12. STUDI CAMPURAN SURFACTANT UNTUK MENENTUKAN FUNGSI SOLUBILIZER DAN FIXATIVE PADA INDUSTRI PARFUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K N Adli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kualitas parfum  ditentukan oleh kejernihan dan longlasting parfum. Campuran surfaktan dapat meningkatkan kualitas parfum dengan biaya produksi yang murah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji rasio campuran surfaktan untuk menentukan fungsi solubilizer dan fixative. Bibit parfum yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah eugenol, surfaktan dengan fungsi solubilizer adalah portasol 40 dan tween 80 sedangkan surfaktan dengan fungsi fixative adalah glucam P20 dan patchouli alkohol. Rasio yang digunakan pada penelitian ini antara lain rasio glucam p20 : portasol (r G/P, rasio portasol 40 : tween 80 (r P/T dan rasio glucam P20 : patchouli alkohol (r G/PA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan campuran surfaktan dapat meningkatkan kejernihan dan longlasting parfum lebih baik daripada surfaktan tunggal. Optimasi menggunakan RSM didapatkan rasio campuran yang paling berpengaruh terhadap kejernihan adalah r P/T sedangkan rasio yang paling berpengaruh terhadap longlasting parfum adalah r G/PA. Hasil optimum dengan respon turbiditas r G/P = 3,59; r P/T = 0,48; r G/PA = 0,41 dan respon longlasting  r G/P = 4,51; r P/T = 0,40; r G/PA = 0,42 menghasilkan turbiditas 0,0489 NTU serta longlasting 3,68 jam.Perfume quality is determined by the clarity and longlasting perfume. Surfactant mixture can improve the quality of perfumes at low production costs. This study objectives are to examines the blending ratio surfactant and to determine the function of solubilizer and fixative. Perfume seeds used in this study is eugenol, surfactants with solubilizer function is Portasol 40 and Tween 80 while surfactant with fixative function are glucam P20 and patchouli alcohol. The ratio used in this study include glucam ratio P20: portasol (r G/P, the ratio portasol 40: tween 80 (rP/T and the ratio of glucam P20: patchouli alcohol (r G/PA. The results showed a mixture of surfactants may improve the clarity and longlasting perfume is better than a single surfactant. RSM

  13. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Surfactant Flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandersen, Sara Bülow

    , thus reducing the interfacial tension (IFT) to ultra low (0.001 mN/m), which consequently will mobilize the residual oil and result in improved oil recovery. This EOR technology is, however, made challenging by a number of factors, such as the adsorption of surfactant and co-surfactant to the rock...... be resistant to and remain active at reservoir conditions such as high temperatures, pressures and salinities. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of systems that exhibit liquid-liquid equilibrium (e.g. oil-brine systems) at reservoir conditions is an area of increasing interest within EOR. This is true...... studied. The effect of increased pressure became more significant when combined with increasing temperature. The experiments performed on the oil/ seawater systems were similar to the high pressure experiments for the surfactant system discussed above. Oil was contacted with different brine solutions...

  14. Surfactant mediated liquid phase exfoliation of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Rekha; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2015-10-01

    Commercialization of graphene based applications inevitably requires cost effective mass production. From the early days of research on graphene, direct liquid phase exfoliation (LPE) of graphite has been considered as the most promising strategy to produce high-quality mono or few-layer graphene sheets in solvent dispersion forms. Substantial success has been achieved thus far in the LPE of graphene employing numerous solvent systems and suitable surfactants. This invited review article principally showcase the recent research progress as well as shortcomings of surfactant assisted LPE of graphene. In particular, a comprehensive assessment of the quality and yield of the graphene sheets produced by different categories of the surfactants are summarized. Future direction of LPE methods is also proposed for the eventual success of commercial applications.

  15. First molar cross-bite is more closely associated with a reverse chewing cycle than anterior or pre-molar cross-bite during mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomonari, H; Ikemori, T; Kubota, T; Uehara, S; Miyawaki, S

    2014-12-01

    A posterior cross-bite is defined as an abnormal bucco-lingual relationship between opposing molars, pre-molars or both in centric occlusion. Although it has been reported that patients with unilateral posterior cross-bite often show unique chewing patterns, the relationship between the form of cross-bite and masticatory jaw movement remains unclear in adult patients. The objective of this study was to investigate masticatory jaw movement among different forms of cross-bite. One hundred and one adults were recruited in this study: 27 had unilateral first molar cross-bite (MC group); 28, unilateral pre-molar cross-bite (PC group); 23, anterior cross-bite (AC group); and 23, normal occlusion (control group). Masticatory jaw movement of the lower incisor point was recorded with six degrees of freedom jaw-tracking system during unilateral mastication. Our results showed that the reverse chewing ratio during deliberate unilateral mastication was significantly larger in the MC group than in the PA (P chewing cycle. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Molar incisor hypomineralization: current research evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikandan Ekambaram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH is a condition of systemic origin that involves one to four first permanent molar teeth and often associated with affected incisors. Although several associations to prenatal/perinatal childhood medical conditions have been reported, the etiology of MIH still remains unclear. The degree of enamel hypomineralization in the affected teeth can vary and the clinical problems associated with the teeth include increased susceptibility to caries, rapid wear, and post-eruptive enamel breakdown. Affected teeth are extremely challenging to treat as the enamel is porous, sensitive and treating clinicians might encounter great difficulty in achieving profound anaesthesia. The first part of thispresentation will give an update on prevalence, potential etiological factors, and management strategies of this condition. The second part of the presentation will cover a systematic review results on bonding strategies to hypomineralized enamel.

  17. Synthesis of mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite by using zwitterions surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite (mn-HAP) was successfully synthesized via a novel micelle-templating method using lauryl dimethylaminoacetic acid as zwitterionic surfactant. The systematic use of such a surfactant in combination with microwave energy inputenables the precise contr...

  18. Early surfactant therapy and nasal continuous positive airways ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) receiving nasal continuous positive airways ... required FiO2 was allowed to rise above 0.4 before surfactant was administered. ... group received surfactant immediately and the high-threshold group ...

  19. The influence of nonionic surfactant Brij 30 on biodegradation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... polluted air stream using biological process is highly efficient and has low ... Brij 30 was the most biodegradable surfactant among Brij 30, Tween 80 and ... The filter material contained surfactants that would enhance the ...

  20. Fullerene surfactants and their use in polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Kwan-Yue; Yip, Hin-Lap; Li, Chang-Zhi

    2015-12-15

    Fullerene surfactant compounds useful as interfacial layer in polymer solar cells to enhance solar cell efficiency. Polymer solar cell including a fullerene surfactant-containing interfacial layer intermediate cathode and active layer.

  1. Design and screening of synergistic blends of SiO2 nanoparticles and surfactants for enhanced oil recovery in high-temperature reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Nhu Y Thi; Pham, Duy Khanh; Le, Kim Hung; Nguyen, Phuong Tung

    2011-01-01

    SiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by the sol–gel method in an ultrasound reactor and monodispersed NPs with an average particle size of 10–12 nm were obtained. The synergy occurring in blending NPs and anionic surfactant solutions was identified by ultra-low interfacial tension (IFT) reduction measured by a spinning drop tensiometer (Temco500). The oil displacement efficiency of the synergistic blends and surfactant solutions at Dragon South-East (DSE) reservoir temperature was evaluated using contact angle measurement (Dataphysics OCA 20). It was found that SiO 2 /surfactant synergistic blends displace oil as well as their original surfactant solutions at the same 1000 ppm total concentration. Abundant slag appearing in the SiO 2 /surfactant medium during oil displacement could be attributed to an adsorption of surfactants onto the NPs. The results indicate that at a concentration of 1000 ppm in total, the original surfactant SS16-47A and its blend with SiO 2 NPs in the ratio of 8:2 exhibited an IFT reduction as high as fourfold of the IFT recorded for the DSE oil–brine interface and very high speed of oil displacement. Therefore, it could potentially be applicable to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in high-temperature reservoirs with high hardness-injection-brine, like the one at DSE. This opens up a new direction for developing effective EOR compositions, which require less surfactant and are environmentally safer

  2. Determining the Surfactant Consistent with Concrete in order to Achieve the Maximum Possible Dispersion of Multi walled Carbon Nano tubes in Keeping the Plain Concrete Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adresi, M.; Hassani, A.; Javadian, S.; Tulliani, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    A new surfactant combination compatible with concrete formulation is proposed to avoid unwanted air bubbles created during mixing process in the absence of a defoamer and to achieve the uniform and the maximum possible dispersion of multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) in water and subsequently in concrete. To achieve this goal, three steps have been defined: (1) concrete was made with different types and amount of surfactants containing a constant amount of MWCNTs (0.05 wt%) and the air bubbles were eliminated with a proper defoamer. (2) Finding a compatible surfactant with concrete compositions and eliminating unwanted air bubbles in the absence of a common defoamer are of fundamental importance to significantly increase concrete mechanical properties. In this step, the results showed that the poly carboxylate super plasticizer (SP-C) (as a compatible surfactant) dispersed MWCNTs worse than SDS/DTAB but unwanted air bubbles were removed, so the defoamer can be omitted in the mixing process. (3) To solve the problem, a new compatible surfactant composition was developed and different ratios of surfactants were tested and evaluated by means of performance criteria mentioned above. The results showed that the new surfactant composition (SDS and SP-C) can disperse MWCNTs around 24% more efficiently than the other surfactant compositions.

  3. [Delayed wound healing post molar extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, R H; De Visscher, J G A M

    2009-02-01

    One month post extraction of the second left maxillary molar the alveolar extraction site showed no signs of healing and was painful. The patient had been using an oral bisphosphonate during 3 years. Therefore, the lesion was diagnosed as bisphosphonate-induced maxillary osteonecrosis. Treatment was conservative. Since one month later the pain had increased and the wound healing had decreased, a biopsy was carried out. Histopathologic examination revealed a non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  4. Enamel micromorphology of the tribosphenic molar

    OpenAIRE

    Hanousková, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    The tribosphenic molar is an ancestral type of mammalian teeth and a phy- lotypic stage of the mammalian dental evolution. Yet, in contrast to derived teeth types, its enamel microarchitecture attracted only little attention and the information on that subject is often restricted to statements suggesting a simple homogenous arrangement of a primitive radial prismatic enamel. The present paper tests this prediction with aid of comparative study of eight model species representing the orders Ch...

  5. Incidence of lower second permanent molar impaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R

    1988-08-01

    The incidence of lower second molar impaction was investigated, comparing the records of two samples of 200 orthodontic patients referred consecutively, in 1976 and 1986. A further study compared 50 cases showing both bilateral and unilateral impactions, with a non-impacted control group. This allowed possible causes of the impactions to be examined, particularly concerning the effect of premature loss of deciduous teeth on the distribution of crowding.

  6. Enhanced production of pigments by addition of surfactants in submerged fermentation of Monascus purpureus H1102.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonghui; Zhang, Bobo; Lu, Liping; Huang, Yan; Xu, Ganrong

    2013-10-01

    The production of pigments by Monascus spp. has attracted increasing attention. Modification of the cell membrane structure by addition of surfactants has proved to be effective for the secretion of intracellular metabolites. Hence in this study the effects and underlying mechanism of surfactants on the production of pigments in submerged fermentation of Monascus purpureus H1102 were systematically investigated. Various surfactants exerted significant but different impacts on the biomass and production of pigments. The maximum production of pigment (304.3 U mL(-1) ) and highest extracellular/intracellular pigment ratio (1.46) were achieved when 15 g L(-1) Triton X-100 was added at 24 h of fermentation, corresponding to significant increases of 88.4 and 240% respectively compared with the control. Meanwhile, the concentration of citrinin (0.94 mg L(-1) ) was 20.6% lower than that of the control. A further study on the fatty acid composition of M. purpureus H1102 showed that the unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and the index of unsaturated fatty acid increased significantly with the addition of Triton X-100. The addition of surfactant Triton X-100 could greatly enhance the production of pigment. It was suggested that Triton X-100 facilitated the secretion of intracellular pigment and therefore enhanced pigment production accordingly. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Three-dimensional primate molar enamel thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejniczak, Anthony J; Tafforeau, Paul; Feeney, Robin N M; Martin, Lawrence B

    2008-02-01

    Molar enamel thickness has played an important role in the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and dietary assessments of fossil primate teeth for nearly 90 years. Despite the frequency with which enamel thickness is discussed in paleoanthropological discourse, methods used to attain information about enamel thickness are destructive and record information from only a single plane of section. Such semidestructive planar methods limit sample sizes and ignore dimensional data that may be culled from the entire length of a tooth. In light of recently developed techniques to investigate enamel thickness in 3D and the frequent use of enamel thickness in dietary and phylogenetic interpretations of living and fossil primates, the study presented here aims to produce and make available to other researchers a database of 3D enamel thickness measurements of primate molars (n=182 molars). The 3D enamel thickness measurements reported here generally agree with 2D studies. Hominoids show a broad range of relative enamel thicknesses, and cercopithecoids have relatively thicker enamel than ceboids, which in turn have relatively thicker enamel than strepsirrhine primates, on average. Past studies performed using 2D sections appear to have accurately diagnosed the 3D relative enamel thickness condition in great apes and humans: Gorilla has the relatively thinnest enamel, Pan has relatively thinner enamel than Pongo, and Homo has the relatively thickest enamel. Although the data set presented here has some taxonomic gaps, it may serve as a useful reference for researchers investigating enamel thickness in fossil taxa and studies of primate gnathic biology.

  8. Surfactant therapy in late preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yurdakök

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Late preterm (LPT neonates are at a high risk for respiratory distress soon after birth due to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, transient tachypnea of the newborn, persistent pulmonary hypertension, and pneumonia along with an increased need for surfactant replacement therapy, continuous positive airway pressure, and ventilator support when compared with the term neonates. In the past, studies on outcomes of infants with respiratory distress have primarily focused on extremely premature infants, leading to a gap in knowledge and understanding of the developmental biology and mechanism of pulmonary diseases in LPT neonates. Surfactant deficiency is the most frequent etiology of RDS in very preterm and moderately preterm infants, while cesarean section and lung infection play major roles in RDS development in LPT infants. The clinical presentation and the response to surfactant therapy in LPT infants may be different than that seen in very preterm infants. Incidence of pneumonia and occurrence of pneumothorax are significantly higher in LPT and term infants. High rates of pneumonia in these infants may result in direct injury to the type II alveolar cells of the lung with decreasing synthesis, release, and processing of surfactant. Increased permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane to both fluid and solutes is known to result in entry of plasma proteins into the alveolar hypophase, further inhibiting the surface properties of surfactant. However, the oxygenation index value do not change dramatically after ventilation or surfactant administration in LPT infants with RDS compared to very preterm infants. These finding may indicate a different pathogenesis of RDS in late preterm and term infants. In conclusion, surfactant therapy may be of significant benefit in LPT infants with serious respiratory failure secondary to a number of insults. However, optimal timing and dose of administration are not so clear in this group. Additional

  9. Surfactant-Polymer Interaction for Improved Oil Recovery; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabitto, Jorge; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this research was to use the interaction between a surfactant and a polymer for efficient displacement of tertiary oil by improving slug integrity, oil solubility in the displacing fluid and mobility control. Surfactant-polymer flooding has been shown to be highly effective in laboratory-scale linear floods. The focus of this proposal is to design an inexpensive surfactant-polymer mixture that can efficiently recover tertiary oil by avoiding surfactant slug degradation and viscous/heterogeneity fingering

  10. Influence of unilateral maxillary first molar extraction treatment on second and third molar inclination in Class II subdivision patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Booij, Johan Willem; Halazonetis, Demetrios J.; Katsaros, Christos; Ren, Yijin

    Objective: To assess the maxillary second molar (M2) and third molar (M3) inclination following orthodontic treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusion with unilateral maxillary first molar (M1) extraction. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of 21 Class II subdivision adolescents (eight

  11. Adsorption of anionic surfactants in limestone medium during oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canbolat, Serhat; Bagci, Suat [Middle East Technical Univ., Dept. of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, Ankara (Turkey)

    2004-07-15

    Foam-forming surfactant performance was evaluated by several experimental methods (interfacial tension, foam stability, corefloods) using commercial surfactants. There is considerable interest in the use of foam-forming surfactants for mobility control in water flood. To provide effective mobility control, the injected surfactant must propagate from the injection well toward the production well. One of the important parameters affecting propagation of foam-forming surfactant through the reservoir is the retention of surfactant due to its adsorption on reservoir rock. The determination of the adsorption of foam-forming surfactants in limestone reservoirs is important for the residual oil recovery efficiency. Adsorption measurements, recovery efficiencies, and surfactant and alkaline flooding experiments carried out with the representative of the selected surfactants alkaline solutions, linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid (LABSA), sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), and NaOH in a limestone medium. These surfactants were selected with respect to their foaming ability. Calibration curves formed by pH measurements were used to determine the correct adsorption amount of the used surfactants and recovery efficiency of these surfactants compared with base waterflooding. The results showed that LABSA adsorbed more than SLES in limestone reservoirs. The recovery efficiency of SLES was higher than the recovery efficiency of LABSA, and they decreased the recovery efficiency with respect to only the water injection case. (Author)

  12. The Inhibiting or Accelerating Effect of Different Surfactants on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The course of differential capacity curves of the electric double layer at the mercury electrode/surfactant solution interface was described for three different surfactants from different groups. Using square-wave voltammetry (SWV) it was found that the surfactants had a varying effect on the kinetics of electroreduction of Zn2+ ...

  13. One year Survival Rate of Ketac Molar versus Vitro Molar for Occlusoproximal ART Restorations: a RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PACHECO Anna Luisa de Brito

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Good survival rates for single-surface Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART restorations have been reported, while multi-surface ART restorations have not shown similar results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate of occluso-proximal ART restorations using two different filling materials: Ketac Molar EasyMix (3M ESPE and Vitro Molar (DFL. A total of 117 primary molars with occluso-proximal caries lesions were selected in 4 to 8 years old children in Barueri city, Brazil. Only one tooth was selected per child. The subjetcs were randomly allocated in two groups according to the filling material. All treatments were performed following the ART premises and all restorations were evaluated after 2, 6 and 12 months. Restoration survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-rank test, while Cox regression analysis was used for testing association with clinical factors (α = 5%. There was no difference in survival rate between the materials tested, (HR = 1.60, CI = 0.98–2.62, p = 0.058. The overall survival rate of restorations was 42.74% and the survival rate per group was Ketac Molar = 50,8% and Vitro Molar G2 = 34.5%. Cox regression test showed no association between the analyzed clinical variables and the success of the restorations. After 12 months evaluation, no difference in the survival rate of ART occluso-proximal restorations was found between tested materials.

  14. Radiologic study of mandibular third molar of Korean youths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1982-01-01

    The author has made a study on the classification of the mandibular 3rd molars of Korean youths through dental radiography by means of Pell and Gregory's classification and on the prevalence of the dental caries of distal surface of the mandibular 2nd molar adjacent to the mandibular 3rd molars turned anteriorly. The results are as follow; 1. It was found that the largest case number was class I (272 cases, 52.9%) in the relation of the tooth to the ramus of the mandible and 2nd molar. 2. The mesio-angular position was the largest number (239 cases, 46.5%) in the relation of the long axis of the impacted mandibular 3rd molar to the long axis of the 2nd molar. 3. The mesio-angular position of class I was the largest number (140 cases, 27.2%) in the relation of the tooth to the ramus of the mandible and 2nd molar and the long axis of the impacted mandibular 3rd moral to the long axis of the 2nd molar. 4. The average angle of the long axis of mandibular 3rd molar in mesioangular position or horizontal position to the occlusal plane was 143 W 5. Mandibular 3rd molar with lesion such as dental cries or pericoronitis was 73 cases (14.2). 6. The caries incidence rate of the distal surface of the 2nd molar was about 3.1%.

  15. Efficacy of reducing agent and surfactant contacting pattern on the performance characteristics of nickel electroless plating baths coupled with and without ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Amrita; Pujari, Murali; Uppaluri, Ramgopal; Verma, Anil

    2014-07-01

    This article addresses furthering the role of sonication for the optimal fabrication of nickel ceramic composite membranes using electroless plating. Deliberating upon process modifications for surfactant induced electroless plating (SIEP) and combined surfactant and sonication induced electroless plating (SSOEP), this article highlights a novel method of contacting of the reducing agent and surfactant to the conventional electroless nickel plating baths. Rigorous experimental investigations indicated that the combination of ultrasound (in degas mode), surfactant and reducing agent pattern had a profound influence in altering the combinatorial plating characteristics. For comparison purpose, purely surfactant induced nickel ELP baths have also been investigated. These novel insights consolidate newer research horizons for the role of ultrasound to achieve dense metal ceramic composite membranes in a shorter span of total plating time. Surface and physical characterizations were carried out using BET, FTIR, XRD, FESEM and nitrogen permeation experiments. It has been analyzed that the SSOEP baths provided maximum ratio of percent pore densification per unit metal film thickness (PPDδ) and hold the key for further fine tuning of the associated degrees of freedom. On the other hand SIEP baths provided lower (PPDδ) ratio but higher PPD. For SSOEP baths with dropwise reducing agent and bulk surfactant, the PPD and metal film thickness values were 73.4% and 8.4 μm which varied to 66.9% and 13.3 μm for dropwise reducing agent and drop surfactant case. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Bilateral lower second molar impaction in teenagers: An emergent problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinohara Elio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of simultaneously impacted second and third molars in teenagers is increasing and becoming a common occurrence in adolescent oral surgery practice. The traditional treatment is the removal of the third molar by conventional access but repositioning of the surgical flap to the distal face of the first molar can predispose to complications such as pericoronitis and delayed healing of the attached gingiva. We present a case in which we use the germectomy approach to remove the impacted third molar for the eruption of the second molar through a vestibular incision. This incision offers excellent bone exposure and exit route for the third molar without disturbing the gingiva attached architecture on the distal face of the first molar providing good healing environment.

  17. Surfactants, interfaces and pores : a theoretical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huinink, H.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of surfactants in porous media by theoretical means. The influence of curvature of a surface on the adsorption has been studied with a mean field lattice (MFL) model, as developed by Scheutjens and Fleer. An analytical theory has been

  18. Influence of surfactant concentration on nanohydroxyapatite growth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nanohydroxyapatite particles with different morphologies were synthesized through a microwave coupled hydrothermal method using CTAB as a template. A successful synthesis of nanosized HAP spheres, rods and fibres is achieved through this method by controlling the concentration of the surfactant. The concentration ...

  19. of surfactant replacement therapy at Johannesburg Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the impact of surfactant replacement therapy (SRl) on the outcome of ... oxygen requirements) was compared with that of a historical control group of ... The use of SRT added to the total cost of treating a patient ventilated for HMD.

  20. Surfactant protein D is proatherogenic in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, G. L.; Madsen, J.; Kejling, K.

    2006-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an important innate immune defense molecule that mediates clearance of pathogens and modulates the inflammatory response. Moreover, SP-D is involved in lipid homeostasis, and pulmonary accumulation of phospholipids has previously been observed in SP-D-deficient (Spd...

  1. Topological transformation of a surfactant bilayer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, T.D.; Olsson, U.; Mortensen, K.

    2000-01-01

    Surfactant lamellar phases are often complicated by the formation of multilamellar (onions) under shear, which can originate simply by shaking the sample. A systematic study has been performed on the C10E3-D2O system in which different bilayer structures under a steady shear flow were investigated...

  2. Surfactant enhanced non-classical extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanowski, J.

    2000-01-01

    Surfactant enhanced non-classical extractions are presented and discussed. They include micellar enhanced ultrafiltration and cloud point extraction. The ideas of the processes are given and the main features are presented. They are compared to the classical solvent extraction. The fundamental of micellar solutions and their solubilisation abilities are also discussed. (author)

  3. Lung Surfactant - The Indispensable Component of Respiratory ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 8. Lung Surfactant - The Indispensable Component of Respiratory Mechanics. Shweta Saxena. Research News Volume 10 Issue 8 August 2005 pp 91-96. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Surfactant-aided size exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horneman, D.A.; Wolbers, M.; Zomerdijk, M.; Ottens, M.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Wielen, van der L.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The flexibility and selectivity of size exclusion chromatog. (SEC) for protein purifn. can be modified by adding non-ionic micelle-forming surfactants to the mobile phase. The micelles exclude proteins from a liq. phase similar to the exclusion effect of the polymer fibers of the size exclusion

  5. Surfactant enhanced non-classical extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanowski, J.

    1999-01-01

    Surfactant enhanced non-classical extractions are presented and discussed. They include micellar enhanced ultrafiltration and cloud point extraction. The ideas of the processes are given and the main features are presented. They are compared to the classical solvent extraction. The fundamental of micellar solutions and their solubilization abilities are also discussed. (author)

  6. The origin and evolution of the surfactant system in fish: insights into the evolution of lungs and swim bladders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Christopher B; Orgeig, Sandra; Sullivan, Lucy C; Ling, Nicholas; Bennett, Michael B; Schürch, Samuel; Val, Adalberto Luis; Brauner, Colin J

    2004-01-01

    fishes. The extremely high cholesterol/disaturated PL and cholesterol/PL ratios of surfactant extracted from tarpon and pirarucu bladders and the poor surface activity of tarpon surfactant are characteristics of the surfactant system in other fishes. Despite the paraphyletic phylogeny of the Osteichthyes, their surfactant is uniform in composition and may represent the vertebrate protosurfactant.

  7. Adsorption of surfactants and polymers at interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Orlando Jose

    Surface tension and high-resolution laser light scattering experiments were used to investigate the adsorption of isomeric sugar-based surfactants at the air/liquid interface in terms of surfactant surface packing and rheology. Soluble monolayers of submicellar surfactant solutions exhibited a relatively viscous behavior. It was also proved that light scattering of high-frequency thermally-induced capillary waves can be utilized to study surfactant exchange between the surface and the bulk solution. Such analysis revealed the existence of a diffusional relaxation mechanism. A procedure based on XPS was developed for quantification, on an absolute basis, of polymer adsorption on mica and Langmuir-Blodgett cellulose films. The adsorption of cationic polyelectrolytes on negatively-charged solid surfaces was highly dependent on the polymer ionicity. It was found that the adsorption process is driven by electrostatic mechanisms. Charge overcompensation (or charge reversal) of mica occurred after adsorption of polyelectrolytes of ca. 50% charge density, or higher. It was demonstrated that low-charge-density polyelectrolytes adsorb on solid surfaces with an extended configuration dominated by loops and tails. In this case the extent of adsorption is limited by steric constraints. The conformation of the polyelectrolyte in the adsorbed layer is dramatically affected by the presence of salts or surfactants in aqueous solution. The phenomena which occur upon increasing the ionic strength are consistent with the screening of the electrostatic attraction between polyelectrolyte segments and solid surface. This situation leads to polyelectrolyte desorption accompanied by both an increase in the layer thickness and the range of the steric force. Adsorbed polyelectrolytes and oppositely charged surfactants readily associate at the solid/liquid interface. Such association induces polyelectrolyte desorption at a surfactant concentration which depends on the polyelectrolyte charge

  8. Are Hypomineralized Primary Molars and Canines Associated with Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Figueiredo Sé, Maria Jose; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Dias; Dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes Aparecida Martins; de Cassia Loiola Cordeiro, Rita; Cabral, Renata Nunes; Leal, Soraya Coelho

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of and relationship between hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPM) and hypomineralized primary canines (HPC) with molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in 1,963 schoolchildren. The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) criterion was used for scoring HSPM/HPC and MIH. Only children with four permanent first molars and eight incisors were considered in calculating MIH prevalence (n equals 858); for HSPM/HPC prevalence, only children with four primary second molars (n equals 1,590) and four primary canines (n equals 1,442) were considered. To evaluate the relationship between MIH/HSPM, only children meeting both criteria cited were considered (n equals 534), as was true of MIH/HPC (n equals 408) and HSPM/HPC (n equals 360; chi-square test and logistic regression). The prevalence of MIH was 14.69 percent (126 of 858 children). For HSPM and HPC, the prevalence was 6.48 percent (103 of 1,592) and 2.22 percent (32 of 1,442), respectively. A significant relationship was observed between MIH and both HSPM/HPC (PMIH based on HSPM was 6.31 (95 percent confidence interval [CI] equals 2.59 to 15.13) and for HPC was 6.02 (95 percent CI equals 1.08 to 33.05). The results led to the conclusion that both hypomineralized second primary molars and hypomineralized primary canines are associated with molar-incisor hypomineralization, because children with HSPM/HPC are six times more likely to develop MIH.

  9. MANAGEMENT OF MANDIBULAR THIRD MOLAR SURGERY TO PRESERVE PERIODONTAL HEALTH OF SECOND MOLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elitsa G. Deliverska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extraction of impacted third molar violates surrounding soft and bony tissues. Various surgical approaches and surgical technics have an important impact on the periodontal health of the adjacent second molar. Purpose: The aim of this review is to analyse the causes that can affect postoperative periodontal outcomes for the mandibular second molars (LM2 adjacent to the impacted/ semi impacted mandibular third molars (LM3. Material and Methods: Electronic searches were conducted through the MEDLINE (PubMed, Scopus, etc. databases to screen all relevant articles published from inception to April 2017. Results: Different flap techniques had no significant impact on the probing depth reduction or on the clinical attachment level of LM2. Szmyd and paramarginal flap designs may be the most effective in reducing the probing depth after third molar surgery, and the envelope flap may be the least effective. Use of bone substitutes and guided tissue regeneration therapy has been proposed, to eliminate or prevent these periodontal defects, but there is still no consensus on their predictability or clinical benefit. Higher costs and the risk of postoperative inflammatory complications should also be taken into proper account, as with any surgical procedure. “Orthodontic extraction” is indicated for that impacted M3 that present a high risk of postoperative periodontal defects at the distal aspect of adjacent M2. Conclusion: Risk factors associated with bone loss following lower third molar extraction includes age, the direction of the eruption, preoperative bone defects, and resorbtion of the LM2 root surface. Prevention of such periodontal defects continues to challenge clinicians.

  10. Dimeric Surfactants: Promising Ingredients of Cosmetics and Toiletries

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    Naveen Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants are an essential ingredient for cosmetic, toiletries and personal care products for enhancing their performance. Dimeric surfactants demonstrate superiority compared to conventional surfactants in all areas of application. Dimeric surfactants are extremely promising for utilization in various cosmetic formulations viz. shampoo, lotions, creams, conditioners etc. These surfactants possess extremely unique surface properties viz. lower surface tension, unique micellization, low critical micelle concentration (CMC and antimicrobial activity, higher solubilization etc. Dimerics enhance the performances of cosmetics in an extraordinary manner and provide eco-friendly preparations for human epidermis.

  11. Structural study of surfactant-dependent interaction with protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehan, Sumit; Aswal, Vinod K., E-mail: vkaswal@barc.gov.in [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kohlbrecher, Joachim [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 PSI Villigen (Switzerland)

    2015-06-24

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the complex structure of anionic BSA protein with three different (cationic DTAB, anionic SDS and non-ionic C12E10) surfactants. These systems form very different surfactant-dependent complexes. We show that the structure of protein-surfactant complex is initiated by the site-specific electrostatic interaction between the components, followed by the hydrophobic interaction at high surfactant concentrations. It is also found that hydrophobic interaction is preferred over the electrostatic interaction in deciding the resultant structure of protein-surfactant complexes.

  12. Physicochemical characteristics of PFC surfactants for dry decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Jin; Lee, Chi Woo [Korea University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    Even the trace amount of the used nuclear fuels of high radioactivity are hazardous to the earth and humans. Perfluorocarbons and perfluorocarbon surfactants are emerging to be efficient chemicals in the dry decontamination process of the used fuels of high radioactivity. The theme was undertaken to increase the knowledge on perfluorocarbon surfactants to develop the perfluorocarbon system in the dry decontamination process in Korea. Several cationic and anionic pfc surfactants were synthesized. Effects of pfc surfactants on electrochemical etching of silicon were investigated to form porous silicons. Forces were measured between silicon surfaces and AFM tip in the absence and presence of pfc surfactants. 7 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  13. Surfactant Sensors in Biotechnology; Part 1 – Electrochemical Sensors

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    Milan Sak-Bosnar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview on electrochemical surfactant sensors is given with special attention to papers published since 1993. The importance of surfactants in modern biotechnology is stressed out. Electrochemical sensors are usually divided according to the measured physical quantity to potentiometric, amperometric, conductometric and impedimetric surfactant sensors. The last ones are very few. Potentiometric surfactant sensors are the most numerous due to their simplicity and versatility. They can be used either as end-point titration sensors or as direct EMF measurement sensors, in batch or flow-through mode. Some amperometric surfactant sensors are true biosensors that use microorganisms or living cells.

  14. Effects of Surfactant on Geotechnical Characteristics of Silty Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Z.A.; Sahibin, A.R.; Lihan, T.; Idris, W.M.R.; Sakina, M.

    2013-01-01

    Surfactants are often used as a cleaning agent for restoration of oil-contaminated soil. However the effect of surfactant on the geotechnical properties of soil is not clearly understood. In this study, the effects of surfactant on silty soil were investigated for consistency index, compaction, permeability and shear strength. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used in this study to prepare the surfactant-treated soil. Our results showed that the soil with added surfactant exhibited a decrease in liquid and plastic limit values. Maximum dry densities increased and optimum moisture contents decreased as contents of added surfactant were increased. The presence of surfactant assists the soil to achieve maximum density at lower water content. The addition of surfactant decreased the permeability of soil from 6.29 x 10 -4 to 1.15 x 10 -4 ms -1 . The shear strength of soil with added surfactant was examined using the undrained unconsolidated triaxial tests. The results showed that the undrained shear strength, Cu was significantly affected, decreased from 319 kPa to 50 kPa for soil with 20 % of added surfactant. The results of this study showed that the presence of surfactant in soil can modify the mechanical behaviour of the soil. (author)

  15. Synthesis and properties evaluation of sulfobetaine surfactant with double hydroxyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Luo, Gang; Zhang, Ze; Li, Sisi; Wang, Chengwen

    2017-09-01

    A series of sulfobetaine surfactants {N-[(3-alkoxy-2-hydroxyl)propoxy] ethyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-hydroxyl)propyl sulfonate} ammonium chloride were synthesized with raw materials containing linear saturated alcohol, N,N-dimethylethanolamine, sodium 3-chloro-2-hydroxyl propane sulfonic acid and epichlorohydrin. The molecule structures of sulfobetaine surfactants were characterized by FTIR, 1HNMR and elemental analysis. Surface tension measurements can provide us information about the surface tension at the CMC (γCMC), pC20, Γmax and Amin. The pC20 values of sulfobetaine surfactants increase with the hydrophobic chain length increasing. Amin values of the surfactants decrease with increasing hydrophobic chain length from 10 to 14. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surface tension (γCMC) values of the sulfobetaine surfactants decrease with increasing hydrophobic chain length from 10 to 16. The lipophilicity of surfactant was enhanced with the increase of the carbon chain, however, the ability of anti-hard water was weakened. The minimum oil/water interfacial tension of four kinds of sulfobetaine surfactants is 10-2-10-3 mN/m magnitude, which indicates that the synthesized bis-hydroxy sulfobetaine surfactants have a great ability to reduce interfacial tension in the surfactant flooding system. The surface tension (γCMC) values of synthesized surfactants were lower compared with conventional anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfonate.

  16. Silica micro- and nanoparticles reduce the toxicity of surfactant solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Francisco; Fernández-Arteaga, Alejandro; Fernández-Serrano, Mercedes; Jurado, Encarnación; Lechuga, Manuela

    2018-04-20

    In this work, the toxicity of hydrophilic fumed silica micro- and nanoparticles of various sizes (7 nm, 12 nm, and 50 μm) was evaluated using the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. In addition, the toxicity of an anionic surfactant solution (ether carboxylic acid), a nonionic surfactant solution (alkyl polyglucoside), and a binary (1:1) mixture of these solutions all containing these silica particles was evaluated. Furthermore, this work discusses the adsorption of surfactants onto particle surfaces and evaluates the effects of silica particles on the surface tension and critical micellar concentration (CMC) of these anionic and nonionic surfactants. It was determined that silica particles can be considered as non-toxic and that silica particles reduce the toxicity of surfactant solutions. Nevertheless, the toxicity reduction depends on the ionic character of the surfactants. Differences can be explained by the different adsorption behavior of surfactants onto the particle surface, which is weaker for nonionic surfactants than for anionic surfactants. Regarding the effects on surface tension, it was found that silica particles increased the surface activity of anionic surfactants and considerably reduced their CMC, whereas in the case of nonionic surfactants, the effects were reversed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Charging and Screening in Nonpolar Solutions of Nonionizable Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Sven

    2010-03-01

    Nonpolar liquids do not easily accommodate electric charges, but surfactant additives are often found to dramatically increase the solution conductivity and promote surface charging of suspended colloid particles. Such surfactant-mediated electrostatic effects have been associated with equilibrium charge fluctuations among reverse surfactant micelles and in some cases with the statistically rare ionization of individual surfactant molecules. Here we present experimental evidence that even surfactants without any ionizable group can mediate charging and charge screening in nonpolar oils, and that they can do so at surfactant concentrations well below the critical micelle concentration (cmc). Precision conductometry, light scattering, and Karl-Fischer titration of sorbitan oleate solutions in hexane, paired with electrophoretic mobility measurements on suspended polymer particles, reveal a distinctly electrostatic action of the surfactant. We interpret our observations in terms of a charge fluctuation model and argue that the observed charging processes are likely facilitated, but not limited, by the presence of ionizable impurities.

  18. Status of surfactants as penetration enhancers in transdermal drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iti Som

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants are found in many existing therapeutic, cosmetic, and agro-chemical preparations. In recent years, surfactants have been employed to enhance the permeation rates of several drugs via transdermal route. The application of transdermal route to a wider range of drugs is limited due to significant barrier to penetration across the skin which is associated with the outermost stratum corneum layer. Surfactants have effects on the permeability characteristics of several biological membranes including skin. They have the potential to solubilize lipids within the stratum corneum. The penetration of the surfactant molecule into the lipid lamellae of the stratum corneum is strongly dependent on the partitioning behavior and solubility of surfactant. Surfactants ranging from hydrophobic agents such as oleic acid to hydrophilic sodium lauryl sulfate have been tested as permeation enhancer to improve drug delivery. This article reviews the status of surfactants as permeation enhancer in transdermal drug delivery of various drugs.

  19. Surfactant modified clays’ consistency limits and contact angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Akbulut

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at preparing a surfactant modified clay (SMC and researching the effect of surfactants on clays' contact angles and consistency limits; clay was thus modified by surfactants formodifying their engineering properties. Seven surfactants (trimethylglycine, hydroxyethylcellulose  octyl phenol ethoxylate, linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid, sodium lauryl ether sulfate, cetyl trimethylammonium chloride and quaternised ethoxylated fatty amine were used as surfactants in this study. The experimental results indicated that SMC consistency limits (liquid and plastic limits changedsignificantly compared to those of natural clay. Plasticity index and liquid limit (PI-LL values representing soil class approached the A-line when zwitterion, nonionic, and anionic surfactant percentageincreased. However, cationic SMC became transformed from CH (high plasticity clay to MH (high plasticity silt class soils, according to the unified soil classification system (USCS. Clay modifiedwith cationic and anionic surfactants gave higher and lower contact angles than natural clay, respectively.

  20. Influence of stability of polymer surfactant on oil displacement mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Li, Chengliang; Pi, Yanming; Wu, Di; He, Ying; Geng, Liang

    2018-02-01

    At present, most of the oilfields of China have entered the late stage of high water-cut development, and three oil recovery technique has become the leading technology for improving oil recovery. With the improvement of three oil recovery techniques, the polymer surfactant flooding technology has been widely promoted in oil fields in recent years. But in the actual field experiment, it has been found that the polymer surfactant has chromatographic separation at the extraction end, which indicates that the property of the polymer surfactant has changed during the displacement process. At present, there was few literature about how the stability of polymer surfactant affects the oil displacement mechanism. This paper used HuaDing-I polymer surfactant to conduct a micro photolithography glass flooding experiment, and then compared the oil displacement law of polymer surfactant before and after static setting. Finally, the influence law of stability of polymer surfactant on the oil displacement mechanism is obtained by comprehensive analysis.

  1. Mandibular molar with five root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, Fernando Branco; Dotto, Sidney Ricardo; Reis, Magda de Sousa; Ferreira, Ronise; Travassos, Rosana Maria Coelho

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the importance of knowledge of the internal anatomy of root canals for the success of endodontic treatment. Lack of knowledge of anatomic variations and their characteristics in different teeth has been pointed out as one of the main causes of endodontic therapy failure. In this report, the authors describe the endodontic treatment of a mandibular first molar with five root canals, evaluate the rate of occurrence of this number of canals, and discuss the importance of their identification and treatment.

  2. Root growth during molar eruption in extant great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jay; Dean, Christopher; Ross, Sasha

    2009-01-01

    While there is gradually accumulating knowledge about molar crown formation and the timing of molar eruption in extant great apes, very little is known about root formation during the eruption process. We measured mandibular first and second molar root lengths in extant great ape osteological specimens that died while either the first or second molars were in the process of erupting. For most specimens, teeth were removed so that root lengths could be measured directly. When this was not possible, roots were measured radiographically. We were particularly interested in the variation in the lengths of first molar roots near the point of gingival emergence, so specimens were divided into early, middle and late phases of eruption based on the number of cusps that showed protein staining, with one or two cusps stained equated with immediate post-gingival emergence. For first molars at this stage, Gorilla has the longest roots, followed by Pongo and Pan. Variation in first molar mesial root lengths at this stage in Gorilla and Pan, which comprise the largest samples, is relatively low and represents no more than a few months of growth in both taxa. Knowledge of root length at first molar emergence permits an assessment of the contribution of root growth toward differences between great apes and humans in the age at first molar emergence. Root growth makes up a greater percentage of the time between birth and first molar emergence in humans than it does in any of the great apes. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Taking advantage of an unerupted third molar: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Figueiredo Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Treatments with dental surgery seek to displace tooth to the correct position within the dental arch. Objective: To report a clinical case that took advantage of an unerupted third molar. Case history: A male patient, 18 years of age, was referred by his dentist to evaluate the third molars. The clinical exam revealed no visible lower third molars. The computed tomography (CT exam showed the presence of a supernumerary tooth in the region of the mandibular ramus, on the left side, and impaction of the third molar, which was causing root resorption on the second molar, thus making it impossible to remain in the buccal cavity. The preferred option, therefore, was to remove both second molar and the supernumerary tooth, in addition to attaching a device to the third molar during surgery for further traction. Results: After 12 months, the third molar reached the proper position. Conclusion: When a mandibular second permanent molar shows an atypical root resorption, an impacted third molar can effectively substitute the tooth by using an appropriate orthodontic-surgical approach.

  4. Experimental Study on Characteristics of Grinded Graphene Nanofluids with Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HeonJin Seong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In earlier studies, much research has focused on increasing the efficiency of heat exchanger fields. Therefore, in this study, graphene nanofluid was fabricated for use as a heat transfer medium for a heat exchanger. Graphene has excellent electrical conductivity, mechanical properties, and heat transfer properties. It is expected that the heat transfer efficiency will be improved by fabricating the nanofluid. However, graphene is prone to sedimentation, because of its cohesion due to van der Waals binding force. In this experiment, a nanofluid was fabricated with enhanced dispersibility by surfactant and the ball-milling process. The zeta potential, absorbance, and thermal conductivity of the nanofluid were measured. As a result, when using the ratio of 2:1 (graphene:sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, a higher thermal conductivity was obtained than in other conditions.

  5. Effect of surfactant concentration on the size of one-pot synthesized Si nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Su Jung; Kim, Tae Woo; Lee, Myong Euy [Dept. of Chemistry and Medical Chemistry, College of Science and Technology, Research and EducationCenter for Advanced Silicon Materials, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyeon Mo [University College, Yonsei University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sang Woong [Youngchang Chemical Co., LTD, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Ryou, Joon Sung [Advanced Technology R and D Center, SKC, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    The effect of surfactant concentration on the synthesis of Si nanoparticles (NPs) was studied. Hexyl Si NPs were synthesized using one-pot synthetic methodology with different ratios of SiCl{sub 4}:HexylSiCl{sub 3} (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:6) to observe the effect of surfactant concentration on the size of Si NPs. In Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, the Si–H stretching band and the characteristic Si–O–Si bands decreased and eventually disappeared with increasing hexyltrichlorosilane concentration. This suggests that the level of oxidation decreased with excess amounts of hexyltrichlorosilane because the surface area of exposed Si NPs without hexyl capping groups was reduced. Results of transmission electron microscopy and particle size analysis showed that the average diameter of hexyl Si NPs increased slightly from low surfactant concentration (SiCl{sub 4}:HexylSiCl{sub 3} = 1:1) to high concentration (1:6). This might be caused due to the relationship between the surfactant concentration effect and the core material part effect of hexyltrichlorosilane. Agglomerated Si NPs were observed and their luminescence bands were not shifted because the Si NPs were capped by alkyl groups to prevent aggregation.

  6. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization, Prevalence, and Etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Mohammed Allazzam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the prevalence and possible etiological factors associated with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH among a group of children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A group of 8-12-year-old children were recruited (n=267  from the Pediatric Dental Clinics at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University. Children had at least one first permanent molar (FPM, erupted or partially erupted. Demographic information, children’s medical history, and pregnancy-related data were obtained. The crowns of the FPM and permanent incisors were examined for demarcated opacities, posteruptive breakdown (PEB, atypical restorations, and extracted FPMs. Children were considered to have MIH if one or more FPM with or without involvement of incisors met the diagnostic criteria. Results. MIH showed a prevalence of 8.6%. Demarcated opacities were the most common form. Maxillary central incisors were more affected than mandibular (P=0.01. The condition was more prevalent in children with history of illnesses during the first four years of life including tonsillitis (P=0.001, adenoiditis (P=0.001, asthma (P=0.001, fever (P=0.014, and antibiotics intake (P=0.001. Conclusions. The prevalence of MIH is significantly associated with childhood illnesses during the first four years of life including asthma, adenoid infections, tonsillitis, fever, and antibiotics intake.

  7. Onset of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagrell, Tobias G; Salmon, Phil; Melin, Lisa; Norén, Jörgen G

    2013-01-01

    The etiological factors and timing of the onset of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) are still not clear. The aim of this study was to examine ground radial and sagittal sections from teeth diagnosed with MIH using light microscopy, polarized light microscopy and X-ray micro-computed tomography (XMCT) and to estimate the onset and timing of the MIH and to relate the hypomineralized enamel to the incremental lines. Thirteen extracted permanent first molars diagnosed MIH, were analyzed with light microscopy and XMCT. The hypomineralized areas were mainly located in the mesio-buccal cusps, starting at the enamel-dentin-junction and continuing towards the enamel surface. In a relative gray scale analysis the values decreased from the EDJ towards the enamel surface. The findings indicate that the ameloblasts in the hypomineralized enamel are capable of forming an enamel of normal thickness, but with a substantial reduction of their capacity for maturation of enamel. Chronologically, it is estimated that the timing of the disturbance is at a period during the first 6-7 months of age.

  8. Sealing Occlusal Dentin Caries in Permanent Molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Vibeke; Borum, Mette Kit; Møller, Kirsten Dynes

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of postponing restorative intervention of manifest occlusal caries in young, permanent dentition by non-invasive sealing. This RCT-designed study included 521 occlusal lesions in 521 patients aged 6 to 17 y. Based on clinical and radiog......The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of postponing restorative intervention of manifest occlusal caries in young, permanent dentition by non-invasive sealing. This RCT-designed study included 521 occlusal lesions in 521 patients aged 6 to 17 y. Based on clinical...... longevity of sealings and restorations until retreatments, and 3) compare effectiveness of sealings and restorations to halt caries progression in sealed lesions and beneath restorations. Furthermore, we aimed to identify factors influencing longevity and the effectiveness of sealings and restorations.......001). The median survival time for sealings not replaced by restorations was 7.3 y (CI, 6.4 y to NA). Survival of sealings was increased in patients with low caries risk and/or excellent oral hygiene, second molars compared with first molars, and lesions not extending the middle one-third of the dentin. Survival...

  9. Extrações de molares na Ortodontia Molar extractions in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Schroeder

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento ortodôntico com extração de molares em pacientes adultos é tecnicamente mais complexo, devido a inúmeros fatores. Em geral, o espaço a ser fechado é maior do que o espaço dos pré-molares e, por isso, a ancoragem é crítica e o tempo de tratamento mais longo. É comum esses casos apresentarem algum grau de comprometimento periodontal por causa da idade dos pacientes e, portanto, necessitam de maior controle da mecânica ortodôntica para reduzir os efeitos colaterais do fechamento do espaço. Por isso, bons resultados de finalização são mais difíceis de ser alcançados. Sendo assim, este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar as razões para a indicação de extração de molares nos tratamentos ortodônticos, as contraindicações, as diferentes fases da mecânica ortodôntica, esclarecer os fatores envolvidos nesse tipo de planejamento e tratamento e apresentar casos clínicos tratados com extração de molares.Orthodontic treatment with extraction of molars in adult patients is technically more complex due to a number of factors. In general, the space to be closed is greater than premolar spaces rendering critical anchorage and longer treatment time. Often such cases exhibit some degree of periodontal involvement due to patient age. Hence, the need for greater control over orthodontic mechanics to reduce the side effects of space closure. Therefore, good finishing results can be more difficult to achieve. Thus, the purpose of this article is to determine the reasons for molar extraction indications, describe different stages of orthodontic mechanics, and explain the issues involved in this kind of planning and treatment. Additionally, it aims at describing some treatments with molar extractions.

  10. Biocatalytic synthesis of polymeric nanowires by micellar templates of ionic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari, K.; Adhami, F.; Najjar-Safari, A.; Salmani, S.; Mahmoudi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Soft-template production of polyguaiacol nanowire was done by peroxidase enzyme. → Main advantage of this simple method is producing soluble encapsulated nanowires. → Nanowire can be easily precipitated and separated by dilution with distilled water. → Size tuned templates of sodium decyl sulfate (d = 2.7 nm) gave nanowires with d = 2-4 nm. → Dried surfactant-coated wires recover freshly on specified and desired applications. -- Abstract: Micelle-templated polyguaiacol nanowires were successfully prepared via polymerization oxidation of guaiacol (o-methoxy phenol) by peroxidase enzyme in the presence of hydrogen peroxide at mild reaction conditions. The dimensions of the prepared nanowires were controlled by tuning the size and shape of the micelle structure via changing and controlling the type, chain length and molar concentrations of the ionic surfactant. The progress of the reaction and estimation of the size of soft micellar templates were followed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The resulting micelle encapsulated or purified polyguaiacol nanowires were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  11. Novel epoxy-benzoxazine water-based emulsions with reactive benzoxazine surfactants for coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krajnc

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Novel epoxy-benzoxazine emulsions designed for water-based coatings were prepared and investigated. Bisphenol A-based epoxy resins with molar weights of 340, 377 and 1750 g/mol along with epoxidized soybean oil were emulsified using mono- and bi-functional benzoxazine surfactants, which are able to react with epoxy resins at their cure temperature. The structure of synthesized surfactants carrying one or two polyether chains was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and differential scanning calorimetry. Stability of emulsions was verified by particle diameters measurements. Coatings, made directly from emulsions, were dried and cured at elevated temperature using 3,3'-dimetoxybenzidine as curing agent to ensure a highly cross-linked structure of thermosetting films. Curing process, thermal properties and hardness of cured films were investigated. It was found that benzoxazine molecules were well incorporated into the epoxy network upon curing, which ensures no void structure of cured copolymer and enhanced coating properties.

  12. Biocatalytic synthesis of polymeric nanowires by micellar templates of ionic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari, K., E-mail: nazarikh@ripi.ir [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, NIOC, P.O. Box 14665-137, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chemistry Dept., Shahr Rey Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 18735-334, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Adhami, F.; Najjar-Safari, A.; Salmani, S. [Chemistry Dept., Shahr Rey Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 18735-334, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoudi, A. [Chemistry Dept., Karaj Islamic Azad University, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} Soft-template production of polyguaiacol nanowire was done by peroxidase enzyme. {yields} Main advantage of this simple method is producing soluble encapsulated nanowires. {yields} Nanowire can be easily precipitated and separated by dilution with distilled water. {yields} Size tuned templates of sodium decyl sulfate (d = 2.7 nm) gave nanowires with d = 2-4 nm. {yields} Dried surfactant-coated wires recover freshly on specified and desired applications. -- Abstract: Micelle-templated polyguaiacol nanowires were successfully prepared via polymerization oxidation of guaiacol (o-methoxy phenol) by peroxidase enzyme in the presence of hydrogen peroxide at mild reaction conditions. The dimensions of the prepared nanowires were controlled by tuning the size and shape of the micelle structure via changing and controlling the type, chain length and molar concentrations of the ionic surfactant. The progress of the reaction and estimation of the size of soft micellar templates were followed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The resulting micelle encapsulated or purified polyguaiacol nanowires were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  13. Autotransplantation of Mandibular Third Molar: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabbati Ravi kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autogenous transplantation is a feasible, fast, and economical option for the treatment of nonsalvageable teeth when a suitable donor tooth is available. This paper presents successful autotransplantation of a mature mandibular left third molar (38 without anatomical variances is used to replace a mandibular left second molar (37. The mandibular second molar was nonrestorable due to extensive root caries and resorption of distal root. After extraction of mandibular second and third molars, root canal therapy was done for the third molar extraorally, and the tooth was reimplanted into the extracted socket of second molar site. After one year, clinical and radiographic examination revealed satisfactory outcome with no signs or symptoms suggestive of pathology. In selected cases, autogenous tooth transplantation, even after complete root formation of the donor tooth, may be considered as a practical treatment alternative to conventional prosthetic rehabilitation or implant treatment.

  14. Survival of sealants in molars affected by molar-incisor hypomineralization: 18-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Maria Bullio FRAGELLI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical survival of sealants applied in first permanent molars (FPMs affected by molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH, at 18 months of follow-up. Forty-one first permanent molars were selected from 21 children, 6–8 years of age. MIH was classified by one calibrated examiner (kappa = 0.80 according to EAPD criteria. The inclusion criteria were fully erupted FPMs with MIH or sound FPMs (without MIH for which sealant treatment was indicated. The FPMs were assigned to two groups: CG (control group and HG (MIH group. Both groups were treated with sealant (FluroShield. Clinical follow-up was performed from baseline to 18 months to assess anatomical form, marginal adaptation, retention and presence of caries, according to criteria set by the United States Public Health Service-Modified, and was conducted by a blinded examiner (kappa = 0.80. The actuarial method was used to evaluate the survival of the sealants. The survival rates for the groups were compared using Fisher’s exact test (α = 5%. The cumulative survival rates were 81% at 1 month, 68.8% at 6 months, 68.8% at 12 months, and 62.6% at 18 months for CG, and 88% at 1 month, 84% at 6 months, 76% at 12 months, and 72% at 18 months for HG. No significant difference was found between the groups. The sealants in molars affected by MIH presented a survival rate similar to the sealants in the control, suggesting that sealants may be an adequate approach for preventing carious lesions in MIH-affected molars.

  15. Spectrophotometric determination of molybdenum with non-ionic surfactant and thiocyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kenjiro; Yamamoto, Atsuo; Fujimura, Yasue; Ito, Saburo.

    1980-01-01

    Although the molybdenum (V)-thiocyanate complex is quite stable in non-aqueous solvent such as ether, the complex in dilute acidic solution is unstable. However, this unstable complex was stabilized remarkably by addition of some non-ionic surfactant such as Triton X-100 (alkylphenolpolyoxyethylene ether). The application of this stabilizing effect of the surfactant to the photometric determination of trace amounts of molybdenum with thiocyanate resulted in an increase in the sensitivity. The rate of formation of the Mo(V)-SCN complex was affected by the presence of ferrous ion and its rate constant was proportional to the concentration of Fe(II). The stabilizing effect of the surfactant on the yellowish orange coloration can be understood if we assume that the Mo(V)-SCN complex is incorporated into the micelles of Triton X-100 as [H 2 + , MoO(CNS) 5 2- ]. The optimum condition for the determination of molybdenum is as follows: concentration of sulfuric acid, 0.22 mol dm -3 ; Triton X-100, 0.8%; ascorbic acid, 0.32 mol dm -3 ; thiocyanate, 0.30 mol dm -3 ; iron, 40 mg dm -3 ; standing time for coloration, 10 min and more. Beer's law was obeyed over the range (1 -- 233) μg/50 cm 3 . The molar absorption coefficient at 468 nm was 1.7 2 x 10 4 cm -1 mol -1 dm 3 . The maximum permissible limits of foreign ions (mg/50 cm 3 ) were as follows: Ni(30); Co(12); W(VI) (2); Cu, Zn, V(V) (3); Cr(VI) (5). Large amounts of iron interfered, but this interference was removed by addition of the same amount of iron to the reagent blank. Trace amounts of molybdenum in steel was determined by this method with satisfactory results. (author)

  16. Unusal canal configuration in maxillary and mandibular second molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Ragunathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This clinical article describes three different case reports of maxillary and mandibular second molars with the unusual anatomy of single root with a single canal and their endodontic management. An unusual case of bilateralism is observed in the first two cases in the form of single-rooted second mandibular molars in both the quadrant of the same patient. The presence of maxillary second molar with single root and single canal in the third case is unusual.

  17. ASSOCIATION OF BRANCHED POLYETHYLENE IMINE WITH SURFACTANTS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael C. Bellettini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Three polymer-surfactant systems comprised of branched polyethylene imine (PEI with an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecylsulfate; SDS, a cationic surfactant (tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide; TTAB, and a zwitterionic surfactant (N-tetradecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate; SB3-14 were studied based on the properties of surface tension, pyrene fluorescence emission, dynamic light scattering, pH, and zeta potential measurements. The critical aggregation concentration (cac and polymer saturation point (psp were determined for all three systems. The effect of these surfactants on the physico-chemical characteristics (diameter and surface charge of the complexes formed was determined. Polymer-surfactant interactions occurred in all of the systems studied, with the strongest interactions, electrostatic in nature, occurring in the SDS-PEI system. After the neutralization of the polymer charges with the addition of the surfactant, the hydrophobic effect started to control the interlacing of the polymer chains. For the PEI-TTAB system, a very dense film was formed at surfactant concentrations above 2.0 mmol L-1. In this case, the bromide counter-ion interacted with both the positively-charged PEI and the head of the surfactant, which is responsible for the formation of double layer coordination complexes. For the system composed of PEI and the zwitterionic surfactant, less cooperative associations occurred in comparison with the other systems.

  18. Next Generation Surfactants for Improved Chemical Flooding Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura Wesson; Prapas Lohateeraparp; Jeffrey Harwell; Bor-Jier Shiau

    2012-05-31

    The principle objective of this project was to characterize and test current and next generation high performance surfactants for improved chemical flooding technology, focused on reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian-aged (Penn) sands. In order to meet this objective the characteristic curvatures (Cc) of twenty-eight anionic surfactants selected for evaluation for use in chemical flooding formulations were determined. The Cc values ranged from -6.90 to 2.55 with the majority having negative values. Crude oil samples from nine Penn sand reservoirs were analyzed for several properties pertinent to surfactant formulation for EOR application. These properties included equivalent alkane carbon numbers, total acid numbers, and viscosity. The brine samples from these same reservoirs were analyzed for several cations and for total dissolved solids. Surfactant formulations were successfully developed for eight reservoirs by the end of the project period. These formulations were comprised of a tertiary mixture of anionic surfactants. The identities of these surfactants are considered proprietary, but suffice to say the surfactants in each mixture were comprised of varying chemical structures. In addition to the successful development of surfactant formulations for EOR, there were also two successful single-well field tests conducted. There are many aspects that must be considered in the development and implementation of effective surfactant formulations. Taking into account these other aspects, there were four additional studies conducted during this project. These studies focused on the effect of the stability of surfactant formulations in the presence of polymers with an associated examination of polymer rheology, the effect of the presence of iron complexes in the brine on surfactant stability, the potential use of sacrificial agents in order to minimize the loss of surfactant to adsorption, and the effect of electrolytes on surfactant adsorption. In these last four studies

  19. Permaflood, formation in situ of surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapo, G

    1972-01-01

    The present paper described a new process to produce surfactants in situ in which advantage is taken of the chemical reaction of oxidation in the liquid phase. This process consists of injecting a front of oxidizing agents and reaction compounds, in order to avoid the precipitation of the reaction products and to avoid the interaction between the surfactants produced and the calcium and magnesium in the connate water. Many different types of oxidizing agents as sodium dichromate, hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate, sodium hypochlorite, etc., are used. Also, there is considered the use of catalyzers with these oxidizing agents and the variation of the pH of the oxidizing front (permanaganate was the first oxidant used to check the technical and economic possibilities of this process in the laboratory). The process is called Permaflood, so named because potassium permanganate was the first oxidant used to check the technical and economic possibilities of this process in the laboratory.

  20. [Orthodontic Management of the Impacted Mandibular Second Molar Tooth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Michael; Takada, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    When the mandibular permanent second molar becomes impacted, it is identified as a malocclusion that needs treatment as it often leads to unwanted complications such as caries and periodontitis of the adjacent permanent first molar. Other less common complications include root resorption of the adjacent first molar root or continued root development to be in close proximity to the inferior dental alveolar nerve. This paper seeks to differentiate various levels of severity of impaction and review treatment options that are considered clinically available for the proper management of the impacted mandibular permanent second molar. Treatment options that will be discussed in this article include timing of second molar removal for replacement by the third molar, relief of impaction via second premolar removal, surgical repositioning and the combination of third molar removal, surgical exposure and orthodontic uprighting of the impacted tooth. Depending on the severity of the impaction, most impactions can be easily and predictably corrected with nickel titanium archwires or auxillary open coil springs or uprighting springs. Uncommonly, the mandibular permanent second molar can become severely impacted and in close proximity to the inferior dentoalveolar nerve. In these instances, the use of temporary anchorage devices such as microimplants has shown to be successful in uprighting the severely impacted mandibular permanent second molars. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2016.

  1. Epidemiological Status of Third Molars in an Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Sheikhi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Impaction of third molars is a common phenomenon. The incidence of impacted third molars varies in different populations. Objectives The aim of this study is to assess radiographic status (root development degree, angulation, and eruption level of the third molar in Iranian population via panoramic radiographs. Patients and Methods 647 patients, ranging in age from 17 - 25, were selected from three regions of Iran. Based on their panoramic radiographs, their root development degree, angulation, and eruption levels were analyzed. Results The angulation of upper third molars were vertical (44.6%, distoangular (44.1%, mesioangular (10.7%, and horizontal (0.6%. For lower third molars, the angulation was mesioangular (44.5%, vertical (33.8%, distoangular (12.2%, and horizontal (9.5%. The eruption levels of maxillary third molars were C > A> B, and for mandibular third molars they were A > B> C. The order of root development prevalence of the maxillary and mandibular third molars was complete > 2/3 > 1/3. Conclusions The most common status of impaction of the third molars in the maxilla was vertical angulation, level C of eruption, and complete root formation. In the mandible it was mesioangular, level A of eruption, and complete root formation. Since the study sample consists of patients from the north, middle, and south of Iran, the sample can represent the whole population of Iran.

  2. Apparent molar volumes and compressibilities of selected electrolytes in dimethylsulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warminska, Dorota; Grzybkowski, Waclaw

    2010-01-01

    Densities at T = (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K and sound velocities at T = 298.15 K of tetraphenylphosphonium bromide, sodium tetraphenylborate, sodium bromide, and sodium perchlorate in dimethylsulfoxide have been measured over the composition range from (0 to 0.3) mol . kg -1 . From these data, apparent molar volumes and apparent molar isentropic compressibilities at infinite dilution as well as the expansibilities have been evaluated. The results have been discussed in terms of employing tetraphenylphosphonium tetraphenylborate as a reference electrolyte in splitting the limiting apparent molar volumes and apparent molar isentropic compressibilities into ionic contributions.

  3. Microemulsion-based lycopene extraction: Effect of surfactants, co-surfactants and pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri-Rigi, Atefeh; Abbasi, Soleiman

    2016-04-15

    Lycopene is a potent antioxidant that has received extensive attention recently. Due to the challenges encountered with current methods of lycopene extraction using hazardous solvents, industry calls for a greener, safer and more efficient process. The main purpose of present study was application of microemulsion technique to extract lycopene from tomato pomace. In this respect, the effect of eight different surfactants, four different co-surfactants, and ultrasound and enzyme pretreatments on lycopene extraction efficiency was examined. Experimental results revealed that application of combined ultrasound and enzyme pretreatments, saponin as a natural surfactant, and glycerol as a co-surfactant, in the bicontinuous region of microemulsion was the optimal experimental conditions resulting in a microemulsion containing 409.68±0.68 μg/glycopene. The high lycopene concentration achieved, indicates that microemulsion technique, using a low-cost natural surfactant could be promising for a simple and safe separation of lycopene from tomato pomace and possibly from tomato industrial wastes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Equilibrium Spreading Tension of Pulmonary Surfactant

    OpenAIRE

    Dagan, Maayan P.; Hall, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Monomolecular films at an air/water interface coexist at the equilibrium spreading tension (γe) with the bulk phase from which they form. For individual phospholipids, γe is single-valued, and separates conditions at which hydrated vesicles adsorb from tensions at which overcompressed monolayers collapse. With pulmonary surfactant, isotherms show that monolayers compressed on the surface of bubbles coexist with the three-dimensional collapsed phase over a range of surface tensions. γe therefo...

  5. PLUNC: a multifunctional surfactant of the airways

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Jennifer; Gakhar, Lokesh; Penterman, Jon; Singh, Pradeep; Mallampalli, Rama K.; Porter, Edith; McCray, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    PLUNC (palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone) protein is an abundant secretory product of epithelia throughout the mammalian conducting airways. Despite its homology with the innate immune defence molecules BPI (bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein) and LBP (lipopolysaccharide-binding protein), it has been difficult to define the functions of PLUNC. Based on its marked hydrophobicity and expression pattern, we hypothesized that PLUNC is an airway surfactant. We found that purified r...

  6. Structure formation in binary mixtures of surfactants: vesicle opening-up to bicelles and octopus-like micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi

    Micelle formation in binary mixtures of surfactants is studied using a coarse-grained molecular simulation. When a vesicle composed of lipid and detergent types of molecules is ruptured, a disk-shaped micelle, the bicelle, is typically formed. It is found that cup-shaped vesicles and bicelles connected with worm-like micelles are also formed depending on the surfactant ratio and critical micelle concentration. The obtained octopus shape of micelles agree with those observed in the cryo-TEM images reported in [S. Jain and F. S. Bates, Macromol. 37, 1511 (2004).]. Two types of connection structures between the worm-like micelles and the bicelles are revealed.

  7. Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia - A Retrospective Study of 3 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Kamran Bokhari; Zaheer, Kamran Bokhari; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Bagi, Mustafa Abdel; Assiri, Mohammed Abdullah

    2013-02-01

    To report the prevalence of impacted third molars according to the age, gender and type among Saudi population. This retrospective study involved 3800 panoramic radiographs of subjects aged 18 to 45 years who presented to the College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for oral care during the period from February 2009 to February 2011. Data collected was entered into a spreadsheet (Excel 2000; Microsoft, US) and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. A total of 713 impacted teeth were identified (18.76%) (p=0.003). The male to female ratio with impacted third molars was 604:109 (5.54:1) and the ratio of patients with impacted teeth was (5:1). Age group 1 (i.e., 20 to 25 years)had the highest prevalence of third molar tooth impaction (64.5%) and this decreased with increasing age. Incidence of tooth impaction is higher in the mandible than in maxilla. Males had a higher incidence of third molar impaction as compared to the females. Highest incidence is found in the age group of 20-25 years. Mesio-angular impaction was the most predominant type. How to cite this article: Syed KB, Kota Z, Ibrahim M, Bagi MA, Assiri MA. "Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia - A Retrospective Study of 3 Years". J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):43-47.

  8. The Accelerated Late Adsorption of Pulmonary Surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Adsorption of pulmonary surfactant to an air−water interface lowers surface tension (γ) at rates that initially decrease progressively, but which then accelerate close to the equilibrium γ. The studies here tested a series of hypotheses concerning mechanisms that might cause the late accelerated drop in γ. Experiments used captive bubbles and a Wilhelmy plate to measure γ during adsorption of vesicles containing constituents from extracted calf surfactant. The faster fall in γ reflects faster adsorption rather than any feature of the equation of state that relates γ to surface concentration (Γ). Adsorption accelerates when γ reaches a critical value rather than after an interval required to reach that γ. The hydrophobic surfactant proteins (SPs) represent key constituents, both for reaching the γ at which the acceleration occurs and for producing the acceleration itself. The γ at which rates of adsorption increase, however, is unaffected by the Γ of protein in the films. In the absence of the proteins, a phosphatidylethanolamine, which, like the SPs, induces fusion of the vesicles with the interfacial film, also causes adsorption to accelerate. Our results suggest that the late acceleration is characteristic of adsorption by fusion of vesicles with the nascent film, which proceeds more favorably when the Γ of the lipids exceeds a critical value. PMID:21417351

  9. Structure of polymeric nanoparticles in surfactant-stabilized aqueous dispersions of high-molar-mass hydrophobic graft copolymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hajduová, J.; Procházka, K.; Raus, Vladimír; Šlouf, Miroslav; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Garamus, V. M.; Štěpánek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 456, 20 August (2014), s. 10-17 ISSN 0927-7757 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68081731 Keywords : nanoprecipitation * graft copolymer * light scattering Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology; JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering (UPT-D) Impact factor: 2.752, year: 2014

  10. Changes of cerebral hemodynamics following the administration of surfactant in the hyaline membrane disease of prematurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Kyung Hee [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-15

    To evaluate the changes of cerebral blood flow velocity according to the time, before and after surfactant administration in hyaline membrane disease using Doppler ultrasonography. The patients were 15 premature babies who were clinically and radiologically diagnosed HMD. The ratio of male : female was 11:4, the mean gestational age was 30.1 {+-} 2.5 wks, mean body weight was 1.4 {+-} 0.6 kg,mean Apgar score at 5 min was 6.28, and type of delivery was C-section : vaginal delivery 9.6. Before and after, 10 mm, 30 min, 1 hr, 6 hr, 12 hr, 1 day, 3 day, 5 day and 7 day after surfactant administration, peak systolic and end-diastolic cerebral blood flow velocity (PSFV, EDFV) and resistive index (RI) were estimated by Doppler ultrasonography measuring MCA flow velocity using temporal window. The averages of all data according to the time were obtained and analyzed statistical significance. For the evaluation of the clinical status systemic BP, FiO2, pH, and respiratory rate were also checked according to the same time. The clinical status of FiO2, metabolic acidosis, and tachypnea was significantly improved after surfactant administration. There was no significant change of cerebral blood flow velocity (PSFV, EDFV) after the surfactant administration. The change of RI was nor statistically significant. The changes of the systemic BP had no significant changes. In spite of clinical improvement, there were no significant increases of cerebral blood flow velocity and changes of RI after surfactant administration in hyaline membrane disease.

  11. Changes of cerebral hemodynamics following the administration of surfactant in the hyaline membrane disease of prematurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Kyung Hee

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the changes of cerebral blood flow velocity according to the time, before and after surfactant administration in hyaline membrane disease using Doppler ultrasonography. The patients were 15 premature babies who were clinically and radiologically diagnosed HMD. The ratio of male : female was 11:4, the mean gestational age was 30.1 ± 2.5 wks, mean body weight was 1.4 ± 0.6 kg,mean Apgar score at 5 min was 6.28, and type of delivery was C-section : vaginal delivery 9.6. Before and after, 10 mm, 30 min, 1 hr, 6 hr, 12 hr, 1 day, 3 day, 5 day and 7 day after surfactant administration, peak systolic and end-diastolic cerebral blood flow velocity (PSFV, EDFV) and resistive index (RI) were estimated by Doppler ultrasonography measuring MCA flow velocity using temporal window. The averages of all data according to the time were obtained and analyzed statistical significance. For the evaluation of the clinical status systemic BP, FiO2, pH, and respiratory rate were also checked according to the same time. The clinical status of FiO2, metabolic acidosis, and tachypnea was significantly improved after surfactant administration. There was no significant change of cerebral blood flow velocity (PSFV, EDFV) after the surfactant administration. The change of RI was nor statistically significant. The changes of the systemic BP had no significant changes. In spite of clinical improvement, there were no significant increases of cerebral blood flow velocity and changes of RI after surfactant administration in hyaline membrane disease.

  12. Impacts of Natural Surfactant Soybean Phospholipid on Wettability of High-rank Coal Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, S.; Xiao, Y.; Yuan, M.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    It is significant to change the surface wettability of coal rock with the surfactant in coal mining and coalbed methane exploitation. Soybean phospholipid (SP) is a kind of natural zwitterionic surfactant which is non-toxic and degradable. In order to study the effects of soybean phospholipid on wettability of high-rank coal in Qinshui Basin, some experiments including surface tension test, contact angle measurement on the coal surface, coal fines imbibition, observation of dispersion effect and gas permeability test were carried out, and water locking mechanism of fracturing fluid in micro fractures of coal reservoir was analyzed. The results show that the surface of high-rank coal was negatively charged in solution and of weak hydrophilicity. The soybean phospholipid with the mass fraction of 0.1% reduced the surface tension of water by 69%, and increased the wettability of coal. Meanwhile, the soybean phospholipid helped coal fines to disperse by observation of the filter cake with the scanning electron microscope. The rising rate of soybean phospholipid solution in the pipe filled with coal fines was lower than that of anionic and cationic surfactant, higher than that of clean water and non-ionic surfactant. Composite surfactant made up of soybean phospholipid and OP-10 at the ratio of 1:3 having a low surface tension and large contact angle, reduced the capillary force effectively, which could be conducive to discharge of fracturing fluid from coal reservoir micro fracture and improve the migration channels of gas. Therefore it has a broad application prospect.

  13. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    ) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement......The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2...

  14. Ceramic onlay for endodontically treated mandibular molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopadevi Garlapati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of endodontically treated teeth is important for the success of endodontic treatment. In full coverage restorations, maximum amount of tooth structure is compromised, so as to conserve the amount of tooth structure partial coverage restorations, can be preferred. This case report is on fabrication of a conservative tooth colored restoration for an endodontically treated posterior tooth. A 22-year-old male patient presented with pain in the mandibular left first molar. After endodontic treatment, composite material was used as postendodontic restoration. The tooth was then prepared to receive a ceramic onlay and bonded with self-adhesive universal resin cement. Ceramic onlay restoration was periodically examined up to 2 years.

  15. Surfactant protein A and surfactant protein D variation in pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Grith Lykke; Husby, Steffen; Holmskov, Uffe

    2007-01-01

    Surfactant proteins A (SP-A) and D (SP-D) have been implicated in pulmonary innate immunity. The proteins are host defense lectins, belonging to the collectin family which also includes mannan-binding lectin (MBL). SP-A and SP-D are pattern-recognition molecules with the lectin domains binding...... lavage and blood have indicated associations with a multitude of pulmonary inflammatory diseases. In addition, accumulating evidence in mouse models of infection and inflammation indicates that recombinant forms of the surfactant proteins are biologically active in vivo and may have therapeutic potential...... in controlling pulmonary inflammatory disease. The presence of the surfactant collectins, especially SP-D, in non-pulmonary tissues, such as the gastrointestinal tract and genital organs, suggest additional actions located to other mucosal surfaces. The aim of this review is to summarize studies on genetic...

  16. Estimation hydrophilic-lipophilic balance number of surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawignya, Harsa, E-mail: harsa-paw@yahoo.co.id [Chemical Engineering Department Diponegoro University (Indonesia); Chemical Engineering Departement University of Pembangunan Nasional Yogyakarta (Indonesia); Prasetyaningrum, Aji, E-mail: ajiprasetyaningrum@gmail.com; Kusworo, Tutuk D.; Pramudono, Bambang, E-mail: Pramudono2004@yahoo.com [Chemical Engineering Department Diponegoro University (Indonesia); Dyartanti, Endah R. [Chemical Engineering Department Diponegoro University (Indonesia); Chemical Enginering Departement Sebelas Maret University (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    Any type of surfactant has a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance number (HLB number) of different. There are several methods for determining the HLB number, with ohysical properties of surfactant (solubility cloud point and interfacial tension), CMC methods and by thermodynamics properties (Free energy Gibbs). This paper proposes to determined HLB numbers from interfelation methods. The result of study indicated that the CMC method described by Hair and Moulik espesially for nonionic surfactant. The application of exess Gibbs free energy and by implication activity coefficient provides the ability to predict the behavior of surfactants in multi component mixtures of different concentration. Determination of HLB number by solubility and cloud point parameter is spesific for anionic and nonionic surfactant but this methods not available for cationic surfactants.

  17. Influence of metacide - surfactant complexes on agricultural crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orynkul Esimova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexes based on surfactants and polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (metacide are important for agriculture. This paper considers compositions of known bactericidal metacide with different surfactants: anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulphate (DDSNa and nonionic surfactant Tween 80 (monooleate of oxyethylenated anhydrosorbitols. The effect of individual components and associates of metacide and surfactants on productivity and infection of cereals was studied. According to the study, the highest productivity and infection rate were shown by the associate of metacide and Tween-80. At concentration of Tween-80 in aqueous solution equal to 0.001% in combination with metacide, efficiency was 98% at 0% infection. The surface tension and the wetting of metacide, DDSNa, Tween-80, and associates of metacide with surfactants were studied. In comparison with individual components, metacide-DDSNa and metacide-Tween-80 associates have higher surface activity.

  18. Presence of third molars in orthodontic patients from northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barka G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Georgia Barka,1 Georgios Tretiakov,1 Theodosios Theodosiou,2 Ioulia Ioannidou-Marathiotou31School of Dentistry, 2Biostatistics, Department of Informatics, School of Natural Sciences, 3Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, GreeceObjective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the frequency of presence of third molar teeth and their distribution in each jaw and each side, according to sex, in a group of orthodontic patients with permanent dentition from northern Greece.Methods: The sample included panoramic radiographs from 220 patients with permanent dentition (mean age 13.62 ± 1.81. The Χ2 test was used to assess the relationships between the variables, and the Fisher's exact test was used in cases where the expected frequencies in each cell were <5.Results: The frequency of third molar presence was 79.1%, and 20.9% was the frequency of third molar agenesis. Intersexual differences in the number of third molars was not statistically significant. There was a correlation between the distribution of third molars on the right and the left side (Fisher's exact test = 100.788; P = 0. The two sides showed the same tendency toward the presence or absence of third molars. A correlation was also found between the distribution of maxillary and mandibular third molars (Fisher's exact test = 24.372; P = 0. In each jaw, the presence or absence of third molars was highly related to the number of third molars found in the other jaw.Conclusion: The present results showed that in this orthodontic group of northern Greek patients, presence accounted for 79.1% and agenesis for 20.9%. No significant difference was found between the frequencies of third molar presence on the left and right sides in either the maxilla or mandible.Keywords: third molars, presence, orthodontic population, Greeks

  19. An Experimental Study of Alkali-surfactant-polymer Flooding through Glass Micromodels Including Dead-end Pores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Esmaeili

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical flooding, especially alkaline/surfactant/polymer flooding, is of increasing interest due to the world increasing oil demand. This work shows the aspects of using alkaline/surfactant/polymer as an enhanced oil recovery method in the porous media having a high dead-end pore frequency with various dead-end pore parameters (such as opening, depth, aspect ratio, and orientation. Using glass micromodels makes it possible to manipulate and analyze the pore parameters and watch through the porous media precisely. The results show that polyacrylamide almost always enhances oil production recovery factor (up to 14% in comparison with brine injection in this kind of porous media. Except at low concentrations of polyacrylamide and sodium carbonate, sodium dodecyl sulfonate improves oil recovery (even 15% in the case of high polyacrylamide concentration and low sodium carbonate concentration. Increasing alkaline concentration reduces recovery factor except at low concentrations of polyacrylamide and high concentrations of surfactant.

  20. Nanoparticle-enabled delivery of surfactants in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourafkan, Ehsan; Hu, Zhongliang; Wen, Dongsheng

    2018-06-01

    The adsorption of surfactants on the reservoir rocks surface is a serious issue in many energy and environment related areas. Learning from the concept of drug delivery in the nano-medicine field, this work proposes and validates the concept of using nanoparticles to deliver a mixture of surfactants into a porous medium. TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) are used as carriers for a blend of surfactants mixtures including anionic alkyl aryl sulfonic acid (AAS) and nonionic alcohol ethoxylated (EA) at the optimum salinity and composition conditions. The transport of NPs through a core sample of crushed sandstone grains and the adsorption of surfactants are evaluated. By using TiO 2 NPs, the adsorption of surfactant molecules can be significantly reduced, i.e. half of the initial adsorption value. The level of surfactant adsorption reduction is related to the NPs transport capability through the porous medium. An application study shows that comparing to surfactant flooding alone, the total oil recovery can be increased by 7.81% of original oil in place (OOIP) by using nanoparticle bonded surfactants. Such work shows the promise of NP as an effective surfactant carrier for sandstone reservoirs, which could have many potential applications in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and environmental remediation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Microleakage of different adhesive systems in primary molars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and aim: This study aimed to examine the microleakage of class V cavities of primary molars prepared by either a conventional dental bur or Er:YAG laser and one of two different adhesive systems. Methods: A total of 50 tooth samples from primary molars were used in this study. They were randomly assigned ...

  2. Changes in heart rate during third molar surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, M. H. J.; Schortinghuis, J.; Vissink, A.

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety is an undesirable psychological phenomenon. Patients are usually anxious when subjected to third molar surgery, but the pattern of anxiety is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the intensity and course of anxiety during third molar surgery. This study included 48 consecutive

  3. Taurodont molars: Review of literature and radiological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, T.; Wilson, C. A.

    1990-01-01

    Taurodontic molar teeth are present as a clinical entity in modem man. This is a suggestion that the occurrence has a racial bias. The importance of the differential diagnosis of teeth with enlarged pulp is discussed, and the possible influence of taurodontic molars on treatment planning is outlined. (author)

  4. Management of inflammatory complications in third molar surgery: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pain, swelling and trismus are common complications associated with third molar surgery. These complications have been reported to have an adverse effect on the quality of life of patients undergoing third molar surgery. Objective: To review the different modalities of minimizing inflammatory complications in ...

  5. Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities of binary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Excess molar volumes (E) and deviation in isentropic compressibilities (s) have been investigated from the density and speed of sound measurements of six binary liquid mixtures containing -alkanes over the entire range of composition at 298.15 K. Excess molar volume exhibits inversion in sign in one binary ...

  6. Molar incisor hypomineralisation: clinical management of the young patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, Dympna

    2009-04-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is a common developmental condition resulting in enamel defects in first permanent molars and permanent incisors. It presents at eruption of these teeth. Early diagnosis is essential since rapid breakdown of tooth structure may occur, giving rise to acute symptoms and complicated treatment. The purpose of this article is to review MIH and illustrate its clinical management in young children.

  7. Association of the Mandibular Third Molar Position to the Pericoronitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetan Tsvetanov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pericoronitis is inflammation of the soft tissues surrounding the crown of a partially erupted tooth. Objective: To provide measurement of lower third molar angulation and determine relationship between mandibular third molar position and presence of pericoronitis. Material and methods: We studied 104 patients with lower third molar pericoronitis with clinical manifestations and measurement of lower third molar angulation. The mean age of patients was 25.7 years (range 18-35 years. Results: In this study was used the following statistical analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman’s correlation coefficient (nonparametric version of the Pearson correlation coefficient for measure of the linear correlation between two variables - pericoronitis and angulation of the lower third molars. The chi-square test was used to assesses case incidences. The level of significance was p<0.05. 36.04% of partially impacted mandibular third molars were mesioangular followed by the vertical (25.47%, horizontal (18.97%, distoangular (9.21%, buccal (5.42% and lingual (3.79% position. The lowest part of the mandibular third molars is located in the ramus of mandible (1.08%. The present study was found in relation to mesioangular, distoangular, vertical impaction and pericoronitis (p<0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that the position of lower third molar may be able to be associated with presence of pericoronitis.

  8. Fatigue resistance of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shembish, F.A.; Tong, H.; Kaizer, M.; Janal, M.N.; Thompson, V.P.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the fatigue behavior of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns using a mouth-motion step-stress fatigue test. Monolithic leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic crowns were used as a reference. METHODS: Fully anatomically shaped monolithic resin composite molar crowns (Lava

  9. Variant root morphology of third mandibular molar in normal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mandibular third molar poses a challenge to dental surgeons due to it's unpredictable morphology which leads to increased difficulty during its extraction. The root morphology of the third molar is considered to be the most variable in the human dentition. The study aims to document these variations which will be useful ...

  10. Prevalent of root resorption of second molar adjustment the impacted third molar in prepiacal and panoramic radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ebrahimi Saravi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Impacted third molar reduces the bone level in the distal aspect of second molar, and sometimes it can lead to root resorption of the adjacent tooth. The purpose of this study was to determine this resorption using panoramic and periapical radiographs.   Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study 54 patient (28 men, 26 women above 15 years old with the average of 22 years in Oral and Maxillofacial Department of Tehran University were studied. A periapical radiography from the third molar and a panoramic radiograph were taken from each patient (Because of their routine use and evaluation of accuracy of panoramic compared with periapical, and the magnitude of the root resorption for the second molar was determined by 2 observers and written in a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Fisher test.   Results: The prevalence of the root resorption of the second molar adjacent to the impacted third molar in the panoramic and the periapical radiographies, with respect to the limitation of the sample size were 46.3% and 31.5%, respectively, with 95% confidence(P>0.05. Most of these resorptions were in the cervical third of the second molar roots and in cases in which the third molars were mesially oriented or horizontal. There was also no significant difference between panoramic and periapical radiographs.   Conclusion: Due to the increased risk of the resorption of the second molar adjacent to the third molar, extraction of the impacted third molars, especiall y mesially oriented or horizontal ones are recommended.

  11. Co-surfactant free microemulsions: Preparation, characterization and stability evaluation for food application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenbo; Jin, Jun; Zheng, Minying; Zheng, Yan; Xu, Xuebing; Liu, Yuanfa; Wang, Xingguo

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study is to prepare co-surfactant free microalgal oil microemulsions and investigate their properties as well as processing stability for food application. The physicochemical characteristics of the microemulsions were investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), turbidity, conductivity, rheological measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Within the microemulsion region, when the surfactant to oil ratio was 9:1, the hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) was 18nm; when the surfactant to oil ratio was 7.5:1, the hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) was 50nm. Rheological studies proved that the microemulsion system was a pseudoplastic fluid, which followed a shear thinning flow behavior. The loss rate of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was less than 5%wt after ultra high temperature (UHT) and high temperature short time (HTST) thermal treatments. A high content of CaCl2 (10.0%wt) could not destroy the microemulsion system, and it could be stored at 4°C for two years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gels and lyotropic liquid crystals: using an imidazolium-based catanionic surfactant in binary solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ni; Hu, Qiongzheng; Bi, Yanhui; Xu, Wenwen; Gong, Yanjun; Yu, Li

    2014-08-05

    The self-assembly behavior of an imidazolium-based catanionic surfactant, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dodecylsulfate ([C4mim][C12H25SO4]), was investigated in water-ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) mixed solvents with different volume ratios. It is particular interesting that this simple surfactant could not only form lyotropic liquid crystals (LLC) with multimesophases, i.e., normal hexagonal (H1), lamellar liquid crystal (Lα), and reverse bicontinuous cubic phase (V2), in the water-rich environment but also act as an efficient low-molecular-weight gelator (LMWG) which gelated EAN-abundant binary media in a broad concentration range. The peculiar nanodisk cluster morphology of gels composed of similar bilayer units was first observed. FT-IR spectra and density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that strong H bonding and electrostatic interactions between EAN and the headgroups of [C4mim][C12H25SO4] are primarily responsible for gelation. The self-assembled gels displayed excellent mechanical strength and a thermoreversible sol-gel transition. It is for the first time that a rich variety of controllable ordered aggregates could be observed only by simply modulating the concentration of a single imidazolium-based catanionic surfactant or the ratio of mixed solvents. This environmentally friendly system is expected to have broad applications in various fields, such as materials science, drug delivery systems, and supramolecular chemistry.

  13. Impacted third molar transplantation on the malpracticed extraction socket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soung Min; Amponsah, Emmanuel K

    2017-12-01

    Autotransplantation with or without endodontic therapy is regarded as an alternative treatment option for the replacement of missing teeth. A primary responsibility of a maxillofacial surgeon is to reverse any malpractice to promote successful outcomes and improve the patient's quality of life. This paper presents a malpractice case of incorrect extraction of the lower second molar instead of the impacted third molar. A simple technique of transplanting the impacted third molar to the site of the extracted second molar is introduced by a maxillofacial specialist in Ghana. By making an intentional root socket and fixation without using additional appliances, a novel second molar was achieved with complete recovery. This patient was followed after transplant for a four-year period with the best satisfaction. A grant of the Korean Health Technology R&D Project, Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea. (HI15C0689).

  14. PULPOTOMIES WITH PORTLAND CEMENT IN HUMAN PRIMARY MOLARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Taísa Regina; Sakai, Vivien Thiemy; Fornetti, Ana Paula Camolese; Moretti, Ana Beatriz Silveira; Oliveira, Thais Marchini; Lourenço, Natalino; Machado, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira; Abdo, Ruy Cesar Camargo

    2009-01-01

    Two clinical cases in which Portland cement (PC) was applied as a medicament after pulpotomy of mandibular primary molars in children are presented. Pulpotomy using PC was carried out in two mandibular first molars and one mandibular second molar, which were further followed-up. At the 3, 6 and 12-month follow-up appointments, clinical and radiographic examinations of the pulpotomized teeth and their periradicular area revealed that the treatments were successful in maintaining the teeth asymptomatic and preserving pulpal vitality. Additionally, the formation of a dentin bridge immediately below the PC could be observed in the three molars treated. PC may be considered as an effective alternative for primary molar pulpotomies, at least in a short-term period. Randomized clinical trials with human teeth are required in order to determine the suitability of PC before unlimited clinical use can be recommended. PMID:19148409

  15. TOXICITY COMPARISON OF BIOSURFACTANTS AND SYNTHETIC SURFACTANTS USED IN OIL SPILL REMEDIATION TO TWO ESTUARINE SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relative environmental toxicities of synthetic and biogenic surfactants used in oil spill remediation efforts are not well understood. Acute and chronic toxicities of three synthetic surfactants and three microbially produced surfactants were determined and compared in this s...

  16. Influence of pulmonary surfactant on in vitro bactericidal activities of amoxicillin, ceftazidime, and tobramycin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van 't Veen (Annemarie); J.W. Mouton (Johan); D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); P. Dekkers; B.F. Lachmann (Burkhard)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe influence of a natural pulmonary surfactant on antibiotic activity was investigated to assess the possible use of exogenous surfactant as a vehicle for antibiotic delivery to the lung. The influence of surfactant on the bactericidal activity of

  17. Extraction of lithium ion from alkaline aqueous media by a liquid surfactant membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinugasa, Takumi; Ono, Yuri; Kawamura, Yuko; Watanabe, Kunio; Takeuchi, Hiroshi.

    1995-01-01

    Extraction of lithium ion from aqueous alkaline media by a liquid surfactant membrane was performed using a mixture of LIX54 and TOPO as the extractant. Stripping of lithium from the kerosene solution to the acid solution was suppressed with increasing content of polyamine (ECA) surfactant. The extraction rate of lithium by the liquid membrane could be interpreted taking account of an interfacial resistance due to ECA. It was confirmed that swelling of the (W/O) emulsion drops by water permeation through the liquid membrane is evaluated in terms of a change in osmotic pressure gradient between the external and internal aqueous phases during the lithium extraction. In the present operation, the extraction ratio of Li + from the external feed and the uptake into the internal phase reached as high as 95%. (author)

  18. Angulation change of the third molar tooth in orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiansyah S. Pawinru

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Impaction of the third molar tooth mandibular is often found in patients with orthodontic treatment. In orthodontic treatment, extraction cases of impaction of the third molar tooth are usually performed, but the patients often refuse this extraction. Extraction of premolar has a good effect on the third molar mandibular angulation during treatment. Material and Methods : This study is a retrospective clinical study with descriptive analytic to find out the effect of the first mandibular premolar tooth extraction to angulation change of the third molar mandibular in orthodontic treatment with a standard edgewise method. Angulation change was performed by comparing the third molar mandibular angulation before and after orthodontic treatment with panoramic radiographs. Angulation of the third molar tooth mandibular was calculated from the angle formed between the long axis of the tooth with the reference line infraorbita. Results : The sample comprised 60 of impacted mandibular third molar region of the left and right regions of 30 patients who had been treated declared cured in clinic of orthodontic specialist of Dentistry Faculty Padjadjaran University. The sample was divided into three (3 groups of patients before treatment angulation of the third molar tooth mandibular under 300, 300 to 600 and above 60o, then measured change of angulation and observed whether it increased, fixed or decreased. Results were analyzed by T- test and Wilcoxon test showed that there was a significant change in angulation of the third molar mandibular in orthodontic treatment with the first premolar tooth mandibular extraction. Conclusion : This study is that the first premolar tooth mandibular extraction affects the angulation of the third molar tooth mandibular after orthodontic treatment.

  19. Estimating the contribution of surfactant replacement therapy to the alveolar pool: an in vivo study based on 13 C natural abundance in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambelluca, Sonia; Ricci, Francesca; Simonato, Manuela; Correani, Alessio; Casiraghi, Costanza; Storti, Matteo; Cogo, Paola; Salomone, Fabrizio; Carnielli, Virgilio Paolo

    2018-04-06

    Variation of the isotopic abundance of selected nutrients and molecules have been used for pharmacological and kinetics studies under the premise that the administered molecule has a different isotopic enrichment from the isotopic background of the recipient subject. The aim of this study is to test the feasibility of assessing the contribution of exogenous surfactant phospholipids to the endogenous alveolar pool in vivo after exogenous surfactant replacement therapy in rabbits. The study consisted in measuring the consistency of 13 C/ 12 C ratio of disaturated-phosphatidylcholine palmitate (DSPC-PA) in 7 lots of poractant alfa, produced over a year, and among bronchoalveolar lavages of 20 rabbits fed with a standard chow. A pilot study was performed in a rabbit model of lavage-induced surfactant deficiency: 7 control rabbits and 4 treated with exogenous surfactant. The contribution of exogenous surfactant to the alveolar pool was assessed after intra-tracheal administration of 200 mg/kg of poractant alfa. The 13 C content of DSPC-PA was measured by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry. The mean DSPC-PA 13 C/ 12 C ratio of the 7 lots of poractant alfa was -18.8 ‰ with a SD of 0.1 ‰ [Range: -18.9 ‰; -18.6 ‰]. The mean 13 C/ 12 C ratio of surfactant DSPC recovered from the lung lavage of 20 rabbits was -28.8±1.2 ‰ [Range: -31.7 ‰; -25.7 ‰]. The contribution of exogenous surfactant to the total alveolar surfactant could be calculated in the treated rabbits and it ranged from 83.9 to 89.6 %. This pilot study describes a novel method to measure the contribution of the exogenous surfactant to the alveolar pool. This method is based on the natural variation of 13 C and therefore it does not require the use of chemically synthetized tracers. This method could be useful in human research and especially in surfactant replacement studies in preterm infants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of OH/NCO molar ratio on properties of soy-based polyurethane networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovic, Z. S.; Zhang, W.; Zlatanic, A.; Lava, C. C.; Ilavský, Michal

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 10, 1/2 (2002), s. 5-12 ISSN 1566-2543 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : soy * polyol * polyurethane Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.196, year: 2002

  1. Effect of ferrous/ferric ions molar ratio on reaction mechanism for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047, Japan. MS received 25 ... methods, a mixed aqueous solution of Fe. 2+ ... (Quantum Design model MPMS) at a magnetic field of. 100 Oe ...

  2. Identifying the Imprint of Surfactant Stabilisation in Whitecap Foam Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, A. H.; Deane, G. B.; Stokes, D.

    2016-02-01

    Surfactants are ubiquitous in the world's oceans and can affect climatically-relevant processes such as air-sea gas exchange, sea spray aerosol (SSA) flux, and air-sea momentum transfer. Surfactants are amphiphilic and help form the physically and chemically distinct ocean surface microlayer (SML), however, the spatial distribution, concentration and composition of the SML is not well understood, especially under conditions of vigorous wave breaking. Like the SML, breaking waves also influence physical exchange processes at the air-sea interface, and oceanic whitecap foam coverage is commonly used to quantify bubble-mediated exchange processes. However, surfactants can increase the lifetime of foam over clean water conditions, potentially complicating the use of whitecap coverage to parameterise air-sea gas exchange and SSA production flux. A better understanding of how surfactants affect the evolution of whitecap foam is needed to improve whitecap parameterisations of bubble-mediated processes, and may also provide a remote sensing approach to map the spatial distribution of surfactants at the water surface. Here we present results from a laboratory study that looked at whitecap foam evolution in "clean" and "surfactant-added" seawater regimes. We find that the whitecap foam area growth timescale is largely insensitive to the presence of surfactants, but that surfactant stabilization of whitecap foam becomes important during the whitecap foam area decay phase. The timescale at which this occurs appears to be consistent for breaking waves of different scale and intensity. A simple method is then used to isolate the surfactant signal and derive an equivalent "clean" seawater foam decay time for the whitecaps in the "surfactant-added" regime. The method is applied to oceanic whitecaps and results compared to the laboratory whitecaps from the "clean" and "surfactant-added" regimes.

  3. Surfactant-enhanced control of track-etch pore morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel', P.Yu.; Blonskaya, I.V.; Didyk, A.Yu.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Orelovich, O.L.; Samojlova, L.I.; Vutsadakis, V.A.; Root, D.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of surfactants on the process of chemical development of ion tracks in polymers is studied. Based on the experimental data, a mechanism of the surfactant effect on the track-etch pore morphology is proposed. In the beginning of etching the surfactant is adsorbed on the surface and creates a layer that is quasi-solid and partially protects the surface from the etching agent. However, some etchant molecules diffuse through the barrier and react with the polymer surface. This results in the formation of a small hole at the entrance to the ion track. After the hole has attained a few annometers in diameter, the surfactant molecules penetrate into the track and cover its walls. Further diffusion of the surfactant into the growing pore is hindered. The adsorbed surfactant layer is not permeable for large molecules. In contrast, small alkali molecules and water molecules diffuse into the track and provide the etching process enlarging the pore. At this stage the transport of the surfactant into the pore channel can proceed only due to the lateral diffusion in the adsorbed layer. The volume inside the pore is free of surfactant molecules and grows at a higher rate than pore entrance. After a more prolonged etching the bottle-like (or 'cigar-like') pore channels are formed. The bottle-like shape of the pore channels depends on the etching conditions such as alkali and surfactant concentration, temperature, and type of the surfactant. The use of surfactants enables one to produce track-etch membranes with improved flow rate characteristics compared with those having cylindrical pores with the same nominal pore diameters

  4. Neonatal varicella pneumonia, surfactant replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Ahmadpour-kacho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chickenpox is a very contagious viral disease that caused by varicella-zoster virus, which appears in the first week of life secondary to transplacental transmission of infection from the affected mother. When mother catches the disease five days before and up to two days after the delivery, the chance of varicella in neonate in first week of life is 17%. A generalized papulovesicular lesion is the most common clinical feature. Respiratory involvement may lead to giant cell pneumonia and respiratory failure. The mortality rate is up to 30% in the case of no treatment, often due to pneumonia. Treatment includes hospitalization, isolation and administration of intravenous acyclovir. The aim of this case report is to introduce the exogenous surfactant replacement therapy after intubation and mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in neonatal chickenpox pneumonia and respiratory distress. Case Presentation: A seven-day-old neonate boy was admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Amirkola Children’s Hospital, Babol, north of Iran, with generalized papulovesicular lesions and respiratory distress. His mother has had a history of Varicella 4 days before delivery. He was isolated and given supportive care, intravenous acyclovir and antibiotics. On the second day, he was intubated and connected to mechanical ventilator due to severe pneumonia and respiratory failure. Because of sever pulmonary involvement evidenced by Chest X-Ray and high ventilators set-up requirement, intratracheal surfactant was administered in two doses separated by 12 hours. He was discharged after 14 days without any complication with good general condition. Conclusion: Exogenous surfactant replacement therapy can be useful as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of respiratory failure due to neonatal chickenpox.

  5. Mechanical Properties of Fiber Reinforced Lightweight Concrete Containing Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo-Jae Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced aerated lightweight concrete (FALC was developed to reduce concrete's density and to improve its fire resistance, thermal conductivity, and energy absorption. Compression tests were performed to determine basic properties of FALC. The primary independent variables were the types and volume fraction of fibers, and the amount of air in the concrete. Polypropylene and carbon fibers were investigated at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% volume ratios. The lightweight aggregate used was made of expanded clay. A self-compaction agent was used to reduce the water-cement ratio and keep good workability. A surfactant was also added to introduce air into the concrete. This study provides basic information regarding the mechanical properties of FALC and compares FALC with fiber reinforced lightweight concrete. The properties investigated include the unit weight, uniaxial compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and toughness index. Based on the properties, a stress-strain prediction model was proposed. It was demonstrated that the proposed model accurately predicts the stress-strain behavior of FALC.

  6. Micro-computed Tomographic Analysis of Mandibular Second Molars with C-shaped Root Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso-Silva, Pablo Andrés; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Gutmann, James L; del Carpio-Perochena, Aldo; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes

    2015-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the morphometric aspects of the internal anatomy of the root canal system of mandibular second molars with C-shaped canals. Fifty-two extracted second mandibular molars with C-shaped canals, fused roots, and radicular grooves were selected from a Brazilian population. The samples were scanned with a micro-computed tomographic scanner at a voxel size of 19.6 μm. The root canal cross sections were recorded as C1, C2, C3, and C4 root canal configurations according to the modified Melton classification. Morphometric parameters, including the major and minor diameters of the root canals, the aspect ratio, the roundness, and the tridimensional configuration (merging, symmetric, and asymmetric), were evaluated. The 3-dimensional reconstruction images of the teeth indicated an even distribution within the sample. The analysis of the prevalence of the different cross-sectional configurations of the C-shaped molars revealed that these were predominantly of the C4 and C3 configurations (1 mm from the apex) and the C1 and C2 configurations in the cervical third. According to the morphometric parameters, the C1 and the distal aspect of the C2 configurations exhibited the lowest roundness values and higher values for the area, major diameter, and aspect ratio in the apical third. Mandibular molars with C-shaped root canals exhibited similar distributions of symmetric, asymmetric, and merging type canals. The C1 configuration and the distal aspect of the C2 configuration exhibited the highest area values, low roundness values, and large apical diameters. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of the host–guest complex of a curcumin analog with β-cyclodextrin and β-cyclodextrin–gemini surfactant and evaluation of its anticancer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poorghorban M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Masoomeh Poorghorban,1 Umashankar Das,2 Osama Alaidi,1 Jackson M Chitanda,2 Deborah Michel,1 Jonathan Dimmock,1 Ronald Verrall,3 Pawel Grochulski,1,4 Ildiko Badea1 1Drug Discovery and Development Research Group, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, 2Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, 3Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; 4Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Background: Curcumin analogs, including the novel compound NC 2067, are potent cytotoxic agents that suffer from poor solubility, and hence, low bioavailability. Cyclodextrin-based carriers can be used to encapsulate such agents. In order to understand the interaction between the two molecules, the physicochemical properties of the host–guest complexes of NC 2067 with β-cyclodextrin (CD or β-cyclodextrin–gemini surfactant (CDgemini surfactant were investigated for the first time. Moreover, possible supramolecular structures were examined in order to aid the development of new drug delivery systems. Furthermore, the in vitro anticancer activity of the complex of NC 2067 with CDgemini surfactant nanoparticles was demonstrated in the A375 melanoma cell line.Methods: Physicochemical properties of the complexes formed of NC 2067 with CD or CDgemini surfactant were investigated by synchrotron-based powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Synchrotron-based small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering and size measurements were employed to assess the supramolecular morphology of the complex formed by NC 2067 with CDgemini surfactant. Lastly, the in vitro cell toxicity of the formulations toward A375 melanoma cells at various drug-to-carrier mole ratios were measured by cell viability assay.Results: Physical mixtures of NC 2067 and CD or CDgemini surfactant showed characteristics of the individual components, whereas the complex of NC 2067 and CD or CDgemini surfactant presented new

  8. Porcine lung surfactant protein B gene (SFTPB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    The porcine surfactant protein B (SFTPB) is a single copy gene on chromosome 3. Three different cDNAs for the SFTPB have been isolated and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence comparison revealed six nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), four synonymous SNPs and an in-frame deletion of 69...... bp in the region coding for the active protein. Northern analysis showed lung-specific expression of three different isoforms of the SFTPB transcript. The expression level for the SFTPB gene is low in 50 days-old fetus and it increases during lung development. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain...

  9. Molecular dynamics of surfactant protein C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez, Eunice; Santana, Alberto; Cruz, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Surfactant protein C (SP-C) is a membrane-associated protein essential for normal respiration. It has been found that the alpha-helix form of SP-C can undergo, under certain conditions, a transformation from an alpha-helix to a beta-strand conformation that closely resembles amyloid fibrils, which...... are possible contributors to the pathogenesis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Molecular dynamics simulations using the NAMD2 package were performed for systems containing from one to seven SP-C molecules to study their behavior in water. The results of our simulations show that unfolding of the protein...

  10. Tooth Wear Inclination in Great Ape Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Sadler, Jordan; Fiorenza, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Primate dietary diversity is reflected in their dental morphology, with differences in size and shape of teeth. In particular, the tooth wear angle can provide insight into a species' ability to break down certain foods. To examine dietary and masticatory information, digitized polygon models of dental casts provide a basis for quantitative analysis of wear associated with tooth attrition. In this study, we analyze and compare the wear patterns of Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorillagorilla and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii lower molars, focusing on the degree of inclination of specific wear facets. The variation in wear angles appears to be indicative of jaw movements and the specific stresses imposed on food during mastication, reflecting thus the ecology of these species. Orangutans exhibit flatter wear angles, more typical of a diet consisting of hard and brittle foods, while gorillas show a wear pattern with a high degree of inclination, reflecting thus their more leafy diet. Chimpanzees, on the other hand, show intermediate inclinations, a pattern that could be related to their highly variable diet. This method is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for better understanding the relationship between food, mastication and tooth wear processes in living primates, and can be potentially used to reconstruct the diet of fossil species. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Prevalence and severity of molar incisor hypomineralization in children aged 11-16 years of a city in Karnataka, Davangere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kirthiga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH describes the clinical picture of hypomineralization of systemic origin affecting one or more first permanent molar. There is a rarity of prevalence studies in Indian population. Objectives: The main aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MIH in a population of South Indian children. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey, included 2000 children aged 11-16 years chosen by stratified random sampling from government and private schools of Davangere, a city in South India. Materials and Methods: Evaluation of MIH and decayed, missing and filled teeth was carried out in these children by a calibrated examiner. The severity of hypomineralization was recorded according to the Wetzel and Reckel scale. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was used to analyze the categorical data. P ≤ 0.05 was considered for statistical significance. Results: About 8.9% of all examined children showed at least one ill-structured first permanent molar in terms of MIH. The male and female ratio was found to be 1:1.1. The decreasing order of occurrence of MIH affected teeth were permanent maxillary molars, maxillaryincisors, mandibular molars and the mandibular incisors. Conclusion: The prevalence of MIH in the permanent dentition of south Indian children was 8.9%. There is a need for a proper planned preventive and restorative program with regard to the increasing prevalence of MIH.

  12. The Effect of Surfactants on Gas-Liquid Pipe Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nimwegen, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid loading is a major problem in the natural gas industry, in which gas production is limited by the accumulation of liquids in the well tubing. Liquid loading can be prevented by the injection of surfactants at the bottom of the well. The surfactants cause the liquid in the well to foam,

  13. Surface rheology of surfactant solutions close to equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baets, P.J.M.; Stein, H.N.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the authors present surface rheol. measurements of various surfactant solns. close to equil. in a Langmuir trough. The authors find that the storage modulus is, in the systems investigated, higher than the loss modulus. The rheol. behavior depends strongly on the surfactant concn.,

  14. Surfactant induced flows in thin liquid films : an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinz, D.K.N.

    2012-01-01

    The topic of the experimental work summarized in my thesis is the flow in thin liquid films induced by non-uniformly distributed surfactants. The flow dynamics as a consequence of the deposition of a droplet of an insoluble surfactant onto a thin liquid film covering a solid substrate where

  15. Radioactive slurry waste treatment (2) - surfactants dose effects on filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Jung, W. S.; Baek, S. T.; Jung, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of anionic flocculants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries has been investigated in a laboratory-scale vacuum filtration unit. Simultaneously the influence of certain surfactants has also been investigated. Test results show that the flocculated filter cake generally contains higher residual water than the unflocculated cake. The non-ionic surfactant was effective in reducing the moisture content of the cake

  16. Marangoni flows induced by non-uniform surfactant distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanyak, M.

    2012-01-01

    The spreading dynamics of surfactants is of crucial importance for numerous technological applications ranging from printing and coating processes, pulmonary drug delivery to crude oil recovery. In the area of inkjet printing surfactants are necessary for lowering surface tension of water-based ink

  17. The effect of nanoparticle aggregation on surfactant foam stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlYousef, Zuhair A; Almobarky, Mohammed A; Schechter, David S

    2018-02-01

    The combination of nanoparticles (NPs) and surfactant may offer a novel technique of generating stronger foams for gas mobility control. This study evaluates the potential of silica NPs to enhance the foam stability of three nonionic surfactants. Results showed that the concentration of surfactant and NPs is a crucial parameter for foam stability and that there is certain concentrations for strong foam generation. A balance in concentration between the nonionic surfactants and the NPs can enhance the foam stability as a result of forming flocs in solutions. At fixed surfactant concentration, the addition of NPs at low to intermediate concentrations can produce a more stable foam compared to the surfactant. The production of small population of flocs as a result of mixing the surfactant and NPs can enhance the foam stability by providing a barrier between the gas bubbles and delaying the coalescence of bubbles. Moreover, these flocs can increase the solution viscosity and, therefore, slow the drainage rate of thin aqueous film (lamellae). The measurements of foam half-life, bubble size, and mobility tests confirmed this conclusion. However, the addition of more solid particles or surfactant might have a negative impact on foam stability and reduce the maximum capillary pressure of coalescence as a result of forming extensive aggregates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Binding of alkylpyridinium chloride surfactants to sodium polystyrene sulfonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishiguro, M.; Koopal, L.K.

    2009-01-01

    Binding of cationic surfactants to anionic polymers is well studied. However, the surfactant binding characteristics at very low concentration near the start of binding and at high concentration, where charge compensation may Occur. are less well known. Therefore, the binding characteristics of

  19. Adsorption and intercalation of anionic surfactants onto layered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) with brucite like structure was modified with various anionic surfactants containing sulfonate, carboxyl, phosphonate and sulfate end group through ion-exchange method. XRD reports indicated that the sulfonate group containing surfactants led to an adsorption process whereas the sulfate ...

  20. Effect of Surfactants on Plasmid DNA Stability and Release from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of surfactants on plasmid DNA during preparation and release from polylactic glycolide (PLGA) microspheres. Methods: Various surfactants, both ionic and non-ionic (Span, Tween, Triton X100, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulphate), were added during the ...

  1. Photoisomerization of merocyanine 540 in polymer-surfactant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photoisomerization of merocyanine 540 (MC540) in a polymer-surfactant aggregate is studied using picosecond time resolved emission spectroscopy. The aggregate consists of the polymer, poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and the surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). With increase in the concentration of SDS in an ...

  2. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of nonionic surfactant: Effect

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Micellar solution of nonionic surfactant -dodecyloligo ethyleneoxide surfactant, decaoxyethylene monododecyl ether [CH3(CH2)11(OCH2CH2)10OH], C12E10 in D2O solution have been analysed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) at different temperatures (30, 45 and 60°C) both in the presence and absence of ...

  3. Polymeric surfactants for enhanced oil recovery : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raffa, Patrizio; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Picchioni, Francesco

    Chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is surely a topic of interest, as conventional oil resources become more scarce and the necessity of exploiting heavy and unconventional oils increases. EOR methods based on polymer flooding, surfactant-polymer flooding and alkali-surfactant-polymer flooding are

  4. Nonionic surfactant Brij35 effects on toluene biodegradation in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nonionic surfactant effects on the toluene dissolved in the water phase and biodegradation kinetic behaviors of toluene in a composite bead biofilter were investigated. The toluene dissolved in the water phase was enhanced by the addition of surfactant into aqueous solution and the enhancing effect was more pronounced ...

  5. Optimization of palm oil extraction from Decanter cake of small crude palm oil mill by aqueous surfactant solution using RSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi Pirshahid, Shewa; Arirob, Wallop; Punsuvon, Vittaya

    2018-04-01

    The use of hexane to extract vegetable oil from oilseeds or seed cake is of growing concern due to its environmental impact such as its smelling and toxicity. In our method, used Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to study the optimum condition of decanter cake obtained from small crude palm oil with aqueous surfactant solution. For the first time, we provide an optimum condition of preliminary study with decanter cake extraction to obtain the maximum of oil yield. The result from preliminary was further used in RSM study by using Central Composite Design (CCD) that consisted of thirty experiments. The effect of four independent variables: the concentration of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) as surfactant, temperature, the ratio by weight to volume of cake to surfactant solution and the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) on dependent variables are studied. Data were analyzed using Design-Expert 8 software. The results showed that the optimum condition of decanter cake extraction were 0.016M of SDS solution concentration, 73°C of extraction temperature, 1:10 (g:ml) of the ratio of decanter cake to SDS solution and 2% (w/w) of NaCl amount. This condition gave 77.05% (w/w) oil yield. The chemical properties of the extracted palm oil from this aqueous surfactant extraction are further investigated compared with the hexane extraction. The obtained result showed that all properties of both extractions were nearly the same.

  6. The not-so-harmless maxillary primary first molar extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northway, W M

    2000-12-01

    Premature loss of primary molars has been associated with space loss and eruptive difficulties, especially when the loss occurs to the primary second molars and when it occurs early. This has not been thought to be the case for primary first molars. The author revisited 13 cases from an earlier study on the effects of premature loss of maxillary primary molars. These longitudinal cases were scrutinized, using serial panoramic radiographs, to explain the irregular response in terms of dental migration. The author presents two case reports. In the earlier study, the author used digitized study casts and the concept of D + E space--the space occupied by the primary first and second molars--to describe the dental migration that occurred after premature tooth loss. Using analysis of variance on data generated using an instrument capable of measuring in tenths of millimeters, the author produced findings regarding the amount of space loss, rate of space loss, effect of age at loss, amount of space regained at the time of replacement by the permanent tooth and effect on Angle's classification. Finally, the author created a simulation describing directional change; this revealed that the maxillary primary first molar loss resulted in a mesial displacement of the permanent canine during eruption. When the maxillary primary first molar is lost prematurely, the first premolar erupts in a more mesial direction than normal, as a result of the mesial incline of the primary second molar, and consumes the space of the permanent canine, which becomes blocked out. Rather than use a space maintainer after the premature loss of the maxillary primary first molar, the author suggests, clinicians can choose from a number of other options for preventing the first premolar from erupting too far in a mesial direction.

  7. Optimization of transesterification conditions for the production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil with surfactant-coated lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yin-yu; Liu, Yuhuan; Lin, Xiangyang [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Chen, Wen-wei [College of Life Science, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Lei, Hanwu [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Ruan, Roger [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China)]|[Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108-6005 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Surfactant-coated lipase was used as a catalyst in preparing fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil from Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. syn. Triadica sebifera (L.) small. FAME transesterification was analyzed using response surface methodology to find out the effect of the process variables on the esterification rate and to establish prediction models. Reaction temperature and time were found to be the main factors affecting the esterification rate with the presence of surfactant-coated lipase. Developed prediction models satisfactorily described the esterification rate as a function of reaction temperature, time, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase, ratio of methanol to oil, and water content. The FAME mainly contained fatty acid esters of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3, determined by a gas chromatograph. The optimal esterification rate was 93.86%. The optimal conditions for the above esterification ratio were found to be a reaction time of 9.2 h, a reaction temperature of 49 C, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase of 18.5%, a ratio of methanol to oil of 3:1, and water content of 15.6%. Thus, by using the central composite design, it is possible to determine accurate values of the transesterification parameters where maximum production of FAME occurs using the surfactant-coated lipase as a transesterification catalyst. (author)

  8. A three-dimensional finite element analysis of molar distalization with a palatal plate, pendulum, and headgear according to molar eruption stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ju-Man; Park, Jae Hyun; Bayome, Mohamed; Oh, Moonbee; Park, Chong Ook; Mo, Sung-Seo

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to (1) evaluate the effects of maxillary second and third molar eruption status on the distalization of first molars with a modified palatal anchorage plate (MPAP), and (2) compare the results to the outcomes of the use of a pendulum and that of a headgear using three-dimensional finite element analysis. Methods Three eruption stages were established: an erupting second molar at the cervical one-third of the first molar root (Stage 1), a fully erupted second molar (Stage 2), and an erupting third molar at the cervical one-third of the second molar root (Stage 3). Retraction forces were applied via three anchorage appliance models: an MPAP with bracket and archwire, a bone-anchored pendulum appliance, and cervical-pull headgear. Results An MPAP showed greater root movement of the first molar than crown movement, and this was more noticeable in Stages 2 and 3. With the other devices, the first molar showed distal tipping. Transversely, the first molar had mesial-out rotation with headgear and mesial-in rotation with the other devices. Vertically, the first molar was intruded with an MPAP, and extruded with the other appliances. Conclusions The second molar eruption stage had an effect on molar distalization, but the third molar follicle had no effect. The application of an MPAP may be an effective treatment option for maxillary molar distalization. PMID:27668192

  9. Pulmonary Surfactants for Acute and Chronic Lung Diseases (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Rozenberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Part 2 of the review considers the problem of surfactant therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in adults and young and old children. It gives information on the results of surfactant therapy and prevention of ARDS in patients with severe concurrent trauma, inhalation injuries, complications due to complex expanded chest surgery, or severe pneumonias, including bilateral pneumonia in the presence of A/H1N1 influenza. There are data on the use of a surfactant in obstetric care and prevention of primary graft dysfunction during lung transplantation. The results of longterm use of surfactant therapy in Russia, suggesting that death rates from ARDS may be substantially reduced (to 20% are discussed. Examples of surfactant therapy for other noncritical lung diseases, such as permanent athelectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and asthma, as well tuberculosis, are also considered.

  10. Investigations into surfactant/gas hydrate relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Rudy; Zhang, Guochang; Dearman, Jennifer; Woods, Charles [Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Gas hydrates have unique physical properties portending useful industrial applications of gas storage, gas separation, or water desalination. When gas hydrates were found in the early 1990s to occur naturally and abundantly in seafloors, three other primary interests and concerns emerged: potential new energy source, climate threat from their greenhouse gases, and seafloor instabilities. This paper presents research showing how anionic synthetic surfactants helped develop an industrial gas hydrate storage process for natural gas and how naturally-occurring in-situ anionic biosurfactants influence the formation and placement of gas hydrates in ocean sediments. The catalytic effects, mechanisms, and surface specificities imparted by synthetic surfactants in the gas storage process and imparted by biosurfactants in porous media are discussed. The Bacillus subtilis bacterium that is indigenous to gas hydrate mounds in the Gulf of Mexico was cultured in the laboratory. Its biosurfactant was separated and found to catalyze gas hydrates in porous media. The experiments indicate that seafloor-biosurfactants can be produced rapidly in-situ to achieve threshold concentrations whereby hydrates are promoted. The biosurfactants accumulate and promote hydrate formation on specific mineral surfaces such as sodium montmorillonite. (author)

  11. Reversal of multidrug resistance by surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, D. M.; Linsenmeyer, M. E.; Chojnowski, G.; Kriegler, A. B.; Nink, V.; Webster, L. K.; Sawyer, W. H.

    1992-01-01

    Cremophor EL, a pharmacologically inactive solubilising agent, has been shown to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR). Using flow cytometric evaluation of equilibrium intracellular levels of daunorubicin (DNR), we found that eight other surface active agents will also reverse MDR. All the active detergents contain polyethoxylated moieties but have no similarities in their hydrophobic components. The properties of three polyethoxylated surfactants that showed the lowest toxicities, Cremophor, Tween 80 and Solutol HS15, were examined in more detail. The concentrations of Tween 80 and Solutol required to reverse DNR exclusion were 10-fold lower than for Cremophor. However while concentrations greater than or equal to 1:10(2) of the former two surfactants resulted in breakdown of cells, even 1:10 of Cremophor did not lyse cells. Studies of the effects of Cremophor on the uptake and efflux of DNR in normal and MDR cell types showed that Cremophor increases intracellular DNR primarily by locking the rapid efflux from the cells. This blockage of drug efflux may be mediated by a substantial alteration in the fluidity of cell membranes induced by Cremophor, as shown by decreased fluorescence anisotropy of a membrane probe. Consistent with these data, coinjection of adriamycin plus Cremophor into mice carrying a multidrug resistant P388 transplantable tumour significantly increased the survival time of the mice compared with adriamycin treatment alone. PMID:1637678

  12. 3D Model of Surfactant Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotberg, James; Tai, Cheng-Feng; Filoche, Marcel

    2015-11-01

    Surfactant Replacement Therapy (SRT) involves instillation of a liquid-surfactant mixture directly into the lung airway tree. Though successful in neonatal applications, its use in adults had early success followed by failure. We present the first mathematical model of 3D SRT where a liquid plug propagates through the tree from forced inspiration. In two separate modeling steps, the plug first deposits a coating film on the airway wall which subtracts from its volume, a ``coating cost''. Then the plug splits unevenly at the airway bifurcation due to gravity. The steps are repeated until a plug ruptures or reaches the tree endpoint alveoli/acinus. The model generates 3D images of the resulting acinar distribution and calculates two global indexes, efficiency and homogeneity. Simulating published literature, the earlier successful adult SRT studies show comparatively good index values, while the later failed studies do not. Those unsuccessful studies used smaller dose volumes with higher concentration mixtures, apparently assuming a well mixed compartment. The model shows that adult lungs are not well mixed in SRT due to the coating cost and gravity effects. Returning to the higher dose volume protocols could save many thousands of lives annually in the US. Supported by NIH Grants HL85156, HL84370 and Agence Nationale de la Recherche, ANR no. 2010-BLAN-1119-05.

  13. Surfactant secretion and clearance in the newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.A.; Wright, J.R.; Clements, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Pregnant rabbits (30 days) were injected intravenously with [3H]choline 8 h before delivery. The fetuses were delivered, and lung lavage and lamellar body phospholipids (PL) were analyzed. Some newborns also received radioactively labeled surfactant intratracheally on delivery and were permitted to breathe. With time, intratracheal label decreased in lavage and appeared in the lamellar body fraction, and intravenous label accumulated in both pools. Using a tracer analysis for non-steady state, we calculated surfactant secretion and clearance rates for the newborn period. Before birth, both rates rose slightly from 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 at 6 h before birth to 7.3 at birth. Immediately after birth, secretion rate rose to 37.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1. Between 1.5 and 2 h after birth it fell to a minimum of 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 and then rose slowly to 6.0 at 12 h. After birth, clearance rate increased less than secretion rate (maximum 24.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 shortly after birth) then followed the same pattern but did not balance secretion rate in the 1st day

  14. Autotransplantation of a mandibular third molar: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Najafi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tooth autotransplantation defines as transition of one tooth from one position to another, in same individual. It is a biological procedure in which teeth have the potential to induce alveolar bone growth. It can be applied in patients before adolescence growth is finished. It significantly reduces time and cost compared to implants. Healing rapidly occurs and function is regained almost immediately. Our case was a 15-year-old male that his left mandibular third molar transplanted to the second molar sight after extraction of second molar because of unrestorable crown. During 9 month follow up transplanted tooth was asymptomatic, functional and responsive to sensibility tests. (Cold test, EPT.

  15. Maxillary First Molars with 2 Distobuccal Canals: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Howard M; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches

    2017-11-01

    An appreciation of the anatomic complexity of the root canal system is essential at every step of endodontic treatment. Endodontic treatment of teeth with unusual root canal anatomy presents a unique challenge. Eight patients underwent nonsurgical root canal treatment of 3-rooted maxillary first molars in a specialty endodontic private practice. Four cases of Weine type II and 4 cases of Weine type III canal configurations in the distobuccal root of maxillary first molars were presented.This article highlighted an uncommon anatomic variation of 2 canals in the distobuccal root of the maxillary first molar. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An aegialodontid upper molar and the evolution of mammal dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatin, Alexey V; Averianov, Alexander O

    2006-08-25

    The most obvious key synapomorphy of the therian mammals is the tribosphenic pattern of their molars. Tribosphenic teeth are capable of both shearing and grinding, which substantially increase effectiveness of food processing and, in turn, permit evolution of a wide range of dietary specializations. Functional tribospheny developed repeatedly during mammalian evolution but was successful only in the Boreosphenida. The earliest stage in the development of boreosphenidan tribospheny has remained poorly understood, being documented only by lower molars of aegialodontids. Here, we report a known upper molar of an aegialodontid mammal, Kielantherium, from the Early Cretaceous of Mongolia.

  17. Degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by Fe and Fe-Pd bimetals in the presence of surfactants and cosolvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, B.; Liang, L.; West, O.R.; Cameron, P.; Davenport, D.

    1997-01-01

    Surfactants and cosolvents are being used to enhance the removal of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) from contaminated soils. However, the waste surfactant solution containing TCE and PCBs must be treated before it can be disposed. This study evaluated the use of zero-valence iron and palladized iron fillings on the dechlorination of TCE and a PCB congener in a dihexylsulfosuccinate surfactant solution. Batch experimental results indicated that TCE can be rapidly degraded by palladized iron filings with a half-life of 27.4 min. PCB was degraded at a slower rate than TCE with a half-life ranging from 100 min to 500 min as the concentration of surfactant increased. In column flow-through experiments, both TCE and PCBs degrade at an enhanced rate with a half-life about 1.5 and 6 min because of an increased solid to solution ratio in the column than in the batch experiments. Results of this work suggest that Fe-Pd filings may be potentially applicable for ex-situ treatment of TCE and PCBs in the surfactant solutions that are generated during surfactant washing of the contaminated soils

  18. NMR study of the dynamics of cationic gemini surfactant 14-2-14 in mixed solutions with conventional surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Lu, Xing-Yu; Chen, Hong; Mao, Shi-Zhen; Liu, Mai-Li; Luo, Ping-Ya; Du, You-Ru

    2009-06-18

    Three kinds of conventional surfactants, namely, two nonionic surfactants [polyethylene glycol (23) lauryl ether (Brij-35) and Triton X-100 (TX-100)], one cationic surfactant [n-tetradecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (TTAB)], and an anionic surfactant [sodium n-dodecyl sulfate (SDS)}, were mixed into the quaternary ammonium gemini surfactant [C(14)H(29)N(+)(CH(3))(2)](2)(CH(2))(2).2Br(-) (14-2-14) in aqueous solution. The exchange rate constants between 14-2-14 molecules in the mixed micelles and those in the bulk solution were detected using two nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods: one-dimensional (1D) line shape analysis and two-dimensional (2D) exchange spectroscopy (EXSY). The results obtained from these two methods were consistent. Both showed that mixing a nonionic conventional surfactant, either Brij-35 or TX-100, enhanced the exchange process between the 14-2-14 molecules in the mixed micelles and those in the bulk solution. In contrast, the anionic surfactant SDS and the cationic surfactant TTAB slowed the process slightly.

  19. A multicenter, randomized trial comparing synthetic surfactant with modified bovine surfactant extract in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, E; Vollman, J; Giebner, D; Maurer, M; Dreyer, G; Bailey, L; Anderson, M; Mefford, L; Beaumont, E; Sutton, D; Puppala, B; Mangurten, HH; Secrest, J; Lewis, WJ; Carteaux, P; Bednarek, F; Welsberger, S; Gosselin, R; Pantoja, AF; Belenky, A; Campbell, P; Patole, S; Duenas, M; Kelly, M; Alejo, W; Lewallen, P; DeanLieber, S; Hanft, M; Ferlauto, J; Newell, RW; Bagwell, J; Levine, D; Lipp, RW; Harkavy, K; Vasa, R; Birenbaum, H; Broderick, KA; Santos, AQ; Long, BA; Gulrajani, M; Stern, M; Hopgood, G; Hegyi, T; Alba, J; Christmas, L; McQueen, M; Nichols, N; Brown, M; Quissell, BJ; Rusk, C; Marks, K; Gifford, K; Hoehn, G; Pathak, A; Marino, B; Hunt, P; Fox, [No Value; Sharpstein, C; Feldman, B; Johnson, N; Beecham, J; Balcom, R; Helmuth, W; Boylan, D; Frakes, C; Magoon, M; Reese, K; Schwersenski, J; Schutzman, D; Soll, R; Horbar, JD; Leahy, K; Troyer, W; Juzwicki, C; Anderson, P; Dworsky, M; Reynolds, L; Urrutia, J; Gupta, U; Adray, C

    Objective. To compare the efficacy of a synthetic surfactant (Exosurf Neonatal, Burroughs-Wellcome Co) and a modified bovine surfactant extract (Survanta, Ross Laboratories) in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Design. Multicenter, randomized trial. Setting. Thirty-eight

  20. Pilarization TiO2 onto De-oiled spent bleaching clay using Rarasaponin as surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindryawati, N.; Daniel; Erwin; Fadillah, N. D.

    2018-03-01

    Synthesis and characterization TiO2 pillared deoiled spent bleaching clay (DSBC) with rarasaponin as surfactant had been done. Activation DSBC have been done with H2SO4 1N, followed by pillarization with TiO2 using rarasaponin as surfactant. Characterization has done with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the rarasaponin as surfactant was successfully carried out in DSBC with the presence of absorption peak C=O stretching group in a sharp 1720.50 cm-1 wavelength range. As well as the C-CH2 stretching uptake peak is represented on wave number 1462.04 cm-1 and 1033,85 cm-1 for aromatic functional group C=C stretching. After pillared by TiO2, the XRD pattern on DSBC showed new peak appears on 2θ = 27,4460° 36,0850° and 55,3216° and the mineral contain on DSBC is rectorite with dioctahedral mica layer and dioctahedral smectite with ratio 2:1. This molecule have formula Na.Al4(Si, Al)8.O20.(OH)4. H2O. Crystallinty of pillared clay showed 72,5014 % after calcination and there is some Ti suspected on the layer based on SEM.

  1. Polyurethane and polyurea nanoparticles based on polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative surfactant suitable for endovascular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morral-Ruíz, Genoveva; Melgar-Lesmes, Pedro; García, María Luísa; Solans, Conxita; García-Celma, María José

    2014-01-30

    The design of new, safe and effective nanotherapeutic systems is an important challenge for the researchers in the nanotechnology area. This study describes the formation of biocompatible polyurethane and polyurea nanoparticles based on polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative surfactant formed from O/W nano-emulsions by polymerization at the droplet interfaces in systems composed by aqueous solution/Kolliphor(®) ELP/medium chain triglyceride suitable for intravenous administration. Initial nano-emulsions incorporating highly hydrophilic materials were prepared by the phase inversion composition (PIC) method. After polymerization, nanoparticles with a small particle diameter (25-55 nm) and low polydispersity index were obtained. Parameters such as concentration of monomer, O/S weight ratio as well as the polymerization temperature were crucial to achieve a correct formation of these nanoparticles. Moreover, FT-IR studies showed the full conversion of the monomer to polyurethane and polyurea polymers. Likewise the involvement of the surfactant in the polymerization process through their nucleophilic groups to form the polymeric matrix was demonstrated. This could mean a first step in the development of biocompatible systems formulated with polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative surfactants. In addition, haemolysis and cell viability assays evidenced the good biocompatibility of KELP polyurethane and polyurea nanoparticles thus indicating the potential of these nanosystems as promising drug carriers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prediction of postoperative pain after mandibular third molar surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudin, Asa; Eriksson, Lars; Liedholm, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the predictive potential of preoperative psychological and psychophysiological variables in estimating severity of postoperative pain following mandibular third molar surgery (MTMS). Methods: Following ethical committee approval and informed consent, 40 consecutive patients scheduled...

  3. Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities of binary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Excess molar volume; binary liquid mixtures; isentropic compressibility; intermolecular interactions. ... mixtures are essential for fluid flow, mass flow and heat transfer processes in chemical ... Experimentally determined values of density(ρ).

  4. Evaluation of radiographic features of embedded primary molar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-20

    May 20, 2014 ... Key words: Ankylosis, panoramic radiography, primary molar root ... coverage of the jaws is needed for diagnosis. ... and direct continuity of the bone, called as bony ankylosis. .... Floating retained root lesion mimicking.

  5. Cementoblastoma Relating to Right Mandibular Second Primary Molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Nuvvula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cementoblastoma is a benign lesion of the odontogenic ectomesenchymal origin. It rarely occurs in primary dentition. This report describes a case of a cementoblastoma relating to the right mandibular second primary molar in a 7-year-old girl. Her panoramic radiograph revealed a well-defined radiopaque lesion with a radiolucent border extending from the distal surface of the mandibular right first primary molar to the distal surface of mandibular second primary molar. The tumor was attached to the mesial root of primary second molar and was excised along with the teeth involved and sent for histopathological evaluation, which showed irregular trabeculae of mineralized tissue interspersed with fibrovascular connective tissue, trabeculae of mineralized tissue with prominent reversal lines, and peripheral rimming of the mineralized tissue with blast cells. On a six-month follow-up, there has been no recurrence of the lesion.

  6. Study of Kissing Molars in Turkish Population Sample

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... unerupted teeth; retention of the mandibular second molar is ... and November 2014 for surgical treatment retrospectively were evaluated. The cases of ... and treatment. Results: Of the 6570 radiographs included in the study,.

  7. Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: Review of Literature and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were screened, and 50 articles were included in the review. Causes of ... impaction rate is higher for third molars when compared with other teeth. The mandibular .... Hence, the surgical extraction of these impacted teeth has become the most ...

  8. Aspartic acid racemization in dentin of the third molar for age estimation of the Chaoshan population in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shisheng; Lv, Yanyi; Wang, Dian; Yu, Xiaojun

    2016-09-01

    Aspartic acid racemization in teeth has been increasingly used to estimate chronological age with a considerably high accuracy in forensic practice. The Chaoshan population in South China is relatively isolated in geography, and has specific lifestyle and dietary inhibits. It is still unknown whether this method is suitable for this population. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between chronological age and the d/l aspartic acid ratio in dentin in the third molar tooth of the Chaoshan population. Fifty-eight non-carious third molar teeth (31 mandibles and 27 maxillae), from 58 living individuals of known age (24 males and 34 females), were retrieved. Dentin was extracted from these teeth. The d- and l-aspartic acids in dentins were separated and detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Linear regression was performed between the d/l aspartic acid ratio of dentins and chronological age. Results showed that the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.969, and the mean absolute error (MAE) was 2.19 years, its standard deviation (SD) was ±1.53 years, indicating excellent correlation. There was no significant difference in racemization rates of dentin between sexes (P=0.113, F=2.6), or between mandibles and maxillae (P=0.964, F=0.000). Results indicate that the ratio of the d and l forms of aspartic acid of dentins, in the third molar, is closely correlated with chronological age, special lifestyle do no obviously affect the accuracy of the age estimations by aspartic acid racemization of the dentin in the third molar and that aspartic acid racemization in the third molar dentin can be used as an accurate method to estimate chronological age in the Chaoshan population in South China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fusion or gemination? An unusual mandibular second molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Jordão Camargo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusion and gemination is not an uncommon finding and affected most primary dentition and the permanent maxillary incisors. These changes can develop a series of complication. A 11-year-old male presented radiography finding: an unusual mandibular second molar. A well-documented case brings a challenge for radiologists classify between fusion and gemination. In conclusion, this alteration although common in other regions, there are no case in the literature involving “second and third” molar.

  10. Managing molar-incisor hypomineralization: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhennawy, Karim; Schwendicke, Falk

    2016-12-01

    We systematically reviewed treatment modalities for MIH-affected molars and incisors. Trials on humans with ≥1 MIH molar/incisor reporting on various treatments were included. Two authors independently searched and extracted records. Sample-size-weighted annual failure rates were estimated where appropriate. The risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, Google Scholar) were screened, and hand searches and cross-referencing performed. Fourteen (mainly observational) studies were included. Ten trials (381 participants) investigated MIH-molars, four (139) MIH-incisors. For molars, remineralization, restorative or extraction therapies had been assessed. For restorative approaches, mean (SD) annual failure rates were highest for fissure sealants (12[6]%) and glass-ionomer restorations (12[2]%), and lowest for indirect restorations (1[3]%), preformed metal crowns (1.3 [2.1]%) and composite restorations (4[3]%). Ony study assessed extraction of molars in young patients (median age 8.2 years), the majority of them without malocclusions, but third molars in development. Spontaneous alignment of second molars was more frequent in the maxilla (55%) than the mandible (47%). For incisors, desensitizing agents successfully managed hypersensitivity. Micro-abrasion and composite veneers improved aesthetics. Few, mainly moderate to high-risk-studies investigated treatment of MIH. Remineralization or sealants seem suitable for MIH-molars with limited severity and/or hypersensitivity. For severe cases, restorations with composites or indirect restorations or preformed metal crowns seem suitable. Prior to tooth extraction as last resort factors like the presence of a general malocclusion, patients' age and the status of neighboring teeth should be considered. No recommendations can be given for MIH-incisors. Dentists need to consider the specific condition of each tooth and the needs and expectations of

  11. Bilateral maxillary fused second and third molars: a rare occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Rui-Zhen; Wu, Jin-Tao; Wu, You-Nong; Smales, Roger J; Hu, Ming; Yu, Jin-Hua; Zhang, Guang-Dong

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes the diagnosis and endodontic therapy of maxillary fused second and third molars, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A 31-year-old Chinese male, with no contributory medical or family/social history, presented with throbbing pain in the maxillary right molar area following an unsuccessful attempted tooth extraction. Clinical examination revealed what appeared initially to be a damaged large extra cusp on the buccal aspect of the distobuccal cusp of the secon...

  12. Elongational viscosity of narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Anders; Almdal, Kristoffer; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2003-01-01

    Transient and steady elongational viscosity has been measured for two narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene melts of molar masses 200 000 and 390 000 by means of a filament stretching rheometer. Total Hencky strains of about five have been obtained. The transient elongational viscosity rises...... above the linear viscoelastic prediction at intermediate strains, indicating strain hardening. The steady elongational viscosities are monotone decreasing functions of elongation rate. At elongation rates larger than the inverse reptation time, the steady elongational viscosity scales linearly...

  13. Subcutaneous emphysema during third molar surgery: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Romeo, Umberto; Galanakis, Alexandros; Lerario, Francesco; Daniele, Gabriele Maria; Tenore, Gianluca; Palaia, Gaspare

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of third molars is the most common surgical procedure performed in oral surgery on a daily basis and, despite surgical skills and expertise, complications may occur. Complications observed during or after third molar removal may include pain, swelling, bleeding, infection, sinus perforation and nerve damage. Fortunately, with a proper management and a good surgical technique, the incidence of such events is low. Subcutaneous emphysema associated with dental extraction occurs when t...

  14. Discourse of the form and concentration of surfactants to ensure the sustainability foam-emulsive products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kotlyar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Development of dry mixes for making spumy and emulsion products are topical, because nowadays there is a tendency to minimize the time spent on the process of cooking, which is achieved by the use of semi finished products high degree of readiness. Materials and methods. Foaming ability was determined by the method of multiplicity of the foam, the stability of unstable foam-by the half-life method of foam, highly resistant foam - as a ratio of the height of the column of foam after exposure for 24 hours. Results. Was determined the influence of sunflower oil on the foaming ability and half-life foam of systems «sodium caseinate-oil». It was found that getting systems with high index of foaming capacity and foam stability in the presence of oil in the system is impossible without the use of low molecular weight surfactants. Substantiated recommendations regarding the feasibility of using two surfactants in systems «sodium caseinate-surfactants-oil», which provide the necessary kinship surfaces air, fat and water phases. it has been found that the use of 2,5...3,5% mono-and diglycerides of fatty acid sand Lecithin’s 0.15...0.25% in the content of sodium caseinate about 0.5% allows to receive the stable foam-emulsive systems containing sunflower oil 7...8% and foaming ability about 640±1%. Conclusions. It is established that for ensuring high indicators foaming capacity and stability of foam-emulsive systems required the use of low-molecular surfactants. The research results, is recommended to use when developing technology of foam-emulsive products. Introduction

  15. Discourse of the form and concentration of surfactants to ensure the sustainability foam-emulsive products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Development of dry mixes for making spumy and emulsion products are topical, because nowadays there is a tendency to minimize the time spent on the process of cooking, which is achieved by the use of semi finished products high degree of readiness. Materials and methods. Foaming ability was determined by the method of multiplicity of the foam, the stability of unstable foam-by the half-life method of foam, highly resistant foam - as a ratio of the height of the column of foam after exposure for 24 hours. Results. Was determined the influence of sunflower oil on the foaming ability and half-life foam of systems «sodium caseinate-oil». It was found that getting systems with high index of foaming capacity and foam stability in the presence of oil in the system is impossible without the use of low molecular weight surfactants. Substantiated recommendations regarding the feasibility of using two surfactants in systems «sodium caseinate-surfactants-oil», which provide the necessary kinship surfaces air, fat and water phases. it has been found that the use of 2,5...3,5% mono-and diglycerides of fatty acid sand Lecithin’s 0.15...0.25% in the content of sodium caseinate about 0.5% allows to receive the stable foam-emulsive systems containing sunflower oil 7...8% and foaming ability about 640±1%. Conclusions. It is established that for ensuring high indicators foaming capacity and stability of foam-emulsive systems required the use of low-molecular surfactants. The research results, is recommended to use when developing technology of foam-emulsive products.

  16. Molar exergy and flow exergy of pure chemical fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanchini, Enzo; Terlizzese, Tiziano

    2009-01-01

    Expressions of the molar exergy and of the molar flow exergy of a pure chemical fuel are deduced rigorously from the basic principles of thermodynamics. It is shown that molar exergy and molar flow exergy coincide when the temperature T and the pressure p of the fuel are equal to the temperature T B and the pressure p B of the environment; a general relation between exergy and flow exergy is proved as a consequence. The deduction of the expression of the molar exergy of a chemical fuel for non-standard values of T B and p B is clarified. For hydrogen, carbon dioxide and several hydrocarbons, tables are reported to allow a simple calculation of the molar exergy of the fuel for any value of the temperature T B and the relative humidity φ B of the environment, in the range 268.15 K ≤ T B ≤ 313.15 K and 0.1 ≤ φ B ≤ 1, with reference to the standard atmospheric pressure. Additional tables are provided to evaluate the difference between the exergy or the flow exergy of the fuel in its given initial state and the exergy at T = T B and p = p B . In these tables, it is assumed that fuel and environment have the same temperature and that the fuel pressure varies in the range 1.01325 bar ≤ p ≤ 200 bar; the fuel may be gas or liquid.

  17. Standard molar enthalpy of formation of methoxyacetophenone isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Luísa M.P.F.; Morais, Victor M.F.; Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental and computational energetic study of methoxyacetophenone isomers. • Enthalpies of formation and phase transition determined by calorimetric techniques. • Quantum chemical calculations allowed estimation of enthalpies of formation. • Structure and energy correlations were established. - Abstract: Values of the standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of 2′-, 3′- and 4′-methoxyacetophenones were derived from their standard molar energy of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured by static bomb combustion calorimetry. The Calvet high temperature vacuum sublimation technique was used to measure the enthalpies of sublimation/vaporization of the compounds studied. The standard molar enthalpies of formation of the three compounds, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, have been derived from the corresponding standard molar enthalpies of formation in the condensed phase and the standard molar enthalpies for the phase transition. The results obtained are −(232.0 ± 2.5), −(237.7 ± 2.7) and −(241.1 ± 2.1) kJ · mol −1 for 2′-, 3′- and 4′-methoxyacetophenone, respectively. Standard molar enthalpies of formation were also estimated from different methodologies: the Cox scheme as well as two different computational approaches using density functional theory-based B3LYP and the multilevel G3 methodologies

  18. Middle mesial canals in mandibular molars: incidence and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrat, Ali; Deschenes, Raney J; Tordik, Patricia A; Hicks, M Lamar; Fouad, Ashraf F

    2015-01-01

    Although the internal anatomy of mandibular molars has been extensively studied, information about middle mesial (MM) canals is limited. The primary aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the incidence of MM canals in mandibular first and second molars. The secondary aim was to correlate the incidence of MM canals with variables of molar type, sex, age, ethnicity, and presence of a second distal canal. All mature permanent first and second mandibular molars treated from August 2012 to May 2014 were included in the analysis. After completion of root canal instrumentation in all main canals, the clinician inspected the isthmus area of the mesial root using the dental operating microscope. If there was a catch point in this area with a file or explorer, the operator spent more time attempting to negotiate an MM canal. Seventy-five mandibular first and second molars were treated during the specified period. Fifteen (20%) teeth had negotiable MM canals. The incidence of MM canals was 32.1% in patients ≤ 20 years old, 23.8% in patients 21-40 years old, and 3.8% in patients > 40 years. Analysis of data revealed a significant difference in the distribution of MM canals among different age groups (P molar type, and presence of a second distal canal were not significant. The incidence of negotiable MM canals overall and their frequency of identification in younger patients were higher than in previous reports. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cuartos molares supernumerarios: relato de caso clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Nascimento Silva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Los dientes supernumerarios se diagnostican mediante exámenes radiográficos de rutina, pues generalmente son asintomáticos. Los cuartos molares representan el segundo grupo de dientes supernumerarios con más frecuencias; ocurren en posición distal a los terceros molares, especialmente en el maxilar superior, y en la mayoría de casos, estos están incluidos. El objetivo de este artículo es realizar la presentación de un caso, de una mujer de 30 anos con los cuartos molares incluidos en el maxilar inferior y describir la técnica para su remoción.Supernumerary teeth are generally asymptomatic and are diagnosed by routine X-ray tests. The fourth molar teeth represent the second group of the most frequent supernumerary teeth, occur in distal position to the third molar teeth, specially in the superior maxilla and, in most of the cases, they are included. The aim of this paper is to comment on the case of a 30-year-old woman with the fourth molar teeth included in the inferior maxilla and to describe the technique used for their removal.

  20. Effect of age, sex and level of surgical difficulty on inflammatory complications after third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunde, Otasowie D; Saheeb, Birch D

    2015-03-01

    Patients' factors such as age and sex and surgical variables such as level of difficulty have been linked with surgical outcome in third molar surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of these variables on inflammatory complications in patients undergoing third molar surgery. Patients referred to our institution for surgical extraction of their impacted lower third molar between January 2007 and December 2008 were the subjects of the study. Patients' demographics as well as types of impaction, indication and level of difficulty based on Pederson criteria were obtained. Post operative pain, swelling and mouth opening limitation were evaluated at day 1, day 2, day 3, day 5 and 1 week after the surgery and analyzed. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. A total of 150 patients aged 16-38 years (25.9 ± 4.47) met the inclusion criteria. Male accounted for 66 (44.0 %) while females were 84 (56.0 %), giving male to female ratio of 1:1.3. Age, sex and difficulty index had no effect on pain and trismus throughout the periods of postoperative evaluation (p > 0.05). Postoperative swelling was not affected by gender but patients above 25 years who had high scores of difficulty index had more facial swelling. The results of this study shows that age, gender and the level of surgical difficulty have no effect on pain and mouth opening limitation after third molar surgery.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of third molars: developing a protocol suitable for forensic age estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tobel, Jannick; Hillewig, Elke; Bogaert, Stephanie; Deblaere, Karel; Verstraete, Koenraad

    2017-03-01

    Established dental age estimation methods in sub-adults study the development of third molar root apices on radiographs. In living individuals, however, avoiding ionising radiation is expedient. Studying dental development with magnetic resonance imaging complies with this requirement, adding the advantage of imaging in three dimensions. To elaborate the development of an MRI protocol to visualise all third molars for forensic age estimation, with particular attention to the development of the root apex. Ex vivo scans of porcine jaws and in vivo scans of 10 volunteers aged 17-25 years were performed to select adequate sequences. Studied parameters were T1 vs T2 weighting, ultrashort echo time (UTE), fat suppression, in plane resolution, slice thickness, 3D imaging, signal-to-noise ratio, and acquisition time. A bilateral four-channel flexible surface coil was used. Two observers evaluated the suitability of the images. T2-weighted images were preferred to T1-weighted images. To clearly distinguish root apices in (almost) fully developed third molars an in plane resolution of 0.33 × 0.33 mm 2 was deemed necessary. Taking acquisition time limits into account, only a T2 FSE sequence with slice thickness of 2 mm generated images with sufficient resolution and contrast. UTE, thinner slice T2 FSE and T2 3D FSE sequences could not generate the desired resolution within 6.5 minutes. Three Tesla MRI of the third molars is a feasible technique for forensic age estimation, in which a T2 FSE sequence can provide the desired in plane resolution within a clinically acceptable acquisition time.

  2. Primary molar pulpotomy: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Yen; Chen, Hsueh-Szu; Wang, Yu-Hsiang; Tu, Yu-Kang

    2014-09-01

    Pulpotomy is a common procedure to treat asymptomatic reversible pulpitis in primary molars. The aim of this study is to undertake a systematic review and a network meta-analysis to compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of different pulpotomy procedures in primary molars. Three authors performed data extraction independently and in duplicate using data collection forms. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. An electronic literature search was performed within MEDLINE (via PubMed), ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Cochrane, and ClinicalKey databases until December 2012. Medications for pulpotomy including formocresol, ferric sulfate, calcium hydroxide, and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and laser pulpotomy are compared using Bayesian network meta-analyses. The outcome is the odds ratio for clinical and radiographic failure including premature tooth loss at 12 and 24 months after treatments amongst different treatment procedures. 37 studies were included in the systematic review, and 22 of them in the final network meta-analyses. After 18-24 months, in terms of treatment failure, the odds ratio for calcium hydroxide vs. formocresol was 1.94 [95% credible interval (CI): 1.11, 3.25]; 3.38 (95% CI: 1.37, 8.61) for lasers vs. formocresol; 2.16 (95% CI: 1.12, 4.31) for calcium hydroxide vs. ferric sulfate; 3.73 (95% CI: 1.27, 11.67) for lasers vs. ferric sulfate; 0.47 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.83) for MTA vs. calcium hydroxide; 3.76 (95% CI: 1.39, 10.08) for lasers vs. After 18-24 months, formocresol, ferric sulfate, and MTA showed significantly better clinical and radiographic outcomes than calcium hydroxide and laser therapies in primary molar pulpotomies. The network meta-analyses showed that MTA is the first choice for primary molar pulpotomies. However, if treatment cost is an issue, especially when the treated primary molars are going to be replaced by permanent teeth, ferric sulfate may be the choice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of surfactant on pollutant biosorption of Trametes versicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Ülküye Dudu; Silah, Hülya; Akbaş, Halide; Has, Merve

    2016-04-01

    The major problem concerning industrial wastewater is treatment of dye and heavy metal containing effluents. Industrial effluents are also contained surfactants that are used as levelling, dispersing and wetting agents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of surfactant on textile dye biosorption properties of a white rot fungus named Trametes versicolor. Reactive dyes are commonly used in textile industry because of their advantages such as brightness and excellent color fastness. A recative textile dye, called Everzol Black, was used in this study. The low-cost mollasses medium is used for fungal growth. The usage of mollases, the sugar refinery effluent as a source of energy and nutrients, gained importance because of reducing the cost and also reusing another waste. In biosorption process the effect of surfactant on dye removal properties of T. versicolor was examined as a function of pH, dye consentration and surfactant concentration. The results of this study showed that the surfactant enhanced the dye removal capacity of Trametes versicolor. The dye and surfactant molecules were interacted electrostatically and these electrostatic interactions improved dye removal properties of filamentous fungus T. versicolor. The results of this study recommended the use of surfactants as an inducer in textile wastewater treatment technologies.

  4. Contribution of Seawater Surfactants to Generated Primary Marine Aerosol Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, A. A.; Gerard, V.; Duplessis, P.; Kinsey, J. D.; Lu, X.; Zhu, Y.; Bisgrove, J.; Maben, J. R.; Long, M. S.; Chang, R.; Beaupre, S. R.; Kieber, D. J.; Keene, W. C.; Noziere, B.; Cohen, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    Surfactants account for minor fractions of total organic carbon in the ocean but may have major impacts on the surface tension of bursting bubbles at the sea surface that drive the production of primary marine aerosol particles (PMA). Surfactants associated with marine aerosol may also significantly reduce the surface tension of water thereby increasing the potential for cloud droplet activation and growth. During September and October 2016, PMA were produced from bursting bubbles in seawater using a high capacity generator at two biologically productive and two oligotrophic stations in the western North Atlantic, as part of a cruise on the R/V Endeavor. Surfactants were extracted from paired PMA and seawater samples, and their ionic compositions, total concentrations, and critical micelle concentrations (CMC) were quantified and compared for the four hydrographic stations. Higher surfactant concentrations were determined in the aerosol produced from biologically productive seawater compared to oligotrophic seawater, and the surfactants extracted from productive seawater were stronger (had lower CMCs) than those in the oligotrophic seawater. Surfactants associated with PMA and seawater in productive regions also varied over diel cycles, whereas those in the oligotrophic regions did not. This work demonstrates a direct link between surfactants in seawater and those in PMA.

  5. Prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in adults aged 25 years and above

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yun-Hoa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in people aged 25 years and above. Materials and Methods The study sample of 3,799 patients was chosen randomly from patients who visited Pusan National University Dental Hospital and had panoramic radiographs taken. The data collected included presence and impaction state, angulation, and depth of impaction of third molars, and radiographically detected lesions of third molars and adjacent second molars. Results A greater percentage of men than women retained at least one third molar. The incidence of third molars decreased with increasing age. The incidence of partially impacted third molars greatly declined after the age of 30. Vertically impacted maxillary third molars and horizontally impacted mandibular third molars were most frequent in all age groups. Among the maxillary third molars, those impacted below the cervical line of the second molar were most frequent in all age groups, and among the mandibular third molars, deeply impacted third molars were most frequent in those aged over 40. Dental caries was the most common radiographic lesion of the third molars. Mesioangularly impacted third molars showed radiographic lesions in 13 (9.5%) adjacent maxillary second molars and 117 (27.4%) mandibular second molars. Conclusion The number of remaining third molars decreased and the percentage of Class C depth increased with age. Caries was the most frequent lesion in third molars. Partially impacted mesioangular third molars showed a high incidence of caries or periodontal bone loss of the adjacent second molar. Regular oral examination will be essential to keep asymptomatic third molars in good health. PMID:24380060

  6. Prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in adults aged 25 years and above

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in people aged 25 years and above. The study sample of 3,799 patients was chosen randomly from patients who visited Pusan National University Dental Hospital and had panoramic radiographs taken. The data collected included presence and impaction state, angulation, and depth of impaction of third molars, and radiographically detected lesions of third molars and adjacent second molars. A greater percentage of men than women retained at least one third molar. The incidence of third molars decreased with increasing age. The incidence of partially impacted third molars greatly declined after the age of 30. Vertically impacted maxillary third molars and horizontally impacted mandibular third molars were most frequent in all age groups. Among the maxillary third molars, those impacted below the cervical line of the second molar were most frequent in all age groups, and among the mandibular third molars, deeply impacted third molars were most frequent in those aged over 40. Dental caries was the most common radiographic lesion of the third molars. Mesioangularly impacted third molars showed radiographic lesions in 13 (9.5%) adjacent maxillary second molars and 117 (27.4%) mandibular second molars. The number of remaining third molars decreased and the percentage of Class C depth increased with age. Caries was the most frequent lesion in third molars. Partially impacted mesioangular third molars showed a high incidence of caries or periodontal bone loss of the adjacent second molar. Regular oral examination will be essential to keep asymptomatic third molars in good health.

  7. Prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in adults aged 25 years and above

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in people aged 25 years and above. The study sample of 3,799 patients was chosen randomly from patients who visited Pusan National University Dental Hospital and had panoramic radiographs taken. The data collected included presence and impaction state, angulation, and depth of impaction of third molars, and radiographically detected lesions of third molars and adjacent second molars. A greater percentage of men than women retained at least one third molar. The incidence of third molars decreased with increasing age. The incidence of partially impacted third molars greatly declined after the age of 30. Vertically impacted maxillary third molars and horizontally impacted mandibular third molars were most frequent in all age groups. Among the maxillary third molars, those impacted below the cervical line of the second molar were most frequent in all age groups, and among the mandibular third molars, deeply impacted third molars were most frequent in those aged over 40. Dental caries was the most common radiographic lesion of the third molars. Mesioangularly impacted third molars showed radiographic lesions in 13 (9.5%) adjacent maxillary second molars and 117 (27.4%) mandibular second molars. The number of remaining third molars decreased and the percentage of Class C depth increased with age. Caries was the most frequent lesion in third molars. Partially impacted mesioangular third molars showed a high incidence of caries or periodontal bone loss of the adjacent second molar. Regular oral examination will be essential to keep asymptomatic third molars in good health.

  8. Potential application of surfactant systems in formulation of dosage forms with slightly soluble substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrić Svetlana R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve fast release of ibuprofen, slightly soluble model substance (0.52104 mol/l, surfactant systems for oral use with different PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil (C/diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (T ratios were investigated. Comparison between dissolution profiles for ibuprofen from formulated systems and from two commercial products, film tablets and soft capsules, is presented in this paper. Photon correlation spectroscopy has shown that after high dilution with water, surfactant systems were able to form micellar solutions. The size of micelles varies from 14.8 ± 0,075 nm to 16.2 ± 0,021 nm with increasing C/T ratio from 1:2 to 2:1. Although with increasing content of PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil larger micelles have formed, lower values of polydispersity index indicated that more homogeneous distribution of micelles size was gained. Conductometric analysis has demonstrated that system composing of C/T ratio 2:1, has shown most pronounced interaction between droplets, which can be seen as high rise of electrical conductivity with increasing water content (% (wwater/wtotal in the sample. No significant difference in percolation threshold between formulations with different C/T ratios was observed. Different surfactant systems were adsorbed on magnesium aluminometasilicate, as adsorbent with high specific active surface (≈300 m2/g, in order to investigate potential influence of adsorbent on ibuprofen dissolution rate. Formulated systems, with or without adsorbent were filled in hard gelatin capsules. The dissolution profiles of ibuprofen from different formulations were obtained in 30 minutes by dissolution apparatus with rotating baskets and compared with dissolution profiles of ibuprofen from commercial products. For formulations without adsorbent faster release of ibuprofen in first minutes of dissolution test, showed formulations with C/T ratio 2:1 and 1:1. Magnesium aluminometasilicate, as adsorbent with high specific

  9. Single well surfactant test to evaluate surfactant floods using multi tracer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheely, Clyde Q.

    1979-01-01

    Data useful for evaluating the effectiveness of or designing an enhanced recovery process said process involving mobilizing and moving hydrocarbons through a hydrocarbon bearing subterranean formation from an injection well to a production well by injecting a mobilizing fluid into the injection well, comprising (a) determining hydrocarbon saturation in a volume in the formation near a well bore penetrating formation, (b) injecting sufficient mobilizing fluid to mobilize and move hydrocarbons from a volume in the formation near the well bore, and (c) determining the hydrocarbon saturation in a volume including at least a part of the volume of (b) by an improved single well surfactant method comprising injecting 2 or more slugs of water containing the primary tracer separated by water slugs containing no primary tracer. Alternatively, the plurality of ester tracers can be injected in a single slug said tracers penetrating varying distances into the formation wherein the esters have different partition coefficients and essentially equal reaction times. The single well tracer method employed is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,623,842. This method designated the single well surfactant test (SWST) is useful for evaluating the effect of surfactant floods, polymer floods, carbon dioxide floods, micellar floods, caustic floods and the like in subterranean formations in much less time and at much reduced cost compared to conventional multiwell pilot tests.

  10. Kinetics of Surfactant Desorption at an Air–Solution Interface

    KAUST Repository

    Morgan, C. E.

    2012-12-18

    The kinetics of re-equilibration of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate at the air-solution interface have been studied using neutron reflectivity. The experimental arrangement incorporates a novel flow cell in which the subphase can be exchanged (diluted) using a laminar flow while the surface region remains unaltered. The rate of the re-equilibration is relatively slow and occurs over many tens of minutes, which is comparable with the dilution time scale of approximately 10-30 min. A detailed mathematical model, in which the rate of the desorption is determined by transport through a near-surface diffusion layer into a diluted bulk solution below, is developed and provides a good description of the time-dependent adsorption data. A key parameter of the model is the ratio of the depth of the diffusion layer, H c, to the depth of the fluid, Hf, and we find that this is related to the reduced Péclet number, Pe*, for the system, via Hc/Hf = C/Pe*1/2. Although from a highly idealized experimental arrangement, the results provide an important insight into the "rinse mechanism", which is applicable to a wide variety of domestic and industrial circumstances. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Adsorption kinetics of surfactants on activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnelli; Aditama, WP; Fikriani, Z.; Astuti, Y.

    2018-04-01

    A study on the adsorption of both cationic and anionic surfactants using activated carbon as well as the investigation of the adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics has been conducted. The results showed that the adsorption of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) by activated carbon was Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm while its adsorption kinetics showed pseudo-second order with an adsorption rate constant of 2.23 x 103 g mg-1 hour-1. Meanwhile, the adsorption of HDTMA-Br by activated carbon showed that the isotherm adsorption tended to follow Freundlich’s isotherm and was pseudo-second order with an adsorption rate constant of 89.39 g mg-1 hour-1.

  12. Salt effects in surfactant-free microemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöttl, Sebastian; Horinek, Dominik

    2018-06-01

    The weakly associated micellar aggregates found in the so-called "pre-ouzo region" of the surfactant-free microemulsion water/ethanol/1-octanol are sensitive to changes in the system composition and also to the presence of additives like salt. In this work, we study the influence of two salts, sodium iodide and lithium chloride, on aggregates in water/ethanol/1-octanol by molecular dynamics simulations. In both cases, ethanol concentration in the nonpolar phase and at the interface is increased due to a salting out effect on ethanol in the aqueous pseudo-phase. In addition, minor charging of the interface as a consequence of differential adsorption of anions and cations occurs. However, this charge separation is overall weakened by the erratic surface of octanol aggregates, where polar hydroxyl groups and hydrophobic patches are both present. Furthermore, ethanol at the interface shields hydrophobic patches and reduces the preferential adsorption of iodide and lithium.

  13. Surfactant protein D is proatherogenic in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Grith L; Madsen, Jens; Kejling, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an important innate immune defense molecule that mediates clearance of pathogens and modulates the inflammatory response. Moreover, SP-D is involved in lipid homeostasis, and pulmonary accumulation of phospholipids has previously been observed in SP-D-deficient (Spd......-/-) mice. Atherogenesis involves both inflammation and lipid deposition, and we investigated the role of SP-D in the development of atherosclerosis. SP-D synthesis was localized to vascular endothelial cells. Atherosclerotic lesion areas were 5.6-fold smaller in the aortic roots in Spd-/- mice compared...... with wild-type C57BL/6N mice on an atherogenic diet. HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly elevated in Spd-/- mice. Treatment of Spd-/- mice with a recombinant fragment of human SP-D resulted in decreases of HDL-C (21%) as well as total cholesterol (26%), and LDL cholesterol (28%). Plasma TNF...

  14. Surfactant selection for a liquid foam-bed photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoska, Agnes; Vázquez, María; Janssen, Marcel; Wijffels, René H; Cuaresma, María; Vílchez, Carlos

    2018-02-01

    A novel liquid foam-bed photobioreactor has been shown to hold potential as an innovative technology for microalgae production. In this study, a foam stabilizing agent has been selected which fits the requirements of use in a liquid foam-bed photobioreactor. Four criteria were used for an optimal surfactant: the surfactant should have good foaming properties, should not be rapidly biodegradable, should drag up microalgae in the foam formed, and it should not be toxic for microalgae. Ten different surfactants (nonionic, cationic, and anionic) and two microalgae genera (Chlorella and Scenedesmus) were compared on the above-mentioned criteria. The comparison showed the following facts. Firstly, poloxameric surfactants (Pluronic F68 and Pluronic P84) have acceptable foaming properties described by intermediate foam stability and liquid holdup and small bubble size. Secondly, the natural surfactants (BSA and Saponin) and Tween 20 were easily biodegraded by bacteria within 3 days. Thirdly, for all surfactants tested the microalgae concentration is reduced in the foam phase compared to the liquid phase with exception of the cationic surfactant CTAB. Lastly, only BSA, Saponin, Tween 20, and the two Pluronics were not toxic at concentrations of 10 CMC or higher. The findings of this study indicate that the Pluronics (F68 and P84) are the best surfactants regarding the above-mentioned criteria. Since Pluronic F68 performed slightly better, this surfactant is recommended for application in a liquid foam-bed photobioreactor. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. Partial molar volumes and partial molar adiabatic compressibilities of a short chain perfluorosurfactant: Sodium heptafluorobutyrate in aqueous solutions at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Elena; Ruso, Juan M.; Prieto, Gerardo; Sarmiento, Felix

    2005-01-01

    Density and ultrasound measurements of sodium heptafluorobutyrate in aqueous solutions at T = (283.15, 288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15, and 323.15) K have been obtained. From these results partial molar volumes and isentropic partial molar adiabatic compressibilities were calculated. Deviations from the Debye-Hueckel limiting law provide evidence for limited association at lower concentrations. The change of the partial molar volume and isentropic partial molar adiabatic compressibility upon aggregation was calculated. Variations of the change of partial molar volumes and isentropic partial molar adiabatic compressibility upon aggregation are discussed in terms of temperature

  16. Partial molar volumes and partial molar adiabatic compressibilities of a short chain perfluorosurfactant: Sodium heptafluorobutyrate in aqueous solutions at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Elena [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Ruso, Juan M. [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]. E-mail: faruso@usc.es; Prieto, Gerardo [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sarmiento, Felix [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2005-12-15

    Density and ultrasound measurements of sodium heptafluorobutyrate in aqueous solutions at T = (283.15, 288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15, and 323.15) K have been obtained. From these results partial molar volumes and isentropic partial molar adiabatic compressibilities were calculated. Deviations from the Debye-Hueckel limiting law provide evidence for limited association at lower concentrations. The change of the partial molar volume and isentropic partial molar adiabatic compressibility upon aggregation was calculated. Variations of the change of partial molar volumes and isentropic partial molar adiabatic compressibility upon aggregation are discussed in terms of temperature.

  17. Is surfactant a promising additive drug in ALI/ARDS-patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, MJ; Kesecioglu, J

    The rationale for surfactant replacement therapy in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is to restore the normal composition of the surfactant system, as well as to overcome ongoing inactivation of present surfactant. Indeed, surfactant replacement therapy call normalize the

  18. Serum and sputum surfactants -A and -D in multidrug-resistant and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abnormal production and function of surfactants are associated with pulmonary diseases. Also, pulmonary infections alter surfactant metabolism. Due to lack of information on the levels of surfactants A (SP-A) and D (SP-D) in Nigerian tuberculosis (TB) patients, this study assessed these surfactants in both sputum and ...

  19. Is surfactant a promising additive drug in ALI/ARDS-patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, Marcus J.; Kesecioglu, Jozef

    2004-01-01

    The rationale for surfactant replacement therapy in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is to restore the normal composition of the surfactant system, as well as to overcome ongoing inactivation of present surfactant. Indeed, surfactant replacement therapy call normalize the

  20. Cold pearl surfactant-based blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, R L

    1997-10-01

    Pearlizing agents have been used for many years in cosmetic formulations to add a pearlescent effect. Cold pearl surfactant-based blends are mixtures of glycol stearates and surfactants which can be blended in the cold into a wide range of personal-care formulations to create a pearlescent lustre effect. Under controlled manufacturing conditions constant viscosities and crystalline characteristics can be obtained. The development of these blends has been driven by efforts to improve the economics of adding solid pearlizing agents directly into a hot mix formulation. This paper summarizes the history of pearlizers, describes their advantages and physical chemistry of the manufacturing process. Finally some suggestions for applications are given. Les agents nacrants sont utilises depuis de nombreuses annees dans les formulations cosmetiques pour ajouter un effet nacre. Les melanges a froid a base de tensioactif nacre sont des melanges de stearates de glycol et de tensioactifs qui peuvent etre melanges a froid dans une large gamme de formulations d'hygiene personnelle pour creer un effet de lustre nacre. On peut obtenir des viscosites et des proprietes cristallines constantes avec des conditions de fabrication maitrisees. Le developpement de ces melanges a ete porte par les efforts pour ameliorer les couts de l'ajout d'agents nacrants solides directement dans une formulation melangee de l'ajout d'agents nacrants solides directement dans une formulation melangee a chaud. Cet article resume l'histoire des agents nacrants, decrit leurs avantages et al physico-chimie du procede de fabrication. On emet a la fin cetaines suggestions d'applications.

  1. Decontamination by cleaning with fluorocarbon surfactant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, R.; Benson, C.E.; Meyers, E.S.; Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1994-02-01

    In the nuclear industry, facilities and their components inevitably become contaminated with radioactive materials. This report documents the application of a novel particle-removal process developed by Entropic Systems, Inc. (ESI), to decontaminate critical instruments and parts that are contaminated with small radioactive particles that adhere to equipment surfaces. The tests were performed as a cooperative effort between ESI and the Chemical Technology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ESI developed a new, environmentally compatible process to remove small particles from solid surfaces that is more effective than spraying or sonicating with CFC-113. This process uses inert perfluorinated liquids as working media; the liquids have zero ozone-depleting potential, are nontoxic and nonflammnable, and are generally recognized as nonhazardous materials. In the ESI process, parts to be cleaned are first sprayed or sonicated with a dilute solution of a high-molecular-weight fluorocarbon surfactant in an inert perfluorinated liquid to effect particle removal. The parts are then rinsed with the perfluorinated liquid to remove the fluorocarbon surfactant applied in the first step, and the residual rinse liquid is then evaporated from the parts into an air or nitrogen stream from which it is recovered. Nuclear contamination is inherently a surface phenomenon. The presence of radioactive particles is responsible for all ''smearable'' contamination and, if the radioactive particles are small enough, for some of the fixed contamination. Because radioactivity does not influence the physical chemistry of particle adhesion, the ESI process should be just as effective in removing radioactive particles as it is in removing nonradioactive particles

  2. Complex phase behavior in solvent-free nonionic surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillmyer, M.A.; Bates, F.S.; Almdal, K.

    1996-01-01

    Unsolvated block copolymers and surfactant solutions are ''soft materials'' that share a common set of ordered microstructures, A set of polyethyleneoxide-polyethylethylene (PEG-PEE) block copolymers that are chemically similar to the well-known alkane-oxyethylene (C(n)EO(m)) nonionic surfactants...... was synthesized here. The general phase behavior in these materials resembles that of both higher molecular weight block copolymers and lower molecular weight nonionic surfactant solutions. Two of the block copolymers exhibited thermally induced order-order transitions and were studied in detail by small...

  3. Effect of surfactant for magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haracz, S. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89B, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Hilgendorff, M. [Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Physik, Arnimalle 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Rybka, J.D. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89B, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Giersig, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89B, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Physik, Arnimalle 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic behavior of magnetic nanoparticles. • Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles. • Effect of surfactant for magnetic properties. - Abstract: For different medical applications nanoparticles (NPs) with well-defined magnetic properties have to be used. Coating ligand can change the magnetic moment on the surface of nanostructures and therefore the magnetic behavior of the system. Here we investigated magnetic NPs in a size of 13 nm conjugated with four different kinds of surfactants. The surface anisotropy and the magnetic moment of the system were changed due to the presence of the surfactant on the surface of iron oxide NPs.

  4. Aetiology of molar-incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) in Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, J F; Jeremias, F; Costa-Silva, C M; Santos-Pinto, L; Zuanon, A C C; Cordeiro, R C L

    2013-06-25

    To determine the potential aetiological factors related to molar-incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) in Brazilian children. A total of 1,151 children aged 7-12 years (mean 8.86 ± 1.28), born and living in the urban area of Araraquara, Brazil, were examined by two examiners evaluating the presence of MIH according to criteria suggested by the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (2003). Their mothers completed a structured questionnaire about medical history, from pregnancy to the first 3 years of the children's life. Descriptive analyses of data and odds ratios (OR) with 95 % test-based confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences between groups. The prevalence of MIH in the children was 12.3 %. The interviewing response rate was 90.4 %. The prevalence of miscarriage history (25 vs. 15.4 %; OR = 1.21; 95 % CI 0.30-4.92) and occurrence of anaemia (23 vs. 12.4 %; OR = 2.07; 95 % CI 0.50-8.63) were higher in mothers from MIH group than those from non-MIH group. However, these associations were not statically significant. In the children's medical history, rhinitis, bronchitis (56.5 vs. 52.5 %; OR = 1.17; 95 % CI 0.82-1.68), and high fever (20.4 vs. 18.2 %; OR = 1.14; 0.73-1.76) were more prevalent in MIH group, but there were no significant differences between the groups (p > 0.05). No possible aetiological factor investigated was associated with MIH. Prospective studies are needed to define the aetiological factors involved with MIH.

  5. Structure and Conformational Dynamics of DMPC/Dicationic Surfactant and DMPC/Dicationic Surfactant/DNA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Kozak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amphiphilic dicationic surfactants, known as gemini surfactants, are currently studied for gene delivery purposes. The gemini surfactant molecule is composed of two hydrophilic “head” groups attached to hydrophobic chains and connected via molecular linker between them. The influence of different concentrations of 1,5-bis (1-imidazolilo-3-decyloxymethyl pentane chloride (gemini surfactant on the thermotropic phase behaviour of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC bilayers with and without the presence of DNA was investigated using Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR and circular dichroism (CD spectroscopies, small angle scattering of synchrotron radiation and differential scanning calorimetry. With increasing concentration of surfactant in DMPC/DNA systems, a disappearance of pretransition and a decrease in the main phase transition enthalpy and temperature were observed. The increasing intensity of diffraction peaks as a function of surfactant concentration also clearly shows the ability of the surfactant to promote the organisation of lipid bilayers in the multilayer lamellar phase.

  6. Orthodontic Replacement of Lost Permanent Molar with Neighbor Molar: A Six-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisa Boamorte Raveli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction is very frequent indication in orthodontic planning, especially when there are crowding, biprotrusion, and aesthetically unpleasant profiles. Next to extraction comes space closure, which represents a challenge for orthodontists because of extended treatment time, discomfort created for the patient, tissue tolerance, and stability concerns. When it comes to what mechanics to choose for space closure, loops present two major advantages in relation to sliding mechanics: absence of abrasion and possibility to reach pure dental translation. A case is presented where an adult female patient with early loss of the first lower permanent molars, minor lower crowding, and tooth biprotrusion was treated with upper first bicuspids extraction along with upper and lower space closure done with T-loops to promote best space closure control in order to correct the malocclusion and enhance facial aesthetics.

  7. Orthodontic Replacement of Lost Permanent Molar with Neighbor Molar: A Six-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintcovsk, Ricardo Lima; Knop, Luegya Amorim Henriques; Sampaio, Luana Paz

    2017-01-01

    Extraction is very frequent indication in orthodontic planning, especially when there are crowding, biprotrusion, and aesthetically unpleasant profiles. Next to extraction comes space closure, which represents a challenge for orthodontists because of extended treatment time, discomfort created for the patient, tissue tolerance, and stability concerns. When it comes to what mechanics to choose for space closure, loops present two major advantages in relation to sliding mechanics: absence of abrasion and possibility to reach pure dental translation. A case is presented where an adult female patient with early loss of the first lower permanent molars, minor lower crowding, and tooth biprotrusion was treated with upper first bicuspids extraction along with upper and lower space closure done with T-loops to promote best space closure control in order to correct the malocclusion and enhance facial aesthetics. PMID:29318054

  8. Standardised studies on Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) and Hypomineralised Second Primary Molars (HSPM): a need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfrink, M E C; Ghanim, A; Manton, D J; Weerheijm, K L

    2015-06-01

    In November 2014, a review of literature concerning prevalence data of Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) and Hypomineralised Second Primary Molars (HSPM) was performed. A search of PubMed online databases was conducted for relevant articles published until November 2014. The reference lists of all retrieved articles were hand-searched. Studies were included after assessing the eligibility of the full-text article. Out of 1078 manuscripts, a total of 157 English written publications were selected based on title and abstract. Of these 157, 60 were included in the study and allocated as 52 MIH and 5 HSPM, and 3 for both MIH and HSPM. These studies utilised the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry judgment criteria, the modified index of developmental defects of enamel (mDDE) and self-devised criteria, and demonstrated a wide variation in the reported prevalence (MIH 2.9-44 %; HSPM 0-21.8 %). Most values mentioned were representative for specific areas. More studies were performed in cities compared with rural areas. A great variation was found in calibration methods, number of participants, number of examiners and research protocols between the studies. The majority of the prevalence studies also investigated possible aetiological factors. To compare MIH and HSPM prevalence and or aetiological data around the world, standardisation of such studies seems essential. Standardisation of the research protocol should include a clearly described sample of children (minimum number of 300 for prevalence and 1000 for aetiology studies) and use of the same calibration sets and methods whereas aetiological studies need to be prospective in nature. A standardised protocol for future MIH and HSPM prevalence and aetiology studies is recommended.

  9. Thermodynamic insights into drug-surfactant interactions: Study of the interactions of naporxen, diclofenac sodium, neomycin, and lincomycin with hexadecytrimethylammonium bromide by using isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sinjan; Talele, Paurnima; Kishore, Nand

    2015-08-01

    The success of drug delivery depends on the efficiency of the route of administration, which in turn relies on properties of the drug and its transport vehicle. A quantitative knowledge of association of drugs with transport vehicles is lacking when the latter are in the category of self assembled structures. The work reported in this manuscript addresses the mechanism of partitioning of naproxen, diclofenac sodium, neomycin and lincomycin in the micelles of hexadecytrimethylammonium bromide and that is quantitatively based on the measurement of thermodynamic parameters of interactions by using isothermal titration calorimetry. The addressed mechanism of partitioning is based on the identification of the type of interactions of these drugs with the surfactant micelles and monomers, along with the effect of the former on the micellization properties of the surfactant. The conclusions are based on the interpretation of the values of partitioning constant, standard molar enthalpy change, standard molar entropy change and the stoichiometry of the interaction. The results of this study have implications for deriving guidelines for the target oriented synthesis of new drugs that are to be used for effective delivery via micellar media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation of Melamine - Formaldehyde Microcapsules Containing Hexadecane as a Phase Change Material: The Effect of Surfactants Type and Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Alinejad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Microcapsules containing n-hexadecane (HD as the core and melamineformaldehyde (MF prepolymer as the shell were prepared by in-situ dispersion polymerization. The effects of surfactants type and amount were studied in relation to the morphology and thermal properties of microcapsules. The morphology of the microcapsules was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermal properties were detected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. SEM images showed that the increase in the amount of Triton X-100 (non-ionic to SDS (ionic ratio resulted in the agglomeration of the prepared microcapsules. This increase led also to lower encapsulated hexadecane and thermal stability of microcapsules. As a result, the optimum composition of the above surfactants for obtaining higher thermal stability and proper morphology wasfound to be 20 wt% of Triton X-100 and 80 wt% of SDS in the recipe. The optimum total amounts of surfactants was 4 wt%, which resulted in spherical and separate microcapsules. DSC and TGA analyses revealed that a sample prepared with 4 wt% of surfactants was not only successful in encapsulation of hexadecane but also showedhigher thermal stability compared with other formulations.

  11. Study of the effect of surfactants on extraction and determination of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of fruits extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hosseinzadeh

    Full Text Available Micelle/water mixed solutions of different surface active agents were studied for their effectiveness in the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from various varieties of apples from west Azerbaijan province in Iran. The total content of polyphenolic compound in fruit extracts were determined using ferrous tartrate and Folin-Ciocalteu assays methods and chromatographic methods and compared with theme. High performance liquid chromatography is one of the most common and important methods in biochemical compound identification. The effect of pH, ionic strength, surfactant type, surfactant concentration, extraction time and common organic solvent in the apple polyphenolics extractions was studied using HPLC-DAD. Mixtures of surfactants, water and methanol at various ratios were examined and micellar-water solutions of Brij surfactant showed the highest polyphenol extraction efficiency. Optimum conditions for the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple occurred at 7 mM Brij35, pH 3. Effect of ionic strength on extraction was determined and 2% (W/V potassium Chloride was determined to be the optimum salt concentration. The procedure worked well with an ultrasound bath. Total antioxidant capacity also was determined in this study. The method can be safely scaled up for pharmaceutical applications.

  12. Nonviral gene-delivery by highly fluorinated gemini bispyridinium surfactant-based DNA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisicaro, Emilia; Compari, Carlotta; Bacciottini, Franco; Contardi, Laura; Pongiluppi, Erika; Barbero, Nadia; Viscardi, Guido; Quagliotto, Pierluigi; Donofrio, Gaetano; Krafft, Marie Pierre

    2017-02-01

    Biological and thermodynamic properties of a new homologous series of highly fluorinated bispyridinium cationic gemini surfactants, differing in the length of the spacer bridging the pyridinium polar heads in 1,1' position, are reported for the first time. Interestingly, gene delivery ability is closely associated with the spacer length due to a structural change of the molecule in solution. This conformation change is allowed when the spacer reaches the right length, and it is suggested by the trends of the apparent and partial molar enthalpies vs molality. To assess the compounds' biological activity, they were tested with an agarose gel electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA), MTT proliferation assay and Transient Transfection assays on a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line. Data from atomic force microscopy (AFM) allow for morphological characterization of DNA nanoparticles. Dilution enthalpies, measured at 298K, enabled the determination of apparent and partial molar enthalpies vs molality. All tested compounds (except that with the longest spacer), at different levels, can deliver the plasmid when co-formulated with 1,2-dioleyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE). The compound with a spacer formed by eight carbon atoms gives rise to a gene delivery ability that is comparable to that of the commercial reagent. The compound with the longest spacer compacts DNA in loosely condensed structures by forming bows, which are not suitable for transfection. Regarding the compounds' hydrogenated counterparts, the tight relationship between the solution thermodynamics data and their biological performance is amazing, making "old" methods the foundation to deeply understanding "new" applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Endodontic treatment of an unusual connation of permanent mandibular molars: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengbo; Fan, Bing; Peng, Bin; Fan, Mingwen; Bian, Zhuan

    2006-10-01

    A 27-year-old patient with an anomalous mandibular molar was referred for endodontic therapy. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed the connation of a second mandibular molar with a third molar. Challenging endodontic therapy was performed in the unusual connated molars. A 2-year recall showed good treatment result.

  14. Pattern of third molar impaction in a Saudi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H Hassan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ali H Hassan11Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To evaluate the current pattern of third molar impaction in a sample of Saudi patients.Methods: One thousand thirty-nine orthopantomograms (OPG of patients ranging in age from 19 to 46 years (536 males and 503 females were evaluated to determine the frequency of impacted third molars, their levels of eruption, and their angulations.Results: Four hundred twenty-two (40.5% of the 1039 OPG showed at least one impacted third molar, with no significant difference between males (222; 52.6% and females (200; 47.4% (P = 0.284. The most common number of impacted third molars per OPG was one (72.5%. Impacted third molars were 1.64 times more likely to occur in the mandible than in the maxilla. The most common angulation of impaction in the mandible was the mesial (33.4%, while the most common angulation in the maxilla, was the vertical (49.6%. Level B impaction was the most common in both maxilla (48.2% and mandible (67.7%. There was no significant difference in the frequency of impaction between the right and left sides in both jaws.Conclusion: The pattern of third molar impaction in the western region of Saudi Arabia is characterized by a high prevalence of impaction that is greater in the mandibles and with no sex predilection.Keywords: third molar, impaction, prevalence, Saudi 

  15. Genetic integration of molar cusp size variation in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Christina; Bates, Elizabeth; Broughton, Elizabeth; Do, Nicholas T; Fletcher, Zachary; Mahaney, Michael C; Hlusko, Leslea J

    2010-06-01

    Many studies of primate diversity and evolution rely on dental morphology for insight into diet, behavior, and phylogenetic relationships. Consequently, variation in molar cusp size has increasingly become a phenotype of interest. In 2007 we published a quantitative genetic analysis of mandibular molar cusp size variation in baboons. Those results provided more questions than answers, as the pattern of genetic integration did not fit predictions from odontogenesis. To follow up, we expanded our study to include data from the maxillary molar cusps. Here we report on these later analyses, as well as inter-arch comparisons with the mandibular data. We analyzed variation in two-dimensional maxillary molar cusp size using data collected from a captive pedigreed breeding colony of baboons, Papio hamadryas, housed at the Southwest National Primate Research Center. These analyses show that variation in maxillary molar cusp size is heritable and sexually dimorphic. We also estimated additive genetic correlations between cusps on the same crown, homologous cusps along the tooth row, and maxillary and mandibular cusps. The pattern for maxillary molars yields genetic correlations of one between the paracone-metacone and protocone-hypocone. Bivariate analyses of cuspal homologues on adjacent teeth yield correlations that are high or not significantly different from one. Between dental arcades, the nonoccluding cusps consistently yield high genetic correlations, especially the metaconid-paracone and metaconid-metacone. This pattern of genetic correlation does not immediately accord with the pattern of development and/or calcification, however these results do follow predictions that can be made from the evolutionary history of the tribosphenic molar. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Odor concentration invariance by chemical ratio coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoshige Uchida

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Many animal species rely on chemical signals to extract ecologically important information from the environment. Yet in natural conditions chemical signals will frequently undergo concentration changes that produce differences in both level and pattern of activation of olfactory receptor neurons. Thus, a central problem in olfactory processing is how the system is able to recognize the same stimulus across different concentrations. To signal species identity for mate recognition, some insects use the ratio of two components in a binary chemical mixture to produce a code that is invariant to dilution. Here, using psychophysical methods, we show that rats also classify binary odor mixtures according to the molar ratios of their components, spontaneously generalizing over at least a tenfold concentration range. These results indicate that extracting chemical ratio information is not restricted to pheromone signaling and suggest a general solution for concentration-invariant odor recognition by the mammalian olfactory system.

  17. Nanocomposites of PP and bentonite clay modified with different surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Andre W.B.; Agrawal, Pankaj; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Melo, Tomas J.A.; Ueki, Marcelo M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was the development of nano composites of polypropylene (PP) and national bentonite clay modified with different surfactants. The results of X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the organophilization process was effective. The surfactants led to a significant increase in the basal spacing of Brasgel PA clay. XRD results of the mixture PP/Brasgel PA clay modified with Praepagem WB surfactant indicated that a nanocomposite with intercalated structure was formed. When the Brasgel PA clay was modified with Praepagem HY surfactant, DRX results indicated that a micro composite was formed. Screw speed, clay content and PP viscosity had no influence on the XRD pattern of the obtained materials. (author)

  18. Nonionic surfactant Brij35 effects on toluene biodegradation in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... Nonionic surfactants are usually used in the bioavailability studies due to their rela- ..... Leson G, Winer AM (1991) Biofiltration: an innovative air pollution control technology for ... thermodynamics and kinetics. Lewis publishers ...

  19. MICROEMULSION OF MIXED CHLORINATED SOLVENTS USING FOOD GRADE (EDIBLE) SURFACTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground water contamination frequently consists of mixed chlorinated solvents [e.g., tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and trans-1,2- dichloroethylene (DCE)]. In this research, mixtures of the food grade (edible) surfactants bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinat...

  20. Polyelectrolyte surfactant aggregates and their deposition on macroscopic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voisin, David

    2002-01-01

    Oppositely charged surfactant and polyelectrolyte are present in hair shampoos and conditioners, together with particles (e.g. anti-dandruff agents for scalp) and droplets (e.g. silicone oil for the hair). These are normally formulated at high surfactant concentrations, beyond the flocculation region for the polyelectrolyte concentration used. However, on dilution with water, during application, flocs are formed which carry the particles and droplets to the scalp and hair. The addition of an anionic surfactant to an aqueous solution of cationic polyelectrolyte, at a given concentration, can lead to the formation of polyelectrolyte-surfactant 'particles', in which the surfactant 'binds' to the polyelectrolyte. This occurs from the critical association concentration (CAC), up to the surfactant concentration corresponding to maximum binding. Within this range of surfactant concentrations, the surfactant bound to the polyelectrolyte is thought to associate to form what might be termed 'internal micelles'. Each polyelectrolyte-surfactant particle in the region of the CAC, and just beyond, contains many polyelectrolyte chains, held together essentially by micelle bridges. These particles, however, remain net positively charged, and therefore stable. At the other end of the binding range of the surfactant, so many internal micelles are present that the polymer-surfactant particles are now net negatively charged. Indeed binding stops since no further micelles can be accommodated. Again, the particles are stable. However, there exists a range of surfactant concentrations, lying within the range referred to above, where the net charge is reduced sufficiently that the polymer-surfactant particles will flocculate to form much larger structures. The onset of this second range might be termed the 'critical flocculation concentration' (CFC), and the end, the 'critical stabilisation concentration' (CSC). In this work, the CFC and the CSC have been determined for mixtures of