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Sample records for surfacing sports grounds

  1. NASA SPoRT GOES-R Proving Ground Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Jedloec, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program is a partner with the GOES-R Proving Ground (PG) helping prepare forecasters understand the unique products to come from the GOES-R instrument suite. SPoRT is working collaboratively with other members of the GOES-R PG team and Algorithm Working Group (AWG) scientists to develop and disseminate a suite of proxy products that address specific forecast problems for the WFOs, Regional and National Support Centers, and other NOAA users. These products draw on SPoRT s expertise with the transition and evaluation of products into operations from the MODIS instrument and the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). The MODIS instrument serves as an excellent proxy for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) that will be aboard GOES-R. SPoRT has transitioned and evaluated several multi-channel MODIS products. The true and false color products are being used in natural hazard detection by several SPoRT partners to provide better observation of land features, such as fires, smoke plumes, and snow cover. Additionally, many of SPoRT s partners are coastal offices and already benefit from the MODIS sea surface temperature composite. This, along with other surface feature observations will be developed into ABI proxy products for diagnostic use in the forecast process as well as assimilation into forecast models. In addition to the MODIS instrument, the NALMA has proven very valuable to WFOs with access to these total lightning data. These data provide situational awareness and enhanced warning decision making to improve lead times for severe thunderstorm and tornado warnings. One effort by SPoRT scientists includes a lightning threat product to create short-term model forecasts of lightning activity. Additionally, SPoRT is working with the AWG to create GLM proxy data from several of the ground based total lightning networks, such as the NALMA. The evaluation will focus on the vastly improved spatial

  2. "New Ground" in the History of Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mark W.

    1979-01-01

    Several areas of sport history and their relationships to the process of society are outlined including transportation and sports participation, mass media, migrant movements, and minority participation. (JMF)

  3. The Philosophical Ground of Modern Socialist Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhoudt, Robert G.

    1985-01-01

    Philosophical accounts of sport's sociopolitical purposes tend either to condemn or promote various political ideologies. This essay gives a synthetic interpretation of the philosophical groundwork of judgments about socialist sport in terms of Hegel's contributions to Marxist thought and the implications of Marxist thought for modern sporting…

  4. The Philosophical Ground of Modern Socialist Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhoudt, Robert G.

    1985-01-01

    Philosophical accounts of sport's sociopolitical purposes tend either to condemn or promote various political ideologies. This essay gives a synthetic interpretation of the philosophical groundwork of judgments about socialist sport in terms of Hegel's contributions to Marxist thought and the implications of Marxist thought for modern sporting…

  5. SPoRT's Participation in the GOES-R Proving Ground Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary; Fuell, Kevin; Smith, Matthew; Stano, Geoffrey; Molthan, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The next generation geostationary satellite, GOES-R, will carry two new instruments with unique atmospheric and surface observing capabilities, the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), to study short-term weather processes. The ABI will bring enhanced multispectral observing capabilities with frequent refresh rates for regional and full disk coverage to geostationary orbit to address many existing and new forecast challenges. The GLM will, for the first time, provide the continuous monitoring of total lightning flashes over a hemispherical region from space. NOAA established the GOES-R Proving Ground activity several years ago to demonstrate the new capabilities of these instruments and to prepare forecasters for their day one use. Proving Ground partners work closely with algorithm developers and the end user community to develop and transition proxy data sets representing GOES-R observing capabilities. This close collaboration helps to maximize refine algorithms leading to the delivery of a product that effectively address a forecast challenge. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has been a participant in the NOAA GOES-R Proving Ground activity by developing and disseminating selected GOES-R proxy products to collaborating WFOs and National Centers. Established in 2002 to demonstrate the weather and forecasting application of real-time EOS measurements, the SPoRT program has grown to be an end-to-end research to operations activity focused on the use of advanced NASA modeling and data assimilation approaches, nowcasting techniques, and unique high-resolution multispectral data from EOS satellites to improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional and local scale. Participation in the Proving Ground activities extends SPoRT s activities and taps its experience and expertise in diagnostic weather analysis, short-term weather forecasting, and the transition of research and experimental

  6. Motor sport in France: testing-ground for the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofaigh, Eamon O

    2011-01-01

    The birth of the automobile in the late nineteenth century was greeted with a mixture of awe, scepticism and sometimes even disdain from sections of the European public. In this article, the steps taken in France to pioneer and promote this new invention are examined. Unreliable and noisy, the early automobile owes a debt of gratitude to the French aristocracy who organised and codified motor racing in an effort to test these new inventions while at the same time introduce them to a wider public. City-to-city races demonstrated the potential of the automobile before the initiative of Gordon Bennett proved to be the catalyst for the birth of international motor sport as we recognise it today. Finally this article looks at the special connection between Le Mans and the automobile. Le Mans has, through its 24-hour race, maintained a strong link with the development of everyday automobile tourism and offers the enthusiast an alternative to the machines that reach incredible speeds on modern-day closed circuits. This article examines how French roads were veritable testing grounds for the earliest cars and how the public roads of Le Mans maintain the tradition to this day.

  7. An Overview of NASA SPoRT GOES-R JPSS Proving Ground Testbed Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Emily; Stano, Geoffrey; Fuell, Kevin; Leroy, Anita; Mcgrath, Kevin; Molthan, Andrew; Schultz, Lori; Smith, Matthew; White, Kris; Schultz, Christopher; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center is funded by NASA's Earth Science Division and NOAA's JPSS and GOES-R Proving Grounds to transition satellite products and capabilities to the NWS to improve short term (0-48 hr) forecasts on a regional and local scale. SPoRT currently collaborates with 30+ NWS WFOs (at least one in each NWS region) and 5 National Centers/Testbeds. SPoRT matches user-identified forecast challenges to specific products, providing access to these data in AWIPS through new plug-in development, and generating applications-based training to use the products for their needs (R20). Upon transition, SPoRT collaborates with the user to assess the product impact in a real-world environment for feedback to product developers (O2R) and to benefit their peers.

  8. Artificial Ground Water Recharge with Surface Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heviánková, Silvie; Marschalko, Marian; Chromíková, Jitka; Kyncl, Miroslav; Korabík, Michal

    2016-10-01

    With regard to the adverse manifestations of the recent climatic conditions, Europe as well as the world have been facing the problem of dry periods that reduce the possibility of drawing drinking water from the underground sources. The paper aims to describe artificial ground water recharge (infiltration) that may be used to restock underground sources with surface water from natural streams. Among many conditions, it aims to specify the boundary and operational conditions of the individual aspects of the artificial ground water recharge technology. The principle of artificial infiltration lies in the design of a technical system, by means of which it is possible to conduct surplus water from one place (in this case a natural stream) into another place (an infiltration basin in this case). This way, the water begins to infiltrate into the underground resources of drinking water, while the mixed water composition corresponds to the water parameters required for drinking water.

  9. Bacteriophages as surface and ground water tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rossi

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages are increasingly used as tracers for quantitative analysis in both hydrology and hydrogeology. The biological particles are neither toxic nor pathogenic for other living organisms as they penetrate only a specific bacterial host. They have many advantages over classical fluorescent tracers and offer the additional possibility of multi-point injection for tracer tests. Several years of research make them suitable for quantitative transport analysis and flow boundary delineation in both surface and ground waters, including karst, fractured and porous media aquifers. This article presents the effective application of bacteriophages based on their use in differing Swiss hydrological environments and compares their behaviour to conventional coloured dye or salt-type tracers. In surface water and karst aquifers, bacteriophages travel at about the same speed as the typically referenced fluorescent tracers (uranine, sulphurhodamine G extra. In aquifers of interstitial porosity, however, they appear to migrate more rapidly than fluorescent tracers, albeit with a significant reduction in their numbers within the porous media. This faster travel time implies that a modified rationale is needed for defining some ground water protection area boundaries. Further developments of other bacteriophages and their documentation as tracer methods should result in an accurate and efficient tracer tool that will be a proven alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes.

  10. Bacteriophages as surface and ground water tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, P.; Dörfliger, N.; Kennedy, K.; Müller, I.; Aragno, M.

    Bacteriophages are increasingly used as tracers for quantitative analysis in both hydrology and hydrogeology. The biological particles are neither toxic nor pathogenic for other living organisms as they penetrate only a specific bacterial host. They have many advantages over classical fluorescent tracers and offer the additional possibility of multi-point injection for tracer tests. Several years of research make them suitable for quantitative transport analysis and flow boundary delineation in both surface and ground waters, including karst, fractured and porous media aquifers. This article presents the effective application of bacteriophages based on their use in differing Swiss hydrological environments and compares their behaviour to conventional coloured dye or salt-type tracers. In surface water and karst aquifers, bacteriophages travel at about the same speed as the typically referenced fluorescent tracers (uranine, sulphurhodamine G extra). In aquifers of interstitial porosity, however, they appear to migrate more rapidly than fluorescent tracers, albeit with a significant reduction in their numbers within the porous media. This faster travel time implies that a modified rationale is needed for defining some ground water protection area boundaries. Further developments of other bacteriophages and their documentation as tracer methods should result in an accurate and efficient tracer tool that will be a proven alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes.

  11. Passive heating of the ground surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyburczyk, Anna

    2016-03-01

    The phenomenon of phase change is one of the most important contemporary issues of thermal engineering. In particular, this applies to all kinds of heat exchanger systems, which should achieve the highest possible efficiency while reducing investment and operating costs. Some of these systems are heat pipes or thermosyphons, which, among others, are used for the heat transfer, temperature stabilization and the regulation of heat flux density. Additionally, they are passive systems, and therefore do not require an external power supply. Heat pipes can be used to stabilize the surface temperature of roads and driveways. Large heat tubes can be applied for heating the surface of bridges and overpasses, which become icy in unfavorable climatic conditions. The paper presents research on the test facility, whose main component is a long vertical copper fin. The temperature at the base of the fin was kept constant for a given series of measurements. Heat receiving fluid was ethanol at atmospheric pressure. The measurement methodology and the results of investigations were discussed. The surface temperature distribution was measured with the infrared camera, and on this basis the local values of heat flow and the heat transfer coefficient were determined. The results were presented as boiling curves for both the fin with the smooth surface and the one covered with a metal capillary-porous structure. The results obtained are useful in the design of heat exchangers, including passive heating of the ground.

  12. Passive heating of the ground surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyburczyk Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of phase change is one of the most important contemporary issues of thermal engineering. In particular, this applies to all kinds of heat exchanger systems, which should achieve the highest possible efficiency while reducing investment and operating costs. Some of these systems are heat pipes or thermosyphons, which, among others, are used for the heat transfer, temperature stabilization and the regulation of heat flux density. Additionally, they are passive systems, and therefore do not require an external power supply. Heat pipes can be used to stabilize the surface temperature of roads and driveways. Large heat tubes can be applied for heating the surface of bridges and overpasses, which become icy in unfavorable climatic conditions. The paper presents research on the test facility, whose main component is a long vertical copper fin. The temperature at the base of the fin was kept constant for a given series of measurements. Heat receiving fluid was ethanol at atmospheric pressure. The measurement methodology and the results of investigations were discussed. The surface temperature distribution was measured with the infrared camera, and on this basis the local values of heat flow and the heat transfer coefficient were determined. The results were presented as boiling curves for both the fin with the smooth surface and the one covered with a metal capillary-porous structure. The results obtained are useful in the design of heat exchangers, including passive heating of the ground.

  13. SPoRT Participation in the GOES-R and JPSS Proving Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary; Fuell, Kevin; Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    For the last several years, the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) project at has been working with the various algorithm working groups and science teams to demonstrate the utility of future operational sensors for GOES-R and the suite of instruments for the JPSS observing platforms. For GOES-R, imagery and products have been developed from polar-orbiting sensors such as MODIS and geostationary observations from SEVIRI, simulated imagery, enhanced products derived from existing GOES satellites, and data from ground-based observing systems to generate pseudo or proxy products for the ABI and GLM instruments. The suite of products include GOES-POES basic and RGB hybrid imagery, total lightning flash products, quantitative precipitation estimates, and convective initiation products. SPoRT is using imagery and products from VIIRS, CrIS, ATMS, and OMPS to show the utility of data and products from their operational counterparts on JPSS. The products include VIIRS imagery in swath form, the GOES-POES hybrid, a suite of RGB products including the air mass RGB using water vapor and ozone channels from CrIS, and several DNB products. Over a dozen SPoRT collaborative WFOs and several National Centers are involved in an intensive evaluation of the operational utility of these products.

  14. GOES-R Proving Ground Activities at the NASA Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    SPoRT is actively involved in GOES-R Proving Ground activities in a number of ways: (1) Applying the paradigm of product development, user training, and interaction to foster interaction with end users at NOAA forecast offices national centers. (2) Providing unique capabilities in collaboration with other GOES-R Proving Ground partners (a) Hybrid GOES-MODIS imagery (b) Pseudo-GLM via regional lightning mapping arrays (c) Developing new RGB imagery from EUMETSAT guidelines

  15. Prediction of ground surface displacement caused by grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭风琪; 刘晓潭; 童无期; 单智

    2015-01-01

    Ground surface displacement caused by grouting was calculated with stochastic medium theory. Ground surface displacement was assumed to be caused by the cavity expansion of grouting, slurry seepage, and slurry contraction. A prediction method of ground surface displacement was developed. The reliability of the presented method was validated through a comparison between theoretical results and results from engineering practice. Results show that the present method is effective. The effect of parameters on uplift displacement was illustrated under different grouting conditions. Through analysis, it can be known that the ground surface uplift is mainly caused by osmosis of slurry and the primary influence angle of stratum βdetermines the influence range of surface uplift. Besides, the results show that ground surface uplift displacement decreases notably with increasing depth of the grouting cavity but it increases with increasing diffusion radius of grout and increasing grouting pressure.

  16. sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Nowadays,high school students hold different opinions about after-class activities.There are two quite different phenomenonena.Some students are crazy about sports and some other activities.They spend much time in joining the outdoor activities and varies of groups,and also,making new friends.However,they pay a little attention to their studies.

  17. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan Christian

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally only the static bearing capacity and stiffness of the ground is considered in the design of wind turbine foundations. However, modern wind turbines are flexible structures with resonance frequencies as low as 0.2 Hz. Unfortunately, environmental loads and the passage of blades past...... the tower may lead to excitation with frequencies of the same order of magnitude. Therefore, dynamic soil-structure interaction has to be accounted for in order to get an accurate prediction of the structural response. In this paper the particular problem of a rigid foundation on a layered subsoil...

  18. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally only the static bearing capacity and stiffness of the ground is considered in the design of wind turbine foundations. However, modern wind turbines are flexible structures with resonance frequencies as low as 0.2 Hz. Unfortunately, environmental loads and the passage of blades past...... the tower may lead to excitation with frequencies of the same order of magnitude. Therefore, dynamic soilstructure interaction has to be accounted for in order to get an accurate prediction of the structural response. In this paper the particular problem of a rigid foundation on a layered subsoil...

  19. Polyfluorinated chemicals in European surface waters, ground- and drinking waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschauzier, C.; de Voogt, P.; Brauch, H.-J.; Lange, F.T.; Knepper, T.P.; Lange, F.T.

    2012-01-01

    Polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), especially short chain fluorinated alkyl sulfonates and carboxylates, are ubiquitously found in the environment. This chapter aims at giving an overview of PFC concentrations found in European surface, ground- and drinking waters and their behavior during convention

  20. Polyfluorinated chemicals in European surface waters, ground- and drinking waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschauzier, C.; de Voogt, P.; Brauch, H.-J.; Lange, F.T.; Knepper, T.P.; Lange, F.T.

    2012-01-01

    Polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), especially short chain fluorinated alkyl sulfonates and carboxylates, are ubiquitously found in the environment. This chapter aims at giving an overview of PFC concentrations found in European surface, ground- and drinking waters and their behavior during

  1. JPSS Proving Ground Activities with NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, L. A.; Smith, M. R.; Fuell, K.; Stano, G. T.; LeRoy, A.; Berndt, E.

    2015-12-01

    Instruments aboard the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of satellites will provide imagery and other data sets relevant to operational weather forecasts. To prepare current and future weather forecasters in application of these data sets, Proving Ground activities have been established that demonstrate future JPSS capabilities through use of similar sensors aboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, and the S-NPP mission. As part of these efforts, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, Alabama partners with near real-time providers of S-NPP products (e.g., NASA, UW/CIMSS, UAF/GINA, etc.) to demonstrate future capabilities of JPSS. This includes training materials and product distribution of multi-spectral false color composites of the visible, near-infrared, and infrared bands of MODIS and VIIRS. These are designed to highlight phenomena of interest to help forecasters digest the multispectral data provided by the VIIRS sensor. In addition, forecasters have been trained on the use of the VIIRS day-night band, which provides imagery of moonlit clouds, surface, and lights emitted by human activities. Hyperspectral information from the S-NPP/CrIS instrument provides thermodynamic profiles that aid in the detection of extremely cold air aloft, helping to map specific aviation hazards at high latitudes. Hyperspectral data also support the estimation of ozone concentration, which can highlight the presence of much drier stratospheric air, and map its interaction with mid-latitude or tropical cyclones to improve predictions of their strengthening or decay. Proving Ground activities are reviewed, including training materials and methods that have been provided to forecasters, and forecaster feedback on these products that has been acquired through formal, detailed assessment of their applicability to a given forecast threat or task. Future opportunities for collaborations around the delivery of training are proposed

  2. Digital Modeling Phenomenon Of Surface Ground Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Voina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With the development of specialized software applications it was possible to approach and resolve complex problems concerning automating and process optimization for which are being used field data. Computerized representation of the shape and dimensions of the Earth requires a detailed mathematical modeling, known as "digital terrain model". The paper aims to present the digital terrain model of Vulcan mining, Hunedoara County, Romania. Modeling consists of a set of mathematical equations that define in detail the surface of Earth and has an approximate surface rigorously and mathematical, that calculated the land area. Therefore, the digital terrain model means a digital representation of the earth's surface through a mathematical model that approximates the land surface modeling, which can be used in various civil and industrial applications in. To achieve the digital terrain model of data recorded using linear and nonlinear interpolation method based on point survey which highlights the natural surface studied. Given the complexity of this work it is absolutely necessary to know in detail of all topographic elements of work area, without the actions to be undertaken to project and manipulate would not be possible. To achieve digital terrain model, within a specialized software were set appropriate parameters required to achieve this case study. After performing all steps we obtained digital terrain model of Vulcan Mine. Digital terrain model is the complex product, which has characteristics that are equivalent to the specialists that use satellite images and information stored in a digital model, this is easier to use.

  3. Evaluation of ground stiffness parameters using continuous surface wave geophysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Anne; Foged, Niels

    2000-01-01

    -small-strain stiffness of the ground Gmax. Continuous surface wave geophysics offers a quick, non-intrusive and economical way of making such measurements. This paper reviews the continuous surface wave techniques and evaluates, in engineering terms, the applicability of the method to the site investigation industry....

  4. Evaluation of ground stiffness parameters using continuous surface wave geophysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Anne; Foged, Niels

    2000-01-01

    -small-strain stiffness of the ground Gmax. Continuous surface wave geophysics offers a quick, non-intrusive and economical way of making such measurements. This paper reviews the continuous surface wave techniques and evaluates, in engineering terms, the applicability of the method to the site investigation industry....

  5. Power productivity of the ground surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutu A.I.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Here there is presented an attempt to estimate the efficiency degree when working with soil surface through the different methods of valorization incident solar radiation. Such technical methods are being analyzed as (solar collectors, photovoltaic cells, solar thermal power plants, power cultures field (bushes, wheat, sunflower, maize, rape, sorghum as well as microalgae crops. Here is the description of advantages and disadvantages for each group in part out of these three. The technical methods are up to date from the efficiency utilization view-point of industrial area. Microalgae crops are similar to technical methods from this point of view.

  6. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  7. North American regional climate reconstruction from ground surface temperature histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaume-Santero, Fernando; Pickler, Carolyne; Beltrami, Hugo; Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    2016-12-01

    Within the framework of the PAGES NAm2k project, 510 North American borehole temperature-depth profiles were analyzed to infer recent climate changes. To facilitate comparisons and to study the same time period, the profiles were truncated at 300 m. Ground surface temperature histories for the last 500 years were obtained for a model describing temperature changes at the surface for several climate-differentiated regions in North America. The evaluation of the model is done by inversion of temperature perturbations using singular value decomposition and its solutions are assessed using a Monte Carlo approach. The results within 95 % confidence interval suggest a warming between 1.0 and 2.5 K during the last two centuries. A regional analysis, composed of mean temperature changes over the last 500 years and geographical maps of ground surface temperatures, show that all regions experienced warming, but this warming is not spatially uniform and is more marked in northern regions.

  8. Part 2: effect of training surface on acute physiological responses after sport-specific training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnie, Martyn J; Dawson, Brian; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Peeling, Peter

    2013-04-01

    This study compared the effect of sand and grass training surfaces during a sport-specific conditioning session in well-trained team sport athletes (n = 10). The participants initially completed a preliminary testing session to gather baseline (BASE) performance data for vertical jump, repeated sprint ability, and 3-km running time trial. Three days subsequent to BASE, all the athletes completed the first sport-specific conditioning session, which was followed by a repeat of the BASE performance tests the following day (24 hours postexercise). Seven days later, the same training session was completed on the opposing surface and was again followed 24 hours later by the BASE performance tests. During each session, blood lactate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and heart rate (HR) were recorded, with player movement patterns also monitored via global positioning system units. Additionally, venous blood was collected preexercise, postexercise, and 24 hours postexercise, and analyzed for serum concentrations of Myoglobin, Haptoglobin, and C-Reactive Protein. Results showed significantly higher HR and RPE responses on SAND (p > 0.05), despite significantly lower distance and velocity outputs for the training session (p > 0.05). There were no differences in 24 hours postexercise performance (p > 0.05), and blood markers of muscle damage, inflammation and hemolysis were also similar between the surfaces (p > 0.05). These results suggest that performing a sport-specific conditioning session on a sand (vs. grass) surface can result in a greater physiological response, without any additional decrement to next-day performance.

  9. Ground-based measurement of surface temperature and thermal emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owe, M.; Van De Griend, A. A.

    1994-01-01

    Motorized cable systems for transporting infrared thermometers have been used successfully during several international field campaigns. Systems may be configured with as many as four thermal sensors up to 9 m above the surface, and traverse a 30 m transect. Ground and canopy temperatures are important for solving the surface energy balance. The spatial variability of surface temperature is often great, so that averaged point measurements result in highly inaccurate areal estimates. The cable systems are ideal for quantifying both temporal and spatial variabilities. Thermal emissivity is also necessary for deriving the absolute physical temperature, and measurements may be made with a portable measuring box.

  10. A model of the ground surface temperature for micrometeorological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Julian S.; Erell, Evyatar

    2017-07-01

    Micrometeorological models at various scales require ground surface temperature, which may not always be measured in sufficient spatial or temporal detail. There is thus a need for a model that can calculate the surface temperature using only widely available weather data, thermal properties of the ground, and surface properties. The vegetated/permeable surface energy balance (VP-SEB) model introduced here requires no a priori knowledge of soil temperature or moisture at any depth. It combines a two-layer characterization of the soil column following the heat conservation law with a sinusoidal function to estimate deep soil temperature, and a simplified procedure for calculating moisture content. A physically based solution is used for each of the energy balance components allowing VP-SEB to be highly portable. VP-SEB was tested using field data measuring bare loess desert soil in dry weather and following rain events. Modeled hourly surface temperature correlated well with the measured data (r 2 = 0.95 for a whole year), with a root-mean-square error of 2.77 K. The model was used to generate input for a pedestrian thermal comfort study using the Index of Thermal Stress (ITS). The simulation shows that the thermal stress on a pedestrian standing in the sun on a fully paved surface, which may be over 500 W on a warm summer day, may be as much as 100 W lower on a grass surface exposed to the same meteorological conditions.

  11. Mitigating ground vibration by periodic inclusions and surface structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Bucinskas, Paulius; Persson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    -dimensional finite-element model. The laboratory model employs soaked mattress foam placed within a box to mimic a finite volume of soil. The dynamic properties of the soaked foam ensure wavelengths representative of ground vibration in small scale. Comparison of the results from the two models leads......Ground vibration from traffic is a source of nuisance in urbanized areas. Trenches and wave barriers can provide mitigation of vibrations, but single barriers need to have a large depth to be effective-especially in the low-frequency range relevant to traffic-induced vibration. Alternatively...... well-defined behavior can be expected for transient loads and finite structures. However, some mitigation may occur. The paper aims at quantifying the mitigation effect of nearly periodic masses placed on the ground surface using two approaches: a small-scale laboratory model and a three...

  12. Practical aspects of tritium measurement in ground and surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzsche, O. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik; Hebert, D. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    1997-03-01

    Tritium measurements are a powerful tool in hydrological and hydrogeological investigations for detecting mean residence times of several water reservoirs. Due to the low tritium activities in precipitation, ground and surface waters a low level measurement is necessary. Therefore often the liquid scintillation counting after an electrolytic enrichment of water is used. In this paper some practical aspects and problems of measurement are discussed and the problem of contamination in low level laboratories is shown. (orig.)

  13. Mechanical and Hydraulic Properties of Wax-coated Sands for Sport Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardet, J. P.; Benazza, C.; Bruchon, J. F.; Mishra, M.

    2009-06-01

    Natural soils such as sandy loams are being replaced by synthetic soils for various types of sport and recreational surfaces, including horseracing tracks. These synthetic soils are made of a mixture of sand, microcrystalline wax, synthetic fibers and rubber chips which optimize the mechanical and hydraulic properties of natural soils so that they drain faster after rainstorms and decrease risks of sport injuries while retaining appropriate sport performances. Silica sand, which makes up the largest fraction of synthetic soils, is hydrophyllic by nature, i.e., tends to retain water on sand grain surfaces. After rainstorms, hydrophilic surfaces retain a large amount of water, are difficult to compact, and yield uncontrollable mechanical and hydraulic properties when too moist. The addition of wax contributes to improving both mechanical and hydraulic properties of sands. Wax coats the sand grains with a thin layer, and enhances adherence between sand particles. It repels water from sand grains and influences both compaction and hydraulic properties. This study reports experimental results that help to understand the properties of wax-coated sands used in synthetic surfaces, especially the degradation of synthetic surfaces that have insufficient wax-coatings.

  14. A grounded theory of positive youth development through sport based on results from a qualitative meta-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Neely, Kacey C.; Slater, Linda G.; Camiré, Martin; Côté, Jean; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; MacDonald, Dany; Strachan, Leisha; Tamminen, Katherine A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The overall purpose of this study was to create a model of positive youth development (PYD) through sport grounded in the extant qualitative literature. More specifically, the first objective was to review and evaluate qualitative studies of PYD in sport. The second objective was to analyze and synthesize findings from these studies. Following record identification and screening, 63 articles were retained for analysis. Meta-method analysis revealed strengths of studies were the use of multiple data collection and validity techniques, which produced high-quality data. Weaknesses were limited use of ‘named’ methodologies and inadequate reporting of sampling procedures. Philosophical perspectives were rarely reported, and theory was used sparingly. Results of an inductive meta-data analysis produced three categories: PYD climate (adult relationships, peer relationships, and parental involvement), life skills program focus (life skill building activities and transfer activities), and PYD outcomes (in personal, social, and physical domains). A model that distinguishes between implicit and explicit processes to PYD is presented. PMID:27695511

  15. Surface modification of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene for joint prosthesis and sports applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Dong

    2004-01-01

    The recent progresses in the surfaee modification of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) using such advanced surface modification technologies as conventional ion implantation (CⅡ), new plasma immersion ion implantation (PⅢ) and novel active screen plasma (ASP), were all reported. Significantly improved wear resistance was achieved, which has great potential for extending the life-span of joint replacement prostheses and enhancing the performance of such sports equipment as skis and snowboards.

  16. Development of wing-in-ground effect craft 'Marine Slider' for high-speed boating and gliding for sports and pleasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Takenori; Higashida, Akio; Matsuoka, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Uragami, Koichi

    1991-06-01

    A new type of high-speed boat for sports and recreational purposes developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries is presented. The boat is a wing-in-ground effect craft based on the principle of the ram-wing effect. It is capable of running faster than ordinary water-borne craft when its wave-generation resistance is eliminated.

  17. Ground Surface Deformations Near a Fault-Bounded Groundwater Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovsky, B.; Funning, G. J.; Ferretti, A.

    2011-12-01

    Geodetic data often reveal the presence of groundwater aquifers that are bounded by faults (Schmidt and Bürgmann, 2003; Galloway and Hoffmann, 2007; Bell et al., 2008). Whereas unrestricted groundwater aquifers exhibit a radially symmetric pattern of uplift with diffuse boundaries, aquifers that are bounded by faults have one or more sharp, linear boundaries. Interferometric synthetic aperture (InSAR) data, due to their high spatial density, are particularly well suited to observe fault bounded aquifers, and the Santa Clara Aquifer in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, constitutes an excellent example. The largest ground surface displacements in the Bay Area are due to the inflation of the Santa Clara aquifer, and InSAR data plainly show that the Santa Clara aquifer is partitioned by the Silver Creek fault. This study first develops a general model of the displacements at the surface of the Earth due to fluid diffusion through a buried permeable boundary such as a fault zone. This model is compared to InSAR data from the Silver Creek fault and we find that we are able to infer fault zone poromechanical properties from InSAR data that are comparable to in situ measurements. Our theoretical model is constrained by several geological and hydrological observations concerning the structure of fault zones. Analytical solutions are presented for the ground surface displacements due to a perfectly impermeable fault zone. This end-member family of models, however, does not fit the available data. We therefore make allowance for an arbitrarily layered, variably permeable, one-dimensional fault zone. Time-dependent ground surface deformations are calculated in the Laplace domain using an efficient semi-analytic method. This general model is applicable to other poroelastic regimes including geothermal and hydrocarbon systems. We are able to estimate fault zone hydraulic conductivity by comparing theoretical ground surface displacements in a permeable fault zone to

  18. Potential Energy Surfaces of Nitrogen Dioxide for the Ground State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Ju-Xiang; ZHU Zheng-He; CHENG Xin-Lu; YANG Xiang-Dong

    2007-01-01

    The potential energy function of nitrogen dioxide with the C2v symmetry in the ground state is represented using the simplified Sorbie-Murrell many-body expansion function in terms of the symmetry of NO2. Using the potential energy function, some potential energy surfaces of NO2(C2v, X2A1), such as the bond stretching contour plot for a fixed equilibrium geometry angle θ and contour for O moving around N-O (R1), in which R1 is fixed at the equilibrium bond length, are depicted. The potential energy surfaces are analysed. Moreover, the equilibrium parameters for NO2 with the C2v, Cs and D8h symmetries, such as equilibrium geometry structures and energies, are calculated by the ab initio (CBS-Q) method.

  19. Diurnal freeze/thaw cycles of the ground surface on the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG MeiXue; YAO TanDong; GOU XiaoHua; HIROSE Nozomu; FUJII Hide Yuki; HAO LiSheng; D.F.LEVIA

    2007-01-01

    The exchange of energy and water between the lithosphere and atmosphere mainly takes place at the ground surface. Therefore, freeze/thaw condition at the ground surface is an important factor in examining the interactions between the land surface and atmosphere. Based on the observation data obtained by CEOP/CAMP-Tibet, the diurnal freeze/thaw cycles of the ground surface near Naqu, central Tibetan Plateau was preliminarily analyzed. The results show that the surface layer was completely frozen for approximately one month. However, the time that the ground surface experienced diurnal freeze/thaw cycles was about 6 months. The high frequency of freeze/thaw cycles at the ground surface significantly influences water and energy exchanges between ground and atmosphere over half a year. The interaction processes between the ground and atmosphere under different soil conditions (such as complete thaw, complete freeze and diurnal freeze/thaw cycles) are issues worthy of further examination.

  20. Surface hardness of different restorative materials after long-term immersion in sports and energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ugur; Yildiz, Esra; Eren, Meltem Mert; Ozel, Sevda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sports and energy drinks on the surface hardness of different restorative materials over a 6-month period. Forty-two disk-shaped specimens were prepared for each of the four restorative materials tested: Compoglass F, Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, and Premise. Specimens were immersed for 2 min daily, up to 6 months, in six storage solutions (n=7 per material for each solution): distilled water, Powerade, Gatorade, X-IR, Burn, and Red Bull. Surface hardness was measured at baseline, after 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months. Data were analyzed statistically using repeated measures ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni test for multiple comparisons (α=0.05). Surface hardness of the restorative materials was significantly affected by both immersion solution and immersion period (p<0.001). All tested solutions induced significant reduction in surface hardness of the restorative materials over a 6-month immersion period.

  1. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  2. GROUND SURFACE VISUALIZATION USING RED RELIEF IMAGE MAP FOR A VARIETY OF MAP SCALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chiba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many methods to express topographical features of ground surface. In which, contour map has been the traditional method and along with development of digital data, surface model such as shaded relief map has been using for ground surface expression. Recently, data acquisition has been developed very much quick, demanding more advanced visualization method to express ground surface so as to effectively use the high quality data. In this study, the authors using the Red Relief Image Map (RRIM, Chiba et al., 2008 to express ground surface visualization for a variety of map scales. The authors used 30 m mesh data of SRTM to show the topographical features of western Mongolian and micro-topographical features of ground surface in tectonically active regions of Japan. The results show that, compared to traditional and other similar methods, the RRIM can express ground surface more precisely and 3-dimensionally, suggested its advanced usage for many fields of topographical visualization.

  3. Ground Surface Visualization Using Red Relief Image Map for a Variety of Map Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, T.; Hasi, B.

    2016-06-01

    There are many methods to express topographical features of ground surface. In which, contour map has been the traditional method and along with development of digital data, surface model such as shaded relief map has been using for ground surface expression. Recently, data acquisition has been developed very much quick, demanding more advanced visualization method to express ground surface so as to effectively use the high quality data. In this study, the authors using the Red Relief Image Map (RRIM, Chiba et al., 2008) to express ground surface visualization for a variety of map scales. The authors used 30 m mesh data of SRTM to show the topographical features of western Mongolian and micro-topographical features of ground surface in tectonically active regions of Japan. The results show that, compared to traditional and other similar methods, the RRIM can express ground surface more precisely and 3-dimensionally, suggested its advanced usage for many fields of topographical visualization.

  4. Ground reaction forces and osteogenic index of the sport of cyclocross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolly, Brian; Chumanov, Elizabeth; Brooks, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Weight-bearing activity has been shown to increase bone mineral density. Our purpose was to measure vertical ground reaction forces (GRFs) during cyclocross-specific activities and compute their osteogenic index (OI). Twenty-five healthy cyclocross athletes participated. GRF was measured using pressure-sensitive insoles during seated and standing cycling and four cyclocross-specific activities: barrier flat, barrier uphill, uphill run-up, downhill run-up. Peak and mean GRF values, according to bodyweight, were determined for each activity. OI was computed using peak GRF and number of loading cycles. GRF and OI were compared across activities using repeated-measures ANOVA. Number of loading cycles per activity was 6(1) for barrier flat, 8(1) barrier uphill, 7(1) uphill run-up, 12(3) downhill run-up. All activities had significantly (P < 0.01) higher peak GRF, mean GRF values and OI when compared to both seated and standing cycling. The barrier flat condition (P < 0.01) had highest peak (2.9 times bodyweight) and mean GRF values (2.3 times bodyweight). Downhill run-up (P < 0.01) had the highest OI (6.5). GRF generated during the barrier flat activity is similar in magnitude to reported GRFs during running and hopping. Because cyclocross involves weight bearing components, it may be more beneficial to bone health than seated road cycling.

  5. Locally controlled globally smooth ground surface reconstruction from terrestrial point clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Rychkov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Approaches to ground surface reconstruction from massive terrestrial point clouds are presented. Using a set of local least squares (LSQR) planes, the "holes" are filled either from the ground model of the next coarser level or by Hermite Radial Basis Functions (HRBF). Global curvature continuous as well as infinitely smooth ground surface models are obtained with Partition of Unity (PU) using either tensor product B-Splines or compactly supported exponential function. The resulting surface function has local control enabling fast evaluation.

  6. Critical Appraisal and Hazards of Surface Electromyography Data Acquisition in Sport and Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Clarys

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this critical appraisal and hazards of surface electromyography (SEMG is to enhance the data acquisition quality in voluntary but complex movements, sport and exercise in particular. The methodological and technical registration strategies deal with telemetry and online data acquisition, the placement of the detection electrodes and the choice of the most adequate normalization mode. Findings compared with the literature suggest detection quality differences between registration methods and between water and air data acquisition allowing for output differences up to 30% between registration methods and up to 25% decrease in water, considering identical measures in air and in water. Various hazards deal with erroneous choices of muscles or electrode placement and the continuous confusion created by static normalization for dynamic motion. Peak dynamic intensities ranged from 111% (in archery to 283% (in giant slalom of a static 100% reference. In addition, the linear relationship between integrated EMG (IEMG as a reference for muscle intensity and muscle force is not likely to exist in dynamic conditions since it is muscle – joint angle – and fatigue dependent. Contrary to expectations, the literature shows 30% of non linear relations in isometric conditions also. SEMG in sport and exercise is highly variable and different from clinical (e.g. neurological EMG. Choices of electrodes, registration methods, muscles, joint angles and normalization techniques may lead to confusing and erroneous or incomparable results.

  7. Measured ground-surface movements, Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal area in the Mexicali Valley, 30 kilometers southeast of Mexicali, Baja California, incurred slight deformation because of the extraction of hot water and steam, and probably, active tectonism. During 1977 to 1978, the US Geological Survey established and measured two networks of horizontal control in an effort to define both types of movement. These networks consisted of: (1) a regional trilateration net brought into the mountain ranges west of the geothermal area from stations on an existing US Geological Survey crustal-strain network north of the international border; and (2) a local net tied to stations in the regional net and encompassing the present and planned geothermal production area. Electronic distance measuring instruments were used to measure the distances between stations in both networks in 1978, 1979 and 1981. Lines in the regional net averaged 25 km. in length and the standard deviation of an individual measurement is estimated to be approx. 0.3 part per million of line length. The local network was measured using different instrumentation and techniques. The average line length was about 5 km. and the standard deviation of an individual measurement approached 3 parts per million per line length. Ground-surface movements in the regional net, as measured by both the 1979 and 1981 resurveys, were small and did not exceed the noise level. The 1979 resurvey of the local net showed an apparent movement of 2 to 3 centimeters inward toward the center of the production area. This apparent movement was restricted to the general limits of the production area. The 1981 resurvey of the local net did not show increased movement attributable to fluid extraction.

  8. Enhancement in Sport, and Enhancement outside Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Thomas

    2007-12-01

    Sport is one of the first areas in which enhancement has become commonplace. It is also one of the first areas in which the use of enhancement technologies has been heavily regulated. Some have thus seen sport as a testing ground for arguments about whether to permit enhancement. However, I argue that there are fairness-based objections to enhancement in sport that do not apply as strongly in some other areas of human activity. Thus, I claim that there will often be a stronger case for permitting enhancement outside of sport than for permitting enhancement in sport. I end by considering some methodological implications of this conclusion.

  9. Shallow Alluvial Aquifer Ground Water System and Surface Water/Ground Water Interaction, Boulder Creek, Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, K. P.; Ge, S.; Crifasi, R. R.

    2006-12-01

    Water chemistry in Boulder Creek, Colorado, shows significant variation as the Creek flows through the City of Boulder [Barber et al., 2006]. This variation is partially due to ground water inputs, which are not quantitatively understood. The purpose of this study is (1) to understand ground water movement in a shallow alluvial aquifer system and (2) to assess surface water/ground water interaction. The study area, encompassing an area of 1 mi2, is located at the Sawhill and Walden Ponds area in Boulder. This area was reclaimed by the City of Boulder and Boulder County after gravel mining operations ceased in the 1970's. Consequently, ground water has filled in the numerous gravel pits allowing riparian vegetation regrowth and replanting. An integrated approach is used to examine the shallow ground water and surface water of the study area through field measurements, water table mapping, graphical data analysis, and numerical modeling. Collected field data suggest that lateral heterogeneity exists throughout the unconsolidated sediment. Alluvial hydraulic conductivities range from 1 to 24 ft/day and flow rates range from 0.01 to 2 ft/day. Preliminary data analysis suggests that ground water movement parallels surface topography and does not noticeably vary with season. Recharge via infiltrating precipitation is dependent on evapotranspiration (ET) demands and is influenced by preferential flow paths. During the growing season when ET demand exceeds precipitation rates, there is little recharge; however recharge occurs during cooler months when ET demand is insignificant. Preliminary data suggest that the Boulder Creek is gaining ground water as it traverses the study area. Stream flow influences the water table for distances up to 400 feet. The influence of stream flow is reflected in the zones relatively low total dissolved solids concentration. A modeling study is being conducted to synthesize aquifer test data, ground water levels, and stream flow data. The

  10. Surface fatigue life of CBN and vitreous ground carburized and hardened AISI 9310 spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Patel, P. R.

    1988-01-01

    Spur gear surface endurance tests were conducted to investigate CBN ground AISI 9310 spur gears for use in aircraft applications, to determine their endurance characteristics and to compare the results with the endurance of standard vitreous ground AISI 9310 spur gears. Tests were conducted with VIM-VAR AISI 9310 carburized and hardened gears that were finish ground with either CBN or vitreous grinding methods. Test conditions were an inlet oil temeprature of 320 K (116 F), an outlet oil temperature of 350 K (170 F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 ksi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The CBN ground gears exhibited a surface fatigue life that was slightly better than the vitreous ground gears. The subsurface residual stress of the CBN ground gears was approximately the same as that for the standard vitreous ground gears for the CBN grinding method used.

  11. Surface and borehole ground-penetrating-radar developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, E.C.; Sato, M.; Olhoeft, G.

    2010-01-01

    During the past 80 years, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has evolved from a skeptically received glacier sounder to a full multicomponent 3D volume-imaging and characterization device. The tool can be calibrated to allow for quantitative estimates of physical properties such as water content. Becau

  12. Mitigating ground vibration by periodic inclusions and surface structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Bucinskas, Paulius; Persson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Ground vibration from traffic is a source of nuisance in urbanized areas. Trenches and wave barriers can provide mitigation of vibrations, but single barriers need to have a large depth to be effective-especially in the low-frequency range relevant to traffic-induced vibration. Alternatively, per...

  13. Near-ground cooling efficacies of trees and high-albedo surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, R M [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-05-01

    Daytime summer urban heat islands arise when the prevalence of dark-colored surfaces and lack of vegetation make a city warmer than neighboring countryside. Two frequently-proposed summer heat island mitigation measures are to plant trees and to increase the albedo (solar reflectivity) of ground surfaces. This dissertation examines the effects of these measures on the surface temperature of an object near the ground, and on solar heating of air near the ground. Near-ground objects include people, vehicles, and buildings. The variation of the surface temperature of a near-ground object with ground albedo indicates that a rise in ground albedo will cool a near-ground object only if the object`s albedo exceeds a critical value. This critical value of object albedo depends on wind speed, object geometry, and the height of the atmospheric thermal boundary layer. It ranges from 0.15 to 0.37 for a person. If an object has typical albedo of 0.3, increasing the ground albedo by.

  14. Topographical Anisotropy and Wetting of Ground Stainless Steel Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Bellmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic and physico-chemical methods were used for a comprehensive surface characterization of different mechanically modified stainless steel surfaces. The surfaces were analyzed using high-resolution confocal microscopy, resulting in detailed information about the topographic properties. In addition, static water contact angle measurements were carried out to characterize the surface heterogeneity of the samples. The effect of morphological anisotropy on water contact angle anisotropy was investigated. The correlation between topography and wetting was studied by means of a model of wetting proposed in the present work, that allows quantifying the air volume of the interface water drop-stainless steel surface.

  15. Concentration distributions of thoron and radon near the ground surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katase, Akira [Tohwa Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-12-01

    One dimensional diffusion model with a constant diffusion coefficient is applied to the thoron concentration distributions in air above the ground. The experimental distributions are well described by the exponential function obtained from the model. Diffusion coefficients and thoron exhalation rates are estimated from the measured distributions, which are the average values for three months. The present values of thoron exhalation are however several times as small as those measured by other researchers. (author)

  16. Ground effects of space weather investigated by the surface impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjola, R.; Boteler, D.; Trichtchenko, L.

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a discussion of the surface impedance applicable in connection with studies of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in technological systems. This viewpoint means that the surface impedance is regarded as a tool to determine the horizontal (geo)electric field at the Earth's surface, which is the key quantity for GIC. Thus the approach is different from the traditional magnetotelluric viewpoint. The definition of the surface impedance usually involves wavenumber-frequency-domain fields, so inverse Fourier transforming the expression of the electric field in terms of the surface impedance and the geomagnetic field results in convolution integrals in the time and space domains. The frequency-dependent surface impedance has a high-pass filter character whereas the corresponding transfer function between the electric field and the time derivative of the magnetic field is of a low-pass filter type. The relative change of the latter transfer function with frequency is usually smaller than that of the surface impedance, which indicates that the geoelectric field is closer to the time derivative than to the magnetic field itself. An investigation of the surface impedance defined by the space-domain electric and magnetic components indicates that the largest electric fields are not always achieved by the plane wave assumption, which is sometimes regarded as an extreme case for GIC. It is also concluded in this paper that it is often possible to apply the plane wave relation locally between the surface electric and magnetic fields. The absolute value of the surface impedance decreases with an increasing wavenumber although the maximum may also be at a non-zero value of the wavenumber. The imaginary part of the surface impedance usually much exceeds the real part.

  17. ETHICS AND CHANGES IN SPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Jovo Radoš; Milan Nešić

    2008-01-01

    Ethics, as a practical philosophy, is found in essential relationships and relations with other relevant practical disciplines (economics, law, politics, sport, etc.). Every human activity is ethically grounded. Therefore, human ethics, which includes sport ethics, is one of the fundamental criteria for establishing moral relations in different are as of sport life. Sport morale stems from a universally accepted ethics legal principles that aim at maintaining sport spirit based on the Olympic...

  18. Analysis on effect of surface fault to site ground motion using finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹炳政; 罗奇峰

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic contact theory is applied to simulate the sliding of surface fault. Finite element method is used to analyze the effect of surface fault to site ground motions. Calculated results indicate that amplification effect is obvious in the area near surface fault, especially on the site that is in the downside fault. The results show that the effect of surface fault should be considered when important structure is constructed in the site with surface fault.

  19. National Enforcement Initiative: Preventing Animal Waste from Contaminating Surface and Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page describes EPA's goal in preventing animal waste from contaminating surface and ground Water. It is an EPA National Enforcement Initiative. Both enforcement cases, and a map of enforcement actions are provided.

  20. The Simulation of Grinding Wheels and Ground Surface Roughness Based on Virtual Reality Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the feasibility and method of the application of virtual reality technology to grinding process, and introduces the modeling method of object entity in the environment of virtual reality. The simulation process of grinding wheels and ground surface roughness is discussed, and the computation program system of numerical simulation is compiled with Visual C++ programming language. At the same time, the three-dimensional simulation models of grinding wheels and ground surface roughness are ...

  1. Uncertainties and shortcomings of ground surface temperature histories derived from inversion of temperature logs

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Andreas; Rath, Volker

    2008-01-01

    Analysing borehole temperature data in terms of ground surface history can add useful information to reconstructions of past climates. Therefore, a rigorous assessment of uncertainties and error sources is a necessary prerequisite for the meaningful interpretation of such ground surface temperature histories. This study analyses the most prominent sources of uncertainty. The diffusive nature of the process makes the inversion relatively robust against incomplete knowledge of the thermal diffu...

  2. Ground-water and surface-water quality data for the West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Tracey A.; Phelan, Daniel J.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Lorah, Michelle M.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents ground-water and surface-water quality data from samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from November 1999 through May 2001 at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The report also provides a description of the sampling and analytical methods that were used to collect and analyze the samples, and includes an evaluation of the quality-assurance data. The ground-water sampling network included two 4-inch wells, two 2-inch wells, sixteen 1-inch piezometers, one hundred thirteen 0.75-inch piezometers, two 0.25-inch flexible-tubing piezo-meters, twenty-seven 0.25-inch piezometers, and forty-two multi-level monitoring system depths at six sites. Ground-water profiler samples were collected from nine sites at 34 depths. In addition, passive-diffusion-bag samplers were deployed at four sites, and porous-membrane sampling devices were installed in the upper sediment at five sites. Surface-water samples were collected from 20 sites. Samples were collected from wells and 0.75-inch piezometers for measurement of field parameters and reduction-oxidation constituents, and analysis of inorganic and organic constituents, during three sampling events in March?April and June?August 2000, and May 2001. Surface-water samples were collected from November 1999 through September 2000 during five sampling events for analysis of organic constituents. Ground-water profiler samples were collected in April?May 2000, and analyzed for field measure-ments, reduction-oxidation constituents, and inorganic constituents and organic constituents. Passive-diffusion-bag samplers were installed in September 2000, and samples were analyzed for organic constituents. Multi-level monitoring system samples were collected and analyzed for field measurements and reduction-oxidation con-stituents, inorganic constituents, and organic con-stituents in March?April and June?August 2000. Field measurements and organic constituents were collected from 0.25-inch

  3. Is Sport Nationalism Justifiable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pérez Triviño

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to clarify the deep relationships established between sport and nationalism by considering, among other factors, the instrumentalisation of sport by political elites, political apathy of citizens, economic resources for sport, the question of violence or identitarian matters. In order to define if the combination of sport and nationalism is admissible, the paper defines sport nationalism and distinguishes the political use of sport for purposes of domestic and foreign policy. In the first section the analysis focuses on whether a causal link with respect to the contribution to violence can be established and with respect to its use in the internal politics of a state, the paper differentiates between normal political circumstances and political crises in order to properly address the question of whether there are grounds to assert that sport can distract citizens from asserting their genuine interests.

  4. Is Sport Nationalism Justifiable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pérez Triviño

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to clarify the deep relationships established between sport and nationalism by considering, among other factors, the instrumentalisation of sport by political elites, political apathy of citizens, economic resources for sport, the question of violence or identitarian matters. In order to define if the combination of sport and nationalism is admissible, the paper defines sport nationalism and distinguishes the political use of sport for purposes of domestic and foreign policy. In the first section the analysis focuses on whether a causal link with respect to the contribution to violence can be established and with respect to its use in the internal politics of a state, the paper differentiates between normal political circumstances and political crises in order to properly address the question of whether there are grounds to assert that sport can distract citizens from asserting their genuine interests.

  5. Study on the Surface Free Energy of Ground CaO by IGC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    CaO formed by decomposing CaCO3 at 1450℃ was ground in a vibrational mill,then the long-time ground sample was reheated at different temperatures.Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC) was used to measure the variation of the sample′s surface free energy under grinding and reheating.It is concluded that the total surface free energy and the London dispersive component of the surface free energy increases with grinding,while the polar component first increases with grinding,and then decreases,and finally disappears.When the long-time ground sample was reheated,its total surface free energy decreases,among which the London component decreases,but the polar component appears again.

  6. Sports Season, Sports Bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ For foreigners in Beijing, the sports bar is a special place, a place to gather for watching matches and a place to feel the familiarity of home, while for some sports enthusiasts it serves as their second home.

  7. Salmonella pollution in ground and surface waters. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of ground waters and surface waters by Salmonella bacteria. Articles discuss the occurence, survival, origin, and control of these bacteria in water sources including rivers, reservoirs, swimming pools, wastewater, aquifers, and ground water. Citations also address the use of Salmonella populations as biological indicators of pollution in aquatic systems. (Contains a minimum of 102 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. On Ground Surface Extraction Using Full-Waveform Airborne Laser Scanner for Cim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, K.; Chikatsu, H.

    2015-05-01

    Satellite positioning systems such as GPS and GLONASS have created significant changes not only in terms of spatial information but also in the construction industry. It is possible to execute a suitable construction plan by using a computerized intelligent construction. Therefore, an accurate estimate of the amount of earthwork is important for operating heavy equipment, and measurement of ground surface with high accuracy is required. A full-waveform airborne laser scanner is expected to be capable of improving the accuracy of ground surface extraction for forested areas, in contrast to discrete airborne laser scanners, as technological innovation. For forested areas, fundamental studies for construction information management (CIM) were conducted to extract ground surface using full-waveform airborne laser scanners based on waveform information.

  9. ON GROUND SURFACE EXTRACTION USING FULL-WAVEFORM AIRBORNE LASER SCANNER FOR CIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nakano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite positioning systems such as GPS and GLONASS have created significant changes not only in terms of spatial information but also in the construction industry. It is possible to execute a suitable construction plan by using a computerized intelligent construction. Therefore, an accurate estimate of the amount of earthwork is important for operating heavy equipment, and measurement of ground surface with high accuracy is required. A full-waveform airborne laser scanner is expected to be capable of improving the accuracy of ground surface extraction for forested areas, in contrast to discrete airborne laser scanners, as technological innovation. For forested areas, fundamental studies for construction information management (CIM were conducted to extract ground surface using full-waveform airborne laser scanners based on waveform information.

  10. Topographical changes of ground surface affected by the Tarim Desert Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shengyu; LEI Jiaqiang; XU Xinwen; WANG Lixin; ZHOU Zhibin; LI Hongzhong

    2006-01-01

    The Tarim Desert Highway is the longest highway crossing the mobile desert in the world. The highway and its sand protection system were established in 1995. This great project must have significant effect on the aeolian environment in its neighborhoods. In 2004, we investigated the topographic changes of ground surface within the sand protection system and its external adjacent area in the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert. The results showed that (i) the original topographic patterns of ground surface were greatly changed, and erosion as well as deposition was distributed clearly on the ground surface, affected by the road and its sand protection system; (ii) sediment deposited in the sand protection system gradually heightened the ground surface, but each part in the system changed differently: in the sand-blocking belt, a transverse sand ridge was formed in the same direction as the upright sand barrier; in the sand-binding belt, sediment was aggraded on the original surface in a certain thickness; at the initial stages since the establishment of the sand protection system, erosion had taken place in the un-stabilized area named by the deposition belt between the sand-blocking belt and the sand-binding belt, the inner of sand-binding belt, the windward slope of dunes in the sand-binding belt, and the neighboring leeward area of the sand protection system.

  11. Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and sports prosthetics, as well as expenses for training and competition. Disabled Sports USA offers nationwide sports programs to anyone with a physical disability. Activities include winter skiing, water sports, summer ...

  12. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  13. The Effect of Images on Surface Potential and Resistance Calculation of Grounding Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTINS, A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the grounding systems with a two layers soil, the calculation of the surface potential using the image method is sometimes impossible due to singularities, avoiding researchers to use the method for electrodes in the bottom layer. In the literature this problem solution is refereed as unreliable or solved with other more complex methods. This paper presents a new approach to calculate the surface potentials in a two. layer soil, for electrodes in the bottom layer, when images are at surface. The singularities in computing surface voltage, when the first image upwards lies at surface, are analysed and it's shown that a small change in top layer thickness allows an approximate solution. Surface potentials due to grid conductor are also considered and the values of resistance are compared with those from other methodologies. Singularities for a ground rod that crosses the two layers are also treated. The obtained values of resistance are not satisfactory, due to lower segments images that overlap the upper segments. This paper also proposes shifting the surface of the upper part of the ground rod, in the upper layer, or taking the modulus of the mutual resistance, to overcome this difficulty.

  14. Enhancement in Sport, and Enhancement outside Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Sport is one of the first areas in which enhancement has become commonplace. It is also one of the first areas in which the use of enhancement technologies has been heavily regulated. Some have thus seen sport as a testing ground for arguments about whether to permit enhancement. However, I argue that there are fairness-based objections to enhancement in sport that do not apply as strongly in some other areas of human activity. Thus, I claim that there will often be a stronger case for permit...

  15. Size of craters produced by explosive charges on or above the ground surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, R. D.; Luccioni, B. M.; Danesi, R. F.; Riera, J. D.; Rocha, M. M.

    The results of a series of tests performed with different amounts of explosive at short distances above and below ground level, as well as on the soil surface are briefly described. After an introductory description of both the main features of the blast wave and the mechanics of crater formation, a brief review of empirical methods for crater size prediction is presented. Next, the experimental design and the results obtained are described. The crater dimensions for underground explosions coincide with those found in the literature. For explosions at ground level the results are qualitatively described by empirical equations. For explosive charges situated above ground level, the dimensions of the craters are smaller than those observed in underground and near the surface explosions. Two new single prediction equations for this case are presented.

  16. Inferring snow pack ripening and melt out from distributed ground surface temperature measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-O. Schmid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal snow cover and its melting are heterogeneous both in space and time. Describing and modelling this variability are important because it affects divers phenomena such as runoff, ground temperatures or slope movements. This study investigates the derivation of melting characteristics based on spatial clusters of temperature measurements. Results are based on data from Switzerland where ground surface temperatures were measured with miniature loggers (iButtons at 40 locations, referred to as footprints. At each footprint, ten iButtons have been distributed randomly few cm below the ground surface over an area of 10 m × 10 m. Footprints span elevations of 2100–3300 m a.s.l. and slope angles of 0–55°, as well as diverse slope expositions and types of surface cover and ground material. Based on two years of temperature data, the basal ripening date and the melt-out date are determined for each iButton, aggregated to the footprint level and further analysed. The date of melt out could be derived for nearly all iButtons, the ripening date could be extracted for only approximately half of them because it requires ground freezing below the snow pack. The variability within a footprint is often considerable and one to three weeks difference between melting or ripening of the points in one footprint is not uncommon. The correlation of mean annual ground surface temperatures, ripening date and melt-out date is moderate, making them useful intuitive complementary measured for model evaluation.

  17. Supplementary report on surface-water and ground-water surveys, Nueces River Basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, W.L.; Ellsworth, C.E.

    1950-01-01

    A report on the ground-water and surface-water surveys of the Nueces River Basin was included in a report by the Bureau of Reclamation, entitled "Comprehensive plan for water-resources development of the Nueces River Basin project planning report number 5-14.04-3, February 1946".

  18. Ground states for a modified capillary surface equation in weighted Orlicz-Sobolev space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we prove a compact embedding theorem for the weighted Orlicz-Sobolev space of radially symmetric functions. Using the embedding theorem and critical points theory, we prove the existence of multiple radial solutions and radial ground states for the following modified capillary surface equation $$\\displaylines{ -\\operatorname{div}\\Big(\\frac{|\

  19. Evaluation of the ground surface Enthalpy balance from bedrock shallow borehole temperatures (Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The annual evolution of the ground temperatures from Incinerador borehole in Livingston Island (South Shetlands, Antarctic is studied. The borehole is 2.4 m deep and is located in a quartzite outcrop in the proximity of the Spanish Antarctic Station Juan Carlos I. In order to model the movement of the 0°C isotherm (velocity and maximum depth hourly temperature profiles from: (i the cooling periods of the frost seasons of 2000 to 2005, and (ii the warming periods of the thaw seasons of 2002–2003, 2003–2004 and 2004–2005, were studied. In this modelling approach, heat gains and losses across ground surface are considered to be the causes for the 0°C isotherm movement. A methodological approach to calculate the Enthalpy change based on the thermodynamic analysis of the ground during the cooling and warming periods is proposed. The Enthalpy change is equivalent to the heat exchange through the ground surface during each season, thus enabling to describe the interaction ground-atmosphere and providing valuable data for studies on permafrost and periglacial processes. The bedrock density is considered to be constant in the borehole and initial isothermal conditions at 0°C are assumed to run the model. The final stages correspond to the temperatures at the end of the cooling and warming periods (annual minima and maxima.

  20. A shear wave ground surface vibration technique for the detection of buried pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggleton, J. M.; Papandreou, B.

    2014-07-01

    A major UK initiative, entitled 'Mapping the Underworld' aims to develop and prove the efficacy of a multi-sensor device for accurate remote buried utility service detection, location and, where possible, identification. One of the technologies to be incorporated in the device is low-frequency vibro-acoustics; the application of this technology for detecting buried infrastructure, in particular pipes, is currently being investigated. Here, a shear wave ground vibration technique for detecting buried pipes is described. For this technique, shear waves are generated at the ground surface, and the resulting ground surface vibrations measured. Time-extended signals are employed to generate the illuminating wave. Generalized cross-correlation functions between the measured ground velocities and a reference measurement adjacent to the excitation are calculated and summed using a stacking method to generate a cross-sectional image of the ground. To mitigate the effects of other potential sources of vibration in the vicinity, the excitation signal can be used as an additional reference when calculating the cross-correlation functions. Measurements have been made at two live test sites to detect a range of buried pipes. Successful detection of the pipes was achieved, with the use of the additional reference signal proving beneficial in the noisier of the two environments.

  1. Evaluation of the ground surface Enthalpy balance from bedrock shallow borehole temperatures (Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M.; Vieira, G.

    2008-03-01

    The annual evolution of the ground temperatures from Incinerador borehole in Livingston Island (South Shetlands, Antarctic) is studied. The borehole is 2.4 m deep and is located in a quartzite outcrop in the proximity of the Spanish Antarctic Station Juan Carlos I. In order to model the movement of the 0°C isotherm (velocity and maximum depth) hourly temperature profiles from: (i) the cooling periods of the frost seasons of 2000 to 2005, and (ii) the warming periods of the thaw seasons of 2002-2003, 2003-2004 and 2004-2005, were studied. In this modelling approach, heat gains and losses across ground surface are considered to be the causes for the 0°C isotherm movement. A methodological approach to calculate the Enthalpy change based on the thermodynamic analysis of the ground during the cooling and warming periods is proposed. The Enthalpy change is equivalent to the heat exchange through the ground surface during each season, thus enabling to describe the interaction ground-atmosphere and providing valuable data for studies on permafrost and periglacial processes. The bedrock density is considered to be constant in the borehole and initial isothermal conditions at 0°C are assumed to run the model. The final stages correspond to the temperatures at the end of the cooling and warming periods (annual minima and maxima).

  2. Interannual changes in snow cover and its impact on ground surface temperatures in Livingston Island (Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Ramos, Miguel; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2015-04-01

    In permafrost areas the seasonal snow cover is an important factor on the ground thermal regime. Snow depth and timing are important in ground insulation from the atmosphere, creating different snow patterns and resulting in spatially variable ground temperatures. The aim of this work is to characterize the interactions between ground thermal regimes and snow cover and the influence on permafrost spatial distribution. The study area is the ice-free terrains of northwestern Hurd Peninsula in the vicinity of the Spanish Antarctic Station "Juan Carlos I" and Bulgarian Antarctic Station "St. Kliment Ohridski". Air and ground temperatures and snow thickness data where analysed from 4 sites along an altitudinal transect in Hurd Peninsula from 2007 to 2012: Nuevo Incinerador (25 m asl), Collado Ramos (110 m), Ohridski (140 m) and Reina Sofia Peak (275 m). The data covers 6 cold seasons showing different conditions: i) very cold with thin snow cover; ii) cold with a gradual increase of snow cover; iii) warm with thick snow cover. The data shows three types of periods regarding the ground surface thermal regime and the thickness of snow cover: a) thin snow cover and short-term fluctuation of ground temperatures; b) thick snow cover and stable ground temperatures; c) very thick snow cover and ground temperatures nearly constant at 0°C. a) Thin snow cover periods: Collado Ramos and Ohridski sites show frequent temperature variations, alternating between short-term fluctuations and stable ground temperatures. Nuevo Incinerador displays during most of the winter stable ground temperatures; b) Cold winters with a gradual increase of the snow cover: Nuevo Incinerador, Collado Ramos and Ohridski sites show similar behavior, with a long period of stable ground temperatures; c) Thick snow cover periods: Collado Ramos and Ohridski show long periods of stable ground, while Nuevo Incinerador shows temperatures close to 0°C since the beginning of the winter, due to early snow cover

  3. A preliminary study on surface ground deformation near shallow foundation induced by strike-slip faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pei-Syuan; Lin, Ming-Lang

    2016-04-01

    According to investigation of recent earthquakes, ground deformation and surface rupture are used to map the influenced range of the active fault. The zones of horizontal and vertical surface displacements and different features of surface rupture are investigated in the field, for example, the Greendale Fault 2010, MW 7.1 Canterbury earthquake. The buildings near the fault rotated and displaced vertically and horizontally due to the ground deformation. Besides, the propagation of fault trace detoured them because of the higher rigidity. Consequently, it's necessary to explore the ground deformation and mechanism of the foundation induced by strike-slip faulting for the safety issue. Based on previous study from scaled analogue model of strike-slip faulting, the ground deformation is controlled by material properties, depth of soil, and boundary condition. On the condition controlled, the model shows the features of ground deformation in the field. This study presents results from shear box experiment on small-scale soft clay models subjected to strike-slip faulting and placed shallow foundations on it in a 1-g environment. The quantifiable data including sequence of surface rupture, topography and the position of foundation are recorded with increasing faulting. From the result of the experiment, first en echelon R shears appeared. The R shears rotated to a more parallel angle to the trace and cracks pulled apart along them with increasing displacements. Then the P shears crossed the basement fault in the opposite direction appears and linked R shears. Lastly the central shear was Y shears. On the other hand, the development of wider zones of rupture, higher rising surface and larger the crack area on surface developed, with deeper depth of soil. With the depth of 1 cm and half-box displacement 1.2 cm, en echelon R shears appeared and the surface above the fault trace elevated to 1.15 mm (Dv), causing a 1.16 cm-wide zone of ground-surface rupture and deformation

  4. Seasonal Distribution of Trace Metals in Ground and Surface Water of Golaghat District, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boarh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study has been carried out on the quality of ground and surface water with respect to chromium, manganese, zinc, copper, nickel, cadmium and arsenic contamination from 28 different sources in the predominantly rural Golaghat district of Assam (India. The metals were analysed by using atomic absorption spectrometer. Water samples were collected from groundwater and surface water during the dry and wet seasons of 2008 from the different sources in 28 locations (samples. The results are discussed in the light of possible health hazards from the metals in relation to their maximum permissible limits. The study shows the quality of ground and surface water in a sizeable number of water samples in the district not to be fully satisfactory with respect to presence of the metals beyond permissible limits of WHO. The metal concentration of groundwater in the district follows the trend As>Zn>Mn>Cr>Cu>Ni>Cd in both the seasons.

  5. Ground-water, surface-water, and bottom-sediment contamination in the O-field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and the possible effects of selected remedial actions on ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Oliveros, James P.

    1995-01-01

    Disposal of munitions and chemical-warfare substances has introduced inorganic and organic contaminants to the ground water, surface water, and bottom sediment at O-Field, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contaminants include chloride, arsenic, transition metals, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, and organosulfur and organophosphorus compounds. The hydrologic effects of several remedial actions were estimated by use of a ground-water-flow model. The remedial actions examined were an impermeable covering, encapsulation, subsurface barriers, a ground-water drain, pumping of wells to manage water levels or to remove contaminated ground water for treatment, and no action.

  6. Determining the location of buried plastic water pipes from measurements of ground surface vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggleton, J. M.; Brennan, M. J.; Gao, Y.

    2011-09-01

    ‘Mapping the Underworld' is a UK-based project, which aims to create a multi-sensor device that combines complementary technologies for remote buried utility service detection and location. One of the technologies to be incorporated in the device is low-frequency vibro-acoustics, and techniques for detecting buried infrastructure, in particular plastic water pipes, are being investigated. One of the proposed techniques involves excitation of the pipe at some known location with concurrent vibrational mapping of the ground surface in order to infer the location of the remainder of the pipe. In this paper, measurements made on a dedicated pipe rig are reported. Frequency response measurements relating vibrational velocity on the ground to the input excitation were acquired. Contour plots of the unwrapped phase revealed the location of the pipe to within 0.1-0.2 m. Magnitude contour plots revealed the excitation point and also the location of the pipe end. By examining the unwrapped phase gradients along a line above the pipe, it was possible to identify the wave-type within the pipe responsible for the ground surface vibration. Furthermore, changes in the ground surface phase speed computed using this method enabled the location of the end of the pipe to be confirmed.

  7. Homogenization of seismic surface wave profiling in highly heterogeneous improved ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C.; Chien, C.

    2012-12-01

    Seismic surface wave profiling is gaining popularity in engineering practice for determining shear-wave velocity profile since the two-station SASW (Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave) was introduced. Recent developments in the multi-station approach (Multi-station Analysis of Surface Wave, MASW) result in several convenient commercial tools. Unlike other geophysical tomography methods, the surface wave method is essentially a 1-D method assuming horizontally-layered medium. Nevertheless, MASW is increasingly used to map lateral variation of S-wave velocity by multiple surveys overlooking the effect of lateral heterogeneity. MASW typically requires long receiver spread in order to have enough depth coverage. The accuracy and lateral resolution of 2-D S-wave velocity imaging by surface wave is not clear. Many geotechnical applications involves lateral variation in a scale smaller than the geophone spread and wave length. For example, soft ground is often improved to increase strength and stiffness by methods such as jet grouting and stone column which result in heterogeneous ground with improved columns. Experimental methods (Standard Penetration Test, sampling and laboratory testing, etc.) used to assess such ground improvement are subjected to several limitations such as small sampling volume, time-consuming, and cost ineffectiveness. It's difficult to assess the average property of the improved ground and the actual replacement ratio of ground improvement. The use of seismic surface wave method for such a purpose seems to be a good alternative. But what MASW measures in such highly heterogeneous improved ground remains to be investigated. This study evaluated the feasibility of MASW in highly heterogeneous ground with improved columns and investigated the homogenization of shear wave velocity measured by MASW. Field experiments show that MASW testing in such a composite ground behaves similar to testing in horizontally layered medium. It seems to measure some sort

  8. Impact of caprock permeability on vertical ground surface displacements in geological underground utilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempka, Thomas; Tillner, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Geological underground utilisation inducing pore pressure changes in underground reservoirs is generally accompanied by hydro-mechanical processes. Thereby, pore pressure increase due to fluid injection may trigger ground surface uplift, while a decrease in pore pressure due to reservoir fluid production is known to induce ground subsidence. Different coupled hydro-mechanical simulation studies (e.g. Klimkowski et al., 2015, Kempka et al., 2014, Tillner et al., 2014) indicate that ground surface displacements can achieve a magnitude of several decimetres, if storage or production operations are being carried out at an industrial scale. Consequently, detailed knowledge on the parameters impacting ground surface uplift or subsidence is of major interest for the success of any geological underground utilisation in order to avoid surface infrastructure damage by spatially varying deformations. Furthermore, ground subsidence may result increased groundwater levels as experienced in different underground coal mining districts. In the present study, we carried out coupled hydro-mechanical simulations to account for the impact of caprock permeability on ground surface displacements resulting from geological underground utilisation. Thereto, different simulation scenarios were investigated using a synthetic 3D coupled numerical simulation model with varying caprock permeability and vertical location of the open well section in the target reservoir. Material property ranges were derived from available literature, while a normal faulting stress state was applied in all simulation scenarios. Our simulation results demonstrate that caprock permeability has a significant impact on the pressure development, and thus on vertical displacements at the ground surface as well as at the reservoir top. An increase in caprock permeability from 1 x 10-20 m2 by two orders of magnitude doubles vertical displacements at the ground surface, whereas vertical displacements at the reservoir top

  9. Advantages of analytically computing the ground heat flux in land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Valentijn R. N.; Daly, Edoardo

    2016-11-01

    It is generally accepted that the ground heat flux accounts for a significant fraction of the surface energy balance. In land surface models, the ground heat flux is typically estimated through a numerical solution of the heat conduction equation. Recent research has shown that this approach introduces errors in the estimation of the energy balance. In this paper, we calibrate a land surface model using a numerical solution of the heat conduction equation with four different vertical spatial resolutions. It is found that the thermal conductivity is the most sensitive parameter to the spatial resolution. More importantly, the thermal conductivity values are directly related to the spatial resolution, thus rendering any physical interpretation of this value irrelevant. The numerical solution is then replaced by an analytical solution. The results of the numerical and analytical solutions are identical when fine spatial and temporal resolutions are used. However, when using resolutions that are typical of land surface models, significant differences are found. When using the analytical solution, the ground heat flux is directly calculated without calculating the soil temperature profile. The calculation of the temperature at each node in the soil profile is thus no longer required, unless the model contains parameters that depend on the soil temperature, which in this study is not the case. The calibration is repeated, and thermal conductivity values independent of the vertical spatial resolution are obtained. The main conclusion of this study is that care must be taken when interpreting land surface model results that have been obtained using numerical ground heat flux estimates. The use of exact analytical solutions, when available, is recommended.

  10. Evaluation of the ground surface Enthalpy balance from bedrock temperatures (Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M.; Vieira, G.

    2009-05-01

    The annual evolution of the ground temperatures from Incinerador borehole in Livingston Island (South Shetlands, Antarctic) is studied. The borehole is 2.4 m deep and is located in a massive quartzite outcrop with negligible water content, in the proximity of the Spanish Antarctic Station Juan Carlos I. In order to model the movement of the 0°C isotherm (velocity and maximum depth) hourly temperature profiles from: (i) the cooling periods of the frost season of 2000 to 2005, and (ii) the warming periods of the thaw season of 2002-2003, 2003-2004 and 2004-2005, were studied. In this modelling approach, heat gains and losses across the ground surface are assumed to be the causes for the 0°C isotherm movement. A methodological approach to calculate the ground Enthalpy change based on the thermodynamic analysis of the ground during the cooling and warming periods is proposed. The Enthalpy change into the rock is equivalent to the heat exchange through the ground surface during each season, thus enabling to describe the interaction ground-atmosphere and providing valuable data for studies on permafrost and periglacial processes. The bedrock density and thermal conductivity are considered to be constant and initial isothermal conditions at 0°C are assumed (based in collected data and local meteorological conditions in this area) to run the model in the beginning of each season. The final stages correspond to the temperatures at the end of the cooling and warming periods (annual minima and maxima). The application of this method avoids error propagation induced by the heat exchange calculations from multiple sensors using the Fourier method.

  11. Evaluation of the ground surface Enthalpy balance from bedrock temperatures (Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramos

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The annual evolution of the ground temperatures from Incinerador borehole in Livingston Island (South Shetlands, Antarctic is studied. The borehole is 2.4 m deep and is located in a massive quartzite outcrop with negligible water content, in the proximity of the Spanish Antarctic Station Juan Carlos I. In order to model the movement of the 0°C isotherm (velocity and maximum depth hourly temperature profiles from: (i the cooling periods of the frost season of 2000 to 2005, and (ii the warming periods of the thaw season of 2002–2003, 2003–2004 and 2004–2005, were studied. In this modelling approach, heat gains and losses across the ground surface are assumed to be the causes for the 0°C isotherm movement. A methodological approach to calculate the ground Enthalpy change based on the thermodynamic analysis of the ground during the cooling and warming periods is proposed. The Enthalpy change into the rock is equivalent to the heat exchange through the ground surface during each season, thus enabling to describe the interaction ground-atmosphere and providing valuable data for studies on permafrost and periglacial processes. The bedrock density and thermal conductivity are considered to be constant and initial isothermal conditions at 0°C are assumed (based in collected data and local meteorological conditions in this area to run the model in the beginning of each season. The final stages correspond to the temperatures at the end of the cooling and warming periods (annual minima and maxima. The application of this method avoids error propagation induced by the heat exchange calculations from multiple sensors using the Fourier method.

  12. Ground surface temperature and humidity, ground temperature cycles and the ice table depths in University Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David A.; Lacelle, Denis; Pollard, Wayne; Davila, Alfonso; McKay, Christopher P.

    2016-11-01

    In the upper McMurdo Dry Valleys, 90% of the measured ice table depths range from 0 to 80 cm; however, numerical models predict that the ice table is not in equilibrium with current climate conditions and should be deeper than measured. This study explored the effects of boundary conditions (air versus ground surface temperature and humidity), ground temperature cycles, and their diminishing amplitude with depth and advective flows (Darcy flow and wind pumping) on water vapor fluxes in soils and ice table depths using the REGO vapor diffusion model. We conducted a series of numerical experiments that illustrated different hypothetical scenarios and estimated the water vapor flux and ice table depth using the conditions in University Valley, a small high elevation valley. In situ measurements showed that while the mean annual ground surface temperature approximates that in the air, the mean annual ground surface relative humidity (>85%ice) was significantly higher than in the atmosphere ( 50%ice). When ground surface temperature and humidity were used as boundary conditions, along with damping diurnal and annual temperature cycles within the sandy soil, REGO predicted that measured ice table depths in the valley were in equilibrium with contemporary conditions. Based on model results, a dry soil column can become saturated with ice within centuries. Overall, the results from the new soil data and modeling have implications regarding the factors and boundary conditions that affect the stability of ground ice in cold and hyperarid regions where liquid water is rare.

  13. Electric Signals on and under the Ground Surface Induced by Seismic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Takeuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We constructed three observation sites in northeastern Japan (Honjo, Kyowa, and Sennan with condenser-type large plate electrodes (4 × 4 m2 as sensors supported 4 m above the ground and with pairs of reference electrodes buried vertically at 0.5 m and 2.5 m depth (with a ground velocity sensor at Sennan only. Electrical signals of an earthquake (M6.3 in northeastern Japan were detected simultaneously with seismic waves. Their waveforms were damped oscillations, with greatly differing signal amplitudes among sites. Good positive correlation was found between the amplitudes of signals detected by all electrodes. We propose a signal generation model: seismic acceleration vertically shook pore water in the topsoil, generating the vertical streaming potential between the upper unsaturated water zone and the lower saturated water zone. Maximum electric earth potential difference was observed when one electrode was in the saturated water zone, and the other was within the unsaturated water zone, but not when the electrodes were in the saturated water zone. The streaming potential formed a charge on the ground surface, generating a vertical atmospheric electric field. The large plate electrode detected electric signals related to electric potential differences between the electrode and the ground surface.

  14. Kinetics of the forelimb in horses circling on different ground surfaces at the trot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chateau, Henry; Camus, Mathieu; Holden-Douilly, Laurène; Falala, Sylvain; Ravary, Bérangère; Vergari, Claudio; Lepley, Justine; Denoix, Jean-Marie; Pourcelot, Philippe; Crevier-Denoix, Nathalie

    2013-12-01

    Circling increases the expression of distal forelimb lameness in the horse, depending on rein, diameter and surface properties of the circle. However, there is limited information about the kinetics of horses trotting on circles. The aim of this study was to quantify ground reaction force (GRF) and moments in the inside and outside forelimb of horses trotting on circles and to compare the results obtained on different ground surfaces. The right front hoof of six horses was equipped with a dynamometric horseshoe, allowing the measurement of 3-dimensional GRF, moments and trajectory of the centre of pressure. The horses were lunged at slow trot (3 m/s) on right and left 4 m radius circles on asphalt and on a fibre sand surface. During circling, the inside forelimb produced a smaller peak vertical force and the stance phase was longer in comparison with the outside forelimb. Both right and left circling produced a substantial transversal force directed outwards. On a soft surface (sand fibre), the peak transversal force and moments around the longitudinal and vertical axes of the hoof were significantly decreased in comparison with a hard surface (asphalt). Sinking of the lateral or medial part of the hoof in a more compliant surface enables reallocation of part of the transversal force into a proximo-distal force, aligned with the limb axis, thus limiting extrasagittal stress on the joints.

  15. New Measurements from Old Boreholes: A Look at Interaction Between Surface Air Temperature and Ground Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinle, S. M.; Gosnold, W. D.

    2007-12-01

    We recently logged new field measurements of several boreholes throughout the Midwest, including North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska. We then compared these new measurements against measurements previously obtained. Our comparisons included inverse modeling of past and recent measurements as well as climate modeling based on past surface air temperatures obtained from the weather stations. The data show a good correlation between climate warming in the last century and ground surface warming. Of particular importance is that cooling of air temperatures beginning in the mid 1990s reflects in the ground surface temperatures. The boreholes included in the study consist of three boreholes located in north central North Dakota, including two deeper than 200 meters. Two boreholes in the southwestern part of South Dakota, and two from southeastern South Dakota, all approximately 180 meters deep. Also included, were two boreholes (135 meters and over 200 meters deep) located in southwestern Nebraska, and two boreholes in the panhandle of Nebraska, each over 100 meters deep. We obtained historical surface air temperature from climate stations located near the boreholes, both from the United States Historical Climatology Network and from the Western Regional Climate Center.

  16. ON GROUND SURFACE EXTRACTION USING FULL-WAVEFORM AIRBORNE LASER SCANNER FOR CIM

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, K.; H. Chikatsu

    2015-01-01

    Satellite positioning systems such as GPS and GLONASS have created significant changes not only in terms of spatial information but also in the construction industry. It is possible to execute a suitable construction plan by using a computerized intelligent construction. Therefore, an accurate estimate of the amount of earthwork is important for operating heavy equipment, and measurement of ground surface with high accuracy is required. A full-waveform airborne laser scanner is expected to be...

  17. Efficiency of silver nanoparticles against bacterial contaminants isolated from surface and ground water in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Dosoky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The bactericidal efficiency of silver nanoparticles (AgNP was evaluated against bacteria isolated from surface and ground water samples in Egypt. The AgNP were synthesized by typical one-step synthesis protocol, and were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The bactericidal efficiency of AgNP was evaluated by its application in three concentrations i.e., 0.1, 0.05 and 0.01 ppm to water sample, and allowed to interact with bacteria for different duration e.g., 5 min 15 min, 30 min, 1 h and 2 h. Then, the bactericidal efficiency of AgNPs was determined by comparing the counted bacteria before and after the treatments. Higher mean values of total bacterial count (TBC, total coliform count (TCC, and total streptococcal count (TFS were detected in surface water than in ground water. Also, the results showed that TBC, TCC and TFS exceeded permissible limits. Application of AgNP at different concentration, the number of bacteria in TBC was significantly reduced in all AgNP-exposed samples as compared to the control group (p<0.05. The highest concentration of AgNP exhibited highest bactericidal efficiency in TBC, where, after two hours, 0.1, 0.05 and 0.01 mg/L AgNP was found to be sufficient to inhibit 91.85, 89.14 and 74.92%, and 92.33, 85.23 and 53.17% in TBC of surface and ground water, respectively. Moreover, the inhibition efficiency of the highest concentration (0.1 ppm against TCC reached to 98.10 and 99.88% in surface water and 95.54 and 99.20% in ground water after 1 h and 2 h, respectively. Similar results were found against TFS count. The AgNPs were found to be effective against bacteria of water origin.

  18. Derivation of Ground Surface and Vegetation in a Coastal Florida Wetland with Airborne Laser Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Harris, Melanie S.; Shrestha, Ramesh L.; Carter, William E.

    2008-01-01

    The geomorphology and vegetation of marsh-dominated coastal lowlands were mapped from airborne laser data points collected on the Gulf Coast of Florida near Cedar Key. Surface models were developed using low- and high-point filters to separate ground-surface and vegetation-canopy intercepts. In a non-automated process, the landscape was partitioned into functional landscape units to manage the modeling of key landscape features in discrete processing steps. The final digital ground surface-elevation model offers a faithful representation of topographic relief beneath canopies of tidal marsh and coastal forest. Bare-earth models approximate field-surveyed heights by + 0.17 m in the open marsh and + 0.22 m under thick marsh or forest canopy. The laser-derived digital surface models effectively delineate surface features of relatively inaccessible coastal habitats with a geographic coverage and vertical detail previously unavailable. Coastal topographic details include tidal-creek tributaries, levees, modest topographic undulations in the intertidal zone, karst features, silviculture, and relict sand dunes under coastal-forest canopy. A combination of laser-derived ground-surface and canopy-height models and intensity values provided additional mapping capabilities to differentiate between tidal-marsh zones and forest types such as mesic flatwood, hydric hammock, and oak scrub. Additional derived products include fine-scale shoreline and topographic profiles. The derived products demonstrate the capability to identify areas of concern to resource managers and unique components of the coastal system from laser altimetry. Because the very nature of a wetland system presents difficulties for access and data collection, airborne coverage from remote sensors has become an accepted alternative for monitoring wetland regions. Data acquisition with airborne laser represents a viable option for mapping coastal topography and for evaluating habitats and coastal change on marsh

  19. Interpreting Ground Temperature Measurements for Thermophysical Properties on Complex Surfaces of the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, A. R.; Hamilton, V. E.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    With the successful deployments of the Diviner radiometer on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and the REMS ground temperature sensor on the Curiosity Mars rover, records of ground temperature with high accuracy and finely sampled diurnal and seasonal cycles have become available. The detailed shapes of these temperature profiles allow inferences beyond just bulk thermophysical properties. Subtle (or sometime significant) effects of surface roughness, slope, and lateral and vertical heterogeneity may be identified in the surface brightness temperature data. For example, changes in thermal or physical properties with depth in the shallow subsurface affect the conduction and storage of thermal energy. These affect the surface energy balance and therefore surface temperatures, especially the rate of cooling at night. Making unique determinations of subsurface soil properties requires minimizing the uncertainties introduced by other effects. On Mars, atmospheric aerosol opacity and wind-driven sensible heat fluxes also affect the diurnal and annual temperature profiles. On both bodies, variations in thermal inertia, slopes, roughness, albedo, and emissivity within the radiometer footprint will cause the composite brightness temperature to differ from a kinetic temperature. Nevertheless, we have detected potential effects of complex surfaces in the temperature data from both Diviner and Curiosity. On the Moon, the results reveal a nearly ubiquitous surface structure, created mechanically by impact gardening, that controls the thermal response of the surface. On Mars, the thermal response is controlled primarily by grain size, cementation, lithification, and composition. However, the secondary effects of near-surface layering aid in the interpretation of stratigraphy and in the identification of geologic processes that have altered the surface.

  20. Sports physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this page, ... routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find out ...

  1. Modeling ground surface uplift during CO2 sequestration: the case of In Salah, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Antonio Pio; Rutqvist, Jonny; Finsterle, Stefan; Liu, Hui-Hai

    2016-04-01

    Observable ground deformation, common in storage projects, carries useful information on processes occurring at the injection depth. The Krechba gas field at In Salah (Algeria) is one of the best known sites for studying ground surface deformation during geological storage. Being the first industrial-scale on-shore CO2 demonstration project, the site is well known for satellite-based ground-deformation monitoring data of remarkable quality. In this work, we carry out coupled fluid flow and geomechanical simulations to understand the uplift at three different CO2 injection wells (KB-501, KB-502, KB-503). Previous numerical studies focused on the KB-502 injection well, where a double-lobe uplift pattern has been observed in the ground-deformation data. The observed uplift patterns at KB-501 and KB-503 are different, but also indicate the influence of deep fracture zone mechanical responses. The current study improves the previous modeling approach by introducing an injection reservoir and a fracture zone, both responding to a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. In addition, we model a stress-dependent permeability and bulk modulus, according to a dual continuum model. Mechanical and hydraulic properties were determined through inverse modeling by matching the simulated spatial and temporal evolution of uplift to the corresponding InSAR observations as well as by matching simulated and measured pressures. The numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with observed spatial and temporal variation of ground surface uplift, as well as with measured pressures. The estimated values for the parameterized mechanical and hydraulic properties are in good agreement with previous numerical results, although with uncertainty.

  2. Sport tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schwartzhoffová

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sport tourism is one specific type of travel and tourism. The goal of this article is to introduce the definition and importance of sport tourism to academic and sports professionals. At present, sport tourism is a diverse social, economic and cultural phenomenon arising from the unique interaction of activity, people and place. The second part of this article reports about sports events as an important part of sport tourism.

  3. Surface Gap Soliton Ground States for the Nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Dohnal, Tomáš; Reichel, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    We consider the nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation $(-\\Delta +V(x))u = \\Gamma(x) |u|^{p-1}u$, $x\\in \\R^n$ with $V(x) = V_1(x) \\chi_{\\{x_1>0\\}}(x)+V_2(x) \\chi_{\\{x_10\\}}(x)+\\Gamma_2(x) \\chi_{\\{x_1<0\\}}(x)$ and with $V_1, V_2, \\Gamma_1, \\Gamma_2$ periodic in each coordinate direction. This problem describes the interface of two periodic media, e.g. photonic crystals. We study the existence of ground state $H^1$ solutions (surface gap soliton ground states) for $0<\\min \\sigma(-\\Delta +V)$. Using a concentration compactness argument, we provide an abstract criterion for the existence based on ground state energies of each periodic problem (with $V\\equiv V_1, \\Gamma\\equiv \\Gamma_1$ and $V\\equiv V_2, \\Gamma\\equiv \\Gamma_2$) as well as a more practical criterion based on ground states themselves. Examples of interfaces satisfying these criteria are provided. In 1D it is shown that, surprisingly, the criteria can be reduced to conditions on the linear Bloch waves of the operators $-\\tfrac{d^2}{dx^2} +V_1(x)$ an...

  4. Relationship between subsurface damage and surface roughness of ground optical materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Sheng-yi; WANG Zhuo; WU Yu-lie

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical model of relationship between subsurface damage and surface roughness was established to realize rapid and non-destructive measurement of subsurface damage of ground optical materials. Postulated condition of the model was that subsurface damage depth and peak-to-valley surface roughness are equal to depth of radial and lateral cracks in brittle surface induced by small-radius (radius≤200 μm) spherical indenter, respectively. And contribution of elastic stress field to the radial cracks propagation was also considered in the loading cycle. Subsurface damage depth of ground BK7 glasses was measured by magnetorheological finishing spot technique to validate theoretical ratio of subsurface damage to surface roughness. The results show that the ratio is directly proportional to load of abrasive grains and hardness of optical materials, while inversely proportional to granularity of abrasive grains and fracture toughness of optical materials. Moreover, the influence of the load and fracture toughness on the ratio is more significant than the granularity and hardness, respectively. The measured ratios of 80 grit and 120 grit fixed abrasive grinding of BK7 glasses are 5.8 and 5.4, respectively.

  5. INVESTIGATION OF PROCESS PERTAINING TO INTERACTION OF TRACTOR DRIVING WHEELS WITH GROUND SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Guskov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigations on the process pertaining to interaction of a driving wheel with ground surface and describes methodology for optimization of backbone parameters. The mentioned process has some specific differences in comparison with the process of wheel rolling along hard surface. Ground surface is represented by mixture of sandy and clay particles with plant residues and it has a number of physical and mechanical properties. The main of these properties is resistance of soil against compression and displacement. Compression process determines a track depth and resistance to motion and displacement process determines wheel gripping property and its tangential traction force. While executing the investigations laws of compression and displacement proposed by Prof.V. V. Katsygin as the most adequate reflection of actual processes have been used in the paper. Motion of the driving wheel along ground surface is accompanied by its slipping. It has been determined that the maximum wheel traction force is formed not with 100% slipping as it was supposed until present but the value has been obtained at 45–60 % slipping according to soil category. The developed integral equations with due account of the aspect make it possible to calculate road hold characteristics of driving wheels of the designed wheel tractor and evaluate its traction, speed and economic characteristics. Methodology has been developed for optimization of backbone parameters of wheeled running gear in the designed tractor such as design mass and adhesion weight, width, diameter and air pressure in a tire. The proposed methodology has been introduced in designing practice of wheeled tractors at OJSC “Minsk Tractor Works”.

  6. Effect of sand versus grass training surfaces during an 8-week pre-season conditioning programme in team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnie, Martyn John; Dawson, Brian; Arnot, Mark Alexander; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Peeling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the use of sand and grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme in well-trained female team sport athletes (n = 24). Performance testing was conducted pre- and post-training and included measures of leg strength and balance, vertical jump, agility, 20 m speed, repeat speed (8 × 20 m every 20 s), as well as running economy and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Heart rate (HR), training load (rating of perceived exertion (RPE) × duration), movement patterns and perceptual measures were monitored throughout each training session. Participants completed 2 × 1 h conditioning sessions per week on sand (SAND) or grass (GRASS) surfaces, incorporating interval training, sprint and agility drills, and small-sided games. Results showed a significantly higher (P training load in the SAND versus GRASS group throughout each week of training, plus some moderate effect sizes to suggest lower perceptual ratings of soreness and fatigue on SAND. Significantly greater (P training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme can significantly increase the relative exercise intensity and training load, subsequently leading to superior improvements in aerobic fitness.

  7. Spectrally selective surfaces for ground and space-based instrumentation: support for a resource base

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Susan H.; Sinclair, R. Lawrence; Pompea, Stephen M.; Breault, Robert P.

    1993-11-01

    The performance of space telescopes, space instruments, and space radiator systems depends critically upon the selection of appropriate spectrally selective surfaces. Many space programs have suffered severe performance limitations, schedule setbacks, and spent hundreds of thousands of dollars in damage control because of a lack of readily-accessible, accurate data on the properties of spectrally selective surfaces, particularly black surfaces. A Canadian effort is underway to develop a resource base (database and support service) to help alleviate this problem. The assistance of the community is required to make the resource base comprehensive and useful to the end users. The paper aims to describe the objectives of this project. In addition, a request for information and support is made for various aspects of the project. The resource base will be useful for both ground and space-based instrumentation.

  8. The Potential Energy Surface for the Electronic Ground State of H 2Se Derived from Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, P.; Kozin, I. N.

    1993-07-01

    The present paper reports a determination of the potential energy surface for the electronic ground state of the hydrogen selenide molecule through a direct least-squares fitting to experimental data using the MORBID (Morse oscillator rigid bender internal dynamics) approach developed by P. Jensen [ J. Mol. Spectrosc.128, 478-501 (1988); J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 284, 1315-1340 (1988)]. We have fitted a selection of 303 rotation-vibration energy spacings of H 280Se, D 280Se, and HD 80Se involving J ≤ 5 with a root-mean-square deviation of 0.0975 cm -1 for the rotational energy spacings and 0.268 cm -1 for the vibrational spacings. In the fitting, 14 parameters were varied. On the basis of the fitted potential surface we have studied the cluster effect in the vibrational ground state of H 2Se, i.e., the formation of nearly degenerate, four-member groups of rotational energy levels [see I. N. Kozin, S. Klee, P. Jensen, O. L. Polyansky, and I. M. Pavlichenkov. J. Mol. Spectrosc., 158, 409-422 (1993), and references therein]. The cluster formation becomes more pronounced with increasing J. For example, four-fold clusters formed in the vibrational ground state of H 280Se at J = 40 are degenerate to within a few MHz. Our predictions of the D 280Se energy spectrum show that for this molecule, the cluster formation is displaced towards higher J values than arc found for H 280Se. In the vibrational ground state, the qualitative deviation from the usual rigid rotor picture starts at J = 12 for H 280Se and at J = 18 for D 280Se, in full agreement with predictions from semiclassical theory. An interpretation of the cluster eigenstates is discussed.

  9. Conceptual Tenets of the Theory of Hydration of Heterogeneous Surface with Polar Order of Disperse Ground Layers of Sedimentary Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara G. Makeeva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article, basing on the established regularity defines the basic tenets of the theory of hydration of heterogeneous surface with polar order of disperse ground layers of sedimentary genesis. It offers classification and formula for the associated water density, valid corrections for the associated water density, calculates the water film thickness in disperse ground, develops the reliable physicochemical model of the disperse ground, determines the range of applicability of the existing laboratory and field methods.

  10. Mapping of permafrost surface using ground-penetrating radar at Kangerlussuaq Airport, western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Andreasen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Kangerlussuaq Airport is located at 67°N and 51°W in the zone of continuous permafrost in western Greenland. Its proximity to the Greenlandic ice sheet results in a dry sub-arctic climate with a mean annual temperature of −5.7 °C. The airport is built on a river terrace mostly consisting of fluvial...... deposits overlying fine-grained marine melt-water sediments and bedrock. A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey was performed to study the frozen surface beneath the airfield. The measurements were carried out in late July 2005 on the southern parking area in Kangerlussuaq Airport. Five years earlier...

  11. Influence of geology on arsenic concentrations in ground and surface water in central Lesvos, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloupi, Maria; Angelidis, Michael O; Gavriil, Apostolos M; Koulousaris, Michael; Varnavas, Soterios P

    2009-04-01

    The occurrence of As was studied in groundwater used for human consumption and irrigation, in stream water and sediments and in water from thermal springs in the drainage basin of Kalloni Gulf, island of Lesvos, Greece, in order to investigate the potential influence of the geothermal field of Polichnitos-Lisvori on the ground and surface water systems of the area. Total dissolved As varied in the range geology exerts a determinant influence on As geochemical behaviour. On the other hand, the geothermal activity manifested in the area of Polichnitos-Lisvori does not affect the presence of As in groundwater and streams.

  12. Asymmetric Rock Pressure on Shallow Tunnel in Strata with Inclined Ground Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiao-jun; YANG Chang-yu

    2007-01-01

    By building a tunnel model with a semi-circular crown, the asymmetric rock pressure applied to the shallow tunnel in strata with inclined ground surface is analyzed. Formulae, which not only include the parameters related to both tunnel structure and surrounding rock mass, but the overburden depth, are developed. The computation for four tunnel models show that the method presented is feasible and convenient. Furthermore, the influence of the overburden depth on the rock pressure is elaborated, and the criterion to identify the deep or shallow tunnels is formulated as well.

  13. Ground-state charge transfer as a mechanism for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippitsch, Max E.

    1984-03-01

    A model is presented for the contribution of ground-state charge transfer between a metal and adsorbate to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). It is shown that this contribution can be understood using the vibronic theory for calculating Raman intensities. The enhancement is due to vibronic coupling of the molecular ground state to the metal states, the coupling mechanism being a modulation of the ground-state charge-transfer energy by the molecular vibrations. An analysis of the coupling operator gives the selection rules for this process, which turn out to be dependent on the overall symmetry of the adsorbate-metal system, even if the charge transfer is small enough for the symmetry of the adsorbate to remain the same as that of the free molecule. It is shown that the model can yield predictions on the properties of SERS, e.g., specificity to adsorption geometry, appearance of forbidden bands, dependence on the applied potential, and dependence on the excitation wavelength. The predictions are in good agreement with experimental results. It is also deduced from this model that in many cases atomic-scale roughness is a prerequisite for the observation of SERS. A result on the magnitude of the enhancement can only be given in a crude approximation. Although in most cases an additional electromagnetic enhancement seems to be necessary to give an observable signal, this charge-transfer mechanism should be important in many SERS systems.

  14. Surface Signature Characterization at SPE through Ground-Proximal Methods: Methodology Change and Technical Justification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    A portion of LANL’s FY15 SPE objectives includes initial ground-based or ground-proximal investigations at the SPE Phase 2 site. The area of interest is the U2ez location in Yucca Flat. This collection serves as a baseline for discrimination of surface features and acquisition of topographic signatures prior to any development or pre-shot activities associated with SPE Phase 2. Our team originally intended to perform our field investigations using previously vetted ground-based (GB) LIDAR methodologies. However, the extended proposed time frame of the GB LIDAR data collection, and associated data processing time and delivery date, were unacceptable. After technical consultation and careful literature research, LANL identified an alternative methodology to achieve our technical objectives and fully support critical model parameterization. Very-low-altitude unmanned aerial systems (UAS) photogrammetry appeared to satisfy our objectives in lieu of GB LIDAR. The SPE Phase 2 baseline collection was used as a test of this UAS photogrammetric methodology.

  15. Surface geophysical methods for characterising frozen ground in transitional permafrost landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin; Campbell, Seth; Nolan, Jay; Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Lane, John

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of shallow frozen ground is paramount to research in cold regions, and is subject to temporal and spatial changes influenced by climate, landscape disturbance and ecosystem succession. Remote sensing from airborne and satellite platforms is increasing our understanding of landscape-scale permafrost distribution, but typically lacks the resolution to characterise finer-scale processes and phenomena, which are better captured by integrated surface geophysical methods. Here, we demonstrate the use of electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), electromagnetic induction (EMI), ground penetrating radar (GPR) and infrared imaging over multiple summer field seasons around the highly dynamic Twelvemile Lake, Yukon Flats, central Alaska, USA. Twelvemile Lake has generally receded in the past 30 yr, allowing permafrost aggradation in the receded margins, resulting in a mosaic of transient frozen ground adjacent to thick, older permafrost outside the original lakebed. ERI and EMI best evaluated the thickness of shallow, thin permafrost aggradation, which was not clear from frost probing or GPR surveys. GPR most precisely estimated the depth of the active layer, which forward electrical resistivity modelling indicated to be a difficult target for electrical methods, but could be more tractable in time-lapse mode. Infrared imaging of freshly dug soil pit walls captured active-layer thermal gradients at unprecedented resolution, which may be useful in calibrating emerging numerical models. GPR and EMI were able to cover landscape scales (several kilometres) efficiently, and new analysis software showcased here yields calibrated EMI data that reveal the complicated distribution of shallow permafrost in a transitional landscape.

  16. Quality of surface and ground waters, Yakima Indian Reservation, Washington, 1973-74

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, M.O.

    1977-01-01

    This report describes the quality of the surface and ground waters of the Yakima Indian Reservation in south-central Washington, during the period November 1973-October 1974. The average dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 48 to 116 mg/L (milligrams per liter) in the mountain streams, and from 88 to 372 mg/L in the lowland streams, drains, and a canal. All the mountain streams contain soft water (classified as 0-60 mg/L hardness as CaC03), and the lowland streams, drains, and canal contain soft to very hard water (more than 180 mg/L hardness as CaC03). The water is generally of suitable quality for irrigation, and neither salinity nor sodium hazards are a problem in waters from any of the streams studied. The specific conductance of water from the major aquifers ranged from 20 to 1 ,540 micromhos. Ground water was most dilute in mineral content in the Klickitat River basin and most concentrated in part of the Satus Creek basin. The ground water in the Satus Creek basin with the most concentrated mineral content also contained the highest percentage composition of sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. For drinking water, the nitrate-nitrogen concentrations exceeded the U.S. Public Health Service 's recommended limit of 10 mg/L over an area of several square miles, with a maximum observed concentration of 170 mg/L. (Woodard-USGS).

  17. Mechanism and bounding of earthquake energy input to building structure on surface ground subjected to engineering bedrock motion

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, K; Sakaguchi, K; Takewaki, I.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of earthquake energy input to building structures is clarified by considering the surface ground amplification and soil–structure interaction. The earthquake input energies to superstructures, soil–foundation systems and total swaying–rocking system are obtained by taking the corresponding appropriate free bodies into account and defining the energy transfer functions. It has been made clear that, when the ground surface motion is white, the input energy to the swaying–rocking m...

  18. Sports Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozalova Marina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article is devoted to sports tourism. The purpose of this article is to examine theoretical material on sports tourism, to analyze sports tourism in Russia and to search for promising areas for the study of sports tourism in our country. Material and methods. In this part the authors develop the idea of the role of doing sports and keeping fit. For anyone who really wants to be healthy, fitness has become an integral part of their lives. Results. The purpose of this research is to study theoretical material on sports tourism, to analyze sports tourism in Russia and to search for promising areas for the study of sports tourism in our country. On the basis of their research the authors come to the conclusion that sports and tourism are interconnected. There are important factors affecting the situation of sports tourism in Russia. The paper examines sports tourism attractions in Russia. Conclusion. The authors conclude that there exists a high correlation dependence of foreign and domestic development of sports tourism on resources allocated for sports infrastructure. All in all, sports tourism tours draw visitors to their favorite sporting event, facility, or destination throughout the world.

  19. Modeling surface and ground water mixing in the hyporheic zone using MODFLOW and MT3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautz, Laura K.; Siegel, Donald I.

    2006-11-01

    We used a three-dimensional MODFLOW model, paired with MT3D, to simulate hyporheic zones around debris dams and meanders along a semi-arid stream. MT3D simulates both advective transport and sink/source mixing of solutes, in contrast to particle tracking (e.g. MODPATH), which only considers advection. We delineated the hydrochemically active hyporheic zone based on a new definition, specifically as near-stream subsurface zones receiving a minimum of 10% surface water within a 10-day travel time. Modeling results indicate that movement of surface water into the hyporheic zone is predominantly an advective process. We show that debris dams are a key driver of surface water into the subsurface along the experimental reach, causing the largest flux rates of water across the streambed and creating hyporheic zones with up to twice the cross-sectional area of other hyporheic zones. Hyporheic exchange was also found in highly sinuous segments of the experimental reach, but flux rates are lower and the cross-sectional areas of these zones are generally smaller. Our modeling approach simulated surface and ground water mixing in the hyporheic zone, and thus provides numerical approximations that are more comparable to field-based observations of surface-groundwater exchange than standard particle-tracking simulations.

  20. Modelling the Influence of Ground Surface Relief on Electric Sounding Curves Using the Integral Equations Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balgaisha Mukanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of electrical sounding of a medium with ground surface relief is modelled using the integral equations method. This numerical method is based on the triangulation of the computational domain, which is adapted to the shape of the relief and the measuring line. The numerical algorithm is tested by comparing the results with the known solution for horizontally layered media with two layers. Calculations are also performed to verify the fulfilment of the “reciprocity principle” for the 4-electrode installations in our numerical model. Simulations are then performed for a two-layered medium with a surface relief. The quantitative influences of the relief, the resistivity ratios of the contacting media, and the depth of the second layer on the apparent resistivity curves are established.

  1. Flux of benzo(a)pyrene to the ground surface and its distribution in the ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milukaite, A. [Institute of Physics, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    1998-07-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BP) has been investigated in bulk atmospheric deposition, moss, needles of pine and some species of vascular plants. At two remote Lithuanian sites, for 1990-1995 the flux of benzo(a)pyrene from the atmosphere to the ground surface varied between 0.3 to 4.8 {mu}g{sup -2} mo{sup -1}. Consequently the territory of Lithuania (65,000 km{sup 2}) yearly was exposed to 624-2574 kg of carcinogen. The distribution of BP in soil and various vascular plant tissues (trifolium tepens, Elitrygea repens, Thymus serpyllum) indicates that benzo(a)pyrene is assimilated by flora. The concentration of BP is different in various organs of vascular plants and mostly depends on the degree of soil pollution. More than 300 samples of moss, mostly Hylocomium spendens and Pleurozium schreberi were analysed for BP. From 3.1 to 896.0 {mu}g kg{sup -1} of BP were measured in the moss samples. The flux of BP to the ground surface correlates well with its concentration in moss. A map of BP flux across Lithuania was created. 20 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Human health impacts of drinking water (surface and ground) pollution Dakahlyia Governorate, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandour, R. A.

    2012-09-01

    This study was done on 30 drinking tap water samples (surface and ground) and 30 urine samples taken from patients who attended some of Dakahlyia governorate hospitals. These patients were complaining of poor-quality tap water in their houses, which was confirmed by this study that drinking water is contaminated with trace elements in some of the studied areas. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the contaminant drinking water (surface and ground) in Dakahlyia governorate and its impact on human health. This study reports the relationship between nickel and hair loss, obviously shown in water and urine samples. Renal failure cases were related to lead and cadmium contaminated drinking water, where compatibilities in results of water and urine samples were observed. Also, liver cirrhosis cases were related to iron-contaminated drinking water. Studies of these diseases suggest that abnormal incidence in specific areas is related to industrial wastes and agricultural activities that have released hazardous and toxic materials in the drinking water and thereby led to its contamination in these areas. We conclude that trace elements should be removed from drinking water for human safety.

  3. Analysis of selected herbicide metabolites in surface and ground water of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, E.A.; Thurman, E.M.; Zimmerman, L.R.

    2000-01-01

    One of the primary goals of the US Geological Survey (USGS) Laboratory in Lawrence, Kansas, is to develop analytical methods for the analysis of herbicide metabolites in surface and ground water that are vital to the study of herbicide fate and degradation pathways in the environment. Methods to measure metabolite concentrations from three major classes of herbicides - triazine, chloroacetanilide and phenyl-urea - have been developed. Methods for triazine metabolite detection cover nine compounds: six compounds are detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; one is detected by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection; and eight are detected by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Two metabolites of the chloroacetanilide herbicides - ethane sulfonic acid and oxanilic acid - are detected by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Alachlor ethane sulfonic acid also has been detected by solid-phase extraction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Six phenylurea metabolites are all detected by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry; four of the six metabolites also are detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Additionally, surveys of herbicides and their metabolites in surface water, ground water, lakes, reservoirs, and rainfall have been conducted through the USGS laboratory in Lawrence. These surveys have been useful in determining herbicide and metabolite occurrence and temporal distribution and have shown that metabolites may be useful in evaluation of non-point-source contamination. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. Seasonal Influences on Ground-Surface Water Interactions in an Arsenic-Affected Aquifer in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, L. A.; Magnone, D.; Van Dongen, B.; Bryant, C.; Boyce, A.; Ballentine, C. J.; Polya, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Millions of people in South and Southeast Asia consume drinking water daily which contains dangerous levels of arsenic exceeding health-based recommendations [1]. A key control on arsenic mobilization in aquifers in these areas has been controversially identified as the interaction of 'labile' organic matter contained in surface waters with groundwaters and sediments at depth [2-4], which may trigger the release of arsenic from the solid- to aqueous-phase via reductive dissolution of iron-(hyr)oxide minerals [5]. In a field site in Kandal Province, Cambodia, which is an arsenic-affected area typical to others in the region, there are strong seasonal patterns in groundwater flow direction, which are closely related to monsoonal rains [6] and may contribute to arsenic release in this aquifer. The aim of this study is to explore the implications of the high susceptibility of this aquifer system to seasonal changes on potential ground-surface water interactions. The main objectives are to (i) identify key zones where there are likely ground-surface water interactions, (ii) assess the seasonal impact of such interactions and (iii) quantify the influence of interactions using geochemical parameters (such as As, Fe, NO3, NH4, 14C, 3T/3He, δ18O, δ2H). Identifying the zones, magnitude and seasonal influence of ground-surface water interactions elucidates new information regarding potential locations/pathways of arsenic mobilization and/or transport in affected aquifers and may be important for water management strategies in affected areas. This research is supported by NERC (NE/J023833/1) to DP, BvD and CJB and a NERC PhD studentship (NE/L501591/1) to DM. References: [1] World Health Organization, 2008. [2] Charlet & Polya (2006), Elements, 2, 91-96. [3] Harvey et al. (2002), Science, 298, 1602-1606. [4] Lawson et al. (2013), Env. Sci. Technol. 47, 7085 - 7094. [5] Islam et al. (2004), Nature, 430, 68-71. [6] Benner et al. (2008) Appl. Geochem. 23(11), 3072 - 3087.

  5. Surface-Water and Ground-Water Interactions in the Central Everglades, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Newlin, Jessica T.; Krest, James M.; Choi, Jungyill; Nemeth, Eric A.; Krupa, Steven L.

    2004-01-01

    Recharge and discharge are hydrological processes that cause Everglades surface water to be exchanged for subsurface water in the peat soil and the underlying sand and limestone aquifer. These interactions are thought to be important to water budgets, water quality, and ecology in the Everglades. Nonetheless, relatively few studies of surface water and ground water interactions have been conducted in the Everglades, especially in its vast interior areas. This report is a product of a cooperative investigation conducted by the USGS and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) aimed at developing and testing techniques that would provide reliable estimates of recharge and discharge in interior areas of WCA-2A (Water Conservation Area 2A) and several other sites in the central Everglades. The new techniques quantified flow from surface water to the subsurface (recharge) and the opposite (discharge) using (1) Darcy-flux calculations based on measured vertical gradients in hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity of peat; (2) modeling transport through peat and decay of the naturally occurring isotopes 224Ra and 223Ra (with half-lives of 4 and 11 days, respectively); and (3) modeling transport and decay of naturally occurring and 'bomb-pulse' tritium (half-life of 12.4 years) in ground water. Advantages and disadvantages of each method for quantifying recharge and discharge were compared. In addition, spatial and temporal variability of recharge and discharge were evaluated and controlling factors identified. A final goal was to develop appropriately simplified (that is, time averaged) expressions of the results that will be useful in addressing a broad range of hydrological and ecological problems in the Everglades. Results were compared with existing information about water budgets from the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM), a principal tool used by the South Florida Water Management District to plan many of the hydrological aspects of the

  6. Martian Surface Temperature and Spectral Response from the MSL REMS Ground Temperature Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Torres, Javier; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Zorzano, María-Paz; Serrano, María; Mendaza, Teresa; Hamilton, Vicky; Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; REMS Team

    2013-04-01

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) offers the opportunity to explore the near surface atmospheric conditions and, in particular will shed new light into the heat budget of the Martian surface. This is important for studies of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), as the ground and air temperatures measured directly by REMS control the coupling of the atmosphere with the surface [Zurek et al., 1992]. This coupling is driven by solar insolation. The ABL plays an important role in the general circulation and the local atmospheric dynamics of Mars. One of the REMS sensors, the ground temperature sensor (GTS), provides the data needed to study the thermal inertia properties of the regolith and rocks beneath the MSL rover. The GTS includes thermopile detectors, with infrared bands of 8-14 µm and 16-20 µm [Gómez-Elvira et al., 2012]. These sensors are clustered in a single location on the MSL mast and the 8-14 µm thermopile sounds the surface temperature. The infrared radiation reaching the thermopile is proportional to the emissivity of the surface minerals across these thermal wavelengths. We have developed a radiative transfer retrieval method for the REMS GTS using a database of thermal infrared laboratory spectra of analogue minerals and their mixtures. [Martín Redondo et al. 2009, Martínez-Frías et al. 2012 - FRISER-IRMIX database]. This method will be used to assess the perfomance of the REMS GTS as well as determine, through the error analysis, the surface temperature and emissivity values where MSL is operating. Comparisons with orbiter data will be performed. References Gómez-Elvira et al. [2012], REMS: The Environmental Sensor Suite for the Mars Science Laboratory Rover, Space Science Reviews, Volume 170, Issue 1-4, pp. 583-640. Martín-Redondo et al. [2009] Journal of Environmental Monitoring 11:, pp. 1428-1432. Martínez-Frías et al. [2012] FRISER-IRMIX database http

  7. Ground Surface Deformation around Tehran due to Groundwater Recharge: InSAR Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourmelen, N.; Peyret, M.; Fritz, J. F.; Cherry, J.

    2003-04-01

    Tehran is located on an active tectonic and seismic zone. The surface deformation monitoring provides a powerful tool for getting a better understanding of faults kinematics and mechanisms. Used in conjunction with GPS networks, InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) provides dense and precise deformation measurements which are essential for mapping complex heterogeneous deformation fields. Moreover, urban and arid areas preserve interferometric phase coherence. The archived acquisitions of ERS that span 9 months between September 1998 and June 1999 reveal wide areas of surface uplift (by as much as 9 cm). This vertical deformation (gradual in time) has probably no tectonic meaning but is rather the ground response to ground water recharge. These zones are all located dowstream of large alluvial fans like the one of Karaj. The variation of effective stress caused by intersticial water draining could explain such surface deformation. It can also be noticed that some faults act as boundary for these deformation zones and fluid motion. The understanding of this deformation is relevant for groundwater monitoring and urban developement management. It is also necessary for discriminating it from tectonic deformation that also occurs on this zone. Due to the lack of attitude control of satellite ERS-2 since February 2001, the last images acquired could not be combined with the former acquisitions. Nevertheless, we expect to be able to enrich our set of images in order to map tectonic deformation on a longer period and to monitor in a more continuous way the deformation due to groundwater evolution. This would allow to quantify the permanent and reversible part of this signal.

  8. Geologic Evidence for Late-Stage Equatorial Surface and Ground Ice on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, M. G.

    2003-12-01

    New imagery data from the Mars Observer Camera suggest that the equatorial canyon of Valles Marineris contained surface and ground ice relatively late in Martian history. Some troughs (or chasmata) of Valles Marineris contain large mounds and mesas of interior layered deposits (ILDs) that formed in the Late Hesperian to Early Amazonian. Although the origin of the ILDs remains controversial, their characteristics suggest that the strongest hypotheses origin are lacustrine or volcanic processes; some workers have suggested a compromise origin, noting that many MOC observations of ILDs are similar to those of terrestrial sub-ice volcanoes that erupt in meltwater lakes. Lacustrine deposition and sub-ice volcanism require that chamata water or ice would have had to remain stable on the surface long enough to form either (1) extremely thick (1 km to > 4 km) deposits of fine-grained suspended lacustrine materials or (2) numerous sub-ice volcanic edifices with heights that compare to those of Hawaiian oceanic volcanoes. However, a dust cover on top of ice or an ice-covered lake could aid in preventing rapid sublimation. If the ILDs are sub-ice volcanoes than new MOLA topographic data can be used to (1) measure the heights of their subaerial caprock and (2) estimate corresponding volumes of ice. For example, the largest ILD mound in the 113,275 km3 void of Juventae Chasma resembles a capped sub-ice volcanic ridge. The mound is about 2 km high; with the highest point of the cap reaching an elevation of about +80 m. GIS measurement indicate that the maximum volume of ice below the elevation of +80 m is 56,423 km3, so roughly half of the Chasma could have been filled with ice. If the ILDs are lacustrine, then the heights of some other mounds that rival the surrounding plateau elevation would have required a volume of water almost equal to their enclosing chasma. Later in the Amazonian, after sublimation of any putative surface water or ice, MOC imagery attests to ground ice

  9. A Comprehensive Laboratory Study to Improve Ground Truth Calibration of Remotely Sensed Near-Surface Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeian, E.; Tuller, M.; Sadeghi, M.; Sheng, W.; Jones, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    Optical satellite and airborne remote sensing (RS) have been widely applied for characterization of large-scale surface soil moisture distributions. However, despite the excellent spatial resolution of RS data, the electromagnetic radiation within the optical bands (400-2500 nm) penetrates the soil profile only to a depth of a few millimeters; hence obtained moisture estimates are limited to the soil surface region. Furthermore, moisture sensor networks employed for ground truth calibration of RS observations commonly exhibit very limited spatial resolution, which consequently leads to significant discrepancies between RS and ground truth observations. To better understand the relationship between surface and near-surface soil moisture, we employed a benchtop hyperspectral line-scan imaging system to generate high resolution surface reflectance maps during evaporation from soil columns filled with source soils covering a wide textural range and instrumented with a novel time domain reflectometry (TDR) sensor array that allows monitoring of near surface moisture at 0.5-cm resolution. A recently developed physical model for surface soil moisture predictions from shortwave infrared reflectance was applied to estimate surface soil moisture from surface reflectance and to explore the relationship between surface and near-surface moisture distributions during soil drying. Preliminary results are very promising and their applicability for ground truth calibration of RS observations will be discussed.

  10. Application of Surface Electromyogram in Sports Field%表面肌电图在体育领域中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佑磊

    2011-01-01

    表面肌电图也称动态肌电图和运动肌电图,是用表面电极采集肌肉活动产生的电活动的图形。目前,表面肌电图应用已经深入临床康复、运动医学、生物工程和体育等诸多领域。在运动生物力学研究中,表面肌电图主要用于肌肉力量评定、肌肉疲劳的诊断和神经肌肉功能的评价上,用于运动技术服务,指导运动训练,防止运动损伤。本文对表面肌电图在运动生物力学研究中的应用做一综述。%Surface electromyogram is also called dynamic and exercise electromyogram,it is the electrogenic graph using the surface electrode to collect muscle activity.At present,surface electromyogram has deeply used in rehabilitation,sport medicine,bioengineer and sports activity.In the research of biomechanics,the surface electromyogram is usually used in muscle strength assessment,muscle fatigue diagnose,neuromuscular function,sports technical service,sports training instruction and exercise injury prevention.This paper reviews the application of surface electromyogram in the research of biomechanics.

  11. Documentation of the Santa Clara Valley regional ground-water/surface-water flow model, Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Li, Zhen; Faunt, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    The Santa Clara Valley is a long, narrow trough extending about 35 miles southeast from the southern end of San Francisco Bay where the regional alluvial-aquifer system has been a major source of water. Intensive agricultural and urban development throughout the 20th century and related ground-water development resulted in ground-water-level declines of more than 200 feet and land subsidence of as much as 12.7 feet between the early 1900s and the mid-1960s. Since the 1960s, Santa Clara Valley Water District has imported surface water to meet growing demands and reduce dependence on ground-water supplies. This importation of water has resulted in a sustained recovery of the ground-water flow system. To help support effective management of the ground-water resources, a regional ground-water/surface-water flow model was developed. This model simulates the flow of ground water and surface water, changes in ground-water storage, and related effects such as land subsidence. A numerical ground-water/surface-water flow model of the Santa Clara Valley subbasin of the Santa Clara Valley was developed as part of a cooperative investigation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District. The model better defines the geohydrologic framework of the regional flow system and better delineates the supply and demand components that affect the inflows to and outflows from the regional ground-water flow system. Development of the model includes revisions to the previous ground-water flow model that upgraded the temporal and spatial discretization, added source-specific inflows and outflows, simulated additional flow features such as land subsidence and multi-aquifer wellbore flow, and extended the period of simulation through September 1999. The transient-state model was calibrated to historical surface-water and ground-water data for the period 197099 and to historical subsidence for the period 198399. The regional ground-water flow system consists of multiple aquifers that are grouped

  12. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  13. Interfaces Supporting Surface Gap Soliton Ground States in the 1D Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Dohnal, Tomas; Plum, Michael; Reichel, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of verifying the existence of $H^1$ ground states of the 1D nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation for an interface of two periodic structures: $$-u" +V(x)u -\\lambda u = \\Gamma(x) |u|^{p-1}u \\ {on} \\R$$ with $V(x) = V_1(x), \\Gamma(x)=\\Gamma_1(x)$ for $x\\geq 0$ and $V(x) = V_2(x), \\Gamma(x)=\\Gamma_2(x)$ for $x1$. The article [T. Dohnal, M. Plum and W. Reichel, "Surface Gap Soliton Ground States for the Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger Equation," \\textit{Comm. Math. Phys.} \\textbf{308}, 511-542 (2011)] provides in the 1D case an existence criterion in the form of an integral inequality involving the linear potentials $V_{1},V_2$ and the Bloch waves of the operators $-\\tfrac{d^2}{dx^2}+V_{1,2}-\\lambda$. We choose here the classes of piecewise constant and piecewise linear potentials $V_{1,2}$ and check this criterion for a set of parameter values. In the piecewise constant case the Bloch waves are calculated explicitly and in the piecewise linear case verified enclosures of the Bloch waves are computed ...

  14. Ground Plane and Near-Surface Thermal Analysis for NASA's Constellation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, Joseph F.; Amundsen, Ruth M.; Scola, Salvatore; Leahy, Frank F.; Sharp, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Most spacecraft thermal analysis tools assume that the spacecraft is in orbit around a planet and are designed to calculate solar and planetary fluxes, as well as radiation to space. On NASA Constellation projects, thermal analysts are also building models of vehicles in their pre-launch condition on the surface of a planet. This process entails making some modifications in the building and execution of a thermal model such that the radiation from the planet, both reflected albedo and infrared, is calculated correctly. Also important in the calculation of pre-launch vehicle temperatures are the natural environments at the vehicle site, including air and ground temperatures, sky radiative background temperature, solar flux, and optical properties of the ground around the vehicle. A group of Constellation projects have collaborated on developing a cohesive, integrated set of natural environments that accurately capture worst-case thermal scenarios for the pre-launch and launch phases of these vehicles. The paper will discuss the standardization of methods for local planet modeling across Constellation projects, as well as the collection and consolidation of natural environments for launch sites. Methods for Earth as well as lunar sites will be discussed.

  15. Two decades of temperature-time monitoring experiment: air - ground surface - shallow subsurface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Vladimir; Dedecek, Petr; Safanda, Jan; Kresl, Milan

    2014-05-01

    Long-term observations (1994-2013) of air and shallow ground temperatures at borehole Prague-Sporilov (50º02'28.5"E, 14º28'40.2"N, 274 m a.s.l.) have been thoroughly analyzed to understand the relationship between these quantities and to describe the mechanism of heat transport at the land-atmosphere boundary layer. Data provided a surprisingly small mean ground-air temperature offset of only 0.31 K with no clear annual course and with the offset value changing irregularly even on a daily scale. Such value is substantially lower than similar values (1-2 K and more) found elsewhere, but may well characterize a mild temperate zone, when all so far available information referred rather to southern locations. Borehole data were correlated with similar observations in a polygon-site under four types of surface conditions (grass, soil, sand and asphalt) completed with registration of meteorological variables (wind direction & velocity, air & soil humidity, direct & reflected solar radiation, precipitation and snow cover). The "thermal orbits" technique proved to be an effective tool for the fast qualitative diagnostics of the thermal regime in the subsurface (conductive versus non-conductive).

  16. Surface roughening of ground fused silica processed by atmospheric inductively coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Qiang; Li, Na; Wang, Jun; Wang, Bo, E-mail: bradywang@hit.edu.cn; Li, Guo; Ding, Fei; Jin, Huiliang

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • The morphology evolution of ground fused silica, processed by atmospheric plasma, was investigated experimentally. • The roughness development results from opening and coalescing of the plasma-etched cracks. • The shapes of grain-like etched pits are the results of the adjacent cracks coalescing with one another. • The descent of the pits density is due to some smaller etched pits that are swallowed up by larger pits. • Leading role in surface smoothing is laterally etching away the side walls of the intersecting pits. - Abstract: Subsurface damage (SSD) is a defect that is inevitably induced during mechanical processes, such as grinding and polishing. This defect dramatically reduces the mechanical strength and the laser damage thresholds of optical elements. Compared with traditional mechanical machining, atmospheric pressure plasma processing (APPP) is a relatively novel technology that induces almost no SSD during the processing of silica-based optical materials. In this paper, a form of APPP, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), is used to process fused silica substrates with fluorocarbon precursor under atmospheric pressure. The surface morphology evolution of ICP-processed substrates was observed and characterized by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the roughness evolves with the etching depth, and the roughness evolution is a single-peaked curve. This curve results from the opening and the coalescing of surface cracks and fractures. The coalescence procedure of these microstructures was simulated with two common etched pits on a polished fused silica surface. Understanding the roughness evolution of plasma-processed surface might be helpful in optimizing the optical fabrication chain that contains APPP.

  17. 3D pre- versus post-season comparisons of surface and relative pose of the corpus callosum in contact sport athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Yi; Gajawelli, Niharika; Haas, Lauren; Wilkins, Bryce; Hwang, Darryl; Tsao, Sinchai; Wang, Yalin; Law, Meng; Leporé, Natasha

    2014-03-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) or concussive injury affects 1.7 million Americans annually, of which 300,000 are due to recreational activities and contact sports, such as football, rugby, and boxing[1]. Finding the neuroanatomical correlates of brain TBI non-invasively and precisely is crucial for diagnosis and prognosis. Several studies have shown the in influence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on the integrity of brain WM [2-4]. The vast majority of these works focus on athletes with diagnosed concussions. However, in contact sports, athletes are subjected to repeated hits to the head throughout the season, and we hypothesize that these have an influence on white matter integrity. In particular, the corpus callosum (CC), as a small structure connecting the brain hemispheres, may be particularly affected by torques generated by collisions, even in the absence of full blown concussions. Here, we use a combined surface-based morphometry and relative pose analyses, applying on the point distribution model (PDM) of the CC, to investigate TBI related brain structural changes between 9 pre-season and 9 post-season contact sport athlete MRIs. All the data are fed into surface based morphometry analysis and relative pose analysis. The former looks at surface area and thickness changes between the two groups, while the latter consists of detecting the relative translation, rotation and scale between them.

  18. Numerical modelling of ground-borne noise and vibration in buildings due to surface rail traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, P.; Degrande, G.; Augusztinovicz, F.

    2007-04-01

    This paper deals with the numerical computation of the structural and acoustic response of a building to an incoming wave field generated by high-speed surface railway traffic. The source model consists of a moving vehicle on a longitudinally invariant track, coupled to a layered ground modelled with a boundary element formulation. The receiver model is based on a substructuring formulation and consists of a boundary element model of the soil and a finite element model of the structure. The acoustic response of the building's rooms is computed by means of a spectral finite element formulation. The paper investigates the structural and acoustic response of a multi-story portal frame office building up to a frequency of 150 Hz to the passage of a Thalys high-speed train at constant velocity. The isolation performance of three different vibration countermeasures: a floating-floor, a room-in-room, and base-isolation, are examined.

  19. Sampling and analysis for radon-222 dissolved in ground water and surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWayne, Cecil L.; Gesell, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Radon-222 is a naturally occurring radioactive gas in the uranium-238 decay series that has traditionally been called, simply, radon. The lung cancer risks associated with the inhalation of radon decay products have been well documented by epidemiological studies on populations of uranium miners. The realization that radon is a public health hazard has raised the need for sampling and analytical guidelines for field personnel. Several sampling and analytical methods are being used to document radon concentrations in ground water and surface water worldwide but no convenient, single set of guidelines is available. Three different sampling and analytical methods - bubbler, liquid scintillation, and field screening - are discussed in this paper. The bubbler and liquid scintillation methods have high accuracy and precision, and small analytical method detection limits of 0.2 and 10 pCi/l (picocuries per liter), respectively. The field screening method generally is used as a qualitative reconnaissance tool.

  20. Surface Properties and Characteristics of Mars Landing Sites from Remote Sensing Data and Ground Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Haldemann, A. F.; Simpson, R. A.; Furgason, R. L.; Putzig, N. E.; Huertas, A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Heet, T.; Bell, J. F.; Mellon, M. T.; McEwen, A. S.

    2008-12-01

    Surface characteristics at the six sites where spacecraft have successfully landed on Mars can be related favorably to their signatures in remotely sensed data from orbit and from the Earth. Comparisons of the rock abundance, types and coverage of soils (and their physical properties), thermal inertia, albedo, and topographic slope all agree with orbital remote sensing estimates and show that the materials at the landing sites can be used as ground truth for the materials that make up most of the equatorial and mid- to moderately high-latitude regions of Mars. The six landing sites sample two of the three dominant global thermal inertia and albedo units that cover ~80% of the surface of Mars. The Viking, Spirit, Mars Pathfinder, and Phoenix landing sites are representative of the moderate to high thermal inertia and intermediate to high albedo unit that is dominated by crusty, cloddy, blocky or frozen soils (duricrust that may be layered) with various abundances of rocks and bright dust. The Opportunity landing site is representative of the moderate to high thermal inertia and low albedo surface unit that is relatively dust free and composed of dark eolian sand and/or increased abundance of rocks. Rock abundance derived from orbital thermal differencing techniques in the equatorial regions agrees with that determined from rock counts at the surface and varies from ~3-20% at the landing sites. The size-frequency distributions of rocks >1.5 m diameter fully resolvable in HiRISE images of the landing sites follow exponential models developed from lander measurements of smaller rocks and are continuous with these rock distributions indicating both are part of the same population. Interpretation of radar data confirms the presence of load bearing, relatively dense surfaces controlled by the soil type at the landing sites, regional rock populations from diffuse scattering similar to those observed directly at the sites, and root-mean-squared slopes that compare favorably

  1. Ground Boundary Conditions for Thermal Convection Over Horizontal Surfaces at High Rayleigh Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanjalić, K.; Hrebtov, M.

    2016-07-01

    We present "wall functions" for treating the ground boundary conditions in the computation of thermal convection over horizontal surfaces at high Rayleigh numbers using coarse numerical grids. The functions are formulated for an algebraic-flux model closed by transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy, its dissipation rate and scalar variance, but could also be applied to other turbulence models. The three-equation algebraic-flux model, solved in a T-RANS mode ("Transient" Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes, based on triple decomposition), was shown earlier to reproduce well a number of generic buoyancy-driven flows over heated surfaces, albeit by integrating equations up to the wall. Here we show that by using a set of wall functions satisfactory results are found for the ensemble-averaged properties even on a very coarse computational grid. This is illustrated by the computations of the time evolution of a penetrative mixed layer and Rayleigh-Bénard (open-ended, 4:4:1 domain) convection, using 10 × 10 × 100 and 10 × 10 × 20 grids, compared also with finer grids (e.g. 60 × 60 × 100), as well as with one-dimensional treatment using 1 × 1 × 100 and 1 × 1 × 20 nodes. The approach is deemed functional for simulations of a convective boundary layer and mesoscale atmospheric flows, and pollutant transport over realistic complex hilly terrain with heat islands, urban and natural canopies, for diurnal cycles, or subjected to other time and space variations in ground conditions and stratification.

  2. ETHICS AND CHANGES IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovo Radoš

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethics, as a practical philosophy, is found in essential relationships and relations with other relevant practical disciplines (economics, law, politics, sport, etc.. Every human activity is ethically grounded. Therefore, human ethics, which includes sport ethics, is one of the fundamental criteria for establishing moral relations in different are as of sport life. Sport morale stems from a universally accepted ethics legal principles that aim at maintaining sport spirit based on the Olympics codex and humanity principles, among which are: consciousness and honesty, righteousness, cultural-behavior principle, openness, and the like. Changes in sport (organizational, structural, competition, etc. need to be adequately adjusted to universal, and generally accepted, values. Avoiding deontological ethics inevitably leads to increased sports immorality (referees_ fixing match results, spectators_ aggressive behavior, cheating using for bidden doping, etc.. Thus, projecting and introducing innovations in the field of sport, which, after all, are necessary and unavoidable in all areas of life, including sport, will eventually show its positive results only if the aforementioned aspects of sport ethics are taken into consideration.

  3. Scalable and Detail-Preserving Ground Surface Reconstruction from Large 3D Point Clouds Acquired by Mobile Mapping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, D.; Serna Morales, A.; Deschaud, J.-E.; Marcotegui, B.; Goulette, F.

    2014-08-01

    The currently existing mobile mapping systems equipped with active 3D sensors allow to acquire the environment with high sampling rates at high vehicle velocities. While providing an effective solution for environment sensing over large scale distances, such acquisition provides only a discrete representation of the geometry. Thus, a continuous map of the underlying surface must be built. Mobile acquisition introduces several constraints for the state-of-the-art surface reconstruction algorithms. Smoothing becomes a difficult task for recovering sharp depth features while avoiding mesh shrinkage. In addition, interpolation-based techniques are not suitable for noisy datasets acquired by Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) systems. Furthermore, scalability is a major concern for enabling real-time rendering over large scale distances while preserving geometric details. This paper presents a fully automatic ground surface reconstruction framework capable to deal with the aforementioned constraints. The proposed method exploits the quasi-flat geometry of the ground throughout a morphological segmentation algorithm. Then, a planar Delaunay triangulation is applied in order to reconstruct the ground surface. A smoothing procedure eliminates high frequency peaks, while preserving geometric details in order to provide a regular ground surface. Finally, a decimation step is applied in order to cope with scalability constraints over large scale distances. Experimental results on real data acquired in large urban environments are presented and a performance evaluation with respect to ground truth measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  4. Monitoring surface geothermal features using time series of aerial and ground-based photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, C.; van Manen, S. M.; Graham, D.

    2010-12-01

    Geothermal systems are of high conservation and scientific value and monitoring of these is an important management tool to assess natural variations and changes resulting from development and utilization. This study examines time series of aerial and ground-based photographs of geothermal areas within the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. A time series of aerial photographs from 1946-2007 of the Broadlands Road Scenic Reserve (Taupo, New Zealand) highlights large changes to this small area as the result of the start of geothermal fluid production for the nearby Wairakei power plant in 1958 and other causes. Prior to the opening of the plant the area was not geothermally active, but expansion of steam zones due to pressure drawdown has resulted in significant thermal changes in the subsurface. These subsurface thermal changes are evident in the aerial photographs as the appearance of hydrothermal eruption craters and areas of thermal bare ground, which are too hot for vegetation to grown on. In addition, in the late 1960’s thermotolerant vegetation started to establish itself in the adjacent area. Changes in the surface area covered by each of these, reflect changes in the geothermal system as well as changes in management (e.g. exclusion of livestock), and a time series of these changes has been produced using ArcMap™. Monthly photographs of surface geothermal expressions in the Rotorua area show changes in colour and size of chloride springs with time. Colour and size changes are difficult to quantify due to varying exposure settings, weather conditions, and vantage points. However, these qualitative descriptions can be combined with quantitative time series such as temperature measurements, to provide better insight into surface changes that have occurred at this geothermal field. This study highlights the value of both qualitative and quantitative data that can be obtained from time series of photographs, including photographs that were obtained before the

  5. Ground surface thermal regime of rock glaciers in the High Tatra Mts., Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uxa, Tomáš; Mida, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Numerous lobate- or tongue-shaped debris accumulations, mostly interpreted as rock glaciers, have recently been recognized in the High Tatra Mts., Slovakia (49˚ 10' N, 20˚ 08' E). These prominent landforms arise due to creep of voluminous debris-ice mixtures, and as such they are excellent indicators of present or past permafrost existence. Hence rock glaciers are extensively utilized to model the distribution of permafrost in mountain areas. However, commonly applied rules of thumb may not be entirely indicative to discriminate particularly between the inactive (permafrost in disequilibrium with present climate) and relict (without permafrost) rock glaciers, which may substantially complicate permafrost modelling. Accordingly, the information about their thermal state is essential to calibrate and validate regional permafrost models. Limited ground temperature data have been, however, available from the High Tatra Mts. to date and therefore, we bring the updated and enhanced results from the thermal investigations of eleven rock glaciers located in the Slavkovská dolina and Veľká Studená dolina valleys at elevations between 1832 and 2090 m asl. Ground surface temperature (GST) has been continuously monitored at seven rock glaciers between October 2014 and September 2016 using nine Minikin Tie (EMS Brno Inc.) and iButton DS1922L (Maxim Integrated Inc.) loggers with an accuracy of ±0.2 and ±0.5 ˚ C, respectively. In addition, the bottom temperature of snow (BTS) was measured at 306 locations during spring of 2015 and 2016 to map potential permafrost occurrence within all the surveyed rock glaciers and in their immediate surroundings. Mean annual ground surface temperature (MAGST) of the rock glaciers ranged between -1.3 ˚ C and +2.6 ˚ C and averaged +1.0 ˚ C and +0.8 ˚ C in 2014-2015 and 2015-2016, respectively. Two sites continually showed negative MAGST and two other sites were below +0.5 ˚ C and +1.0 ˚ C, respectively. This strongly contrasts with

  6. Ground and surface water for drinking: a laboratory study on genotoxicity using plant tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Feretti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface waters are increasingly utilized for drinking water because groundwater sources are often polluted. Several monitoring studies have detected the presence of mutagenicity in drinking water, especially from surface sources due to the reaction of natural organic matter with disinfectant. The study aimed to investigate the genotoxic potential of the products of reaction between humic substances, which are naturally present in surface water, and three disinfectants: chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid. Commercial humic acids dissolved in distilled water at different total organic carbon (TOC concentrations were studied in order to simulate natural conditions of both ground water (TOC=2.5 mg/L and surface water (TOC=7.5 mg/L. These solutions were treated with the biocides at a 1:1 molar ratio of C:disinfectant and tested for genotoxicity using the anaphase chromosomal aberration and micronucleus tests in Allium cepa, and the Vicia faba and Tradescantia micronucleus tests. The tests were carried out after different times and with different modes of exposure, and at 1:1 and 1:10 dilutions of disinfected and undisinfected humic acid solutions. A genotoxic effect was found for sodium hypochlorite in all plant tests, at both TOCs considered, while chlorine dioxide gave positive results only with the A.cepa tests. Some positive effects were also detected for PAA (A.cepa and Tradescantia. No relevant differences were found in samples with different TOC values. The significant increase in all genotoxicity end-points induced by all tested disinfectants indicates that a genotoxic potential is exerted even in the presence of organic substances at similar concentrations to those frequently present in drinking water.

  7. Ground and surface water for drinking: a laboratory study on genotoxicity using plant tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feretti, Donatella; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Gustavino, Bianca; Zerbini, Llaria; Zani, Claudia; Monarca, Silvano; Rizzoni, Marco

    2012-02-17

    Surface waters are increasingly utilized for drinking water because groundwater sources are often polluted. Several monitoring studies have detected the presence of mutagenicity in drinking water, especially from surface sources due to the reaction of natural organic matter with disinfectant. The study aimed to investigate the genotoxic potential of the products of reaction between humic substances, which are naturally present in surface water, and three disinfectants: chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid. Commercial humic acids dissolved in distilled water at different total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were studied in order to simulate natural conditions of both ground water (TOC=2.5 mg/L) and surface water (TOC=7.5 mg/L). These solutions were treated with the biocides at a 1:1 molar ratio of C:disinfectant and tested for genotoxicity using the anaphase chromosomal aberration and micronucleus tests in Allium cepa, and the Vicia faba and Tradescantia micronucleus tests. The tests were carried out after different times and with different modes of exposure, and at 1:1 and 1:10 dilutions of disinfected and undisinfected humic acid solutions. A genotoxic effect was found for sodium hypochlorite in all plant tests, at both TOCs considered, while chlorine dioxide gave positive results only with the A.cepa tests. Some positive effects were also detected for PAA (A.cepa and Tradescantia). No relevant differences were found in samples with different TOC values. The significant increase in all genotoxicity end-points induced by all tested disinfectants indicates that a genotoxic potential is exerted even in the presence of organic substances at similar concentrations to those frequently present in drinking water.

  8. Large-aperture ground glass surface profile measurement using coherence scanning interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Eundeok; Kim, Yunseok; Park, Sanguk; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2017-01-23

    We present a coherence scanning interferometer configured to deal with rough glass surfaces exhibiting very low reflectance due to severe sub-surface light scattering. A compound light source is prepared by combining a superluminescent light-emitting diode with an ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier. The light source is attuned to offer a short temporal coherence length of 15 μm but with high spatial coherence to secure an adequate correlogram contrast by delivering strongly unbalanced optical power to the low reflectance target. In addition, the infrared spectral range of the light source is shifted close to the visible side at a 1,038 nm center wavelength, so a digital camera of multi-mega pixels available for industrial machine vision can be used to improve the correlogram contrast further with better lateral image resolutions. Experimental results obtained from a ground Zerodur mirror of 200 mm aperture size and 0.9 μm rms roughness are discussed to validate the proposed interferometer system.

  9. Atrazine and its degradation products in surface and ground waters in Zhangjiakou District, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A method using the solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to analyse atrazine and its degradation products at levels of low nanograms per liter in water has been developed. The environmental water samples were filtered and then extracted by SPE with a new sulfonation of poly(divinylbenzene-co-N- vinylpyrrolidone) sorbents MCX. HPLC/APCIMS was used for the analysis of atrazine and its degradation products, desethylatrazine (DEA), deisopropylatrazine (DIA), didealkylatrazine (DEDIA), and hydroxyatrazine (HYA). The detection limits ranged from 10-50 ng/L in water samples. Samples were collected from deep wells and a reservoir near a plant that produced atrazine. Atrazine concentration levels in most surface samples were above the limit of the China Surface Water Regulation (3 mg/L). In ground water, the levels of degradation product were more than 0.1 mg/L and 5-10 times greater than those of atrazine. The highest DEA concentration in the groundwater sample taken at the 130 m depth was 7.2 ug/L.

  10. [Sport medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram

    2012-02-01

    It is only since the late 20th century that Sport and Exercise Medicine has emerged as a distinct entity in health care. In Israel, sports medicine is regulated by a State Law and a sport physician is certified after graduating a structured program. In the past, sports medicine was related to the diagnosis and treatment of injuries encountered by top athletes. In recent years, the scope of sport medicine has broadened to reflect the awareness of modern society of the dangers of physical inactivity. In this perspective the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM) recently launched a program--"Exercise is Medicine", to promote physical activity in order to improve health and well-being and prevention of diseases through physical activity prescriptions. This program is from doctors and healthcare providers, adjusted to the patient or trainee. The sport physician does not replace a medical specialist, but having a thorough understanding about the etiology of a sport-related injury enables him to better focus on treatment and prevention. Therefore, Team Physicians in Elite Sport often play a role regarding not only the medical care of athletes, but also in the physiological monitoring of the athlete and correcting aberrations, to achieve peak physical performance. The broad spectrum of issues in sport and exercise medicine cannot be completely covered in one issue of the Journal. Therefore, the few reports that are presented to enhance interest and understanding in the broad spectrum of issues in sports and exercise medicine are only the tip of the iceberg.

  11. Spectroscopic determination of ground and excited state vibrational potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laane, Jaan

    Far-infrared spectra, mid-infrared combination band spectra, Raman spectra, and dispersed fluorescence spectra of non-rigid molecules can be used to determine the energies of many of the quantum states of conformationally important vibrations such as out-of-plane ring modes, internal rotations, and molecular inversions in their ground electronic states. Similarly, the fluorescence excitation spectra of jet-cooled molecules, together with electronic absorption spectra, provide the information for determining the vibronic energy levels of electronic excited states. One- or two-dimensional potential energy functions, which govern the conformational changes along the vibrational coordinates, can be determined from these types of data for selected molecules. From these functions the molecular structures, the relative energies between different conformations, the barriers to molecular interconversions, and the forces responsible for the structures can be ascertained. This review describes the experimental and theoretical methodology for carrying out the potential energy determinations and presents a summary of work that has been carried out for both electronic ground and excited states. The results for the out-of-plane ring motions of four-, five-, and six-membered rings will be presented, and results for several molecules with unusual properties will be cited. Potential energy functions for the carbonyl wagging and ring modes for several cyclic ketones in their S1(n,pi*) states will also be discussed. Potential energy surfaces for the three internal rotations, including the one governing the photoisomerization process, will be examined for trans-stilbene in both its S0 and S1(pi,pi*) states. For the bicyclic molecules in the indan family, the two-dimensional potential energy surfaces for the highly interacting ring-puckering and ring-flapping motions in both the S0 and S1(pi,pi*) states have also been determined using all of the spectroscopic methods mentioned above

  12. Ozone treatment of coal- and coffee grounds-based active carbons: Water vapor adsorption and surface fractal micropores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, Ryoichi; Ozawa, Takayoshi; Ando, Junichi [Kanagawa Industrial Technology Research Inst., Ebina, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-09-15

    Characteristics of the adsorption iostherms of water vapor on active carbons from coal and coffee grounds and those ozonized ones from the surface fractal dimension analysis are discussed. The upswing of the adsorption isotherms in the low relative pressure of coffee grounds-based active carbon, of which isotherms were not scarcely affected on ozonization, was attributed to the adsorption of water molecules on the metallic oxides playing the role of oxygen-surface complexes, which formed the corrugated surfaces on the basal planes of micropore walls with the surface fractal dimension D{sub s} > 2. On the other hand, coal-based active carbon with D{sub s} < 2, which indicated the flat surfaces of micropore walls, showed little effect on the upswing even on ozonization, even though the adsorption amounts of water vapor were increased in the low relative pressure.

  13. Groundwater Surface Trends at Van Norden Meadow, California, from Ground Penetrating Radar Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadrick, N. I.; Blacic, T. M.; Yarnell, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Van Norden meadow in the Donner Summit area west of Lake Tahoe is one of the largest sub-alpine meadows in the Sierra Nevada mountain range. As natural water retention basins, meadows attenuate floods, improve water quality and support vegetation that stabilizes stream banks and promotes high biodiversity. Like most meadows in the Sierras however, over-grazing, road-building, and development has resulted in localized stream incision, degradation, and partial conversion from wet to dry conditions in Van Norden. Additionally, a small dam at the base of the meadow has partially flooded the lower meadow creating reservoir conditions. Privately owned since the late 1800s, Van Norden was recently purchased by a local land trust to prevent further development and return the area to public ownership. Restoration of the natural meadow conditions will involve notching the dam in 2016 to reduce currently impounded water volumes from 250 to less than 50 acre-feet. To monitor the effects of notching the dam on the upstream meadow conditions, better understanding of the surface and groundwater hydrology both pre- and post-restoration is required. We surveyed the meadow in summer 2014 with ground penetrating radar (GPR) to map the groundwater surface prior to restoration activities using a 270MHz antenna to obtain a suite of longitudinal and transverse transects. Groundwater level within the meadow was assessed using both piezometer readings and sweeps of the GPR antenna. Seventeen piezometers were added this year to the 13 already in place to monitor temporal changes in the groundwater surface, while the GPR profiles provided information about lateral variations. Our results provide an estimate of the groundwater depth variations across the upper portion of the meadow before notching. We plan to return in 2015 to collect GPR profiles during wetter conditions, which will provide a more complete assessment of the pre-notching groundwater hydrology.

  14. Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNMR - A new method for exploration of ground water and aquifer properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Yaramanci

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNMR method is a fairly new technique in geophysics to assess ground water, i.e. existence, amount and productibility by measurements at the surface. The NMR technique used in medicine, physics and lately in borehole geophysics was adopted for surface measurements in the early eighties, and commercial equipment for measurements has been available since the mid nineties. The SNMR method has been tested at sites in Northern Germany with Quaternary sand and clay layers, to examine the suitability of this new method for groundwater exploration and environmental investigations. More information is obtained by SNMR, particularly with respect to aquifer parameters, than with other geophysical techniques. SNMR measurements were carried out at three borehole locations, together with 2D and 1D direct current geoelectrics and well logging (induction log, gamma-ray log and pulsed neutron-gamma log. Permeabilities were calculated from the grain-size distributions of core material determined in the laboratory. It is demonstrated that the SNMR method is able to detect groundwater and the results are in good agreement with other geophysical and hydrogeological data. Using the SNMR method, the water content of the unsaturated and saturated zones (i.e. porosity of an aquifer can be reliably determined. This information and resistivity data permit in-situ determination of other aquifer parameters. Comparison of the SNMR results with borehole data clearly shows that the water content determined by SNMR is the free or mobile water in the pores. The permeabilities estimated from the SNMR decay times are similar to those derived from sieve analysis of core material. Thus, the combination of SNMR with geoelectric methods promises to be a powerful tool for studying aquifer properties.

  15. Transport and fate of nitrate at the ground-water/surface-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, L.J.; Zamora, C.; Essaid, H.; Wilson, J.T.; Johnson, H.M.; Brayton, M.J.; Vogel, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Although numerous studies of hyporheic exchange and denitrification have been conducted in pristine, high-gradient streams, few studies of this type have been conducted in nutrient-rich, low-gradient streams. This is a particularly important subject given the interest in nitrogen (N) inputs to the Gulf of Mexico and other eutrophic aquatic systems. A combination of hydrologic, mineralogical, chemical, dissolved gas, and isotopic data, were used to determine the processes controlling transport and fate of NO3- in streambeds at five sites across the USA. Water samples were collected from streambeds at depths ranging from 0.3 to 3 m at three to five points across the stream and in two to five separate transects. Residence times of water ranging from 0.28 to 34.7 d m-1 in the streambeds of N-rich watersheds played an important role in allowing denitrification to decrease NO3- concentrations. Where potential electron donors were limited and residence times were short, denitrification was limited. Consequently, in spite of reducing conditions at some sites, NO3- was transported into the stream. At two of the five study sites, NO3- in surface water infiltrated the streambeds and concentrations decreased, supporting current models that NO3- would be retained in N-rich streams. At the other three study sites, hydrogeologic controls limited or prevented infiltration of surface water into the streambed, and ground-water discharge contributed to NO 3- loads. Our results also show that in these low hydrologic-gradient systems, storm and other high-flow events can be important factors for increasing surface-water movement into streambeds. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparative study of the phosphate levels in some surface and ground water bodies of Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Fadiran

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The levels of total phosphate in selected surface water and groundwater bodies from Manzini and Lubombo regions of Swaziland were determined using UV spectroscopic method. Samples were collected from three rivers (upstream and downstream of each, three industrial effluents, one reservoir, one pond, one tap water and fifteen boreholes. Mean phosphate levels in the tap water and reservoir varied between 0.08-0.09 mg/L while for the river samples, the range was 0.11-0.37 and for the industrial discharge, it was 0.11-1.60 mg/L PO4–P. For the ground water systems it ranged between 0.10-0.49 mg/L PO4–P. The mean phosphate levels in all the analyzed surface and groundwater samples were below the recommended maximum contaminant level (MCL by SWSC (Swaziland Water Service Corporation – i.e. 1.0 mg/L for drinking water; 2.0 mg/L for rivers and industrial effluents, and the South African criterion of 1.0 mg/L PO4–P, for sewage effluents being discharged into receiving waters. However, pooled mean values for all the sites were higher than the USEPA criterion of 0.03 mg/L maximum for uncontaminated lakes. Dominant factors considered to have influenced the levels of phosphates in both the surface and groundwater samples analyzed include industrial activities (where present, agricultural activities (including livestock, population density, location (urban, suburban or rural, soil/rock type in the vicinity of the sampling point, climate and rainfall pattern of the area or region concerned.

  17. Surface hardness evaluation of different composite resin materials: influence of sports and energy drinks immersion after a short-term period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Erdemir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study evaluated the effect of sports and energy drinks on the surface hardness of different composite resin restorative materials over a 1-month period. Material and Methods: A total of 168 specimens: Compoglass F, Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, and Premise were prepared using a customized cylindrical metal mould and they were divided into six groups (N=42; n=7 per group. For the control groups, the specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C and the water was renewed daily. For the experimental groups, the specimens were immersed in 5 mL of one of the following test solutions: Powerade, Gatorade, X-IR, Burn, and Red Bull, for two minutes daily for up to a 1-month test period and all the solutions were refreshed daily. Surface hardness was measured using a Vickers hardness measuring instrument at baseline, after 1-week and 1-month. Data were statistically analyzed using Multivariate repeated measure ANOVA and Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests (α=0.05. Results: Multivariate repeated measures ANOVA revealed that there were statistically significant differences in the hardness of the restorative materials in different immersion times (p<0.001 in different solutions (p<0.001. The effect of different solutions on the surface hardness values of the restorative materials was tested using Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests, and it was observed that specimens stored in distilled water demonstrated statistically significant lower mean surface hardness reductions when compared to the specimens immersed in sports and energy drinks after a 1-month evaluation period (p<0.001. The compomer was the most affected by an acidic environment, whereas the composite resin materials were the least affected materials. Conclusions: The effect of sports and energy drinks on the surface hardness of a restorative material depends on the duration of exposure time, and the composition of the material.

  18. The essence of sporting embodiment: phenomenological analyses of the sporting body

    OpenAIRE

    Allen-Collinson, Jacquelyn; Hockey, John

    2009-01-01

    Whilst in recent years the sociology of sport has taken to heart vociferous calls ‘to bring the body back in’ to analyses of sporting activity, the ‘promise of phenomenology’ signalled by Kerry and Armour (2000), remains under-realised with regard to sporting embodiment. Surprisingly, given the focus of study, relatively few accounts are truly grounded in the corporeal realities of the lived, sensuous sporting body. Phenomenology offers us a powerful framework for such analysis and has been a...

  19. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 10. Geologic influences on ground and surface waters in the lower Red River watershed, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Plumlee, Geoff; Caine, Jonathan; Bove, Dana; Holloway, JoAnn; Livo, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This report is one in a series that presents results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River, N. Mex., to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the premining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized-but unmined-Straight Creek drainage (a tributary of the Red River) is being used as an analog for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity in the Red River drainage prior to mining. This report provides an overall geologic framework for the Red River watershed between Red River and Questa, in northern New Mexico, and summarizes key geologic, mineralogic, structural and other characteristics of various mineralized areas (and their associated erosional scars and debris fans) that likely influence ground- and surface-water quality and hydrology. The premining nature of the Sulphur Gulch and Goat Hill Gulch scars on the Molycorp mine site can be inferred through geologic comparisons with other unmined scars in the Red River drainage.

  20. A mixed space-time and wavenumber-frequency domain procedure for modelling ground vibration from surface railway tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroma, S. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Hussein, M. F. M.; Ntotsios, E.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for studying ground vibration in which the railway track is modelled in the space-time domain using the finite element method (FEM) and, for faster computation, discretisation of the ground using either FEM or the boundary element method (BEM) is avoided by modelling it in the wavenumber-frequency domain. The railway track is coupled to the ground through a series of rectangular strips located at the surface of the ground; their vertical interaction is described by a frequency-dependent dynamic stiffness matrix whose elements are represented by discrete lumped parameter models. The effectiveness of this approach is assessed firstly through frequency domain analysis using as excitation a stationary harmonic load applied on the rail. The interaction forces at the ballast/ground interface are calculated using the FE track model in the space-time domain, transformed to the wavenumber domain, and used as input to the ground model for calculating vibration in the free field. Additionally, time domain simulations are also performed with the inclusion of nonlinear track parameters. Results are presented for the coupled track/ground model in terms of time histories and frequency spectra for the track vibration, interaction forces and free-field ground vibration. For the linear track model, the results from the mixed formulation are in excellent agreement with those from a semi-analytical model formulated in the wavenumber-frequency domain, particularly in the vicinity of the loading point. The accuracy of the mixed formulation away from the excitation point depends strongly on the inclusion of through-ground coupling in the lumped parameter model, which has been found to be necessary for both track dynamics and ground vibration predictions.

  1. Assessment of volatile organic compounds in surface water at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Spencer, Tracey A.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected 13 surface-water samples and 3 replicates from 5 sites in the West Branch Canal Creek area at Aberdeen Proving Ground from February through August 1999, as a part of an investigation of ground-water contamination and natural attenuation processes. The samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds, including trichloroethylene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform, which are the four major contaminants that were detected in ground water in the Canal Creek area in earlier USGS studies. Field blanks were collected during the sampling period to assess sample bias. Field replicates were used to assess sample variability, which was expressed as relative percent difference. The mean variability of the surface-water replicate analyses was larger (35.4 percent) than the mean variability of ground-water replicate analyses (14.6 percent) determined for West Branch Canal Creek from 1995 through 1996. The higher variability in surface-water analyses is probably due to heterogeneities in the composition of the surface water rather than differences in sampling or analytical procedures. The most frequently detected volatile organic compound was 1,1,2,2- tetrachloroethane, which was detected in every sample and in two of the replicates. The surface-water contamination is likely the result of cross-media transfer of contaminants from the ground water and sediments along the West Branch Canal Creek. The full extent of surface-water contamination in West Branch Canal Creek and the locations of probable contaminant sources cannot be determined from this limited set of data. Tidal mixing, creek flow patterns, and potential effects of a drought that occurred during the sampling period also complicate the evaluation of surface-water contamination.

  2. Ground surface temperature histories in northern Ontario and Québec for the past 500 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickler, Carolyne; Beltrami, Hugo; Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    2016-04-01

    We have used 19 temperature-depth profiles measured in boreholes from eastern Canada to reconstruct the ground surface temperature histories of the region. The boreholes are located north of 51oN, and west and east of James Bay in northern Ontario and Québec. The 8 boreholes in northern Ontario come from 3 sites in a region of extensive discontinuous permafrost, while the 11 holes from Québec come from 6 sites in a region of sporadic discontinuous permafrost. The depths of the holes range between 400 and 800 m, allowing a reconstruction of the ground surface temperature histories for the past 500 years. Present ground surface temperatures are higher in Québec, perhaps because the region receives more snowfall as shown by meteorological records and proxy data. The ground surface temperature histories indicate a present-day warming of ˜2-2.5oC in Ontario and ˜1-1.5oC in Québec relative to the reference surface temperature 500 years BP. These results are in agreement with available proxy data for the recent warming in eastern North America. Furthermore, they suggest that the higher snowfall and strong cooling during the Little Ice Age could have muted the borehole temperature record of climate change in Québec.

  3. An Upscaling Algorithm to Obtain the Representative Ground Truth of LAI Time Series in Heterogeneous Land Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuechan Shi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Upscaling in situ leaf area index (LAI measurements to the footprint scale is important for the validation of medium resolution remote sensing products. However, surface heterogeneity and temporal variation of vegetation make this difficult. In this study, a two-step upscaling algorithm was developed to obtain the representative ground truth of LAI time series in heterogeneous surfaces based on in situ LAI data measured by the wireless sensor network (WSN observation system. Since heterogeneity within a site usually arises from the mixture of vegetation and non-vegetation surfaces, the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation and land cover types were separately considered. Representative LAI time series of vegetation surfaces were obtained by upscaling in situ measurements using an optimal weighted combination method, incorporating the expectation maximum (EM algorithm to derive the weights. The ground truth of LAI over the whole site could then be determined using area weighted combination of representative LAIs of different land cover types. The algorithm was evaluated using a dataset collected in Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWater experiment. The proposed algorithm can effectively obtain the representative ground truth of LAI time series in heterogeneous cropland areas. Using the normal method of an average LAI measurement to represent the heterogeneous surface produced a root mean square error (RMSE of 0.69, whereas the proposed algorithm provided RMSE = 0.032 using 23 sampling points. The proposed ground truth derived method was implemented to validate four major LAI products.

  4. Simulation of ground-water/surface-water flow in the Santa Clara-Calleguas ground-water basin, Ventura County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Martin, Peter; Koczot, Kathryn M.

    2003-01-01

    Ground water is the main source of water in the Santa Clara-Calleguas ground-water basin that covers about 310 square miles in Ventura County, California. A steady increase in the demand for surface- and ground-water resources since the late 1800s has resulted in streamflow depletion and ground-water overdraft. This steady increase in water use has resulted in seawater intrusion, inter-aquifer flow, land subsidence, and ground-water contamination. The Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin consists of multiple aquifers that are grouped into upper- and lower-aquifer systems. The upper-aquifer system includes the Shallow, Oxnard, and Mugu aquifers. The lower-aquifer system includes the upper and lower Hueneme, Fox Canyon, and Grimes Canyon aquifers. The layered aquifer systems are each bounded below by regional unconformities that are overlain by extensive basal coarse-grained layers that are the major pathways for ground-water production from wells and related seawater intrusion. The aquifer systems are bounded below and along mountain fronts by consolidated bedrock that forms a relatively impermeable boundary to ground-water flow. Numerous faults act as additional exterior and interior boundaries to ground-water flow. The aquifer systems extend offshore where they crop out along the edge of the submarine shelf and within the coastal submarine canyons. Submarine canyons have dissected these regional aquifers, providing a hydraulic connection to the ocean through the submarine outcrops of the aquifer systems. Coastal landward flow (seawater intrusion) occurs within both the upper- and lower-aquifer systems. A numerical ground-water flow model of the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to better define the geohydrologic framework of the regional ground-water flow system and to help analyze the major problems affecting water-resources management of a typical coastal aquifer system. Construction of the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin model required

  5. Modeling short wave radiation and ground surface temperature: a validation experiment in the Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliotti, P.; Cremonese, E.; Dallamico, M.; Gruber, S.; Migliavacca, M.; Morra di Cella, U.

    2009-12-01

    Permafrost distribution in high-mountain areas is influenced by topography (micro-climate) and high variability of ground covers conditions. Its monitoring is very difficult due to logistical problems like accessibility, costs, weather conditions and reliability of instrumentation. For these reasons physically-based modeling of surface rock/ground temperatures (GST) is fundamental for the study of mountain permafrost dynamics. With this awareness a 1D version of GEOtop model (www.geotop.org) is tested in several high-mountain sites and its accuracy to reproduce GST and incoming short wave radiation (SWin) is evaluated using independent field measurements. In order to describe the influence of topography, both flat and near-vertical sites with different aspects are considered. Since the validation of SWin is difficult on steep rock faces (due to the lack of direct measures) and validation of GST is difficult on flat sites (due to the presence of snow) the two parameters are validated as independent experiments: SWin only on flat morphologies, GST only on the steep ones. The main purpose is to investigate the effect of: (i) distance between driving meteo station location and simulation point location, (ii) cloudiness, (iii) simulation point aspect, (iv) winter/summer period. The temporal duration of model runs is variable from 3 years for the SWin experiment to 8 years for the validation of GST. The model parameterization is constant and tuned for a common massive bedrock of crystalline rock like granite. Ground temperature profile is not initialized because rock temperature is measured at only 10cm depth. A set of 9 performance measures is used for comparing model predictions and observations (including: fractional mean bias (FB), coefficient of residual mass (CMR), mean absolute error (MAE), modelling efficiency (ME), coefficient of determination (R2)). Results are very encouraging. For both experiments the distance (Km) between location of the driving meteo

  6. Surface hardness evaluation of different composite resin materials: influence of sports and energy drinks immersion after a short-term period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ugur; Yildiz, Esra; Eren, Meltem Mert; Ozel, Sevda

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of sports and energy drinks on the surface hardness of different composite resin restorative materials over a 1-month period. A total of 168 specimens: Compoglass F, Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, and Premise were prepared using a customized cylindrical metal mould and they were divided into six groups (N=42; n=7 per group). For the control groups, the specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C and the water was renewed daily. For the experimental groups, the specimens were immersed in 5 mL of one of the following test solutions: Powerade, Gatorade, X-IR, Burn, and Red Bull, for two minutes daily for up to a 1-month test period and all the solutions were refreshed daily. Surface hardness was measured using a Vickers hardness measuring instrument at baseline, after 1-week and 1-month. Data were statistically analyzed using Multivariate repeated measure ANOVA and Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests (α=0.05). Multivariate repeated measures ANOVA revealed that there were statistically significant differences in the hardness of the restorative materials in different immersion times (pmaterials was tested using Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests, and it was observed that specimens stored in distilled water demonstrated statistically significant lower mean surface hardness reductions when compared to the specimens immersed in sports and energy drinks after a 1-month evaluation period (pmaterials were the least affected materials. The effect of sports and energy drinks on the surface hardness of a restorative material depends on the duration of exposure time, and the composition of the material.

  7. Urban archaeological investigations using surface 3D Ground Penetrating Radar and Electrical Resistivity Tomography methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos; Yi, Myeong-Jong; Kim, Jung-Ho

    2009-02-01

    Ongoing and extensive urbanisation, which is frequently accompanied with careless construction works, may threaten important archaeological structures that are still buried in the urban areas. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) methods are most promising alternatives for resolving buried archaeological structures in urban territories. In this work, three case studies are presented, each of which involves an integrated geophysical survey employing the surface three-dimensional (3D) ERT and GPR techniques, in order to archaeologically characterise the investigated areas. The test field sites are located at the historical centres of two of the most populated cities of the island of Crete, in Greece. The ERT and GPR data were collected along a dense network of parallel profiles. The subsurface resistivity structure was reconstructed by processing the apparent resistivity data with a 3D inversion algorithm. The GPR sections were processed with a systematic way, applying specific filters to the data in order to enhance their information content. Finally, horizontal depth slices representing the 3D variation of the physical properties were created. The GPR and ERT images significantly contributed in reconstructing the complex subsurface properties in these urban areas. Strong GPR reflections and high-resistivity anomalies were correlated with possible archaeological structures. Subsequent excavations in specific places at both sites verified the geophysical results. The specific case studies demonstrated the applicability of ERT and GPR techniques during the design and construction stages of urban infrastructure works, indicating areas of archaeological significance and guiding archaeological excavations before construction work.

  8. The impact of municipal landfill on surface and ground water quality in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nyengera

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Leachate from Richmond municipal landfill, underlain by the Matsheumhlope unconfined aquifer in Bulawayo city and its consequent water resource quality impacts are evaluated. Leachate samples from collection ponds and water samples from a stream, and up and down-gradient boreholes fromthe landfill were tested for nine pollutants. The leachate pollutants found in both surface and ground water included metals (Fe, Pb and Hg and organic compounds that are hazardous to both human and the environmental health. Borehole water quality compliance with the relevant national and international regulations is reported. From borehole water samples, only chloride and nitrate with concentrations of 56.9 mg/ℓ and 2.26 mg/ℓ, respectively, were within the World Health Organisation (WHO recommended limits for drinking water of 250 mg/ℓ and 10 mg/ℓ, respectively. Lead and mercury concentrations of 0.22 mg/ℓ and 0.04 mg/ℓ were 10 times higher than WHO guidelines of 0.01 and 0.001 mg/ℓ, respectively. Both landfill and informal settlement activities near the landfill impact negatively to water resources quality in the area. City council should minimize waste by recycling, pre-treat collected leachate and drill monitoring wells around the landfill to check possible leachate leaks to water resources and take remedial actions, such assubmerged leachate combustion and evaporation.

  9. A study of the efficiency of spur gears made of powder metallurgy materials - ground versus super-finished surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xinmin; Sosa, Mario; Andersson, Martin; Olofsson, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Power loss is one of the main concerns in gear transmission systems. In this study a recirculating power back-to-back FZG test rig was used to investigate the efficiency of spur gears made of powder metallurgy (PM) material using two different surface manufacturing methods (ground and super-finished). The results were compared with previously presented results of standard gear material from the same test rig. The influence of the material (Wrought steel or PM) and surface roughness on the gea...

  10. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Kostik; Biljana Bauer; Zoran Kavrakovski

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupl...

  11. Use of chemical and isotopic tracers to characterize the interactions between ground water and surface water in mantled karst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B.G.; Coplen, T.B.; Bullen, T.D.; Hal, Davis J.

    1997-01-01

    In the mantled karst terrane of northern Florida, the water quality of the Upper Floridan aquifer is influenced by the degree of connectivity between the aquifer and the surface. Chemical and isotopic analyses [18O/16O (??18O), 2H/1H (??D), 13C/12C (??13C), tritium(3H), and strontium-87/strontium-86(87Sr/86Sr)]along with geochemical mass-balance modeling were used to identify the dominant hydrochemical processes that control the composition of ground water as it evolves downgradient in two systems. In one system, surface water enters the Upper Floridan aquifer through a sinkhole located in the Northern Highlands physiographic unit. In the other system, surface water enters the aquifer through a sinkhole lake (Lake Bradford) in the Woodville Karst Plain. Differences in the composition of water isotopes (??18O and ??D) in rainfall, ground water, and surface water were used to develop mixing models of surface water (leakage of water to the Upper Floridan aquifer from a sinkhole lake and a sinkhole) and ground water. Using mass-balance calculations, based on differences in ??18O and ??D, the proportion of lake water that mixed with meteoric water ranged from 7 to 86% in water from wells located in close proximity to Lake Bradford. In deeper parts of the Upper Floridan aquifer, water enriched in 18O and D from five of 12 sampled municipal wells indicated that recharge from a sinkhole (1 to 24%) and surface water with an evaporated isotopic signature (2 to 32%) was mixing with ground water. The solute isotopes, ??13C and 87Sr/86Sr, were used to test the sensitivity of binary and ternary mixing models, and to estimate the amount of mass transfer of carbon and other dissolved species in geochemical reactions. In ground water downgradient from Lake Bradford, the dominant processes controlling carbon cycling in ground water were dissolution of carbonate minerals, aerobic degradation of organic matter, and hydrolysis of silicate minerals. In the deeper parts of the Upper

  12. Using distributed temperature sensing to monitor field scale dynamics of ground surface temperature and related substrate heat flux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bense, V.F.; Read, T.; Verhoef, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present one of the first studies of the use of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) along fibre-optic cables to purposely monitor spatial and temporal variations in ground surface temperature (GST) and soil temperature, and provide an estimate of the heat flux at the base of the canopy layer

  13. Getting saturated hydraulic conductivity from surface Ground-Penetrating Radar measurements inside a ring infiltrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, E.; Saintenoy, A.; Coquet, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic properties of soils, described by the soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions, strongly influence water flow in the vadoze zone, as well as the partitioning of precipitation between infiltration into the soil and runoff along the ground surface. Their evaluation has important applications for modelling available water resources and for flood forecasting. It is also crucial to evaluate soil's capacity to retain chemical pollutants and to assess the potential of groundwater pollution. The determination of the parameters involved in soil water retention functions, 5 parameters when using the van Genuchten function, is usually done by laboratory experiments, such as the water hanging column. Hydraulic conductivity, on the other hand can be estimated either in laboratory, or in situ using infiltrometry tests. Among the large panel of existing tests, the single or double ring infiltrometers give the field saturated hydraulic conductivity by applying a positive charge on soils, whereas the disk infiltrometer allows to reconstruct the whole hydraulic conductivity curve, by applying different charges smaller than or equal to zero. In their classical use, volume of infiltrated water versus time are fitted to infer soil's hydraulic conductivity close to water saturation. Those tests are time-consuming and difficult to apply to landscape-scale forecasting of infiltration. Furthermore they involve many assumptions concerning the form of the infiltration bulb and its evolution. Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a geophysical method based on electromagnetic wave propagation. It is highly sensitive to water content variations directly related to the dielectric permittivity. In this study GPR was used to monitor water infiltration inside a ring infiltrometer and retrieve the saturated hydraulic conductivity. We carried out experiments in a quarry of Fontainebleau sand, using a Mala RAMAC system with antennae centered on 1600 MHz. We recorded traces at

  14. Implementing ground surface deformation tools to characterize field-scale properties of a fractured aquifer during a short hydraulic test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuite, Jonathan; Longuevergne, Laurent; Bour, Olivier; Boudin, Frédérick; Durand, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    In naturally fractured reservoirs, fluid flow is governed by the structural and hydromechanical properties of fracture networks or conductive fault zones. In order to ensure a sustained exploitation of resources or to assess the safety of underground storage, it is necessary to evaluate these properties. As they generally form highly heterogeneous and anisotropic reservoirs, fractured media may be well characterized by means of several complementary experimental methods or sounding techniques. In this framework, the observation of ground deformation has been proved useful to gain insight of a fractured reservoir's geometry and hydraulic properties. Commonly, large conductive structures like faults can be studied from surface deformation from satellite methods at monthly time scales, whereas meter scale fractures have to be examined under short-term in situ experiments using high accuracy intruments like tiltmeters or extensometers installed in boreholes or at the ground's surface. To the best of our knowledge, the feasability of a field scale (~ 100 m) characterization of a fractured reservoir with geodetic tools in a short term experiment has not yet been addressed. In the present study, we implement two complementary ground surface geodetic tools, namely tiltmetry and optical leveling, to monitor the deformation induced by a hydraulic recovery test at the Ploemeur hydrological observatory (France). Employing a simple purely elastic modeling approach, we show that the joint use of time constraining data (tilt) and spatially constraining data (vertical displacement) makes it possible to evaluate the geometry (dip, root depth and lateral extent) and the storativity of a hydraulically active fault zone, in good agreement with previous studies. Hence we demonstrate that the adequate use of two complementary ground surface deformation methods offer a rich insight of large conductive structure's properties using a single short term hydraulic load. Ground surface

  15. On the wettability diversity of C/SiC surface: Comparison of the ground C/SiC surface and ablated C/SiC surface from three aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M. L.; Ren, C. Z.; Xu, H. Z.

    2016-11-01

    The coefficient of thermal conductivity was influenced by the wetting state of material. The wetting state usually depends on the surface wettability. C/SiC is a promising ceramic composites with multi-components. The wettability of C/SiC composites is hard to resort to the classical wetting theory directly. So far, few investigations focused on C/SiC surface wettability diversity after different material removal processes. In this investigation, comparative studies of surface wettability of ground C/SiC surface and laser-ablated C/SiC surface were carried out through apparent contact angle (APCA) measurements. The results showed that water droplets easily reached stable state on ground C/SiC surface; while the water droplets rappidly penetrated into the laser-ablated C/SiC surface. In order to find out the reason for wettability distinctions between the ground C/SiC surface and the laser-ablated C/SiC surface, comparative studies on the surface micro-structure, surface C-O-Si distribution, and surface C-O-Si weight percentage were carried out. The results showed that (1) A large number of micro cracks in the fuzzy pattern layer over laser-ablated C/SiC surfaces easily destoried the surface tension of water droplets, while only a few cracks existed over the ground C/SiC surfaces. (2) Chemical components (C, O, Si) were non-uniformly distributed on ground C/SiC surfaces, while the chemical components (C, O, Si) were uniformly distributed on laser-ablated C/SiC surfaces. (3) The carbon weight percentage on ground C/SiC surfaces were higher than that on laser-ablated C/SiC surfaces. All these made an essential contribution to the surface wettability diversity of C/SiC surface. Although more investigations about the quantitative influence of surface topography and surface chemical composition on composites wettability are still needed, the conslusion can be used in application: the wettability of C/SiC surface can be controlled by different material removal process

  16. Impact of the variability of the seasonal snow cover on the ground surface regimes in Hurd Peninsula (Livingston Island, Antarctic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Ramos, Miguel; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2014-05-01

    Seasonally snow cover has a great impact on the thermal regime of the active layer and permafrost. Ground temperatures over a year are strongly affected by the timing, duration, thickness, structure and physical and thermal properties of snow cover. The purpose of this communication is to characterize the shallow ground thermal regimes, with special reference to the understanding of the influence snow cover in permafrost spatial distribution, in the ice-free areas of the north western part of Hurd Peninsula in the vicinity of the Spanish Antarctic Station "Juan Carlos I" and Bulgarian Antarctic Station "St. Kliment Ohridski". We have analyzed and ground temperatures as well as snow thickness data in four sites distributed along an altitudinal transect in Hurd Peninsula from 2007 to 2013: Nuevo Incinerador (25 m asl), Collado Ramos (110 m), Ohridski (140 m) and Reina Sofia Peak (275 m). At each study site, data loggers were installed for the monitoring of air temperatures (at 1.5 m high), ground temperatures (5, 20 and 40 cm depth) and for snow depth (2, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 cm) at 4-hour intervals. The winter data suggests the existence of three types of seasonal stages regarding the ground surface thermal regime and the thickness of snow cover: (a) shallow snow cover with intense ground temperatures oscillations; (b) thick snow cover and low variations of soil temperatures; and (c) stability of ground temperatures. Ground thermal conditions are also conditioned by a strong variability. Winter data indicates that Nuevo Incinerador site experiences more often thicker snow cover with higher ground temperatures and absence of ground temperatures oscillations. Collado Ramos and Ohridski show frequent variations of snow cover thickness, alternating between shallow snow cover with high ground temperature fluctuation and thick snow cover and low ground temperature fluctuation. Reina Sofia in all the years has thick snow cover with little variations in soil

  17. Eye Injuries in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Sports Which sports cause the most eye injuries?Sports cause more than 40,000 eye injuries each ... and racquet sports.When it comes to eye injuries, sports can be classified as low risk, high risk ...

  18. [Heavy metals in the surface sediment of the dumping ground outside Jiaozhou Bay and their potential ecological risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Cong-hua; Zhang, Nai-xing; Wu, Feng-cong; Sun, Bin; Ren, Rong-zhu; Sun, Xu; Lin, Sen; Zhang, Shao-ping

    2011-05-01

    Based on the monitoring data of heavy metals (Cr, Hg, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu) in the surface sediment of the dumping ground outside Jiaozhou Bay from 2003 to 2008, the distribution patterns, factors controlling the distribution, and the potential ecological risks of heavy metals were studied with the data in 2007-08, and the fluctuation trends of heavy metals in the surface sediment over the 6 years were also discussed. The average concentrations of heavy metals Cr, Hg, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu in the surface sediment were 29.47, 0.065, 0.105, 1.145, 9.63, 3.355 microg/g, respectively. Except for Cr, the concentration of heavy metals was high in the central dumping area while low outside the dumping ground, suggesting that the dredged material dumped was the main source of heavy metals. Organic carbon content in the surface sediment had a significant positive correlation with heavy metals except for Cr. Based on the results of ecological risk assessment, Hg had a medium potential ecological risk, while the other heavy metals had low potential ecological risk. The overall risk index (RI) of the heavy metals was 100.50, which was considered as a level of low potential ecological risk. The average concentration of heavy metals showed a decreasing trend over the 6 years, except Hg. In conclusion, the quality of surface sediment in term of heavy metals in the dumping ground outside Jiaozhou Bay is relatively good.

  19. Teaching Sport as History, History through Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Robert F.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate history course based on two themes: sport as a reflection of society and sport as a socializing agent affecting society. The course focuses on sports and industrialization, traditional and modern sports, political and economic aspects of sport, and inequality and discrimination in sports. (Author/JK)

  20. Application of terrestrial laser scanning for detection of ground surface deformation in small mud volcano (Murono, Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Kusumoto, Shigekazu; Matta, Nobuhisa

    2016-07-01

    We perform terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to detect changes in surface morphology of a mud volcano in Murono, north-central Japan. The study site underwent significant deformation by a strong earthquake in 2011, and the surface deformation has continued in the following years. The point cloud datasets were obtained by TLS at three different times in 2011, 2013 and 2014. Those point clouds were aligned by cloud-based registration, which minimizes the closest point distance of point clouds of unchanged ground features, and the TLS-based point cloud data appear to be suitable for detecting centimeter-order deformations in the central domain of the mud volcano, as well as for measurements of topographic features including cracks of paved ground surface. The spatial patterns and accumulative amount of the vertical deformation during 2011-2014 captured by TLS correspond well with those previously reported based on point-based leveling surveys, supporting the validity of TLS survey.

  1. Calculation of Electric Field at Ground Surface and ADSS Cable Prepared Hanging Point near EHV Power Transmission Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Bao-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified model of the 750kV tower is established by CDEGS software which is based on the Method Of Moment. The power frequency electric field distribution on the ground is achieved by software calculation and field-measuring. The validity of the calculation is proved when compare the calculation and experiment results. The model also can be used to calculate the electric field in prepared hanging points on the tower. Results show that the electric field distribution on the ground surface around the tower and prepared hanging points are meet the standard by calculation and experiment.

  2. Sports Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2004-01-01

    Sports medicine has become one of the biggest and fastest growing medical fields in recent years. That is because sports have become a major part of most societies. As work becomes more stressful (紧张的,压力重

  3. Sports Physicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prepare for Your Sports Season Choosing the Right Sport for You Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend Permissions Guidelines Note: Clicking these links will take you to a site outside of KidsHealth's control. About TeensHealth Nemours.org Reading ...

  4. Sport Toekomstverkenning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker

    2017-01-01

    Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen

  5. Sports Physicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more specific about athletic issues. During a regular physical, however, your doctor will address your overall well-being, which may include things that are unrelated to sports. You can ask your doctor to give you both types of ... if your sports physical exam doesn't reveal any problems, it's always ...

  6. Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…

  7. Paralympic Sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The sport movement for persons with a disability has changed dramatically over the last dec- ades with even more changes ahead.Public awareness has increased.More and more individuals with a disability of all ages find interest in sport.

  8. Sport Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhouse, Bonnie L., Ed.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Traditional teaching and coaching positions have become scarce but the expanding field of sport management has created its own job market, demanding new skills and preparation. Three articles are offered that explore different aspects and possibilities for a sport management career. (DF)

  9. Geophysical Monitoring of Ground Surface Deformation Associated with a Confined Aquifer Storage and Recovery Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, Alain; Heggy, Essam; Strickland, Christopher; Normand, Jonathan; Dermond, Jeffrey; Fang, Yilin; Sullivan, Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    One important issue in the storage of large volumes of fluids, mainly water and CO2, in the deep subsurface is to determine the resulting field-scale-induced displacements and consequences of overpressures on the mechanical integrity of the storage reservoir and surroundings. A quantifiable estimation of displacement can be made by combining the robust, cost-effective, and repeatable geophysical techniques of micro-gravimetry, differential global positioning system (DGPS), and differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR). These techniques were field tested and evaluated for the first time on an active large-volume aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) project in Pendleton, Oregon, USA, where three ASR wells are injecting up to 1.9 million m3 year-1 into basalt aquifers to a depth of about 150 m. Injection and recovery of water at the wells are accompanied by significant gravity anomalies and vertical deformation of the ground surface localized to the immediate surroundings of the injection wells as evidenced by DGPS and gravity measurements collected in 2011. At a larger scale, and between 2011 and 2013, DInSAR monitoring of the Pendleton area shows sub- centimetric deformation in the western part of the city and close to the injection locations associated with ASR cycle. Deformations are found to be temporally out phased with the injection and recovery events due to complex groundwater flow. A numerical simulation of the effect of the water injection gives results in good agreement with the observations and confirms the validity of the approach, which could be deployed in similar geological contexts to look at the mechanical effects of water and gas injections.

  10. Analysis of the Effects of Vitiates on Surface Heat Flux in Ground Tests of Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuda, Vincent; Gaffney, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    To achieve the high enthalpy conditions associated with hypersonic flight, many ground test facilities burn fuel in the air upstream of the test chamber. Unfortunately, the products of combustion contaminate the test gas and alter gas properties and the heat fluxes associated with aerodynamic heating. The difference in the heating rates between clean air and a vitiated test medium needs to be understood so that the thermal management system for hypersonic vehicles can be properly designed. This is particularly important for advanced hypersonic vehicle concepts powered by air-breathing propulsion systems that couple cooling requirements, fuel flow rates, and combustor performance by flowing fuel through sub-surface cooling passages to cool engine components and preheat the fuel prior to combustion. An analytical investigation was performed comparing clean air to a gas vitiated with methane/oxygen combustion products to determine if variations in gas properties contributed to changes in predicted heat flux. This investigation started with simple relationships, evolved into writing an engineering-level code, and ended with running a series of CFD cases. It was noted that it is not possible to simultaneously match all of the gas properties between clean and vitiated test gases. A study was then conducted selecting various combinations of freestream properties for a vitiated test gas that matched clean air values to determine which combination of parameters affected the computed heat transfer the least. The best combination of properties to match was the free-stream total sensible enthalpy, dynamic pressure, and either the velocity or Mach number. This combination yielded only a 2% difference in heating. Other combinations showed departures of up to 10% in the heat flux estimate.

  11. Satellite Data Product and Data Dissemination Updates for the SPoRT Sea Surface Temperature Composite Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; LaFontaine, Frank; Berndt, Emily; Meyer, Paul; Jedlovec, Gary

    2017-01-01

    The SPoRT SST composite is a reliable and robust high-resolution product generated twice per day in near real time. It incorporates highest quality data satellite data from infrared imagers and global analysis from NESDIS and UKMO. Recent updates to the product include the inclusion of VIIRS data to extend the life of the product beyond the MODIS era. It is used by a number of users in their DSS.

  12. Ground water/surface water responses to global climate simulations, Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin, Ventura, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Climate variations can play an important, if not always crucial, role in successful conjunctive management of ground water and surface water resources. This will require accurate accounting of the links between variations in climate, recharge, and withdrawal from the resource systems, accurate projection or predictions of the climate variations, and accurate simulation of the responses of the resource systems. To assess linkages and predictability of climate influences on conjunctive management, global climate model (GCM) simulated precipitation rates were used to estimate inflows and outflows from a regional ground water model (RGWM) of the coastal aquifers of the Santa ClaraCalleguas Basin at Ventura, California, for 1950 to 1993. Interannual to interdecadal time scales of the El Nin??o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) climate variations are imparted to simulated precipitation variations in the Southern California area and are realistically imparted to the simulated ground water level variations through the climate-driven recharge (and discharge) variations. For example, the simulated average ground water level response at a key observation well in the basin to ENSO variations of tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures is 1.2 m/??C, compared to 0.9 m/??C in observations. This close agreement shows that the GCM-RGWM combination can translate global scale climate variations into realistic local ground water responses. Probability distributions of simulated ground water level excursions above a local water level threshold for potential seawater intrusion compare well to the corresponding distributions from observations and historical RGWM simulations, demonstrating the combination's potential usefulness for water management and planning. Thus the GCM-RGWM combination could be used for planning purposes and - when the GCM forecast skills are adequate - for near term predictions.

  13. Nutrients in ground water and surface water of the United States; an analysis of data through 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, D.K.; Hamilton, P.A.; Helsel, D.R.; Hitt, K.J.; Ruddy, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    Historical data on nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus species) concentrations in ground-and surface-water samples were compiled from 20 study units of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program and 5 supplemental study areas. The resultant national retrospective data sets contained analyses of about 12,000 Found-water and more than 22,000 surface-water samples. These data were interpreted on regional and national scales by relating the distributions of nutrient concentrations to ancillary data, such as land use, soil characteristics, and hydrogeology, provided by local study-unit personnel. The information provided in this report on environmental factors that affect nutrient concentrations in ground and surface water can be used to identify areas of the Nation where the vulnerability to nutrient contamination is greatest. Nitrate was the nutrient of greatest concern in the historical ground-water data. It is the only nutrient that is regulated by a national drinking-water standard. Nitrate concentrations were significantly different in ground water affected by various land uses. Concentrations in about 16 percent of the samples collected in agricultural areas exceeded the drinking-water standard. However, the standard was exceeded in only about 1 percent of samples collected from public-supply wells. A variety of ancillary factors had significant relations to nitrate concentrations in ground water beneath agricultural areas. Concentrations generally were highest within 100 feet of the land surface. They were also higher in areas where soil and geologic characteristics promoted rapid movement of water to the aquifer. Elevated concentrations commonly occurred in areas underlain by permeable materials, such as carbonate bedrock or unconsolidated sand and gravel, and where soils are generally well drained. In areas where water movement is impeded, denitrification might lead to low concentrations of nitrate in the ground water. Low concentrations were also

  14. Colored grounds of gilt stucco surfaces as analyzed by a combined microscopic, spectroscopic and elemental analytical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansonetti, A; Striova, J; Biondelli, D; Castellucci, E M

    2010-08-01

    A survey of gilts applied to stucco surfaces that specifically focuses on the compositions of their colored grounds is reported. Gilt samples of a common geographical (Lombardy in Italy) and temporal provenance (17th-18th century) were studied in the form of polished cross-sections by optical and electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), micro-Raman (microRaman) spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy (microFTIR). Comparing samples with superimposed grounds and gilts enabled light to be shed on the choice of specific materials, their stratigraphic functions, decorative effects, and technological performances. Iron oxide pigments were found in the older grounds, sometimes in the presence of lead white (2PbCO(3).Pb(OH)(2)) or minium (Pb(3)O(4)). In more recent grounds, chrome yellow (PbCrO(4)), chrome orange (PbCrO(4).PbO), cinnabar (alpha-HgS) and barium white (BaSO(4)), invariably mixed with lead white, were encountered. Evidence for the use of organic mordants (colophony and wax, or siccative oil) was obtained by microFTIR. This combined microFTIR and microRaman spectroscopic and elemental (SEM-EDS) analytical approach enhances knowledge of the composition of gold grounds, their variability and their chronological evolution.

  15. Study on the applicability of frequency spectrum of micro-tremor and dynamic characteristics of surface ground in Asia area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Ai-lan; IWATATE Takahiro; ODA Yoshiya; GE Xiu-run

    2006-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of ground soil using micro-tremor observation in Asia (Zushi and Ogasawara (Japan),Xi'an (China), Manila (Philippines), and Gujarat (India)) are studied. Ground micro-tremor signals were observed and analyzed by fast Fourier transform method (FFT). The response of ground soil to frequency of ground micro-tremor is revealed, and functions with frequency-dependence and frequency-selection of micro-tremor for different foundation soil strata are also researched.The horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (H/V, Nakamura technique) of micro-tremor observed at the surface ground was used to evaluate the site's predominant period. This paper also discusses the application of micro-tremor on site safety evaluation, and gives the observed calculation results obtained at multiple points. The experimental foundation and the deduction process of the method are described in detail. Some problems of the method are pointed out. Potential use of the technique's good expandable nature makes it a useable means for preventing and reducing disaster's harmful effects.

  16. Rapportage sport 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst

    2008-01-01

    Sport boeit. Sport bindt. Sport bevordert de gezondheid. En sport betaalt. Sport is anno 2008 ongekend populair. Tweederde van de Nederlanders doet aan sport. Na zwemmen en fietsen is fitness de meest populaire sport geworden. Daarnaast zetten anderhalf miljoen Nederlanders zich als vrijwilliger

  17. The study of single station inverting the sea surface current by HF ground wave radar based on adjoint assimilation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuzong; Yang, Hua; Xue, Wenhu; Wang, Xingchi

    2017-06-01

    This paper introduces the assimilation technology in an ocean dynamics model and discusses the feasibility of inverting the sea surface current in the detection zone by assimilating the sea current radial velocity detected by single station HF ground wave radar in ocean dynamics model. Based on the adjoint assimilation and POM model, the paper successfully inverts the sea surface current through single station HF ground wave radar in the Zhoushan sea area. The single station HF radar inversion results are also compared with the bistatic HF radar composite results and the fixed point measured results by Annderaa current meter. The error analysis shows that acquisition of flow velocity and flow direction data from the single station HF radar based on adjoint assimilation and POM model is viable and the data obtained have a high correlation and consistency with the flow field observed by HF radar.

  18. SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR RESTORATION OF URBAN LAKES IN GREATER HYDERABAD, INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, A. K.

    2009-12-01

    SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR RESTORATION OF URBAN LAKES IN GREATER HYDERABAD, INDIA A.K. Mohanty, K. Mahesh Kumar, B. A. Prakash and V.V.S. Gurunadha Rao Ecology and Environment Group National Geophysical Research Institute, (CSIR) Hyderabad - 500 606, India E-mail:atulyakumarmohanty@yahoo.com Abstract: Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority has taken up restoration of urban lakes around Hyderabad city under Green Hyderabad Environment Program. Restoration of Mir Alam Tank, Durgamcheruvu, Patel cheruvu, Pedda Cheruvu and Nallacheruvu lakes have been taken up under the second phase. There are of six lakes viz., RKPuramcheruvu, Nadimicheruvu (Safilguda), Bandacheruvu Patelcheruvu, Peddacheruvu, Nallacheruvu, in North East Musi Basin covering 38 sq km. Bimonthly monitoring of lake water quality for BOD, COD, Total Nitrogen, Total phosphorous has been carried out for two hydrological cycles during October 2002- October 2004 in all the five lakes at inlet channels and outlets. The sediments in the lake have been also assessed for nutrient status. The nutrient parameters have been used to assess eutrophic condition through computation of Trophic Status Index, which has indicated that all the above lakes under study are under hyper-eutrophic condition. The hydrogeological, geophysical, water quality and groundwater data base collected in two watersheds covering 4 lakes has been used to construct groundwater flow and mass transport models. The interaction of lake-water with groundwater has been computed for assessing the lake water budget combining with inflow and outflow measurements on streams entering and leaving the lakes. Individual lake water budget has been used for design of appropriate capacity of Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) on the inlet channels of the lakes for maintaining Full Tank Level (FTL) in each lake. STPs are designed for tertiary treatment i.e. removal of nutrient load viz., Phosphates and Nitrates. Phosphates are

  19. Simulated potentiometric surface contours at end of simulation (1998) in model layer 1 of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These contours represent the simulated potentiometric surface at the end of simulation (1998) in model layer 1 of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  20. Simulated potentiometric surface contours of prepumping conditions in layer 1 of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These simulated potentiometric surface contours represent prepumping (or steady-state) conditions for model layer 1 of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow...

  1. Simulated potentiometric surface contours of prepumping conditions in layer 16 of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These simulated potentiometric surface contours represent prepumping (or steady-state) conditions for model layer 16 of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow...

  2. Simulated potentiometric surface contours at end of simulation (1998) in model layer 16 of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These contours represent the simulated potentiometric surface at the end of simulation (1998) in model layer 16 of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  3. Simulated potentiometric surface contours at end of simulation (1998) in model layer 1 of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These contours represent the simulated potentiometric surface at the end of simulation (1998) in model layer 1 of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  4. Simulated potentiometric surface contours at end of simulation (1998) in model layer 16 of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These contours represent the simulated potentiometric surface at the end of simulation (1998) in model layer 16 of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow...

  5. Development of a Remotely Operated, Field-Deployable Tritium Analysis System for Surface and Ground Water Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Cable, P.R.; Noakes, J.E. [University of Georgia, , GA (United States); Spaulding, J.D. [University of Georgia, , GA (United States); Neary, M. P. [University of Georgia, , GA (United States); Wasyl, M.S. [Packard Instrument Company, , ()

    1996-06-20

    The environmental contamination resulting from decades of testing and manufacturing of nuclear materials for a national defense purposes is a problem now being faced by the United States. The Center for Applied Isotope Studies at the University of Georgia, in cooperation with the Westinghouse Savannah River Company and Packard Instrument Company, have developed a prototype unit for remote, near real time, in situ analysis of tritium in surface and ground water samples.

  6. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and surface and ground water in a drilling-dense region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Davis, J. Wade; Hormann, Anette M.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid rise in natural gas extraction using hydraulic fracturing increases the potential for contamination of surface and ground water from chemicals used throughout the process. Hundreds of products containing more than 750 chemicals and components are potentially used throughout the extraction process, including more than 100 known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We hypothesized thataselected subset of chemicalsusedin natural gas drilling operationsandalso surface and ground water samples collected in a drilling-dense region of Garfield County, Colorado, would exhibit estrogen and androgen receptor activities. Water samples were collected, solid-phase extracted, and measured for estrogen and androgen receptor activities using reporter gene assays in human cell lines. Of the 39 unique water samples, 89%, 41%, 12%, and 46% exhibited estrogenic, antiestrogenic, androgenic, and antiandrogenic activities, respectively. Testing of a subset of natural gas drilling chemicals revealed novel antiestrogenic, novel antiandrogenic, and limited estrogenic activities. The Colorado River, the drainage basin for this region, exhibited moderate levels of estrogenic, antiestrogenic, and antiandrogenic activities, suggesting that higher localized activity at sites with known natural gas–related spills surrounding the river might be contributing to the multiple receptor activities observed in this water source. The majority of water samples collected from sites in a drilling-dense region of Colorado exhibited more estrogenic, antiestrogenic, or antiandrogenic activities than reference sites with limited nearby drilling operations. Our data suggest that natural gas drilling operationsmayresult in elevated endocrine-disrupting chemical activity in surface and ground water.

  7. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Kostik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, while in ground water samples from wells boreholes and mineral waters with the technique of ion chromatography. The research shows that lithium concentration in potable water ranging from 0.1 to 5.2 μg/L; in surface water from 0.5 to 15.0 μg/L; ground water from wells boreholes from 16.0 to 49.1 μg/L and mineral water from 125.2 to 484.9 μg/L. Obtained values are in accordance with the relevant international values for the lithium content in water.

  8. Sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomanić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to higher energy consumption, physically active people have higher nutritional requirements. In addition to other important factors for sports, such as good health and physical predisposition, adequate nutrition is a fundamental component. Sports nutrition must be well planned and individually adapted based on physical characteristics, tendencies towards gaining or losing weight, frequency, duration and intensity of training sessions. Studies have shown that a well-balanced ratio of macro and micronutrients, with the support of supplements and adequate hydration, can significantly improve athletic performance and plays a key role in achieving better results. An optimally designed nutritional program, with realistic and achievable goals, which complements a well-planned training program, is the basis for success in sports. Only when nutritional requirements are met, deficits can be prevented and performance in sport pushed to the limit.

  9. Sports fractures.

    OpenAIRE

    DeCoster, T. A.; Stevens, M. A.; Albright, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    Fractures occur in athletes and dramatically influence performance during competitive and recreational activities. Fractures occur in athletes as the result of repetitive stress, acute sports-related trauma and trauma outside of athletics. The literature provides general guidelines for treatment as well as a variety of statistics on the epidemiology of fractures by sport and level of participation. Athletes are healthy and motivated patients, and have high expectations regarding their level o...

  10. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  11. The potential surface in the ground electronic state of HCP with the isomerization process: the validity of calculating potential surface with DFT methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) provides us an effective way to calculate large cluster systems with moderate computational demands. We calculate potential energy surfaces (PES) with several different approaches of DFT. The PES in the ground electronic state are related to HCP's isomerization process. The calculated PES are compared with the “experimental” PES obtained by fitting from the experimental vibrational spectra and that given by the “accurate” quantum chemistry calculation with more expensive computations. The comparisons show that the potential surfaces calculated with DFT methods can reach the accuracy of less than 0.1 eV.

  12. Comparison of buried soil sensors, surface chambers and above ground measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) flux is an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Accurate measurements of soil CO2 flux aids determinations of carbon budgets. In this study, we investigated soil CO2 fluxes with time and depth and above ground CO2 fluxes in a bare field. CO2 concentrations w...

  13. Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo in an Atlantic Coastal Area: Estimation from Ground-Based Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgueni Kassianov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tower-based data combined with high-resolution satellite products have been used to produce surface albedo at various spatial scales over land. Because tower-based albedo data are available at only a few sites, surface albedos using these combined data are spatially limited. Moreover, tower-based albedo data are not representative of highly heterogeneous regions. To produce areal-averaged and spectrally-resolved surface albedo for regions with various degrees of surface heterogeneity, we have developed a transmission-based retrieval and demonstrated its feasibility for relatively homogeneous land surfaces. Here, we demonstrate its feasibility for a highly heterogeneous coastal region. We use the atmospheric transmission measured during a 19-month period (June 2009–December 2010 by a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR at five wavelengths (0.415, 0.5, 0.615, 0.673 and 0.87 µm at the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Mobile Facility (AMF site located on Graciosa Island. We compare the MFRSR-retrieved areal-averaged surface albedo with albedo derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS observations, and also a composite-based albedo. We demonstrate that these three methods produce similar spectral signatures of surface albedo; however, the MFRSR-retrieved albedo, is higher on average (≤0.04 than the MODIS-based areal-averaged surface albedo and the largest difference occurs in winter.

  14. Effect of the surface geology on strong ground motions due to the 2016 Central Tottori Earthquake, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Takao; Noguchi, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Shohei; Yamamoto, Shinji

    2017-08-01

    On October 21, 2016, an earthquake with Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) magnitude 6.6 hit the central part of Tottori Prefecture, Japan. This paper demonstrates two notable effects of the surface geology on strong ground motions due to the earthquake. One is a predominant period issue observed over a large area. A seismic intensity of 6 lower on the JMA scale was registered at three sites in the disaster area. However, the peak ground acceleration ranged from 0.3 to 1.4 G at the three sites because of the varying peak periods of observed strong ground motions. The spectral properties of the observations also reflect the damage around the sites. Three-component microtremors were observed in the area; the predominant ground period distributions based on horizontal to vertical spectral ratios were provided by the authors. The peak periods of the strong motion records agree well with predominant periods estimated from microtremor observations at a rather hard site; however, the predominant periods of the microtremors are slightly shorter than those of the main shock at the other two soft sites. We checked the nonlinear effect at the sites by comparing the site responses to small events and the main shock. The peak periods of the main shock were longer than those of the weak motions at the sites. This phenomenon indicates a nonlinear site effect due to large ground motions caused by the main shock. A horizontal component of the accelerogram showed rather pulsating swings that indicate cyclic mobility behavior, especially at a site close to a pond shore; ground subsidence of 20 cm was observed around the site. The peak periods of weak motions agree well with those of the microtremor observations. This implies an important issue that the predominant periods estimated by microtremors are not sufficient to estimate the effect of surface geology for disaster mitigation. We have to estimate the predominant periods under large ground motions considering the nonlinear site

  15. Comparison of MTI and Ground Truth Sea Surface Temperatures at Nauru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzeja, R.

    2002-09-05

    This report evaluates MTI-derived surface water temperature near the tropical Pacific island of Nauru. The MTI sea-surface temperatures were determined by the Los Alamos National Laboratory based on the robust retrieval.

  16. Force Restore Technique for Ground Surface Temperature and Moisture Content in a Dry Desert System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.F.G.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Berkowicz, S.

    2000-01-01

    The level of the surface temperature as well as surface moisture content is important for the turbulent transports of sensible and latent heat, respectively, but this level is also crucial for the survival of shrubs, plants, insects, and small animals in a desert environment. To estimate the surface

  17. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water geochemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Donohoe, Lisa C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, Roger H.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site, proximal analog. The Straight Creek drainage basin, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic rock of Tertiary age as the mine site. The weathered and rugged volcanic bedrock surface is overlain by heterogeneous debris-flow deposits that interfinger with alluvial deposits near the confluence of Straight Creek and the Red River. Pyritized rock in the upper part of the drainage basin is the source of acid rock drainage (pH 2.8-3.3) that infiltrates debris-flow deposits containing acidic ground water (pH 3.0-4.0) and bedrock containing water of circumneutral pH values (5.6-7.7). Eleven observation wells were installed in the Straight Creek drainage basin. The wells were completed in debris-flow deposits, bedrock, and interfingering debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits. Chemical analyses of ground water from these wells, combined with chemical analyses of surface water, water-level data, and lithologic and geophysical logs, provided information used to develop an understanding of the processes contributing to the chemistry of ground water in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Surface- and ground-water samples were routinely collected for determination of total major cations and selected trace metals; dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, and rare-earth elements; anions and alkalinity; and dissolved-iron species. Rare-earth elements were determined on selected samples only. Samples were collected for determination of dissolved organic carbon, mercury, sulfur isotopic composition (34S and 18O of sulfate), and water isotopic composition (2H and 18O) during

  18. Sports and Exercise Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injuries Sports and Concussions Strains and Sprains Sports Physicals 5 Ways to Prepare for Your Sports Season Handling Sports Pressure and Competition Knee Injuries Runner's Knee Bike Safety Strength Training Dehydration Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries Medial Collateral ...

  19. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News media interested in ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports injuries ...

  20. Exploration of a Polarized Surface Bidirectional Reflectance Model Using the Ground-Based Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Diner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate characterization of surface reflection is essential for retrieval of aerosols using downward-looking remote sensors. In this paper, observations from the Ground-based Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (GroundMSPI are used to evaluate a surface polarized bidirectional reflectance distribution function (PBRDF model. GroundMSPI is an eight-band spectropolarimetric camera mounted on a rotating gimbal to acquire pushbroom imagery of outdoor landscapes. The camera uses a very accurate photoelastic-modulator-based polarimetric imaging technique to acquire Stokes vector measurements in three of the instrument’s bands (470, 660, and 865 nm. A description of the instrument is presented, and observations of selected targets within a scene acquired on 6 January 2010 are analyzed. Data collected during the course of the day as the Sun moved across the sky provided a range of illumination geometries that facilitated evaluation of the surface model, which is comprised of a volumetric reflection term represented by the modified Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete function plus a specular reflection term generated by a randomly oriented array of Fresnel-reflecting microfacets. While the model is fairly successful in predicting the polarized reflection from two grass targets in the scene, it does a poorer job for two manmade targets (a parking lot and a truck roof, possibly due to their greater degree of geometric organization. Several empirical adjustments to the model are explored and lead to improved fits to the data. For all targets, the data support the notion of spectral invariance in the angular shape of the unpolarized and polarized surface reflection. As noted by others, this behavior provides valuable constraints on the aerosol retrieval problem, and highlights the importance of multiangle observations.

  1. Investigating sport celebrity endorsement and sport event ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    \\' attitudes and the effect of sport event sponsorship and sport ... Results indicate that sport event sponsorship was perceived by participants as a product ... affecting consumers\\' pre-purchase attitudes that may influence buyer behaviour.

  2. Scientific Ground of a New Optical Device for Contactless Measurement of the Small Spatial Displacements of Control Object Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, I. P.; Parinov, I. A.

    2017-06-01

    It is proposed the computational-experimental ground of newly developed optical device for contactless measurement of small spatial displacements of control object surfaces based on the use of new methods of laser interferometry. The proposed device allows one to register linear and angular components of the small displacements of control object surfaces during the diagnosis of the condition of structural materials for forced elements of goods under exploring by using acoustic non-destructive testing methods. The described results are the most suitable for application in the process of high-precision measurements of small linear and angular displacements of control object surfaces during experimental research, the evaluation and diagnosis of the state of construction materials for forced elements of goods, the study of fast wave propagation in layered constructions of complex shape, manufactured of anisotropic composite materials, the study of damage processes in modern construction materials in mechanical engineering, shipbuilding, aviation, instrumentation, power engineering, etc.

  3. Construction and Testing of Broadband High Impedance Ground Planes (HIGPS) for Surface Mount Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    mushrooms (with side lengths of 7.6mm). Larger mushrooms (with side lengths of 16mm) were located to the edges of the substrate . The resulting...thickness and substrate permittivity are two of the main design parameters. But these parameters have production constraints, since they are ordered off...plane designs as a meta- substrate for a broadband bow-tie antenna were presented. Consequently, the high impedance ground plane provided a suitable

  4. THE SOCIAL DRAMATURGY OF SPORT: TOWARDS AN INTEGRATIVE GOFFMANIAN MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA-LUIZA DUMITRIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the social field of sports within the general frame of social dramaturgy, by using three metaphors that are grounded on Goffman’s conceptual field: sport as play, sport as game and sport as ritual. After discussing “what”, “how” and “to what extent” can Goffman’s concepts be re-contextualized in understanding the dynamics of the sport acts, I went further and integrated the three metaphors into a more comprehensive analytic model. The multidimensional model of sport dramaturgy that I have built around Goffman’s hard-core concepts covers: the dramaturgical dimension, the strategic dimension and the ritual dimension of sport acting as complementary elements that can provide an integrative perspective upon the sport dynamics. Every dimension of this interactional model implies a specific definition for the competitive situation, for the sport actor and for his dispositional orientation when faced with a competitive situation

  5. Use of ground-water reservoirs for storage of surface water in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G.H.; Lofgren, B.E.; Mack, Seymour

    1964-01-01

    The San Joaquin Valley includes roughly the southern two-thirds of the Central Valley of California, extending 250 miles from Stockton on the north to Grapevine at the foot of the Tehachapi Mountains. The valley floor ranges in width from 25 miles near Bakersfield to about 55 miles near Visalia; it has a surface area of about 10,000 square miles. More than one-quarter of all the ground water pumped for irrigation in the United States is used in this highly productive valley. Withdrawal of ground water from storage by heavy pumping not only provides a needed irrigation water supply, but it also lowers the ground-water level and makes storage space available in which to conserve excess water during periods of heavy runoff. A storage capacity estimated to be 93 million acre-feet to a depth of 200 feet is available in this ground-water reservoir. This is about nine times the combined capacity of the existing and proposed surface-water reservoirs in the San Joaquin Valley under the California Water Plan. The landforms of the San Joaquin Valley include dissected uplands, low plains and fans, river flood plains and channels, and overflow lands and lake bottoms. Below the land surface, unconsolidated sediments derived from the surrounding mountain highlands extend downward for hundreds of feet. These unconsolidated deposits, consisting chiefly of alluvial deposits, but including some widespread lacustrine sediments, are the principal source of ground water in the valley. Ground water occurs under confined and unconfined conditions in the San Joaquin Valley. In much of the western, central, and southeastern parts of the valley, three distinct ground-water reservoirs are present. In downward succession these are 1) a body of unconfined and semiconfined fresh water in alluvial deposits of Recent, Pleistocene, and possibly later Pliocene age, overlying the Corcoran clay member of the Tulare formation; 2) a body of fresh water confined beneath the Corcoran clay member, which

  6. Managing Collegiate Sport Clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, David O., Ed.

    This book is written for the administrators of college sport clubs. It is comprised of a collection of articles on the topics of: (1) Sport Club Administration and Organization; (2) Student Development through Sport Clubs; (3) Sport Club Financing and Fund-Raising; (4) Liability Concerns of Sport Clubs; and (5) Sport Club Program Surveys.…

  7. DEM Development from Ground-Based LiDAR Data: A Method to Remove Non-Surface Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesh Sharma

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Topography and land cover characteristics can have significant effects on infiltration, runoff, and erosion processes on watersheds. The ability to model the timing and routing of surface water and erosion is affected by the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM. High resolution ground-based Light Detecting and Ranging (LiDAR technology can be used to collect detailed topographic and land cover characteristic data. In this study, a method was developed to remove vegetation from ground-based LiDAR data to create high resolution DEMs. Research was conducted on intensively studied rainfall–runoff plots on the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in Southeast Arizona. LiDAR data were used to generate 1 cm resolution digital surface models (DSM for 5 plots. DSMs created directly from LiDAR data contain non-surface objects such as vegetation cover. A vegetation removal method was developed which used a slope threshold and a focal mean filter method to remove vegetation and create bare earth DEMs. The method was validated on a synthetic plot, where rocks and vegetation were added incrementally. Results of the validation showed a vertical error of ±7.5 mm in the final DEM.

  8. Temperature rise in objects due to optical focused beam through atmospheric turbulence near ground and ocean surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneback, Matthew; Ishimaru, Akira; Reinhardt, Colin; Kuga, Yasuo

    2013-03-01

    We consider an optical beam propagated through the atmosphere and incident on an object causing a temperature rise. In clear air, the physical characteristics of the optical beam transmitted to the object surface are influenced primarily by the effect of atmospheric turbulence, which can be significant near the ground or ocean surface. We use a statistical model to quantify the expected power transfer through turbulent atmosphere and provide guidance toward the threshold of thermal blooming for the considered scenarios. The bulk thermal characteristics of the materials considered are used in a thermal diffusion model to determine the net temperature rise at the object surface due to the incident optical beam. These results of the study are presented in graphical form and are of particular interest to operators of high power laser systems operating over large distances through the atmosphere. Numerical examples include a CO2 laser (λ=10.6 μm) with: aperture size of 5 cm, varied pulse duration, and propagation distance of 0.5 km incident on 0.1-mm copper, 10-mm polyimide, 1-mm water, and 10-mm glass/resin composite targets. To assess the effect of near ground/ocean laser propagation, we compare turbulent (of varying degrees) and nonturbulent atmosphere.

  9. Evaluation of arsenic and other physico-chemical parameters of surface and ground water of Jamshoro, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baig, Jameel Ahmed, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Arain, Muhammad Balal, E-mail: bilal_KU2004@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas, E-mail: gakandhro@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Sarfraz, Raja Adil, E-mail: rajaadilsarfraz@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Jamal, Muhammad Khan, E-mail: mkhanjamali@yahoo.com [Government Degree College Usta Muhammad, Balochistan 08300 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)

    2009-07-30

    Arsenic contamination in water has caused severe health problems around the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the geological and anthropogenic aspects of As pollution in surface and groundwater resources of Jamshoro Sindh, Pakistan. Hydride generator atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS) is employed for the determination of arsenic in water samples, with detection limit of 0.02 {mu}g l{sup -1}. Arsenic concentrations in surface and underground water range from 3.0 to 50.0, and 13 to 106 {mu}g l{sup -1}, respectively. In most of the water samples As levels exceeded the WHO provisional guideline values 10 {mu}g l{sup -1}. The high level of As in under study area may be due to widespread water logging from Indus river irrigation system which causes high saturation of salts in this semi-arid region and lead to enrichment of As in shallow groundwater. Among the physico-chemical parameters, electrical conductivity, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} were found to be higher in surface and ground water, while elevated levels of Ca{sup 2+} and Cl{sup -} were detected only in ground water than WHO permissible limit. The high level of iron was observed in ground water, which is a possible source of As enrichment in the study area. The multivariate technique (cluster analysis) was used for the elucidation of high, medium and low As contaminated areas. It may be concluded that As originate from coal combustion at brick factories and power generation plants, and it was mobilized promotionally by the alkaline nature of the understudy groundwater samples.

  10. Geochemistry of the surface and ground waters of the upper bassin of the river Llobregat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freixes, A.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work the main geochemical characteristics of the surface and ground waters of the Upper basin of the River Llobregat are described and, discussed. The water samples analysed reveal sharply contrasting characteristics. In both the Fonts del Llobregat and River Bastareny catchments, calcium bicarbonated waters with a low mineral content clearly predominate. However, in the catchment of the River Arija, although the waters of the upper course and the main tributaries are also calcium bicarbonated, it is worth noting that at the confluence with the River Llobregat calcium sulphated water is found. The catchment of the River Saldes shows a greater heterogeneity, with calcium bicarbonated, sodium chloridized and calcium sulphated waters, and thus at the confluence with the River Llobregat the water is sodium-calcium bicarbonated-sulphated. Principal components analysis enables us to arrive at a synthesis which clearly explains these characteristics. These results are fundamentally interpreted on the basis of the lithologies drained by the different watercourses.

    [es] En el presente estudio se presentan y discuten las principales características geoquímicas de las aguas superficiales y subterráneas de la Alta cuenca del río Llobregat hasta la entrada del río al embalse de La Baells. El conjunto de aguas analizadas presentan características muy contrastadas. Así, tanto en la subcuenca de las fuentes del Llobregat como en la del río Bastareny predominan las aguas bicarbonatadas cálcicas poco mineralizadas. En la subcuenca del río Arija, sí bien las aguas del curso alto y las de los principales afluentes también son bicarbonatadas cálcicas, destaca el hecho de que en la confluencia con el río Llobregat el agua es sulfatada cálcica. La subcuenca del río Saldes es la que presenta una mayor heterogeneidad, con aguas bicarbonatadas cálcicas, cloruradas sódicas y sulfatadas cálcicas, las cuales provocan que en la confluencia

  11. Hydrochemical assessments of surface Nile water and ground water in an industry area – South West Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona El-Sayed

    2015-09-01

    The data obtained were used for mathematical calculations of some parameters such as sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, sodium percentage (Na%, and the suitability of water samples for drinking, domestic, and irrigation purposes was evaluated. The results indicate that most studied surface Nile water samples show excellent to good categories and are suitable for drinking and irrigation. Most studied ground water samples are not suitable for drinking and need treatment for irrigation; few samples are not suitable for any purpose because of pollution from different sources in this area.

  12. Different Multifractal Scaling of the 0 cm Average Ground Surface Temperature of Four Representative Weather Stations over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal scaling properties of the daily 0 cm average ground surface temperature (AGST records obtained from four selected sites over China are investigated using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA method. Results show that the AGST records at all four locations exhibit strong persistence features and different scaling behaviors. The differences of the generalized Hurst exponents are very different for the AGST series of each site reflecting the different scaling behaviors of the fluctuation. Furthermore, the strengths of multifractal spectrum are different for different weather stations and indicate that the multifractal behaviors vary from station to station over China.

  13. Vibrational Spectra and Potential Energy Surface for Electronic Ground State of Jet-Cooled Molecule S2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Yan; DING Shi-Liang

    2004-01-01

    The vibration states of transition molecule S2O, including both bending and stretching vibrations, are studied in the framework of dynamical symmetry groups U1(4) U2(4). We get all the vibration spectra of S2O by fitting 22 spectra data with 10 parameters. The fitting rms of the Hamiltonian is 2.12 cm-1. With the parameters and Lie algebraic theory, we give the analytical expression of the potential energy surface, which helps us to calculate the dissociation energy and force constants of S2O in the electronic ground state.

  14. Contamination of rural surface and ground water by endosulfan in farming areas of the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    London Leslie

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa there is little data on environmental pollution of rural water sources by agrochemicals. Methods This study investigated pesticide contamination of ground and surface water in three intensive agricultural areas in the Western Cape: the Hex River Valley, Grabouw and Piketberg. Monitoring for endosulfan and chlorpyrifos at low levels was conducted as well as screening for other pesticides. Results The quantification limit for endosulfan was 0.1 μg/L. Endosulfan was found to be widespread in ground water, surface water and drinking water. The contamination was mostly at low levels, but regularly exceeded the European Drinking Water Standard of 0.1 μg/L. The two most contaminated sites were a sub-surface drain in the Hex River Valley and a dam in Grabouw, with 0.83 ± 1.0 μg/L (n = 21 and 3.16 ± 3.5 μg/L (n = 13 average endosulfan levels respectively. Other pesticides including chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, fenarimol, iprodione, deltamethrin, penconazole and prothiofos were detected. Endosulfan was most frequently detected in Grabouw (69% followed by Hex River (46% and Piketberg (39%. Detections were more frequent in surface water (47% than in groundwater (32% and coincided with irrigation, and to a lesser extent, to spraying and trigger rains. Total dietary endosulfan intake calculated from levels found in drinking water did not exceed the Joint WHO/FAO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR criteria. Conclusion The study has shown the need for monitoring of pesticide contamination in surface and groundwater, and the development of drinking water quality standards for specific pesticides in South Africa.

  15. Bacteriophages reduce experimental contamination of hard surfaces, tomato, spinach, broccoli, and ground beef by Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuladze, Tamar; Li, Manrong; Menetrez, Marc Y; Dean, Timothy; Senecal, Andre; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2008-10-01

    A bacteriophage cocktail (designated ECP-100) containing three Myoviridae phages lytic for Escherichia coli O157:H7 was examined for its ability to reduce experimental contamination of hard surfaces (glass coverslips and gypsum boards), tomato, spinach, broccoli, and ground beef by three virulent strains of the bacterium. The hard surfaces and foods contaminated by a mixture of three E. coli O157:H7 strains were treated with ECP-100 (test samples) or sterile phosphate-buffered saline buffer (control samples), and the efficacy of phage treatment was evaluated by comparing the number of viable E. coli organisms recovered from the test and control samples. Treatments (5 min) with the ECP-100 preparation containing three different concentrations of phages (10(10), 10(9), and 10(8) PFU/ml) resulted in statistically significant reductions (P = E. coli O157:H7 organisms recovered from the glass coverslips. Similar treatments resulted in reductions of 100%, 95%, and 85%, respectively, in the number of E. coli O157:H7 organisms recovered from the gypsum board surfaces; the reductions caused by the two most concentrated phage preparations were statistically significant. Treatment with the least concentrated preparation that elicited significantly less contamination of the hard surfaces (i.e., 10(9) PFU/ml) also significantly reduced the number of viable E. coli O157:H7 organisms on the four food samples. The observed reductions ranged from 94% (at 120 +/- 4 h posttreatment of tomato samples) to 100% (at 24 +/- 4 h posttreatment of spinach samples). The data suggest that naturally occurring bacteriophages may be useful for reducing contamination of various hard surfaces, fruits, vegetables, and ground beef by E. coli O157:H7.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY IMPROVEMENT OF SURFACE AND GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION AT THE AIRPORT AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Madzhd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Taking into account that the airport "Kyiv" is located in one of the central districts of Kyiv and does not have clearly established sanitary protection zones, the problem of environmental pollution is topical and requires monitoring and research. In order to improve environmental compliance we made assessment of superficial and ground water quality in airport zone. Methods: Water quality was estimated by the biotesting method, hydrochemical analysis, and by oil products detection method. Results We performed analysis of wastewaters of airport “Kyiv” and superficial waters of river Nyvka. The samples took place: above the airport drainage, in the drainage place and below drainage place. We conducted assessment of ground waters, which are sources of water supply, on different distance from an airport (20 m, 500 m, 1000 m, 1500 min. Results of hydrochemical investigations of river indicated excess of nitrogen compounds content compare to regulatory discharge. Thus, it was defined excess of ammonia nitrogen in wastewaters in three times and in place of dispersion – in ten times; the content of nitrite nitrogen in the river sample after discharge exceeds in 22 times norm. Analysis of drinking water in airport zone has showed extremely high level of pollution by nitrite nitrogen exceeding norm in 7-17 times. After analysis it was defined high level of river pollution by oil products (in 26-32 times higher than MPC, and ground water in 1, 5-2 times. Results of biotesting confirmed data of hydrochemical investigations of superficial water state (acute toxicity was observed in drainage area and in place of drainage dispersion. Discussion: Increased content of nitrite indicates the strengthening of decomposition process of organic matter in conditions of slower oxidation of NO into NO. This parameter is major sanitary indicator which indicates pollution of water body. High content of such specific pollutant for aviation transport

  17. Influence of the underlying surface on the antenna system of the ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzovsky, E. V.; Buyanov, Yu I.; Shipilov, S. E.

    2017-08-01

    Simulation results of the antenna system of the radar of subsurface sounding intended for contactless investigation of the road condition are presented. The elements of the antenna system of ground penetrating radar with extended bandwidth made as a combination of electric and magnetic type radiators have been designed. The transmission coefficient between the elements of the antenna array determining their mutual influence has been calculated. Despite the close arrangement of the elements in the array, the level of mutual influence of the elements is not critical. The developed antenna array can be used both for excitation with short ultrawideband pulses and for frequency steering in the range of 0.8-4 GHz.

  18. Assessment of volatile organic compounds in surface water at Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, November 1999-September 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Daniel J.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Senus, Michael P.; Spencer, Tracey A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the occurrence and distribution of volatile organic compounds in surface-water samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, from November 1999 through September 2000. The report describes the differences between years with below normal and normal precipitation, the effects of seasons, tide stages, and location on volatile organic compound concentrations in surface water, and provides estimates of volatile organic concentration loads to the tidal Gunpowder River. Eighty-four environmental samples from 20 surface-water sites were analyzed. As many as 13 different volatile organic compounds were detected in the samples. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds in surface-water samples ranged from below the reporting limit of 0.5 micrograms per liter to a maximum of 50.2 micrograms per liter for chloroform. Chloroform was detected most frequently, and was found in 55 percent of the environmental samples that were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (46 of 84 samples). Carbon tetrachloride was detected in 56 percent of the surface-water samples in the tidal part of the creek (34 of 61 samples), but was only detected in 3 of 23 samples in the nontidal part of the creek. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane was detected in 43 percent of the tidal samples (26 of 61 samples), but was detected at only two nontidal sites and only during November 1999. Three samples were collected from the tidal Gunpowder River about 300 feet from the mouth of Canal Creek in May 2000, and none of the samples contained volatile organic compound concentrations above detection levels. Volatile organic compound concentrations in surface water were highest in the reaches of the creek adjacent to the areas with the highest known levels of ground-water contamination. The load of total volatile organic compounds from Canal Creek to the Gunpowder River is approximately 1.85 pounds per day (0

  19. Road impacts on the Baca National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado, with emphasis on effects to surface and shallow ground-water hydrology : a literature review

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A review of published research on unpaved road effects on surface-water and shallow ground-water hydrology was undertaken to assist the Baca National Wildlife...

  20. Estimated potentiometric surface by D'Agnese and others (1998), for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — D'Agnese and others (1998) developed a potentiometric surface to conceptualize the regional ground-water flow system and to construct numerical flow models of the...

  1. AATSR Land Surface Temperature Product Validation Using Ground Measurements in China and Implications for SLSTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Zmuda, Andy; Desnos, Yves-Louis; Ma, Jin

    2016-08-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the most important parameters at the interface between the earth's surface and the atmosphere. It acts as a sensitive indicator of climate change and is an essential input parameter for land surface models. Because of the intense variability at different spatial and temporal scales, satellite remote sensing provides the sole opportunity to acquire LSTs over large regions. Validation of the LST products is an necessary step before their applications conducted by scientific community and it is essential for the developers to improve the LST products.

  2. 3D simulation of near-fault strong ground motion:comparison between surface rupture fault and buried fault

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qifang; Yuan Yifan; Jin Xing

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,near-fault strong ground motions caused by a surface rupture fault(SRF)and a buried fault(BF) are numerically simulated and compared by using a time-space-decoupled,explicit finite element method combined with a multi-transmitting formula(MTF) of an artificial boundary.Prior to the comparison,verification of the explicit element method and the MTF is conducted.The comparison results show that the final dislocation of the SRF is larger than the BF for the same stress drop on the fault plane.The maximum final dislocation occurs on the fault upper line for the SRF;however,for the BF,the maximum final dislocation is located on the fault central part.Meanwhile,the PGA,PGV and PGD of long period ground motions(≤1 Hz)generated by the SRF are much higher than those of the BF in the near-fault region.The peak value of the velocity pulse generated by the SRF is also higher than the BF.Furthermore,it is found that in a very narrow region along the fault trace,ground motions caused by the SRF are much higher than by the BF.These results may explain why SRFs almost always cause heavy damage in near-fault regions compared to buried faults.

  3. Activities of the Commission for Ground Surface Protection against Mining Damage in the first quarter of 1985. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chroszcz, A.

    1985-01-01

    Five meetings of the Commission held from January to March 1985 are reported. Underground coal mining in the safety pillar of Bytom was discussed in the light of rock bursts and fatal accidents in the Dymitrow mine. Three coal mines remove the safety pillar: Dymitrow, Szombierki and Rozbark. The Commission discussed: replacing longwall mining with caving by longwall mining with hydraulic stowing, using packings with reduced settling, reducing concentration of mining operations in the area of Bytom center, coordination of underground mining by 3 mines (coordination of mining order, thickness of coal slices or coal seams, concentration of longwall mining in seams with reduced hazards of rock bursts, methods for protection of buildings and industrial plants at the ground surface against ground deformation. The Commission also discussed program of coal mining with hydraulic stowing in the safety pillar of the Batory Steelworks, the Hajduki chemical plant and Chorzow (order of mining, schemes for slice mining, forecasting ground subsidence, methods for protection against mining damage), underground mining with caving or stowing in safety pillars of the Miechowice and Karb mines under Bytom, new regulations on geodetic surveys in underground coal mines.

  4. Environmental impact of highway construction and repair materials on surface and ground waters. Case study: crumb rubber asphalt concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Mohammad F; Nelson, Peter O; Thayumanavan, Pugazhendhi; Williamson, Kenneth J

    2003-01-01

    The practice of incorporating certain waste products into highway construction and repair materials (CRMs) has become more popular. These practices have prompted the National Academy of Science, National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) to research the possible impacts of these CRMs on the quality of surface and ground waters. State department of transportations (DOTs) are currently experimenting with use of ground tire rubber ( crumb rubber) in bituminous construction and as a crack sealer. Crumb rubber asphalt concrete (CR-AC) leachates contain a mixture of organic and metallic contaminants. Benzothiazole and 2(3H)-benzothiazolone (organic compounds used in tire rubber manufacturing) and the metals mercury and aluminum were leached in potentially harmful concentrations (exceeding toxic concentrations for aquatic toxicity tests). CR-AC leachate exhibited moderate to high toxicity for algae ( Selenastrum capriconutum) and moderate toxicity for water fleas ( Daphnia magna). Benzothiazole was readily removed from CR-AC leachate by the environmental processes of soil sorption, volatilization, and biodegradation. Metals, which do not volatilize or photochemically or biologically degrade, were removed from the leachate by soil sorption. Contaminants from CR-AC leachates are thus degraded or retarded in their transport through nearby soils and ground waters.

  5. Determination of barium in surface and ground waters at Centro Experimental Aramar area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoso, Erika, E-mail: ematoso@hotmail.com [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CEA/CTMS), Ipero, SP (Brazil). Centro Experimental Aramar; Cadore, Solange, E-mail: cadore@iqm.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Analica

    2015-07-01

    Barium can be found in waters up to 1 mg L{sup -1} and came from natural sources such as sedimentary rocks erosion rich in feldspar and barite. Also anthropogenic activities can release this element such as oil and gas industry, agricultural defensives, chemical industry and waste disposal. At high doses, barium can be harmful to human central nervous system and can also cause high blood pressure, heart problems, fatigue and anxiety. The water potability defined by Brazilian's Ministry of Healthy sets barium concentration up to 0.7 mg L{sup -1} and official regulation defines the same limit of this element to superficial waters (according CONAMA resolution 357/2005) and ground waters (Sao Paulo state regulation). In this work, barium was analyzed monthly in superficial waters from 4 different sampling locations, located in a ratio of 10-km-long from Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA) at Ipanema River, during one year, in order to evaluate the river in different conditions (seasons, temperature and rain period). The ground water was collected every six months. The analytical technique applied was ICP OES and the method conditions were optimized: wavelength, linearity, signal background ratio, detection and quantification limits. Data obtained in this work will contribute to evaluate the presence of barium at CEA region and nearby in order to compare it with current Brazilian regulations. (author)

  6. Tracing nitrate pollution sources and transformation in surface- and ground-waters using environmental isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Fadong, E-mail: lifadong@igsnrr.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang, Qiuying [Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050021 (China); Li, Jing [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Liu, Qiang [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Water pollution in the form of nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N) contamination is a major concern in most agricultural areas in the world. Concentrations and nitrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of nitrate, as well as oxygen and deuterium isotopic compositions of surface and groundwater from a typical irrigated region in the North China Plain (NCP) collected from May to October in 2012 were analyzed to examine the major nitrate sources and transformations. Concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N ranged from 0.2 to 29.6 mg/L (mean of 11.2 mg/L) in surface water, and from 0.1 to 19.4 mg/L (mean of 2.8 mg/L) in groundwater. Approximately 46.7% of the surface water samples and 10% of the groundwater samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard for NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N. Surface water samples that exceeded the standard were collected mainly in the dry season (May and October), while groundwater samples that exceeded the standard were collected in the wet season (June). Overall, the highest nitrate levels were observed in surface water in May and in groundwater in June, indicating that fertilizer application, precipitation, and irrigation strongly influence the NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N concentrations. Analyses of isotopic compositions suggest that the main sources of nitrate are nitrification of fertilizer and sewage in surface water, in contrast, mineralization of soil organic N and sewage is the groundwater sources during the dry season. When fertilizers are applied, nitrate will be transported by precipitation through the soil layers to the groundwater in the wet season (June). Denitrification only occurred in surface water in the wet season. Attempts should be made to minimize overuse of nitrogen fertilizers and to improve nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated agricultural regions. - Highlights: • Nitrate sources in surface and groundwater were identified by multiple isotopes. • Nitrate pollution displayed obvious

  7. Be(1010): A test ground for surface electron-phonon coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shu-Jung; Sprunger, Philip; Plummer, Ward; Yang, Wanli; Brouet, Veronique; Zhou, Xingjiang; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2003-03-01

    The electron-phonon coupling on the Be(10bar10) surface has been investigated with high-resolution photoemission examining temperature dependence and dispersion distortion near the Fermi energy of the two zone boundary surface states. Two surface states (S1 and S2) coexist in a large gap in the bulk projection at the surface zone boundary barA. S1 is localized near the surface in the middle of the gap while S2 is near the bottom band edge and penetrates into the bulk. Using both a Debye and Einstein model to fit the temperature-dependent surface state line width produces an electron-phonon coupling strength with parameters, λ _S1 = 0.647 and λ _S2 = 0.491, more than two times larger than the bulk value, λ _bulk = 0.24. S2 data was measured with a 3D Debye model but the S1 data required an Einstein model with an optical phonon at energy 64 meV. Direct 2D images of the dispersion of the S1 state show dramatic distortion of the electron band dispersion within 64 meV of the Fermi energy. This data is used to extract the real and imaginary parts of the self-energy. Founded by NSF DMR-0105232 and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725

  8. High resolution surface solar radiation patterns over Eastern Mediterranean: Satellite, ground-based, reanalysis data and radiative transfer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandri, G.; Georgoulias, A.; Meleti, C.; Balis, D.

    2013-12-01

    Surface solar radiation (SSR) and its long and short term variations play a critical role in the modification of climate and by extent of the social and financial life of humans. Thus, SSR measurements are of primary importance. SSR is measured for decades from ground-based stations for specific spots around the planet. During the last decades, satellite observations allowed for the assessment of the spatial variability of SSR at a global as well as regional scale. In this study, a detailed spatiotemporal view of the SSR over Eastern Mediterranean is presented at a high spatial resolution. Eastern Mediterranean is affected by various aerosol types (continental, sea, dust and biomass burning particles) and encloses countries with significant socioeconomical changes during the last decades. For the aims of this study, SSR data from satellites (Climate Monitoring Satellite Application Facility - CM SAF) and our ground station in Thessaloniki, a coastal city of ~1 million inhabitants in northern Greece, situated in the heart of Eastern Mediterranean (Eppley Precision pyranometer and Kipp & Zonen CM-11 pyranometer) are used in conjunction with radiative transfer simulations (Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer - SBDART). The CM SAF dataset used here includes monthly mean SSR observations at a high spatial resolution of 0.03x0.03 degrees for the period 1983-2005. Our ground-based SSR observations span from 1983 until today. SBDART radiative transfer simulations were implemented for a number of spots in the area of study in order to calculate the SSR. High resolution (level-2) aerosol and cloud data from MODIS TERRA and AQUA satellite sensors were used as input, as well as ground-based data from the AERONET. Data from other satellites (Earth Probe TOMS, OMI, etc) and reanalysis projects (ECMWF) were used where needed. The satellite observations, the ground-based measurements and the model estimates are validated against each other. The good agreement

  9. Simultaneous Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Optical Properties from Combined Airborne- and Ground-Based Direct and Diffuse Radiometric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Dubovik, O.; King, M. D.; Sinyuk, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for simultaneously retrieving aerosol and surface reflectance properties from combined airborne and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements. The method is based on the standard Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) method for retrieving aerosol size distribution, complex index of refraction, and single scattering albedo, but modified to retrieve aerosol properties in two layers, below and above the aircraft, and parameters on surface optical properties from combined datasets (Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) and AERONET data). A key advantage of this method is the inversion of all available spectral and angular data at the same time, while accounting for the influence of noise in the inversion procedure using statistical optimization. The wide spectral (0.34-2.30 m) and angular range (180 ) of the CAR instrument, combined with observations from an AERONET sunphotometer, provide sufficient measurement constraints for characterizing aerosol and surface properties with minimal assumptions. The robustness of the method was tested on observations made during four different field campaigns: (a) the Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2000 over Mongu, Zambia, (b) the Intercontinental Transport Experiment-Phase B over Mexico City, Mexico (c) Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Central Facility, Oklahoma, USA, and (d) the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) over Elson Lagoon in Barrow, Alaska, USA. The four areas are dominated by different surface characteristics and aerosol types, and therefore provide good test cases for the new inversion method.

  10. Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Ground-Based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgueni Kassianov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged spectral surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation. The feasibility of our retrieval for routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements: (1 spectral atmospheric transmission from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm; (2 tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths; and (3 areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS observations. These integrated datasets cover both temporally long (2008–2013 and short (April–May 2010 periods at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Southern Great Plains site and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE, defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved areal-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE ≤ 0.015 and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between tower-based measurements of daily-averaged surface albedo for completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated.

  11. Survival of adenovirus types 2 and 41 in surface and ground waters measured by a plaque assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotto, C; Hanley, K; Rochelle, P A; De Leon, R; Barardi, C R M; Yates, M V

    2011-05-01

    To manage artificial recharge systems, it is necessary to understand the inactivation process of microorganisms within aquifers so that requirements regarding storage times and treatment strategies for ground and surface waters can be developed and modeled to improve water management practices. This study was designed to investigate the survival of representative adenoviruses in surface- and groundwaters using a cell culture plaque assay with human lung carcinoma cells (A549) to enumerate surviving viruses. Adenovirus types 2 (Ad2) and 41 (Ad41) were seeded into 50 mL of three sterilized surface waters and groundwaters, and incubated at 10 and 19 °C for up to 301 days. Concentrations of Ad2 and Ad41 were relatively stable in all waters at 10 °C for at least 160 days and in some instances up to 301 days. At 19 °C, virus concentrations were reduced by 99.99% (4 log) after 301 days in surface water. There was approximately 90% (1 log) reduction of both viruses at 19 °C after 160 days of incubation in groundwater samples. There was no overall difference in survival kinetics in surface waters compared to groundwaters. The relatively high stability and long-term survival of adenoviruses in environmental waters at elevated temperatures should be considered in risk assessment models and drinking water management strategies.

  12. Evaluating the effects of urbanization and land-use planning using ground-water and surface-water models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R.J.; Steuer, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Why are the effects of urbanization a concern? As the city of Middleton, Wisconsin, and its surroundings continue to develop, the Pheasant Branch watershed (fig.l) is expected to undergo urbanization. For the downstream city of Middleton, urbanization in the watershed can mean increased flood peaks, water volume and pollutant loads. More subtly, it may also reduce water that sustains the ground-water system (called "recharge") and adversely affect downstream ecosystems that depend on ground water such as the Pheasant Branch Springs (hereafter referred to as the Springs). The relation of stormwater runoff and reduced ground-water recharge is complex because the surface-water system is coupled to the underlying ground-water system. In many cases there is movement of water from one system to the other that varies seasonally or daily depending on changing conditions. Therefore, it is difficult to reliably determine the effects of urbanization on stream baseflow and spring flows without rigorous investigation. Moreover, mitigating adverse effects after development has occurred can be expensive and administratively difficult. Overlying these concerns are issues such as stewardship of the resource, the rights of the public, and land owners' rights both of those developing their land and those whose land is affected by this development. With the often- contradictory goals, a scientific basis for assessing effects of urbanization and effectiveness of mitigation measures helps ensure fair and constructive decision-making. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Middleton and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, completed a study that helps address these issues through modeling of the hydrologic system. This Fact Sheet discusses the results of this work.

  13. Monitoring ground-surface heating during expansion of the Casa Diablo production well field at Mammoth Lakes, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeld, D.; Vaughan, R. Greg; Evans, William C.; Olsen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Long Valley hydrothermal system supports geothermal power production from 3 binary plants (Casa Diablo) near the town of Mammoth Lakes, California. Development and growth of thermal ground at sites west of Casa Diablo have created concerns over planned expansion of a new well field and the associated increases in geothermal fluid production. To ensure that all areas of ground heating are identified prior to new geothermal development, we obtained high-resolution aerial thermal infrared imagery across the region. The imagery covers the existing and proposed well fields and part of the town of Mammoth Lakes. Imagery results from a predawn flight on Oct. 9, 2014 readily identified the Shady Rest thermal area (SRST), one of two large areas of ground heating west of Casa Diablo, as well as other known thermal areas smaller in size. Maximum surface temperatures at 3 thermal areas were 26–28 °C. Numerous small areas with ground temperatures >16 °C were also identified and slated for field investigations in summer 2015. Some thermal anomalies in the town of Mammoth Lakes clearly reflect human activity.Previously established projects to monitor impacts from geothermal power production include yearly surveys of soil temperatures and diffuse CO2 emissions at SRST, and less regular surveys to collect samples from fumaroles and gas vents across the region. Soil temperatures at 20 cm depth at SRST are well correlated with diffuse CO2 flux, and both parameters show little variation during the 2011–14 field surveys. Maximum temperatures were between 55–67 °C and associated CO2 discharge was around 12–18 tonnes per day. The carbon isotope composition of CO2 is fairly uniform across the area ranging between –3.7 to –4.4 ‰. The gas composition of the Shady Rest fumarole however has varied with time, and H2S concentrations in the gas have been increasing since 2009.

  14. Real-time Accurate Surface Reconstruction Pipeline for Vision Guided Planetary Exploration Using Unmanned Ground and Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Eduardo DeBrito

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses work completed over the summer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology. A system is presented to guide ground or aerial unmanned robots using computer vision. The system performs accurate camera calibration, camera pose refinement and surface extraction from images collected by a camera mounted on the vehicle. The application motivating the research is planetary exploration and the vehicles are typically rovers or unmanned aerial vehicles. The information extracted from imagery is used primarily for navigation, as robot location is the same as the camera location and the surfaces represent the terrain that rovers traverse. The processed information must be very accurate and acquired very fast in order to be useful in practice. The main challenge being addressed by this project is to achieve high estimation accuracy and high computation speed simultaneously, a difficult task due to many technical reasons.

  15. An Approach for Predicting the Shape and Size of a Buried Basic Object on Surface Ground Penetrating Radar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Rachmana Syambas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface ground-penetrating radar (GPR is one of the radar technology that is widely used in many applications. It is nondestructive remote sensing method to detect underground buried objects. However, the output target is only hyperbolic representation. This research develops a system to identify a buried object on surface GPR based on decision tree method. GPR data of many basic objects (with circular, triangular, and rectangular cross-section are classified and extracted to generate data training model as a unique template for each type of basic object. The pattern of object under test will be known by comparing its data with the training data using a decision tree method. A simple powerful algorithm to extract feature parameters of object which is based on linear extrapolation is proposed. The result showed that tested buried basic objects can be correctly predicted and the developed system works properly.

  16. Sports Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for sports marketing. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 999 specialty key indicators for evaluating mastery of 113 competencies in…

  17. Sports Gala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This year’s 11th National Games saw 21 new world and Asian records set Fans were treated to all the highs and lows of sport during China’s 11th National Games, billed as the country’s mini-Olympics, which witnessed both record-breaking feats and doping

  18. Sports Ballistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    This review describes and classifies the trajectories of sports projectiles that have spherical symmetry, cylindrical symmetry, or (almost) no symmetry. This classification allows us to discuss the large diversity observed in the paths of spherical balls, the flip properties of shuttlecocks, and the optimal position and stability of ski jumpers.

  19. Sports Nation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China is working to become a global sports power International Olympic Committee President Jacques Rogge watched China’s 11th National Games at Jinan’s stadium in Shandong Province on October 16, 2009. His high-profile attendance has set the

  20. Racket sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Neeru; Esser, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Tennis may be considered a static and dynamic form of exercise with many well-demonstrated health benefits. Tennis has similar rates of injury to other individual recreational sports and junior competitive sports, without the catastrophic risk of contact/collision sports. Classifying tennis players into junior and elite categories versus adult recreational players may help in outlining volume of play recommendations, exposure risk, and types of injuries. Junior and elite players tend to tolerate higher volumes, have more acute and lower extremity injuries, and have more serious overuse stress injuries. Adult recreational players tend to tolerate lower volumes, have more overuse and upper extremity injuries, and more conditions that are degenerative. Many tennis players also develop asymmetric musculoskeletal adaptations, which may increase risk of specific injury. Tennis-specific evaluations may identify these at-risk segments, help guide preventive strategies including technical errors, and assist in developing return-to-play recommendations. Other racket sports such as squash, badminton, and racquetball have less data available but report both acute and traumatic injuries less commonly seen in tennis.

  1. Sports Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... motivator. Physically, you need strength and endurance. Your training will vary with your sport. You would not train the same way for pole vaulting as for swimming. You might, however, cross train. Cross training simply means that you include a variety of ...

  2. Racquet Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebas, Carole J., Ed.; Groppel, Jack L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    In six articles on racquet sports, the origins of the games are traced, methods for teaching skills such as footwork, racquetball strategy, and badminton techniques are discussed, and the biomechanics of the one- and two-handed backhand in tennis are reviewed. Information about paddle tennis is included. (PP)

  3. A semiempirical study of the optimized ground and excited state potential energy surfaces of retinal and its protonated Schiff base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parusel, A. B.; Pohorille, A.

    2001-01-01

    The electronic ground and first excited states of retinal and its Schiff base are optimized for the first time using the semiempirical AM1 Hamiltonian. The barrier for rotation about the C(11)-C(12) double bond is characterized by variation of both the twist angle delta(C(10)-C(11)-C(12)-C(13)) and the bond length d(C(11)-C(12)). The potential energy surface is obtained by varying these two parameters. The calculated ground state rotational barrier is equal to 15.6 kcal/mol for retinal and 20.5 kcal/mol for its Schiff base. The all-trans conformation is more stable by 3.7 kcal/mol than the 11-cis geometry. For the first excited state, S(1,) the 90 degrees twisted geometry represents a saddle point for retinal with the rotational barrier of 14.6 kcal/mol. In contrast, this conformation is an energy minimum for the Schiff base. It can be easily reached at room temperature from the planar minima since it is separated from them by a barrier of only 0.6 kcal/mol. The 90 degrees minimum conformation is more stable than the all-trans by 8.6 kcal/mol. We are thus able to present a reaction path on the S(1) surface of the retinal Schiff base with an almost barrier-less geometrical relaxation into a twisted minimum geometry, as observed experimentally. The character of the ground and first excited singlet states underscores the need for the inclusion of double excitations in the calculations.

  4. Influence of Holocene stratigraphic architecture on ground surface settlements: A case study from the City of Pisa (Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, Giovanni; Rossi, Veronica; Amorosi, Alessandro

    2012-12-01

    The Holocene stratigraphic architecture of modern coastal and deltaic plains has peculiar characteristics that may influence ground surface settlements. In the Pisa urban area, the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of geotechnically weak layers, typically formed during the mid-late Holocene (highstand) coastal progradation, is inferred to be responsible for urban ground settlement and building damage, as evidenced by the tilt of several surface structures, among which the famous Leaning Tower of Pisa is the most prominent. On the basis of integrated stratigraphic, sedimentological and geotechnical data from a wide georeferenced database, three facies associations with high deformability potential (Units 1-3) are identified in the uppermost 30 m as opposed to depositional facies (Units 4-5) with higher geotechnical strength. Whereas Unit 1 represents a thick, laterally extensive lagoonal clay deposit, the overlying highly deformable units (Units 2-3) show more discontinuous spatial distribution controlled by the Holocene paleohydrographic evolution of the Arno coastal plain. Unit 2, dated between the Neolithic and the Etruscan age (ca. 5000-2000 yr BP), is composed of swamp clays and silty clays recording lagoon infilling due to Arno Delta progradation. Units 3 and 4, which consist of wet levee deposits and stiff floodplain clays, respectively, formed during the subsequent phases of alluvial plain construction started around the Roman age (from ca. 2000 yr BP). Whereas Units 3 and 4 are recorded within the uppermost 5 m, fluvial and distributary channel sands (Unit 5) cut the underlying deltaic-alluvial succession at various stratigraphic levels, down to Unit 1. The spatial distribution of these units gives rise to three, locally juxtaposed, stratigraphic motifs in Pisa underground, reflecting different potential risks for settlement under building loads. We show how lateral changes in stratigraphic architecture account for the irregular spatial distribution of

  5. Estimating Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity from Surface Ground-Penetrating Radar Monitoring of Infiltration

    CERN Document Server

    Léger, Emmanuel; Coquet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    In this study we used Hydrus-1D to simulate water infiltration from a ring infiltrometer. We generated water content profiles at each time step of infiltration, based on a particular value of the saturated hydraulic conductivity while knowing the other van Genuchten parameters. Water content profiles were converted to dielectric permittivity profiles using the Complex Refractive Index Method relation. We then used the GprMax suite of programs to generate radargrams and to follow the wetting front using arrival time of electromagnetic waves recorded by a Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR). Theoretically, the depth of the inflection point of the water content profile simulated at any infiltration time step is related to the peak of the reflected amplitude recorded in the corresponding trace in the radargram. We used this relationship to invert the saturated hydraulic conductivity for constant and falling head infiltrations. We present our method on synthetic examples and on two experiments carried out on sand. We f...

  6. STUDY OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SURFACE AND GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Al-Ghamdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Of all the natural resources, water is unarguably the most essential and precious. Life began in water and life is nurtured by water. Ninety seven percent of the world’s water is found in oceans. Only 2.5% of the world’s water are non-saline fresh water. Saudi Arabia is a desert country with no permanent rivers or lakes and very little rainfall. Water is scarce and extremely valuable and with the country’s rapid growth, the demand for water is increasing. Seven samples of water are collected, six samples from Wells (1-6 and the last sample from Al-Mallah Valley Dam, Mukhwa (7, Al-Mukhwah, in order to find impurities and pollutants and found some suitable solution. Some physical properties of water are measured such as turbidity, conductivity, pH and also, some pollutants such as iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite fluoride, phosphate as well as calcium, magnesium, sulfate and chloride as well as detection of some microorganisms. The results shown that, the water of Al-Mallah Valley Dam has a high percentage of turbidity as a result of contamination of water with clay, plant residues and also some dead animals. On the other hand, the samples of ground water have high conductivity and high value of fluoride, nitrite, nitrate contents as well as Mn and Fe. Also the result of microorganisms showed the presence of some the water of Al-Mallah Valley Dam can be treated with a very simple method and become suitable for drinking. Also ground water can be treated with a suitable method to reduce the total hardness and some pollutants. But its content of fluoride is higher than that of gulf specifications so it must be treated before used.

  7. Characterizing Geothermal Surface Manifestation Based on Multivariate Geostatistics of Ground Measurements Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq; Nur Heriawan, Mohamad; Saepuloh, Asep

    2016-09-01

    Mt. Wayang Windu is one of geothermal field located in West Java, Indonesia. The characterization of steam spots at surface manifestation zones based on the soil physical measurements of the area is presented in this study. The multivariate geostatistical methods incorporating the soil physical parameter data were used to characterize the zonation of geothermal surface manifestations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of spatial estimation method of multivariate geostatistics using Ordinary Cokriging (COK) to characterize the physical properties of geothermal surface manifestations at Mt. Wayang Windu. The COK method was selected because this method is favorable when the secondary variables has more number than the primary variables. There are four soil physical parameters used as the basis of COK method, i.e. Electrical Conductivity, Susceptibility, pH, and Temperature. The parameters were measured directly at and around geothermal surface manifestations including hot springs, fumaroles, and craters. Each location of surface manifestations was measured about 30 points with 30 x 30 m grids. The measurement results were analyzed by descriptive statistics to identify at the nature of data. The correlation among variables was analyzed using linear regression. When the correlation coefficient among variables is higher, the estimation results is expected to have better Linear Coregionalization Model (LCM). LCM was used to analyze the spatial correlation of each variable based on their variogram and cross-variogram model. In oder to evaluate the performance of multivariate geostatistical using COK method, a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was performed. Estimation result using COK method is well applicable for characterizing the surface physics parameters of radar images data.

  8. Quality-control results for ground-water and surface-water data, Sacramento River Basin, California, National Water-Quality Assessment, 1996-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Cathy; Domagalski, Joseph L.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluating the extent that bias and variability affect the interpretation of ground- and surface-water data is necessary to meet the objectives of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Quality-control samples used to evaluate the bias and variability include annual equipment blanks, field blanks, field matrix spikes, surrogates, and replicates. This report contains quality-control results for the constituents critical to the ground- and surface-water components of the Sacramento River Basin study unit of the NAWQA Program. A critical constituent is one that was detected frequently (more than 50 percent of the time in blank samples), was detected at amounts exceeding water-quality standards or goals, or was important for the interpretation of water-quality data. Quality-control samples were collected along with ground- and surface-water samples during the high intensity phase (cycle 1) of the Sacramento River Basin NAWQA beginning early in 1996 and ending in 1998. Ground-water field blanks indicated contamination of varying levels of significance when compared with concentrations detected in environmental ground-water samples for ammonia, dissolved organic carbon, aluminum, and copper. Concentrations of aluminum in surface-water field blanks were significant when compared with environmental samples. Field blank samples collected for pesticide and volatile organic compound analyses revealed no contamination in either ground- or surface-water samples that would effect the interpretation of environmental data, with the possible exception of the volatile organic compound trichloromethane (chloroform) in ground water. Replicate samples for ground water and surface water indicate that variability resulting from sample collection, processing, and analysis was generally low. Some of the larger maximum relative percentage differences calculated for replicate samples occurred between samples having lowest absolute concentration differences and(or) values near

  9. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona - 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truini, Margot; Macy, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400 square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use and the needs of a growing population. Precipitation in the Black Mesa area is typically about 6 to 14 inches per year. The water-monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and is designed to provide information about the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected for the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2006 to September 2007. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water withdrawals, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) ground-water chemistry. Periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters is completed every 4 to 5 years. The Navajo Tribal Utility Authority (NTUA) yearly totals for the ground-water metered withdrawal data were unavailable in 2006 due to an up-grade within the NTUA computer network. Because NTUA data is often combined with Bureau of Indian Affairs data for the total withdrawals in a well system, withdrawals will not be published in this year's annual report. From 2006 to 2007, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 3 of 11 wells measured in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was 0.0 feet. Measurements indicated that water levels declined in 8 of 17 wells measured in the confined area of the aquifer. The median change for the confined area of the aquifer was 0.2 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2007, the median water-level change for 30 wells was -11.1 feet. Median water-level changes were 2.9 feet for 11 wells measured in the unconfined areas and -40.2 feet for 19 wells measured in the confined area. Spring flow was measured

  10. Ab initio ground state phenylacetylene-argon intermolecular potential energy surface and rovibrational spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cybulski, Hubert; Fernandez, Berta; Henriksen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the phenylacetylene-argon intermolecular potential energy surface by fitting a representative number of ab initio interaction energies to an analytic function. These energies are calculated at a grid of intermolecular geometries, using the CCSD(T) method and the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set ...

  11. Expanding surfaces: The viewer immersed in multiple modes of representation Following the drawing on the ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The experience of the exhibition On the Surface – a retrospective of the work of Metis, the Edinburgh-based atelier of Mark Dorrian and Adrian Hawker, presented in the exhibition space of The Aarhus School of Architecture – is choreographed as a walk over superimposed fragments of architectural...

  12. Hydrology, Water Quality, and Surface- and Ground-Water Interactions in the Upper Hillsborough River Watershed, West-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommer, J.T.; Sacks, L.A.; Kuniansky, E.L.

    2007-01-01

    A study of the Hillsborough River watershed was conducted between October 1999 through September 2003 to characterize the hydrology, water quality, and interaction between the surface and ground water in the highly karstic uppermost part of the watershed. Information such as locations of ground-water recharge and discharge, depth of the flow system interacting with the stream, and water quality in the watershed can aid in prudent water-management decisions. The upper Hillsborough River watershed covers a 220-square-mile area upstream from Hillsborough River State Park where the watershed is relatively undeveloped. The watershed contains a second order magnitude spring, many karst features, poorly drained swamps, marshes, upland flatwoods, and ridge areas. The upper Hillsborough River watershed is subdivided into two major subbasins, namely, the upper Hillsborough River subbasin, and the Blackwater Creek subbasin. The Blackwater Creek subbasin includes the Itchepackesassa Creek subbasin, which in turn includes the East Canal subbasin. The upper Hillsborough River watershed is underlain by thick sequences of carbonate rock that are covered by thin surficial deposits of unconsolidated sand and sandy clay. The clay layer is breached in many places because of the karst nature of the underlying limestone, and the highly variable degree of confinement between the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers throughout the watershed. Potentiometric-surface maps indicate good hydraulic connection between the Upper Floridan aquifer and the Hillsborough River, and a poorer connection with Blackwater and Itchepackesassa Creeks. Similar water level elevations and fluctuations in the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers at paired wells also indicate good hydraulic connection. Calcium was the dominant ion in ground water from all wells sampled in the watershed. Nitrate concentrations were near or below the detection limit in all except two wells that may have been affected by

  13. Realization of Multi-Stable Ground States in a Nematic Liquid Crystal by Surface and Electric Field Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwag, Jin Seog; Kim, Young-Ki; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2015-06-01

    Owing to the significant price drop of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and the efforts to save natural resources, LCDs are even replacing paper to display static images such as price tags and advertising boards. Because of a growing market demand on such devices, the LCD that can be of numerous surface alignments of directors as its ground state, the so-called multi-stable LCD, comes into the limelight due to the great potential for low power consumption. However, the multi-stable LCD with industrial feasibility has not yet been successfully performed. In this paper, we propose a simple and novel configuration for the multi-stable LCD. We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that a battery of stable surface alignments can be achieved by the field-induced surface dragging effect on an aligning layer with a weak surface anchoring. The simplicity and stability of the proposed system suggest that it is suitable for the multi-stable LCDs to display static images with low power consumption and thus opens applications in various fields.

  14. Modeling of ground temperatures in South Shetlands (Antarctic Peninsula): Forcing a land surface model with the reanalysis ERA-Interim

    Science.gov (United States)

    João Rocha, Maria; Dutra, Emanuel; Vieira, Gonçalo; Miranda, Pedro; Ramos, Miguel

    2010-05-01

    This study focus on Livingston Island (South Shetlands Antarctic Peninsula), one of the Earth's regions where warming has been more significant in the last 50 years. Our work is integrated in a project focusing on studying the influence of climate change on permafrost temperatures, which includes systematic and long-term terrain monitoring and also modeling using land surface models. A contribution will be the evaluation of the possibilities for using land surface modeling approaches to areas of the Antarctic Peninsula with lack of data on observational meteorological forcing data, as well as on permafrost temperatures. The climate variability of the Antarctic Peninsula region was studied using the new reanalysis product from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Era-Interim and observational data from boreholes run by our group. Monthly and annual cycles of near surface climate variables are compared. The modeling approach includes the HTESSEL (Hydrology Tiled ECMWF Scheme for Surface Exchanges over Land) forced with ERA-Interim for modeling ground temperatures in the study region. The simulation results of run of HTESSEL are compared against soil temperature observations. The results show a favorable match between simulated and observed soil temperatures. The use of different forcing parameters is compared and the model vs. observation results from different results is analyzed. The main variable needing further improvement in the modeling is snow cover. The developed methodology provides a good tool for the analysis of the influence of climate variability on permafrost of the Maritime Antarctic.

  15. Ground and surface temperature variability for remote sensing of soil moisture in a heterogeneous landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, M.A.; Bosch, D.; Madden, M.; Usery, L.; Finn, M.

    2009-01-01

    At the Little River Watershed (LRW) heterogeneous landscape near Tifton Georgia US an in situ network of stations operated by the US Department of Agriculture-Agriculture Research Service-Southeast Watershed Research Lab (USDA-ARS-SEWRL) was established in 2003 for the long term study of climatic and soil biophysical processes. To develop an accurate interpolation of the in situ readings that can be used to produce distributed representations of soil moisture (SM) and energy balances at the landscape scale for remote sensing studies, we studied (1) the temporal and spatial variations of ground temperature (GT) and infra red temperature (IRT) within 30 by 30 m plots around selected network stations; (2) the relationship between the readings from the eight 30 by 30 m plots and the point reading of the network stations for the variables SM, GT and IRT; and (3) the spatial and temporal variation of GT and IRT within agriculture landuses: grass, orchard, peanuts, cotton and bare soil in the surrounding landscape. The results showed high correlations between the station readings and the adjacent 30 by 30 m plot average value for SM; high seasonal independent variation in the GT and IRT behavior among the eight 30 by 30 m plots; and site specific, in-field homogeneity in each 30 by 30 m plot. We found statistical differences in the GT and IRT between the different landuses as well as high correlations between GT and IRT regardless of the landuse. Greater standard deviations for IRT than for GT (in the range of 2-4) were found within the 30 by 30 m, suggesting that when a single point reading for this variable is selected for the validation of either remote sensing data or water-energy models, errors may occur. The results confirmed that in this landscape homogeneous 30 by 30 m plots can be used as landscape spatial units for soil moisture and ground temperature studies. Under this landscape conditions small plots can account for local expressions of environmental

  16. A new accurate ground-state potential energy surface of ethylene and predictions for rotational and vibrational energy levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahaye, Thibault, E-mail: thibault.delahaye@univ-reims.fr; Rey, Michaël, E-mail: michael.rey@univ-reims.fr; Tyuterev, Vladimir G. [Groupe de Spectrométrie Moléculaire et Atmosphérique, UMR CNRS 7331, BP 1039, F-51687, Reims Cedex 2 (France); Nikitin, Andrei [Laboratory of Theoretical Spectroscopy, Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055 Tomsk, Russia and Quamer, State University of Tomsk (Russian Federation); Szalay, Péter G. [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-09-14

    In this paper we report a new ground state potential energy surface for ethylene (ethene) C{sub 2}H{sub 4} obtained from extended ab initio calculations. The coupled-cluster approach with the perturbative inclusion of the connected triple excitations CCSD(T) and correlation consistent polarized valence basis set cc-pVQZ was employed for computations of electronic ground state energies. The fit of the surface included 82 542 nuclear configurations using sixth order expansion in curvilinear symmetry-adapted coordinates involving 2236 parameters. A good convergence for variationally computed vibrational levels of the C{sub 2}H{sub 4} molecule was obtained with a RMS(Obs.–Calc.) deviation of 2.7 cm{sup −1} for fundamental bands centers and 5.9 cm{sup −1} for vibrational bands up to 7800 cm{sup −1}. Large scale vibrational and rotational calculations for {sup 12}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, {sup 13}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and {sup 12}C{sub 2}D{sub 4} isotopologues were performed using this new surface. Energy levels for J = 20 up to 6000 cm{sup −1} are in a good agreement with observations. This represents a considerable improvement with respect to available global predictions of vibrational levels of {sup 13}C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and {sup 12}C{sub 2}D{sub 4} and rovibrational levels of {sup 12}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}.

  17. Comparison of the surface energy budget between regions of seasonally frozen ground and permafrost on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lianglei; Yao, Jimin; Hu, Zeyong; Zhao, Lin

    2015-02-01

    Surface energy budgets were calculated using turbulent flux observation data and meteorological gradient data collected in 2008 from two sites: BJ, located in a seasonally frozen ground region, and Tanggula, located in a permafrost region. In 2008, the energy closure ratios for the BJ and Tanggula sites were 0.74 and 0.73, respectively, using 30-min instantaneous energy flux data but 0.87 and 0.99, respectively, using daily average energy flux data. Therefore, the energy closure status is related to the time scale that is used for the study. The variation in the surface energy budget at the two sites was similar: The sensible heat flux (Hs) was relatively high in spring and reduced in summer but gradually increased in autumn. The latent heat flux (LE) was higher in summer and autumn but lower in winter and spring. Comparably, the starting time for the significant increase in LE occurred earlier at the Tanggula site than that at the BJ site, because the freezing and thawing progress of the active layer of permafrost at Tanggula site significantly affected the Hs and LE distributions, but the freezing and thawing processes of the soil at BJ site did not significantly affect the Hs and LE distributions. The monsoon significantly affected the variation in Hs and LE at both the BJ and Tanggula sites. Regarding the diurnal variation of the energy budget at the two sites, the daily maximum of net radiation (Rn) occurred at approximately 14:00 Beijing Time, and the daily maximum of ground heat flux (G0) was earlier than those of Hs and LE. The albedo and Bowen ratio for the two sites were both low in summer but high in winter. The albedo increased significantly but the Bowen ratio became lower or even negative when the surface was covered with deep snow.

  18. Effect of Surface Geology on Ground Motions: The Case of Station TAP056 - Chutzuhu Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Liang Wen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Tatun mountain area of northern Taiwan are two strong motion stations approximately 2.5 km apart, TAP056 and TAP066 of the TSMIP network. The accelerometer at station TAP056 is often triggered by earthquakes, but that at TAP066 station is not. Comparisons of vertical and horizontal peak ground accelerations reveal PGA in the vertical, east-west, and north-south components at TAP056 station to be 3.89, 7.57, and 5.45 times those at station TAP066, respectively. The PGA ratio does not seem to be related to earthquake source or path. Fourier spectra of earthquake records at station TAP056 always have approximately the same dominant frequency; however, those at station TAP066 are different due to different sources and paths of different events. This shows that spectra at TAP056 station are mainly controlled by local site effects. The spectral ratios of TAP056/TAP066 show the S-wave is amplified at around 8 ~ 10 Hz. The horizontal/vertical spectral ratios of station TAP056 also show a dominant frequency at about 6 and 8 ~ 10 Hz. After dense microtremor surveying and the addition of one accelerometer just 20 meters away from the original observation station, we can confirm that the top soft soil layer upon which the observation station is constructed generates the local site response at station TAP056.

  19. Mapping of the cumulative β-ray dose on the ground surface surrounding the Fukushima area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Satoru; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Nguyen, Thanh T.; Hayashi, Gohei; Imanaka, Tetsuji

    2015-01-01

    A large amount of the fission products released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident on 11 March 2011 was deposited in a wide area from Tohoku to northern Kanto. A map of the estimated cumulative β-ray dose (70 μm dose equivalent) on the soil surface for one year after the FDNPP accident has been prepared using previously reported calculation methods and the 2-km mesh survey data by MEXT. From this map of estimated dose, areas with a high cumulative β-ray dose on the soil surface for one year after the FDNPP accident were found to be located in the Akogi-Teshichiro to Akogi-Kunugidaira region in Namie Town, and in the southern Futaba Town to the northern Tomioka Town region. The highest estimated cumulative β-ray dose was 710 mSv for one year at Akogi-Teshichiro, Namie Town. PMID:26519736

  20. Type of Ground Surface during Plyometric Training Affects the Severity of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage from a bout of plyometric exercise (PE; 10 × 10 vertical jumps performed in aquatic, sand and firm conditions. Twenty-four healthy college-aged men were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Aquatic (AG, n = 8, Sand (SG, n = 8 and Firm (FG, n = 8. The AG performed PE in an aquatic setting with a depth of ~130 cm. The SG performed PE on a dry sand surface at a depth of 20 cm, and the FG performed PE on a 10-cm-thick wooden surface. Plasma creatine kinase (CK activity, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS, knee range of motion (KROM, maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC of the knee extensors, vertical jump (VJ and 10-m sprint were measured before and 24, 48 and 72 h after the PE. Compared to baseline values, FG showed significantly (p < 0.05 greater changes in CK, DOMS, and VJ at 24 until 48 h. The MIVC decreased significantly for the SG and FG at 24 until 48 h post-exercise in comparison to the pre-exercise values. There were no significant (p > 0.05 time or group by time interactions in KROM. In the 10-m sprint, all the treatment groups showed significant (p < 0.05 changes compared to pre-exercise values at 24 h, and there were no significant (p > 0.05 differences between groups. The results indicate that PE in an aquatic setting and on a sand surface induces less muscle damage than on a firm surface. Therefore, training in aquatic conditions and on sand may be beneficial for the improvement of performance, with a concurrently lower risk of muscle damage and soreness.

  1. Commons problems, common ground: Earth-surface dynamics and the social-physical interdisciplinary frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, E.

    2015-12-01

    In the archetypal "tragedy of the commons" narrative, local farmers pasture their cows on the town common. Soon the common becomes crowded with cows, who graze it bare, and the arrangement of open access to a shared resource ultimately fails. The "tragedy" involves social and physical processes, but the denouement depends on who is telling the story. An economist might argue that the system collapses because each farmer always has a rational incentive to graze one more cow. An ecologist might remark that the rate of grass growth is an inherent control on the common's carrying capacity. And a geomorphologist might point out that processes of soil degradation almost always outstrip processes of soil production. Interdisciplinary research into human-environmental systems still tends to favor disciplinary vantages. In the context of Anthropocene grand challenges - including fundamental insight into dynamics of landscape resilience, and what the dominance of human activities means for processes of change and evolution on the Earth's surface - two disciplines in particular have more to talk about than they might think. Here, I use three examples - (1) beach nourishment, (2) upstream/downstream fluvial asymmetry, and (3) current and historical "land grabbing" - to illustrate a range of interconnections between physical Earth-surface science and common-pool resource economics. In many systems, decision-making and social complexity exert stronger controls on landscape expression than do physical geomorphological processes. Conversely, human-environmental research keeps encountering multi-scale, emergent problems of resource use made 'common-pool' by water, nutrient and sediment transport dynamics. Just as Earth-surface research can benefit from decades of work on common-pool resource systems, quantitative Earth-surface science can make essential contributions to efforts addressing complex problems in environmental sustainability.

  2. ELECTRONIC SPORT: HOW PRO-GAMING NEGOTIATES TERRITORIAL BELONGING AND GENDER

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The article explores the phenomenon of electronic sport (e-sport), which refers to organised and competitive video gaming. It is approached as a 'social world' and a specific culture of gaming, which produces organised groups, events and broadcasting. Located at the intersection of gaming and sports, e-sport adopts elements from both areas. From a grounded theory perspective, the article discusses the contexts, meanings and practices of pro-gaming within e-sport as researched in a study consi...

  3. Seismic interferometry of railroad induced ground motions: body and surface wave imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros, Diego A.; Brown, Larry D.; Kim, Doyeon

    2016-04-01

    Seismic interferometry applied to 120 hr of railroad traffic recorded by an array of vertical component seismographs along a railway within the Rio Grande rift has recovered surface and body waves characteristic of the geology beneath the railway. Linear and hyperbolic arrivals are retrieved that agree with surface (Rayleigh), direct and reflected P waves observed by nearby conventional seismic surveys. Train-generated Rayleigh waves span a range of frequencies significantly higher than those recovered from typical ambient noise interferometry studies. Direct P-wave arrivals have apparent velocities appropriate for the shallow geology of the survey area. Significant reflected P-wave energy is also present at relatively large offsets. A common midpoint stack produces a reflection image consistent with nearby conventional reflection data. We suggest that for sources at the free surface (e.g. trains) increasing the aperture of the array to record wide angle reflections, in addition to longer recording intervals, might allow the recovery of deeper geological structure from railroad traffic. Frequency-wavenumber analyses of these recordings indicate that the train source is symmetrical (i.e. approaching and receding) and that deeper refracted energy is present although not evident in the time-offset domain. These results confirm that train-generated vibrations represent a practical source of high-resolution subsurface information, with particular relevance to geotechnical and environmental applications.

  4. Report on Sport 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel

    2003-01-01

    Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not least bec

  5. Sport for life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Desiree Verbeek; Jos de Haan; Koen Breedveld

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Sport: een leven lang. Many Dutch people are involved in sport: by participating themselves, performing voluntary work for a sports club, following the sporting achievements of others via the media or attending sporting events. In this report we look at each of these forms of involv

  6. Monitoring of the ground surface temperature and the active layer in NorthEastern Canadian permafrost areas using remote sensing data assimilated in a climate land surface scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, N.; Royer, A.; Krinner, G.; Roy, A.

    2014-12-01

    Projected future warming is particularly strong in the Northern high latitudes where increases of temperatures are up to 2 to 6 °C. Permafrost is present on 25 % of the northern hemisphere lands and contain high quantities of « frozen » carbon, estimated at 1400 Gt (40 % of the global terrestrial carbon). The aim of this study is to improve our understanding of the climate evolution in arctic areas, and more specifically of land areas covered by snow. The objective is to describe the ground temperature year round including under snow cover, and to analyse the active layer thickness evolution in relation to the climate variability. We use satellite data (fusion of MODIS land surface temperature « LST » and microwave AMSR-E brightness temperature « Tb ») assimilated in the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) of the Canadian climate model coupled with a simple radiative transfer model (HUT). This approach benefits from the advantages of each of the data type in order to complete two objectives : 1- build a solid methodology for retrieving the ground temperature, with and without snow cover, in taïga and tundra areas ; 2 - from those retrieved ground temperatures, derive the summer melt duration and the active layer depth. We describe the coupling of the models and the methodology that adjusts the meteorological input parameters of the CLASS model (mainly air temperature and precipitations derived from the NARR database) in order to minimise the simulated LST and Tb ouputs in comparison with satellite measurements. Using ground-based meteorological data as validation references in NorthEastern Canadian tundra, the results show that the proposed approach improves the soil temperatures estimates when using the MODIS LST and Tb at 10 and 19 GHz to constrain the model in comparison with the model outputs without satellite data. Error analysis is discussed for the summer period (2.5 - 4 K) and for the snow covered winter period (2 - 3.5 K). Further steps are

  7. Results of ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry monitoring, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, G.R.; Monroe, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Black Mesa monitoring program is designed to document long-term effects of ground-water pumping from the N aquifer by industrial and municipal users. The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area, and the ground water occurs under confined and unconfined conditions. Monitoring activities include continuous and periodic measurements of (1) ground-water pumpage from the confined and unconfined areas of the aquifer, (2) ground-water levels in the confined and unconfined areas of the aquifer, (3) surface-water discharge, and (4) chemistry of the ground water and surface water. In 1994, ground-water withdrawals for industrial and municipal use totaled about 7,000 acre-feet, which is an 8-percent increase from the previous year. Pumpage from the confined part of the aquifer increased by about 9 percent to 5,400 acre-feet, and pumpage from the unconfined part of the aquifer increased by about 2 percent to 1,600 acre-feet. Water-level declines in the confined area during 1994 were recorded in 10 of 16 wells, and the median change was a decline of about 2.3 feet as opposed to a decline of 3.3 feet for the previous year. The median change in water levels in the unconfined area was a rise of 0.1 foot in 1994 as opposed to a decline of 0.5 foot in 1993. Measured low-flow discharge along Moenkopi Wash decreased from 3.0 cubic feet per second in 1993 to 2.9 cubic feet per second in 1994. Eleven low-flow measurements were made along Laguna Creek between Tsegi, Arizona, and Chinle Wash to determine the amount of discharge that would occur as seepage from the N aquifer under optimal base-flow conditions. Discharge was 5.6 cubic feet per second near Tsegi and 1.5 cubic feet per second above the confluence with Chinle Wash. Maximum discharge was 5.9 cubic feet per second about 4 miles upstream from Dennehotso. Discharge was measured at three springs. The changes in discharge at Burro and Whisky Springs were small and within the uncertainty of

  8. Mapping ground surface deformation using temporarily coherent point SAR interferometry: Application to Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Lu, Zhiming; Ding, X.; Jung, H.-S.; Feng, G.; Lee, C.-W.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-temporal interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is an effective tool to detect long-term seismotectonic motions by reducing the atmospheric artifacts, thereby providing more precise deformation signal. The commonly used approaches such as persistent scatterer InSAR (PSInSAR) and small baseline subset (SBAS) algorithms need to resolve the phase ambiguities in interferogram stacks either by searching a predefined solution space or by sparse phase unwrapping methods; however the efficiency and the success of phase unwrapping cannot be guaranteed. We present here an alternative approach - temporarily coherent point (TCP) InSAR (TCPInSAR) - to estimate the long term deformation rate without the need of phase unwrapping. The proposed approach has a series of innovations including TCP identification, TCP network and TCP least squares estimator. We apply the proposed method to the Los Angeles Basin in southern California where structurally active faults are believed capable of generating damaging earthquakes. The analysis is based on 55 interferograms from 32 ERS-1/2 images acquired during Oct. 1995 and Dec. 2000. To evaluate the performance of TCPInSAR on a small set of observations, a test with half of interferometric pairs is also performed. The retrieved TCPInSAR measurements have been validated by a comparison with GPS observations from Southern California Integrated GPS Network. Our result presents a similar deformation pattern as shown in past InSAR studies but with a smaller average standard deviation (4.6. mm) compared with GPS observations, indicating that TCPInSAR is a promising alternative for efficiently mapping ground deformation even from a relatively smaller set of interferograms. ?? 2011.

  9. Interfacing Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tem Frank

    these media (expressiveness, reflexivity, identity), or ar media making us run (nudging, persuasion, societal benefits). The study includes theory on interactivity, media sociology, followed by cases (twitter and personal branding, selftracking and selfreflexivity, social media and club organization, fandom......This study tries to map out the possible interplay between interactive digital media (including mobile and wearable technologies) and sport as performance and participation. The ambition is to create a model providing the analytical framework for understanding questions like "are we running...

  10. Chromium speciation and fractionation in ground and surface waters in the vicinity of chromite ore processing residue disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, John G; Thomas, Rhodri P; Graham, Margaret C; Geelhoed, Jeanine S; Lumsdon, David G; Paterson, Edward

    2002-04-01

    Chromium concentrations of up to 91 mg l(-1) were found by ICP-OES for ground water from nine boreholes at four landfill sites in an area of S.E. Glasgow/S. Lanarkshire where high-lime chromite ore processing residue (COPR) from a local chemical works had been deposited from 1830 to 1968. Surface water concentrations of up to 6.7 mg l(-1) in a local tributary stream fell to 0.11 mg l(-1) in the River Clyde. Two independent techniques of complexation/colorimetry and speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS) showed that Cr was predominantly (>90%) in hexavalent form (CrVI) as CrO4(2-), as anticipated at the high pH (7.5-12.5) of the sites. Some differences between the implied and directly determined concentrations of dissolved CrIII, however, appeared related to the total organic carbon (TOC) content. This was most significant for the ground water from one borehole that had the highest TOC concentration of 300 mg l(-1) and at which ultrafiltration produced significant decreases in Cr concentration with decreasing size fractions, e.g. complex. This showed for the main Cr-containing fraction, 100 kDa-0.45 microm, that the Cr was associated with a dark brown band characteristic of organic (humic) matter. Comparison of gel electrophoresis and FTIR results for ultrafilter retentates of ground water from this borehole with those for a borehole at another site where CrVI predominated suggested the influence of carboxylate groups, both in reducing CrVI and in forming soluble CrIII-humic complexes. The implications of this for remediation strategies (especially those based on the addition of organic matter) designed to reduce highly mobile and carcinogenic Cr(VI)O4(2-) to the much less harmful CrIII as insoluble Cr(OH)3 are discussed.

  11. The study of coastal ground surfaces to predict the ways of increasing efficiency of research mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Vladimir; Kurkin, Andrey; Belyalov, Vladimir; Tyugin, Dmitry; Zezyulin, Denis

    2017-04-01

    The increase in spatial scales of studying coastal areas can be achieved by the use of mobile robotic systems (MRS) equipped with scanning equipment, video inspection system and positioning system. The project aims at increasing the capabilities for designing effective ground MRS through the use of advanced methods of forecasting characteristics of vehicle-terrain interaction in coastal zones, where hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and biosphere interact. In the period from 14 May to 18 June 2016 there was organized the expedition to Sakhalin Island for conducting full-scale testing autonomous MRS for coastal monitoring and forecasting marine natural disasters [Kurkin A.A., Zeziulin D.V., Makarov V.S., Zaitsev A.I., Belyaev A.M., Beresnev P.O., Belyakov V.V., Pelinovsky E.N., Tyugin D.Yu. Investigations of coastal areas of the Okhotsk sea using a ground mobile robot // Ecological systems and devices. 2016. No. 8. P. 11-17]. Within the framework of the expedition specific areas of terrain in the vicinity of Cape Svobodny were investigated (with the support of SRB AMR FEB RAS). Terrain areas were studied from the standpoint of possibility of the MRS movement. As a result of measuring all the necessary data on the physical-mechanical and geometric characteristics of the coastal zones, required to calculate the force factors acting on the MRS, and, accordingly, the parameters of its motion were received. The obtained data will be used for developing new statistical models of the physical-mechanical and geometrical characteristics of the coastal ground surfaces, creating methodology for assessing the efficiency and finding ways to optimize the design of the MRS.

  12. The effects of oxalate treatment on the smear layer of ground surfaces of human dentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashley, D H; Galloway, S E

    1985-01-01

    The layer was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and by measurement of hydraulic conductance before and after 2-min topical treatment with potassium chloride, neutral potassium oxalate, half-neutralized oxalic acid or both neutral and acidic oxalates. The treated smear layers were then re-evaluated microscopically and functionally both before and after acid challenge. The layers treated with KCl were not altered either microscopically or functionally and were susceptible to acid etching. Dentine surfaces treated with either oxalate solutions became less permeable and were acid-resistant.

  13. Pesticide levels in ground and surface waters of Primavera do Leste Region, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dores, Eliana F G C; Carbo, Leandro; Ribeiro, Maria L; De-Lamonica-Freire, Ermelinda M

    2008-08-01

    Residues of the herbicides simazine, metribuzin, metolachlor, trifluralin, atrazine, and two metabolites of atrazine, deisopropylatrazine (DIA) and deethylatrazine (DEA), are surveyed in the surface and groundwater of the Primavera do Leste region, Mato Grosso, Brazil during September and December 1998 and April 1999. Different water source sampling stations of groundwater (irrigation water well, drinking water well, and water hole) and surface water (dam and river) are set up based on agricultural land use. A solid-phase extraction procedure followed by gas chromatography-nitrogen-phosphorus detection is used for the determination of these compounds. All compounds are detected at least once in water samples. A temporal trend of pesticide contamination is observed, with the highest contamination frequency occurring in December during the main application season. Metribuzin shows the highest individual detection frequencies throughout the monitoring period, followed by metolachlor, simazine, and DEA. The maximum mean concentrations of pesticides in this study are in the range from 0.14 to 1.7 microg/L. We deduct that the contamination of water resources is predominantly caused by non-point pollution of pesticides used in intensive cash-crop cultures of the Cerrado area. Therefore, a continuous monitoring of pesticide concentrations in water resources of this tropical region is necessary to detect the longer term contamination trends and developing health risks.

  14. A study of SO2 emissions and ground surface displacements at Lastarria volcano, Antofagasta Region, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewcun, Lucie G.

    Lastarria volcano (Chile) is located at the North-West margin of the 'Lazufre' ground inflation signal (37x45 km2), constantly uplifting at a rate of ˜2.5 cm/year since 1996 (Pritchard and Simons 2002; Froger et al. 2007). The Lastarria volcano has the double interest to be superimposed on a second, smaller-scale inflation signal and to be the only degassing area of the Lazufre signal. In this project, we compared daily SO2 burdens recorded by AURA's OMI mission for 2005-2010 with Ground Surface Displacements (GSD) calculated from the Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) images for 2003-2010. We found a constant maximum displacement rate of 2.44 cm/year for the period 2003-2007 and 0.80- 0.95 cm/year for the period 2007-2010. Total SO 2 emitted is 67.0 kT for the period 2005-2010, but detection of weak SO2 degassing signals in the Andes remains challenging owing to increased noise in the South Atlantic radiation Anomaly region.

  15. Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface optical properties from combined airborne- and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Gatebe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for simultaneously retrieving aerosol and surface reflectance properties from combined airborne and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements. The method is based on the standard Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET method for retrieving aerosol size distribution, complex index of refraction, and single scattering albedo, but modified to retrieve aerosol properties in two layers, below and above the aircraft, and parameters on surface optical properties from combined datasets (Cloud Absorption Radiometer, CAR, and AERONET data. A key advantage of this method is the inversion of all available spectral and angular data at the same time, while accounting for the influence of noise in the inversion procedure using statistical optimization. The wide spectral (0.34–2.30 μm and angular range (180° of the CAR instrument, combined with observations from an AERONET sunphotometer, provide sufficient measurement constraints for characterizing aerosol and surface properties with minimal assumptions. The robustness of the method was tested on observations made during four different field campaigns: (a the Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2000 over Mongu, Zambia, (b the Intercontinental Transport Experiment-Phase B over Mexico City, Mexico (c Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Central Facility, Oklahoma, USA, and (d the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS over Elson Lagoon in Barrow, Alaska, USA. The four areas are dominated by different surface characteristics and aerosol types, and therefore provide good test cases for the new inversion method.

  16. Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface optical properties from combined airborne- and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Gatebe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for simultaneously retrieving aerosol and surface reflectance properties from combined airborne and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements. The method is based on the standard Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET method for retrieving aerosol size distribution, complex index of refraction, and single scattering albedo, but modified to retrieve aerosol properties in two layers, below and above the aircraft, and parameters on surface optical properties from combined datasets (Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR and AERONET data. A key advantage of this method is the inversion of all available spectral and angular data at the same time, while accounting for the influence of noise in the inversion procedure using statistical optimization. The wide spectral (0.34–2.30 μm and angular range (180° of the CAR instrument, combined with observations from an AERONET sunphotometer, provide sufficient measurement constraints for characterizing aerosol and surface properties with minimal assumptions. The robustness of the method was tested on observations made during four different field campaigns: (a the Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2000 over Mongu, Zambia, (b the Intercontinental Transport Experiment-Phase B over Mexico City, Mexico (c Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Central Facility, Oklahoma, USA, and (d the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS over Elson Lagoon in Barrow, Alaska, USA. The four areas are dominated by different surface characteristics and aerosol types, and therefore provide good test cases for the new inversion method.

  17. Assessment of dry season surface, ground, and treated water quality in the Cape Coast municipality of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagraine, E K; Adokoh, C K

    2010-01-01

    This aim of this monitoring was to assess water quality in a dry season for the Cape Coast municipality in Ghana, which has been experiencing chronic water shortages. Fifteen different sampling stations--four surface, five ground, and six tap water samples--were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological parameters during January to April 2005. Levels or trends in water quality that may be deleterious to sensitive water uses, including drinking, irrigation, and livestock watering have been noted with reference to well-established guidelines. Exceedances to some health-based drinking water guidelines included positive coliform for various water samples; pH for all groundwater samples (pH 5.9+/-0.3); conductivity for 50% groundwater; color for about a third of groundwater and tap water; Mn for 44% tap water, 67% groundwater, and 50% surface water samples. The World Health Organization laundry staining Fe guideline of 0.3 mg/l was exceeded by 75% of surface water, 44% tap water, and 53% groundwater samples. The corresponding Mn guideline of 0.1 mg/l was exceeded by all the water samples. Respectively, all surface water samples and also 75% of the surface water exceeded some known Cu and Zn guideline for the protection of aquatic life. Compared to some historic data for Fosu Lagoon, the current study shows a lowering of approximately 1 pH unit, increase of approximately 65% NH3, one to two orders of magnitude increase in PO4(3-), and more than two orders of magnitude increase in NO3-. In several instances, tap water samples collected at the consumers' end of the distribution system did not reflect on the true quality of the treated water. Mn, SO4(2-), PO4(3-), Cu, and Zn were among the chemical contaminations observed to occur in the distribution system.

  18. Areal-averaged and Spectrally-resolved Surface Albedo from Ground-based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-08-22

    We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged and spectrally resolved surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The feasibility of our approach for the routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements:(1) spectrally resolved atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at wavelength 415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm, (2) tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths, and (3) areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm) from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations. These integrated datasets cover both long (2008-2013) and short (April-May, 2010) periods at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE), which is defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved area-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE≤0.01) and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between the tower-based daily averages of surface albedo for the completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated. This agreement suggests that our retrieval originally developed for the overcast conditions likely will work for non-overcast conditions as well.

  19. Dynamic subsidence prediction of ground surface above salt cavern gas storage considering the creep of rock salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new model is proposed to predict the dynamic subsidence of ground surface above salt cavern gas storage during the leaching and storage, which takes into account the creep of rock salt. In the model, the extended form of Gaussian curve is adopted to figure out the shape of subsidence areas. The corresponding theoretical formulas are derived. In addition, parameters are studied to investigate the surface subsidence as a function of the salt ejection rate, internal pressure, buried depth, diameter, height, running time, etc. Through an example, the subsidence of the salt cavern gas storage located at Jiangsu of China obtained by the new model was compared with those by Peter A F formula, Schober & Sroka formula and FLAC3D through simulation. The results showed the proposed model is precise and correct, and can meet the actual engineering demands. The surface subsidence is equidirectional with the increase of salt ejection rate, depth, diameter, height, and running time, but reverse to the increase of internal pressure. The depth, diameter, running time and internal pressure have great effects on the subsidence, whereas the salt ejection rate and height have little influences on it.

  20. Hydro-economic modeling of conjunctive ground and surface water use to guide sustainable basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher Kahil, Mohamed; Ward, Frank A.; Albiac, Jose; Eggleston, Jack; Sanz, David

    2016-04-01

    Water demands for irrigation, urban and environmental uses in arid and semiarid regions continue to grow, while freshwater supplies from surface and groundwater resources are becoming scarce and are expected to decline with climate change. Policymakers in these regions face hard choices on water management and policies. Hydro-economic modeling is the state-of-the art tool that could be used to guide the design and implementation of sustainable water management policies in basins. The strength of hydro-economic modeling lies in its capacity to integrate key biophysical and socio-economic components within a unified framework. A major gap in developments on hydro-economic modeling to date has been the weak integration of surface and groundwater flows, based on the theoretically correct Darcy equations used by the hydrogeological community. The modeling approach taken here is integrated, avoiding the single-tank aquifer assumption, avoiding simplified assumptions on aquifer-river linkages, and bypassing iterations among separate hydrological and economic models. The groundwater flow formulation used in this paper harnesses the standard finite difference expressions for groundwater flow and groundwater-surface water exchange developed in the USGS MODFLOW groundwater model. The methodological contribution to previous modeling efforts is the explicit specification of aquifer-river interactions, important when aquifer systems make a sizable contribution to basin resources. The modeling framework is solved completely, and information among the economic and hydrological components over all periods and locations are jointly and simultaneously determined. This novel framework is applied to the Jucar basin (Spain), which is a good experimental region for an integrated basin scale analysis. The framework is used for assessing the impacts of a range of climate change scenarios and policy choices, especially the hydrologic, land use, and economic outcomes. The modeling framework

  1. A feasibility study to estimate minimum surface-casing depths of oil and gas wells to prevent ground-water contamination in four areas of western Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwalter, T.F.; Squillace, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrologic data were evaluated from four areas of western Pennsylvania to estimate the minimum depth of well surface casing needed to prevent contamination of most of the fresh ground-water resources by oil and gas wells. The areas are representative of the different types of oil and gas activities and of the ground-water hydrology of most sections of the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province in western Pennsylvania. Approximate delineation of the base of the fresh ground-water system was attempted by interpreting the following hydrologic data: (1) reports of freshwater and saltwater in oil and gas well-completion reports, (2) water well-completion reports, (3) geophysical logs, and (4) chemical analyses of well water. Because of the poor quality and scarcity of ground-water data, the altitude of the base of the fresh ground-water system in the four study areas cannot be accurately delineated. Consequently, minimum surface-casing depths for oil and gas wells cannot be estimated with confidence. Conscientious and reliable reporting of freshwater and saltwater during drilling of oil and gas wells would expand the existing data base. Reporting of field specific conductance of ground water would greatly enhance the value of the reports of ground water in oil and gas well-completion records. Water-bearing zones in bedrock are controlled mostly by the presence of secondary openings. The vertical and horizontal discontinuity of secondary openings may be responsible, in part, for large differences in altitudes of freshwater zones noted on completion records of adjacent oil and gas wells. In upland and hilltop topographies, maximum depths of fresh ground water are reported from several hundred feet below land surface to slightly more than 1,000 feet, but the few deep reports are not substantiated by results of laboratory analyses of dissolved-solids concentrations. Past and present drillers for shallow oil and gas wells commonly install surface casing to below the

  2. Ground-water-level monitoring, basin boundaries, and potentiometric surfaces of the aquifer system at Edwards Air Force Base, California, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rewis, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    A ground-water-level monitoring program was implemented at Edwards Air Force Base, California, from January through December 1992 to monitor spatial and temporal changes in poten-tiometric surfaces that largely are affected by ground-water pumping. Potentiometric-surface maps are needed to determine the correlation between declining ground- water levels and the distribution of land subsidence. The monitoring program focused on areas of the base where pumping has occurred, especially near Rogers Lake, and involved three phases of data collection: (1) well canvassing and selection, (2) geodetic surveys, and (3) monthly ground-water-level measurements. Construction and historical water- level data were compiled for 118 wells and pi-ezometers on or near the base, and monthly ground-water-level measurements were made in 82 wells and piezometers on the base. The compiled water-level data were used in conjunction with previously collected geologic data to identify three types of no-flow boundaries in the aquifer system: structural boundaries, a principal-aquifer boundary, and ground-water divides. Heads were computed from ground-water-level measurements and land-surface altitudes and then were used to map seasonal potentiometric surfaces for the principal and deep aquifers underlying the base. Pumping has created a regional depression in the potentiometric surface of the deep aquifer in the South Track, South Base, and Branch Park well-field area. A 15-foot decline in the potentiometric surface from April to September 1992 and 20- to 30-foot drawdowns in the three production wells in the South Track well field caused locally unconfined conditions in the deep aquifer.

  3. Application of ESPRIT in Broad Beam HF Ground Wave Radar Sea Surface Current Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Dan-hong; Wu Xiong-bin; Wen Bi-yang; Cheng Feng

    2004-01-01

    HF surface wave radar system OSMAR2000 is a broad-beam sea-state detecting radar. ESPRIT (Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Technique) algorithm is proposed to apply in DOA (direction of arrival) determination of sea echoes. The algorithm of ESPRIT is briefly introduced first. Then discussions are made on the technique for application in the OSMAR2000 framework. Numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of radial current mapping based on this method. The algorithm manifests significant performance and computational advantages compared with that of MUSIC. Data acquired by OSMAR2000 are processed to give radial current map and the synthesized vector currents are compared with the in-situ measurement with traditional means. The results show the validity of ESPRIT application in DOA determination for broad-beam radar.

  4. W-Band Characterization of Grounded Frequency Selective Surface Arrays Composed of Nonequal Slot Length Subarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Islam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the design and construction of Frequency Selective Surface arrays composed of two subarrays of different slot lengths. We investigated their response variations with the variation of slot length differences of the elementary sub-arrays. Such nonhomogeneous arrays cannot be simulated with Computer Aided Design (CAD programs because the boundary conditions are not fulfilled by the simulator. In infinite array simulation, the periodic boundary conditions are prescribed on the walls of the unit cell, whereas in the case of sub-arrays of unequal slot length such boundary conditions are not applicable. The CAD simulation of such combined array gives incorrect values of amplitude and phase responses. In this work, we investigate the characteristics of such complex arrays by using heuristic experimental approach. The results of the experimental approach demonstrate that the resultant reflection amplitude and phase of such complex array depend on the difference of slot lengths (ΔL of the two sub-arrays.

  5. Financing Professional Sports Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Baade, Robert A.; Victor A. Matheson

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines public financing of professional sports facilities with a focus on both early and recent developments in taxpayer subsidization of spectator sports. The paper explores both the magnitude and the sources of public funding for professional sports facilities.

  6. From Ground Truth to Space: Surface, Subsurface and Remote Observations Associated with Nuclear Test Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A. J.; Anderson, D.; Burt, C.; Craven, J.; Kimblin, C.; McKenna, I.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Miller, E.; Yocky, D. A.; Haas, D.

    2016-12-01

    Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) result in numerous signatures that manifest on a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Currently, prompt signals, such as the detection of seismic waves provide only generalized locations and the timing and amplitude of non-prompt signals are difficult to predict. As such, research into improving the detection, location, and identification of suspect events has been conducted, resulting in advancement of nuclear test detection science. In this presentation, we demonstrate the scalar variably of surface and subsurface observables, briefly discuss current capabilities to locate, detect and characterize potential nuclear explosion locations, and explain how emergent technologies and amalgamation of disparate data sets will facilitate improved monitoring and verification. At the smaller scales, material and fracture characterization efforts on rock collected from legacy UNE sites and from underground experiments using chemical explosions can be incorporated into predictive modeling efforts. Spatial analyses of digital elevation models and orthoimagery of both modern conventional and legacy nuclear sites show subtle surface topographic changes and damage at nearby outcrops. Additionally, at sites where such technology cannot penetrate vegetative cover, it is possible to use the vegetation itself as both a companion signature reflecting geologic conditions and showing subsurface impacts to water, nutrients, and chemicals. Aerial systems based on RGB imagery, light detection and ranging, and hyperspectral imaging can allow for combined remote sensing modalities to perform pattern recognition and classification tasks. Finally, more remote systems such as satellite based synthetic aperture radar and satellite imagery are other techniques in development for UNE site detection, location and characterization.

  7. Surface and Ground Water Quality in Köprüören Basin (Kütahya), Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Şebnem; Çelik, Mehmet; Erdem Dokuz, Uǧur; Abadi Berhe, Berihu

    2014-05-01

    In this study, quality of the water resources in Köprüören Basin, located to the west of Kütahya city in western Anatolia, were investigated. The total catchment area of the basin is 275 km2 and it is located upstream of Kütahya and Eskişehir plains. Therefore, besides 6,000 people residing in the basin, a much larger population will be impacted by the quality of surface and groundwater resources. Groundwater occurs under confined conditions in the limestones of Pliocene units. Groundwater flow is from north to south and south to north towards Kocasu stream, which flows to Enne Dam. The surface and ground water quality in this area are negatively affected by the mining activities. In the northern part of the area, there are coal deposits present in Miocene Tunçbilek formation. Ground waters in contact with the coal deposits contain low concentrations of arsenic (up to 30 µg/l). In the southern part, the only silver deposit of Turkey is present, which is developed in metamorphic basement rocks, Early Miocene volcanics and Pliocene units near Gümüşköy (Gümüş means silver, köy means village in Turkish). The amount of silver manufactured annually in this silver plant is huge and comprises about 1% of the World's Silver Production. The wastes, enriched in cyanide, arsenic, stibnite, lead and zinc, are stored in waste pools and there is extensive leakage of these heavy metals from these pools. Therefore, surface waters, soils and plants in the affected areas contain high concentrations of arsenic, stibnite and lead. The As, Sb, Pb and Zn concentrations are up to 733 µg/l, 158 µg/l, 48 µg/l, and 286 µg/l in surface waters (in dry season), 6180 ppm, 410 ppm, 4180 ppm, 9950 ppm in soils and 809 ppm, 399 ppm, 800 ppm, 2217 ppm in plants, respectively. Today, most of the As, Sb, Pb and Zn are absorbed by the soils and only a small part are dissolved in water. However, conditions might change in future leading to desorption of these contaminants. Therefore

  8. PRESENT TIMES SPORT MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia GRĂDINARU

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to play as introduction for the sport management science, both as academic and professional major. The paper provides a broad overview of sport management rather than detailed instructions about how sport management is seen. The professional career in sport management should be built on a strong conceptual foundation. Sport managers who can think critically about sport – related issues will be competent, reflective professionals who have the potential to become influ...

  9. 14 CFR 61.317 - Is my sport pilot certificate issued with aircraft category and class ratings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Is my sport pilot certificate issued with... GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.317 Is my sport pilot certificate issued with aircraft category and class ratings? Your sport pilot certificate does not list aircraft category and class ratings. When...

  10. High resolution imaging of vadose zone transport using surface and crosswell ground penetrating radar methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Kenneth H.; Kowalsky, Mike B.; Peterson, John E.

    2002-11-05

    To effectively clean up many contaminated sites there is a need for information on heterogeneities at scales ranging from one centimeter to tens of meters, as these features can alter contaminant transport significantly. At the Department of Energy's Hanford, Washington site heterogeneities of interest can range from localized phenomena such as silt or gravel lenses, fractures, clastic dikes, to large-scale lithologic discontinuities. In the vadose zone it is critical to understand the parameters controlling flow. These features have been suspected of leading to funneling and fingering, additional physical mechanisms that could alter and possibly accelerate the transport of contaminants to underlying groundwater. For example, it has been observed from the studies to date that over relatively short distances there are heterogeneities in the physical structure of the porous medium and structural differences between repacked soil cores and the field site from which the materials initially came (Raymond and Shdo, 1966). Analysis of cores taken from the vadose zone (i.e., soil surface to water table) has been useful in identifying localized zones of contamination. Unfortunately, these analyses are sparse (limited to a few boreholes) and extremely expensive. The high levels of radioactivity at many of the contaminated sites increase drilling and sample costs and analysis time. Cost of drilling and core analysis for the SX tank farm has exceeded $1M per borehole (50 meter deep) for sampling. The inability to track highly mobile species through the vadose zone highlights an important need: the need for methods to describe the complete vadose zone plume and to determine processes controlling accelerated contamination of groundwater at Hanford. A combination of surface and crosswell (i.e. borehole) geophysical measurements is one means to provide this information. The main questions addressed with the radar methods in this study are: (1) What parts of the vadose zone

  11. Estimating Daily Maximum and Minimum Land Air Surface Temperature Using MODIS Land Surface Temperature Data and Ground Truth Data in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Thanh Noi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate quantitatively the land surface temperature (LST derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MOD11A1 and MYD11A1 Collection 5 products for daily land air surface temperature (Ta estimation over a mountainous region in northern Vietnam. The main objective is to estimate maximum and minimum Ta (Ta-max and Ta-min using both TERRA and AQUA MODIS LST products (daytime and nighttime and auxiliary data, solving the discontinuity problem of ground measurements. There exist no studies about Vietnam that have integrated both TERRA and AQUA LST of daytime and nighttime for Ta estimation (using four MODIS LST datasets. In addition, to find out which variables are the most effective to describe the differences between LST and Ta, we have tested several popular methods, such as: the Pearson correlation coefficient, stepwise, Bayesian information criterion (BIC, adjusted R-squared and the principal component analysis (PCA of 14 variables (including: LST products (four variables, NDVI, elevation, latitude, longitude, day length in hours, Julian day and four variables of the view zenith angle, and then, we applied nine models for Ta-max estimation and nine models for Ta-min estimation. The results showed that the differences between MODIS LST and ground truth temperature derived from 15 climate stations are time and regional topography dependent. The best results for Ta-max and Ta-min estimation were achieved when we combined both LST daytime and nighttime of TERRA and AQUA and data from the topography analysis.

  12. Field experiment provides ground truth for surface nuclear magnetic resonance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, R.; Grunewald, E.; Irons, T.; Dlubac, K.; Song, Y.; Bachman, H.N.; Grau, B.; Walsh, D.; Abraham, J.D.; Cannia, J.

    2012-01-01

    The need for sustainable management of fresh water resources is one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Since most of the planet's liquid fresh water exists as groundwater, it is essential to develop non-invasive geophysical techniques to characterize groundwater aquifers. A field experiment was conducted in the High Plains Aquifer, central United States, to explore the mechanisms governing the non-invasive Surface NMR (SNMR) technology. We acquired both SNMR data and logging NMR data at a field site, along with lithology information from drill cuttings. This allowed us to directly compare the NMR relaxation parameter measured during logging,T2, to the relaxation parameter T2* measured using the SNMR method. The latter can be affected by inhomogeneity in the magnetic field, thus obscuring the link between the NMR relaxation parameter and the hydraulic conductivity of the geologic material. When the logging T2data were transformed to pseudo-T2* data, by accounting for inhomogeneity in the magnetic field and instrument dead time, we found good agreement with T2* obtained from the SNMR measurement. These results, combined with the additional information about lithology at the site, allowed us to delineate the physical mechanisms governing the SNMR measurement. Such understanding is a critical step in developing SNMR as a reliable geophysical method for the assessment of groundwater resources.

  13. Directional site resonances and the influence of near-surface geology on ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamassa, Ornella; Vidale, John E.; Houston, Heidi; Schwartz, Susan Y.

    1991-05-01

    We examine the horizontal motions at close stations from earthquakes in the Loma Prieta and Whittier Narrows sequences to study the shear wave polarizations. We use a dense, six station array recording 10 aftershocks for the former, and use two events and 11 stations across the Los Angeles area for the latter.We compute the average azimuth of strongest shaking in the shear wave as a function of frequency from 1 to 18 Hz for each record of each earthquake. The direction of shaking at a given frequency often correlates much better with an empirical site resonance direction than with the direction of shaking expected from the focal mechanism of the earthquake. The effect tends to be greatest at the frequencies that are the most amplified. This phenomenon can complicate determination of the earthquake source at frequencies higher than 1 Hz.Further, since sites only 25 meters apart show different preferred directions, very near-surface geology is probably responsible. Estimation of directional site resonances may prove useful for seismic design.

  14. Estimation of the near surface soil water content during evaporation using air-launched ground-penetrating radar

    KAUST Repository

    Moghadas, Davood

    2014-01-01

    Evaporation is an important process in the global water cycle and its variation affects the near sur-face soil water content, which is crucial for surface hydrology and climate modelling. Soil evaporation rate is often characterized by two distinct phases, namely, the energy limited phase (stage-I) and the soil hydraulic limited period (stage-II). In this paper, a laboratory experiment was conducted using a sand box filled with fine sand, which was subject to evaporation for a period of twenty three days. The setup was equipped with a weighting system to record automatically the weight of the sand box with a constant time-step. Furthermore, time-lapse air-launched ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements were performed to monitor the evaporation process. The GPR model involves a full-waveform frequency-domain solution of Maxwell\\'s equations for wave propagation in three-dimensional multilayered media. The accuracy of the full-waveform GPR forward modelling with respect to three different petrophysical models was investigated. Moreover, full-waveform inversion of the GPR data was used to estimate the quantitative information, such as near surface soil water content. The two stages of evaporation can be clearly observed in the radargram, which indicates qualitatively that enough information is contained in the GPR data. The full-waveform GPR inversion allows for accurate estimation of the near surface soil water content during extended evaporation phases, when a wide frequency range of GPR (0.8-5.0 GHz) is taken into account. In addition, the results indicate that the CRIM model may constitute a relevant alternative in solving the frequency-dependency issue for full waveform GPR modelling.

  15. Hydrophilic anthropogenic markers for quantification of wastewater contamination in ground- and surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Maren; Buerge, Ignaz J; Müller, Markus D; Poiger, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Hydrophilic, persistent markers are useful to detect, locate, and quantify contamination of natural waters with domestic wastewater. The present study focused on occurrence and fate of seven marker candidates including carbamazepine (CBZ), 10,11-dihydro-10,11-dihydroxycarbamazepine (DiOH-CBZ), primidone (PMD), crotamiton (CTMT), N-acetyl-4-aminoantipyrine (AAA), N-formyl-4-aminoantipyrine (FAA), and benzotriazole (BTri) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), lakes, and groundwater. In WWTPs, concentrations from 0.14 microg/L to several micrograms per liter were observed for all substances, except CTMT, which was detected at lower concentrations. Loads determined in untreated and treated wastewater indicated that removal of the potential markers in WWTPs is negligible; only BTri was partly eliminated (average 33%). In lakes, five compounds, CBZ, DiOH-CBZ, FAA, AAA, and BTri, were consistently detected in concentrations of 2 to 70 ng/L, 3 to 150 ng/L, less than the limit of quantification to 30 ng/L, 2 to 80 ng/L, and 11 to 920 ng/L, respectively. Mean per capita loads in the outflows of the lakes suggested possible dissipation in surface waters, especially of AAA and FAA. Nevertheless, concentrations of CBZ, DiOH-CBZ, and BTri correlated with the actual anthropogenic burden of the lakes by domestic wastewater, indicating that these compounds are suitable for quantification of wastewater contamination in lakes. Marker candidates were also detected in a number of groundwater samples. Carbamazepine concentrations up to 42 ng/L were observed in aquifers with significant infiltration of river water, receiving considerable wastewater discharges from WWTPs. Concentration ratios between compounds indicated some elimination of BTri and DiOH-CBZ during subsurface passage or in groundwater, while CBZ and PMD appeared to be more stable and thus are promising wastewater markers for groundwater. The wastewater burden in groundwater, estimated with the markers CBZ and PMD

  16. Ab initio potential energy surface and excited vibrational states for the electronic ground state of Li2H

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢国森; 先晖; 谢代前

    1997-01-01

    A 285-pomt multi-reference configuration-interaction involving single and double excitations ( MRS DCI) potential energy surface for the electronic ground state of L12H is determined by using 6-311G (2df,2pd)basis set.A Simons-Parr-Finlan polynomial expansion is used to fit the discrete surface with a x2 of 4.64×106 The equn librium geometry occurs at Rc=0.172 nm and,LiHL1=94.10°.The dissociation energy for reaction I2H(2A)→L12(1∑g)+H(2S) is 243.910 kJ/mol,and that for reaction L12H(2A’)→HL1(1∑) + L1(2S) is 106.445 kl/mol The inversion barrier height is 50.388 kj/mol.The vibrational energy levels are calculated using the discrete variable representation (DVR) method.

  17. Writing lives in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those...... of the essays fails to recognise problems of sport-biography. Indeed, several focus explicitly on exemplifications of these problems and as such the book raises important questions for writing in a variety of sporting and educational disciplines....

  18. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten; LS Sportontw. & Managing Social Issues; UU LEG Research USG Public Matters Managing Social Issues; LS Management van Cultuur en Zingeving

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to ex

  19. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten; LS Sportontw. & Managing Social Issues; UU LEG Research USG Public Matters Managing Social Issues; LS Management van Cultuur en Zingeving

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to ex

  20. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to ex

  1. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to

  2. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten; LS Sportontw. & Managing Social Issues; UU LEG Research USG Public Matters Managing Social Issues; LS Management van Cultuur en Zingeving

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to

  3. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to ex

  4. Effect of cloud-to-ground lightning and meteorological conditions on surface NOx and O3 in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Leilei; Chan, L. Y.; Bi, Xinhui; Guo, Hai; Liu, Yonglin; Lin, Qinhao; Wang, Xinming; Peng, Ping'an; Sheng, Guoying

    2016-12-01

    Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning, meteorological conditions and corresponding surface nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone (O3) variations in relation to thunderstorm and lightning activities over Hong Kong at Kwai Chung (urban), Tung Chung (new town) and Tap Mun (background) during active lightning seasons from 2009 to 2013 were studied by analyzing respective air quality monitoring station data along with CG lightning and meteorological data. We observed NOx enhancement and significant O3 decline on lightning days. Influences of land use types, lightning activities and meteorological conditions on surface NOx and O3 were examined. NOx and O3 concentrations shifted towards higher and lower levels, respectively, during lightning days especially in the dominant wind directions. Principal component analysis/absolute principal component scores (PCA/APCS) method and stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis were employed to examine the influence of thunderstorm related lightning and meteorological parameters on surface NOx and O3. Wind speed was supposed to be the most important meteorological parameter affecting the concentration of NOx, and lightning activities were observed to make a positive contribution to NOx. Negative contribution of hot, cloudy and wet weather and positive contribution of wind speed were found to affect the concentration of O3. Lightning parameters were also found to make a small positive contribution to O3 concentration at Tap Mun and Tung Chung, but the net effect of lightning activities and corresponding meteorological conditions was the decrease of O3 on lightning days. Reasonably good agreement between the predicted and observed NOx and O3 values indicates that PCA/APCS-MLR is a valuable method to study the thunderstorm induced NOx and O3 variations.

  5. Interactions between surface water and ground water and effects on mercury transport in the north-central Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Krupa, Steven L.; Gefvert, Cynthia; Mooney, Robert H.; Choi, Jungyill; King, Susan A.; Giddings, Jefferson B.

    2002-01-01

    The hydrology of the north-central Everglades was altered substantially in the past century by canal dredging, land subsidence, ground-water pumping, and levee construction. Vast areas of seasonal and perennial wetlands were converted to uses for agriculture, light industry, and suburban development. As the catchment area for the Everglades decreased, so did the sources of water from local precipitation and runoff from surrounding uplands. Partly in response to those alterations, water-resources managers compartmentalized the remaining wetlands in the north-central Everglades into large retention basins, called Water Conservation Areas (WCAs). In spite of efforts to improve how water resources are managed, the result has been frequent periods of excessive drying out or flooding of the WCAs because the managed system does not have the same water-storage capacity as the pre-drainage Everglades. Linked to the hydrological modifications are ecological changes including large-scale invasions of cattail, loss of tree islands, and diminishing bird populations in the Everglades. Complex interactions among numerous physical, chemical, and biological factors are responsible for the long-term degradation of the ecological character of the Everglades.Over the past 15 years, a new set of smaller wetland basins, called Stormwater Treatment Areas (STAs), have been designed and constructed by water-resources engineers on the former wetlands adjacent to WCAs. The purpose of STAs is to remove excess nutrients from agricultural drainage water prior to its input to WCAs. STAs tend to be about one-tenth the size of a WCA, and they are located on former wetlands on the northwestern side of WCAs on sites that were managed as farmland for much of the twentieth century in an area referred to as the Everglades Agricultural Area, or EAA. The objective of the present investigation was to quantify interactions between surface water and ground water in the Everglades Nutrient Removal Project

  6. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Description of the bedrock geological map at the ground surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Bergman, Torbjoern (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Isaksson, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Petersson, Jesper (SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    A description of the bedrock geological map of the ground surface at the Forsmark site is presented here. This map is essentially a 2D model for the distribution of different types of rock unit on this surface. Besides showing the distribution of these rock units, the bedrock geological map also displays the distribution of some deformation zones that intersect the ground surface. It also presents information bearing on the position and form of outcrops, the location and projection of boreholes drilled during the site investigation programme, subordinate rock types, the occurrence of abandoned mines or exploration prospects, measurements of ductile structures in outcrops, inferred form lines, key minerals, and the occurrence of mylonite and cataclastic rock. Bedrock data from outcrops and excavations, airborne and ground magnetic data and information from the uppermost part of boreholes have all been used in the construction of the geological map. The description has also made use of complementary analytical data bearing on the composition and age of the rocks as well gamma-ray spectrometry and gravity data. Uncertainty in the position of the boundaries between rock units over the mapped area are addressed in a qualitative manner. Four model versions of the bedrock geological map have been delivered to SKB's GIS database (bedrock geological map, Forsmark, versions 1.1, 1.2, 2.2 and 2.3) at different times during the site investigation programme. The Forsmark area is situated along the coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Uppland, Sweden, in a region where the overall level of ductile strain in the bedrock is high. This high-strain region extends several tens of kilometres across the WNW-ENE to NW-SE strike of the rocks in this part of the Fennoscandian Shield. At Forsmark, the coastal region is composed partly of high-strain belts, which formed under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions, and partly of tectonic lenses, where the bedrock is also affected by

  7. Sports Culture and Sports in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz KAPLAN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sports culture indicates all kinds of morals, products, and behavior. This study aims to argue sports as a cultural element and its appearence in Turkey. This is a descriptive study based on theoretical argument. It is periodic since it is limited to a given term and it is also relied upon literature review. People's adaptations to living conditions are related to culture. We can specify this, “all the patt erns of living and behavior which are special to small units within a large and structurally developed society.” ( Erdemli , 2002In Turkey; it’s more accurate to say that, it’s understood football when you think about sports and sport culture is football culture. This condition can not only induce cultural diversity and wealth but it also leads to a transformation into a society who likes watching sports, talking about sports (saying more precisely football rather than doing sports. Sport magazine has sur passed the sport itself. Representation of sport in media does not make a favorable contribution. Sport media invites violence with its manner of representation of news by acting with the concerns of rating and curcilation although they, at every turn, dec lare that they are against violence. Discourses which include violence, nationalism, sexism, and slang has increased in media as an extensive research also suggested ( Talimciler , 2003.Culture, is a phenomenon which is considerably about quality and accumu lation. Processes are as important as results; sometimes even more. In this sense sport is much more than the score. In a country, a sport branch can be attracting more attention than the other ones; however, Limiting sports to football, also limiting fo otball to several football clubs, and ignoring many of sports branches, those who are interested in them, and who are amateurs is an unfair and reductive approach. On the other hand; sports opportunities could not be created for millions of young and adul t people in our country

  8. Microforms and Sport History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Explores the importance of sport history as it reflects the social and cultural history of the United States. Discussion covers the various sport history materials that are available in microform, including the Spalding Collection, twentieth-century microfilm sources, and sports and social history (Sports Periodicals microfilm series). (EJS)

  9. Report on Sport 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst

    2008-01-01

    Original title: Rapportage sport 2008. Sport: it appeals to people; it brings people together; it promotes health; and it is profitable. Today, in 2008, sport is enjoying popularity as never before. Two-thirds of the Dutch population take part in some form of sport. After swimming and cycling,

  10. Report on Sport 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst

    2008-01-01

    Original title: Rapportage sport 2008. Sport: it appeals to people; it brings people together; it promotes health; and it is profitable. Today, in 2008, sport is enjoying popularity as never before. Two-thirds of the Dutch population take part in some form of sport. After swimming and cycling, fitn

  11. Sport participation styles revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steven Vos; Erik Thibaut; Bart Vanreusel; Julie Borgers; Hanne Vandermeerschen; Jeroen Scheerder

    2013-01-01

    Social changes have been influencing determinants for sports participation since the introduction of the Sport for All ideology in the early 1970s. Consistent with Crum’s sportisation theory, today’s modes of sports practices, as well as the network of sport services, have diversified and

  12. Building Character through Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Sports are a focus of millions of Americans as they attend, view, and participate in sports. The World Series, Final Four, and Super Bowl often bring back memories of fun-filled parties and celebrations, but there may be several reasons why sports are so popular in the United States. The popularity of sports, however, does not necessarily mean it…

  13. Differences in rates of decrease of environmental radiation dose rates by ground surface property in Fukushima City after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakamu, Takeyasu; Kanda, Hideyuki; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Miyake, Masao; Hayakawa, Takehito; Katsuda, Shin-ichiro; Mori, Yayoi; Okouchi, Toshiyasu; Hazama, Akihiro; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2013-01-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, the environmental radiation dose in Fukushima City increased. On 11 April, 1 mo after the earthquake, the environmental radiation dose rate at various surfaces in the same area differed greatly by surface property. Environmental radiation measurements continue in order to determine the estimated time to 50% reduction in environmental radiation dose rates by surface property in order to make suggestions for decontamination in Fukushima. The measurements were carried out from 11 April to 11 November 2011. Forty-eight (48) measurement points were selected, including four kinds of ground surface properties: grass (13), soil (5), artificial turf (7), and asphalt (23). Environmental radiation dose rate was measured at heights of 100 cm above the ground surface. Time to 50% reduction of environmental radiation dose rates was estimated for each ground surface property. Radiation dose rates on 11 November had decreased significantly compared with those on 11 April for all surface properties. Artificial turf showed the longest time to 50% reduction (544.32 d, standard error: 96.86), and soil showed the shortest (213.20 d, standard error: 35.88). The authors found the environmental radiation dose rate on artificial materials to have a longer 50% reduction time than that on natural materials. These results contribute to determining an order of priority for decontamination after nuclear disasters.

  14. Investigation of the influence of topographic irregularities and two dimensional effects on the intensity of surface ground motion with one- and two-dimensional analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yılmazoğlu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the surface ground motion that occurs during an earthquake in ground sections having different topographic forms has been examined with one and two dynamic site response analyses. One-dimensional analyses were undertaken using the Equivalent-Linear Earthquake Response Analysis program based on the equivalent linear analysis principle and the Deepsoil program which is able to make both equivalent linear and nonlinear analyses and two-dimensional analyses using the Plaxis software. The viscous damping parameters used in the dynamic site response analyses undertaken with the Plaxis software were obtained using the DeepSoil program. In the dynamic site response analyses, the synthetic acceleration over a 475 yr replication period representing the earthquakes in Istanbul was used as the basis of the bedrock ground motion. The peak ground acceleration obtained different depths of soils and acceleration spectrum values have been compared. The surface topography and layer boundaries in the 5-5' section were selected in order to examine the effect of the land topography and layer boundaries on the analysis results were flattened and compared with the actual status. The analysis results showed that the characteristics of the surface ground motion changes in relation to the varying local soil conditions and land topography.

  15. PRESENT TIMES SPORT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia GRĂDINARU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to play as introduction for the sport management science, both as academic and professional major. The paper provides a broad overview of sport management rather than detailed instructions about how sport management is seen. The professional career in sport management should be built on a strong conceptual foundation. Sport managers who can think critically about sport – related issues will be competent, reflective professionals who have the potential to become influential agents of change. The sport management will face many challenges in the future, as examination of the ethics, social responsibility and principled decision making but in the meantime will offer opportunities towards society.

  16. Collective vs Individual Sale of TV Rights in League Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falconieri, S.; Palomino, F.A.; Sakovics, J.

    2002-01-01

    In many countries, the collective sale of TV rights by sports leagues has been challenged by the antitrust authorities.In several cases, however, leagues won in court, on the ground that sport cannot be considered a standard good.In this paper, we investigate the conditions under which the sale of

  17. Sport and measurement of competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Sport is becoming an activity of increasing importance: over time more people participate in sport (active sport consumption), more time is spent watching sport (passive sport consumption). An important part of sport consumption is passive sport consumption where production and consumption are separ

  18. A Semiautomated Multilayer Picking Algorithm for Ice-sheet Radar Echograms Applied to Ground-Based Near-Surface Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onana, Vincent De Paul; Koenig, Lora Suzanne; Ruth, Julia; Studinger, Michael; Harbeck, Jeremy P.

    2014-01-01

    Snow accumulation over an ice sheet is the sole mass input, making it a primary measurement for understanding the past, present, and future mass balance. Near-surface frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radars image isochronous firn layers recording accumulation histories. The Semiautomated Multilayer Picking Algorithm (SAMPA) was designed and developed to trace annual accumulation layers in polar firn from both airborne and ground-based radars. The SAMPA algorithm is based on the Radon transform (RT) computed by blocks and angular orientations over a radar echogram. For each echogram's block, the RT maps firn segmented-layer features into peaks, which are picked using amplitude and width threshold parameters of peaks. A backward RT is then computed for each corresponding block, mapping the peaks back into picked segmented-layers. The segmented layers are then connected and smoothed to achieve a final layer pick across the echogram. Once input parameters are trained, SAMPA operates autonomously and can process hundreds of kilometers of radar data picking more than 40 layers. SAMPA final pick results and layer numbering still require a cursory manual adjustment to correct noncontinuous picks, which are likely not annual, and to correct for inconsistency in layer numbering. Despite the manual effort to train and check SAMPA results, it is an efficient tool for picking multiple accumulation layers in polar firn, reducing time over manual digitizing efforts. The trackability of good detected layers is greater than 90%.

  19. Evaluation of the toxicological properties of ground- and surface-water samples from the Aral Sea Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, K. [University of Salzburg, Department of Cell Biology, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria); Erdinger, L. [University of Heidelberg, Department for Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Ingel, F. [Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, A.N.Sysin Institute of Human Ecology and Environmental Hygiene, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khussainova, S. [Scientific Center of Pediatrics and Chrildren' s Surgery, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Utegenova, E. [Kazakh Sanitary-Epidemiological Station, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Bresgen, N. [University of Salzburg, Department of Cell Biology, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria); Eckl, P.M. [University of Salzburg, Department of Cell Biology, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria)]. E-mail: peter.eckl@sbg.ac.at

    2007-03-01

    In order to determine whether there is a potential health risk associated with the water supply in the Aral Sea Basin, ground- and surface-water samples were collected in and around Aralsk and from the Aral Sea in 2002. Water samples from Akchi, a small town close to Almaty, served as controls. Bioassays with different toxicological endpoints were employed to assess the general toxicological status. Additionally, the samples were analysed for microbial contamination. The samples were tested in the primary hepatocyte assay for their potential to induce micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations as cumulative indicators for genotoxicity. In parallel, the effects on cell proliferation evidenced by mitotic index and cytotoxicity such as the appearance of necrotic and apoptotic cells, were determined. Furthermore, samples were examined using the Microtox assay for general toxicity. Chemical analysis according to European regulations was performed and soil and water samples were analysed for DDT and DDE. The results obtained indicated no increased cyto- or genotoxic potential of the water samples, nor levels of DDT or DDE exceeding the thresholds levels suggested by WHO. Our data therefore do not support the hypothesis that the contamination of the drinking water in and around Aralsk is responsible for the health effects previously described such as increased rates of liver disease and in particular liver cancer. Microbiological analysis, however, revealed the presence of contamination in most samples analysed.

  20. Characteristics of Ground Surface Temperatures as in situ Observed in Elevational Permafrost on the Northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, D.; Jin, H.; Marchenko, S. S.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2016-12-01

    Elevational permafrost is primarily distributed on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) at mid-latitudes, where the average elevation is higher than 4,000 m a.s.l. The topography, including the elevation and aspect, obviously is the decisive controlling factor of thermal regimes of elevational permafrost, which is warm and extremely sensitive to anthropogenic activities and climate changes. Due to the harsh weather conditions and unfavorable logistics accommodations, however, the elevational permafrost on the QTP, especially in the rugged topography, is hard to be plotted through ground-based field investigations. The exact distribution of elevational permafrost could be simulated through GST. In this study, we set up three monitoring sites of GST at the beginning of 2015. One located in the rugged mountain of the source area of the Yellow River, one located in the sunny slope of the Bayan Har Mountain Pass, and one another located in a degrading alpine meadow of the source area of the Yangtze River. Based on these GST records, the daily, monthly, seasonal and year-average values of GST, freezing and thawing indices calculated from GST, and empirical Stefan Equation to calculate the ALT, as well as the GIPL-2.0 model to simulate the freezing and thawing processes of the active layer were integrative executed for these three sites. Results demonstrate that GST could be a much more reliable driving parameter to simulate the active layer and permafrost than the air temperature and land surface temperature.

  1. [Effects of ground surface mulching in tea garden on soil water and nutrient dynamics and tea plant growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-tao; Wang, Yu; Ding, Zhao-tang

    2011-09-01

    Taking a 2-year-old tea garden in Qingdao of Shandong Province as test object, this paper studied the effects of different mulching modes on the soil water and nutrient dynamics and tea plant growth. Four treatments were installed, i.e., no mulching (CK), straw mulching (T1), plastic film mulching (T2), and straw plus plastic film mulching (T3). Comparing with CK, mulching could keep the soil water content at a higher level, and enhance the water use efficiency. In treatments T1 and T3, the tea growth water use efficiency and yield water use efficiency increased by 43%-48% and 7%-13%, respectively, compared with CK. Also in treatments T1 and T3, the contents of soil organic matter, available-N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N increased significantly, with the soil fertility improved, and the leaf nitrate-N content and nitrate reductase activity increased, which promoted the tea growth and yield (12%-13% higher than CK) and made the peak period of bud growth appeared earlier. Considering the tea growth and yield, water and nutrient use efficiency, environment safety and economic benefit, straw mulching could be an effective ground surface mulching mode for young tea garden.

  2. The effects of nutrient losses from agriculture on ground and surface water quality: the position of science in developing indicators for regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Scholefield, D.; Cabral, F.; Hofmans, G.

    2004-01-01

    The magnitude of current nutrient losses from agriculture to ground and surface water calls for effective environmental policy, including the use of regulation. Nutrient loss is experienced in many countries despite differences in the organisation and intensity of agricultural production. However, a

  3. Validation of the Cooray‐Rubinstein (C‐R) formula for a rough ground surface by using three‐dimensional (3‐D) FDTD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Dongshuai; Zhang, Qilin; Liu, Tao; Wang, Zhenhui

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we have extended the Cooray‐Rubinstein (C‐R) approximate formula into the fractal rough ground surface and then validate its accuracy by using three‐dimensional (3‐D) finite‐difference time‐domain (FDTD...

  4. Where’s the Ground Surface? – Elevation Bias in LIDAR-derived Digital Elevation Models Due to Dense Vegetation in Oregon Tidal Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) is a powerful resource for coastal and wetland managers and its use is increasing. Vegetation density and other land cover characteristics influence the accuracy of LIDAR-derived ground surface digital elevation models; however the degree to wh...

  5. Results of soil, ground-water, surface-water, and streambed-sediment sampling at Air Force Plane 85, Columbus, Ohio, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, prepared the Surface- and Ground- Water Monitoring Work Plan for Air Force Plant 85 (AFP 85 or Plant), Columbus, Ohio, under the Air Force Installation Restoration Program to characterize any ground-water, surface-water, and soil contamination that may exist at AFP 85. The USGS began the study in November 1996. The Plant was divided into nine sampling areas, which included some previously investi gated study sites. The investigation activities included the collection and presentation of data taken during drilling and water-quality sampling. Data collection focused on the saturated and unsatur ated zones and surface water. Twenty-three soil borings were completed. Ten monitoring wells (six existing wells and four newly constructed monitoring wells) were selected for water-quality sam pling. Surface-water and streambed-sediment sampling locations were chosen to monitor flow onto and off of the Plant. Seven sites were sampled for both surface-water and streambed-sediment quality. This report presents data on the selected inorganic and organic constituents in soil, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments at AFP 85. The methods of data collection and anal ysis also are included. Knowledge of the geologic and hydrologic setting could aid Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, and its governing regulatory agencies in future remediation studies.

  6. Transport of a nematicide in surface and ground waters in a farmed tropical catchment with volcanic substratum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, J.-B.; Cattan, P.; Voltz, M.; Moussa, R.

    2009-04-01

    Assessment of water-pollution risks in agricultural regions requires studying pesticide transport processes in soil and water compartments at the catchment scale. In tropical regions, banana (Musa spp.) plantations are located in zones with abundant rainfalls and soils with high infiltration rates, which lead to washout and leaching of soil-applied pesticides, causing severe diffuse pollution of water resources. The aim of this paper is to determine how the nematicide cadusafos [S,S-di-sec-butyl O-ethyl phosphorodithioate], used in banana plantations, contaminates water and soils at the two scales of subcatchment and catchment. The study site was a small banana-growing catchment on the tropical volcanic island of Guadeloupe in the Caribbean (FWI). The catchment is located in pedoclimatic conditions where rainfall is abundant (> 4000 mm/year), and soil permeable (saturated hydraulic conductivity of Andosol Ks > 30 mm/h). Two campaigns of nematicide application were conducted, one in 2003 over 40% of the catchment and one in 2006 over 12%. For 100 days after application, we monitored the surface water and groundwater flows and the cadusafos concentrations in the soil and in surface and ground waters in a 2400 m² subcatchment and a 17.8 ha catchment. The results show that at the subcatchment scale the high retention in the A horizon of the soil limited the transport of cadusafos by runoff, whereas the lower retention of the molecule in the B horizon favoured percolation towards the shallow groundwater. The contamination levels of surface water, as well as shallow and deep groundwaters, reflected the geological structure of the Féfé catchment: i.e. a shallow aquifer in the most recent volcanic deposits that is rapidly exposed to pollution and a deeper aquifer that is relatively protected from the pollution coming from the treated fields. Comparing the losses of cadusafos at the subcatchment and at the catchment scales revealed that the nematicide re-infiltrated in

  7. Surface- and ground-water relations on the Portneuf river, and temporal changes in ground-water levels in the Portneuf Valley, Caribou and Bannock Counties, Idaho, 2001-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    The State of Idaho and local water users are concerned that streamflow depletion in the Portneuf River in Caribou and Bannock Counties is linked to ground-water withdrawals for irrigated agriculture. A year-long field study during 2001 02 that focused on monitoring surface- and ground-water relations was conducted, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources, to address some of the water-user concerns. The study area comprised a 10.2-mile reach of the Portneuf River downstream from the Chesterfield Reservoir in the broad Portneuf Valley (Portneuf River Valley reach) and a 20-mile reach of the Portneuf River in a narrow valley downstream from the Portneuf Valley (Pebble-Topaz reach). During the field study, the surface- and ground-water relations were dynamic. A losing river reach was delineated in the middle of the Portneuf River Valley reach, centered approximately 7.2 miles downstream from Chesterfield Reservoir. Two seepage studies conducted in the Portneuf Valley during regulated high flows showed that the length of the losing river reach increased from 2.6 to nearly 6 miles as the irrigation season progressed.Surface- and ground-water relations in the Portneuf Valley also were characterized from an analysis of specific conductance and temperature measurements. In a gaining reach, stratification of specific conductance and temperature across the channel of the Portneuf River was an indicator of ground water seeping into the river.An evolving method of using heat as a tracer to monitor surface- and ground-water relations was successfully conducted with thermistor arrays at four locations. Heat tracing monitored a gaining reach, where ground water was seeping into the river, and monitored a losing reach, where surface water was seeping down through the riverbed (also referred to as a conveyance loss), at two locations.Conveyance losses in the Portneuf River Valley reach were greatest, about 20 cubic feet per second, during the mid-summer regulated

  8. SHORT INTRODUCTION TO ETHICAL REASONING IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Hosta

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available It is clear at fi rst sight that sport is a very complex phenomenon, which generates ethical contradictions. It is pinned between moral-educational and essential biological movement drives on the one side. On the other side, it is trapped between extreme exploitation and passionate images of our time, and playful innocence of body and mind. By justifying ethical pluralism through our discussion we wish to point out that moral pluralism is not an apology for moral relativism, which can also be labeled as an ethical void. Moral autonomy of sport that is based on the idea of free pooling of civil society, and is at the same time trapped in the structure of the game, is inadmissible per se or has to be understood within the context of distinction among ethics of sport and sport ethics. Since we are dealing with pluralism, we cannot assure in advance the expected convincing power of ethical reasoning in sport. It is not uniform phenomenon and therefore such a demand would be too pretentious. However, as a PE teachers and trainers we need to stand fi rm on ethical grounds. We need to take into account that this short introduction is only a fi rst stage of understanding sport in order to develop further educational strategies to promote and practice socially responsible sport in the 21st century.

  9. Writing lives in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those...... dealing with anonymous individuals, whose anonymity results from the confidentiality requirements of a social scientific research methodology, to those leaning more towards the literary-historical traditions of 'conventional' biographical writing. However, these examples are polar extremes and none...

  10. [Sports medicine in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhuth, H-H

    2005-08-01

    Sports medicine covers many different aspects, ranging from clinical specialties, such as internal medicine, orthopedics or pediatrics to physiology and sports sciences. The requirements for sports medicine evolve mainly from exercise physiology (elite, leisure and health oriented physical activity), orthopedics and traumatology as well as from preventive and rehabilitative issues. In the new German curriculum, sports medicine is defined as a subspecialty. Historically, sports medicine in Germany has a federal structure with a governing body (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention). Due to these facts, University Departments of Sports Medicine (which vary greatly in size and performance) are either attached to Medical or non-Medical Faculties, such as Sports Sciences. In medical schools, sports medicine can be selected as an elective subject. However, the main part of teaching sports medicine is covered by Sports Science Faculties. In an international context, the strength of German sports medicine is its clinical orientation and close cooperation with the sport itself, especially high-performance sports. In the future, like in the Anglo- American countries, sports medicine in Germany will play a major role in health prevention and rehabilitation.

  11. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF TX-TY TANK FARMS AT THE HANFORD SITE RESULTS OF BACKGROUND CHARACTERIZATION WITH GROUND PENETRATING RADAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYERS DA; CUBBAGE R; BRAUCHLA R; O' BRIEN G

    2008-07-24

    Ground penetrating radar surveys of the TX and TY tank farms were performed to identify existing infrastructure in the near surface environment. These surveys were designed to provide background information supporting Surface-to-Surface and Well-to-Well resistivity surveys of Waste Management Area TX-TY. The objective of the preliminary investigation was to collect background characterization information with GPR to understand the spatial distribution of metallic objects that could potentially interfere with the results from high resolution resistivity{trademark} surveys. The results of the background characterization confirm the existence of documented infrastructure, as well as highlight locations of possible additional undocumented subsurface metallic objects.

  12. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) responses for sub-surface salt contamination and solid waste: modeling and controlled lysimeter studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijewardana, Y N S; Shilpadi, A T; Mowjood, M I M; Kawamoto, K; Galagedara, L W

    2017-02-01

    The assessment of polluted areas and municipal solid waste (MSW) sites using non-destructive geophysical methods is timely and much needed in the field of environmental monitoring and management. The objectives of this study are (i) to evaluate the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) wave responses as a result of different electrical conductivity (EC) in groundwater and (ii) to conduct MSW stratification using a controlled lysimeter and modeling approach. A GPR wave simulation was carried out using GprMax2D software, and the field test was done on two lysimeters that were filled with sand (Lysimeter-1) and MSW (Lysimeter-2). A Pulse EKKO-Pro GPR system with 200- and 500-MHz center frequency antennae was used to collect GPR field data. Amplitudes of GPR-reflected waves (sub-surface reflectors and water table) were studied under different EC levels injected to the water table. Modeling results revealed that the signal strength of the reflected wave decreases with increasing EC levels and the disappearance of the subsurface reflection and wave amplitude reaching zero at higher EC levels (when EC >0.28 S/m). Further, when the EC level was high, the plume thickness did not have a significant effect on the amplitude of the reflected wave. However, it was also found that reflected signal strength decreases with increasing plume thickness at a given EC level. 2D GPR profile images under wet conditions showed stratification of the waste layers and relative thickness, but it was difficult to resolve the waste layers under dry conditions. These results show that the GPR as a non-destructive method with a relatively larger sample volume can be used to identify highly polluted areas with inorganic contaminants in groundwater and waste stratification. The current methods of MSW dumpsite investigation are tedious, destructive, time consuming, costly, and provide only point-scale measurements. However, further research is needed to verify the results under heterogeneous aquifer

  13. Analysis of isotope element by electrolytic enrichment method for ground water and surface water in Saurashtra region, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been aimed for the assessment of isotope element Tritium (3H. It is a great threat to human health and environment for lengthy duration. The tritium exists in earth in diverse forms such as (1 small amounts of natural tritium are produced by alpha decay of lithium-7, (2 natural atmospheric tritium is also generated by secondary neutron cosmic ray bombardment of nitrogen, (3 atmospheric nuclear bomb testing in the 1950s, although the contribution from nuclear power plants is small. Tritium or 3H is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with a half-life of 12.32 ± 0.02 years. Water samples from ground water, surface water, and precipitation were collected from different locations in Gujarat area and were analyzed for the same. Distillation of samples was done to reduce the conductivity. Deuterium and Hydrogen were removed by the process of physico-chemical fractionation in the tritium enrichment unit. The basis of physico-chemical fractionation is the difference in the strength of bonds formed by the light vs. the heavier isotope of a given element. A total of 10 cycles (runs were executed using Quintals process. Tritium concentration files were created with help of WinQ and Quick start software in Quintals process (Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer. The concentration of tritium in terms of tritium units (TU of various samples has been determined. The TU values of the samples vary in the range of 0.90–6.62 TU.

  14. Major international sport profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  15. GSFLOW - Coupled Ground-Water and Surface-Water Flow Model Based on the Integration of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markstrom, Steven L.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Regan, R. Steven; Prudic, David E.; Barlow, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    The need to assess the effects of variability in climate, biota, geology, and human activities on water availability and flow requires the development of models that couple two or more components of the hydrologic cycle. An integrated hydrologic model called GSFLOW (Ground-water and Surface-water FLOW) was developed to simulate coupled ground-water and surface-water resources. The new model is based on the integration of the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW). Additional model components were developed, and existing components were modified, to facilitate integration of the models. Methods were developed to route flow among the PRMS Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) and between the HRUs and the MODFLOW finite-difference cells. This report describes the organization, concepts, design, and mathematical formulation of all GSFLOW model components. An important aspect of the integrated model design is its ability to conserve water mass and to provide comprehensive water budgets for a location of interest. This report includes descriptions of how water budgets are calculated for the integrated model and for individual model components. GSFLOW provides a robust modeling system for simulating flow through the hydrologic cycle, while allowing for future enhancements to incorporate other simulation techniques.

  16. Globalization of the sports economy

    OpenAIRE

    Wladimir Andreff

    2008-01-01

    Introduction – 1. Major features of a globalized sports economy – 2. International economic flows in a global sports economy – 3. Globalization as geographical spread of the sports economy – 4. Globalization of professional sports – Conclusion – References

  17. EXAMINATION ABOUT INFLUENCE FOR PRECISION OF 3D IMAGE MEASUREMENT FROM THE GROUND CONTROL POINT MEASUREMENT AND SURFACE MATCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Anai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As the 3D image measurement software is now widely used with the recent development of computer-vision technology, the 3D measurement from the image is now has acquired the application field from desktop objects as wide as the topography survey in large geographical areas. Especially, the orientation, which used to be a complicated process in the heretofore image measurement, can be now performed automatically by simply taking many pictures around the object. And in the case of fully textured object, the 3D measurement of surface features is now done all automatically from the orientated images, and greatly facilitated the acquisition of the dense 3D point cloud from images with high precision. With all this development in the background, in the case of small and the middle size objects, we are now furnishing the all-around 3D measurement by a single digital camera sold on the market. And we have also developed the technology of the topographical measurement with the air-borne images taken by a small UAV [1~5]. In this present study, in the case of the small size objects, we examine the accuracy of surface measurement (Matching by the data of the experiments. And as to the topographic measurement, we examine the influence of GCP distribution on the accuracy by the data of the experiments. Besides, we examined the difference of the analytical results in each of the 3D image measurement software. This document reviews the processing flow of orientation and the 3D measurement of each software and explains the feature of the each software. And as to the verification of the precision of stereo-matching, we measured the test plane and the test sphere of the known form and assessed the result. As to the topography measurement, we used the air-borne image data photographed at the test field in Yadorigi of Matsuda City, Kanagawa Prefecture JAPAN. We have constructed Ground Control Point which measured by RTK-GPS and Total Station. And we show the results

  18. Surface aerosol and rehabilitation properties of ground-level atmosphere in the mountains of the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reps, Valentina; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotskaya, Nina; Abramtsova, Anna; Ischenko, Dmitriy; Senik, Irina; Slepikh, Victor

    2017-04-01

    The rehabilitative properties (RP) of ground-level atmosphere (GA) of Russian resorts are considered as natural healing resources and received state legal protection [1]. Due to global urbanization the chemical composition and particle size distribution of the surface aerosol are changing rapidly. However, the influence of surface aerosol on the RP of GA has been insufficiently studied. At the resort region of the North Caucasus complex monitoring (aerosol, trace gases NOx, CO, O3, CH4; periodically - heavy metals) is performed at two high levels (860 masl - a park zone of a large mountain resort, 2070 masl - alpine grassland, the net station). The results of the measurements are used in programs of bioclimatic, landscape and medical monitoring to specify the influence of aerosol on rehabilitation properties of the environment and human adaptative reserves. The aerosol particles of size range 500-1000 nm are used as a marker of the pathogenic effect of aerosol [2]. In the conditions of regional urbanization and complicated mountain atmospheric circulation the influence of aerosol on RP of GA and the variability of heart rhythm with the volunteers at different heights were investigated. At the height of 860 masl (urbanized resort) there have been noticed aerosol variations in the range of 0,04-0,35 particles/cm3 (slightly aerosol polluted), in mountain conditions - background pollution aerosol level. The difference of bioclimatic conditions at the specified high-rise levels has been referred to the category of contrasts. The natural aero ionization ∑(N+)+(N-) varied from 960 ion/cm3 to 1460 ion/cm3 in the resort park (860 m); from 1295 ion/cm3 to 4850 ion/cm3 on the Alpine meadow (2070 m); from 1128 ion/cm3 to 3420 ion/cm3 - on the tested site near the edge of the pinewood (1720 m). In the group of volunteers the trip from low-hill terrain zone (860 m) to the lower zone of highlands (2070 m) caused the activation of neuro and humoral regulation, vegetative and

  19. Examination about Influence for Precision of 3d Image Measurement from the Ground Control Point Measurement and Surface Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anai, T.; Kochi, N.; Yamada, M.; Sasaki, T.; Otani, H.; Sasaki, D.; Nishimura, S.; Kimoto, K.; Yasui, N.

    2015-05-01

    As the 3D image measurement software is now widely used with the recent development of computer-vision technology, the 3D measurement from the image is now has acquired the application field from desktop objects as wide as the topography survey in large geographical areas. Especially, the orientation, which used to be a complicated process in the heretofore image measurement, can be now performed automatically by simply taking many pictures around the object. And in the case of fully textured object, the 3D measurement of surface features is now done all automatically from the orientated images, and greatly facilitated the acquisition of the dense 3D point cloud from images with high precision. With all this development in the background, in the case of small and the middle size objects, we are now furnishing the all-around 3D measurement by a single digital camera sold on the market. And we have also developed the technology of the topographical measurement with the air-borne images taken by a small UAV [1~5]. In this present study, in the case of the small size objects, we examine the accuracy of surface measurement (Matching) by the data of the experiments. And as to the topographic measurement, we examine the influence of GCP distribution on the accuracy by the data of the experiments. Besides, we examined the difference of the analytical results in each of the 3D image measurement software. This document reviews the processing flow of orientation and the 3D measurement of each software and explains the feature of the each software. And as to the verification of the precision of stereo-matching, we measured the test plane and the test sphere of the known form and assessed the result. As to the topography measurement, we used the air-borne image data photographed at the test field in Yadorigi of Matsuda City, Kanagawa Prefecture JAPAN. We have constructed Ground Control Point which measured by RTK-GPS and Total Station. And we show the results of analysis made

  20. Nietzsche, Deleuze et le sport

    OpenAIRE

    Leclercq, Stéfan

    2006-01-01

    Les philosophies de Nietzsche et Deleuze ont en commun que la pensée, comme la vie qu’elle recèle, n’est que mouvements. Mouvements rapides et hétérogènes parcourant les surfaces, comprenant l’être lui-même comme surface à traverser. Mouvements et surface organisent un jeu, celui de la pensée. Ce jeu, que Deleuze appellera « le jeu idéal », est à comparer par ses spécificités aux sports. Mais si la pensée, par son mouvement intempestif, saute toutes les limites, le sport ne peut trouver sa va...

  1. Road impacts on the Baca National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado, with emphasis on effects to surface- and shallow ground-water hydrology - A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas C.

    2007-01-01

    A review of published research on unpaved road effects on surface-water and shallow ground-water hydrology was undertaken to assist the Baca National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado, in understanding factors potentially influencing refuge ecology. Few studies were found that addressed hydrological effects of roads on a comparable area of shallow slope in a semiarid region. No study dealt with road effects on surface- and ground-water supplies to ephemeral wetlands, which on the refuge are sustained by seasonal snowmelt in neighboring mountains. Road surfaces increase runoff, reduce infiltration, and serve as a sediment source. Roadbeds can interfere with normal surface- and ground-water flows and thereby influence the quantity, timing, and duration of water movement both across landscapes and through the soil. Hydrologic effects can be localized near the road as well as widespread and distant. The number, arrangement, and effectiveness of road-drainage structures (culverts and other devices) largely determine the level of hydrologic alteration produced by a road. Undesirable changes to natural hydrologic patterns can be minimized by considering potential impacts during road design, construction, and maintenance. Road removal as a means to restore desirable hydrologic conditions to landscapes adversely affected by roads has yet to be rigorously evaluated.

  2. Antisocial sport behaviors survey: instrument development and initial validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Miranda P; Hoar, Sharleen

    2015-04-01

    The development of a self-report instrument to measure antisocial sport behavior, labeled the Antisocial Sport Behavior Survey (ASBS), among large and diverse samples of athletes is reported. Grounded in the social cognitive theory of moral thought and action (Bandura, 1991) and interpersonal theory (Horowitz, 2004), this instrument was developed and tested in accordance with the traditions of construct validity and classical test theory (Gehlback & Brinkworth, 2011). In Phase 1, 272 college-aged competitive sport participants confirmed a theoretical structure of antisocial sport behavior including eight factors (hypercompetitive, intimidating, antagonistic, disrespectful, exploitable, overly accommodating, abetting, and melodramatic). Phase 2 reports on item development and the response structure of the instrument. In Phase 3, evidence of structural validity and external validity for the ASBS was established with 340 college-aged competitive sport participants. The ASBS presents as a promising new instrument to advance understanding of antisocial sport behavior acts committed by competitive athletes.

  3. Effects of surface applications of biosolids on soil, crops, ground water, and streambed sediment near Deer Trail, Colorado, 1999-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Tracy J.B.; Smith, David B.; Crock, James G.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Metro Wastewater Reclamation District and North Kiowa Bijou Groundwater Management District, studied natural geochemical effects and the effects of biosolids applications to the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District properties near Deer Trail, Colorado, during 1999 through 2003 because of public concern about potential contamination of soil, crops, ground water, and surface water from biosolids applications. Parameters analyzed for each monitoring component included arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc (the nine trace elements regulated by Colorado for biosolids), gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, and plutonium, as well as other parameters. Concentrations of the nine regulated trace elements in biosolids were relatively uniform and did not exceed applicable regulatory standards. All plutonium concentrations in biosolids were below the minimum detectable level and were near zero. The most soluble elements in biosolids were arsenic, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorus, and selenium. Elevated concentrations of bismuth, mercury, phosphorus, and silver would be the most likely inorganic biosolids signature to indicate that soil or streambed sediment has been affected by biosolids. Molybdenum and tungsten, and to a lesser degree antimony, cadmium, cobalt, copper, mercury, nickel, phosphorus, and selenium, would be the most likely inorganic 'biosolids signature' to indicate ground water or surface water has been affected by biosolids. Soil data indicate that biosolids have had no measurable effect on the concentration of the constituents monitored. Arsenic concentrations in soil of both Arapahoe and Elbert County monitoring sites (like soil from all parts of Colorado) exceed the Colorado soil remediation objectives and soil cleanup standards, which were determined by back-calculating a soil concentration equivalent to a one-in-a-million cumulative cancer risk. Lead concentrations

  4. What Are Sports Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 06:02 Size: 11.7 MB November 2014 What Are Sports Injuries? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... Research Is Being Done on Treating Sports Injuries? What’s the Difference Between an Acute and a Chronic ...

  5. Sports and Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Sports and Concussions KidsHealth > For Teens > Sports and Concussions Print A ... completely helps prevent long-term problems. How Do Concussions Happen? The brain is soft. The body protects ...

  6. Sports Stars Shine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yan

    2012-01-01

    Alive and exciting award ceremony drew the attention of numerous Chinese households on the night of January 15.The most popular Chinese sports stars attended the 2011 CCTV Sports Personality Award Ceremony at the National Indoor Stadium in Beijing.

  7. Simulating the thermal regime and thaw processes of ice-rich permafrost ground with the land-surface model CryoGrid 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, S.; Langer, M.; Boike, J.; Heikenfeld, M.; Peter, M.; Etzelmüller, B.; Krinner, G.

    2016-02-01

    Thawing of permafrost in a warming climate is governed by a complex interplay of different processes of which only conductive heat transfer is taken into account in most model studies. However, observations in many permafrost landscapes demonstrate that lateral and vertical movement of water can have a pronounced influence on the thaw trajectories, creating distinct landforms, such as thermokarst ponds and lakes, even in areas where permafrost is otherwise thermally stable. Novel process parameterizations are required to include such phenomena in future projections of permafrost thaw and subsequent climatic-triggered feedbacks. In this study, we present a new land-surface scheme designed for permafrost applications, CryoGrid 3, which constitutes a flexible platform to explore new parameterizations for a range of permafrost processes. We document the model physics and employed parameterizations for the basis module CryoGrid 3, and compare model results with in situ observations of surface energy balance, surface temperatures, and ground thermal regime from the Samoylov permafrost observatory in NE Siberia. The comparison suggests that CryoGrid 3 can not only model the evolution of the ground thermal regime in the last decade, but also consistently reproduce the chain of energy transfer processes from the atmosphere to the ground. In addition, we demonstrate a simple 1-D parameterization for thaw processes in permafrost areas rich in ground ice, which can phenomenologically reproduce both formation of thermokarst ponds and subsidence of the ground following thawing of ice-rich subsurface layers. Long-term simulation from 1901 to 2100 driven by reanalysis data and climate model output demonstrate that the hydrological regime can both accelerate and delay permafrost thawing. If meltwater from thawed ice-rich layers can drain, the ground subsides, as well as the formation of a talik, are delayed. If the meltwater pools at the surface, a pond is formed that enhances heat

  8. DRUGS IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mottram

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i actions of drugs and hormones, ii medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v an assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sport. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of twelve parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i An introduction to drugs and their use in sport, ii Drug use and abuse in sport, iii Central nervous system stimulants, iv WADA regulations in relation to drugs used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders, v Androgenic anabolic steroids, vi Peptide and glycoprotein hormones and sport, vii Blood boosting and sport, viii Drug treatment of inflammation in sports injuries, ix Alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs and sport, x Creatine, xi Doping control and sport, xii Prevalence of drug misuse in sport. Each specific chapter has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for students on sports related courses, coaches and trainers, researchers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, healthcare professionals in the fields of sports medicine and those involved in the management and administration side of sport. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. Extensively revised new edition of this book is also a first-rate resource for

  9. Validation of the Cooray-Rubinstein (C-R) formula for a rough ground surface by using three-dimensional (3-D) FDTD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongshuai; Zhang, Qilin; Liu, Tao; Wang, Zhenhui

    2013-11-01

    this paper, we have extended the Cooray-Rubinstein (C-R) approximate formula into the fractal rough ground surface and then validate its accuracy by using three-dimensional (3-D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method at distances of 50 m and 100 m from the lightning channel. The results show that the extended C-R formula has an accepted accuracy for predicting the lightning-radiated horizontal electric field above the fractal rough and conducting ground, and its accuracy increases a little better with the higher of the earth conductivity. For instance, when the conductivity of the rough ground is 0.1 S/m, the error of the peak value predicted by the extended C-R formula is less than about 2.3%, while its error is less than about 6.7% for the conductivity of 0.01 S/m. The rough ground has much effect on the lightning horizontal field, and the initial peak value of the horizontal field obviously decreases with the increase of the root-mean-square height of the rough ground at early times (within several microseconds of the beginning of return stroke).

  10. Drugs in sport

    OpenAIRE

    Mottram, David R

    2007-01-01

    This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i) actions of drugs and hormones, ii) medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii) the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv) the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v) an...

  11. Relationship between sport commitment and sport consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberta Elisa Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sport commitment and three types of sport consumer behaviors: participation frequency, sporting goods and media consumption. A survey was conducted among sport participants of both individual and team sports, fitness and outdoor activities (n= 900. The survey included questions related to demographic information, measures of sport commitment and sport consumption behavior. The results analyzed trough structural equation modeling showed that the sport commitment influences positively the participation frequency, sporting goods consumption and media consumption. Implications of these results are discussed and suggestions for future research on sport consumers are provided.

  12. LAW IMPLEMENTATION IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mexhid Krasniqi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work offers a short review of sports marketing and management. It presents different ways of advertising some products either in sports events or throng electronic mediums. In addition, it reviles different aspects of the influence that politics and discrimination has on sport as well as the way of solving eventual arguments of any kind.

  13. Changing spaces for sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that the fundamental values associated with sports seem to have changed. Accordingly spaces for sports are also undergoing change.The essay gives a number of examples of these new sports spaces. Their common denominator lies in their urban proximity, the combination of previously...

  14. Concussion in Winter Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heads Up! Tool Kit Prevent Concussions Prevent Head Injuries Sports Safety Students Play Safe Youth Sports Safety Download ... — United States, 2001–2009 Nonfatal Traumatic Brain Injuries from Sports and Recreation Activities — United States, 2001–2005 ( ...

  15. On Sporting Integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archer, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    It has become increasingly popular for sports fans, pundits, coaches and players to appeal to ideas of ‘sporting integrity’ when voicing their approval or disapproval of some aspect of the sporting world. My goal in this paper will be to examine whether there is any way to understand this idea in a

  16. Report on Sport 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst

    2015-01-01

    More than half the Dutch population participated in sport on a weekly basis in 2014. Fitness training and running are the most popular sports among adults. Government interventions at the level of neighbourhoods, primary schools, secondary schools and sports clubs are intended to persuade more peopl

  17. 4 Corruption in Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Andreff, Wladimir

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A typology of sport corruption differentiates petty corruption, barter corruption, corruption at the level of sport governing bodies, betting scandals and point-shaving. A deeper analysis goes further as regards match fixing-related bets and global online fraudulent sport betting networks and suggests new tools for combatting match fixing.

  18. Sport Specialization, Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420

  19. Cold-Weather Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold-Weather Sports A A A What's in this article? ... Equipment Ahh, winter! Shorter days. Frigid temperatures. Foul weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports ...

  20. Sport in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Koen Breedveld

    2007-01-01

    Sport is a popular pastime in the Netherlands; 10 million people take part in at least one sport. To do this, they can choose from more than 27,000 non-profit sports clubs, or more than 5,000 commercial providers such as fitness centres or riding stables. These clubs and commercial providers make us

  1. China Sports Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    THE China Sports Museum,inside the National Olympic Sports Center on 3A Anding Road,Andingmenwai, Beijing, is China's First museum dedicated to the nation's sporting history.Its exterior is in the shape of an octagonal spiral, with white

  2. Water quality and ground-water/surface-water interactions along the John River near Anaktuvuk Pass, Alaska, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Edward H.; Brabets, Timothy P.

    2005-01-01

    The headwaters of the John River are located near the village ofAnaktuvuk Pass in the central Brooks Range of interior Alaska. With the recent construction of a water-supply system and a wastewater-treatment plant, most homes in Anaktuvuk Pass now have modern water and wastewater systems. The effluent from the treatment plant discharges into a settling pond near a tributary of the John River. The headwaters of the John River are adjacent to Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, and the John River is a designated Wild River. Due to the concern about possible water-quality effects from the wastewater effluent, the hydrology of the John River near Anaktuvuk Pass was studied from 2002 through 2003. Three streams form the John River atAnaktuvuk Pass: Contact Creek, Giant Creek, and the John RiverTributary. These streams drain areas of 90.3 km (super 2) , 120 km (super 2) , and 4.6 km (super 2) , respectively. Water-qualitydata collected from these streams from 2002-03 indicate that the waters are a calcium-bicarbonate type and that Giant Creek adds a sulfate component to the John River. The highest concentrations of bicarbonate, calcium, sodium, sulfate, and nitrate were found at the John River Tributary below the wastewater-treatment lagoon. These concentrations have little effect on the water quality of the John River because the flow of the John River Tributary is only about 2 percent of the John River flow. To better understand the ground-water/surface-water interactions of the upper John River, a numerical groundwater-flow model of the headwater area of the John River was constructed. Processes that occur during spring break-up, such as thawing of the active layer and the frost table and the resulting changes of storage capacity of the aquifer, were difficult to measure and simulate. Application and accuracy of the model is limited by the lack of specific hydrogeologic data both spatially and temporally. However

  3. American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Sports Medicine Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine Journal Apps Sports Medicine ... Tweets by @AOSSM_SportsMed A world leader in Orthopaedic Sports Medicine Education, Research, Publishing, Communication and Fellowship ...

  4. SPORTS MARKETING AS A BUSINESS FUNCTION IN MODERN SPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Aćimović; Omer Špirtović

    2013-01-01

    Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing, belongs to the newer type of the marketing. It appeared in time of increasing activity and significance of sport in the world. Huge human potential, with which sport as an activity disposes, implied the need to organize more properly and use it purposefully. “Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represen...

  5. Advanced ceramics: evaluation of the ground surface Cerâmicas avançadas: avaliação da superfície polida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Bianchi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to evaluate the influence of grinding and cutting conditions on surfaces of advanced ceramics ground with diamond grinding wheels containing a binding resin bond. The quality surface was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM.O objetivo desta pesquisa é a avaliação da influência das condições de usinagem na superfície gerada de cerâmicas avançadas retificadas com rebolo diamantado com ligante resinóide. A qualidade superficial foi analisada utilizando-se a Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV

  6. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure.

  7. Marketing of sport tourism

    OpenAIRE

    A.S. Teletov; V.I. Karpets

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to clarify the concept of «sport tourism marketing», to examine the state of its objects and to determine prospects for development of sport tourism in Ukraine. The paper singles out the role of sport in life; compares different types of cities in terms of provision the infrastructure for tourism development in the field of sports. Authors show the example of the campaign. The results of the analysis. The article deals with sport tourism as...

  8. The ion chemistry of surface and ground waters in the Taklimakan Desert of Tarim Basin, western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU BingQi; YANG XiaoPing

    2007-01-01

    The physio-chemical and chemical features of water in natural conditions are controlled by the weathering of bedrocks, local climate, landforms and other geo-environmental parameters. In order to understand the characteristics of water and the origins of the dissolved loads in the rivers and in the ground waters of the Taklimakan Desert, western China, we studied the ions in the water samples collected from rivers and wells. We collected water samples from four rivers (Keriya River, Cele River, Tumiya River and Yulongkashi River) in the southern desert and ground water samples from many parts of the desert. Major cations and anions were measured using ion-chromatograph and titration with HCl. The total dissolved solids (TDS), pH and conductivity were examined on site by a portable multi-parameter analyzer. The data show that the water in the rivers of southern Taklimakan is still of fresh water quality and slight alkalinity, although the TDS is comparatively higher than that of many other rivers of the world. The ground water is fresh to slightly saline, with TDS a little higher than that of river water in the study area. The concentration of ions is slightly different between the four rivers in the southern Taklimakan. However, the chemistries of ground water in all samples are to a large degree controlled by sodium and chloride. The ions in the ground water are concluded to be mainly from dissolving of evaporites, consistent with the dry climate in the region, whereas the ions in the rivers are mainly from rock weathering. Low-level human imprints are recognized in the ground water samples also.

  9. FUNCTION of MANAGEMENT IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Novaković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the sport management coordination represents the basic deposit of management, and terms through numerous activities. Brother-in-law activity in sport has the specific management so speak about the management of sport event, management of sports facilities, management of management to the human activities, financial management in sport etc. The sportively management has presumed the specific management related to sports activities whose basic task of coordinations of sports activities. Management of sport organisations have been confided sport managers of special profile which differs towards the type of sport, rank of contest etc. The sport managers could utter survived the statement that in sport have not been educated special diameters manager, besides sport coaches. Specifically, in the role of manager in sport prevails almost all diameters of professional in professional or the volunteer relationship.

  10. Hydrology of the Beryl-Enterprise area, Escalante Desert, Utah, with emphasis on ground water; With a section on surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Reed W.; Sandberg, George Woodard

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of the water resources of the Beryl-Enterprise area, Escalante Desert, Utah (pl. 1), was made during 1976-78 as part of a cooperative program with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights. Wells were the most important source of water for all purposes in the Beryl-Enterprise area during 1978, but it has not always been so. For nearly a century after the first settlers arrived in about 1860, streams supplied most of the irrigation water and springs supplied much of the water for domestic and stock use. A few shallow wells were dug by the early settlers for domestic and stock water, but the widespread use of ground water did not start until the 1920's when shallow wells were first dug to supply irrigation water. Ground-water withdrawals from wells, principally for irrigation, have increased nearly every year since the 1920's. The quantity withdrawn from wells surpassed that diverted from surface sources during the mid-1940's and was about eight times that amount during the 1970's. As a result, water levels have declined measurably throughout the area resulting in administrative water-rights problems.The primary purpose of this report is to describe the water resources with emphasis on ground water. The surface-water resources are evaluated only as they pertain to the understanding of the ground-water resources. A secondary purpose is to discuss the extent and effects of the development of ground water in order to provide the hydrologic information needed for the orderly and optimum development of the resource and for the effective administration and adjudication of water rights in the area. The hydrologic data on which this report is based are given in a companion report by Mower (1981).

  11. A large 3D physical model: a tool to investigate the consequences of ground movements on the surface structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hor B.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil subsidence of various extend and amplitude can result from the failure of underground cavities, whether natural (for example caused by the dissolution of rocks by underground water flow or man-made (such as mines. The impact of the ground movements on existing structures (houses, buildings, bridges, etc… is generally dramatic. A large small-scale physical model is developed in order to improve our understanding of the behaviour of the building subjected to ground subsidence or the collapse of cavities. We focus on the soil-structure interaction and on the mitigation techniques allowing reducing the vulnerability of the buildings (structures.

  12. Technology and Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rasmus Bysted; Møller, Verner

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between sport and technology is close and can be both fruitful and destructive. Technology has a constitutive function in sport as it makes the activity possible and it can enhance performance as well as the sporting experience. The use of football boots is clearly more comfortable...... and effective than playing in bare feet in a game of football. However, sport challenges its athletes by demanding the employment of less efficient means rather than more efficient means in pursuit of sport specific goals. Therefore technology can potentially subtract from the sporting experience and even...... threaten the internal logic of sport. If as an example very efficient hail cartridges were allowed for use in double trap shooting it would reduce the skills required to excel at that discipline reducing its value for participants and spectators alike. The use of forbidden performance enhancing substances...

  13. Sport and migrants' acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morela, Eleftheria

    was to explore the acculturation attitudes of Greek adolescents as a function of sport participation, and, for those participating in sport, to investigate the role of the motivationalenvironment. The results showed that athletes scored higher than non-athletes on attitudes towards multicultural contact...... multiculturalism. Sport is considered to be a vehicle for bringing people together, and recently there has been an increasing policy interest in the use of sport as a venue for promoting social integration and intercultural dialogue. Regardless of its political significance, research on the integrative role...... of sport is limited and findings seem equivocal. Overall the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether participation in organized sport can affect the acculturation process of young adolescents from both minority and majority populations in Greece, and to explore features ofthe sporting...

  14. THE SPORT MARKETING MANAGEMENT MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2015-01-01

    Sport marketing involves marketing fundamentals applied in one industry, the sport business industry. The development of sport marketing fundamentals is therefore based on basic marketing principles. The practice and activities of sport marketing are also based on basic marketing activities, but are modified and adapted to the sport business industry. Therefore, sport marketing is based on its primary and parent discipline - marketing. Sport marketing is one of the most important function...

  15. THE SPORT MARKETING MANAGEMENT MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2015-01-01

    Sport marketing involves marketing fundamentals applied in one industry, the sport business industry. The development of sport marketing fundamentals is therefore based on basic marketing principles. The practice and activities of sport marketing are also based on basic marketing activities, but are modified and adapted to the sport business industry. Therefore, sport marketing is based on its primary and parent discipline - marketing. Sport marketing is one of the most important function...

  16. SPORTS MARKETING AS A BUSINESS FUNCTION IN MODERN SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Aćimović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing, belongs to the newer type of the marketing. It appeared in time of increasing activity and significance of sport in the world. Huge human potential, with which sport as an activity disposes, implied the need to organize more properly and use it purposefully. “Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primarily an economical process of connecting production (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. It can be seen in the fact besides promoting sport it conducts certain (limited productive activity (exchange of sport equipment, exchange of sport requisites and material goods that create sport clubs through competitions.

  17. Full-wave modelling of ground-penetrating radars: antenna mutual coupling phenomena and sub-surface scattering processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caratelli, D.; Yarovoy, A.

    2011-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technology finds applications in many areas such as geophysical prospecting, archaeology, civil engineering, environmental engineering, and defence applications as a non-invasive sensing tool [3], [6], [18]. One key component in any GPR system is the receiver/transmitt

  18. Organochlorine pesticides in surface soils from obsolete pesticide dumping ground in Hyderabad City, Pakistan: contamination levels and their potential for air-soil exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamdar, Ambreen; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Liu, Junwen; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination levels in the surface soil and air samples together with air-soil exchange fluxes at an obsolete pesticide dumping ground and the associated areas from Hyderabad City, Pakistan. Among all the sampling sites, concentrations of OCPs in the soil and air samples were found highest in obsolete pesticide dumping ground, whereas dominant contaminants were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) (soil: 77-212,200 ng g(-1); air: 90,700 pg m(-3)) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) (soil: 43-4,090 ng g(-1); air: 97,400 pg m(-3)) followed by chlordane, heptachlor and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). OCPs diagnostic indicative ratios reflect historical use as well as fresh input in the study area. Moreover, the air and soil fugacity ratios (0.9-1.0) at the dumping ground reflecting a tendency towards net volatilization of OCPs, while at the other sampling sites, the fugacity ratios indicate in some cases deposition and in other cases volatilization. Elevated concentrations of DDTs and HCHs at pesticide dumping ground and its surroundings pose potential exposure risk to biological organisms, to the safety of agricultural products and to the human health. Our study thus emphasizes the need of spatio-temporal monitoring of OCPs at local and regional scale to assess and remediate the future adverse implications.

  19. Relationship between Sport Nourishment Supplement and Athletes' Sports Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjiang Zhu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is very important for the athlete's body recovery and rehabilitation to have sport nourishment supplement. In this study, it analyzed the effect of sport nourishment supplement with the overview of sport nourishment supplements, discussing the influence of sports nutrition supplement on sports abilities of athletes.

  20. Comparison of eSports and Traditional Sports Consumption Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2011-01-01

    With recognition of the need for studying eSports in this interactive digital communication era, this study explored 14 motivational factors affecting the time spent on eSports gaming. Using a sample of 515 college students and athletic event attendees, we further compared eSports game patterns to their non-eSport or traditional sport involvements…

  1. 14 CFR 61.413 - What are the privileges of my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.413 Section 61.413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.413 What are the privileges of my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? If you hold a fight...

  2. 14 CFR 61.415 - What are the limits of a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.415 Section 61.415 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.415 What are the limits of a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? If you hold a flight instructor certificate with a...

  3. 14 CFR 61.427 - What must I do if my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating expires?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certificate with a sport pilot rating expires? 61.427 Section 61.427 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.427 What must I do if my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating expires? You may exchange your expired flight...

  4. 14 CFR 61.305 - What are the age and language requirements for a sport pilot certificate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.305 What are the age and language requirements for a sport pilot... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the age and language requirements for a sport pilot certificate? 61.305 Section 61.305 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...

  5. 14 CFR 61.431 - Are there special provisions for obtaining a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... meet the minimum total flight time requirements in the category and class of light-sport aircraft... a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating for persons who are registered ultralight..., FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.431 Are...

  6. Temporal Monitoring of the Soil Freeze-Thaw Cycles over a Snow-Covered Surface by Using Air-Launched Ground-Penetrating Radar

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan

    2015-09-18

    We tested an off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system at a fixed location over a bare agricultural field to monitor the soil freeze-thaw cycles over a snow-covered surface. The GPR system consisted of a monostatic horn antenna combined with a vector network analyzer, providing an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. An antenna calibration experiment was performed to filter antenna and back scattered effects from the raw GPR data. Near the GPR setup, sensors were installed in the soil to monitor the dynamics of soil temperature and dielectric permittivity at different depths. The soil permittivity was retrieved via inversion of time domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and dielectric permittivity measurements. In particular, five freeze and thaw events were clearly detectable, indicating that the GPR signals respond to the contrast between the dielectric permittivity of frozen and thawed soil. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. Overall, the off-ground nature of the GPR system permits non-invasive time-lapse observation of the soil freeze-thaw dynamics without disturbing the structure of the snow cover. The proposed method shows promise for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the shallow frozen layer at the field scale.

  7. Temporal Monitoring of the Soil Freeze-Thaw Cycles over a Snow-Covered Surface by Using Air-Launched Ground-Penetrating Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Zaib Jadoon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We tested an off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR system at a fixed location over a bare agricultural field to monitor the soil freeze-thaw cycles over a snow-covered surface. The GPR system consisted of a monostatic horn antenna combined with a vector network analyzer, providing an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. An antenna calibration experiment was performed to filter antenna and back scattered effects from the raw GPR data. Near the GPR setup, sensors were installed in the soil to monitor the dynamics of soil temperature and dielectric permittivity at different depths. The soil permittivity was retrieved via inversion of time domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and dielectric permittivity measurements. In particular, five freeze and thaw events were clearly detectable, indicating that the GPR signals respond to the contrast between the dielectric permittivity of frozen and thawed soil. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. Overall, the off-ground nature of the GPR system permits non-invasive time-lapse observation of the soil freeze-thaw dynamics without disturbing the structure of the snow cover. The proposed method shows promise for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the shallow frozen layer at the field scale.

  8. Use of a size-resolved 1-D resuspension scheme to evaluate resuspended radioactive material associated with mineral dust particles from the ground surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Masahide; Mikami, Masao; Tanaka, Taichu Y; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Kita, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Yutaka; Yoshida, Naohiro; Toyoda, Sakae; Satou, Yukihiko; Kinase, Takeshi; Ninomiya, Kazuhiko; Shinohara, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    A size-resolved, one-dimensional resuspension scheme for soil particles from the ground surface is proposed to evaluate the concentration of radioactivity in the atmosphere due to the secondary emission of radioactive material. The particle size distributions of radioactive particles at a sampling point were measured and compared with the results evaluated by the scheme using four different soil textures: sand, loamy sand, sandy loam, and silty loam. For sandy loam and silty loam, the results were in good agreement with the size-resolved atmospheric radioactivity concentrations observed at a school ground in Tsushima District, Namie Town, Fukushima, which was heavily contaminated after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Though various assumptions were incorporated into both the scheme and evaluation conditions, this study shows that the proposed scheme can be applied to evaluate secondary emissions caused by aeolian resuspension of radioactive materials associated with mineral dust particles from the ground surface. The results underscore the importance of taking soil texture into account when evaluating the concentrations of resuspended, size-resolved atmospheric radioactivity.

  9. Surface and sub-surface anatomy of the landscape: integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Structure from Motion (UAV-SfM) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GRP) to investigate sedimentary features in the field. - an example from NW Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callow, Nik; Leopold, Matthias; May, Simon Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Geomorphology is confronted by the challenge of reconstructing landscape features at appropriate scales, resolution and accuracy, that allows meaningful analysis of environmental processes and their implications. Field geomorphology offers a discrete snapshot (i.e. one or two field campaigns) to reconstruct how features have changed, evolved or responded over time. We explore the application of an emerging photogrammetry technique called Structure-from-Motion (SfM), which uses multiple photographs of the same feature (but taken at different locations) to create high-accuracy three-dimensional models of surface of sedimentary fans formed by extreme wave events. This approach is complimented by investigation of the sub-surface morphology using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). Using an UAV "octocopter", we captured 1208 photos with a DSLR camera (Canon EoS-M) at the height of 50m with a ground pixel resolution of 9mm, above a cyclone wash-over fan in the Exmouth Gulf (Western Australia) that measured about 500m inland by 300m wide. Based on 38 ground control point targets (with between 4 and 45 individual photographs per target) the SfM surface had an absolute total (XYZ) accuracy of 51mm (39mm X, 29mm Y and 14mm Y), based on RTK-DGPS surveying from a local ground reference station (with an absolute AUSPOS accuracy of 57mm X, 6mm Y, 50mm Z to AHD) and an overall relative point accuracy of 7mm. A sparse point cloud of over 5.5 million data points was generated using only points with a reconstruction accuracy of RGB colour of each XYZ pixel) using K-Means clustering within Python. The output was then manually classified into ground and non-ground points, and the geostatistical analyst functionality of ArcGIS used to produce a final bare-earth DEM. This approach has allowed the study team to economically collect an unprecedented high-resolution and accuracy topographic model of this feature to compliment on-ground sediment, geophysics and dating work to analyse the

  10. [Sport and rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proschek, D; Rehart, S

    2014-06-01

    Sport is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Due to the changing age spectrum with a greater number of elderly and substantially more active people, an increasing number of people with underlying orthopedic diseases are becoming interested in participating in sport. This article deals with the possibilities and effects of sporting activities for people with rheumatoid arthritis within the framework of a conservative therapy. A literature search was carried out using medical search engines, in particular PubMed, and also via the recommendations of specialist societies and patient help groups. The quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis consists of physical, mental and social components. Sport as a means of rehabilitation influences all of these components. Sport should be comprehended as a form of therapy and be adapted to the needs of the individual patient. The willingness to actively participate in sport should always be highly rated and encouraged. Sport is therefore an important pillar of therapy in a conservative total concept. The main aspects of sport therapeutic activities are functional, pedagogical and experience-oriented aspects. The clinical symptoms, extent of damage and physical impairment must, however, be evaluated and taken into consideration for the therapeutic concept. The amount of data on the complex topic of sport and rheumatoid arthritis is low and is mainly dealt with as retrospective reviews. A prospective randomized study basis is lacking. The aim must therefore be to confirm the currently available recommendations for various types of sport in controlled studies.

  11. Contribution of ground surface altitude difference to thermal anomaly detection using satellite images: Application to volcanic/geothermal complexes in the Andes of Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco J.; Lemus, Martín; Parada, Miguel A.; Benavente, Oscar M.; Aguilera, Felipe A.

    2012-09-01

    Detection of thermal anomalies in volcanic-geothermal areas using remote sensing methodologies requires the subtraction of temperatures, not provided by geothermal manifestations (e.g. hot springs, fumaroles, active craters), from satellite image kinetic temperature, which is assumed to correspond to the ground surface temperature. Temperatures that have been subtracted in current models include those derived from the atmospheric transmittance, reflectance of the Earth's surface (albedo), topography effect, thermal inertia and geographic position effect. We propose a model that includes a new parameter (K) that accounts for the variation of temperature with ground surface altitude difference in areas where steep relief exists. The proposed model was developed and applied, using ASTER satellite images, in two Andean volcanic/geothermal complexes (Descabezado Grande-Cerro Azul Volcanic Complex and Planchón-Peteroa-Azufre Volcanic Complex) where field data of atmosphere and ground surface temperature as well as radiation for albedo calibration were obtained in 10 selected sites. The study area was divided into three zones (Northern, Central and Southern zones) where the thermal anomalies were obtained independently. K value calculated for night images of the three zones are better constrained and resulted to be very similar to the Environmental Lapse Rate (ELR) determined for a stable atmosphere (ELR > 7 °C/km). Using the proposed model, numerous thermal anomalies in areas of ≥ 90 m × 90 m were identified that were successfully cross-checked in the field. Night images provide more reliable information for thermal anomaly detection than day images because they record higher temperature contrast between geothermal areas and its surroundings and correspond to more stable atmospheric condition at the time of image acquisition.

  12. Outdoor sports and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehrle, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is estimated to be one of the most important risk factors for nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Athletes practicing outdoor sports receive considerable UV doses because of training and competition schedules with high sun exposure, and in alpine sports, by altitude-related increase of UV radiation and reflection from snow- and ice-covered surfaces. Extreme UV exposure in outdoor sports such as skiing, mountaineering, cycling, or triathlon has been documented in a series of dosimetric studies. Sweating because of physical exercise may contribute to UV-related skin damage as it increases the individual photosensitivity of the skin, facilitating the risk of sunburns. Large epidemiological studies showed that recreational activities such as sun exposure on the beach or during water sports were associated with an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, whereas skiing has been shown to be at increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma. Risk factors of cutaneous melanoma such as the number of melanocytic nevi and solar lentigines have been found to be more frequent in subjects practicing endurance outdoor sports. An increased risk for cutaneous melanoma may be assumed for these athletes. In addition to the important sun exposure, exercise-induced immunosuppression may increase the risk for nonmelanoma skin cancer and cutaneous melanoma in athletes. Frequently, athletes seem to know little about the risk of sun exposure. Protective means such as avoiding training and competition with considerable sun exposure, choosing adequate clothing, and applying water-resistant sunscreen still need to be propagated in the community of outdoor sportsmen.

  13. Ground tests with prototype of CeBr3 active gamma ray spectrometer proposed for future venus surface missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B.; Golovin, D. V.; Jun, I.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Shvetsov, V. N.; Timoshenko, G. N.; Vostrukhin, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The results of a series of ground tests with a prototype of an active gamma-ray spectrometer based on a new generation of scintillation crystal (CeBr3) are presented together with a consideration to its applicability to future Venus landing missions. We evaluated the instrument's capability to distinguish the subsurface elemental composition of primary rock forming elements such as O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K and Fe. Our study uses heritage from previous ground and field tests and applies to the analysis of gamma lines from activation reaction products generated by a pulsed neutron generator. We have estimated that the expected accuracies achieved in this approach could be as high as 1-10% for the particular chemical element being studied.

  14. Algae metabolism and organic carbon in sediments determining arsenic mobilisation in ground- and surface water. A field study in Doñana National Park, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohfahl, Claus; Navarro, Daniel Sánchez-Rodas; Mendoza, Jorge Armando; Vadillo, Iñaki; Giménez-Forcada, Elena

    2016-02-15

    A study has been performed to explore the origin, spatiotemporal behaviour and mobilisation mechanism of the elevated arsenic (As) concentrations found in ground water and drinking ponds of the Doñana National Park, Southern Spain. At a larger scale, 13 piezometers and surface water samples of about 50 artificial drinking ponds and freshwater lagoons throughout the National Park were collected and analysed for major ions, metals and trace elements. At a smaller scale, 5 locations were equipped with piezometers and groundwater was sampled up to 4 times for ambient parameters, major ions, metals, trace elements and iron (Fe) speciation. As was analysed for inorganic and organic speciation. Undisturbed sediment samples were analysed for physical parameters, mineralogy, geochemistry as well as As species. Sediment analyses yielded total As between 0.1 and 18 mg/kg and are not correlated with As concentration in water. Results of the surface- and groundwater sampling revealed elevated concentration of As up to 302 μg/L within a restricted area of the National Park. Results of groundwater sampling reveals strong correlation of As with Fe(2+) pointing to As mobilisation due to reductive dissolution of hydroferric oxides (HFO) in areas of locally elevated amounts of organic matter within the sediments. High As concentrations in surface water ponds are correlated with elevated alkalinity and pH attributed to algae metabolism, leading to As desorption from HFO. The algae metabolism is responsible for the presence of methylated arsenic species in surface water, in contrast to ground water in which only inorganic As species was found. Temporal variations in surface water and groundwater are also related to changes in pH and alkalinity as a result of enhanced algae metabolism in surface water or related to changes in the redox level in the case of groundwater.

  15. Sports Medicine: What is a Sports Medicine Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... both the treatment and prevention of illness and injury. The Sports Medicine Specialist helps patients maximize function and minimize ... of these conditions. However, approximately 90% of all sports injuries are non-surgical. The Sports Medicine Specialist can ...

  16. The importance of sport psychology in school sport | le Roux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of sport psychology in school sport. ... of values associated with sport, the prevention of burnout in a young athlete, how to ... These findings can mainly be attributed to a lack of knowledge regarding the psychology of the child.

  17. SPORTS ACTIVITIES SPONSORSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURBĂCEA - BOLOVAN MARIAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sports and economy have discovered each other, hoping to serve common interests. In view of transferring in a more efficient way the information about their products or services to consumers, the business operator finances sports activities for advertising purposes. A company involved in sports sponsorship can instantly transmit the message about its products to millions of potential buyers, thus increasing the market share and hence the profit that it generates. By sponsoring sport it is meant any agreement / convention, under which one party the sponsor makes available to the beneficiary the material resources, financial and / or other benefits in exchange for its association with a sport or sportsman and especially the promise to use this association with sport or sportsman for the purpose of advertising, especially TV advertising. The growing use of athletes as spokespersons for a product is largely due to the ability of athletes to attract public attention and the credibility they enjoy

  18. Refleksiv Sports Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Billy

    2013-01-01

    Sports management and its development is closely linked to the development of modern society and modern rationality. This article applies sociological theories and practical management philosophy to shed light on how sports management and its rationality in Denmark (Europe) and the United States...... have changed and undergone different phases for more than a century, and to show that, in late modernity, they are entering a new phase in which they seem to be more reflexive and communicative. This trend is evident in American sports management and will also soon be reflected in Danish sports...... management. My analysis of this development will also be based on a specific case study from the American world of sports, namely the story of Oakland Athletics baseball club’s reorganisation in the 1990s, because it both provides a rare insight into a modern sports organisation and demonstrates...

  19. Ethics in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P

    2007-05-01

    Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues.

  20. MOTIVATION IN ADAPTED SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Torralba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the motivation for practice of sport of people with disabilities that form part to a federated sport.The sample was composed of 134 athletes of both genders and different disabilities.The “Participation Motivation Inventory Questionnaire” by Gill, Gross and Huddleston was used. The instrument was adapted to Paralympic sport and describes the main reasons that encourage the sports activity practice. The results haven´t found significant difference between men´s and women´s or between blind - visually impaired physical and motor disabilities. About the motivation of the practice of sport, worth highlighting the importance given to factors of fitness and health, like sport practice, improve the level, to compete, feel good and have fun, well above being popular, influenced by coaches or satisfy to parents.

  1. Sport-related concussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Natuline Ianof

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such as American football, rugby, soccer, boxing, basketball and hockey are associated with a relatively high prevalence of concussion. Various factors may be associated with a greater risk of sport-related concussion, such as age, sex, sport played, level of sport played and equipment used. Physical complaints (headache, fatigue, dizziness, behavioral changes (depression, anxiety, irritability and cognitive impairment are very common after a concussion. The risk of premature return to activities includes the prolongation of post-concussive symptoms and increased risk of concussion recurrence.

  2. Refleksiv Sports Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Billy

    2013-01-01

    Sports management and its development is closely linked to the development of modern society and modern rationality. This article applies sociological theories and practical management philosophy to shed light on how sports management and its rationality in Denmark (Europe) and the United States...... have changed and undergone different phases for more than a century, and to show that, in late modernity, they are entering a new phase in which they seem to be more reflexive and communicative. This trend is evident in American sports management and will also soon be reflected in Danish sports...... management. My analysis of this development will also be based on a specific case study from the American world of sports, namely the story of Oakland Athletics baseball club’s reorganisation in the 1990s, because it both provides a rare insight into a modern sports organisation and demonstrates...

  3. SYSTEMATIZATION OF SPORTS AND SPORT DISCIPLINES ACCORDING TO THE ASPECT OF SPORT TRAINING

    OpenAIRE

    Duško Bjelica

    2006-01-01

    According to the aspect of sport training, it's necessary to do the systematization of sports according to their content. The content of sports is presented by qualitative and quantitative structure of development, and the classification of sports is performed by the amount of participation of elementary bio-motor dimensions in sports, respectivly.

  4. Sports Specialization, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID

  5. Sport-related concussions

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such...

  6. SPORT MARKETING MIX STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are importa...

  7. [Total Joint Replacement and Return to Sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, N; Schmidt, T; Niemeier, A

    2016-12-01

    the highest postoperative activity levels after inverted arthroplasty, followed by anatomic arthroplasty, and the lowest activity level after the implantation of a hemiprosthesis. Conclusion: There is a significant discrepancy between previous expert recommendations and the actual activity levels that may be achieved after the implantation of a joint prosthesis. Future studies have to define the sports level, the type of sports and the type of prosthesis that provide a positive benefit-risk ratio using state-of-the-art low-abrasion bearing surfaces and prosthesis designs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Sports injuries Lesiones deportivas

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6....

  9. Confidentiality in Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Dominic

    2016-04-01

    This article synthesizes existing literature to provide a summary of the ethical issues concerning patient confidentiality in sport. It outlines the medical principle of confidentiality and identifies cross-cultural ethicolegal variations that shape its implementation. Clinicians' multiple obligations, physical environments, and practice and policy contexts are discussed, and research detailing experiences of maintaining patient confidentiality in sport is reviewed. Policy recommendations for enhancing compliance with this ethical principle are summarized. It is argued that the context of sport exacerbates pressures on clinicians to break patient confidentiality, breaches occur regularly, and interventions are required to enhance ethical compliance in sports medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Phospholipids and sports performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jäger, Ralf; Purpura, Martin; Kingsley, Michael

    2007-01-01

    .... The participation in physical activity often challenges a variety of physiological systems; consequently, the ability to maintain normal cellular function during activity can determine sporting performance...

  11. Treating and Preventing Sports Hernias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back to Healthy Living Treating and Preventing Sports Hernias If you play ice hockey, tennis or soccer, ... the most commonly misdiagnosed groin pain—a sports hernia. A sports hernia often results from overuse of ...

  12. The Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task (SPORT) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James; Swenson, Charles; Durao, Otavio; Loures, Luis; Heelis, Rod; Bishop, Rebecca; Le, Guan; Abdu, Mangalathayil; Krause, Linda; Denardin, Clezio; hide

    2017-01-01

    SPORT is a science mission using a 6U CubeSat and integrated ground network that will (1) advance understanding and (2) enable improved predictions of scintillation occurrence that impact GPS signals and radio communications. This is the science of Space Weather. SPORT is an international partnership with NASA, U.S. institutions, the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE), and the Technical Aeronautics Institute under the Brazilian Air Force Command Department (DCTA/ITA).

  13. On Sporting Nationalism : Research Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Uchiumi, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    There are some theories that with globalization nationalisms will disappear, but nationalisms have been growing more and more. In sport, the number of international sporting events is increasing and sporting nationalism is becoming more and more obvious. Recently sporting nationalism and its relationship with (political) nationalism has been focused on. In this paper the author analyzed sporting nationalism in Japan and compared it with that of the United Kingdom, where researches on sporting...

  14. Rotational, steric, and coriolis effects on the F + HCl --> HF + Cl reaction on the 1(2)A' ground-state surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defazio, Paolo; Petrongolo, Carlo

    2009-04-23

    We present a quantum study of the reaction F((2)P) + HCl(X(1)Sigma(+)) --> HF(X(1)Sigma(+)) + Cl((2)P) on a recently computed 1(2)A' ground-state surface, considering HCl in the ground vibrational state, with up to 16 rotational quanta j(0). We employ the real wavepacket (WP) and flux methods for calculating coupled-channel (CC) and centrifugal-sudden (CS) initial-state probabilities up to J = 80 and 140, respectively. We also report CC and CS ground-state cross sections and CS excited-state cross sections and discuss the dynamics analyzing WP time evolutions. The HCl rotation highly enhances reaction probabilities and cross sections, as it was previously found for probabilities at J Coriolis couplings favor instead the energy flow from the HCl rotation to the F-H---Cl reactive vibration. WP snapshots confirm and explain the HCl rotational effects, because the density into the nearly collinear F-H---Cl product channel increases remarkably with j(0). Finally, our CS rate constant is underestimated with respect to the experiment, pointing out the need of more accurate multisurface and CC calculations.

  15. Use of borehole and surface geophysics to investigate ground-water quality near a road-deicing salt-storage facility, Valparaiso, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, M.R.; Robinson, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    Borehole and surface geophysics were used to investigate ground-water quality affected by a road-deicing salt-storage facility located near a public water-supply well field. From 1994 through 1998, borehole geophysical logs were made in an existing network of monitoring wells completed near the bottom of a thick sand aquifer. Logs of natural gamma activity indicated a uniform and negligible contribution of clay to the electromagnetic conductivity of the aquifer so that the logs of electromagnetic conductivity primarily measured the amount of dissolved solids in the ground water near the wells. Electromagneticconductivity data indicated the presence of a saltwater plume near the bottom of the aquifer. Increases in electromagnetic conductivity, observed from sequential logging of wells, indicated the saltwater plume had moved north about 60 to 100 feet per year between 1994 and 1998. These rates were consistent with estimates of horizontal ground-water flow based on velocity calculations made with hydrologic data from the study area.

  16. Immunolocalization of NGF and its receptors in ovarian surface epithelium of the wild ground squirrel during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, L; Li, Q; Liu, Y; Li, B; Sheng, X; Han, Y; Weng, Q

    2014-05-09

    The ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) plays an important role in normal ovarian physiology. During each reproductive cycle, the OSE takes part in the cyclical ovulatory ruptures and repair. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunolocalization of nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptors, tyrosine kinase A (TrkA) and p75, in the OSE cells of the wild ground squirrels during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. There were marked variations in ovarian weight and size between the breeding and the nonbreeding seasons. Histologically, cuboidal cells and squamous cells were identified in the OSE of both seasons. Yet, stronger immunostaining of NGF, TrkA and p75 were observed in cuboidal cells and squamous cells in the breeding season as compared to the nonbreeding season. In addition, plasma gonadotropin concentrations were higher in the breeding season than in the nonbreeding season, suggesting that the expression patterns of NGF, TrkA and p75 in the OSE were correlated with changes in plasma gonadotropins. These findings suggested that NGF and its receptor TrkA and p75 may be involved in the regulation of seasonal changes in the OSE of wild ground squirrel.in the OSE of wild ground squirrel.

  17. Simultaneous investigation of blast induced ground vibration and airblast effects on safety level of structures and human in surface blasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faramarzi Farhad⇑; Ebrahimi Farsangi Mohammad Ali; Mansouri Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The significance of studying, monitoring and predicting blast induced vibration and noise level in mining and civil activities is justified in the capability of imposing damages, sense of uncertainty due to negative psychological impacts on involved personnel and also judicial complaints of local inhabitants in the nearby area. This paper presents achieved results during an investigation carried out at Sungun Copper Mine, Iran. Besides, the research also studied the significance of blast induced ground vibration and air-blast on safety aspects of nearby structures, potential risks, frequency analysis, and human response. According to the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM) standard, the attenuation equations were devel-oped using field records. A general frequency analysis and risk evaluation revealed that:94%of generated frequencies are less than 14 Hz which is within the natural frequency of structures that increases risk of damage. At the end, studies of human response showed destructive effects of the phenomena by ranging between 2.54 and 25.40 mm/s for ground vibrations and by the average value of 110 dB for noise levels which could increase sense of uncertainty among involved employees.

  18. Marketing of sport tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Teletov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to clarify the concept of «sport tourism marketing», to examine the state of its objects and to determine prospects for development of sport tourism in Ukraine. The paper singles out the role of sport in life; compares different types of cities in terms of provision the infrastructure for tourism development in the field of sports. Authors show the example of the campaign. The results of the analysis. The article deals with sport tourism as a form of total tourism conducted extensive research of sports tourism values compared between typical sports facilities and infrastructure of cities millionaires, large, medium and small Ukrainian cities. The research is based on Sumy. It is shown that it may be attractive for sports, historical and cultural enrichment of professional athletes, children and adolescents, a large group of fans that come to competition. Marketing approaches to the decision of sport tourism problems today represent the ocial, cultural, public and political phenomenon simultaneously and is by phenomenon object of special researches. This increase: shows of sports, attraction to it of children, quantity of the people life, conducting a healthy image, increase of a network sport structures, hotels and other tourist objects. Work is complete scientific and practical work, implemented commission on education, science, culture, tourism, sport and youth policy Sumy Regional Council and is recommended to be involved to realizing for local councils, administrations and City Hall for recovery work in the field of tourism development. The theoretical and methodological developments generalizations made in this scientific work, have a scientific value and practical value and can be recommended for implementation in other regions of Ukraine. Conclusions and prospects for further researches. One of the few areas that still have powerful sports, tourism and how their derivatives – marketing

  19. Ethers on Si(001): A prime example for the common ground between surface science and molecular organic chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Pecher, Lisa

    2017-09-15

    Using computational chemistry, we show that the adsorption of ether molecules on Si(001) under ultra-high vacuum conditions can be understood with textbook organic chemistry. The two-step reaction mechanism of (1) dative bond formation between the ether oxygen and a Lewis acidic surface atom and (2) a nucleophilic attack of a nearby Lewis basic surface atom is analysed in detail and found to mirror the acid-catalysed ether cleavage in solution. The O-Si dative bond is found to be the strongest of its kind and reactivity from this state defies the Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle. Electron rearrangement during the C-O bond cleavage is visualized using a newly developed bonding analysis method, which shows that the mechanism of nucleophilic substitutions on semiconductor surfaces is identical to molecular chemistry SN2 reactions. Our findings thus illustrate how the fields of surface science and molecular chemistry can mutually benefit and unexpected insight can be gained.

  20. The Method of Team Sports Athletes’ Motor Skills Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir E.Afonshina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed that the training session be conducted on the ground with controlled light-dynamic illumination to be generated by small-size laser or other light emitters fastened on the athlete’s head. For safety the emitters are to be installed so as to prevent the trainee’s eyes from direct emanation. The emitters create mobile unallowed and allowed zones seen as the figures of various shape to be used for simulation of the training modes. The figures are controlled by software and hardware system including a gyroscopic orientation system of light emitters and a system of positioning of the athlete on the playing court. The system of gyroscopic orientation of light emitters is placed together with the emitters and depending on the head rotation, neck bends and vertical movements of the athlete's head and his/her movements on the playing court during the training session. The system of gyroscopic orientation automatically adjusts the position of the figures, while maintaining their target location and movement set by the selected training programme. The training can take place outside of specially equipped athletic field, on any smooth surface. The contours of the mobile unallowed and allowed zones are clearly visible and have no shadow formations. The method of motor skills development proposed incorporates the principles and techniques of sports coaching used for training both certain athletes and sports teams. The method facilitates in personalising the training tasks, acquiring playing skills by simulating different complex game situations, improving the efficiency of training, bringing it closer to the real play conditions, developing game thinking. The method can be used for training teams of different profile specialising in football, hockey, handball, rugby, basketball and other team sports.

  1. Evaluation of ground grain versus pre- and post-pellet whole grain additions to poultry diets via a response surface design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Amy F; Chrystal, Peter V; Truong, Ha H; Selle, Peter H; Liu, Sonia Yun

    2017-09-12

    1. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of pre- and post-pellet whole grain wheat additions to diets on growth performance, gizzard and pancreas development, nutrient utilisation and starch and protein (N) digestibility coefficients in broiler chickens via an equilateral triangle response surface design. 2. The three apical treatments of the equilateral triangle comprised (1A) a standard diet containing 600 g/kg ground wheat, (2B) the same diet containing 600 g/kg pre-pellet whole wheat and (3C) the same diet containing 300 g/kg ground wheat and 300 g/kg post-pellet whole wheat. Seven blends of the three apical diets were located within the triangle to complete the design and a total of 360 male Ross 308 chicks were offered the ten experimental diets from 7 to 28 d post-hatch. Model prediction and response surface plots were generated with R 3.0.3 software. 3. The most efficient FCR of 1.466 was observed in birds offered an almost equal mixture of the pre- and post-pellet whole grain apical dietary treatments, which corresponded to 172 g/kg ground grain, 256 g/kg pre-pellet whole grain, 172 g/kg post-pellet whole grain in a diet containing 600 g/kg wheat. 4. The most efficient energy utilisation (ME:GE ratio of 0.766) was observed in birds offered a blend of the ground grain and pre-pellet whole grain apical dietary treatments which corresponded to a mixture of 384 g/kg pre-pellet whole grain and 216 g/kg ground grain. 5. Pre-pellet whole grain feeding generated the most pronounced responses in increased relative gizzard contents, reduced gizzard pH and increased relative pancreas weights. Consideration is given to the likely differences between pre- and post-pellet whole grain feeding.

  2. Identifying the hotspots of non-renewable water use using HiGW-MAT: A new land surface model coupled with human interventions and ground water reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Yeh, P. J.; Koirala, S.; Kanae, S.; Hanasaki, N.

    2011-12-01

    The real hydrological cycles on the Earth are not natural anymore. Global hydrological model simulations of the water cycle and available water resources should have an ability to consider the effects of human interventions on hydrological cycles. Anthropogenic activity modules (Hanasaki et al., 2008), such as reservoir operation, crop growth and water demand in crop lands, and environmental flows, were incorporated into a land surface model called MATSIRO (Takata et al., 2003), to form a new model, MAT-HI (Pokhrel et al., 2011). Total terrestrial water storages (TWS) in large river basins were estimated using the new model by off-line simulation, and compared with the TWS observed by GRACE for 2002-2007. The results showed MAT-HI has an advantage estimating TWS particularly in arid river basins compared with H08 (Hanasaki et al., 2008). MAT-HI was further coupled with a module representing the ground water level fluctuations (Yeh et al., 2005), and consists a new land surface scheme HiGW-MAT (Human Intervention and Ground Water coupled MATSIRO). HiGW-MAT is also associated with a scheme tracing the origin and flow path with the consideration on the sources of water withdrawal from stream flow, medium-size reservoirs and nonrenewable groundwater in addition to precipitation to croplands enabled the assessment of the origin of water producing major crops as Hanasaki et al. (2010). Areas highly dependent on nonrenewable groundwater are detected in the Pakistan, Bangladesh, western part of India, north and western parts of China, some regions in the Arabian Peninsula and the western part of the United States through Mexico. Cumulative nonrenewable groundwater withdrawals estimated by the model are corresponding fairly well with the country statistics of total groundwater withdrawals. Ground water table depletions in large aquifers in US estimated by HiGW-MAT were compared with in-situ observational data, and the correspondences are very good. Mean global exploitation

  3. Geochemical processes in ground water resulting from surface mining of coal at the Big Sky and West Decker Mine areas, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A potential hydrologic effect of surface mining of coal in southeastern Montana is a change in the quality of ground water. Dissolved-solids concen- trations in water in spoils aquifers generally are larger than concentrations in water in the coal aquifers they replaced; however, laboratory experiments have indicated that concentrations can decrease if ground water flows from coal-mine spoils to coal. This study was conducted to determine if decreases in concentrations occur onsite and, if so, which geochemical processes caused the decreases. Solid-phase core samples of spoils, unmined over- burden, and coal, and ground-water samples were collected from 16 observation wells at two mine areas. In the Big Sky Mine area, changes in ground- water chemistry along a flow path from an upgradient coal aquifer to a spoils aquifer probably were a result of dedolomitization. Dissolved-solids concentrations were unchanged as water flowed from a spoils aquifer to a downgradient coal aquifer. In the West Decker Mine area, dissolved-solids concentrations apparently decreased from about 4,100 to 2,100 milligrams per liter as water moved along an inferred flow path from a spoils aquifer to a downgradient coal aquifer. Geochemical models were used to analyze changes in water chemistry on the basis of results of solid-phase and aqueous geochemical characteristics. Geochemical processes postulated to result in the apparent decrease in dissolved-solids concentrations along this inferred flow path include bacterial reduction of sulfate, reverse cation exchange within the coal, and precipitation of carbonate and iron-sulfide minerals.

  4. Ground-water surface-water interactions and long-term change in riverine riparian vegetation in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R.H.; Leake, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Riverine riparian vegetation has changed throughout the southwestern United States, prompting concern about losses of habitat and biodiversity. Woody riparian vegetation grows in a variety of geomorphic settings ranging from bedrock-lined channels to perennial streams crossing deep alluvium and is dependent on interaction between ground-water and surface-water resources. Historically, few reaches in Arizona, southern Utah, or eastern California below 1530 m elevation had closed gallery forests of cottonwood and willow; instead, many alluvial reaches that now support riparian gallery forests once had marshy grasslands and most bedrock canyons were essentially barren. Repeat photography using more than 3000 historical images of rivers indicates that riparian vegetation has increased over much of the region. These increases appear to be related to several factors, notably the reduction in beaver populations by trappers in the 19th century, downcutting of arroyos that drained alluvial aquifers between 1880 and 1910, the frequent recurrence of winter floods during discrete periods of the 20th century, an increased growing season, and stable ground-water levels. Reductions in riparian vegetation result from agricultural clearing, excessive ground-water use, complete flow diversion, and impoundment of reservoirs. Elimination of riparian vegetation occurs either where high ground-water use lowers the water table below the rooting depth of riparian species, where base flow is completely diverted, or both. We illustrate regional changes using case histories of the San Pedro and Santa Cruz Rivers, which are adjacent watersheds in southern Arizona with long histories of water development and different trajectories of change in riparian vegetation.

  5. Surface-water, water-quality, and ground-water assessment of the Municipio of Comerio, Puerto Rico, 1997-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Santiago-Rivera, Luis; Oliveras-Feliciano, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for a safe and adequate supply of water in the municipio of Comerio, an integrated surface-water, water-quality, and ground-water assessment of the area was conducted. The major results of this study and other important hydrologic and water-quality features were compiled in a Geographic Information System, and are presented in two 1:30,000-scale map plates to facilitate interpretation and use of the diverse water-resource data. Because the supply of safe drinking water was a critical issue during recent dry periods, the surface-water assessment portion of this study focused on analysis of low-flow characteristics in local streams and rivers. Low-flow characteristics were evaluated at one continuous-record gaging station based on graphical curve-fitting techniques and log-Pearson Type III frequency curves. Estimates of low-flow characteristics for 13 partial-record stations were generated using graphical-correlation techniques. Flow-duration characteristics for the continuous- and partial-record stations were estimated using the relation curves developed for the low-flow study. Stream low-flow statistics document the general hydrology under current land- and water-use conditions. A sanitary quality survey of streams utilized 24 sampling stations to evaluate about 84 miles of stream channels with drainage to or within the municipio of Comerio. River and stream samples for fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus analyses were collected on two occasions at base-flow conditions to evaluate the sanitary quality of streams. Bacteriological analyses indicate that about 27 miles of stream reaches within the municipio of Comerio may have fecal coliform bacteria concentrations above the water-quality goal established by the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board (Junta de Calidad Ambiental de Puerto Rico) for inland surface waters. Sources of fecal contamination may include illegal discharge of sewage to storm-water drains, malfunction of sanitary

  6. Surface-water, water-quality, and ground-water assessment of the Municipio of Carolina, Puerto Rico, 1997-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Santiago-Rivera, Luis; Oliveras-Feliciano, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for a safe and adequate supply of water in the municipio of Carolina, an integrated surface-water, water-quality, and ground-water assessment of the area was conducted. The major results of this study and other important hydrologic and water-quality features were compiled in a Geographic Information System and are presented in two 1:30,000-scale map plates to facilitate interpretation and use of the diverse water-resources data. Because the supply of safe drinking water was a critical issue during recent dry periods, the surface-water assessment portion of this study focused on analysis of low-flow characteristics in local streams and rivers. Low-flow characteristics were evaluated for one continuous-record gaging station, based on graphical curve-fitting techniques and log-Pearson Type III frequency analysis. Estimates of low-flow characteristics for seven partial-record stations were generated using graphical-correlation techniques. Flow-duration characteristics were computed for the one continuous-record gaging station and were estimated for the partial-record stations using the relation curves developed from the low-flow study. Stream low-flow statistics document the general hydrology under current land and water use. Low-flow statistics may substantially change as a result of streamflow diversions for public supply, and an increase in ground-water development, waste-water discharges, and flood-control measures; the current analysis provides baseline information to evaluate these impacts and develop water budgets. A sanitary quality survey of streams utilized 29 sampling stations to evaluate the sanitary quality of about 87 miles of stream channels. River and stream samples were collected on two occasions during base-flow conditions and were analyzed for fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus. Bacteriological analyses indicate that a significant portion of the stream reaches within the municipio of Carolina may have fecal coliform

  7. Sports Hernia (Athletic Pubalgia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a traditional, abdominal hernia, it is a different injury. A sports hernia is a strain or tear of any ... to you about your symptoms and how the injury occurred. If you have a sports hernia, when your doctor does a physical examination, ...

  8. Sports-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, Robert L; Conder, Alanna A

    2015-04-01

    Concussions are an inherent part of collision sports such as football and soccer. As a subset of traumatic brain injury, concussions are neurometabolic events that cause transient neurologic dysfunction. Following a concussion, some athletes require longer neurologic recovery than others. Education and intervention aimed at prevention and management can minimize the long-term sequelae of sports-related concussions.

  9. Somatotypes in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Teodor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The submitted article deals with the evaluation of the somatotype of persons and determination of a suitable somatotype for selected sports. In the introduction the method for determining and evaluating a somatotype according to Carter and Heath is characterised. The processes used for calculating the individual components - endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy - are presented as well as a description of these elements. The calculated components are subsequently put into a somatograph. The evaluation of a somatotype is of great benefit and offers a guideline with the selection of sporting activities; it subsequently helps assign athletes into a suitable position where they will be able to best develop their talents in view of their bodily construction. In this work two types of sports are evaluated - basketball and bodybuilding. With each sport the measurements which give the prerequisites for the given sport are presented. The selection of the presented sports was made with regard to the different requirements and demands in the scope of bodily constitution. The aim of the presented paper is to assess physical parameters of subjects groups in relation to selected sports (basketball and bodybuilding. Based on the body constitution to determine the conditions for developing the physical condition and success in the appointed sports. Another objective is to compare the rating form and equation methods for somatotype determination. The sample consist 32 subjects with age between 22-28 years of both sexes, who are dedicated to basketball, or bodybuilding at amateur level.

  10. Saga of American Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, John A.; Smith, Ronald A.

    This history of sports and athletic activities in America covers a time span from the close of the sixteenth century to the present time. It is divided into three major sections. The first, "Colonial and Early American Sport," narrates the early moral and ethical attitudes of the Puritans and follows the changes in attitudes and introduction of…

  11. Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Sousa Nanji

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH have been associated with vigorous physical activity, including sports. Our research aimed to describe the association between SAH and sports and to identify the types of sports that were more frequently found as precipitating factors in a tertiary single-centre SAH register. Methods: We retrieved information from a prospectively collected SAH registry and reviewed discharge notes of acute SAH patients admitted to the Stroke Unit of Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon, between 1995 and 2014. Results: Out of 738 patients included in the analysis, 424 (57.5% cases of SAH were preceded by physical activity. Nine cases (1.2% were associated with sports, namely running (2 cases, aerobics (2 cases, cycling, body balance, dance, surf and windsurf. Patients with SAH while practicing sports were younger than controls (average age 43.1 vs. 57.0 years; p = 0.007. In 1 patient, there was a report of trauma to the neck. Patients in the sports group only had Hunt and Hess scale grades 1 (11.1% or 2 (88.9% at admission, while patients in the control group had a wider distribution in severity. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that SAH precipitated by sports is not very frequent and is uncommonly related to trauma. Patients who suffered SAH associated with sports were younger and apparently had a milder clinical presentation.

  12. A Rising Sport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Tennis is becoming more popular in China but there are still worries facing the sport 0ctober was a happy time for the sport of tennis and tennis fans in China. The China Open in Beijing,the 2010 Shanghai Rolex Masters and the China Tennis Grand Prix in Nanjing,Jiangsu Province,all take place.

  13. Mathematics and Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallian, Joseph A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Mathematics and Sports", edited by Joseph A. Gallian, gathers 25 articles that illuminate the power and role of mathematics in the worlds of professional and recreational play. Divided into sections by the kind of sports, the book offers source materials for classroom use and student projects. Readers will encounter mathematical ideas from an…

  14. Youth Sports Safety Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sb75.pdf. 3 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sports-related injuries among high school athletes, United States, 2005-06 ... 495-503. 10 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nonfatal traumatic brain injuries related to sports and recreation activities among persons aged ≤19 years— ...

  15. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print A A A What's in this article? Prevention First Types of Sports Injuries What To Do Where Injuries Happen Getting Back ... Game en español Cómo afrontar las lesiones deportivas Prevention First The best way to deal with sports injuries is to keep them from happening in the ...

  16. NOTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Franks

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This book addresses and appropriately explains the notational analysis of technique, tactics, individual athlete/team exercise and work-rate in sport. The book offers guidance in: developing a system, analyzes of data, effective coaching using notational performance analysis and modeling sport behaviors. It updates and improves the 1997 edition

  17. Superstition in Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, C. Jane; Petrie, Brian M.

    The introduction of this investigation into superstitions of athletes reviews past research on the subject. It is stated, though, that general research on superstitions mentions little directly related to sports; so, by necessity, recourse is made to sports stories and newspaper and magazine articles. The main body of this paper presents results…

  18. Sports and Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... teams, you probably know that concussions are a serious issue. Playing sports increases a person's risk of falls and collisions ... it might happen on the sidelines during a game. Sideline testing is common in schools and sports leagues. By watching you and doing a few ...

  19. Sport as Yoga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael

    1977-01-01

    The author has written a metaphysical sports fantasy and completed a novel which explores evolutionary transformations of the mind and body. Now he is working on a long-term research project exploring radical bodily transformations occurring in various fields of human experience. This article on sport is part of that project. (Editor/RK)

  20. Determination of trace levels of herbicides and their degradation products in surface and ground waters by gas chromatography/ion-trap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Leiker, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    A rapid, specific and highly sensitive method is described for the determination of several commonly used herbicides and their degradation products in surface and ground waters by using gas chromatography/ion-trap mass spectrometry. The compounds included atrazine, and its degradation products desethylatrazine and desisopropylatrazine; Simazine; Cyanazine; Metolachlor; and alachlor and its degradation products, 2-chloro-2', 6'-diethylacetanilide, 2-hydroxy-2', 6'-diethylacetanilide and 2,6-diethylaniline. The method was applied to surface-water samples collected from 16 different stations along the lower Mississippi River and its major tributaries, and ground-water samples beneath a cornfield in central Nebraska. Average recovery of a surrogate herbicide, terbuthylazine, was greater than 99%. Recoveries of the compounds of interest from river water spiked at environmental levels are also presented. Full-scan mass spectra of these compounds were obtained on 1 ng or less of analyte. Data were collected in the full-scan acquisition mode. Quantitation was based on a single characteristic ion for each compound. The detection limit was 60 pg with a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 10:1.

  1. Ground surface temperature reconstructions: Using in situ estimates for thermal conductivity acquired with a fiber-optic distributed thermal perturbation sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifeld, B.M.; Finsterle, S.; Onstott, T.C.; Toole, P.; Pratt, L.M.

    2008-10-10

    We have developed a borehole methodology to estimate formation thermal conductivity in situ with a spatial resolution of one meter. In parallel with a fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS), a resistance heater is deployed to create a controlled thermal perturbation. The transient thermal data is inverted to estimate the formation's thermal conductivity. We refer to this instrumentation as a Distributed Thermal Perturbation Sensor (DTPS), given the distributed nature of the DTS measurement technology. The DTPS was deployed in permafrost at the High Lake Project Site (67 degrees 22 minutes N, 110 degrees 50 minutes W), Nunavut, Canada. Based on DTPS data, a thermal conductivity profile was estimated along the length of a wellbore. Using the thermal conductivity profile, the baseline geothermal profile was then inverted to estimate a ground surface temperature history (GSTH) for the High Lake region. The GSTH exhibits a 100-year long warming trend, with a present-day ground surface temperature increase of 3.0 {+-} 0.8 C over the long-term average.

  2. Development approaches the formation of management development olympic sports in the region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazonets V.I.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Considered and grounded priority directions of perfection of control the system by modern olympic sport. Expert estimations are resulted on the problems of management the olympic types of sport and his influence on a modern economy. Practice of introduction of foreign experience is investigational in a management olympic sport. Problems, impedimental development of olympic sport in a region, are exposed. It is set that the basic obstacles of eleemosynary activity in Ukraine it is been absence of economic stimuli for encouragement of sponsors and sportsmen. Also absence of standards of eleemosynary and sponsor activity. The necessity of effective support of olympic sport is grounded from the side of local-authority. It is set that the most essential directions of development of olympic motion in a region is development: economic basis, sporting infrastructure, transport infrastructure. Also medical service of sportsmen.

  3. Formation of recent martian debris flows by melting of near-surface ground ice at high obliquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costard, F; Forget, F; Mangold, N; Peulvast, J P

    2002-01-04

    The observation of small gullies associated with recent surface runoff on Mars has renewed the question of liquid water stability at the surface of Mars. The gullies could be formed by groundwater seepage from underground aquifers; however, observations of gullies originating from isolated peaks and dune crests question this scenario. We show that these landforms may result from the melting of water ice in the top few meters of the martian subsurface at high obliquity. Our conclusions are based on the analogy between the martian gullies and terrestrial debris flows observed in Greenland and numerical simulations that show that above-freezing temperatures can occur at high obliquities in the near surface of Mars, and that such temperatures are only predicted at latitudes and for slope orientations corresponding to where the gullies have been observed on Mars.

  4. Formation of Recent Martian Debris Flows by Melting of Near-Surface Ground Ice at High Obliquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costard, F.; Forget, F.; Mangold, N.; Peulvast, J. P.

    2002-01-01

    The observation of small gullies associated with recent surface runoff on Mars has renewed the question of liquid water stability at the surface of Mars. The gullies could be formed by groundwater seepage from underground aquifers; however, observations of gullies originating from isolated peaks and dune crests question this scenario. We show that these landforms may result from the melting of water ice in the top few meters of the martian subsurface at high obliquity. Our conclusions are based on the analogy between the martian gullies and terrestrial debris flows observed in Greenland and numerical simulations that show that above-freezing temperatures can occur at high obliquities in the near surface of Mars, and that such temperatures are only predicted at latitudes and for slope orientations corresponding to where the gullies have been observed on Mars.

  5. Policy, Sport and Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine; Sørensen, Jan Kahr

    2010-01-01

    Increased public funding, more governmental involvement and an emphasis on the instrumental values of physical activities have in general become characteristic of Western nations’ policies towards sport. Denmark is, however, a little different in that there is still little political intervention...... in sport, although sports clubs do get economic support and are seen as having the potential to solve crucial social issues. The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss the ways in which the political assumption that sport can enhance social integration is reflected in the practical governance...... of integration issues in particular in sports clubs. The article is based on a local field study in which we interviewed 10 talented football players with ethnic minority backgrounds and eight coaches and club leaders from six different football clubs. Distinguishing between integration and assimilation...

  6. [Arrhythmia and sport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoudi, N; Yaici, K; Zarkane, N; Darmon, J P; Rinaldi, J P; Brunner, P; Ricard, P; Mourou, M Y

    2005-12-01

    Sports arrhythmia has gained wide attention with the mediatization of the death of famous sports stars. Sport strongly modifies the structure of the heart with the development of left ventricular hypertrophy which may be difficult to differentiate from that due to doping. Intense training modifies also the resting electrocardiogram with appearance of signs of left ventricular hypertrophy whereas resting sinus bradycardia and atrioventricular conduction disturbances usually reverts upon exertion. Accordingly, arrhythmia may develop ranging from extrasystoles to atrial fibrillation and even sudden death. Recent data suggest that if benign arrhythmia may be the result of the sole intense training and are reversible, malignant ventricular arrhythmia and sudden death mostly occur in unknown structural heart disease. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is amongst the most frequent post mortem diagnosis in this situation. Doping is now present in many sports and further threatens the athlete in the safe practice of sport.

  7. MINDFULNESS AND SPORT PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Mañas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness in sports is a recent field. While sport psychology relied mainly on “second wave” cognitive-behavioural interventions for the last four decades, a new approach has recently been developed in sport psychology including mindfulness: a “third wave” approach. This new approach assumes that ideal performance is a state that is not based on self-control or change in behaviour, but rather a state that arises from recognition and acceptance of thoughts, emotions and bodily sensations. Practicing mindfulness allows learns to observe and accept the thoughts, emotions, and body sensations, without making any attempt to eliminate or modify them. This paper reviews the main programs of mindfulness in sport performance both from the “third wave”: Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE and Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment(MAC.

  8. Overview of sports vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Linda A.; Ferreira, Jannie T.

    2003-03-01

    Sports vision encompasses the visual assessment and provision of sports-specific visual performance enhancement and ocular protection for athletes of all ages, genders and levels of participation. In recent years, sports vision has been identified as one of the key performance indicators in sport. It is built on four main cornerstones: corrective eyewear, protective eyewear, visual skills enhancement and performance enhancement. Although clinically well established in the US, it is still a relatively new area of optometric specialisation elsewhere in the world and is gaining increasing popularity with eyecare practitioners and researchers. This research is often multi-disciplinary and involves input from a variety of subject disciplines, mainly those of optometry, medicine, physiology, psychology, physics, chemistry, computer science and engineering. Collaborative research projects are currently underway between staff of the Schools of Physics and Computing (DIT) and the Academy of Sports Vision (RAU).

  9. Sports: The Infectious Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minooee, Arezou; Wang, Jeff; Gupta, Geeta K

    2015-10-01

    Although the medical complications of sports are usually traumatic in nature, infectious hazards also arise. While blood-borne pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cause significant illness, the risk of acquiring these agents during sporting activities is minimal. Skin infections are more commonplace, arising from a variety of microbial agents including bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Sports involving water contact can lead to enteric infections, eye infections, or disseminated infections such as leptospirosis. Mumps, measles, and influenza are vaccine-preventable diseases that have been transmitted during sporting events, both in players and in spectators. Prevention is the key to many of these infections. Players should be vaccinated and should not participate in sports if their infection can be spread by contact, airborne, or droplet transmission.

  10. The role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babul, S; Rhodes, E C

    2000-12-01

    During the past decade, we have seen a growing number of individuals participating in sport and recreational activities. All indications show an increase in sport participation at every age level. However, the number of sport and recreational injuries as a result of this increase has also risen. Unfortunately, a primary cost related to injury recovery is the time lost from participating in and resuming normal functional activity. This has compelled health care professionals to seek more efficient and effective therapeutic interventions in treating such injuries. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy may serve to provide a means of therapy to facilitate a speedier resumption to pre-injury activity levels as well as improve the short and long term prognosis of the injury. Although a growing interest in sports medicine is becoming evident in the literature, the use of HBO as an intervention in this field has received a great deal of cynicism. To date, numerous professional athletic teams, including hockey (NHL), football (NFL), basketball (NBA) and soccer (MLS), utilise and rely on the use of HBO as adjuvant therapy for numerous sports-related injuries acquired from playing competitive sports. However, to date, very little has been published on the application benefits of hyperbaric therapy and sports injuries. The majority of clinical studies examining the efficacy of HBO in treating soft tissue injuries have been limited in their sample size and study design. Further research needs to be conducted suggesting and validating the significant effects of this treatment modality and further grounding its importance in sports medicine.

  11. 7th April 2011 - Romanian President of the National Authority for Scientific Research State Secretary Ministry for Education, Research, Youth and Sport D. M. Ciuparu signing the guest book with Director for Research S. Bertolucci and ALICE surface building with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Giubellino.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    7th April 2011 - Romanian President of the National Authority for Scientific Research State Secretary Ministry for Education, Research, Youth and Sport D. M. Ciuparu signing the guest book with Director for Research S. Bertolucci and ALICE surface building with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Giubellino.

  12. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PEDIATRIC SPORTS INJURIES: INDIVIDUAL SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Caine

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book encourages coaches and sports administrators to discuss rules, equipment standards, techniques, and athlete conditioning programs. In turn, they can inform parents about the risks and how they can help their children avoid or limit injury in sports. A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. All the sports-specific chapters are laid out with the same basic headings, so that it is easy for the reader to find common information across chapters. Chapter headings are: 1 Epidemiology of children's individual sports injuries, 2 Equestrian injuries, 2 Gymnastics injuries, 3 Martial arts injuries, 4 Skiing and snowboard injuries, 5 Tennis injuries, 6 Track and field injuries, 7 Wrestling injuries, 8 Injury prevention and future research. Chapter headings include: i Incidence of injury, ii Injury characteristics, iii Injury severity, iv njury risk factors, v Suggestions for injury prevention, vi Suggestions for further research. In each sports-specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables are numerous, helpful and very useful. The book provides a very useful resource for sport scientist, pediatricians, family practitioners and healthcare professionals in the field of child and adolescent injury and prevention The readers are going to

  13. Some Sports Managers' Views about Values Education through Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Velittin; Erdeveciler, Övünç

    2017-01-01

    The indirect aim of this study is to ensure that sports and participation in sports are seen as new tools for values education. From this indirect goal, it was aimed to analyse the views of some Amateur Sports Club managers and supporters who were supposed to directly contribute to sports and the athletes about values education. The study was…

  14. Developing Sport Psychology in a Girls' Sport Academy Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the initial steps in developing and presenting Sport Psychology in a leadership and sport curriculum at Stellenbosch University's (SU) Centre for Human Performance Sciences' (CHPS) Academy for Girls' Leadership and Sport Development. Sport Psychology does not feature within the South African school curriculum specifically,…

  15. Assessing Expected Fractional Damage of Above-ground Buildings from Air-to-surface Weapons based on Indirect Fire Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yil Park

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For the expected fractional damage of building targets from air-to-surface weapons, the US has used the JMEM/AS method, which is based on the direct-fire concept. However, the damage redistribution assumption in the direct-fire concept could induce serious errors in damage estimation of building targets. In this paper, a method for the expected fractional damage of building targets is proposed based on the indirect-fire concept. From the proposed model, it is shown that the joint munitions effectiveness manuals/air-to-surface (JMEM/AS method is not appropriate for building targets, especially for attacks with multiple aiming points. It is recommended that the indirect-fire concept should be adopted for weaponeering even for air-to-surface weapons. fire concept could induce serious errors in damage estimation of building targets. In this paper, a method for the expected fractional damage of building targets is proposed based on the indirect-fire concept. From the proposed model, it is shown that the JMEM/AS method is not appropriate for building targets, especially for attacks with multiple aiming points. It is recommended that the indirect-fire concept should be adopted for weaponeering even for air-to-surface weapons.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(5, pp.491-496, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.571

  16. Ethers on Si(001): A prime example for the common ground between surface science and molecular organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecher, Lisa; Laref, Slimane; Raupach, Marc; Tonner, Ralf Ewald

    2017-09-15

    Using computational chemistry, we show that the adsorption of ether molecules on Si(001) under ultra-high vacuum conditions can be understood with textbook organic chemistry. The two-step reaction mechanism of (1) dative bond formation between the ether oxygen and a Lewis acidic surface atom and (2) a nucleophilic attack of a nearby Lewis basic surface atom is analysed in detail and found to mirror the acid-catalysed ether cleavage in solution. The O-Si dative bond is found to be the strongest of its kind and reactivity from this state defies the Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle. Electron rearrangement during the C-O bond cleavage is visualized using a newly developed bonding analysis method, which shows that the mechanism of nucleophilic substitutions on semiconductor surfaces is identical to molecular chemistry SN2 reactions. Our findings thus illustrate how the fields of surface science and molecular chemistry can mutually benefit and unexpected insight can be gained. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Can satellite land surface temperature data be used similarly to ground discharge measurements for distributed hydrological model calibration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbari, C.; Mancini, M.; Li, J.; Su, Zhongbo

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes a new methodology for the calibration of distributed hydrological models at basin scale by constraining an internal model variable using satellite data of land surface temperature. The model algorithm solves the system of energy and mass balances in terms of a representative equi

  18. Above- and below-ground responses of four tundra plant functional types to deep soil heating and surface soil fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Peng; Limpens, Juul; Mommer, Liesje; Ruijven, van Jasper; Nauta, Ake L.; Berendse, Frank; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela; Blok, Daan; Maximov, Trofim C.; Heijmans, Monique M.P.D.

    2017-01-01

    Climate warming is faster in the Arctic than the global average. Nutrient availability in the tundra soil is expected to increase by climate warming through (i) accelerated nutrient mobilization in the surface soil layers, and (ii) increased thawing depths during the growing season which

  19. Shear shedding of drops and the use of superhydrophobic surfaces in microgravity: PFC and ground based results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Andrew; Amirfazli, Alidad

    In free fall, the absence of gravity poses many challenges for fluid handling systems. One such example of this is condensers. On earth, the condensed liquid is removed from the tilted condenser plate by gravity forced shedding. In microgravity, proposed solutions include the use of surfaces with gradients in wettability [1], the use of electrowetting [2], and shearing airflow [3]. In this talk, shear shedding results for a variety of surface (hydrophilic to superhydrophobic (extremely water repelling)) will be presented. Surface science and aerodynamics are used to reveal fundamental parameters controlling incipient motion for drops exposed to shearing airflow. It is found that wetting parameters such as contact angle and surface tension are very influential in determining the minimum required air velocity for drop shedding. Based on experimental results for drops of water and hexadecane (0.5-100 l) on PMMA, Teflon, and a superhydrophobic aluminum surface, an exponential function is proposed that relates the critical air velocity for shedding to the ratio of drop base length to projected area. The results for the water systems can be collapsed to a self similar curve by normalization, which also explains results from other researchers. Since shedding from superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS) is seen to be easier compared to other surfaces, the behaviour of SHS is also probed in this talk. SHS have space-based applications to shedding, self cleaning, anti-icing (spacecraft launch/re-entry), anti-fouling, fluid actuation, and decreased fluid friction. The mechanism for SHS is understood to be the existence of an air layer between large portions of the drop and solid. The first concrete visual evidence of this was gained performing a parabolic flight experiment with the ESA. Results of this experi-ment will be discussed, showing the extreme water repelling potential of SHS in microgravity, and demonstrating how the wetting behaviours seen (partial penetration, transition

  20. Formation of recent gullies and debris-flows on Mars by the melting of near-surface ground ice at high obliquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, F.; Costard, F.; Mangold, N.; Peulvast, J.-P.

    2001-11-01

    The observation of small gullies associated with recent surface run-off on Mars by Mars Global Surveyor has renewed the question of liquid water stability at the surface of Mars. In their initial analyses, Malin and Edgett [1] suggested that the gullies could be formed by groundwater seepage from underground aquifers. However, observations of gullies originating from the top of peaks question this scenario. We show here that these landforms are more likely to result from the melting of liquid water in the first meter of the Martian subsurface at high obliquity. On the one hand, this is suggested by the analogy between the martian gullies and terrestrial debris flows observed in Greenland which are known to result from the thawing of near-surface ground when above-freezing temperatures are reached. On the other hand, numerical simulations show that above-freezing temperatures can occur at high obliquities in the near-surface of Mars, and that such temperatures are only predicted at latitudes and for slope orientations corresponding exactly to where the gullies have been observed on Mars. [1] Malin M.C. and Edgett K.E. Science 288, 2330-2335 (2000).

  1. Infusing Disability Sport into the Sport Management Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Calloway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Disability sport is growing around the world with momentum and is described as a “movement” (Bailey, 2008; DePauw & Gavron, 2005. While there are more similarities than differences with sport management for able-bodied athletes and those with disabilities, there are additional needs and considerations for persons with disabilities (DePauw & Gavron, 2005. The noticeable visibility of individuals with disabilities in society, including sport, raises concerns about the degree to which sport management academic programs have modified their curricula to ensure that individuals working in the sport management field are prepared to deal with theuniqueness of disability sport. This paper (a discusses theoretical perspectives toward understanding and thinking about disability, (b explores ways to enhance sport management curricula through infusion of disability sport, (c reflects upon current social practices for curriculum integration of athletes with disabilities in sport, and (d acknowledges infusion of disability sport businesses, organizations and events.

  2. [Sport and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pène, Pierre; Touitou, Yvan

    2009-02-01

    The report of the National Academy of Medicine named "Sport and Health" underlines the medical, social and educational dimensions of sporting activities. Various kinds of sporting practices are described: they concern the approximately 7,000 high level athletes, around 8,000 professional (licensed) sportsmen, and sporting club members (approximately 15 millions people). A large number of amateurs do not practice in any structure and therefore are neither managed in their activities nor medically followed. Some characteristics of sporting practice at various stages of life have been documented. Around 50% of the teenagers from 12 to 17 years have a sporting practice out-of-school besides the weekly three hours applied at school or college; however, the withdrawal of sporting practice by a high number of teenagers results in a sedentary lifestyle with overweight and obesity, major risks factors for health. Elderly people take a profit from a regular and medically controlled physical activity. Functional capacities are thus improved, cardiovascular risks factors among other, which results in better quality of life of the aged and delays their dependence. The benefit upon public health of sporting practice has been pointed out in the primary prevention of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, osteoporosis, obesity, diabetes, breast and colon cancer, and mood disturbances. It is currently well acknowledged that sporting practice is an important component of public health in both primary and secondary prevention of many diseases. Deleterious effects of which the most serious is the sudden death related to a cardiovascular anomaly, which generally occurs during an important physical effort. An important sport drift is the practice of doping to improve performances through the use of hormones, anabolics, EPO, transfusions, ... When a person exceeds his/her capacities of adaptation, because of a badly adapted or a too intense drive, this overtraining results in a

  3. Modeling the impact of soil and water conservation on surface and ground water based on the SCS and Visual MODFLOW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Gao, Jian-en; Zhang, Shao-long; Zhang, Meng-jie; Li, Xing-hua

    2013-01-01

    Soil and water conservation measures can impact hydrological cycle, but quantitative analysis of this impact is still difficult in a watershed scale. To assess the effect quantitatively, a three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) with a surface runoff model-the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) were calibrated and applied based on the artificial rainfall experiments. Then, three soil and water conservation scenarios were simulated on the sand-box model to assess the effect of bare slope changing to grass land and straw mulching on water volume, hydraulic head, runoff process of groundwater and surface water. Under the 120 mm rainfall, 60 mm/h rainfall intensity, 5 m(2) area, 3° slope conditions, the comparative results indicated that the trend was decrease in surface runoff and increase in subsurface runoff coincided with the land-use converted from bare slope to grass land and straw mulching. The simulated mean surface runoff modulus was 3.64×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the bare slope scenario, while the observed values were 1.54×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h and 0.12×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the lawn and straw mulching scenarios respectively. Compared to the bare slope, the benefits of surface water reduction were 57.8% and 92.4% correspondingly. At the end of simulation period (T = 396 min), the simulated mean groundwater runoff modulus was 2.82×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the bare slope scenario, while the observed volumes were 3.46×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h and 4.91×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the lawn and straw mulching scenarios respectively. So the benefits of groundwater increase were 22.7% and 60.4% correspondingly. It was concluded that the soil and water conservation played an important role in weakening the surface runoff and strengthening the underground runoff. Meanwhile the quantitative analysis using a modeling approach could provide a thought for the study in a watershed scale to help decision-makers manage water resources.

  4. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation at the Norbo Underground Nuclear Test in U8c, Nevada Nuclear Security Site, and the Impact on Stability of the Ground Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawloski, G A

    2012-06-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Containment Program performed a review of nuclear test-related data for the Norbo underground nuclear test in U8c to assist in evaluating this legacy site as a test bed for application technologies for use in On-Site Inspections (OSI) under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. This request is similar to one made for the Salut site in U8c (Pawloski, 2012b). Review of the Norbo site is complicated because the test first exhibited subsurface collapse, which was not unusual, but it then collapsed to the surface over one year later, which was unusual. Of particular interest is the stability of the ground surface above the Norbo detonation point. Proposed methods for on-site verification include radiological signatures, artifacts from nuclear testing activities, and imaging to identify alteration to the subsurface hydrogeology due to the nuclear detonation. Aviva Sussman from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has also proposed work at this site. Both proposals require physical access at or near the ground surface of specific underground nuclear test locations at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and focus on possible activities such as visual observation, multispectral measurements, and shallow and deep geophysical surveys.

  5. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation at the Salut Underground Nuclear Test in U20ak, Nevada National Security Site, and the Impact of Stability of the Ground Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawloski, G A

    2012-04-25

    At the request of Jerry Sweeney, the LLNL Containment Program performed a review of nuclear test-related data for the Salut underground nuclear test in U20ak to assist in evaluating this legacy site as a test bed for application technologies for use in On-Site Inspections (OSI) under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Review of the Salut site is complicated because the test experienced a subsurface, rather than surface, collapse. Of particular interest is the stability of the ground surface above the Salut detonation point. Proposed methods for on-site verification include radiological signatures, artifacts from nuclear testing activities, and imaging to identify alteration to the subsurface hydrogeologogy due to the nuclear detonation. Sweeney's proposal requires physical access at or near the ground surface of specific underground nuclear test locations at the Nevada Nuclear Test Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site), and focuses on possible activities such as visual observation, multispectral measurements, and shallow, and deep geophysical surveys.

  6. Surface aerosol radiative forcing derived from collocated ground-based radiometric observations during PRIDE, SAFARI, and ACE-Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, Richard A; Tsay, Si-Chee; Ji, Qiang; Liou, K N; Ou, Szu-Cheng

    2003-09-20

    An approach is presented to estimate the surface aerosol radiative forcing by use of collocated cloud-screened narrowband spectral and thermal-offset-corrected radiometric observations during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment 2000, South African Fire Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI) 2000, and Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia 2001. We show that aerosol optical depths from the Multiple-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer data match closely with those from the Cimel sunphotometer data for two SAFARI-2000 dates. The observed aerosol radiative forcings were interpreted on the basis of results from the Fu-Liou radiative transfer model, and, in some cases, cross checked with satellite-derived forcing parameters. Values of the aerosol radiative forcing and forcing efficiency, which quantifies the sensitivity of the surface fluxes to the aerosol optical depth, were generated on the basis of a differential technique for all three campaigns, and their scientific significance is discussed.

  7. Dissected Mantle Terrain on Mars: Formation Mechanisms and the Implications for Mid- latitude Near-surface Ground Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searls, M. L.; Mellon, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    Determining the present and past distribution of surface and subsurface ice on Mars is critical for understanding the volatile inventory and climatic history of the planet. An analysis of a latitude-dependent layer of surface material known as the dissected mantle terrain can provide valuable insight into the distribution of ice in the recent past. The dissected mantle terrain is a surface unit that occurs globally in the mid-latitude of Mars. This unit is characterized by a smooth mantle of uniform thickness and albedo that is draped over the existing topography. This smooth mantle is disaggregated and dissected in places resulting in a hummocky pitted appearance. We propose that the mid-latitude dissected terrain results from collapse of a dusty mantle into the void left from desiccation of an underlying ice-rich (pure or dirty ice) layer. During period(s) of high obliquity, it is possible for ice to become stable at lower latitudes. Due to lack of direct solar insolation, surface ice deposits will preferentially accumulate on pole-ward facing slopes first. A mantle of dust and dirt is then deposited on top of these ice-rich deposits. As the climate changes, desiccation of the now buried ice leads to collapse of the overlying dusty layer resulting in a hummocky pitted appearance. This theory is supported by the pole-ward preference for the dissection pits as well an increase in dissection with increasing latitude. A study of the global distribution of the mid-latitude dissected terrain can provide invaluable clues towards unlocking the distribution of ice in the recent past. An analysis of HiRISE images and MOLA data indicate that the distribution of dissection pits varies from one region to the next. Knowing the distribution of ice in conjunction with ice stability modeling can provide a global view of the climate and orbital history of Mars at the time these features formed.

  8. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Breakfasts Shyness A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth > For Teens > A Guide to Eating for Sports Print A A A What's in this article? ... Excellence There's a lot more to eating for sports than chowing down on carbs or chugging sports ...

  9. The Development of Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Ivan

    1996-01-01

    The development of sports medicine was influenced by medicalization and increasing competitiveness in modern sport, with sports physicians helping to develop performance enhancing drugs and techniques. This paper discusses sports medicine and drug use in Eastern European countries, early development of anabolic steroids in the United States, and…

  10. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for You Shyness A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth > For Teens > A Guide to Eating for Sports Print A A A What's in this article? ... Excellence There's a lot more to eating for sports than chowing down on carbs or chugging sports ...

  11. Sport in the Netherlands 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Koen Breedveld

    2009-01-01

    Sport is a popular pastime in the Netherlands; More than 10 million people take part in at least one sport. To do this, they can choose from more than 27,000 non-profit sports clubs, or more than 7,200 commercial providers such as fitness centres or riding stables. Among the most popular sports are

  12. Characterization of surface and ground water δ18O seasonal variation and its use for estimating groundwater residence times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Michael M.; Schuster, Paul; Kendall, Carol; Reddy, Micaela B.

    2006-01-01

    18O is an ideal tracer for characterizing hydrological processes because it can be reliably measured in several watershed hydrological compartments. Here, we present multiyear isotopic data, i.e. 18O variations (δ18O), for precipitation inputs, surface water and groundwater in the Shingobee River Headwaters Area (SRHA), a well-instrumented research catchment in north-central Minnesota. SRHA surface waters exhibit δ18O seasonal variations similar to those of groundwaters, and seasonal δ18O variations plotted versus time fit seasonal sine functions. These seasonal δ18O variations were interpreted to estimate surface water and groundwater mean residence times (MRTs) at sampling locations near topographically closed-basin lakes. MRT variations of about 1 to 16 years have been estimated over an area covering about 9 km2 from the basin boundary to the most downgradient well. Estimated MRT error (±0·3 to ±0·7 years) is small for short MRTs and is much larger (±10 years) for a well with an MRT (16 years) near the limit of the method. Groundwater transit time estimates based on Darcy's law, tritium content, and the seasonal δ18O amplitude approach appear to be consistent within the limits of each method. The results from this study suggest that use of the δ18O seasonal variation method to determine MRTs can help assess groundwater recharge areas in small headwaters catchments.

  13. Sport Nutritionist: A New Sport Education Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Matthew R.; Zimmerman, Ryan; Ciotto, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Considering the challenges associated with adolescent obesity and the need for innovative and meaningful physical education curricula, the authors of this article decided to create a new sport education role to help students learn about the fundamental nutritional concepts and practices that contribute to a healthy and active lifestyle. The new…

  14. Sport Nutritionist: A New Sport Education Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Matthew R.; Zimmerman, Ryan; Ciotto, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Considering the challenges associated with adolescent obesity and the need for innovative and meaningful physical education curricula, the authors of this article decided to create a new sport education role to help students learn about the fundamental nutritional concepts and practices that contribute to a healthy and active lifestyle. The new…

  15. Nutrition for winter sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nanna L; Manore, Melinda M; Helle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable physiological and physique characteristics, energy and substrate demands, and environmental training and competition conditions. What most winter sport athletes have in common is a relatively lean physique and high-intensity training periods, thus they require greater energy and nutrient intakes, along with adequate food and fluid before, during, and after training. Event fuelling is most challenging for cross-country skiers competing in long events, ski jumpers aiming to reduce their body weight, and those winter sport athletes incurring repeated qualification rounds and heats. These athletes need to ensure carbohydrate availability throughout competition. Finally, winter sport athletes may benefit from dietary and sport supplements; however, attention should be paid to safety and efficacy if supplementation is considered.

  16. Genetics & sport: bioethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy

    2012-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the ethical issues pertaining to the use of genetic insights and techniques in sport. Initially, it considers a range of scientific findings that have stimulated debate about the ethical issues associated with genetics applied to sport. It also outlines some of the early policy responses to these discoveries from world leading sports organizations, along with knowledge about actual use of gene technologies in sport. Subsequently, it considers the challenges with distinguishing between therapeutic use and human enhancement within genetic science, which is a particularly important issue for the world of sport. Next, particular attention is given to the use of genetic information, which raises questions about the legitimacy and reliability of genetic tests, along with the potential public value of having DNA databanks to economize in health care. Finally, the ethics of gene transfer are considered, inviting questions into the values of sport and humanity. It argues that, while gene modification may seem conceptually similar to other forms of doping, the requirements upon athletes are such that new forms of enhancement become increasingly necessary to discover. Insofar as genetic science is able to create safer, more effective techniques of human modification, then it may be an appealing route through which to modify athletes to safeguard the future of elite sports as enterprises of human excellence.

  17. MANAGEMENT OF SPORT COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian STAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The actuality of the investigated theme. Nowadays, human evolution, including his intellectual development, proves the fact that especially the creation manpower and the employment was the solution of all life’s ambitions in society. So, the fact is that in reality, man is the most important capital of the society. Also, in an individual’s life, the practice of sport plays a significant role and that’s why the initiation, the launch and the management of sports complexes activity reveal the existence of specific management features that we will identify and explain in the current study. The aim of the research refers to the elaboration of a theoretical base of the management of the sport complexes, to the pointing of the factors that influence the efficient existence and function of a sport complex in our country and to the determination of the responsibilities that have a manager who directs successfully the activity of the sport complexes. The investigation is based on theoretical methods, such as: scientific documentation, analysis, synthesis, comparison and on empirical research methods, like: study of researched literature and observation. The results of the research indicate the fact that the profitability of a sport complex must assure a particular structure to avoid the bankruptcy risk and also, that the administration of the sport complexes activity must keep in view the reliable functions of the contemporaneous management.

  18. Sports and arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giada, F; Conte, R; Pescatore, V; Brugin, E

    2011-06-01

    Rhythm disorders represent the main challenge for the sport physician and cardiologist to grant the certificate of sports eligibility to the athletes. Arrhythmias that occur in athletes can be divided into two types. The most common are generally an expression of morphofunctional changes in the athlete's heart and are represented by certain forms of non-complex tachyarrhythmias and bradyarrhythmias. On the other hand you may encounter less frequently more complex arrhythmias that may be an epiphenomenon of cardiomyopathy can cause sudden death during sports activities. By collection of detailed medical history, careful examination, and in particular by the 12-lead electrocardiogram is already possible to understand the arrhythmic risk sporting population. After an analysis of main types of arrhythmias encountered in the athlete and the main diagnostic methods, this study focuses on the interplay between forms of arrhythmias, arrhythmogenic heart diseases and activity sports. Surely the increased adrenergic tone and anatomical and functional alterations sports-related favor the development of arrhythmia and sudden death risk in structural cardiomyopathies. But this is not yet resolved the question of whether sport is able to increase the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias in a normal heart. Dangerousness of the arrhythmia is variable depending on the sport is practiced with high intensity or not. Even if it is important considering the possibility of syncope in hazardous environments. Arrhythmias at risk impose the exclusion of the athlete from the practice of sport. In some cases it may be considered a drug treatment, ablation, and in rare and selected cases, the implantation of a pacemaker or an implantable defibrillator.

  19. Duct Tape, Icy Hot & Paddles: Narratives of Initiation onto US Male Sport Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Jennifer J.; Lynn, Quinten; Krane, Vikki

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, initiation or hazing activities in high school and university sport are increasingly being recognized as a serious issue facing coaches and sport administrators. These events include humiliation, degradation or abuse of new team members, presumed to enhance team bonding. This study is grounded in Waldron and Krane's…

  20. Developing School Students' Identity and Engagement through Lifestyle Sports: A Case Study of Unicycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignold, Wendy J.

    2013-01-01

    This article emerges from a background of UK policy concerns about young people's participation in physical activity. It rehearses the arguments for lifestyle sports as a rich ground for enhancing students' engagement with physical education (PE). A review of the still limited literature suggests that lifestyle sports may have an under-exploited…