WorldWideScience

Sample records for surfacing methods vie

  1. Meilleure ville,meilleure vie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡浩文

    2011-01-01

    @@ Le choix de > comme thème principal de l'Expo universelle de Shanghai n'est pas un hasard.Le XXIe siècle,une période importante de développement urbain,constitue déjà un sujet de recherche d'importance mondiale et a attiré l'attention de tous les pays.On peut lire,dans la > publiée en 1996 par le Centre des Nations Unies pour l'établissement humain,la phrase suivante:> Or,dans les villes d'aujourd'hui au développement accéléré,les habitants font face à de nombreux défis:espaces habitables trop serrés,confrontations culturelles,pénurie de ressources,pollution de l'environnement,etc.Tous ces problèmes,diminuant la qualità de la vie des citadins et érodant la vitalité de la ville,sont dus aux déséquilibres des rapports entre les hommes eux-mêmes.

  2. Kohvik-restoran C'est La Vie = Cafe-restaurant C'est La Vie

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Kohvik-restorani C'est La Vie (Suur-Karja 5, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitekt: Maile Grünberg, kes kavandas ka valdavalt mööbli. Laevalgusti disainis Tõnis Vellama. Skulptuuride (koopiad) autor on keraamik Ülle Rajasalu. Maile Grünbergist, tema viimased tööd. Keldrikorruse ja I korruse plaan, 8 värv. vaadet, foto M. Grünbergist

  3. Kohvik-restoran C'est La Vie = Cafe-restaurant C'est La Vie

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Kohvik-restorani C'est La Vie (Suur-Karja 5, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitekt: Maile Grünberg, kes kavandas ka valdavalt mööbli. Laevalgusti disainis Tõnis Vellama. Skulptuuride (koopiad) autor on keraamik Ülle Rajasalu. Maile Grünbergist, tema viimased tööd. Keldrikorruse ja I korruse plaan, 8 värv. vaadet, foto M. Grünbergist

  4. Atelier Eginhard : Vie de Charlemagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Sot et Christiane Veyrard-Cosme

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La Vie de Charlemagne par Eginhard est assurément l’un des textes les plus célèbres en histoire médiévale. Nous en connaissons aujourd’hui 134 manuscrits complets et une cinquantaine d’autres partiels, dont Matthias Tishler a donné le catalogue en 2001. Sur le modèle de « l’Atelier gesta », associant historiens et philologues, qui a conduit à l’édition et la traduction des Gestes des évêques d’Auxerre, Michel Sot a réuni une équipe renouvelée, avec la participation notamment de Christiane Vey...

  5. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1990-01-01

    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  6. La simplicité dans la vie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王沫涵

    2011-01-01

    Il para(i)t qu'il n'y a plus de choses simples dans la vie.On ne peut pas se lever sans radioréveil;on ne peut pas prendre le petit déjeuner sans réfrigérateur ni four à micro-onde;on ne peut pas suivre un cours sans projecteur,ou bien sans didacticiel;on ne peut pas écrire sans ordinateur,et encore,on ne peut pas s'endormir sans berceuse é1ectronique.On ne peut pas remercier quelqu'un sans cadeau précieux.Un garcon ne peut pas avoir le coeur de sa petite amie sans lui offri 999 roses.Une femme ne veut passe marier avec un homme sans voiture ni maison.Une mère ne peut pas élever un enfant sans remède ni recette compliqués,ou bien sans jouet animé.Le monde ne peut pas acquérir la paix sans force de dissuasion nucléaire.

  7. Une vie active saine pour les enfants et les adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    De mauvais modes de vie, comme une alimentation malsaine et l’inactivité physique, sont d'importants facteurs contributifs à une augmentation de la morbidité et de la mortalité secondaires à des maladies chroniques à l’âge adulte. Depuis dix ans, on remarque une augmentation du mode de vie sédentaire et de l’obésité chez les enfants et les adolescents, tant en Amérique du Nord qu’ailleurs dans le monde. Les médecins doivent être conscients de l’importance du problème, fournir des conseils de prévention aux familles et promouvoir une vie active saine dans leur pratique.

  8. Method of surface preparation of niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni; Schill, John F.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a method of preparing a surface of niobium. The preparation method includes polishing, cleaning, baking and irradiating the niobium surface whereby the resulting niobium surface has a high quantum efficiency.

  9. Agency in translating Une Vie de Boy into English: Exploring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    translation by the late John Reed of Ferdinand Oyono's Une Vie de Boy, this paper seeks to show how .... Pandemonium, was announced for publication in 1960 (Brown 2004:40), but it is said to have ... first discover what people actually do and the reasons they give .... educated to dress, eat, talk and think like the French.

  10. Jean Mélia, La Vie amoureuse de Stendhal

    OpenAIRE

    Arrous, Michel

    2017-01-01

    À l’époque où Stendhal devenait un objet de culte, Jean Mélia, dont le nom était loin de faire autorité, a mis Stendhal en coupe réglée: Stendhal et les femmes (1902), refondu en 1909 sous le titre La Vie amoureuse de Stendhal, Les idées de Stendhal (1910), et le fort utile Stendhal et ses commentateurs (1911, reprint Eurédit, 2012). Léautaud, qui venait de préfacer un recueil des «Plus belles pages» de Stendhal, ne l’a pas épargné: «Quant à la Vie amoureuse de Stendhal, n’est-ce pas que c’es...

  11. METHODS TO DEVELOP A TOROIDAL SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANAILA Ligia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper work presents two practical methods to draw the development of a surface unable to be developed applying classical methods of Descriptive Geometry, the toroidal surface, frequently met in technical practice. The described methods are approximate ones; the development is obtained with the help of points. The accuracy of the methods is given by the number of points used when drawing. As for any other approximate method, when practically manufactured the development may need to be adjusted on site.

  12. Correlation studies on surface particle detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ronald V.; White, James C.

    1988-01-01

    The accurate determination of dust levels on optical surfaces is necessary to assess sensor system performance. A comparison study was made on several particle measurement methods including those based on direct imaging and light scattering. The effectiveness of removing the particles from the surface prior to determining particle size distributions was also assessed. These studies revealed that some methods, especially those requiring particle removal before analysis, are subject to large systematic errors affecting particle size distributions. Thus, an understanding of the particle measurement methods employed is necessary before any surface cleanliness or obstruction value assignments are accepted as true representations of an optical surface contamination condition.

  13. Lewis Porter, John Coltrane. Sa vie, sa musique

    OpenAIRE

    Parent, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Les éditions Outre Mesure viennent de mettre à la disposition du lectorat français, avec la qualité de mise en page et en musique qu’on leur connaît, un nouveau livre de référence en musicologie du jazz. Salué à sa sortie par la critique en langue anglaise en 1998, John Coltrane. Sa vie, sa musique constitue en effet un ouvrage fort complet pour qui veut s’immerger dans le langage du heavyweight champion. L’auteur, enseignant à Rutgers (l’université du New Jersey abritant depuis les années 19...

  14. Developpement d'une methode d'analyse du cycle de vie consequentielle prospective macroscopique : Evaluation d'une politique de bioenergie dans L'Union Europeenne a l'horizon 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandres, Thomas

    Most of the time, the increase in human activities harms the environment. Due to the capacity limit of the Earth to bear such impacts and considering the growth of world population and its demands, there is a need to manage the future growth of human society in order to mitigate its impacts on the environment. Life cycle assessment (LCA) seems to be a great methodology for this purpose because it assesses different types of environmental impacts of a product or service based on all of its life cycle stages. However, it appears that LCA is not adapted to the evaluation of large-scale international policies required for some environmental issues. Especially, current LCA methodology fails to properly model indirect consequences on the environment of a major change within the energy sector in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change. To model these indirect consequences on the environment, global economy modeling is required as a major change in the energy sector is expected to affect the rest of the economy and therefore to cause indirect environmental impacts. This is the goal of this university thesis: Develop a new decision tool "macroscopic life cycle assessment" using the LCA methodology and the GTAP macroeconomic model in order to assess environmental impacts caused by significant changes in human society. Application of macroscopic LCA to two different European energy policies for the 2005-2025 period shows its ability to model some rebound effects and to compare environmental benefits obtained from a bioenergy policy versus environmental impacts caused by the economic growth during 2005-2025. Additionally, the method allows to identify regions where and time periods when environmental impacts are expected to occur. Macroscopic LCA has important application opportunities for LCA: while the methodology is usually used to study the environmental profile of a product or service, it now becomes possible to evaluate environmental

  15. Methods of decontaminating surfaces and related compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, Ricky L.; Crosby, Daniel; Norton, Christopher J.

    2016-11-22

    A composition of matter includes water, at least one acid, at least one surfactant, at least one fluoride salt, and ammonium nitrate. A method of decontaminating a surface includes exposing a surface to such a composition and removing the composition from the surface. Other compositions of matter include water, a fatty alcohol ether sulfate, nitrilotriacetic acid, at least one of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid, sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride, ammonium nitrate, and gelatin.

  16. Electro-impulse Method of Surface Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Bekbolat R. Nussupbekov; Kappas Kussaynov; Аyanbergen К. Khassenov

    2013-01-01

    This article is focused on the qualitative assessment of the electro-impulse method of surface cleaning efficiency. Heat exchanger tubes are cleaned under the action of blast waves created by the high voltage discharge in the liquid. The article presents dependences of degree of surface purification on the impulse voltage at switching device and on spark rate

  17. Electro-impulse Method of Surface Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekbolat R. Nussupbekov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the qualitative assessment of the electro-impulse method of surface cleaning efficiency. Heat exchanger tubes are cleaned under the action of blast waves created by the high voltage discharge in the liquid. The article presents dependences of degree of surface purification on the impulse voltage at switching device and on spark rate

  18. Method for producing smooth inner surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Charles A.

    2016-05-17

    The invention provides a method for preparing superconducting cavities, the method comprising causing polishing media to tumble by centrifugal barrel polishing within the cavities for a time sufficient to attain a surface smoothness of less than 15 nm root mean square roughness over approximately a 1 mm.sup.2 scan area. The method also provides for a method for preparing superconducting cavities, the method comprising causing polishing media bound to a carrier to tumble within the cavities. The method also provides for a method for preparing superconducting cavities, the method comprising causing polishing media in a slurry to tumble within the cavities.

  19. Placement of the AbbVie PEG-J tube for the treatment of Parkinson's disease in the interventional radiology suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Mark L.; Miner, Noel K.; Soileau, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The primary treatment for Parkinson's disease is dopaminergic stimulation. Although levodopa has historically been administered orally, maintaining a predictable plasma concentration of the drug is challenging. As a result, enteral administration of carbidopa/levodopa (Duopa) has emerged as a promising tool in the treatment of the disease. This requires placement of an enteric catheter, two of which have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for delivery of Duopa. The approved tubes are placed using the “peroral” or “pull” technique, a method traditionally requiring endoscopy. This technical note describes placement of the AbbVie PEG-J tube by means of the peroral route while utilizing only sonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. After placing an orogastric tube and achieving percutaneous access to the stomach under fluoroscopic visualization, a snare catheter is advanced through the percutaneous access into the stomach. The orogastric tube is engaged with the snare and retracted, bringing the attached snare with it to the mouth. The AbbVie PEG tube is attached to the snare, pulled back down the esophagus and into the stomach before being retracted through the percutaneous access to the skin. Finally, the AbbVie J tube is advanced through the gastrostomy tube into the proximal jejunum and attached with the provided connectors. As demonstrated, the AbbVie PEG-J tube can be placed safely and effectively using a percutaneous image-guided technique without the use of an endoscope.

  20. Method of surface treatment on sapphire substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Xin-huan; LIU Yu-ling; TAN Bai-mei; HAN Li-ying; ZHANG Jian-xin

    2006-01-01

    Sapphire single crystals are widely used in many areas because of the special physic properties and important application value. As an important substrate material,stringent surface quality requirements,i.e. surface finish and flatness,are required. The use of CMP technique can produce high quality surface finishes at low cost and with fast material removal rates. The sapphire substrate surface is treated by using CMP method. According to sapphire substrate and its product properties,SiO2 sol is chosen as abrasive. The particle size is 15-25 nm and the concentration is 40%. According to the experiment results,pH value is 10.5-11.5. After polishing and cleaning the sapphire surface,the surface roughness was measured by using AFM method and the lowest value of Ra 0.1 nm was obtained. From the results,it can be seen that using such method,the optimal sapphire surface can be gotten,which is advantageous for epitaxial growth and device making-up.

  1. Coherent methods for measuring ophthalmic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenkolber, Matthias; Podbielska, Halina

    1996-01-01

    Topographic analysis of the ophthalmic surfaces is an important task. Especially recently, when a laser assisted refractive surgery becomes more and more popular in a daily clinical praxis. Ophthalmologists need to know exact corneal parameters as a basis for proper operational approach, as well as for monitoring of the post-operative process. The fitting of the contact lenses can be more accurate when topography of both, cornea and contacts, can be precisely measured. We develop new coherent methods for measuring of the topography of curved optical surfaces. One of the proposed techniques is based on interferometry with a special distance measurement unit and spatial phase shifting interferogram evaluation. The other one uses deflectometry with spatial carrier frequency. The sensitivity of this method is adjustable and thus it closes the gap between the white light and interferometric measuring methods. The techniques proposed here can be suitable for measurement of the contact lenses or corneal surface.

  2. Status and future plans for the Vienna VLBI Software VieVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, T.; Böhm, J.; Böhm, S.; Madzak, M.; Nafisi, V.; Plank, L.; Spicakova, H.; Sun, J.; Tierno Ros, C.; Schuh, H.

    2011-07-01

    The Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) is a new VLBI analysis software which has been developed at the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics of the Vienna University of Technology since 2008. In this software, which is written in Matlab, the most recent IERS Conventions and are implemented, and through a graphical user interface it is easy to use. Lately, two new modules have been added to the official version of VieVS. One is a simulation module (VIE_SIM) which allows to create simulated VLBI observations. The other is a global solution module (VIE_GLOB) which can be used for combining several sessions in a global solution in order to derive e.g. a terrestrial and/or a celestial reference frame. In this presentation an overview of VieVS and its current status will be given and its performance will be demonstrated by showing selected results. We also discuss the planned future developments of VieVS. These include the possibility to use external tropospheric delays obtained, e.g. by ray-tracing through numerical weather models, to use external ionospheric corrections from, e.g. GNSS TEC maps, and to implement a Kalman filter solution. We also plan to cover earlier steps in the VLBI data processing chain, like ambiguity resolution, which have not been considered so far in VieVS.

  3. Išlaidų viešojoje įstaigoje apskaitos modelis

    OpenAIRE

    Jefimovas, Egidijus

    2014-01-01

    SANTRAUKA Pagal Lietuvos Respublikos viešųjų įstaigų įstatymą (2004) viešoji įstaiga − tai pelno nesiekiantis ribotos civilinės atsakomybės viešasis juridinis asmuo, kurio tikslas − tenkinti viešuosius interesus vykdant visuomenei naudingą veiklą. Kad sėkmingai vykdyti veiklą, reikia materialinių ir finansinių išteklių. Išlaidų apskaita įgalina rasti būdų taupiai naudoti išteklius. Todėl tyrimai šioje srityje yra aktualūs. Magistro darbas susideda iš keturių dalių: problemos analizės, teorini...

  4. PARANOÏA: la vie secrète de Salvador Dali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Buuren, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    En 1942, Salvador Dali, âgé de trente-huit ans, termine son autobiographie La vie secrète de Salvador Dali. Il prétend s’y livrer au lecteur en toute candeur. Mais c’est un leurre. Dali construit l’histoire de sa vie sur ce qu’il considère comme sa trouvaille capitale : la méthode

  5. Particules de vie conversation avec François Englert

    CERN Document Server

    Baré, François

    2014-01-01

    Ce fut l'événement de l'année 2013 : François Englert obtenait le prix Nobel de physique pour la découverte du boson. Le premier Belge à être honoré par ce prix depuis Ilya Prigogine en 1977. Françoise Baré, journaliste à la RTBF, et Guy Duplat, ingénieur civil physicien, ex-rédacteur en chef du Soir, auteur de Une vague belge (Racine) et journaliste à La Libre Belgique, ont rencontré plusieurs fois, longuement, François Englert, avant son prix et après celui-ci. Ils étaient là lors de l'annonce de la découverte du boson de BEH, lors de l'annonce du prix Nobel et, à Stockholm, lors de la remise du prix par le roi de Suède. À eux, François Englert a accepté de raconter sa chasse au boson, sa vie, ses idées. Au fil de la conversation se dessine alors le portrait attachant d'un homme brillant et libre, habité par un rêve, celui de comprendre, de décortiquer ce monde et de chercher la beauté de ses lois. Avec, en annexe, les grands points scientifiques qui éclairent le travail de F...

  6. Stahl et les âges de la vie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Carvallo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La vieillesse constitue une pierre de touche pour toute théorie médicale : elle oblige à rendre raison de la temporalité à l’œuvre dans la vie. Aux yeux de Stahl, les iatromécaniciens méconnaissent la dimension temporelle de l’organisme ; en particulier, ils en ignorent la périodicité. Comprendre la vieillesse suppose donc la critique de la représentation linéaire du temps organique, que développe la mécanique et qui réduit le vivant au seul composé physique et chimique. Il reste alors à trouver la cause de la périodicité organique : sur ce point, Georg Ernst Stahl critique Thomas Sydenham, qui reconnaît certes la périodicité du vivant mais nie la possibilité d’une médecine étiologique. Pour sa part, le médecin de Halle cherche à rendre compte du vieillissement en lien avec les actions organiques fondamentales : le tonus, la circulation, l’excrétion, la sécrétion.

  7. L'Avenir de la Vie sur la Terre

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Notre planète va mal : réchauffement climatique, épuisement des ressources naturelles, pollutions des sols et de l'eau provoquées par les industries civiles et guerrières, disparité des richesses, malnutrition des hommes, taux d'extinction effarant des espèces vivantes, etc. La situation est-elle vraiment dramatique ? Que penser des thèses qui contestent ce pessimisme ? À partir des données scientifiques les plus crédibles - et de leurs incertitudes -, Hubert Reeves dresse un bilan précis des menaces qui pèsent sur la planète. Son diagnostic est alarmant : si la vie sur Terre est robuste, c'est l'avenir de l'espèce humaine qui est en cause. Le sort de l'aventure humaine, entamée il y a des millions d'années, va-t-il se jouer en l'espace de quelques décennies ? Notre avenir est entre nos mains. Il faut réagir, et vite, avant qu'il ne soit trop tard. Auteur de nombreux ouvrages sur l'odyssée cosmique tel Patience dans l'azur ou Poussières d'étoiles, Hubert Reeves est astrophysicien et dire...

  8. La Vie de Marillac : un essai hagiographique ? Analyse comparée des sources utilisées par Nicolas Lefèvre de Lezeau dans la Vie de Marillac et la Vie de Morvillier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora De Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considérer Nicolas Lefèvre de Lezeau comme le biographe de son grand oncle ou comme l’hagiographe de son ami Michel de Marillac revient à glorifier la mémoire des trois héros au détriment du projet d’écriture de l’auteur. La Vie de Jean de Morvillier et la Vie de Michel de Marillac sont vivement marquées par l’omniprésence de leur auteur, quand bien même l’illusion de la richesse documentaire sur les trois héros voudrait l’estomper. Parce qu’ils convoquent une documentation riche et de nombreuses références littéraires, les trois récits de vie retrouvés témoignent d’une quête d’authenticité par leur auteur. En ce sens, la Vie de Marillac se dégage des deux autres récits de vie écrits par Lezeau. Le conseiller d’état n’y cherche effectivement pas seulement à raviver la mémoire de la Ligue dans le milieu dévot, ni même à construire une filiation entre ces deux partis. L’originalité de la Vie de Marillac tient de l’abondance des références spirituelles et de l’autorité que les mystiques incarnent pour sa validation. Pour les mystiques, la vie chargée d’un officier d’état demeure incompatible avec le mode de vie humble et contemplatif d’un « petit ». Du côté des politiques, la « cabale des dévots » représente une menace croissante pour l’autorité du roi. Dès lors, la Vie de Marillac de Lezeau nous invite à réfléchir sur les caractéristiques de rejet d’un modèle de sainteté (E. Suire. La postérité retient Marillac pour sa témérité et sa faillite face à la raison d’état de Richelieu, comme l’attestent le peu de biographies des xixe-xxe siècles de ce garde des sceaux. Parallèlement, si Marillac est décrit comme un laïc ayant fait preuve d’une grande dévotion dans les Histoires de l’ordre des Carmélites déchaussées parues aux xixe et xxe siècles, sa part active à la fondation de l’ordre en France ne suffit pas à faire de lui un saint

  9. In search of Godard’s ‘Sauve la vie (qui peut’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Witt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a little-known compilation film titled Sauve la vie (qui peut that Jean-Luc Godard created in 1981 within the framework of a series of lectures on cinema history that he delivered in Rotterdam in 1980-1981. To make this compilation film he combined sections from his Sauve qui peut (la vie with extracts from four other films. Based on archival research, the article considers the context for the screening, the film’s structure, Godard’s wider engagement with the filmmakers whose work he incorporated, the prints he used, my attempts to reconstruct the film, and its reception in 1981 and today.

  10. La tradition cosmique extraits du livre de la vie de Kelaouchi

    CERN Document Server

    Théon, Max; Ligaran

    2015-01-01

    Extrait : ""Dans une vision de la nuit, une voix me parla, disant : ""La matière n'est-elle pas suprême ?"" Ne sachant d'où venait cette vois, je ne répondis point. Comme je gardais le silence, une voix dit : La vie n'est-elle point suprême ?"" Une troisième voix, que je connaissais, dit alors : ""La matière et la vie sont inséparables dans tout le Cosmos de l'être, puisque tout ce qui est vit.""

  11. Training Valence, Instrumentality, and Expectancy Scale (T-VIES-it): Factor Structure and Nomological Network in an Italian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniboni, Sara; Fraccaroli, Franco; Truxillo, Donald M.; Bertolino, Marilena; Bauer, Talya N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to validate, in an Italian sample, a multidimensional training motivation measure (T-VIES-it) based on expectancy (VIE) theory, and to examine the nomological network surrounding the construct. Design/methodology/approach: Using a cross-sectional design study, 258 public sector employees in Northeast Italy…

  12. Training Valence, Instrumentality, and Expectancy Scale (T-VIES-it): Factor Structure and Nomological Network in an Italian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniboni, Sara; Fraccaroli, Franco; Truxillo, Donald M.; Bertolino, Marilena; Bauer, Talya N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to validate, in an Italian sample, a multidimensional training motivation measure (T-VIES-it) based on expectancy (VIE) theory, and to examine the nomological network surrounding the construct. Design/methodology/approach: Using a cross-sectional design study, 258 public sector employees in Northeast Italy…

  13. Study on Surface Plotting Methods in Parts Plotting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhen; ZHAO Fa-dong

    2013-01-01

    According to the factors that confirm the shape of surface, it is classified into two categories:arc surface and curve surface. The method to confirm the category of surfaces and the plotting methods are discussed in this paper, which provide guidance for parts plotting.

  14. Method of designing developable surface based on engineering requirement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ji-xin; LIU Zhe; LIU Jian

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the principle of envelope of a one-parameter plane family to design developable surfaces. Three methods of designing developable surfaces are presented. They are designing a developable surface based on one curve on it and its normal line, designing a developable surface based on two curves on it and designing a developable surface based on one curve and one surface. They meet the requirements of engineering fields.

  15. The Vie Cave Geomorphological Site in Southern Tuscany (Italy: Problems of Decay and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pecchioni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Vie Cave are a suggestive network of roads deeply entrenched in the rock, dating back to the Etruscan civilization; these ancient roads connect various settlements and necropolises existing mainly in the area of Sovana, Sorano and Pitigliano towns (Southern Tuscany, Italy. The Vie Cave are located in a peculiar geomorphological site, characterized by the presence of extensive pyroclastic deposits, which have been incised by a parallel network of deep gorges. In this paper, the geomorphological, geological and lithological setting of the Vie Cave area, where several Etruscan archaeological sites are found, are described. The precarious stability of the Vie Cave walls and the several archaeological structures carved into them, the high grade of decay shown by the constituent materials, together with the dense vegetation that has developed over the rocky scarps, are taken into account with the aim to provide a complete assessment of the conditions in which the site lies. Finally, we propose some targeted actions related to the preservation of this territory, showing so distinctive morphology, in order to protect the area from further decay to which it would be subjected if it remained abandoned.

  16. A volume-based method for denoising on curved surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Biddle, Harry

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate a method for removing noise from images or other data on curved surfaces. Our approach relies on in-surface diffusion: we formulate both the Gaussian diffusion and Perona-Malik edge-preserving diffusion equations in a surface-intrinsic way. Using the Closest Point Method, a recent technique for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) on general surfaces, we obtain a very simple algorithm where we merely alternate a time step of the usual Gaussian diffusion (and similarly Perona-Malik) in a small 3D volume containing the surface with an interpolation step. The method uses a closest point function to represent the underlying surface and can treat very general surfaces. Experimental results include image filtering on smooth surfaces, open surfaces, and general triangulated surfaces. © 2013 IEEE.

  17. Surface analysis methods in materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Sexton, Brett; Smart, Roger

    1992-01-01

    The idea for this book stemmed from a remark by Philip Jennings of Murdoch University in a discussion session following a regular meeting of the Australian Surface Science group. He observed that a text on surface analysis and applica­ tions to materials suitable for final year undergraduate and postgraduate science students was not currently available. Furthermore, the members of the Australian Surface Science group had the research experience and range of coverage of sur­ face analytical techniques and applications to provide a text for this purpose. A of techniques and applications to be included was agreed at that meeting. The list intended readership of the book has been broadened since the early discussions, particularly to encompass industrial users, but there has been no significant alter­ ation in content. The editors, in consultation with the contributors, have agreed that the book should be prepared for four major groups of readers: - senior undergraduate students in chemistry, physics, metallur...

  18. Buoy Relay Method for Instantaneous Fluid Flow with Free Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Several methods have been used to approximate free surface boundaries in finite-difference numerical simulations. Each of these methods has its advantages and disadvantages. This paper presents a new technique for the numerical solution of transient incompressible free surface fluid flows. This powerful method, which is based on the concepts of "Buoy positioning" and "Buoy relaying", successfully represents the free surface using a Lagrangian method on a Eulerian grid by directly solving the free surface evolution equation. The Eulerian finite-difference forms of the full Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the Successive over Relaxation (SOR) method with a set of buoys to keep track of the free surface. The capabilities of the analysis procedure are demonstrated through viscous free surface fluid flow examples. The method is simpler and more efficient than other methods especially in treating complicated free boundary configurations.

  19. A real time method for surface cleanliness measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Bilmes, Gabriel Mario; Orzi, Daniel Jesús Omar; Martínez , Oscar E.; Lencina, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    The measurement of surface cleanliness is a signifi cant problem in many industrial and technological processes. Existing methods are based on laboratory procedures, that are not performed in real time, can not be automated, and usually are restricted to a small portion of the sample. In this study we describe a new method for real time measurement of the amount of surface dirt or contamination deposited on a surface. It relies on the ablation of the surface dirt film by means of a ...

  20. Faktoriai, veikiantys paslaugų naujovių taikymą viešbučių versle

    OpenAIRE

    Kinderis, Remigijus

    2011-01-01

    Remiantis užsienio moksline literatūra ir atliktais moksliniais tyrimais, straipsnyje teoriniu ir praktiniu aspektu analizuojamas paslaugų naujovių taikymas viešbučių versle. Atskleidžiama naujovių samprata, analizuojami faktoriai, lemiantys naujovių taikymą paslaugų sektoriuje. Ypatingas dėmesys skiriamas sėkmingų paslaugų naujovių taikymo grandinės viešbučiuose ir nepriklausomai veikiančiuose viešbučiuose analizei. On the grounds of scientific literature and research, this article analys...

  1. Analysis of surface asperity flattening based on two different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hejie; Öchsner, Andreas; Ni, Guowei; Wei, Dongbin; Jiang, Zhengyi

    2016-11-01

    The stress state is an important parameter in metal forming processes, which significantly influences the strain state and microstructure of products, affecting their surface qualities. In order to make the metal products have a good surface quality, the surface stress state must be optimised. In this study, two classical methods, the upper bound method and the crystal plasticity finite element method, were investigated. The differences between the two methods were discussed in regard to the model, the velocity field, and the strain field. Then the related surface roughness is deduced.

  2. Triangulated manifold meshing method preserving molecular surface topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minxin; Tu, Bin; Lu, Benzhuo

    2012-09-01

    Generation of manifold mesh is an urgent issue in mathematical simulations of biomolecule using boundary element methods (BEM) or finite element method (FEM). Defects, such as not closed mesh, intersection of elements and missing of small structures, exist in surface meshes generated by most of the current meshing method. Usually the molecular surface meshes produced by existing methods need to be revised carefully by third party software to ensure the surface represents a continuous manifold before being used in a BEM and FEM calculations. Based on the trace technique proposed in our previous work, in this paper, we present an improved meshing method to avoid intersections and preserve the topology of the molecular Gaussian surface. The new method divides the whole Gaussian surface into single valued pieces along each of x, y, z directions by tracing the extreme points along the fold curves on the surface. Numerical test results show that the surface meshes produced by the new method are manifolds and preserve surface topologies. The result surface mesh can also be directly used in surface conforming volume mesh generation for FEM type simulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional Analysis in Public Sector Funkcinė analizė viešajame sektoriuje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živilė Tunčikienė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The main aim of the paper is to explore the theoretical aspects of functional analysis on purpose to identify the essence of functional analysis in public sector. This objective was chosen in reference to relevant problem of modern-day, i.e. inefficiency and ineffectiveness of public sector activities. The article contains functional analysis goals, tasks formed by different sources of literature; also, interpretations of the process of functional analysis are introduced. The conclusions were made that the main goal of functional analysis is to suggest an optimal set of functions that have to be performed in order to assure high quality of public services and minimal possible costs throughout all the hierarchical levels of government.

    Keywords: public sector, public administration reform, public institutions, functional analysis, effectiveness.

    Visuomenei itin aktuali per didelių viešojo sektoriaus išlaidų bei nepakankamai kokybiškų viešųjų paslaugų problema. Siekiant mažinti viešojo sektoriaus išlaidas ir kartu gerinti viešųjų paslaugų kokybę, būtina grįsti institucijų veiklos būtinumą ir kartu adekvatumą besikeičiantiems aplinkos reikalavimams. Siekiant išspręsti tokio pobūdžio uždavinius, viešajame sektoriuje vis tvirčiau įsigali tendencija taikyti verslo praktikoje patikrintas ir teigiamai pasitvirtinusias valdymo priemones. Viena svarbiausių i

  4. Method for treatment of a surface area of steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhowmik, S.; Aaldert, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for treatment of a surface area of steel by polishing said surface area and performing a plasma treatment of said surface area wherein the plasma treatment is performed at at least atmospheric conditions and wherein the plasma treatment is carried out at a power of

  5. Fahrstuhlfahrten und Einstiegsschwierigkeiten. Erschließungstechniken in Georges Perecs »La Vie mode d’emploi

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johanne Mohs

    2014-01-01

    ...«) und hier insbesondere (die Genese von) Georges Perecs Roman »La vie mode d’emploi«. Genauer wird daran gezeigt, wie Perec eine blockierte Fahrstuhlfahrt als metaphorische Referenz auf seine...

  6. Method of Direct Texture Synthesis on Arbitrary Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-Li Wu; Chun-Hui Mei; Jiao-Ying Shi

    2004-01-01

    A direct texture synthesis method on arbitrary surfaces is proposed in this paper. The idea is to recursively map triangles on surface to texture space until the surface is completely mapped. First, the surface is simplified and a tangential vector field is created over the simplified mesh. Then, mapping process searches for the most optimal texture coordinates in texture sample for each triangle, and the textures of neighboring triangles are blended on the mesh. All synthesized texture triangles are compressed to an atlas. Finally, the simplified mesh is subdivided to approach the initial surface. The algorithm has several advantages over former methods:it synthesizes texture on surface without local parameterization; it does not need partitioning surface to patches;and it does not need a particular texture sample. The results demonstrate that the new algorithm is applicable to a wide variety of texture samples and any triangulated surfaces.

  7. Interneto dienoraščiai: individualizuota komunikacija viešojoje erdvėje

    OpenAIRE

    Lašinskaitė, Deimantė

    2009-01-01

    Magistro darbo objektas – interneto dienoraščiai. Darbo tikslas – išanalizuoti interneto dienoraščius: individualizuotos komunikacijos formą viešojoje erdvėje. Pagrindiniai darbo uždaviniai: panagrinėti komunikacijos sąvoką, aptarti komunikaciją įprastinėje erdvėje ir viešojoje erdvėje; panagrinėti tradicinių ir interneto dienoraščių raidos tendencijas, apibrėžti jų sąvokas; paanalizuoti individo komunikaciją tradiciniuose ir interneto dienoraščiuose; aptarti ir parodyti interneto dienoraščių...

  8. Valūtas maiņas kursi - fiksētie un peldošie. Pozitīvie un negatīvie aspekti.

    OpenAIRE

    Stārastniece, Renāte

    2010-01-01

    Bakalura darba tēma ir „Valūtas maiņas kursi - fiksētie un peldošie. Pozitīvie un negatīvie aspekti”. Darba mērķis - izpētīt fiksēta, peldoša valūtas kursa veidošanās mehānismus, atšķirības, ietekmi uz tautsaimniecību. Darbs sastāv no ievada, trim nodaļām, secinājumiem un priekšlikumiem. Darba pirmajā nodaļā - ieskats starptautiskās valūtas sistēmas attīstībā, fiksēta, peldoša valūtas kursa režīmu izveidē, kā arī apskatīti fiksēta peldoša valūtas kursa noteikšanas principi. Darba otrā nodaļa ...

  9. Free-Surface Viscous Flow Solution Methods for Ship Hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    WACKERS, Jeroen; Koren, Barry; Raven, H.C.; Van Der Ploeg,, Atze; Starke, A.R.; Deng, G.B.; Queutey, P.; VISONNEAU, Michel; Hino, T.; Ohashi, K

    2011-01-01

    The simulation of viscous free-surface water flow is a subject that has reached a certain maturity and is nowadays used in industrial applications, like the simulation of the flow around ships. While almost all methods used are based on the Navier-Stokes equations, the discretisation methods for the water surface differ widely. Many of these highly different methods are being used with success. We review three of these methods, by describing in detail their implementation in one particular co...

  10. La motivation: Un élément central dans la vie des associations sportives

    OpenAIRE

    Cloes, Marc

    2003-01-01

    La motivation constitue un élément indispensable dans le succès sportif. Elle intervient au niveau de tous les acteurs de la vie sportive: athlètes, entraîneurs et bénévoles. Ce chapitre propose une présentation des principes généraux liés à la motivation et des illustrations de son implication en milieu sportif.

  11. Status quo and future plans for the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, David; Böhm, Johannes; Böhm, Sigrid; Choliy, Vasyl; Hellerschmied, Andreas; Hofmeister, Armin; Karbon, Maria; Krasna, Hana; McCallum, Jamie; Madzak, Matthias; Nilsson, Tobias; Plank, Lucia; Shabala, Stas; Soja, Benedikt; Sun, Jing; Teke, Kamil

    2014-05-01

    The Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) has been developed by the VLBI group at the Vienna University of Technology since 2008, and in recent years important contributions have been made by other groups all over the world. The software is written in Matlab which makes it easy for students to get an insight in VLBI processing and which allows short and concise source code. The current version 2.1 of VieVS has improved capabilities in terms of the global solution and the graphical user interface compared to earlier releases. Furthermore, more sophisticated approaches are now available in terms of scheduling VLBI sessions. Presently, we are working on the new version 2.2 which will be released this summer and which will be presented at the 5th VieVS User-Workshop in September 2014. For example, it will be equipped with a source structure simulator, as well as more refined possibilities for scheduling and the global solution. In a test version, we will also provide a graphical user interface built with Qt instead of Matlab.

  12. A Variational Method for Estimating Near-Surface Soil Moisture and Surface Heat Fluxes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shuwen; ZHANG Weidong; QIU Chongjian

    2007-01-01

    A variational data assimilation method is proposed to estimate the near-surface soil moisture and surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. The method merges the five parts into a cost function, I.e., the differences of wind, potential temperature, and specific humidity gradient between observations and those computed by the profile method, the difference of latent heat fluxes calculated using the ECMWF land surface evaporation scheme and the profile method, and a weak constraint for surface energy balance. By using an optimal algorithm, the best solutions are found. The method is tested with the data collected at Feixi Station (31.41°N, 117.08°E) supported by the China Heavy Rain Experiment and Study (HeRES) during 7-30 June 2001. The results show that estimated near-surface soil moistures can quickly respond to rainfall, and their temporal variation is consistent with that of measurements of average soil moisture over 15-cm top depth with a maximum error less than 0.03 m3 m-3. The surface heat fluxes calculated by this method are consistent with those by the Bowen ratio method, but at the same time it can overcome the instability problem occurring in the Bowen ratio method when the latter is about -1. Meanwhile, the variational method is more accurate than the profile method in terms of satisfying the surface energy balance. The sensitivity tests also show that the variational method is the most stable one among the three methods.

  13. ROUGHNESS ON WOOD SURFACES AND ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Aydın

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Some visual characteristics of wood such as color, pattern and texture determine the quality of manufactured products. Surface properties of wood material are important both in production and marketing after production. Initial studies related to the roughness of wood surface were begun in early 1950’s. However, no general agreed standardization can not have been developed for wood surfaces. Surface roughness of wood is function of the production process, product type and the natural anatomical properties of wood. Contact and non-contact tracing methods are used to measure of wood surface roughness. Surface roughness also affects the gluability and wettability of wood surfaces. The success in finishing also depends on the surface roughness of wood.

  14. Sliding surface searching method for slopes containing a potential weak structural surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijun Yao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Weak structural surface is one of the key factors controlling the stability of slopes. The stability of rock slopes is in general concerned with set of discontinuities. However, in soft rocks, failure can occur along surfaces approaching to a circular failure surface. To better understand the position of potential sliding surface, a new method called simplex-finite stochastic tracking method is proposed. This method basically divides sliding surface into two parts: one is described by smooth curve obtained by random searching, the other one is polyline formed by the weak structural surface. Single or multiple sliding surfaces can be considered, and consequently several types of combined sliding surfaces can be simulated. The paper will adopt the arc-polyline to simulate potential sliding surface and analyze the searching process of sliding surface. Accordingly, software for slope stability analysis using this method was developed and applied in real cases. The results show that, using simplex-finite stochastic tracking method, it is possible to locate the position of a potential sliding surface in the slope.

  15. Sliding surface searching method for slopes containing a potential weak structural surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aijun Yao; Zhizhou Tian; Yongjun Jin

    2014-01-01

    Weak structural surface is one of the key factors controlling the stability of slopes. The stability of rock slopes is in general concerned with set of discontinuities. However, in soft rocks, failure can occur along surfaces approaching to a circular failure surface. To better understand the position of potential sliding surface, a new method called simplex-finite stochastic tracking method is proposed. This method basically divides sliding surface into two parts: one is described by smooth curve obtained by random searching, the other one is polyline formed by the weak structural surface. Single or multiple sliding surfaces can be considered, and consequently several types of combined sliding surfaces can be simu-lated. The paper will adopt the arc-polyline to simulate potential sliding surface and analyze the searching process of sliding surface. Accordingly, software for slope stability analysis using this method was developed and applied in real cases. The results show that, using simplex-finite stochastic tracking method, it is possible to locate the position of a potential sliding surface in the slope.

  16. A real time method for surface cleanliness measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Bilmes, Gabriel Mario; Orzi, Daniel Jesús Omar; Martínez , Oscar E.; Lencina, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of surface cleanliness is a signifi cant problem in many industrial and technological processes. Existing methods are based on laboratory procedures, that are not performed in real time, can not be automated, and usually are restricted to a small portion of the sample. In this study we describe a new method for real time measurement of the amount of surface dirt or contamination deposited on a surface. It relies on the ablation of the surface dirt film by means of a short l...

  17. Assessment methods of injection moulded nano-patterned surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, S.; Bisacco, G.; Hansen, H. N.

    2014-01-01

    algorithm for feature recognition. To compare the methods, the mould insert and a number of replicated nano-patterned surfaces, injection moulded with an induction heating aid, were measured on nominally identical locations by means of an atomic force microscope mounted on a manual CMM........ In this work two different methods for quantitative characterization of random nano-patterned surfaces were compared and assessed. One method is based on the estimation of the roughness amplitude parameters Sa and Sz (ISO 25178). The second method is based on pore and particle analysis using the watershed......Assessment of nano-patterned surfaces requires measurements with nano-metric resolution. In order to enable the optimization of the moulding process it is necessary to develop a robust method for quantitative characterization of the replication quality of random nano-patterned surfaces...

  18. Evaluation of surface sampling method performance for Bacillus Spores on clean and dirty outdoor surfaces.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Einfeld, Wayne; Boucher, Raymond M.; Brown, Gary Stephen; Tezak, Matthew Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Recovery of Bacillus atrophaeous spores from grime-treated and clean surfaces was measured in a controlled chamber study to assess sampling method performance. Outdoor surfaces investigated by wipe and vacuum sampling methods included stainless steel, glass, marble and concrete. Bacillus atrophaeous spores were used as a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis spores in this study designed to assess whether grime-coated surfaces significantly affected surface sampling method performance when compared to clean surfaces. A series of chamber tests were carried out in which known amounts of spores were allowed to gravitationally settle onto both clean and dirty surfaces. Reference coupons were co-located with test coupons in all chamber experiments to provide a quantitative measure of initial surface concentrations of spores on all surfaces, thereby allowing sampling recovery calculations. Results from these tests, carried out under both low and high humidity conditions, show that spore recovery from grime-coated surfaces is the same as or better than spore recovery from clean surfaces. Statistically significant differences between method performance for grime-coated and clean surfaces were observed in only about half of the chamber tests conducted.

  19. Surface tension of molten tin investigated with sessile drop method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; YUAN Zhang-fu; FAN Jian-feng; KE Jia-jun

    2005-01-01

    The surface tension of molten tin was determined by a set of self-developed digital equipment with sessile drop method at oxygen partial pressure of 1.0 × 10-6 MPa under different temperatures, and the dependence of surface tension of molten tin on temperature was also discussed. The emphasis was placed on the comparison of surface tension of the same molten tin sample measured by using different equipments with sessile drop method. Results of the comparison indicate that the measurement results with sessile drop method under the approximate experimental conditions are coincident, and the self-developed digital equipment for surface tension measurement has higher stability and accuracy. The relationships of surface tension of molten tin and its temperature coefficient with temperature and oxygen partial pressure were also elucidated from the thermodynamic equilibrium analysis.

  20. NEW VISUAL METHOD FOR FREE-FORM SURFACE RECONSTRUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new method is put forward combining computer vision with computer aided geometric design (CAGD) to resolve the problem of free-form surface reconstruction. The surface is first subdivided into N-sided Gregory patches, and a stereo algorithm is used to reconstruct the boundary curves. Then, the cross boundary tangent vectors are computed through reflectance analysis. At last, the whole surface can be reconstructed jointing these patches with G1 continuity(tangent continuity). Examples on synthetic images are given.

  1. VIE模式:山雨欲来风满楼%VIE mode:coming events cast their shadows before

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仁荣

    2011-01-01

    VIE是可变利益实体(Variable Interest Entities)的缩写,原指公司不通过股权控制,而通过协议控制的业务实体,该实体可以给公司带来类似子公司的实际利益。美国财务会计标准委员会要求对VIE进行合并报表,以避免其损害投资人利益。在国内VIE主要被民营企业或高科技企业用于海外上市,用于规避政府对FDI的准入限制。因此,VIE结构存在极大的法律风险和业务的不确定性。本文分析了VIE模式的由来、应用、结构,论证了VIE结构是可行的、有效的,但必须采取必要的风险防范措施。%VIE is abbreviation of Variable Interest Entities. It was designed to define the entities controlled by a series of contracts instead of shares. VIE can bring the controlling company the interest similar to a subsidiary. American Financial Accounting Standards Board requires consolidating the financial report of VIEs to give the investors the transparency of the VIEs. Ln China, VIE structure is broadly used by the private companies to pursue outbound IPOs and entrance of FDI into the restricted and prohibited industries. This article introduces the background, roles and design of VIE structure. It concludes that the VIE structure is effective and feasible as long as the necessary measurements have been taken to minimize the potential risks.

  2. Method for Surface Scanning in Medical Imaging and Related Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A method and apparatus for surface scanning in medical imaging is provided. The surface scanning apparatus comprises an image source, a first optical fiber bundle comprising first optical fibers having proximal ends and distal ends, and a first optical coupler for coupling an image from the image...

  3. Surface processing methods for point sets using finite elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarenz, Ulrich; Rumpf, Martin; Telea, Alexandru

    2004-01-01

    We present a framework for processing point-based surfaces via partial differential equations (PDEs). Our framework efficiently and effectively brings well-known PDE-based processing techniques to the field of point-based surfaces. At the core of our method is a finite element discretization of PDEs

  4. Daniel Bley (dir., 2005, Cadre de vie et travail. Les dimensions d’une qualité de vie au quotidien, Aix-en-Provence, Edisud, Ecologie Humaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Devetter

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage collectif regroupe des textes issus d’un colloque organisé en 2002 par la Société d’Ecologie Humaine. La diversité des thèmes et des approches peut donner une impression de « patchwork » mais cette diversité est assumée par le coordinateur qui espère au contraire « qu’elle obligera le lecteur à formuler des questionnements croisés » sur un thème qui peut en effet n’être que très large : la qualité de vie. Après un premier chapitre cherchant à mieux cerner cette notion polysémique,...

  5. A continuous surface reconstruction method on point cloud captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyang; Cheung, Yam; Sabouri, Pouya; Arai, Tatsuya J.; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To accurately and efficiently reconstruct a continuous surface from noisy point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). Methods: The authors have developed a level-set based surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). The proposed method reconstructs an implicit and continuous representation of the underlying patient surface by optimizing a regularized fitting energy, offering extra robustness to noise and missing measurements. By contrast to explicit/discrete meshing-type schemes, their continuous representation is particularly advantageous for subsequent surface registration and motion tracking by eliminating the need for maintaining explicit point correspondences as in discrete models. The authors solve the proposed method with an efficient narrowband evolving scheme. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both phantom and human subject data with two sets of complementary experiments. In the first set of experiment, the authors generated a series of surfaces each with different black patches placed on one chest phantom. The resulting VisionRT measurements from the patched area had different degree of noise and missing levels, since VisionRT has difficulties in detecting dark surfaces. The authors applied the proposed method to point clouds acquired under these different configurations, and quantitatively evaluated reconstructed surfaces by comparing against a high-quality reference surface with respect to root mean squared error (RMSE). In the second set of experiment, the authors applied their method to 100 clinical point clouds acquired from one human subject. In the absence of ground-truth, the authors qualitatively validated reconstructed surfaces by comparing the local geometry, specifically mean curvature distributions, against that of the surface extracted from a high-quality CT obtained from the same patient. Results: On phantom point clouds, their method

  6. A continuous surface reconstruction method on point cloud captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenyang [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Cheung, Yam; Sabouri, Pouya; Arai, Tatsuya J.; Sawant, Amit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To accurately and efficiently reconstruct a continuous surface from noisy point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). Methods: The authors have developed a level-set based surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). The proposed method reconstructs an implicit and continuous representation of the underlying patient surface by optimizing a regularized fitting energy, offering extra robustness to noise and missing measurements. By contrast to explicit/discrete meshing-type schemes, their continuous representation is particularly advantageous for subsequent surface registration and motion tracking by eliminating the need for maintaining explicit point correspondences as in discrete models. The authors solve the proposed method with an efficient narrowband evolving scheme. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both phantom and human subject data with two sets of complementary experiments. In the first set of experiment, the authors generated a series of surfaces each with different black patches placed on one chest phantom. The resulting VisionRT measurements from the patched area had different degree of noise and missing levels, since VisionRT has difficulties in detecting dark surfaces. The authors applied the proposed method to point clouds acquired under these different configurations, and quantitatively evaluated reconstructed surfaces by comparing against a high-quality reference surface with respect to root mean squared error (RMSE). In the second set of experiment, the authors applied their method to 100 clinical point clouds acquired from one human subject. In the absence of ground-truth, the authors qualitatively validated reconstructed surfaces by comparing the local geometry, specifically mean curvature distributions, against that of the surface extracted from a high-quality CT obtained from the same patient. Results: On phantom point clouds, their method

  7. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Surface Air Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing (Inventor); Hu, Yongxiang (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for remotely measuring surface air pressure. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention utilizes the steps of transmitting a signal having multiple frequencies into the atmosphere, measuring the transmitted/reflected signal to determine the relative received power level of each frequency and then determining the surface air pressure based upon the attenuation of the transmitted frequencies.

  8. Methods for the calculation of surface free energy of solids

    OpenAIRE

    M. Żenkiewicz

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is the analysis of the most common methods for the calculation of the surface free energy (SFE) of solids, utilising the results of the contact angle measurements. The calculation deals also with the SFE at the interface, especially that at the surface of polymers and polymeric materials. The survey has been meant to ease the understanding of physical processes occurring at the solid-liquid interface and to help to find proper measuring methods with res...

  9. Surface topography characterization of automotive cylinder liner surfaces using fractal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence K, Deepak; Ramamoorthy, B.

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores the use of fractal approaches for the possible characterization of automotive cylinder bore surface topography by employing methods such as differential box counting method, power spectral method and structure function method. Three stage plateau honing experiments were conducted to manufacture sixteen cylinder liner surfaces with different surface topographies, for the study. The three fractal methods are applied on the image data obtained using a computer vision system and 3-D profile data obtained using vertical scanning white light interferometer from the cylinder liner surfaces. The computed fractal parameters (fractal dimension and topothesy) are compared and correlated with the measured 3-D Abbott-Firestone curve parameters (Sk, Spk, Svk, Sr1 and Sr2) that are currently used for the surface topography characterization cylinder liner surfaces. The analyses of the results indicated that the fractal dimension (D) computed using the vision data as well as 3-D profile data by employing three different fractal methods consistantly showed a negative correlation with the functional surface topographical parameters that represents roughness at peak (Spk),core (Sk) and valley (Svk) regions and positive correlation with the upper bearing area (Sr1) and lower bearing area (Sr2) of the automotive of cylinder bore surface.

  10. The Evaluation Methods of Decorative Concrete Horizontal Surfaces Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertas KLOVAS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article was to determine blemishes of concrete surfaces and divide those surfaces according to following methods provided by two documents and by authors proposed image scanning method - “ImageJ”. The first method was CIB Report No. 24 “Tolerances on blemishes of concrete”. This method enables to evaluate concrete surfaces according to their visual appearance by using certain reference cards. The second method was GOST 13015.0-83. This method enables to evaluate the concrete surfaces according to their biggest dimension of the blemishes. The third, authors proposed, method was “ImageJ”. Latter method is based on the free source computer program. It helps to establish the quantity and the dimensions of the blemishes in the desired scale. Authors suggested to imply a ration between blemishes area and the all specimen’s area as a factor for evaluation of concrete surface quality. Three different concrete compositions were made: BA1, BA7 and BA8. Also, five different formworks were used: wood impregnated with polymeric oil [WPO], wood covered with rubber [WCR], sawn timber [ST], metal [M] and plastic [P] formworks. Following parameters of the obtained results were calculated: mean value, dispersion, standard deviation and the coefficient of variation. Also maximum and minimum values of experimental results are given. Intervals of the experimental results are provided for each specimen with the biggest possibility. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.2006

  11. Chemical Modification Methods of Nanoparticles of Silicon Carbide Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton S. Yegorov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available silicon carbide exhibits exceptional properties: high durability, high thermal conductivity, good heat resistance, low thermal expansion factor and chemical inactivity. Reinforcement with silicon carbide nanoparticles increases polymer’s tensile strength and thermal stability.Chemical methods of modification of the silicon carbide surface by means of variety of reagents from ordinary molecules to macromolecular polymers are reviewed in the review.The structure of silicon carbide surface layer and the nature of modificator bonding with the surface of SiC particles are reviewed. General examples of surface modification methodologies and composite materials with the addition of modified SiC are given.

  12. Finite Element Model Updating Using Response Surface Method

    CERN Document Server

    Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes the response surface method for finite element model updating. The response surface method is implemented by approximating the finite element model surface response equation by a multi-layer perceptron. The updated parameters of the finite element model were calculated using genetic algorithm by optimizing the surface response equation. The proposed method was compared to the existing methods that use simulated annealing or genetic algorithm together with a full finite element model for finite element model updating. The proposed method was tested on an unsymmetri-cal H-shaped structure. It was observed that the proposed method gave the updated natural frequen-cies and mode shapes that were of the same order of accuracy as those given by simulated annealing and genetic algorithm. Furthermore, it was observed that the response surface method achieved these results at a computational speed that was more than 2.5 times as fast as the genetic algorithm and a full finite element model and 24 ti...

  13. METHOD TO EXTRACT BLEND SURFACE FEATURE IN REVERSE ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Zhen; Ke Yinglin; Sun Qing; Kelvin W; Huang Xiaoping

    2003-01-01

    A new method of extraction of blend surface feature is presented. It contains two steps: segmentation and recovery of parametric representation of the blend. The segmentation separates the points in the blend region from the rest of the input point cloud with the processes of sampling point data, estimation of local surface curvature properties and comparison of maximum curvature values. The recovery of parametric representation generates a set of profile curves by marching throughout the blend and fitting cylinders. Compared with the existing approaches of blend surface feature extraction, the proposed method reduces the requirement of user interaction and is capable of extracting blend surface with either constant radius or variable radius. Application examples are presented to verify the proposed method.

  14. Influence of apple cultivar and juice pasteurization on hard cider and eau-de-vie methanol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Yong D; Woodams, Edward E

    2010-02-01

    Apple eau-de-vie is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in France by distillation of fermented apple juice (hard cider). The current research was undertaken to determine the methanol content of hard cider and apple eau-de-vie made from four apple cultivars grown in the Finger Lakes region of New York State. The methanol concentration of hard cider varied from 0.037% to approximately 0.091%, and the methanol content of apple eau-de-vie ranged from below 200 mg to more than 400 mg/100mL of 40% ethanol. The United States legal limit of methanol for fruit brandy is 0.35% by volume or 280 mg/100mL of 40% ethanol. Of the four apple cultivars examined, Crispin apples yielded significantly more methanol in hard cider and eau-de-vie than Empire, Jonagold or Pacific Rose apples. Pasteurization of Crispin apple juice prior to alcoholic fermentation significantly reduced the methanol content of hard cider and eau-de-vie.

  15. DaVIE: Database for the Visualization and Integration of Epigenetic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Peter Fejes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges in the analysis of large data sets, particularly in a population-based setting, is the ability to perform comparisons across projects. This has to be done in such a way that the integrity of each individual project is maintained, while ensuring that the data are comparable across projects. These issues are beginning to be observed in human DNA methylation studies, as the Illumina 450k platform and next generation sequencing-based assays grow in popularity and decrease in price. This increase in productivity is enabling new insights into epigenetics, but also requires the development of pipelines and software capable of handling the large volumes of data. The specific problems inherent in creating a platform for the storage, comparison, integration and visualization of DNA methylation data include data storage, algorithm efficiency and ability to interpret the results to derive biological meaning from them. Databases provide a ready-made solution to these issues, but as yet no tools exist that that leverage these advantages while providing an intuitive user interface for interpreting results in a genomic context.We have addressed this void by integrating a database to store DNA methylation data with a web interface to query and visualize the database and a set of libraries for more complex analysis. The resulting platform is called DaVIE: Database for the Visualization and I of Epigenetics data. DaVIE can use data culled from a variety of sources, and the web interface includes the ability to group samples by sub-type, compare multiple projects and visualize genomic features in relation to sites of interest. We have used DaVIE to identify patterns of DNA methylation in specific project and across different projects, identify outlier samples, and cross-check differentially methylated CpG sites identified in specific projects across large numbers of samples.

  16. Description and evaluation of a surface runoff susceptibility mapping method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagadec, Lilly-Rose; Patrice, Pierre; Braud, Isabelle; Chazelle, Blandine; Moulin, Loïc; Dehotin, Judicaël; Hauchard, Emmanuel; Breil, Pascal

    2016-10-01

    Surface runoff is the hydrological process at the origin of phenomena such as soil erosion, floods out of rivers, mudflows, debris flows and can generate major damage. This paper presents a method to create maps of surface runoff susceptibility. The method, called IRIP (Indicator of Intense Pluvial Runoff, French acronym), uses a combination of landscape factors to create three maps representing the susceptibility (1) to generate, (2) to transfer, and (3) to accumulate surface runoff. The method input data are the topography, the land use and the soil type. The method aims to be simple to implement and robust for any type of study area, with no requirement for calibration or specific input format. In a second part, the paper focuses on the evaluation of the surface runoff susceptibility maps. The method is applied in the Lézarde catchment (210 km2, northern France) and the susceptibility maps are evaluated by comparison with two risk regulatory zonings of surface runoff and soil erosion, and two databases of surface runoff impacts on roads and railways. Comparison tests are performed using a standard verification method for dichotomous forecasting along with five verification indicators: accuracy, bias, success ratio, probability of detection, and false alarm ratio. The evaluation shows that the susceptibility map of surface runoff accumulation is able to identify the concentrated surface runoff flows and that the susceptibility map of transfer is able to identify areas that are susceptible to soil erosion. Concerning the ability of the IRIP method to detect sections of the transportation network susceptible to be impacted by surface runoff, the evaluation tests show promising probabilities of detection (73-90%) but also high false alarm ratios (77-92%). However, a qualitative analysis of the local configuration of the infrastructure shows that taking into account the transportation network vulnerability can explain numerous false alarms. This paper shows that the

  17. Trajectoires de moindre action et temps de vie pour trois modes de désintégration du noyau ^{234}U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfoughal, T.; Mirea, M.

    1996-10-01

    A numerical method is used to obtain the optimum cold fission paths for three decay modes of ^{234}U. The WKB-integral is minimized with respect the necking and the elongation. A term which takes into account the effect of the diffuse surface is added to the deformation energy in the framework of the macroscopic model of binary system with different charge densities. The effective masses are computed with more correct coordinates of deformation in order to include the variations of the asymmetry during the processes. Calculations are performed to obtain the fission trajectories in a large range of mass-asymmetry including cold fission, cluster emission and alpha-decay. Estimations of T_{1/2} are reported. Les trajectoires optimales de fission pour trois modes de désintégration du noyau ^{234}U sont obtenus à l'aide d'une méthode numérique. L'intégrale WKB est minimisée en fonction des coordonnées généralisées qui caractérisent le col et l'élongation. Un terme d'énergie qui prend en considération les effets dus à une surface diffuse du noyau est ajouté à l'énergie de déformation calculée dans le cadre du modèle macroscopique des systèmes binaires avec différentes densités de charge. Les masses effectives sont calculées avec des coordonnées généralisées choisis pour inclure les variations de l'asymétrie durant le processus nucléaire. Des calculs ont été effectués por obtenir les trajectoires de fission dans un grand domaine d'asymétrie de masse rendant compte de la fission froide, de l'émission spontanée de noyaux lourds et de la désintégration alpha. Des estimations de temps de vie sont reproduites.

  18. Les trois vies de Lucie de Iegor Gran, ou comment sortir du quotidien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pascale Huglo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Dossier/Issue: 1 - Raconter le quotidien aujourd'hui - Les trois vies de Lucie de Iegor Gran est un roman à contrainte qui raconte trois Vies d’un couple moyen (la troisième version étant la somme des deux premières. Caractéristiques du retour au récit dans la littérature contemporaine, les Vies de Gran associent le motif du quotidien à la catégorie du romanesque, montrant en quoi le quotidien et le romanesque constituent un couple antithétique mais indissociable. Le quotidien est ici un lieu commun qui a plus à voir avec le langage courant et les catégories littéraires qu’avec une réalité insaisissable. Par là, Gran s’écarte des revendications réalistes propres à de nombreuses explorations du quotidien dans la littérature contemporaine. Dans ce contexte, la contrainte qui gouverne le roman n’est pas une simple prouesse ludique sans intérêt : elle contribue à renforcer l’intrication entre quotidien, langage, récit et procédés littéraires.Based on a formal constraint, Iegor Gran’s Les trois vies de Lucie is a novel which recounts the three Lives of an average married couple (the third version being the sum of the first two. Gran’s Lives are quite typical of the renewed interest in narrative in contemporary literature and they demonstrate how everyday life and novelistic adventures form an antithetical but inseparable pair. According to Gran, everyday life is a commonplace which has more to do with ordinary language and literary categories than with an elusive reality. Gran thus stays away from the realistic claims typical of numerous explorations of everyday life in contemporary literature. The formal constraint which governs the novel is more than just a technical exploit, ludic but deprived of any interest : it reinforces the intricate relationship between everyday life, everyday language, narrative, and literary devices.

  19. METHOD FOR FABRICATING NANOSCALE PATTERNS ON A SURFACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    A novel method to fabricate nanoscale pits on Au(111) surfaces in contact with aqueous solution is claimed. The method uses in situ electrochemical scanning tunnelling microscopy with independent electrochemical substrate and tip potential control and very small bias voltages. This is significantly...

  20. Application of Ultrasonic Sensors in Road Surface Condition Distinction Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Shota; Aramaki, Shingo; Kitazono, Yuhki; Mu, Shenglin; Tanaka, Kanya; Serikawa, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    The number of accidents involving elderly individuals has been increasing with the increase of the aging population, posing increasingly serious challenges. Most accidents are caused by reduced judgment and physical abilities, which lead to severe consequences. Therefore, studies on support systems for elderly and visually impaired people to improve the safety and quality of daily life are attracting considerable attention. In this study, a road surface condition distinction method using reflection intensities obtained by an ultrasonic sensor was proposed. The proposed method was applied to movement support systems for elderly and visually impaired individuals to detect dangerous road surfaces and give an alarm. The method did not perform well in previous studies of puddle detection, because the alert provided by the method did not enable users to avoid puddles. This study extended the method proposed by previous studies with respect to puddle detection ability. The findings indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method by considering four road surface conditions. The proposed method could detect puddle conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified in all four conditions, since users could differentiate between road surface conditions and classify the conditions as either safe or dangerous. PMID:27754326

  1. Application of Ultrasonic Sensors in Road Surface Condition Distinction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Nakashima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of accidents involving elderly individuals has been increasing with the increase of the aging population, posing increasingly serious challenges. Most accidents are caused by reduced judgment and physical abilities, which lead to severe consequences. Therefore, studies on support systems for elderly and visually impaired people to improve the safety and quality of daily life are attracting considerable attention. In this study, a road surface condition distinction method using reflection intensities obtained by an ultrasonic sensor was proposed. The proposed method was applied to movement support systems for elderly and visually impaired individuals to detect dangerous road surfaces and give an alarm. The method did not perform well in previous studies of puddle detection, because the alert provided by the method did not enable users to avoid puddles. This study extended the method proposed by previous studies with respect to puddle detection ability. The findings indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method by considering four road surface conditions. The proposed method could detect puddle conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified in all four conditions, since users could differentiate between road surface conditions and classify the conditions as either safe or dangerous.

  2. Free-Surface Viscous Flow Solution Methods for Ship Hydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wackers, J.; Koren, B.; Raven, H.C.; Ploeg, A. van der; Starke, A.R.; Deng, G.B.; Queutey, P.; Visonneau, M.; Hino, T.; Ohashi, K.

    2011-01-01

    The simulation of viscous free-surface water flow is a subject that has reached a certain maturity and is nowadays used in industrial applications, like the simulation of the flow around ships. While almost all methods used are based on the Navier-Stokes equations, the discretisation methods for the

  3. A localized meshless method for diffusion on folded surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ka Chun; Ling, Leevan; Ruuth, Steven J.

    2015-09-01

    Partial differential equations (PDEs) on surfaces arise in a variety of application areas including biological systems, medical imaging, fluid dynamics, mathematical physics, image processing and computer graphics. In this paper, we propose a radial basis function (RBF) discretization of the closest point method. The corresponding localized meshless method may be used to approximate diffusion on smooth or folded surfaces. Our method has the benefit of having an a priori error bound in terms of percentage of the norm of the solution. A stable solver is used to avoid the ill-conditioning that arises when the radial basis functions (RBFs) become flat.

  4. PDEs on moving surfaces via the closest point method and a modified grid based particle method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, A.; Ruuth, S. J.

    2016-05-01

    Partial differential equations (PDEs) on surfaces arise in a wide range of applications. The closest point method (Ruuth and Merriman (2008) [20]) is a recent embedding method that has been used to solve a variety of PDEs on smooth surfaces using a closest point representation of the surface and standard Cartesian grid methods in the embedding space. The original closest point method (CPM) was designed for problems posed on static surfaces, however the solution of PDEs on moving surfaces is of considerable interest as well. Here we propose solving PDEs on moving surfaces using a combination of the CPM and a modification of the grid based particle method (Leung and Zhao (2009) [12]). The grid based particle method (GBPM) represents and tracks surfaces using meshless particles and an Eulerian reference grid. Our modification of the GBPM introduces a reconstruction step into the original method to ensure that all the grid points within a computational tube surrounding the surface are active. We present a number of examples to illustrate the numerical convergence properties of our combined method. Experiments for advection-diffusion equations that are strongly coupled to the velocity of the surface are also presented.

  5. Simulation method for determining biodegradation in surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeberl, P.; Guhl, W. [Henkel KGaA, Duesseldorf (Germany). Hauptabteilung Oekologie; Scholz, N. [OXENO GmbH, Marl (Germany); Taeger, K. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    OECD guidelines and EU directives on the biological testing of chemicals contain no methods able to simulate biodegradation in surface waters. The surface water simulation method presented in this paper is suitable for closing this gap. The species in the autochthonous biocoenosis used in the method form part of the food web in natural surface waters. The microbial degradation activity measured by the half-life is comparable with that in surface waters. The degrees of degradation measured in this surface water simulation method can be applied to natural surface waters. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die OECD- und EU-Richtlinien zur biologischen Pruefung von Chemikalien enthalten kein Verfahren, mit dem der biologische Abbau in Fliessgewaessern simuliert werden kann. Das in dieser Arbeit vorgestellte Fliessgewaesser-Simulationsmodell ist geeignet, diese Luecke zu schliessen. Die Arten der autochthonen Biocoenose des Modells sind Glieder im Nahrungsnetz natuerlicher Fliessgewaesser. Die an der Halbwertszeit gemessene mikrobielle Abbauaktivitaet ist mit derjenigen in Fliessgewaessern vergleichbar. Die im Fliessgewaesser-Simulationsmodell gemessenen Abbaugrade sind auf natuerliche Fliessgewaesser uebertragbar. (orig.)

  6. A Havelock Source Panel Method for Near-surface Submarines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tim Gourlay; Edward Dawson

    2015-01-01

    A panel method is described for calculating potential flow around near-surface submarines. The method uses Havelock sources which automatically satisfy the linearized free-surface boundary condition. Outputs from the method include pressure field, pressure drag, wave resistance, vertical force, trim moment and wave pattern. Comparisons are made with model tests for wave resistance of Series 58 and DARPA SUBOFF hulls, as well as with wave resistance, lift force and trim moment of three length-to-diameter variants of the DSTO Joubert submarine hull. It is found that the Havelock source panel method is capable of determining with reasonable accuracy wave resistance, vertical force and trim moment for submarine hulls. Further experimental data are required in order to assess the accuracy of the method for pressure field and wave pattern prediction. The method is implemented in the computer code“HullWave”and offers potential advantages over RANS-CFD codes in terms of speed, simplicity and robustness.

  7. Advanced response surface method for mechanical reliability analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Zhen-zhou; ZHAO Jie; YUE Zhu-feng

    2007-01-01

    Based on the classical response surface method (RSM), a novel RSM using improved experimental points (EPs) is presented for reliability analysis. Two novel points are included in the presented method. One is the use of linear interpolation, from which the total EPs for determining the RS are selected to be closer to the actual failure surface;the other is the application of sequential linear interpolation to control the distance between the surrounding EPs and the center EP, by which the presented method can ensure that the RS fits the actual failure surface in the region of maximum likelihood as the center EPs converge to the actual most probable point (MPP). Since the fitting precision of the RS to the actual failure surface in the vicinity of the MPP, which has significant contribution to the probability of the failure surface being exceeded, is increased by the presented method, the precision of the failure probability calculated by RS is increased as well. Numerical examples illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the presented method.

  8. Phase retrieval methods for surface x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldin, D.K.; Harder, R.J.; Shneerson, V.L. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Moritz, W. [Institute of Crystallography and Applied Mineralogy, University of Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2001-11-26

    We develop an iterative input-output feedback method for the phasing of surface x-ray diffraction (SXRD) amplitudes that relies on successive operations in real and reciprocal space. We demonstrate its use for the recovery of the real and positive electron density of a surface unit cell from simulated SXRD intensities. We have successfully recovered the entire surface electron density in a case where the two-dimensional surface unit cell is the same as that of the bulk and also in one where the surface unit cell is four times larger than that of the bulk. We show that the exponential modelling algorithm for structure completion derived earlier from maximum entropy theory may be regarded as a special case of an input-output phasing algorithm with a particular form of object-domain operations. (author)

  9. A simple method to estimate fractal dimension of mountain surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kolwankar, Kiran M

    2014-01-01

    Fractal surfaces are ubiquitous in nature as well as in the sciences. The examples range from the cloud boundaries to the corroded surfaces. Fractal dimension gives a measure of the irregularity in the object under study. We present a simple method to estimate the fractal dimension of mountain surface. We propose to use easily available satellite images of lakes for this purpose. The fractal dimension of the boundary of a lake, which can be extracted using image analysis softwares, can be determined easily which gives the estimate of the fractal dimension of the mountain surface and hence a quantitative characterization of the irregularity of the topography of the mountain surface. This value will be useful in validating models of mountain formation

  10. Multiscale Finite Element Methods for Flows on Rough Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present the Multiscale Finite Element Method (MsFEM) for problems on rough heterogeneous surfaces. We consider the diffusion equation on oscillatory surfaces. Our objective is to represent small-scale features of the solution via multiscale basis functions described on a coarse grid. This problem arises in many applications where processes occur on surfaces or thin layers. We present a unified multiscale finite element framework that entails the use of transformations that map the reference surface to the deformed surface. The main ingredients of MsFEM are (1) the construction of multiscale basis functions and (2) a global coupling of these basis functions. For the construction of multiscale basis functions, our approach uses the transformation of the reference surface to a deformed surface. On the deformed surface, multiscale basis functions are defined where reduced (1D) problems are solved along the edges of coarse-grid blocks to calculate nodalmultiscale basis functions. Furthermore, these basis functions are transformed back to the reference configuration. We discuss the use of appropriate transformation operators that improve the accuracy of the method. The method has an optimal convergence if the transformed surface is smooth and the image of the coarse partition in the reference configuration forms a quasiuniform partition. In this paper, we consider such transformations based on harmonic coordinates (following H. Owhadi and L. Zhang [Comm. Pure and Applied Math., LX(2007), pp. 675-723]) and discuss gridding issues in the reference configuration. Numerical results are presented where we compare the MsFEM when two types of deformations are used formultiscale basis construction. The first deformation employs local information and the second deformation employs a global information. Our numerical results showthat one can improve the accuracy of the simulations when a global information is used. © 2013 Global-Science Press.

  11. Chemical Modification Methods of Nanoparticles of Silicon Carbide Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Anton S. Yegorov; Vitaly S. Ivanov; Alexey V. Antipov; Alyona I. Wozniak; Kseniia V. Tcarkova.

    2015-01-01

    silicon carbide exhibits exceptional properties: high durability, high thermal conductivity, good heat resistance, low thermal expansion factor and chemical inactivity. Reinforcement with silicon carbide nanoparticles increases polymer’s tensile strength and thermal stability.Chemical methods of modification of the silicon carbide surface by means of variety of reagents from ordinary molecules to macromolecular polymers are reviewed in the review.The structure of silicon carbide surface layer...

  12. Experimental Method for Measuring Dust Load on Surfaces in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, Philip; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, Alfred

    A new experimental setup to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airborne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust-related problems in rooms......, there is a need for better understanding of the mechanism of dust deposition and resuspension. With the presented experimental setup, the dust load on surfaces in a channel can be measured as a function of the environmental and surface conditions and the type of particles under controlled laboratory conditions....

  13. Robust Collaborative Optimization Method Based on Dual-response Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; FAN Wenhui; CHANG Tianqing; YUAN Yuming

    2009-01-01

    A novel method for robust collaborative design of complex products based on dual-response surface (DRS-RCO) is proposed to solve multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) problems under uncertainty. Collaborative optimization (CO) which decomposes the whole system into a double-level nonlinear optimization problem is widely Accepted as an efficient method to solve MDO problems. In order to improve the quality of complex product in design process, robust collaborative optimization (RCO) is developed to solve those problems under uncertain conditions. RCO does opfmiTation on the linear sum of mean and standard deviation of objective function and gets an optimal solution with high robustnmess. Response surfaces method is an important way to do approximation in robust design. DRS-RCO is an improved RCO method in which dual-response surface replaces system uncertainty analysis module of CO. The dual-response surface is the approximate model of mean and standard deviation of objective function respectively. In DRS-RCO, All the information of subsystems is included in dual-response surfaces. As an additional item, the standard deviation of objective function is added to the subsystem optimization. This item guarantee both the mean and standard deviation of this subsystem is reaching the minima at the same time. Finally, a test problem with two coupled subsystems is conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of DRS-RCO.

  14. Vienna VLBI Software VieVS - status quo and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Sigrid; Böhm, Johannes; Krásná, Hana; Madzak, Matthias; Nilsson, Tobias; Plank, Lucia; Tierno Ros, Claudia; Sun, Jing; Teke, Kamil

    2013-04-01

    The Vienna VLBI Software VieVS has been developed by the VLBI group at the Vienna University of Technology since 2008. VieVS is designed for the analysis of geodetic VLBI observation data as well as for scheduling and simulation of different VLBI sessions. The software incorporates the latest IERS Conventions and uses the concept of continuous piecewise linear offsets at integer hours for the parameter setup, consistent with the terms of reference of the GGOS. The current version, 2.0, which was released in 2012, aggregates all modules (i.e. data setup, least squares adjustment, global solution, scheduling, simulation, etc.) within one common graphical user interface. The new interface also offers additional tools to plot estimated parameters and residuals. We present the current status of the software focusing on the capabilities of release 2.0. Furthermore we give an overview of future plans and latest developments, such as the restructuring of the least squares adjustment into a scan wise update of the normal equation system which enables the analysis of sessions with a very large data volume, e.g. VLBI2010 sessions.

  15. A Level Set Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Free Surface Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grooss, Jesper; Hesthaven, Jan

    2006-01-01

    We present a discontinuous Galerkin method on a fully unstructured grid for the modeling of unsteady incompressible fluid flows with free surfaces. The surface is modeled by embedding and represented by a levelset. We discuss the discretization of the flow equations and the level set equation...... as well a various ways of advancing the equations in time using velocity projection techniques. The efficacy of the method for the representation of the levelset and its reinitialization is discussed and several numerical tests confirm the robustness and versatility of the proposed scheme....

  16. C'est La Vie! The Game of Social Life: Using an Intersectionality Approach to Teach About Privilege and Structural Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramesfeld, Kosha D.; Good, Arla

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present the results of two studies that evaluated an experiential intersectionality awareness activity, "C'est La Vie: The Game of Social Life." For Study 1 (N = 55), we content analyzed students' short answer responses about inequality written before and after playing "C'est La Vie." Study 2 compared a…

  17. Tensile reliability analysis for gravity dam foundation surface based on FEM and response surface method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong-chun LI; Dan-dan LI; Zhi-qiang WANG

    2010-01-01

    In this study,the limit state equation for tensile reliability analysis of the foundation surface of a gravity dam was established.The possible crack length was set as the action effect and allowable crack length was set as the resistance in the limit state.The nonlinear FEM was used to obtain the crack length of the foundation surface of the gravity dam,and the linear response surface method based on the orthogonal test design method was used to calculate the reliability,providing a reasonable and simple method for calculating the reliability of the serviceability limit state.The Longtan RCC gravity dam was chosen as an example.An orthogonal test,including eleven factors and two levels,was conducted,and the tensile reliability was calculated.The analysis shows that this method is reasonable.

  18. DELAUNAY TRIANGULATION METHOD OF CURVED SURFACES BASED ON RIEMANNIAN METRIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A method for quality mesh generation of parametric curved surfaces is proposed. It is shown that the main difference between the proposed method and previous ones is that our meshing process is done completely in the parametric domains with the guarantee of mesh quality. To obtain this aim, the Delaunay method is extended to anisotropic context of 2D domains, and a Riemannian metric map is introduced to remedy the mapping distortion from object space to parametric domain. Compared with previous algorithms, the approach is much simpler, more robust and speedy. The algorithm is implemented and examples for several geometries are presented to demonstrate the efficiency and validity of the method.

  19. Hydroxylation of organic polymer surface: method and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng; Yang, Wantai

    2014-03-26

    It may be hardly believable that inert C-H bonds on a polymeric material surface could be quickly and efficiently transformed into C-OH by a simple and mild way. Thanks to the approaches developed recently, it is now possible to transform surface H atoms of a polymeric substrate into monolayer OH groups by a simple/mild photochemical reaction. Herein the method and application of this small-molecular interfacial chemistry is highlighted. The existence of hydroxyl groups on material surfaces not only determines the physical and chemical properties of materials but also provides effective reaction sites for postsynthetic sequential modification to fulfill the requirements of various applications. However, organic synthetic materials based on petroleum, especially polyolefins comprise mainly C and H atoms and thus present serious surface problems due to low surface energy and inertness in reactivity. These limitations make it challenging to perform postsynthetic surface sequential chemical derivatization toward enhanced functionalities and properties and also cause serious interfacial problems when bonding or integrating polymer substrates with natural or inorganic materials. Polymer surface hydroxylation based on direct conversion of C-H bonds on polymer surfaces is thus of significant importance for academic and practical industrial applications. Although highly active research results have reported on small-molecular C-H bond activation in solution (thus homogeneous), most of them, featuring the use of a variety of transition metals as catalysts, present a slow reaction rate, a low atom economy and an obvious environmental pollution. In sharp contrast to these conventional C-H activation strategies, the present Spotlight describes a universal confined photocatalytic oxidation (CPO) system that is able to directly convert polymer surface C-H bonds to C-OSO3(-) and, subsequently, to C-OH through a simple hydrolysis. Generally speaking, these newly implanted hydroxyl

  20. Using Pattern Search Methods for Surface Structure Determinationof Nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhengji; Meza, Juan; Van Hove, Michel

    2006-06-09

    Atomic scale surface structure plays an important roleindescribing many properties of materials, especially in the case ofnanomaterials. One of the most effective techniques for surface structuredetermination is low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), which can beused in conjunction with optimization to fit simulated LEED intensitiesto experimental data. This optimization problem has a number ofcharacteristics that make it challenging: it has many local minima, theoptimization variables can be either continuous or categorical, theobjective function can be discontinuous, there are no exact analyticderivatives (and no derivatives at all for categorical variables), andfunction evaluations are expensive. In this study, we show how to apply aparticular class of optimization methods known as pattern search methodsto address these challenges. These methods donot explicitly usederivatives, and are particularly appropriate when categorical variablesare present, an important feature that has not been addressed in previousLEED studies. We have found that pattern search methods can produceexcellent results, compared to previously used methods, both in terms ofperformance and locating optimal results.

  1. Surface Modification Mechanism of Fine Coal by Electrochemical Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hong; WANG Fang-hui; WANG Dian-zuo; OU Ze-shen

    2006-01-01

    In order to reveal the surface modification mechanism of fine coal by electrochemical methods, the structural changes of the coal surface before and after electrochemical modification were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FTIR) and Raman Spectra. The results show that under certain electrochemical conditions, the oxygen-containing functional group in the coal structure and the oxygen content of absorption could be reduced and the floatability of coal improved. At the same time, the sulfur in the coal was reduced to the hydrophilic S2- which could be separated easily from coal. Thus electrochemical modification methods could be used to change the structure and functional group on the coal surface and to enhance the floatability of coal.

  2. Localized surface plasmon resonance mercury detection system and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Jay; Lucas, Donald; Crosby, Jeffrey Scott; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2016-03-22

    A mercury detection system that includes a flow cell having a mercury sensor, a light source and a light detector is provided. The mercury sensor includes a transparent substrate and a submonolayer of mercury absorbing nanoparticles, e.g., gold nanoparticles, on a surface of the substrate. Methods of determining whether mercury is present in a sample using the mercury sensors are also provided. The subject mercury detection systems and methods find use in a variety of different applications, including mercury detecting applications.

  3. Laser ablation method for production of surface acoustic wave sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukyanov, Dmitry; Shevchenko, Sergey; Kukaev, Alexander; Safronov, Daniil

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors are produced using a photolithography method. In case of inertial sensors it suffers several disadvantages, such as difficulty in matching topologies produced on opposite sides of the wafer, expensive in small series production, not allowing further topology correction. In this case a laser ablation method seems promising. Details of a proposed technique are described in the paper along with results of its experimental test and discussion.

  4. A dry-surface coating method for visualization of separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, W. Z.; Brauer, H. J.; Durgin, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    A simple and reasonably accurate dry-surface coating method for the visualization of the separation line on a bluff body is described. This method is not restricted to any particular Reynolds-number range and it supplies a clear permanent record of good photographic quality. Examination of this technique in visualizing the separation angle on a circular cylinder indicated that it is accurate within about + or - 4 percent.

  5. Incompressible material point method for free surface flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiong; Sze, Kam Yim; Lian, Yanping; Liu, Yan

    2017-02-01

    To overcome the shortcomings of the weakly compressible material point method (WCMPM) for modeling the free surface flow problems, an incompressible material point method (iMPM) is proposed based on operator splitting technique which splits the solution of momentum equation into two steps. An intermediate velocity field is first obtained by solving the momentum equations ignoring the pressure gradient term, and then the intermediate velocity field is corrected by the pressure term to obtain a divergence-free velocity field. A level set function which represents the signed distance to free surface is used to track the free surface and apply the pressure boundary conditions. Moreover, an hourglass damping is introduced to suppress the spurious velocity modes which are caused by the discretization of the cell center velocity divergence from the grid vertexes velocities when solving pressure Poisson equations. Numerical examples including dam break, oscillation of a cubic liquid drop and a droplet impact into deep pool show that the proposed incompressible material point method is much more accurate and efficient than the weakly compressible material point method in solving free surface flow problems.

  6. New method of best-fitting on curved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyusojin, Akira; Akimoto, Yoshinori

    1993-09-01

    With the coordinates measuring machine the measured points are obtained as a series of points consist of the original feature and the deviations caused by misalignment i. e. translated deviation and angular deviation. To evaluate the form deviation accurately it is required to best-fit the measured feature to the ideal feature. Conventional best-fitting has been done to minimize the sum of squares of deviations between measured feature and ideal feature by translating and rotating the measured feature. It is possible for the curved line but too difficult for the curved surface. This paper gives a new method of best-fitting using datums which minimize the sum of squares in its normal direction. The datum is defined as straight line for the curved line and plane for the curved surface. When the datum of measured feature is coincided with that of the ideal feature the deviations caused by misslignment are eliminated. In order to confirm the reliability of this method computer simulations and practical measurements were made. Then close agreement was obtained. Key words: coordinate measuring machine best-fitting curved surface datum method of least-squares form deviation software on the measurement accuracy y C) - Measured feature . /Ideal feature -I. Fig. 1 Conventional bestfitting method Ideal Measured feature feature eviation a) curved line Fig. 2 Designation of form deviation 54 / SPIE Vol. 2101 Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (1993) b) curved surface

  7. Assessment of disinfection of hospital surfaces using different monitoring methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Menis Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the efficiency of cleaning/disinfection of surfaces of an Intensive Care Unit.METHOD: descriptive-exploratory study with quantitative approach conducted over the course of four weeks. Visual inspection, bioluminescence adenosine triphosphate and microbiological indicators were used to indicate cleanliness/disinfection. Five surfaces (bed rails, bedside tables, infusion pumps, nurses' counter, and medical prescription table were assessed before and after the use of rubbing alcohol at 70% (w/v, totaling 160 samples for each method. Non-parametric tests were used considering statistically significant differences at p<0.05.RESULTS: after the cleaning/disinfection process, 87.5, 79.4 and 87.5% of the surfaces were considered clean using the visual inspection, bioluminescence adenosine triphosphate and microbiological analyses, respectively. A statistically significant decrease was observed in the disapproval rates after the cleaning process considering the three assessment methods; the visual inspection was the least reliable.CONCLUSION: the cleaning/disinfection method was efficient in reducing microbial load and organic matter of surfaces, however, these findings require further study to clarify aspects related to the efficiency of friction, its frequency, and whether or not there is association with other inputs to achieve improved results of the cleaning/disinfection process.

  8. Invariant surfaces and tracking by the Hamilton-Jacobi method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnock, R.L.; Ruth, R.D.

    1986-09-01

    The Hamilton-Jacobi method is described for a model of betatron motion in one degree of freedom, namely, a harmonic oscillator perturbed by a lattice of sextupoles. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is given in terms of Fourier amplitudes. Invariant surfaces have been obtained in phase space, and finite time symplectic maps were obtained for tracking of single particles. (LEW)

  9. A new method for designing a developable surface utilizing the surface pencil through a given curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for designing a developable surface by constructing a surface pencil passing through a given curve,which is quite in accord with the practice in industry design and manufacture. By utilizing the Frenet trihedron frame, we derive the necessary and sufficient conditions to construct a developable surface through a given curve. Considering the requirements in shoemaking and garment-manufacture industries, we also study the special case of specifying the given curve as a geodesic. The given geodesic can be classified into three types corresponding to each type of developable surface. We also present the polynomial representation of the developable surface. The algorithm is convenient and efficient for applications in engineering.

  10. A novel test method for quantifying surface tack of polypropylene compound surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available While adhesiveness is required for polymer surfaces in special applications, tacky surfaces are generally undesirable in many applications like automotive interior parts. The tackiness of polymer surface results from a combination of composition and additivation, and it can change significantly in natural or accelerated ageing. Since there is no established, uniform method to characterize surface tack, the major focus of the present work was on the development of an objective quantification method. A setup having a soft die tip attached to a standard tensile tester was developed aiming for correlation to the human sense of touch. Three different model thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO compound formulations based on a high-impact isotactic polypropylene (iPP composition with varying amounts and types of anti-scratch additives were used for these investigations. As the surface tack phenomenon is related to ageing and weathering, the material’s examination was also performed after various intervals of weathering. The developed method allows a fast assessment of the effect of polymer composition variations and different additive formulations on surface tack and gives identical rankings as the standardized haptic panel.

  11. A silica gel based method for extracting insect surface hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Ramírez, Santiago R; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2012-02-01

    Here, we describe a novel method for the extraction of insect cuticular hydrocarbons using silica gel, herein referred to as "silica-rubbing". This method permits the selective sampling of external hydrocarbons from insect cuticle surfaces for subsequent analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The cuticular hydrocarbons are first adsorbed to silica gel particles by rubbing the cuticle of insect specimens with the materials, and then are subsequently eluted using organic solvents. We compared the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles that resulted from extractions using silica-rubbing and solvent-soaking methods in four ant and one bee species: Linepithema humile, Azteca instabilis, Camponotus floridanus, Pogonomyrmex barbatus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and Euglossa dilemma (Hymenoptera: Apidae). We also compared the hydrocarbon profiles of Euglossa dilemma obtained via silica-rubbing and solid phase microextraction (SPME). Comparison of hydrocarbon profiles obtained by different extraction methods indicates that silica rubbing selectively extracts the hydrocarbons that are present on the surface of the cuticular wax layer, without extracting hydrocarbons from internal glands and tissues. Due to its surface specificity, efficiency, and low cost, this new method may be useful for studying the biology of insect cuticular hydrocarbons.

  12. A Path Planning Method for Robotic Belt Surface Grinding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; YUN Chao

    2011-01-01

    The flexible contact and machining with wide strip are two prominent advantages for the robotic belt grinding system,which can be widely used to improve the surface quality and machining efficiency while finishing the workpieces with sculptured surfaces.There lacks research on grinding path planning with the constraint of curvature.With complicated contact between the contact wheel and the workpiece,the grinding paths for robot can be obtained by the theory of contact kinematics.The grinding process must satisfy the universal demands of the belt grinding technologies,and the most important thing is to make the contact wheel conform to the local geometrical features on the contact area.For the local surfaces with small curvature,the curve length between the neighboring cutting locations becomes longer to ensure processing efficiency.Otherwise,for the local areas with large curvature,the curve length becomes shorter to ensure machining accuracy.A series of planes are created to intersect with the target surface to be ground,and the corresponding sectional profile curves are obtained.For each curve,the curve length between the neighboring cutting points is optimized by inserting a cutter location at the local area with large curvatures.A method of generating the grinding paths including curve length spacing optimization is set up.The validity is completely approved by the off-line simulation,and during the grinding experiments with the method,the quality of surface is improved.The path planning method provides a theoretical support for the smooth and accuracy path of robotic surface grinding.

  13. The epidemiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD in community-living seniors: protocol of the MemoVie cohort study, Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perquin Magali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease (AD are increasingly considered a major public health problem. The MemoVie cohort study aims to investigate the living conditions or risk factors under which the normal cognitive capacities of the senior population in Luxembourg (≥ 65 year-old evolve (1 to mild cognitive impairment (MCI – transitory non-clinical stage – and (2 to AD. Identifying MCI and AD predictors undeniably constitutes a challenge in public health in that it would allow interventions which could protect or delay the occurrence of cognitive disorders in elderly people. In addition, the MemoVie study sets out to generate hitherto unavailable data, and a comprehensive view of the elderly population in the country. Methods/design The study has been designed with a view to highlighting the prevalence in Luxembourg of MCI and AD in the first step of the survey, conducted among participants selected from a random sample of the general population. A prospective cohort is consequently set up in the second step, and appropriate follow-up of the non-demented participants allows improving the knowledge of the preclinical stage of MCI. Case-control designs are used for cross-sectional or retrospective comparisons between outcomes and biological or clinical factors. To ensure maximal reliability of the information collected, we decided to opt for structured face to face interviews. Besides health status, medical and family history, demographic and socio-cultural information are explored, as well as education, habitat network, social behavior, leisure and physical activities. As multilingualism is expected to challenge the cognitive alterations associated with pathological ageing, it is additionally investigated. Data relative to motor function, including balance, walk, limits of stability, history of falls and accidents are further detailed. Finally, biological examinations, including ApoE genetic polymorphism are

  14. Multichannel analysis of surface wave method with the autojuggie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, G.; Steeples, D.W.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Spikes, K.T.; Ralston, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    The shear (S)-wave velocity of near-surface materials and its effect on seismic-wave propagation are of fundamental interest in many engineering, environmental, and groundwater studies. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method provides a robust, efficient, and accurate tool to observe near-surface S-wave velocity. A recently developed device used to place large numbers of closely spaced geophones simultaneously and automatically (the 'autojuggie') is shown here to be applicable to the collection of MASW data. In order to demonstrate the use of the autojuggie in the MASW method, we compared high-frequency surface-wave data acquired from conventionally planted geophones (control line) to data collected in parallel with the automatically planted geophones attached to steel bars (test line). The results demonstrate that the autojuggie can be applied in the MASW method. Implementation of the autojuggie in very shallow MASW surveys could drastically reduce the time required and costs incurred in such surveys. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of disinfection of hospital surfaces using different monitoring methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Adriano Menis; de Andrade, Denise; Rigotti, Marcelo Alessandro; de Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo; Guerra, Odanir Garcia; dos Santos Junior, Aires Garcia

    2015-01-01

    to assess the efficiency of cleaning/disinfection of surfaces of an Intensive Care Unit. descriptive-exploratory study with quantitative approach conducted over the course of four weeks. Visual inspection, bioluminescence adenosine triphosphate and microbiological indicators were used to indicate cleanliness/disinfection. Five surfaces (bed rails, bedside tables, infusion pumps, nurses' counter, and medical prescription table) were assessed before and after the use of rubbing alcohol at 70% (w/v), totaling 160 samples for each method. Non-parametric tests were used considering statistically significant differences at pdisinfection process, 87.5, 79.4 and 87.5% of the surfaces were considered clean using the visual inspection, bioluminescence adenosine triphosphate and microbiological analyses, respectively. A statistically significant decrease was observed in the disapproval rates after the cleaning process considering the three assessment methods; the visual inspection was the least reliable. the cleaning/disinfection method was efficient in reducing microbial load and organic matter of surfaces, however, these findings require further study to clarify aspects related to the efficiency of friction, its frequency, and whether or not there is association with other inputs to achieve improved results of the cleaning/disinfection process.

  16. A new interpolation method for Antarctic surface temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yetang Wang; Shugui Hou

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new methodology for the spatial interpolation of annual mean temperature into a regular grid with a geographic resolution of 0.01° for Antarctica by applying a recent compilation of the Antarctic temperature data.A multiple linear regression model of the dependence of temperature on some geographic parameters (i.e.,latitude,longitude,and elevation) is proposed empirically,and the kriging method is used to determine the spatial distribution of regional and local deviations from the temperature calculated from the multiple linear regression model.The modeled value and residual grids are combined to derive a high-resolution map of surface air temperature.The performance of our new methodology is superior to a variety of benchmark methods (e.g.,inverse distance weighting,kriging,and spline methods) via cross-validation techniques.Our simulation resembles well with those distinct spatial features of surface temperature,such as the decrease in annual mean surface temperature with increasing latitude and the distance away from the coast line;and it also reveals the complex topographic effects on the spatial distribution of surface temperature.

  17. A new measurement method for ultrasonic surface roughness measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Rezanejad Gatabi, Javad; Rezanejad Gatabi, Iman

    2008-01-01

    This study proposes the application of Doppler-based ultrasonic method to surface roughness measurements. The fabricated prototype measures the slope of the under-test surface at small holes to evaluate the roughing parameters and this makes for more precise measurement. The device comprises...... at the reflecting point. The relationship between the Doppler shift and the roughing slope is mathematically analyzed. Compared to the transit-time based techniques, the dependency of the sensor on the sound speed in air is decreased by a factor of 2 and therefore a more precise measurement is achieved...

  18. Pendant bubble method for an accurate characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, William Yeong Liang; Ng, Tuck Wah; Neild, Adrian

    2011-12-06

    The commonly used sessile drop method for measuring contact angles and surface tension suffers from errors on superhydrophobic surfaces. This occurs from unavoidable experimental error in determining the vertical location of the liquid-solid-vapor interface due to a camera's finite pixel resolution, thereby necessitating the development and application of subpixel algorithms. We demonstrate here the advantage of a pendant bubble in decreasing the resulting error prior to the application of additional algorithms. For sessile drops to attain an equivalent accuracy, the pixel count would have to be increased by 2 orders of magnitude.

  19. Comparison of optical methods for surface roughness characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Hansen, Poul Erik; Pilny, Lukas;

    2015-01-01

    We report a study of the correlation between three optical methods for characterizing surface roughness: a laboratory scatterometer measuring the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF instrument), a simple commercial scatterometer (rBRDF instrument), and a confocal optical profiler....... For each instrument, the effective range of spatial surface wavelengths is determined, and the common bandwidth used when comparing the evaluated roughness parameters. The compared roughness parameters are: the root-mean-square (RMS) profile deviation (Rq), the RMS profile slope (Rdq), and the variance...

  20. An efficient threshold dynamics method for wetting on rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianmin; Wang, Dong; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2017-02-01

    The threshold dynamics method developed by Merriman, Bence and Osher (MBO) is an efficient method for simulating the motion by mean curvature flow when the interface is away from the solid boundary. Direct generalization of MBO-type methods to the wetting problem with interfaces intersecting the solid boundary is not easy because solving the heat equation in a general domain with a wetting boundary condition is not as efficient as it is with the original MBO method. The dynamics of the contact point also follows a different law compared with the dynamics of the interface away from the boundary. In this paper, we develop an efficient volume preserving threshold dynamics method for simulating wetting on rough surfaces. This method is based on minimization of the weighted surface area functional over an extended domain that includes the solid phase. The method is simple, stable with O (Nlog ⁡ N) complexity per time step and is not sensitive to the inhomogeneity or roughness of the solid boundary.

  1. THE EFFECTS OF CUTTING METHODS OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF ALUMINUM POROUS MATERIALPRODUCED VIA VACUUM METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lütfiye DAHIL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the surface roughness values of 3 aluminum porous materials, which were produced via vacuum method and have different porous structures, depending on the implemented cutting method after processing them were assessed comparatively. 3 different cutting methods have been implemented on each of samples, as Water Jet, Wire Erosion, and Band Saw. Setting the speed to 20 m/min, the methods were compared under same conditions. The smoothness measurement has been executed by taking the mean of 3 measurements in parallel with surface and 3 measurements in vertical to surface. By comparing the obtained results, it has been determined that the most advantageous method is the Wire Erosion method.

  2. Facile stamp patterning method for superhydrophilic/superhydrophobic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Sungnam, E-mail: blueden@postech.ac.kr; Hwang, Woonbong, E-mail: whwang@postech.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-16

    Patterning techniques are essential to many research fields such as chemistry, biology, medicine, and micro-electromechanical systems. In this letter, we report a simple, fast, and low-cost superhydrophobic patterning method using a superhydrophilic template. The technique is based on the contact stamping of the surface during hydrophobic dip coating. Surface characteristics were measured using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis. The results showed that the hydrophilic template, which was contacted with the stamp, was not affected by the hydrophobic solution. The resolution study was conducted using a stripe shaped stamp. The patterned line was linearly proportional to the width of the stamp line with a constant narrowing effect. A surface with regions of four different types of wetting was fabricated to demonstrate the patterning performance.

  3. A density gradient theory based method for surface tension calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Xiaodong; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    The density gradient theory has been becoming a widely used framework for calculating surface tension, within which the same equation of state is used for the interface and bulk phases, because it is a theoretically sound, consistent and computationally affordable approach. Based on the observation...... that the optimal density path from the geometric mean density gradient theory passes the saddle point of the tangent plane distance to the bulk phases, we propose to estimate surface tension with an approximate density path profile that goes through this saddle point. The linear density gradient theory, which...... assumes linearly distributed densities between the two bulk phases, has also been investigated. Numerical problems do not occur with these density path profiles. These two approximation methods together with the full density gradient theory have been used to calculate the surface tension of various...

  4. Atomistic Method Applied to Computational Modeling of Surface Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Abel, Phillip B.

    2000-01-01

    The formation of surface alloys is a growing research field that, in terms of the surface structure of multicomponent systems, defines the frontier both for experimental and theoretical techniques. Because of the impact that the formation of surface alloys has on surface properties, researchers need reliable methods to predict new surface alloys and to help interpret unknown structures. The structure of surface alloys and when, and even if, they form are largely unpredictable from the known properties of the participating elements. No unified theory or model to date can infer surface alloy structures from the constituents properties or their bulk alloy characteristics. In spite of these severe limitations, a growing catalogue of such systems has been developed during the last decade, and only recently are global theories being advanced to fully understand the phenomenon. None of the methods used in other areas of surface science can properly model even the already known cases. Aware of these limitations, the Computational Materials Group at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field has developed a useful, computationally economical, and physically sound methodology to enable the systematic study of surface alloy formation in metals. This tool has been tested successfully on several known systems for which hard experimental evidence exists and has been used to predict ternary surface alloy formation (results to be published: Garces, J.E.; Bozzolo, G.; and Mosca, H.: Atomistic Modeling of Pd/Cu(100) Surface Alloy Formation. Surf. Sci., 2000 (in press); Mosca, H.; Garces J.E.; and Bozzolo, G.: Surface Ternary Alloys of (Cu,Au)/Ni(110). (Accepted for publication in Surf. Sci., 2000.); and Garces, J.E.; Bozzolo, G.; Mosca, H.; and Abel, P.: A New Approach for Atomistic Modeling of Pd/Cu(110) Surface Alloy Formation. (Submitted to Appl. Surf. Sci.)). Ternary alloy formation is a field yet to be fully explored experimentally. The computational tool, which is based on

  5. Methods to study microbial adhesion on abiotic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Meireles

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biofilms are a matrix of cells and exopolymeric substances attached to a wet and solid surface and are commonly associated to several problems, such as biofouling and corrosion in industries and infectious diseases in urinary catheters and prosthesis. However, these cells may have several benefits in distinct applications, such as wastewater treatment processes, microbial fuel cells for energy production and biosensors. As microbial adhesion is a key step on biofilm formation, it is very important to understand and characterize microbial adhesion to a surface. This study presents an overview of predictive and experimental methods used for the study of bacterial adhesion. Evaluation of surface physicochemical properties have a limited capacity in describing the complex adhesion process. Regarding the experimental methods, there is no standard method or platform available for the study of microbial adhesion and a wide variety of methods, such as colony forming units counting and microscopy techniques, can be applied for quantification and characterization of the adhesion process.

  6. Method for in-situ cleaning of carbon contaminated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Grunow, Philip; Graham, Jr., Samuel

    2006-12-12

    Activated gaseous species generated adjacent a carbon contaminated surface affords in-situ cleaning. A device for removing carbon contamination from a surface of the substrate includes (a) a housing defining a vacuum chamber in which the substrate is located; (b) a source of gaseous species; and (c) a source of electrons that are emitted to activate the gaseous species into activated gaseous species. The source of electrons preferably includes (i) a filament made of a material that generates thermionic electron emissions; (ii) a source of energy that is connected to the filament; and (iii) an electrode to which the emitted electrons are attracted. The device is particularly suited for photolithography systems with optic surfaces, e.g., mirrors, that are otherwise inaccessible unless the system is dismantled. A method of removing carbon contaminants from a substrate surface that is housed within a vacuum chamber is also disclosed. The method employs activated gaseous species that react with the carbon contaminants to form carbon containing gaseous byproducts.

  7. Récits de vie d’adolescents. Humeur dépressive et figures parentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poudat Céline

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La présente étude se propose d’explorer d’explorer les liens entre l’humeur dépressive et le langage sur la base d’un corpus de récits de vie oraux spontanés produits par 206 adolescents âgés de 12 à 18 ans. On se concentrera plus spécifiquement sur les représentations des figures d’attachement parentales dans les discours, premiers paramètres à jouer un rôle déterminant pour spécifier les différences d’humeur de l’adolescent, en mobilisant des méthodes issues de l’analyse de données textuelles et de la linguistique de corpus.

  8. Claude Romano, Le chant de la vie, phénoménologie de Faulkner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Liénard

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Le chant de la vie s’achève sur la voix d’un autre géant de la littérature, Joseph Conrad, qui déclare : « La tâche que je m’efforce d’accomplir consiste par le seul pouvoir des mots écrits, à vous faire entendre, à vous faire sentir, et avant tout, à vous faire voir » (343. Le credo artistique conradien pourrait bien s’appliquer à Claude Romano pour son parcours philosophique de l’oeuvre de Faulkner qui est un dévoilement plus qu’une simple analyse. Ce que Romano fait en effet partager c’es...

  9. « Vie » et « vivant » : perspectives épistémologiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dell’Angelo-Sauvage Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Des idées des philosophes de la Grèce ancienne, à celles que suggèrent les avancées contemporaines de la biologie, différentes conceptions de la vie et du vivant sont proposées sans qu’un consensus ne soit obtenu. Différents auteurs ont présenté la vie comme l’affaire des philosophes, sous ses aspects politiques et sociaux, tandis que le vivant était l’affaire des biologistes préoccupés du fonctionnement des organismes (Canguilhem, 1990; Fassin, 2000; Jacob, 1970; Pichot, 2011. Mais cette distinction est actuellement rediscutée (Cherlonneix, 2013; Morange, 2013. D’autres auteurs mettent en contraste les approches réductionnistes et holistes et présentent les conséquences de ces points de vue. Dès 2006, Guespin-Michel et Stewart envisageaient un changement de paradigme inévitable face aux modifications de méthodes dans différents groupes de recherche. Nous proposons de porter un regard croisé sur les concepts de vie et de vivant dans le but d’éclaircir les fondements épistémologiques sous-jacents à un enseignement relatif au vivant : observe-t-on une influence réciproque des conceptions de « vie » et de « vivant » dans les différents courants de pensée ? Les changements épistémologiques liés aux observations faites à différentes échelles biologiques modifient-ils les réflexions philosophiques, scientifiques et sociétales ? Qu’en est-il actuellement de la distinction vie/vivant ?

  10. Biophysical methods for the study of microbial surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana eFrases

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The challenge in studying the surface architecture of different microbial pathogens is to integrate the most current biochemical, spectroscopic, microscopic and processing techniques. Individually these methods have insufficient sensitivity to reveal complex structures, such as branched, large, viscous polymers with a high structure hydration, size and complexity. However, when used in combination biophysical techniques are our primary source of information for understanding polydisperse molecules and complex microbial surfaces.Biophysical methods seek to explain biological function in terms of the molecular structures and properties of specific molecules. The sizes of the molecules found in microbial surfaces vary greatly from small fatty acids and sugars to macromolecules like proteins, polysaccharides and pigments, such as melanin. These molecules, which comprise the building blocks of living organisms, assemble into cells, tissues, and whole organisms by forming complex individual structures with dimensions from 10 to 10,000 nm and larger. Biophysics is directed to determining the structure of specific biological molecules and of the larger structures into which they assemble. Some of this effort involves developing new methods, adapting old methods and building new instruments for viewing these structures. The description of biophysical properties in an experimental model where, properties such as flexibility, hydrodynamic characteristics and size can be precisely determined is of great relevance to study the affinity of the surfaces with biologically active and inert substrates and the interaction with host molecules. Furthermore, this knowledge could establish the abilities of different molecules and their structures to differentially activate cellular responses.Recent studies in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans have demonstrated that the physical properties of its unique polysaccharide capsule correlate with the biological

  11. Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces and computational methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, R. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project involves the development, implementation, and application of theoretical methods for the calculation and characterization of potential energy surfaces involving molecular species that occur in hydrocarbon combustion. These potential energy surfaces require an accurate and balanced treatment of reactants, intermediates, and products. This difficult challenge is met with general multiconfiguration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) and multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) methods. In contrast to the more common single-reference electronic structure methods, this approach is capable of describing accurately molecular systems that are highly distorted away from their equilibrium geometries, including reactant, fragment, and transition-state geometries, and of describing regions of the potential surface that are associated with electronic wave functions of widely varying nature. The MCSCF reference wave functions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to describe qualitatively the changes in the electronic structure over the broad range of geometries of interest. The necessary mixing of ionic, covalent, and Rydberg contributions, along with the appropriate treatment of the different electron-spin components (e.g. closed shell, high-spin open-shell, low-spin open shell, radical, diradical, etc.) of the wave functions, are treated correctly at this level. Further treatment of electron correlation effects is included using large scale multireference CI wave functions, particularly including the single and double excitations relative to the MCSCF reference space. This leads to the most flexible and accurate large-scale MRSDCI wave functions that have been used to date in global PES studies.

  12. Innovative changes in the cylinder liners surface shaping methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruszka Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main directions of changes in new internal combustion engine designs are determined not only by legislation on the toxic components emission in the exhaust gases, but also by the changes resulting from technological development, which are the results of research and development activities. One of the basic systems that has undergone intensive development recently is the piston-rings-cylinder (PRC node. This article contains an original analysis of the direction of changes in cylinder surface shaping in terms of the cylinder’s main functional features in the PRC system (the casting material and the opening surface topography after the finishing process. The results of the research on cast iron materials for cylinder liner castings with strength of Rm > 300 MPa were analyzed based on the centrifugal casting method and their finishing stage in the finishing process meeting the criteria for reduction of oil consumption and particle emissions for new HDD type engine designs. The author also points to innovations in surface structure metrology based on new 3D optical measurement methods and the quality rating method by Mercedes company.

  13. A continuous-vorticity panel method for lifting surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, A.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    A continuous-vorticity panel method is developed and utilized to predict the steady aerodynamic loads on lifting surfaces having sharp-edge separation. Triangular panels with linearly varying vorticity are used. The velocity field generated by an individual element is obtained in closed form. An optimization scheme is constructed for finding the vorticity at the nodes of the elements. The method is not restricted by aspect ratios, angles of attack, planforms, or camber. Rectangular and delta wings are presented as numerical examples. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data for incompressible flows.

  14. Potential Energy Surfaces Using Algebraic Methods Based on Unitary Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Lemus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reviews the recent advances to estimate the potential energy surfaces through algebraic methods based on the unitary groups used to describe the molecular vibrational degrees of freedom. The basic idea is to introduce the unitary group approach in the context of the traditional approach, where the Hamiltonian is expanded in terms of coordinates and momenta. In the presentation of this paper, several representative molecular systems that permit to illustrate both the different algebraic approaches as well as the usual problems encountered in the vibrational description in terms of internal coordinates are presented. Methods based on coherent states are also discussed.

  15. Tensile reliability analysis for gravity dam foundation surface based on FEM and response surface method

    OpenAIRE

    Tong-chun LI; Li, Dan-Dan; Wang, Zhi-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, the limit state equation of tensile reliability of foundation base of gravity dam is established. The possible crack length is set as action effect and the allowance crack length is set as resistance in this limit state. The nonlinear FEM is applied to obtain the crack length of foundation base of gravity dam, and linear response surface method based on the orthogonal test design method is used to calculate the reliability,which offered an reasonable and simple analysis method t...

  16. Repairability of Compomers with Different Methods of Surface Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Samimi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Considering the cost and amount of time and also the quantity of tooth loss in the process of cavity preparation, repair of the restoration instead of itsreplacement would be much more efficient.Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different methods of surface conditioning on the shear bond strength of repaired compomers.Materials and Methods: Sixty blocks of compomer were prepared in acrylic molds and then they were randomly divided into five groups of 12. Group I (control groupreceived no treatment. The remaining samples were immersed in 37 ºC distilled water for one week, then the surfaces were roughened with a coarse diamond bur. Samples ineach group were prepared by different surface treatment and conditioning: In group II specimens were conditioned with 35% phosphoric acid for 20s. Specimens in group III were etched with 10% polyacrylic acid for 20s. In group IV 1.23% acidulated phosphatefluoride was applied for 30s, and compomer surfaces were sandblasted with 50μm Al2O3 powder in group V. After the initial preparations, all groups were treated with silane and resin before bonding of the second mix of compomer. Shear forces were applied with a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 5mm/min. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range tests.Results: The mean shear bond strengths and standard deviations (in parentheses for groups I to V were 31.56(10.86, 20.02(5.49, 17.74(7.34, 19.31(4.31 and 27.7(6.33MPa, respectively. The mean bond strengths for Groups I and V were significantly higher than that of the other groups (P<0.05.Conclusion: The results showed that among the surface treatments used in this study,sandblasting with alumina could be the best surface preparation method for repairing compomer restorations.

  17. La démarche RAROC utilisée en banque est-elle transposable à l’assurance-vie ?

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Noël Ory

    2002-01-01

    L’objet de cet article est de dresser une tentative d’adaptation de la méthodologie RAROC (risk adjusted return on capital), utilisée en banque, au domaine de l’assurance-vie. Après avoir rappelé que la nécessité de constituer des fonds propres économiques est similaire pour une banque et pour une compagnie d’assurance-vie, nous rappelons la logique de construction de l’indicateur RAROC. Dans un deuxième temps, nous essayons de transposer cette logique à l’assurance-vie, en étudiant quels ser...

  18. Investigation of synthetic aperture methods in ultrasound surface imaging using elementary surface types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, W; Pierce, S G; Rowe, P

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic aperture imaging methods have been employed widely in recent research in non-destructive testing (NDT), but uptake has been more limited in medical ultrasound imaging. Typically offering superior focussing power over more traditional phased array methods, these techniques have been employed in NDT applications to locate and characterise small defects within large samples, but have rarely been used to image surfaces. A desire to ultimately employ ultrasonic surface imaging for bone surface geometry measurement prior to surgical intervention motivates this research, and results are presented for initial laboratory trials of a surface reconstruction technique based on global thresholding of ultrasonic 3D point cloud data. In this study, representative geometry artefacts were imaged in the laboratory using two synthetic aperture techniques; the Total Focusing Method (TFM) and the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) employing full and narrow synthetic apertures, respectively. Three high precision metallic samples of known geometries (cuboid, sphere and cylinder) which featured a range of elementary surface primitives were imaged using a 5MHz, 128 element 1D phased array employing both SAFT and TFM approaches. The array was manipulated around the samples using a precision robotic positioning system, allowing for repeatable ultrasound derived 3D surface point clouds to be created. A global thresholding technique was then developed that allowed the extraction of the surface profiles, and these were compared with the known geometry samples to provide a quantitative measure of error of 3D surface reconstruction. The mean errors achieved with optimised SAFT imaging for the cuboidal, spherical and cylindrical samples were 1.3mm, 2.9mm and 2.0mm respectively, while those for TFM imaging were 3.7mm, 3.0mm and 3.1mm, respectively. These results were contrary to expectations given the higher information content associated with the TFM images. However, it was

  19. Integral methods for shallow free-surface flows with separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, S.; Putkaradze, V.; Bohr, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    eddy and separated flow. Assuming a variable radial velocity profile as in Karman-Pohlhausen's method, we obtain a system of two ordinary differential equations for stationary states that can smoothly go through the jump. Solutions of the system are in good agreement with experiments. For the flow down......, and stationary jumps, obtained, for instance, behind a sluice gate. We then include time dependence in the model to study the stability of these waves. This allows us to distinguish between sub- and supercritical flows by calculating dispersion relations for wavelengths of the order of the width of the layer.......We study laminar thin film flows with large distortions of the free surface, using the method of averaging across the flow. Two specific problems are studied: the circular hydraulic jump and the flow down an inclined plane. For the circular hydraulic jump our method is able to handle an internal...

  20. RESEARCH ON ADAPTIVE DATA COMPRESSION METHOD FOR TRIANGULATED SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wen; Wu Shixiong; Chen Zichen

    2004-01-01

    NC code or STL file can be generated directly from measuring data in a fast reverse-engineering mode.Compressing the massive data from laser scanner is the key of the new mode.An adaptive compression method based on triangulated-surfaces model is put forward.Normal-vector angles between triangles are computed to find prime vertices for removal.Ring data structure is adopted to save massive data effectively.It allows the efficient retrieval of all neighboring vertices and triangles of a given vertices.To avoid long and thin triangles,a new re-triangulation approach based on normalized minimum-vertex-distance is proposed,in which the vertex distance and interior angle of triangle are considered.Results indicate that the compression method has high efficiency and can get reliable precision.The method can be applied in fast reverse engineering to acquire an optimal subset of the original massive data.

  1. A new method for patterning azopolymer thin film surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhabi, Sh. Golghasemi; Barille, R.; Ahmadi-Kandjani, S.; Zielinska, S.; Ortyl, E.

    2017-04-01

    We present a simple bottom-up approach via an incoherent unpolarized illumination and the choice of a solvent-droplet-induced-dewetting method to photoinduce nano doughnuts on the surface of azopolymer thin films. We demonstrate that doughnut-shaped nanostructures can be formed and tailored with a wide range of typical sizes, thus providing a rich field of applications using surface photo-patterning. Furthermore, due to the presence of highly photoactive azobenzene derivative in the material, illumination of these nanostructures by a polarized laser light shows the possibility of a further growth and reshaping opening the way for fundamental studies of size-dependent scaling laws of optical properties and possible fabrication of nano-reactor or nano-trap patterns.

  2. Rapid quantification method for Legionella pneumophila in surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Anika; Torggler, Carmen; Elsässer, Dennis; Lück, Christian; Niessner, Reinhard; Seidel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    World-wide legionellosis outbreaks caused by evaporative cooling systems have shown that there is a need for rapid screening methods for Legionella pneumophila in water. Antibody-based methods for the quantification of L. pneumophila are rapid, non-laborious, and relatively cheap but not sensitive enough for establishment as a screening method for surface and drinking water. Therefore, preconcentration methods have to be applied in advance to reach the needed sensitivity. In a basic test, monolithic adsorption filtration (MAF) was used as primary preconcentration method that adsorbs L. pneumophila with high efficiency. Ten-liter water samples were concentrated in 10 min and further reduced to 1 mL by centrifugal ultrafiltration (CeUF). The quantification of L. pneumophila strains belonging to the monoclonal subtype Bellingham was performed via flow-based chemiluminescence sandwich microarray immunoassays (CL-SMIA) in 36 min. The whole analysis process takes 90 min. A polyclonal antibody (pAb) against L. pneumophila serogroup 1-12 and a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against L. pneumophila SG 1 strain Bellingham were immobilized on a microarray chip. Without preconcentration, the detection limit was 4.0 × 10(3) and 2.8 × 10(3) CFU/mL determined by pAb and mAb 10/6, respectively. For samples processed by MAF-CeUF prior to SMIA detection, the limit of detection (LOD) could be decreased to 8.7 CFU/mL and 0.39 CFU/mL, respectively. A recovery of 99.8 ± 15.9% was achieved for concentrations between 1-1000 CFU/mL. The established combined analytical method is sensitive for rapid screening of surface and drinking water to allow fast hygiene control of L. pneumophila.

  3. Deformation analysis of optical flat surface with finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Pengqiang; Ren, Boyuan; Wang, Yiwen; Zhang, Dewei; Zhang, Longjiang; Su, Xing

    2016-10-01

    Proposing a new method for testing the ultra-precision aerostatic spindle motion accuracy based on analyzing the online real-time dynamic interference image. Optical flat crystal as the testing standard will be installed at the end of the ultra precision aerostatic spindle and will motion along with the spindle. On the other end of the spindle, the tool will be installed for online processing. The image data of optical flat crystal collected by the high-precision dynamic interferometer will be processed for analyzing the spindle error. For collecting higher accuracy image data, the installation way of optical flat crystal is one of the key technologies. Base on this, the effects of the clamping means on the surface accuracy of optical flat crystal is studied. At first, the finite element model of the optical flat crystal`s clamping structure were established. Secondly, the influence of the material of the supporting annulus, preload lateral clamping and spindle speed on the surface accuracy of optical flat crystal had been analyzed. At last, the improved and optimized structure of the optical flat crystal has been presented. As the analysis results shown, the RMS value of reference surface is 9.47nm and the deformation values of the central region is 0.17nm which satisfies the requirement of surface accuracy and installation of optical flat crystal. It has a very important theoretical and practical significance to establish spindle online testing system and research rotary error generating mechanism of ultra-precision spindle to improve surface accuracy of ultra-precision machining.

  4. Integral methods for shallow free-surface flows with separation

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, S; Bohr, T; Watanabe, Shinya; Putkaradze, Vachtang; Bohr, Tomas

    2000-01-01

    We study laminar thin film flows with large distortions in the free surface using the method of averaging across the flow. Two concrete problems are studied: the circular hydraulic jump and the flow down an inclined plane. For the circular hydraulic jump our method is able to handle an internal eddy and separated flow. Assuming a variable radial velocity profile like in Karman-Pohlhausen's method, we obtain a system of two ordinary differential equations for stationary states that can smoothly go through the jump where previous studies encountered a singularity. Solutions of the system are in good agreement with experiments. For the flow down an inclined plane we take a similar approach and derive a simple model in which the velocity profile is not restricted to a parabolic or self-similar form. Two types of solutions with large surface distortions are found: solitary, kink-like propagating fronts, obtained when the flow rate is suddenly changed, and stationary jumps, obtained, e.g., behind a sluice gate. We ...

  5. A contoured continuum surface force model for particle methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Guangtao; Koshizuka, Seiichi; Chen, Bin

    2015-10-01

    A surface tension model is essential to simulate multiphase flows with deformed interfaces. This study develops a contoured continuum surface force (CCSF) model for particle methods. A color function that varies sharply across the interface to mark different fluid phases is smoothed in the transition region, where the local contour curvature can be regarded as the interface curvature. The local contour passing through each reference particle in the transition region is extracted from the local profile of the smoothed color function. The local contour curvature is calculated based on the Taylor series expansion of the smoothed color function, whose derivatives are calculated accurately according to the definition of the smoothed color function. Two schemes are proposed to specify the smooth radius: fixed scheme, where 2 ×re (re = particle interaction radius) is assigned to all particles in the transition region; and varied scheme, where re and 2 ×re are assigned to the central and edged particles in the transition region respectively. Numerical examples, including curvature calculation for static circle and ellipse interfaces, deformation of square droplet to a circle (2D and 3D), droplet deformation in shear flow, and droplet coalescence, are simulated to verify the CCSF model and compare its performance with those of other methods. The CCSF model with the fixed scheme is proven to produce the most accurate curvature and lowest parasitic currents among the tested methods.

  6. The estimation of dynamic contact angle of ultra-hydrophobic surfaces using inclined surface and impinging droplet methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasikova Darina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of industrial technology also brings with optimized surface quality, particularly where there is contact with food. Application ultra-hydrophobic surface significantly reduces the growth of bacteria and facilitates cleaning processes. Testing and evaluation of surface quality are used two methods: impinging droplet and inclined surface method optimized with high speed shadowgraphy, which give information about dynamic contact angle. This article presents the results of research into new methods of measuring ultra-hydrophobic patented technology.

  7. Surface matching method for profile inspection with touch probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient method for rigid registration of 3-D point sets,which intends to match the feature points inspected using touch probe with the points on designed CAD surface.The alignment error is defined as the least square problem,and the sphere radius of the inspection probe is considered.In this framework,the matching problem is converted into acquiring six Euler variables problem by solving nonlinear equations.Thus,a matrix transformation of parameter separation is presented to get the...

  8. Quelle posture les sciences sociales doivent-elles adopter vis-à-vis des sciences de la vie ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Guillo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pour Albert Ogien et Louis Quéré, les sciences sociales sont séparées des sciences de la vie par une frontière quasi-infranchissable. Par conséquent, selon eux, l’évocation de vues empruntées à la biologie en sociologie et en anthropologie serait, au mieux, dépourvue d’intérêt, au pire fallacieuse. Ils développent cette thèse en invoquant, notamment, la non-falsifiabilité des sciences sociales par les sciences de la vie, le poids du social et de l’environnement dans la cognition et l’action humaines, ou encore l’irréductibilité des objets respectifs de ces disciplines. Nier l’existence d’une telle frontière impliquerait, à leurs yeux, la dissolution des sciences sociales dans les sciences de la nature. Certains arguments invoqués à l’appui de ces thèses valent pour réfuter certaines formes sommaires de naturalisme. Toutefois, ils n’invalident pas les variantes comme celles que proposent Laurence Kaufmann et Laurent Cordonier. Contrairement à ce que suggèrent ces arguments, on peut fort bien défendre le principe d’une autonomie épistémologique des sciences sociales, tout en contestant l’existence d’une frontière nette entre disciplines. Par ailleurs, l’hypothèse de la frontière fragilise les sciences sociales, en les conduisant à ignorer un champ de recherche dans lequel elles ont pourtant vocation à intervenir : celui de l’articulation des connaissances qu’elles accumulent, de manière indépendante et au moyen de leurs propres méthodes, avec celles que recueillent, de leur côté, les sciences de la vie. Ce faisant, elles laissent prospérer dans ce champ le naturalisme le plus sommaire.Which Position Should Social Sciences Adopt Towards Life Sciences? A Border or a ForeshoreFor Albert Ogien and Louis Quéré, social sciences are separated from life sciences by an almost uncrossable border. Therefore, they argue that the evocation of views borrowed from biology in sociology and

  9. Inégalités au travail : les enjeux de l'articulation entre vie professionnelle et vie personnelle chez les employé(e)s de bureau.

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINET, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    Cette étude porte sur l'articulation entre vie professionnelle et vie personnelle chez des employés de bureau et l'impact sur la santé des salariés plus particulièrement en ce qui concerne les risques psychosociaux. La première partie place la problématique dans le contexte socio-économique pour comprendre le rôle de l'activité salariée dans la construction de l'identité des personnes. La deuxième partie est consacrée à la méthodologie choisie sur la base d'entretiens et de questionnaires rem...

  10. Methods To Identify Aptamers against Cell Surface Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Ducongé

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are nucleic acid-based ligands identified through a process of molecular evolution named SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment. During the last 10-15 years, numerous aptamers have been developed specifically against targets present on or associated with the surface of human cells or infectious pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi or parasites. Several of the aptamers have been described as potent probes, rivalling antibodies, for use in flow cytometry or microscopy. Some have also been used as drugs by inhibiting or activating functions of their targets in a manner similar to neutralizing or agonistic antibodies. Additionally, it is straightforward to conjugate aptamers to other agents without losing their affinity and they have successfully been used in vitro and in vivo to deliver drugs, siRNA, nanoparticles or contrast agents to target cells. Hence, aptamers identified against cell surface biomarkers represent a promising class of ligands. This review presents the different strategies of SELEX that have been developed to identify aptamers for cell surface-associated proteins as well as some of the methods that are used to study their binding on living cells.

  11. Methods for the Update and Verification of Forest Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybansky, M.; Brenova, M.; Zerzan, P.; Simon, J.; Mikita, T.

    2016-06-01

    The digital terrain model (DTM) represents the bare ground earth's surface without any objects like vegetation and buildings. In contrast to a DTM, Digital surface model (DSM) represents the earth's surface including all objects on it. The DTM mostly does not change as frequently as the DSM. The most important changes of the DSM are in the forest areas due to the vegetation growth. Using the LIDAR technology the canopy height model (CHM) is obtained by subtracting the DTM and the corresponding DSM. The DSM is calculated from the first pulse echo and DTM from the last pulse echo data. The main problem of the DSM and CHM data using is the actuality of the airborne laser scanning. This paper describes the method of calculating the CHM and DSM data changes using the relations between the canopy height and age of trees. To get a present basic reference data model of the canopy height, the photogrammetric and trigonometric measurements of single trees were used. Comparing the heights of corresponding trees on the aerial photographs of various ages, the statistical sets of the tree growth rate were obtained. These statistical data and LIDAR data were compared with the growth curve of the spruce forest, which corresponds to a similar natural environment (soil quality, climate characteristics, geographic location, etc.) to get the updating characteristics.

  12. Evaluation of surface renewal and flux-variance methods above agricultural and forest surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M.; Katul, G. G.; Noormets, A.; Poznikova, G.; Domec, J. C.; Trnka, M.; King, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Measurements of turbulent surface energy fluxes are of high interest in agriculture and forest research. During last decades, eddy covariance (EC), has been adopted as the most commonly used micrometeorological method for measuring fluxes of greenhouse gases, energy and other scalars at the surface-atmosphere interface. Despite its robustness and accuracy, the costs of EC hinder its deployment at some research experiments and in practice like e.g. for irrigation scheduling. Therefore, testing and development of other cost-effective methods is of high interest. In our study, we tested performance of surface renewal (SR) and flux variance method (FV) for estimates of sensible heat flux density. Surface renewal method is based on the concept of non-random transport of scalars via so-called coherent structures which if accurately identified can be used for the computing of associated flux. Flux variance method predicts the flux from the scalar variance following the surface-layer similarity theory. We tested SR and FV against EC in three types of ecosystem with very distinct aerodynamic properties. First site was represented by agricultural wheat field in the Czech Republic. The second site was a 20-m tall mixed deciduous wetland forest on the coast of North Carolina, USA. The third site was represented by pine-switchgrass intercropping agro-forestry system located in coastal plain of North Carolina, USA. Apart from solving the coherent structures in a SR framework from the structure functions (representing the most common approach), we applied ramp wavelet detection scheme to test the hypothesis that the duration and amplitudes of the coherent structures are normally distributed within the particular 30-minutes time intervals and so just the estimates of their averages is sufficient for the accurate flux determination. Further, we tested whether the orthonormal wavelet thresholding can be used for isolating of the coherent structure scales which are associated with

  13. Reliablity analysis of gravity dams by response surface method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humar, Nina; Kryžanowski, Andrej; Brilly, Mitja; Schnabl, Simon

    2013-04-01

    A dam failure is one of the most important problems in dam industry. Since the mechanical behavior of dams is usually a complex phenomenon existing classical mathematical models are generally insufficient to adequately predict the dam failure and thus the safety of dams. Therefore, numerical reliability methods are often used to model such a complex mechanical phenomena. Thus, the main purpose of the present paper is to present the response surface method as a powerful mathematical tool used to study and foresee the dam safety considering a set of collected monitoring data. The derived mathematical model is applied to a case study, the Moste dam, which is the highest concrete gravity dam in Slovenia. Based on the derived model, the ambient/state variables are correlated with the dam deformation in order to gain a forecasting tool able to define the critical thresholds for dam management.

  14. Methods to immobilize GPCR on the surface of SPR sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Muñoz, Laura; Barroso, Rubén; Paredes, Anabel Guedán; Mellado, Mario; Rodríguez-Frade, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) form one of the largest membrane receptor families. The nature of the ligands that interact with these receptors is highly diverse; they include light, peptides and hormones, neurotransmitters, and small molecular weight compounds. The GPCRs are involved in a wide variety of physiological processes and thus hold considerable therapeutic potential.GPCR function is usually determined in cell-based assays, whose complexity nonetheless limits their use. The use of alternative, cell-free assays is hampered by the difficulties in purifying these seven-transmembrane domain receptors without altering their functional properties. Several methods have been proposed to immobilize GPCR on biosensor surfaces which use antibodies or avidin-/biotin-based capture procedures, alone or with reconstitution of the GPCR physiological microenvironment. Here we propose a method for GPCR immobilization in their native membrane microenvironment that requires no manipulation of the target receptor and maintains the many conformations GPCR can adopt in the cell membrane.

  15. Method to grow Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biofilm on a biotic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Yannick D N; Lévesque, Cynthia; Segers, Ruud P A M; Jacques, Mario

    2013-10-20

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and a member of the Pasteurellaceae family. This bacterium is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, which is a highly contagious respiratory disease causing important economical losses to the worldwide pig industry. It has been shown that A. pleuropneumoniae can form biofilms on abiotic surfaces (plastic and glass). Although in vitro models are extremely useful to gain information on biofilm formation, these models may not be representative of the conditions found at the mucosal surface of the host, which is the natural niche of A. pleuropneumoniae. In this paper, we describe a method to grow A. pleuropneumoniae biofilms on the SJPL cell line, which represents a biotic surface. A non-hemolytic, non-cytotoxic mutant of A. pleuropneumoniae was used in our assays and this allowed the SJPL cell monolayers to be exposed to A. pleuropneumoniae for longer periods. This resulted in the formation of biofilms on the cell monolayer after incubations of 24 and 48 h. The biofilms can be stained with fluorescent probes, such as a lectin against the polymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine present in the biofilm matrix, and easily observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. This is the first protocol that describes the formation of an A. pleuropneumoniae biofilm on a biotic surface. The advantage of this protocol is that it can be used to study biofilm formation in a context of host-pathogen interactions. The protocol could also be adapted to evaluate biofilm inhibitors or the efficacy of antibiotics in the presence of biofilms.

  16. A Method to Identify Flight Obstacles on Digital Surface Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Min; LIN Xinggang; SUN Shouyu; WANG Youzhi

    2005-01-01

    In modern low-altitude terrain-following guidance, a constructing method of the digital surface model (DSM) is presented in the paper to reduce the threat to flying vehicles of tall surface features for safe flight. The relationship between an isolated obstacle size and the intervals of vertical- and cross-section in the DSM model is established. The definition and classification of isolated obstacles are proposed, and a method for determining such isolated obstacles in the DSM model is given. The simulation of a typical urban district shows that when the vertical- and cross-section DSM intervals are between 3 m and 25 m, the threat to terrain-following flight at low-altitude is reduced greatly, and the amount of data required by the DSM model for monitoring in real time a flying vehicle is also smaller. Experiments show that the optimal results are for an interval of 12.5 m in the vertical- and cross-sections in the DSM model, with a 1:10 000 DSM scale grade.

  17. The surface Laplacian technique in EEG: Theory and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhaes, Claudio; de Barros, J Acacio

    2015-09-01

    This paper reviews the method of surface Laplacian differentiation to study EEG. We focus on topics that are helpful for a clear understanding of the underlying concepts and its efficient implementation, which is especially important for EEG researchers unfamiliar with the technique. The popular methods of finite difference and splines are reviewed in detail. The former has the advantage of simplicity and low computational cost, but its estimates are prone to a variety of errors due to discretization. The latter eliminates all issues related to discretization and incorporates a regularization mechanism to reduce spatial noise, but at the cost of increasing mathematical and computational complexity. These and several other issues deserving further development are highlighted, some of which we address to the extent possible. Here we develop a set of discrete approximations for Laplacian estimates at peripheral electrodes. We also provide the mathematical details of finite difference approximations that are missing in the literature, and discuss the problem of computational performance, which is particularly important in the context of EEG splines where data sets can be very large. Along this line, the matrix representation of the surface Laplacian operator is carefully discussed and some figures are given illustrating the advantages of this approach. In the final remarks, we briefly sketch a possible way to incorporate finite-size electrodes into Laplacian estimates that could guide further developments.

  18. Une autre ville pour une autre vie. Henri Lefebvre et les situationnistes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Simay

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available L’un des traits distinctifs du mouvement situationniste est de s’être constamment préoccupé de la question urbaine. Conçue comme l’espace de production de la société du spectacle mais aussi comme un terrain de lutte et d’expérimentation, la ville a représenté pour ce mouvement estudiantin, proche d’Henri Lefebvre, le lieu d’une réinvention radicale de la vie quotidienne. Cet article revient sur la critique situationniste de l’urbanisme de l’après-guerre ainsi que sur les pratiques auxquelles elle a donné lieu (détournement, dérive, cartes psychogéographiques, construction de situations éphémères. Celles-ci peuvent être regardées comme la première expression d’un « droit à la ville », tel que l’entendait Lefebvre. Reste à savoir si le groupe de Guy Debord souhaitait véritablement « changer la ville pour changer la vie » ou si la ville n’était que le théâtre d’une révolution à venir.One of the distinctive traits of the situationist movement is its constant preoccupation with the urban issue. For this student movement close to Henri Lefebvre, the city has been thought of as a choice generic location for the production of the Society of the Spectacle, but also as a test ground for struggle and experimentation – the place where a radical reinvention of daily life can occur. This paper goes back to the situationist critique of post-war urbanism, as well as the behaviors and practices it has given birth to (misappropriation, drifts in meaning, psychogeographic maps, the construct of short-lived situations. These can be seen as the first expression of a « right to the city », in the sense Lefebvre originally meant it have. However, it is still unknown whether Guy Debord's group really wished to « change city-life to change life itself », or if to them the city was merely a theater for the enactment of a revolution to come.

  19. Dubois Vincent, La vie au guichet. Relation administrative et traitement de la misèreParis, Economica, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Van Sull

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Vincent Dubois est sociologue et politiste. Ses recherches portent notamment sur les questions de l’action publique. En 2010, une troisième édition de son ouvrage La vie au guichet est publiée. Outre quelques corrections, elle comporte une préface de Jacques Lagroye (texte à l’origine publié dans la Revue française de science politique, 1999, vol. 49, n° 6, un avant-propos inédit de l’auteur et un index thématique.La vie au guichet se situe entre une sociologie des institutions (à travers l’...

  20. A plateau-valley separation method for multifunctional surfaces characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Kühle, A.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Turned multifunctional surfaces are a new typology of textured surfaces presenting a flat plateau region and deterministically distributed lubricant reservoirs. Existing standards are not suitable for the characterization of such surfaces, providing at times values without physical meaning. A new...

  1. Surface treatment method for cladding tube of LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Yoshitaka; Matsumoto, Kunio; Ito, Kenji.

    1994-06-07

    Upon surface finishing by polishing, shot peening or blasting is applied on the outer surface of a cladding tube to eliminate orientation of residual stresses on the surface layer in order to eliminate residual stresses formed on the outer surface in the circumferential direction. This can suppress occurrence of cracks in oxide membranes formed on the outer surface to suppress development of corrosion on the outer surface irrespective of the ingredient composition of fuel cladding tube made of zircaloy. (T.M.).

  2. Self-adaptive method for high frequency multi-channel analysis of surface wave method

    Science.gov (United States)

    When the high frequency multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method is conducted to explore soil properties in the vadose zone, existing rules for selecting the near offset and spread lengths cannot satisfy the requirements of planar dominant Rayleigh waves for all frequencies of interest ...

  3. Evaluation of Surface Treatment Methods on the Bond Strength of Zirconia Ceramics Systems, Resin Cements and Tooth Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Akkuş Emek; Turker Sebnem Begum

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of airborne-particle abrasion (APA) and tribochemical silica coating (TSC) surface treatment methods on the shear bond strength of zirconia ceramics systems, resin cements and tooth surface

  4. Evaluation of Surface Treatment Methods on the Bond Strength of Zirconia Ceramics Systems, Resin Cements and Tooth Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkuş Emek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the effects of airborne-particle abrasion (APA and tribochemical silica coating (TSC surface treatment methods on the shear bond strength of zirconia ceramics systems, resin cements and tooth surface

  5. Delta self-consistent field method to obtain potential energy surfaces of excited molecules on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavnholt, Jeppe; Olsen, Thomas; Engelund, Mads;

    2008-01-01

    We present a modification of the Delta self-consistent field (Delta SCF) method of calculating energies of excited states in order to make it applicable to resonance calculations of molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces, where the molecular orbitals are highly hybridized. The Delta SCF approximation...... is a density-functional method closely resembling standard density-functional theory (DFT), the only difference being that in Delta SCF one or more electrons are placed in higher lying Kohn-Sham orbitals instead of placing all electrons in the lowest possible orbitals as one does when calculating the ground......-state energy within standard DFT. We extend the Delta SCF method by allowing excited electrons to occupy orbitals which are linear combinations of Kohn-Sham orbitals. With this extra freedom it is possible to place charge locally on adsorbed molecules in the calculations, such that resonance energies can...

  6. Niveaux d'analyse et cartographie thématique: groupes ethniques et conditions de vie en Bolivie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude ROUX

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Les cartes des conditions de vie en Bolivie montrent des formes d’organisation spatiale récurrentes coïncidant étroitement avec celle des langues quechua et aymara. Mais les conclusions sont tout autres lorsque change le niveau d’analyse notamment en raison des différienciations sociales qui apparaissent à l’échelle locale.

  7. Improved in-situ methods for determining land surface emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göttsche, Frank; Olesen, Folke; Hulley, Glynn

    2014-05-01

    misrepresented in satellite-retrieved LSEs. In-situ emissivities of dominant surface cover types at Gobabeb and Dahra were obtained with the so-called 'box method', which consists of a sequence of thermal infrared radiance measurements and employs a box with highly reflective inner walls to control the radiation from the environment. The original method was improved by continuously recording the radiance measurements at a sampling rate of one second, which allows the picking of the first undisturbed temperature after changing the box configuration. Furthermore, erroneous measurements, e.g. from incorrectly placing the box on a target, can still be identified and rejected later. In-situ LSEs are compared to emissivity spectra of soil and grass samples and to LSE retrieved from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on EOS-Terra.

  8. Biological methods used to assess surface water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczerbiñska Natalia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the guidelines of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60 (WFD, both ecological and chemical statuses determine the assessment of surface waters. The profile of ecological status is based on the analysis of various biological components, and physicochemical and hydromorphological indicators complement this assessment. The aim of this article is to present the biological methods used in the assessment of water status with a special focus on bioassay, as well as to provide a review of methods of monitoring water status. Biological test methods include both biomonitoring and bioanalytics. Water biomonitoring is used to assess and forecast the status of water. These studies aim to collect data on water pollution and forecast its impact. Biomonitoring uses organisms which are characterized by particular vulnerability to contaminants. Bioindicator organisms are algae, fungi, bacteria, larval invertebrates, cyanobacteria, macroinvertebrates, and fish. Bioanalytics is based on the receptors of contaminants that can be biologically active substances. In bioanalytics, biosensors such as viruses, bacteria, antibodies, enzymes, and biotests are used to assess degrees of pollution.

  9. REGARDE DE TOUS TES YEUX: OS PINTORES EM LA VIE MODE D'EMPLOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Lopes Araujo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available En partant du principe que le concept de réalisme sous lequel se baseait l’écriture de Georges Perec aurait été, du moins partiellement, crée à partir de la peinture, j’ai l’intention de discuter dans cet article le rapport établi par l’écrivain entre la littérature et les arts plastiques et parler aussi de la façon dont ce dialogue surgit dans l’un de ses livres les plus connus, La Vie mode d’emploi. J’analyse les points en commun entre la poétique perecquienne et les procédés employés par deux personnages peintres du texte, Franz Hutting et Vladislav, en essaiant d’y identifier des éléments importants pour Perec, tels que la liaison entre les artistes et ceux qui sont venus avant lui et aussi le jeu avec le public.

  10. Method for producing high surface area chromia materials for catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gash, Alexander E.; Satcher, Joe; Tillotson, Thomas; Hrubesh, Lawrence; Simpson, Randall

    2007-05-01

    Nanostructured chromium(III)-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing and a synthetic route for producing such materials are disclosed herein. Monolithic aerogels and xerogels having surface areas between 150 m.sup.2/g and 520 m.sup.2/g have been produced. The synthetic method employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-chromium(III) inorganic salts and common solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, t-butanol, 2-ethoxy ethanol, and ethylene glycol, DMSO, and dimethyl formamide. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by an addition of a proton scavenger, such as an epoxide, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively.

  11. Composition and method for cleaning hydrocarbon oil from hard surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blezard, M.; Mcallister, W.H.

    1983-09-28

    Hydrocarbon oils are cleaned from hard, inorganic surfaces by the application of an aqueous solution, such as seawater, containing a mixture of alkoxylated alcohol, carboxylic acid, alkyl phenol, or nonionic phosphate ester, with an alkyl mono- or di-ethanolamide or an ethoxylated or polyethoxylated alkyl mono- or di-ethanolamide. The method is of particular value for cleaning drilling oil from rock cuttings in offshore drilling operations, such as cold North Sea installations. Specific examples are a C10 primary alcohol, which is ethoxylated with 5 moles of ethylene oxide, mixed with a coconut diethanolamide. Typically, the mixture is supplied as a concentrate which is dissolved in, or diluted with, water to provide the cleansing solution at the site of the rig. 21 claims.

  12. The fractal method of the lunar surface parameters analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedev, Yuri; Demina, Natalia; Petrova, Natalia; Demin, Sergey; Andreev, Alexey

    2016-10-01

    Analysis of complex selenographic systems is a complicated issue. This fully applies to the lunar topography. In this report a new method of the comparative reliable estimation of the lunar maps data is represented. The estimation was made by the comparison of high-altitude lines using the fractal analysis. The influence of the lunar macrofigure variances were determined by the method of fractal dimensions comparison.By now the highly accurate theories of the lunar movement have been obtained and stars coordinates have been determined on the basis of space measurements with the several mas accuracy but there are factors highly influencingon the accuracy of the results of these observations. They are: exactitude of the occultation moment recording, errors of the stars coordinates, accuracy of lunar ephemeris positions and unreliability of lunar marginal zone maps. Existing charts of the lunar marginal zone have some defects. To resolve this task thecomparison method in which the structure of the high-altitude lines of data appropriated with identical lunar coordinates can use. However, such comparison requires a lot of calculations.In order to find the variations of irregularities for the limb points above the mean level of lunar surface were computed the position angles of this points P and D by Hayn' coordinates. Thus the data of our studies was obtained by identical types.Then the first, segments of a lunar marginal zone for every 45" on P were considered. For each segment profile of the surface for a constant D were constructed with a step of 2". Thus 80 profiles were obtained. Secondly the fractal dimensions d for each considered structure was defined. Third the obtained values d were compared with the others maps considered in this work.The obtained results show some well agreement between the mean fractal dimensions for maps. Thus it can be concluded that the using of fractal method for lunar maps analysis to determine the accuracy of the presented to

  13. DIAGONAL POINT BY POINT SURFACE DEVELOPMENT METHOD BASED ON NURBS SURFACE FOR BLANK SHAPE ESTIMATION OF COVER PANEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yuqin; Li Fuzhu; Jiang Hong; Wang Xiaochun

    2005-01-01

    According to the characteristics of a complex cover panel, its geometry shape is described by the NURBS surface with great description capability. With the reference to the surface classification determined by Gauss curvature, the proportion of the mid-surface area between before and after being developed is derived from the displacement variation of the mid-surface in the normal vector direction of the sheet metal during the sheet metal forming process. Hereby, based on the curve development theory in differential geometry, a novel diagonal point by point surface development method is put forward to estimate a complex cover panel's blank contour efficiently. By comparing the sample's development result of diagonal point by point surface development method with that of available one-step method, the validity of the proposed surface development method is verified.

  14. Method for producing functionally graded nanocrystalline layer on metal surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Oyelayo O.; Hershberger, Jeffrey G.

    2010-03-23

    An improved process for the creation or formation of nanocrystalline layers on substrates' surfaces is provided. The process involves "prescuffing" the surface of a substrate such as a metal by allowing friction to occur on the surface by a load-bearing entity making rubbing contact and moving along and on the substrate's surface. The "prescuffing" action is terminated when the coefficient of friction between the surface and the noise is rising significantly. Often, the significant rise in the coefficient of friction is signaled by a change in pitch of the scuffing action sound emanating from the buffeted surface. The "prescuffing" gives rise to a harder and smoother surface which withstands better any inadequate lubrication that may take place when the "prescuffed" surface is contacted by other surfaces.

  15. Response surface reconciliation method of bolted joints structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Mohd Azmi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural joining methods such as bolted joints are commonly used for the assembly of structural components due to their simplicity and easy maintenance. Understandably, the dynamic characteristic of bolted joined structure is mainly influenced by the properties of their joints such as preload on the bolts and joints stiffness which alter the measured dynamics response of the structure. Therefore, the need to include the local effect of the bolted joints into the numerical model of the bolted joined structure is vitally important in order to represent the model accurately. In this paper, a few types of connector elements that can be used to represent the bolted joints such as CBAR, CBEAM and CELAS have been investigated numerically and experimentally. The initial numerical results of these element connectors are compared with the experimental results in term of natural frequencies and mode shapes. The comparative evaluation of numerical and the experimental data are performed in order to provide some insights of inaccuracies in the numerical model due to invalid assumption in the numerical modelling such as geometry, material properties, and boundary conditions. The discrepancies between both results (numerical and experimental data are then corrected using the response surface reconciliation method (RSRM through which the finite element model is altered in order to provide closer agreement with the measured data so that it can be used for subsequence analysis.

  16. Quality control methods for KOOS operational sea surface temperature products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chansu; KIM Sunhwa

    2016-01-01

    Sea surface temperature SST obtained from the initial version of the Korea Operational Oceanographic System (KOOS) SST satellite have low accuracy during summer and daytime. This is attributed to the diurnal warming effect. Error estimation of SST data must be carried out to use the real-time forecasting numerical model of the KOOS. This study suggests two quality control methods for the KOOS SST system. To minimize the diurnal warming effect, SSTs of areas where wind speed is higher than 5 m/s were used. Depending on the wind threshold value, KOOS SST data for August 2014 were reduced by 0.15°C. Errors in SST data are considered to be a combination of random, sampling, and bias errors. To estimate bias error, the standard deviation of bias between KOOS SSTs and climatology SSTs were used. KOOS SST data yielded an analysis error standard deviation value similar to OSTIA and NOAA NCDC (OISST) data. The KOOS SST shows lower random and sampling errors with increasing number of observations using six satellite datasets. In further studies, the proposed quality control methods for the KOOS SST system will be applied through more long-term case studies and comparisons with other SST systems.

  17. Bias correction methods for decadal sea-surface temperature forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandrudu Narapusetty

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two traditional bias correction techniques: (1 systematic mean correction (SMC and (2 systematic least-squares correction (SLC are extended and applied on sea-surface temperature (SST decadal forecasts in the North Pacific produced by Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2 to reduce large systematic biases. The bias-corrected forecast anomalies exhibit reduced root-mean-square errors and also significantly improve the anomaly correlations with observations. The spatial pattern of the SST anomalies associated with the Pacific area average (PAA index (spatial average of SST anomalies over 20°–60°N and 120°E–100°W is improved after employing the bias correction methods, particularly SMC. Reliability diagrams show that the bias-corrected forecasts better reproduce the cold and warm events well beyond the 5-yr lead-times over the 10 forecasted years. The comparison between both correction methods indicates that: (1 prediction skill of SST anomalies associated with the PAA index is improved by SMC with respect to SLC and (2 SMC-derived forecasts have a slightly higher reliability than those corrected by SLC.

  18. ROUGHNESS ON WOOD SURFACES AND ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENT METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    İsmail Aydın; Gürsel Çolakoğlu

    2003-01-01

    Some visual characteristics of wood such as color, pattern and texture determine the quality of manufactured products. Surface properties of wood material are important both in production and marketing after production. Initial studies related to the roughness of wood surface were begun in early 1950’s. However, no general agreed standardization can not have been developed for wood surfaces. Surface roughness of wood is function of the production process, product type and the natural anatomic...

  19. Life Cycle Assessment Applied to Naphtha Catalytic Reforming Analyse de cycle de vie appliquée au reformage catalytique du naphta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portha J.-F.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Facing the increase of environmental concerns in the oil and gas industry, engineers and scientists need information to assess sustainability of chemical processes. Among the different methods available, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is widely used. In this study, LCA is applied to a catalytic reforming process using the Eco- Indicator 99 as life cycle impact assessment method. The main identified environmental impacts are fossil fuels consumption, climate change and respiratory effects due to inorganics compounds. The influence of different process parameters (feed composition, reaction temperature is determined with respect to environmental impacts. Two allocation methods are analysed (mass and exergetic allocation and two different process versions are compared in order to determine the effect of some improvements on environmental impact. Les considérations liées à l’environnement doivent de plus en plus être prises en compte par les ingénieurs et les scientifiques afin de juger de la durabilité des procédés chimiques dans l’industrie pétrolière et gazière. Parmi les différentes méthodes d’analyse environnementale, l’Analyse de Cycle de Vie (ACV est très utilisée. Dans cette étude, l’ACV est appliquée au procédé de reformage catalytique du naphta en utilisant la méthode Eco-Indicateur 99 comme méthode d’analyse des impacts du cycle de vie. Les principaux impacts environnementaux du procédé sont la consommation de combustibles fossiles, le changement climatique et les effets sur la respiration liés aux composés organiques. L’influence de différents paramètres (composition de l’alimentation, température de réaction sur les impacts environnementaux est testée. Deux méthodes d’allocation sont analysées (allocation massique et énergétique et deux versions du procédé de reformage catalytique sont comparées afin de déterminer les améliorations possibles permettant de minimiser les impacts.

  20. A weather type method to study surface ocean variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, M.; Camus, P.; Mendez, F. J.; Losada, I. J.

    2012-04-01

    The set of methodologies for obtaining wave climate information at high spatial resolution from relatively coarse resolution is known as downscaling. Dynamic downscaling, based on the use of numerical models, is perhaps the most widely used methodology for surface ocean variables. An alternative approach is the statistical downscaling, that can be conducted by means of regression methods or weather pattern-based approaches. The main advantages of the statistical downscaling based on weather patterns are: the low computational requirements; the ease of implementation; the additional climatology information; and local forecast application. Moreover, this technique allows exploring the synoptic atmospheric climatology and their relationship with surface ocean variables. It is well known nowadays that the seasonal-to-interannual variability of wave climate is linked to the atmosphere circulation patterns. We proposed a statistical approach based on the predictand (eg. local wave characteristics) is associated to a particular synoptic-scale weather type (predictor). The predictor is the n-days-averaged sea level pressure field (SLP) anomalies, which are synthesized using data mining techniques to describe a number of weather types. In particular, we focus in NE Atlantic (NAO region) using as predictor the 3-days-averaged SLP fields calculated by NCEP atmospheric reanalysis (1948-2010). A principal component analysis is applied over SLP fields to reduce the spatial and temporal dimensions. The K-means clustering technique is then applied to the two-dimensional sample of the principal components which explain more than 95% variance of the SLP. The K-means technique divides the data space into a number of clusters, where each of them is characterized by a centroid and formed by the data for which the centroid is the nearest. Finally, we visualize the weather types associated to each centroid in an ordered way similar to self-organizing maps, SOMs. The probability

  1. Niveau de vie, croissance et énergie Standard of Living - Growth and Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Offant P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article rassemble les principaux résultats d'une Action Thématique Programmée consacrée aux « problèmes socio-économiques de l'énergie » et confiée par le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS au Département Économie de l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP. Les problèmes posés par la mesure du niveau de vie et par ses liaisons avec la consommation d'énergie sont l'objet d'une première analyse. Elle permet de dégager les grandes orientations des possibilités de réduction de la consommation d'énergie sans régression du niveau de vie, au sens des économies des pays d'Europe occidentale. Sur ces bases, deux scénarios contrastés de demande d'énergie finale à long terme sont quantifiés dans le cas de la France Le scénario de moindre consommation d'énergie intègre une restructuration industrielle déterminée par optimisation d'un modèle linéaire issu du tableau entrée-sorties de la Comptabilité nationale. Les deux projections de demande d'énergie sont appliquées à un modèle linéaire dynamique de production. Ce modèle fournit les résultats nécessaires à une analyse détaillée de l'évolution structurelle du secteur énergétique et au calcul de bilans d'énergie primaire prévisionnels cohérents. This article gathers the main results of an « Action Thématique programmée » (research project on a Socio-Economic Energy Problems » which Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS assigned to the Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP Economics Department. The problems raised by measuring the standard of living and by its links with energy consumption are the subject of a preliminary analysis which brings out the major guidelines concerning possibilities of reducing energy consumption without cousing any regression in the standard of living in the economies of Western European countries. On th~ese bases, two contrasting scénarios for the final ta long-term energy demand were worked out

  2. Physique du deuil. Note sur la dernière vie de Roland Barthes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maïté Snauwaert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Les remarques sur la tenue de la maison et du corps dans le quotidien domestique, conçue comme une éthique de la fidélité à la mère récemment disparue, apparaissent dans l’écrit privé du Journal de deuil de Roland Barthes comme un écho des observations faites dans le cours sur La préparation du roman. Participant d’une physique du vivre et de l’habiter qui met l’accent sur l’entretien quotidien du lieu, le silence et la difficulté de tout voyage, les « notations » du journal rendent compte de la condensation dans le corps de l’épreuve du deuil, et de la prise de conscience d’un dernier âge de la vie.In the personal writings of Journal de deuil, Roland Barthes’ remarks regarding the maintenance of the home and body are conceived of as an ethic of faithfulness to his recently deceased mother. They are considered in this article as an echo to the observations he makes during his lectures in the course La préparation du roman. Both emphasize the physicality of everyday life and the role played by one’s relationship to the home. By stressing the necessity of silence and the difficulties of leaving “the apartment”, the brief “notations” in the diary translate the physical concentration of the mourning experience, as well as the emergent understanding of a final stage of life.

  3. Qualité de vie et consommation soutenable : une perspective pratique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Mardellat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ce texte tente de parvenir à une meilleure compréhension du rôle de la consommation relativement à l’objectif de soutenabilité de nos modes de vie. À cette fin, on croise deux thématiques : consommation et bonheur, consommation et soutenabilité. Les paradigmes standard et institutionnalistes de la consommation soutenable sont questionnés du point de vue de la tradition pratique – aristotélicienne – qui en montre les limites et les insuffisances. L’approche quantitative de la limitation de la consommation caractéristique de ces deux approches conduit à une impasse. La réception de cette notion de consommation soutenable dans la tradition pratique est ensuite esquissée, faisant apparaître l’existence d’une vertu propre à l’économie, d’un lieu et d’une institution de la consommation accueillis dans une constellation de régimes politiques possibles.This text aims to reach a better understanding of the role of consumption with regard to the objective of sustainability of our lifestyles. We cross two themes: consumption and happiness, consumption and sustainability. The standard and institutionalist paradigms of sustainable consumption are questioned parts from the viewpoint of the Aristotelian tradition which shows their limits and failures. The quantitative approach of the limitation of consumption specific of these two approaches leads to a dead end. Then the reception of this notion of sustainable consumption in the practical tradition is sketched. The existence of an appropriate virtue for the economy, a place and an institution of the consumption welcomed in a constellation of possible political regimes clearly appear as the keystones of the practical conception of sustainable consumption.  

  4. Apprendre, un moment de vie ? Savoir, expérience et rapport au vivant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noack Julie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de cette communication est de comparer sur le plan pédagogique deux conceptions du rapport entre science et vivant, diamétralement opposées sur le plan épistémologique. En se basant sur un livre [1], une conférence [2] et un entretien [3], on analysera l’expérience de pensée par laquelle le biologiste et épistémologue Jean-Jacques Kupiec fait se sentir vivants les apprenants afin de mieux les conscientiser aux réquisits de la démarche scientifique. On comparera ensuite les motivations de Kupiec avec les idées pédagogiques du philosophe-médecin Georges Canguilhem (1904–1995 afin d’essayer de comprendre pourquoi l’un et l’autre jugent pertinent de faire remarquer à l’apprenant qu’il est actuellement en vie. Car, malgré des conceptions du vivant diamétralement opposées, Canguilhem et Kupiec se rejoignent sur l’idée que l’expérience vitale joue un rôle crucial – que ce soit en positif ou en négatif, comme un obstacle épistémologique ou comme un levier heuristique – dans l’apprentissage et la pratique de la biologie ou de la médecine. Prendre en charge cette expérience constitue peut-être une ressource face au double défi (scientifique et éthico-politique qui échoit à l’éducation aux sciences du vivant.

  5. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

    2014-07-22

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  6. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Tiziana C; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James; Liu, Gang Logan

    2015-11-03

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  7. Optical simulation of surface textured TCO using FDTD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elviyanti, I. L.; Purwanto, H.; Kusumandari

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this research is simulating the transmittance of surface textured transparent conducting oxide (TCO) for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) application. The simulation based on finite difference time domain (FDTD) was performed using the MatLab software for flat and pyramid surface textured TCO. Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and indium tin oxide (ITO) were used as TCO material. The transmittance simulation of flat TCO was compared to UV-Vis spectrophotometer measurement of real TCO to ensure the accuracy of the simulation. Then, the transmittance simulation of pyramid surface textures of TCO is higher than a flat one. It suggested that surface texturing enhance the path of light through dispersion and reflectance light by the pattern of the surface. This result indicates that surface textured increasing the transmittance of TCO through a complex light trapping mechanism which might be used to increase the light harvesting for DSSC application.

  8. TRACKING METHODS FOR FREE SURFACE AND SIMULATION OF A LIQUID DROPLET IMPACTING ON A SOLID SURFACE BASED ON SPH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Da-ming; XU Ya-nan; LI Ling-ling; LU Hui-jiao; BAI Ling

    2011-01-01

    With some popular tracking methods for free surface,simulations of several typical examples are carried out under various flow field conditions.The results show that the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics(SPH)method is very suitable in simulating the flow problems with a free surface.A viscous liquid droplet with an initial velocity impacting on a solid surface is simulated based on the SPH method,and the surface tension is considered by searching the free surface particles,the initial impact effect is considered by using the artificial viscosity method,boundary virtual particles and image virtual particles are introduced to deal with the boundary problem,and the boundary defect can be identified quite well.The comparisons of simulated results and experimental photographs show that the SPH method can not only exactly simulate the spreading process and the rebound process of a liquid droplet impacting on a solid surface but also accurately track the free surface particles,simulate the free-surface flow and determine the shape of the free surface due to its particle nature.

  9. Calculation of the surface energy of fcc metals with modified embedded-atom method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian-Min; Ma Fei; Xu Ke-Wei

    2004-01-01

    The surface energies for 38 surfaces of fcc metals Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt, Al, Pb, Rh and Ir have been calculated by using the modified embedded-atom method. The results show that, for Cu, Ag, Ni, Al, Pb and Ir, the average values of the surface energies are very close to the polycrystalline experimental data. For all fcc metals, as predicted, the close-packed (111) surface has the lowest surface energy. The surface energies for the other surfaces increase linearly with increasing angle between the surfaces (hkl) and (111). This can be used to estimate the relative values of the surface energy.

  10. Development of Methods for Surface Modification of Nanostructured Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, David A.

    The surfaces of a material become increasingly more influential when the dimensions are reduced, because a larger percentage of the atoms are exposed on the surface. The surface environment of nanostructured materials dictates both physical properties and function, but is synthetically challenging to control. Although the desired functionality is commonly introduced via post-synthetic modification, it would be advantageous to minimize the number of synthetic steps by having specific function installed in the precursor. This work describes efforts to investigate new precursor complexes for the synthesis of nanoparticles, in addition to electrochemical studies on single monolayer films for electrocatalysis. Chapter 2 focuses on the preparation of magnetic nanoaparticles, and the synthesis of a polymerizable surfactant, stacac, to be used to generate composite materials. Although an iron complex of stacac could be used as a precursor for magnetic nanoparticles, favorable composite materials could only be produced by introduction of stacac after isolation of magnetic nanoparticles. Chapter 3 describes the synthesis of Au(I) complexes with various thiourea-based ligands, to be used as precursors for gold nanoparticles. The experimental conditions were varied and parameters were found where addition of a reducing agent generated solution-stable gold nanoparticles in a reproducible manner. It was determined that only aggregated gold nanoparticles were produced when Au(I) complexes were generated in situ and the use of crystalline precursors resulted in soluble gold nanoparticles. Chapter 4 discusses the preparation of electrocatalysts for the oxidation of water with a focus on accurately determining the active surface area. A monolayer of cobalt was prepared on a gold electrode by underpotential deposition and used as an electrocatalyst for water oxidation. Because the surface area of gold can be measured directly, deposition of a single monolayer produced negligible

  11. Carbon nanotube oscillator surface profiling device and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Adrian [Tampa, FL; Woods, Lilia M [Tampa, FL; Bondarev, Igor V [Fuquay Varina, NC

    2011-11-15

    The proposed device is based on a carbon nanotube oscillator consisting of a finite length outer stationary nanotube and a finite length inner oscillating nanotube. Its main function is to measure changes in the characteristics of the motion of the carbon nanotube oscillating near a sample surface, and profile the roughness of this surface. The device operates in a non-contact mode, thus it can be virtually non-wear and non-fatigued system. It is an alternative to the existing atomic force microscope (AFM) tips used to scan surfaces to determine their roughness.

  12. An alternative safer and cost effective surface sterilization method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-10-30

    Oct 30, 2013 ... variance. The study verified that surface sterilization with Berekina 5% ingredients of chlorine for 25 min exposure time ..... Department of Horticulture and Plant Science for availing tissue culture .... Spirulina fusiformis provides ...

  13. Surface renewal method for estimating sensible heat flux

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-09-18

    Sep 18, 2008 ... Keywords: surface energy balance, sensible heat flux, latent energy flux, evaporation ... Hill et al., 1992; Thiermann and Grassl, 1992; Green et al.,. 1994; De ...... the time traces over rangeland grass near Ione (California).

  14. Influence of various surface-conditioning methods on the bond strength of metal brackets to ceramic surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmage, P; Nergiz, [No Value; Herrmann, W; Ozcan, M; Nergiz, Ibrahim; �zcan, Mutlu

    2003-01-01

    With the increase in adult orthodontic treatment comes the need to find a reliable method for bonding orthodontic brackets onto metal or ceramic crowns and fixed partial dentures. In this study, shear bond strength and surface roughness tests were used to examine the effect of 4 different surface co

  15. Reducing Motional Decoherence in Ion Traps with Surface Science Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeffner, Hartmut

    2014-03-01

    Many trapped ions experiments ask for low motional heating rates while trapping the ions close to trapping electrodes. However, in practice small ion-electrode distances lead to unexpected high heating rates. While the mechanisms for the heating is still unclear, it is now evident that surface contamination of the metallic electrodes is at least partially responsible for the elevated heating rates. I will discuss heating rate measurements in a microfabricated surface trap complemented with basic surface science studies. We monitor the elemental surface composition of the Cu-Al alloy trap with an Auger spectrometer. After bake-out, we find a strong Carbon and Oxygen contamination and heating rates of 200 quanta/s at 1 MHz trap frequency. After removing most of the Carbon and Oxygen with Ar-Ion sputtering, the heating rates drop to 4 quanta/s. Interestingly, we still measure the decreased heating rate even after the surface oxidized from the background gas throughout a 40-day waiting time in UHV.

  16. A skull stripping method using deformable surface and tissue classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiaodong; Chang, Ming-Ching

    2010-03-01

    Many neuroimaging applications require an initial step of skull stripping to extract the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. We approach this problem by combining deformable surface models and a fuzzy tissue classification technique. Our assumption is that contrast exists between brain tissue (gray matter and white matter) and cerebrospinal fluid, which separates the brain from the extra-cranial tissue. We first analyze the intensity of the entire image to find an approximate centroid of the brain and initialize an ellipsoidal surface around it. We then perform a fuzzy tissue classification with bias field correction within the surface. Tissue classification and bias field are extrapolated to the entire image. The surface iteratively deforms under a force field computed from the tissue classification and the surface smoothness. Because of the bias field correction and tissue classification, the proposed algorithm depends less on particular imaging contrast and is robust to inhomogeneous intensity often observed in magnetic resonance images. We tested the algorithm on all T1 weighted images in the OASIS database, which includes skull stripping results using Brain Extraction Tool; the Dice scores have an average of 0.948 with a standard deviation of 0.017, indicating a high degree of agreement. The algorithm takes on average 2 minutes to run on a typical PC and produces a brain mask and membership functions for gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. We also tested the algorithm on T2 images to demonstrate its generality, where the same algorithm without parameter adjustment gives satisfactory results.

  17. Biomimetic superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces fabricated with a facile scraping, bonding and peeling method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Huanhuan; Zheng, Tingting; Wang, Huiliang

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the superhydrophobicity of juicy peach surface, on which microscale hairs are standing vertically to the surface plane, an extremely simple, inexpensive physical method is developed for fabrication of superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces over large areas. This method includes three st

  18. Biomimetic superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces fabricated with a facile scraping, bonding and peeling method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Huanhuan; Zheng, Tingting; Wang, Huiliang

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the superhydrophobicity of juicy peach surface, on which microscale hairs are standing vertically to the surface plane, an extremely simple, inexpensive physical method is developed for fabrication of superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces over large areas. This method includes three st

  19. Host cell contact induces expression of virulence factors and VieA, a cyclic di-GMP phosphodiesterase, in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Amit K; Bhagat, Abha; Chowdhury, Rukhsana

    2013-05-01

    Vibrio cholerae, a noninvasive bacterium, colonizes the intestinal epithelium and secretes cholera toxin (CT), a potent enterotoxin that causes the severe fluid loss characteristic of the disease cholera. In this study, we demonstrate that adherence of V. cholerae to the intestinal epithelial cell line INT 407 strongly induces the expression of the major virulence genes ctxAB and tcpA and the virulence regulatory gene toxT. No induction of toxR and tcpP, which encode transcriptional activators of toxT, was observed in adhered bacteria, and the adherence-dependent upregulation of toxT expression was independent of ToxR and TcpP. A sharp increase in the expression of the vieA gene, which encodes a cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) phosphodiesterase, was observed in INT 407-adhered V. cholerae immediately after infection. Induction of toxT, ctxAB, and tcpA in INT 407-adhered vieA mutant strain O395 ΔvieA was consistently lower than in the parent strain, although no effect was observed in unadhered bacteria, suggesting that VieA has a role in the upregulation of toxT expression specifically in host cell-adhered V. cholerae. Furthermore, though VieA has both a DNA binding helix-turn-helix domain and an EAL domain conferring c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity, the c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity of VieA is necessary and sufficient for the upregulation of toxT expression.

  20. La prolongation de la vie humaine selon Francis Bacon. Ou : quel Tithon voulons-nous être ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Weber

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Afin de comprendre avec exactitude la manière dont Francis Bacon envisage la question de la prolongation de la vie humaine, il faut impérativement examiner l’assise théologique de la réflexion du philosophe à ce sujet. Il convient aussi de restituer l’intégration de cette réflexion dans les objectifs plus amples de la philosophie naturelle nouvelle. Enfin, il est nécessaire de comprendre les dimensions proprement morales de la question. Car la prolongation de la vie humaine n’est pas seulement, au sein de la philosophie naturelle nouvelle, un cas parmi d’autres des recherches qu’il faut désormais effectuer : en réalité, c’est elle qui lui donne et qui lui fixe son sens ; avec elle se joue l’effectivité de l’identité espérée entre science et puissance. Mais il faut encore préciser qu’il ne s’agit aucunement pour l’homme de vieillir pour vieillir : il s’agit pour lui de pouvoir vieillir bien. Les leçons que Bacon tire de la fable de Tithon sont ici véritablement décisives.

  1. Mobilités contraintes, parcours professionnels, vie privée: Quels enjeux pour les cadres bancaires?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Bertaux-Wiame

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur les cadres du secteur bancaire, groupe socio-professionnel plutôt privilégié. Pourtant, une analyse des parcours de ces cadres, hommes et femmes, que restituent des entretiens approfondis, met en évidence des tensions entre vie professionnelle et vie conjugale: ils sont contraints d’accepter des mobilités géographiques pour eux-mêmes et leur famille contre l’assurance d’une carrière. Le modèle classique de la division sexuée du travail au sein des couples place le salarié dans une double obligation de réussite face à son employeur, face à sa famille qui consent à le ‘suivre’ dans son nomadisme professionnel. Les contradictions observées, facteurs de déstabilisation, peuvent devenir des facteurs de résistance lorsque ces cadres refusent le coût conjugal d’une mobilité géographique et que les conjointes s’opposent aux impératifs managériaux.

  2. La vie nocturne d´une grande ville de province française : Nancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Étienne Auphan

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Les activités nocturnes à Nancy sont très limitées et essentiellement réduites à des «loisirs» dont l´évolution est liée à des facteurs techniques comme la maîtrise de l´éclairage, géographiques comme la répartition de celui-ci dans l´espace urbain ou la perception des contraintes saisonnières du climat de l´Est, mais aussi sociologiques comme le mode de vie ou la composition sociale des quartiers. De nos jours, les «fêtes» ont fait largement place aux loisirs individuels dans des établissements spécialisés pour citadins en mal de «s´amuser», cependant que la pleine nuit livre la ville à tous ceux pour lesquels elle devient le lieu de tous les fantasmes. Face à une demande croissante de «loisirs» et d´espaces de vie nocturnes, cette ville socialement calme cherche à concilier la fonction nocturne de la ville - le repos – et une fonction ludique nocturne limitée, alors même que s´observe un glissement progressif de la «nuit» du centre ancien (aujourd´hui reconverti à une fonction résidentielle plus classique vers la périphérie.

  3. Analytic methods for predicting biosettlement on patterned surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Christopher James

    Marine organism fouling of surfaces has significant impact on our environment and the economy. Increased fuel use due to drag costs approximately $600 million annually in the United States alone. The efficiency of marine vessels substantially decreases due to fouling. Toxins in some antifouling paints accumulate in the marine environment and produce negative effects on the marine ecology. There is a critical need for effective non-toxic, anti-fouling, marine coatings that reduce operational costs and the overall environmental impact of ocean vessels on the environment. Our approach is to investigate the interaction between the wettability of surfaces with the response of fouling organisms. One of the ways the wettability can be influenced is through the use of topography. Since the topographies have directionality, the direction dependence of the wettability was determined on several microscale topographies that have previously shown antifouling potential. Breaking microscale ridges into the discontinuous features in the antifouling topographies reduced the anisotropies in the contact angles, but did not eliminate anisotropy. The number of distinct features in the design and the area fraction of the topographic features were found to influence settlement of the fouling alga Ulva linza. A biosettlement model, refined from previous work, predicts the settlement of Ulva linza to three previously untested surfaces. These surfaces significantly reduced the settlement of these spores in vitro by up to 78%. The attachment of another species of fouler, the diatom Navicula perminuta, was reduced by approximately 35% on several surfaces that reduced Ulva linza settlement. The Navicula cells responded differently to the topographies than the Ulva linza spores. A mapping technique was developed to determine the two-dimensional settlement pattern of cells on the topographical surfaces. This technique revealed and quantified several preferential locations for Ulva linza

  4. Ion implantation method for preparing polymers having oxygen erosion resistant surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eal H.; Mansur, Louis K.; Heatherly, Jr., Lee

    1995-01-01

    Hard surfaced polymers and the method for making them are generally described. Polymers are subjected to simultaneous multiple ion beam bombardment, that results in a hardening of the surface, improved wear resistance, and improved oxygen erosion resistance.

  5. Solution of plane cascade flow using improved surface singularity methods. [application of panel method to internal aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfarland, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    A solution method was developed for calculating compressible inviscid flow through a linear cascade of arbitrary blade shapes. The method uses advanced surface singularity formulations which were adapted from those in current external flow analyses. The resulting solution technique provides a fast flexible calculation for flows through turbomachinery blade rows. The solution method and some examples of the method's capabilities are presented.

  6. Measurements of SiO2 glass surface parameters by methods of microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavars, Eduards; Svagere, Anda; Skudra, Atis; Zorina, Natalia; Poplausks, Raimonds

    2012-08-01

    In this research we compare chemical and plasma treatment methods for surface of SiO2 glass. For chemical treatment of surface tequila and alcohol were used but for plasma treatment - Ar+As and Ar+Se plasmas. Surface topography was analyzed using atomic force microscope. Comparison of chemical and plasma treatment methods shows that surface treated with plasma is smoother. Because of their various chemical compositions tequila and alcohol show different results.

  7. A Multi-Channel Method for Retrieving Surface Temperature for High-Emissivity Surfaces from Hyperspectral Thermal Infrared Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinke Zhong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The surface temperature (ST of high-emissivity surfaces is an important parameter in climate systems. The empirical methods for retrieving ST for high-emissivity surfaces from hyperspectral thermal infrared (HypTIR images require spectrally continuous channel data. This paper aims to develop a multi-channel method for retrieving ST for high-emissivity surfaces from space-borne HypTIR data. With an assumption of land surface emissivity (LSE of 1, ST is proposed as a function of 10 brightness temperatures measured at the top of atmosphere by a radiometer having a spectral interval of 800–1200 cm−1 and a spectral sampling frequency of 0.25 cm−1. We have analyzed the sensitivity of the proposed method to spectral sampling frequency and instrumental noise, and evaluated the proposed method using satellite data. The results indicated that the parameters in the developed function are dependent on the spectral sampling frequency and that ST of high-emissivity surfaces can be accurately retrieved by the proposed method if appropriate values are used for each spectral sampling frequency. The results also showed that the accuracy of the retrieved ST is of the order of magnitude of the instrumental noise and that the root mean square error (RMSE of the ST retrieved from satellite data is 0.43 K in comparison with the AVHRR SST product.

  8. Analysis on effect of surface fault to site ground motion using finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹炳政; 罗奇峰

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic contact theory is applied to simulate the sliding of surface fault. Finite element method is used to analyze the effect of surface fault to site ground motions. Calculated results indicate that amplification effect is obvious in the area near surface fault, especially on the site that is in the downside fault. The results show that the effect of surface fault should be considered when important structure is constructed in the site with surface fault.

  9. [Methods applied to muscle fatigue assessment using surface myoelectric signals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Xitian; Chen, Feng; Peng, Chenglin; Zheng, Erxin

    2006-02-01

    Surface myoelectric signal analysis has proved effective for assessing the electrical manifestations of localized muscle fatigue. In the past, the analysis of muscle fatigue was restricted to isometric, constant force contractions due to the limitation of signal processing technique. The development and recent availability of spectral estimation techniques specifically designed for nonstationary signal analysis have made it possible to extend the employment of muscle fatigue assessment to dynamic contractions, thus opening new application fields such as ergonomics rehabilitation and sports medicine. This paper reviews the current study achievements of using surface myoelectric signals in muscle fatigue assessment, particularly in that during dynamic contractions. The conclusions provide theoretical bases for encouraging further studies on the mechanisms of muscle fatigue.

  10. A surface refractive index scanning system and method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to a surface refractive index scanning system for characterization of a sample. The system comprises a grating device for holding or receiving the sample, the device comprising at least a first grating region having a first grating width along a transverse direction, and a s......The invention relates to a surface refractive index scanning system for characterization of a sample. The system comprises a grating device for holding or receiving the sample, the device comprising at least a first grating region having a first grating width along a transverse direction...... a grating period Λ2 in the longitudinal direction, where the longitudinal direction is orthogonal to the transverse direction. A grating period spacing ΔΛ = Λ1 - Λ2 is finite. Further, the first and second grating periods are chosen to provide optical resonances for light respectively in a first...

  11. Wavelet subdivision methods gems for rendering curves and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, Charles

    2010-01-01

    OVERVIEW Curve representation and drawing Free-form parametric curves From subdivision to basis functions Wavelet subdivision and editing Surface subdivision BASIS FUNCTIONS FOR CURVE REPRESENTATION Refinability and scaling functions Generation of smooth basis functions Cardinal B-splines Stable bases for integer-shift spaces Splines and polynomial reproduction CURVE SUBDIVISION SCHEMES Subdivision matrices and stencils B-spline subdivision schemes Closed curve rendering Open curve rendering BASIS FUNCTIONS GENERATED BY SUBDIVISION MATRICES Subdivision operators The up-sampling convolution ope

  12. Neural Network Methods for NURBS Curve and Surface Interpolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦开怀

    1997-01-01

    New algorithms based on artificial neural network models are presented for cubic NURBS curve and surface interpolation.When all th knot spans are identical,the NURBS curve interpolation procedure degenerates into that of uniform rational B-spline curves.If all the weights of data points are identical,then the NURBS curve interpolation procedure degenerates into the integral B-spline curve interpolation.

  13. The orthogonal gradients method: A radial basis functions method for solving partial differential equations on arbitrary surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Piret, Cécile

    2012-05-01

    Much work has been done on reconstructing arbitrary surfaces using the radial basis function (RBF) method, but one can hardly find any work done on the use of RBFs to solve partial differential equations (PDEs) on arbitrary surfaces. In this paper, we investigate methods to solve PDEs on arbitrary stationary surfaces embedded in . R3 using the RBF method. We present three RBF-based methods that easily discretize surface differential operators. We take advantage of the meshfree character of RBFs, which give us a high accuracy and the flexibility to represent the most complex geometries in any dimension. Two out of the three methods, which we call the orthogonal gradients (OGr) methods are the result of our work and are hereby presented for the first time. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  14. A comparison of tool-repair methods using CO 2 laser surfacing and arc surfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grum, J.; Slabe, J. M.

    2003-03-01

    The life of loaded machine elements and the vital parts of tools can be successfully extended by systematic maintenance and the timely repair of damaged surfaces. It has been proved that with the regular maintenance of tool parts the cost of the tool in the price of a finished product can be considerably reduced. It is a very economical practise to manufacture certain parts from low-cost, tough structural steel on which a layer of wear-resistant alloy has been surfaced. In such a case the volume fraction of the surfaced layer is usually much lower than 10% of the total volume of the tool or the machine element. In this paper, we report some of our latest results involving comparative studies of repair surfacing on maraging steel and the cladding of common structural steel with a Ni-Co-Mo alloy similar to the maraging steel using a laser process and submerged-arc surfacing. The results are based on micro-structural and micro-chemical analyses of the surfaced layer and are supported by analyses of the micro-hardness and the residual stresses, carried out on suitably adapted flat specimens.

  15. Methods of Attaching or Grafting Carbon Nanotubes to Silicon Surfaces and Composite Structures Derived Therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M. (Inventor); Chen, Bo (Inventor); Flatt, Austen K. (Inventor); Stewart, Michael P. (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Maya, Francisco (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward methods of attaching or grafting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to silicon surfaces. In some embodiments, such attaching or grafting occurs via functional groups on either or both of the CNTs and silicon surface. In some embodiments, the methods of the present invention include: (1) reacting a silicon surface with a functionalizing agent (such as oligo(phenylene ethynylene)) to form a functionalized silicon surface; (2) dispersing a quantity of CNTs in a solvent to form dispersed CNTs; and (3) reacting the functionalized silicon surface with the dispersed CNTs. The present invention is also directed to the novel compositions produced by such methods.

  16. Measuring Method of a Surface Property inside the Pore: Application of Kelvin's equation

    CERN Document Server

    Amano, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Surface analyses inside the nanopore, micropore, and a very narrow pipe are important topics for development of the chemical engineering. Here, we propose a measuring method which evaluates the surface coverage of the chemically modified pore surface and the corrosion rate of the inner surface of the narrow pipe, etc. The method uses Kelvin's equation that expresses saturated vapor pressure of a liquid in the pore (pipe). The surface coverage and the corrosion rate are calculated by measuring saturated vapor pressure of the liquid in the pore and the pipe, respectively. In this letter, we explain the concept of the method briefly.

  17. Photoswitchable method for the ordered attachment of proteins to surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, Julio A.; De Yoreo, James J.; Kwon, Youngeun

    2010-04-20

    Described herein is a method for the attachment of proteins to any solid support with control over the orientation of the attachment. The method is extremely efficient, not requiring the previous purification of the protein to be attached, and can be activated by UV-light. Spatially addressable arrays of multiple protein components can be generated by using standard photolithographic techniques.

  18. Photoswitchable method for the ordered attachment of proteins to surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, Julio A.; DeYoreo, James J.; Kwon, Youngeun

    2011-07-05

    Described herein is a method for the attachment of proteins to any solid support with control over the orientation of the attachment. The method is extremely efficient, not requiring the previous purification of the protein to be attached, and can be activated by UV-light. Spatially addressable arrays of multiple protein components can be generated by using standard photolithographic techniques.

  19. Survey of Existing and Promising New Methods of Surface Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    labor-intensive methods of applying protective coating system at ambient temperatures during or after fabrication. 3.2.16 Explosives The detonation of...34. Ingenieria Naval, Vol. 44, pp. 5, 1976. 45. Conn, A. F., and Rudy, S. L., “Parameters for Ship Hull Cleaning Using Cavitating Water Jet Method

  20. Advances in surface wave methods: Cascaded MASW-SASW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhoff, R.S.; Brouwer, J.H.; Meekes, J.A.C.

    2005-01-01

    The application of the MASW method in areas that show strong lateral variations in subsurface properties is limited. Traditional SASW may yield a better lateral resolution but the dispersion curves (and thus the subsurface models) obtained with the method may be poor. The joint application of MASW a

  1. A new method for modeling rough membrane surface and calculation of interfacial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Leihong; Zhang, Meijia; He, Yiming; Chen, Jianrong; Hong, Huachang; Liao, Bao-Qiang; Lin, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    Membrane fouling control necessitates the establishment of an effective method to assess interfacial interactions between foulants and rough surface membrane. This study proposed a new method which includes a rigorous mathematical equation for modeling membrane surface morphology, and combination of surface element integration (SEI) method and the composite Simpson's approach for assessment of interfacial interactions. The new method provides a complete solution to quantitatively calculate interfacial interactions between foulants and rough surface membrane. Application of this method in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) showed that, high calculation accuracy could be achieved by setting high segment number, and moreover, the strength of three energy components and energy barrier was remarkably impaired by the existence of roughness on the membrane surface, indicating that membrane surface morphology exerted profound effects on membrane fouling in the MBR. Good agreement between calculation prediction and fouling phenomena was found, suggesting the feasibility of this method.

  2. Ernst Equation and Riemann Surfaces: Analytical and Numerical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Frederick J [FJE Enterprises, 511 County Route 59, Potsdam, NY 13676 (United States)

    2007-06-18

    source can be represented by discontinuities in the metric tensor components. The first two chapters of this book are devoted to some basic ideas: in the introductory chapter 1 the authors discuss the concept of integrability, comparing the integrability of the vacuum Ernst equation with the integrability of nonlinear equations of Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) type, while in chapter 2 they describe various circumstances in which the vacuum Ernst equation has been determined to be relevant, not only in connection with gravitation but also, for example, in the construction of solutions of the self-dual Yang-Mills equations. It is also in this chapter that one of several equivalent linear systems for the Ernst equation is described. The next two chapters are devoted to Dmitry Korotkin's concept of algebro-geometric solutions of a linear system: in chapter 3 the structure of such solutions of the vacuum Ernst equation, which involve Riemann theta functions of hyperelliptic algebraic curves of any genus, is contrasted with the periodic structure of such solutions of the KdV equation. How such solutions can be obtained, for example, by solving a matrix Riemann-Hilbert problem and how the metric tensor of the associated spacetime can be evaluated is described in detail. In chapter 4 the asymptotic behaviour and the similarity structure of the general algebro-geometric solutions of the Ernst equation are described, and the relationship of such solutions to the perhaps more familiar multi-soliton solutions is discussed. The next three chapters are based upon the authors' own published research: in chapter 5 it is shown that a problem involving counter-rotating infinitely thin disks of matter can be solved in terms of genus two Riemann theta functions, while in chapter 6 the authors describe numerical methods that facilitate the construction of such solutions, and in chapter 7 three-dimensional graphs are displayed that depict all metrical fields of the associated spacetime

  3. Validation of a laboratory method for evaluating dynamic properties of reconstructed equine racetrack surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J Setterbo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Racetrack surface is a risk factor for racehorse injuries and fatalities. Current research indicates that race surface mechanical properties may be influenced by material composition, moisture content, temperature, and maintenance. Race surface mechanical testing in a controlled laboratory setting would allow for objective evaluation of dynamic properties of surface and factors that affect surface behavior. OBJECTIVE: To develop a method for reconstruction of race surfaces in the laboratory and validate the method by comparison with racetrack measurements of dynamic surface properties. METHODS: Track-testing device (TTD impact tests were conducted to simulate equine hoof impact on dirt and synthetic race surfaces; tests were performed both in situ (racetrack and using laboratory reconstructions of harvested surface materials. Clegg Hammer in situ measurements were used to guide surface reconstruction in the laboratory. Dynamic surface properties were compared between in situ and laboratory settings. Relationships between racetrack TTD and Clegg Hammer measurements were analyzed using stepwise multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Most dynamic surface property setting differences (racetrack-laboratory were small relative to surface material type differences (dirt-synthetic. Clegg Hammer measurements were more strongly correlated with TTD measurements on the synthetic surface than the dirt surface. On the dirt surface, Clegg Hammer decelerations were negatively correlated with TTD forces. CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory reconstruction of racetrack surfaces guided by Clegg Hammer measurements yielded TTD impact measurements similar to in situ values. The negative correlation between TTD and Clegg Hammer measurements confirms the importance of instrument mass when drawing conclusions from testing results. Lighter impact devices may be less appropriate for assessing dynamic surface properties compared to testing equipment designed to simulate hoof

  4. The Surface Laplacian Technique in EEG: Theory and Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalhaes, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review major theoretical and computational aspects of the surface Laplacian technique. Here we focus our attention on a few topics that are fundamental for a physical understanding of this technique and its efficient computational implementation. We highlight several issues that in our view deserve further research exploration, some of which we have attempted to address to the extent possible. We also included a set of approximations for the Laplacian on the border of a discrete grid and the description of an algorithm that accounts for the finite size of the measuring electrodes.

  5. Quelques aspects de la vie économique de l'Equateur de 1830 à 1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Au cours du XIXème siècle et dès le début du XXème siècle, l'économie équatorienne s'inséra progressivement dans le marché mondial, au prix d'une grande dépendance à l'égard du capitalisme international. Cette insertion fut rendue possible par le 'boom' cacaoyer de la 'Costa'. A Guayaquil, en effet, apparurent des banques, des sociétés de commerce et de transport et, par conséquent, des groupes dirigeants de planteurs, d'exportateurs et de banquiers qui revendiquèrent bientôt un pouvoir politique jusque là plutôt détenu par les 'hacendados' de la sierra'. Cette prospérité côtière ne doit pas d'ailleurs faire croire que la 'sierra' restait immobile. Elle connut, elle aussi, un certain dynamisme, souvent ignoré. Peu peuplé, ainsi partagé entre cette côte active et une 'sierra' où l'activité économique et les rapports de production évoluaient lentement, l'Equateur eut une vie agitée, marquée par la difficile mais réelle intégration d'un espace national très hétérogène. Durante el siglo XIX y a comienzos de este siglo, la economía ecuatoriana se insertó progresivamente en el mercado mundial, pero al precio de una gran dependencia del capitalismo internacional. Esta inserción fue posible gracias al 'boom' del cacao de la Costa. En Guayaquil, efectivamente, aparecieron bancos, sociedades de comercio y de transporte y, por consiguiente, los grupos dirigentes de productores, exportadores y banqueros, quienes pronto reclamaron el poder político, hasta entonces detenido por los hacendados de la sierra. Sin embargo, esta prosperidad costanera no debe hacer suponer que la sierra quedaba inmóvil, pues ella supo también mantener cierto dinamismo frecuentemente ignorado. Poco poblado y dividido por lo tanto entre una costa activa y una sierra en donde la actividad económica y las relaciones de producción tenían una evolución lenta, el Ecuador tuvo una vida agitada, marcada por la difícil pero real integraci

  6. Advanced Bayesian Methods for Lunar Surface Navigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation of this project is the application of advanced Bayesian methods to integrate real-time dense stereo vision and high-speed optical flow with an...

  7. Advanced Bayesian Methods for Lunar Surface Navigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation of this project will be the application of advanced Bayesian methods to integrate real-time dense stereo vision and high-speed optical flow with...

  8. Semidiscrete central difference method in time for determining surface temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Qian

    2005-01-01

    the data. Eldén (1995 has used a difference method for solving this problem, but he did not obtain the convergence at x=0. In this paper, we gave a logarithmic stability of the approximation solution at x=0 under a stronger a priori assumption ‖u(0,t‖p≤E with p>1/2. A numerical example shows that the computational effect of this method is satisfactory.

  9. In-situ test methods for assessment of surface pH of corroding sewer pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Vollertsen, Jes

    A method for measuring the surface pH of corroding concrete was developed in the lab and tested in the field. The method is based on direct application of pH indicator solution on the corroding surfaces. Comparison against point measurements using a flat surface pH electrode (flatrode) confirmed...... the accuracy of the method. Blind testing of concrete specimens exposed to different acid concentrations demonstrated that it was possible to determine the surface pH within ±0.5 pH units in the pH range of one to five. The developed method provides a simple and reliable estimate on the extent of concrete...

  10. Experimental innovations in surface science a guide to practical laboratory methods and instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, John T

    2015-01-01

    This book is a new edition of a classic text on experimental methods and instruments in surface science. It offers practical insight useful to chemists, physicists, and materials scientists working in experimental surface science. This enlarged second edition contains almost 300 descriptions of experimental methods. The more than 50 active areas with individual scientific and measurement concepts and activities relevant to each area are presented in this book. The key areas covered are: Vacuum System Technology, Mechanical Fabrication Techniques, Measurement Methods, Thermal Control, Delivery of Adsorbates to Surfaces, UHV Windows, Surface Preparation Methods, High Area Solids, Safety. The book is written for researchers and graduate students.

  11. Method and system for formation and withdrawal of a sample from a surface to be analyzed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Berkel, Gary J.; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2017-10-03

    A method and system for formation and withdrawal of a sample from a surface to be analyzed utilizes a collection instrument having a port through which a liquid solution is conducted onto the surface to be analyzed. The port is positioned adjacent the surface to be analyzed, and the liquid solution is conducted onto the surface through the port so that the liquid solution conducted onto the surface interacts with material comprising the surface. An amount of material is thereafter withdrawn from the surface. Pressure control can be utilized to manipulate the solution balance at the surface to thereby control the withdrawal of the amount of material from the surface. Furthermore, such pressure control can be coordinated with the movement of the surface relative to the port of the collection instrument within the X-Y plane.

  12. Control method for exoskeleton ankle with surface electromyography signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen; WANG Zhen; JIANG Jia-xin; QIAN Jin-wu

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a control method for an exoskeleton ankle with clectromyography (EMG) signals.The EMG signals of human ankle and the exoskeleton ankle are introduced.Then a control method is proposed to control the exoskeleton ankle using the EMG signals.The feed-forward neural network model applied here is composed of four layers and uses the back-propagation training algorithm.The output signals from neural network are processed by the wavelet transform.Finally the control orders generated from the output signals are passed to the motor controller and drive the exoskeleton to move.Through experiments,the equality of neural network prediction of ankle movement is evaluated by giving the correlation coefficient.It is shown from the experimental results that the proposed method can accurately control the movement of ankle joint.

  13. Robust three dimensional surface contouring method with digital holography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Cao-jin; ZHAI Hong-chen; WANG Xiao-lei; WU Lan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,a digital holography system with short-coherence light source is used to record a series of holograms of a micro-object. The three dimensional reconstruction is completed by the least-square-polynomial-fitting with a series of two dimensional intensity images which are obtained through holographic reconstruction. This three dimensional reconstruction method can be used to carry out three-dimensional reconstruction of a micro-object with strong laser speckle noise,which can not be obtained from the conventional method.

  14. Comparison of 3 methods on fabricating micro- /nano- structured surface on 3D mold cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    The methods to manufacture micro- or nano- structures on surfaces have been an area of intense investigation. Demands are shown for technologies for surface structuring on real 3D parts in many fields. However, most technologies for the fabrication of micro-structured functional surfaces are stil...

  15. Measurement of emissivity of industrial surfaces using a simple method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmeyer, H.

    1988-01-01

    To detect emissivity, the drop in temperature of the sample undergoing radiation exchange with the wall in an evacuated space is measured over a given period. In this manner, emissivities of various synthetic resin lacquers, metals, and metallic coatings were measured. Once the emissivity is known, the same method can be used to detect specific heat and the head condition of gases.

  16. A simple method to assess bacterial attachment to surfaces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sonak, S.; Bhosle, N.B.

    , sensitive, less time consuming and therefore many samples can be analysed in a short period of time. When the calibrated method was employed to assess the attachment of Vibrio sp to polystyrene, stainless steel and copper, it give a fairly reliable estimate...

  17. Method of defence of solder surface from oxidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurmashev Sh. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Compositions are developed for defence of fusion solder from oxidization on the basis of mixture of glycerin, urea and powders of refractory oxides, carbides (Al2O3, TiO2, SIC, graphite. The offered compositions can be used for defence of fusion of solder from oxidization in the process of soludering and tinning of explorers, and also electric conclusions of elements of radio electronic apparatus by the method of immersion in stationary baths.

  18. The Usage of Rusboost Boosting Method for Classification of Impervious Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesikoglu, M. H.; Atasever, U. H.; Ozkan, C.; Besdok, E.

    2016-10-01

    Impervious surface areas are artificial structures covered by materials such as asphalt, stone, brick, rooftops and concrete. Buildings, parking lots, roads, driveways and sidewalks are shown as impervious surfaces. They increase depending on the population growth. The spatial development of impervious surface expansion is necessary for better understanding of the urbanization status and its effect on environment. There are different impervious surface determining approaches met in literature. In this paper, it is aimed to extract the impervious surface areas of Kayseri city, Turkey by using remote sensing techniques. It is possible to group these techniques under a few main topics as V-I-S (vegetation-impervious surface-soil) model, based on spectral mixture analysis or decision tree algorithms or impervious surface indices. According to these techniques, we proposed a new technique by using RUSBoost algorithm based on decision tree in this study. In this scope, Landsat 8 LDCM image belonging to July, 2013 was used. Determining of impervious surface areas accurately depends on accuracy of image classification methods. Therefore, satellite image was classified separately by using Classification Tree and RUSBoost boosting method which increases accuracy of the classification method based on decision tree. Classification accuracies of these supervised classification methods were compared and it was observed that the best overall accuracy was obtained with RUSBoost method. For this reason, RUSBoost method was preferred to determine impervious surface areas. The overall accuracies were obtained 95 % with Classification Tree and 97 % with RUSBoost boosting method.

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Quantitative Test Methods for Gases on a Hard Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF QUANTITATIVE TEST METHODS FOR GASES ON A HARD SURFACE ECBC-TR-1426 Vipin Rastogi... Quantitative Test Methods for Gases on a Hard Surface 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IAG DW-21-83021801-2 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...ABSTRACT: In this study, two quantitative test methods were evaluated (the Three Step Method [TSM] and the Quantitative Disk Carrier Test [QCT]) for

  20. Sarah Mombin, Michèle Rossellini (dir.), Usages des vies. Le biographique hier et aujourd’hui (xviie-

    OpenAIRE

    Crépel, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Histoire et biographie ont partie liée de mille façons. De Plutarque à Paris-Match, en passant par La Vie de Beethoven de Romain Rolland et le monumental Dictionary of Scientific Biography, dirigé par C.C. Gillispie (1970-1980), on voit bien que la biographie ne se limite pas à un seul « genre ». Les hommes politiques en vue, les historiens, les romanciers, les psychanalystes, les académiciens, les journalistes, les érudits locaux, les « savants sur le retour », ont tous leurs façons d’écrire...

  1. William Grossin, J’ai connu le Moyen-Âge. Récit de vie : enfance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Gadea

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available À côté de son œuvre scientifique, William Grossin a publié une série de livres relevant de divers genres : plusieurs romans, des poèmes satiriques et un récit de vie évoquant son enfance. Avec un peu d’attention, on pourra reconnaître dans chacun d’eux la « touche » d’un auteur tardif mais productif. Il y a d’abord  son style : travaillé, nerveux, vivant, sobre et même un peu austère mais sans excès, comme certains Vouvray secs. Les mots sont choisis avec soin, à tel point que les phrases com...

  2. La vie intellectuelle des femmes à Beyrouth dans les années 1920 à travers la revue Minerva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Dupont

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available la revue Minerva, éditée à de 1923 à 1927, constitue un témoin intéressant de la vie culturelle et intellectuelle de Beyrouth dans la période. Revue animée par des femmes grecques-orthodoxes, elle défendait à la fois le nationalisme arabe d'une façon très large, et la cause des femmes arabes en insistant de façon encore très traditionnelle sur leur rôle éminent comme éducatrices, épouses et mères.

  3. Fahrstuhlfahrten und Einstiegsschwierigkeiten. Erschließungstechniken in Georges Perecs »La Vie mode d’emploi«

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanne Mohs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Der Artikel ist eine produktionsästhetische Untersuchung zu Einstiegsschwierigkeiten in literarische Schreibprozesse und ihre Auflösung mithilfe räumlicher und sprachspielerischer Erschließungstechniken. Als Beispiel dient mir die Poetik des OuLiPo (»Ouvroir de littérature potentielle« und hier insbesondere (die Genese von Georges Perecs Roman »La vie mode d’emploi«. Genauer wird daran gezeigt, wie Perec eine blockierte Fahrstuhlfahrt als metaphorische Referenz auf seine anfängliche Schreibhemmung in den Roman einfügt und wie diese Referenz als Kommentar zur Erzählbarkeit komplexer Raum-Zeit-Gefüge im Gesellschaftsroman des 20. Jahrhunderts, insbesondere zu Marcel Prousts »Recherche«, verstanden werden kann.

  4. Numerical simulation of bistatic scattering from fractal rough surface in the finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By using the Monte Carlo method and numerical finite elementapproach, bistatic scattering from the fractal and Gaussian rough surfaces is studied. The difference between these two surfaces and their functional dependence on the surface parameters are discussed. Angular variation of bistatic scattering from the fractal surface is very significant, even for fairly smooth surface, whilst scattering from the Gaussian rough surface tends to the specular reflection. The slope of angular variation is linearly related with the fractal dimension. If an electrically_large target is placed over the rough surface, the fractal dimension inverted from bistatic scattering would be reduced. As the surfaces become very rough, scattering from different fractal and Gaussian surfaces would be not identified.

  5. USING SYSTEM SIMULATION METHOD AND CADTECHNIQUE TO SOLVE THE MINING ENGINEERING RELIABILITY IN SURFACE MINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    才庆祥; 彭世济; 张达贤

    1996-01-01

    Subjected to various stochastic factors, surface mining engineering reliability is difficult to solve by using general reliability mathematical method. The concept of reliability measurement is introduced; And the authors have combined system simulation method with CAD technique and developed an interactive color character graphic design system for evaluating and solving the mining engineering reliability in surface mines under the given constraints.

  6. Methods for the measuring surface tritium inside TFTR using beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweben, S.J.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Ku, L.P.; Lemunyan, G.; Loesser, D.; Owens, D.K.; Medley, S.S.; Mueller, D.; Timberlake, J. [and others

    1995-03-01

    Three potential methods for evaluating the surface tritium content of the TFTR vacuum vessel are described, each based on a different technique for measuring the in situ beta emission from tritium. These methods should be able to provide both a local and a global assessment of the tritium content within the top {approximately}1{mu}m of the inner wall surface.

  7. Studying randomness and determinism in surface temperature anomaly indices using the recurrence plot method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, B. V.

    2016-01-01

    Surface temperature anomalies are studied using the methods of recurrence plots and statistical R/S analysis, as well as the Higuchi method for determining fractal dimension. Anomalies of the surface temperature above continents and the temperature in the World Ocean regions and in the Northern and Southern hemispheres are considered independently. It has been indicated that anomalies are more stochastic and deterministic for land and ocean surfaces, respectively.

  8. Evaluation of surface analysis methods for characterization of trace metal surface contaminants found in silicon IC manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, A.C.; Maillot, P.; Gordon, M.; Baylis, J.; Chacon, J.; Witowski, R. (SEMATECH, Austin, TX (United States)); Arlinghaus, H. (Atom Sciences, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)); Knapp, J.A.; Doyle, B.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1991-01-01

    A major topic at recent silicon-based integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing symposia is the pursuit of decreased contamination levels. The aim is to remove contamination from both processes and materials. In conjunction with this effort, characterization methods are being pushed to lower and lower detection limits. In this paper, we evaluate surface analysis methods used to determine the concentration of inorganic contamination on unpatterned Si wafers. We compare sampling depths, detection limits, and applicability of each method for use in support of Si IC manufacturing. This comparison is further limited to Fe and Cu which are transition metal contaminants associated with manufacturing yield loss. The surface analysis methods included in this evaluation are: Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF or TRXRF); Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS); two post-ionization'' methods Surface Analysis by Laser Ionization (SALI) and Sputter Initiated Resonant Ionization Spectroscopy (SIRIS); Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectroscopy (HIBS); and Vapor Phase Phase Decomposition (VPD) based methods Atomic Absorption (VPD-AA) along with VPD-TXRF. Sets of 6 in. Si wafers with concentration levels between 10{sup 9} atoms/cm{sup 2} and 10{sup 12} atoms/cm{sup 2} Fe and Cu were characterized by TXRF, SIMS, SIRIS, and HIBS. This data allows estimation of detection limits (DLs) and relative method accuracy. In Section 1 we describe each surface analysis method and the circumstance under which it would be used to support Si IC manufacturing. The equipment used for this comparison and the 150 mm Si wafer set are described in Section 2. Results from each method are contrasted in Section 3. Finally, a conclusion is presented in Section 4.

  9. Influence of various surface-conditioning methods on the bond strength of metal brackets to ceramic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmage, Petra; Nergiz, Ibrahim; Herrmann, Wolfram; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2003-05-01

    With the increase in adult orthodontic treatment comes the need to find a reliable method for bonding orthodontic brackets onto metal or ceramic crowns and fixed partial dentures. In this study, shear bond strength and surface roughness tests were used to examine the effect of 4 different surface conditioning methods: fine diamond bur, sandblasting, 5% hydrofluoric acid, and silica coating for bonding metal brackets to ceramic surfaces of feldspathic porcelain. Sandblasting and hydrofluoric acid were further tested after silane application. A total of 120 ceramic disc samples were produced, and 50 were used for surface roughness measurements. The glazed ceramic surfaces were used as controls. Metal brackets were bonded to the ceramic substrates with a self-curing composite. The samples were stored in 0.9% NaCl solution for 24 hours and then thermocycled (5000 times, 5 degrees C to 55 degrees C, 30 seconds). Shear bond tests were performed with a universal testing device, and the results were statistically analyzed. Chemical surface conditioning with either hydrofluoric acid (4.3 microm) or silicatization (4.4 microm) resulted in significantly lower surface roughness than mechanical conditioning (9.3 microm, diamond bur; 9.7 microm, sandblasting) (P <.001). The surface roughness values reflect the mean peak-and-valley distances. The bond strengths of the brackets bonded to the ceramic surfaces treated by hydrofluoric acid with and without silane (12.2 and 14.7 MPa, respectively), silicatization (14.9 MPa), and sandblasting with silane (15.8 MPa) were significantly higher (P <.001) than those treated by mechanical roughening with fine diamond burs (1.6 MPa) or sandblasting (2.8 MPa). The highest bond strength values were obtained with sandblasting and silicatization with silane or hydrofluoric acid without silane; these fulfilled the required threshold. The use of silane after hydrofluoric acid etching did not increase the bond strength. Diamond roughening and

  10. A Level Set Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Free Surface Flows - and Water-Wave Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grooss, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    We present a discontinuous Galerkin method on a fully unstructured grid for the modeling of unsteady incompressible fluid flows with free surfaces. The surface is modeled by a level set technique. We describe the discontinuous Galerkin method in general, and its application to the flow equations....... The deferred correction method is applied on the fluid flow equations and show good results in periodic domains. We describe the design of a level set method for the free surface modeling. The level set utilize the high order accurate discontinuous Galerkin method fully and represent smooth surfaces very...... equations in time are discussed. We investigate theory of di erential algebraic equations, and connect the theory to current methods for solving the unsteady fluid flow equations. We explore the use of a semi-implicit spectral deferred correction method having potential to achieve high temporal order...

  11. A Remote Sensing Method for Estimating Surface Air Temperature and Surface Vapor Pressure on a Regional Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renhua Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of estimating regional distributions of surface air temperature (Ta and surface vapor pressure (ea, which uses remotely-sensed data and meteorological data as its inputs. The method takes into account the effects of both local driving force and horizontal advection on Ta and ea. Good correlation coefficients (R2 and root mean square error (RMSE between the measurements of Ta/ea at weather stations and Ta/ea estimates were obtained; with R2 of 0.77, 0.82 and 0.80 and RMSE of 0.42K, 0.35K and 0.20K for Ta and with R2 of 0.85, 0.88, 0.88 and RMSE of 0.24hpa, 0.35hpa and 0.16hpa for ea, respectively, for the three-day results. This result is much better than that estimated from the inverse distance weighted method (IDW. The performance of Ta/ea estimates at Dongping Lake illustrated that the method proposed in the paper also has good accuracy for a heterogeneous surface. The absolute biases of Ta and ea estimates at Dongping Lake from the proposed method are less than 0.5Kand 0.7hpa, respectively, while the absolute biases of them from the IDW method are more than 2K and 3hpa, respectively. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the Ta estimation method presented in the paper is most sensitive to surface temperature and that the ea estimation method is most sensitive to available energy.

  12. A robust real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenyang [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Cheung, Yam [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Sawant, Amit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas, 75390 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: To develop a robust and real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system. Methods: The authors have developed a robust and fast surface reconstruction method on point clouds acquired by the photogrammetry system, without explicitly solving the partial differential equation required by a typical variational approach. Taking advantage of the overcomplete nature of the acquired point clouds, their method solves and propagates a sparse linear relationship from the point cloud manifold to the surface manifold, assuming both manifolds share similar local geometry. With relatively consistent point cloud acquisitions, the authors propose a sparse regression (SR) model to directly approximate the target point cloud as a sparse linear combination from the training set, assuming that the point correspondences built by the iterative closest point (ICP) is reasonably accurate and have residual errors following a Gaussian distribution. To accommodate changing noise levels and/or presence of inconsistent occlusions during the acquisition, the authors further propose a modified sparse regression (MSR) model to model the potentially large and sparse error built by ICP with a Laplacian prior. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both clinical point clouds acquired under consistent acquisition conditions and on point clouds with inconsistent occlusions. The authors quantitatively evaluated the reconstruction performance with respect to root-mean-squared-error, by comparing its reconstruction results against that from the variational method. Results: On clinical point clouds, both the SR and MSR models have achieved sub-millimeter reconstruction accuracy and reduced the reconstruction time by two orders of magnitude to a subsecond reconstruction time. On point clouds with inconsistent occlusions, the MSR model has demonstrated its advantage in achieving consistent and robust performance despite the introduced

  13. Exploiting Lateral Resolution of Near-Surface Seismic Refraction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Derecke Palmer

    2009-01-01

    The 1D τ-p inversion algorithm is widely employed to generate starting models with most computer programs that implement refraction tomography. However, this algorithm emphasizes the vertical resolution of many layers, and as a result, it frequently fails to detect even large lateral variations in seismic velocities, such as the decreases that are indicative of shear zones. This study presents a case that demonstrates the failure of the 1D τ-p inversion algorithm to define or even detect a major shear zone that is 50 m or ten stations wide. Furthermore, the majority of refraction tomography programs parameterize the seismic velocities within each layer with vertical velocity gradients. By contrast, the 2D generalized reciprocal method (GRM) inversion algorithms emphasize the lateral resolution of individual layers. This study demonstrates the successful detection and definition of the 50-m wide shear zone with the GRM inversion algorithms. The existence of the shear zone is corroborated by a 2D analysis of the head wave amplitudes and by numerous closely spaced orthogonal seismic profiles carried out as part of a later 3D refraction investigation. Furthermore, a 1D analysis of the head wave amplitudes indicates that a reversal in the seismic velocities, rather than vertical velocity gradients, occurs in the weathered layers. While all seismic refraction operations should aim to provide as accurate depth estimates as is practical, the major conclusion reached in this study is that refraction Inversion algorithms that emphasize the lateral resolution of individual layers generate more useful results for geotechnical and environmental applications. The advantages of the Improved lateral resolution are obtained with 2D profiles in which the structural features can be recognized from the magnitudes of the variations in the seismic velocities. Furthermore, the spatial patterns obtained with 3D investigations facilitate the recognition of structural features that do not

  14. Calculation of stratum surface principal curvature based on a moving least square method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-qing; MENG Zhao-ping; MA Feng-shan; ZHAO Hai-jun; DING De-min; LIU Qin; WANG Cheng

    2008-01-01

    With the east section of the Changji sag Zhunger Basin as a case study, both a principal curvature method and a moving least square method are elaborated. The moving least square method is introduced, for the first time, to fit a stratum surface. The results show that, using the same-degree base function, compared with a traditional least square method, the moving least square method can produce lower fitting errors, the fitting surface can describe the morphological characteristics of stratum surfaces more accurately and the principal curvature values vary within a wide range and may be more suitable for the prediction of the distribu-tion of structural fractures. The moving least square method could be useful in curved surface fitting and stratum curvature analysis.

  15. Size dependence of surface thermodynamic properties of nanoparticles and its determination method by reaction rate constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wenjiao; Xue, Yongqiang, E-mail: xyqlw@126.com; Cui, Zixiang

    2016-08-15

    Surface thermodynamic properties are the fundamental properties of nanomaterials, and these properties depend on the size of nanoparticles. In this paper, relations of molar surface thermodynamic properties and surface heat capacity at constant pressure of nanoparticles with particle size were derived theoretically, and the method of obtaining the surface thermodynamic properties by reaction rate constant was put forward. The reaction of nano-MgO with sodium bisulfate solution was taken as a research system. The influence regularities of the particle size on the surface thermodynamic properties were discussed theoretically and experimentally, which show that the experimental regularities are in accordance with the corresponding theoretical relations. With the decreasing of nanoparticle size, the molar surface thermodynamic properties increase, while the surface heat capacity decreases (the absolute value increases). In addition, the surface thermodynamic properties are linearly related to the reciprocal of nanoparticle diameter, respectively.

  16. Accurate computation of surface stresses and forces with immersed boundary methods

    CERN Document Server

    Goza, Andres; Morley, Benjamin; Colonius, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Many immersed boundary methods solve for surface stresses that impose the velocity boundary conditions on an immersed body. These surface stresses may contain spurious oscillations that make them ill-suited for representing the physical surface stresses on the body. Moreover, these inaccurate stresses often lead to unphysical oscillations in the history of integrated surface forces such as the coefficient of lift. While the errors in the surface stresses and forces do not necessarily affect the convergence of the velocity field, it is desirable, especially in fluid-structure interaction problems, to obtain smooth and convergent stress distributions on the surface. To this end, we show that the equation for the surface stresses is an integral equation of the first kind whose ill-posedness is the source of spurious oscillations in the stresses. We also demonstrate that for sufficiently smooth delta functions, the oscillations may be filtered out to obtain physically accurate surface stresses. The filtering is a...

  17. Preparing the generalized Harvey–Shack rough surface scattering method for use with the discrete ordinates method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Villads Egede

    2015-01-01

    The paper shows how to implement the generalized Harvey–Shack (GHS) method for isotropic rough surfaces discretized in a polar coordinate system and approximated using Fourier series. This is particularly relevant for the use of the GHS method as a boundary condition for radiative transfer problems...

  18. Indirect methods to measure wetting and contact angles on spherical convex and concave surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrand, C W; Moon, Sung In

    2012-05-22

    In this work, a method was developed for indirectly estimating contact angles of sessile liquid drops on convex and concave surfaces. Assuming that drops were sufficiently small that no gravitational distortion occurred, equations were derived to compute intrinsic contact angles from the radius of curvature of the solid surface, the volume of the liquid drop, and its contact diameter. These expressions were tested against experimental data for various liquids on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polycarbonate (PC) in the form of flat surfaces, spheres, and concave cavities. Intrinsic contact angles estimated indirectly using dimensions and volumes generally agreed with the values measured directly from flat surfaces using the traditional tangent method.

  19. New Variance-Reducing Methods for the PSD Analysis of Large Optical Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin

    2010-01-01

    Edge data of a measured surface map of a circular optic result in large variance or "spectral leakage" behavior in the corresponding Power Spectral Density (PSD) data. In this paper we present two new, alternative methods for reducing such variance in the PSD data by replacing the zeros outside the circular area of a surface map by non-zero values either obtained from a PSD fit (method 1) or taken from the inside of the circular area (method 2).

  20. COMPARISON OF THE SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF BRACKETS USING TWO SURFACE CONDITIONING METHODS FOR PORCELAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros-Pinzón, Claudia; Bermúdez-Lozano, Jesús A.; Coronel-Corzo, Nelly; de-León-Goenaga, Edwin; Delgado, Linda P.; Báez-Quintero, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: During 2010 the degree research “Comparison of the shear bond strength of brackets using two surface conditioning methods for porcelain” was carried out at Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia in Bogota. Objective: To determine the shear bond strength of metal brackets cemented on porcelain using two surface conditioning methods. Materials and methods: Forty human premolars were used and prepared for further cementing porcelain-metal crowns. There were two groups of 20 teeth each...

  1. An Intelligent Method for Structural Reliability Analysis Based on Response Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂劲松; 刘红; 康海贵

    2004-01-01

    As water depth increases, the structural safety and reliability of a system become more and more important and challenging. Therefore, the structural reliability method must be applied in ocean engineering design such as offshore platform design. If the performance function is known in structural reliability analysis, the first-order second-moment method is often used. If the performance function could not be definitely expressed, the response surface method is always used because it has a very clear train of thought and simple programming. However, the traditional response surface method fits the response surface of quadratic polynomials where the problem of accuracy could not be solved, because the true limit state surface can be fitted well only in the area near the checking point. In this paper, an intelligent computing method based on the whole response surface is proposed, which can be used for the situation where the performance function could not be definitely expressed in structural reliability analysis. In this method, a response surface of the fuzzy neural network for the whole area should be constructed first, and then the structural reliability can be calculated by the genetic algorithm. In the proposed method, all the sample points for the training network come from the whole area, so the true limit state surface in the whole area can be fitted. Through calculational examples and comparative analysis, it can be known that the proposed method is much better than the traditional response surface method of quadratic polynomials, because, the amount of calculation of finite element analysis is largely reduced, the accuracy of calculation is improved,and the true limit state surface can be fitted very well in the whole area. So, the method proposed in this paper is suitable for engineering application.

  2. Komandinio darbo organizavimo tyrimas Ignalinos rajono viešojo sektoriaus trijų organizacijų pavyzdžiu (,,Utenos regiono keliai Ignalinos kelių tarnyba", ,,Ignalinos rajono gimnazija" ir ,,Ignalinos savivaldybės viešoji biblioteka")

    OpenAIRE

    Taraškevičiūtė, Agnė

    2014-01-01

    Magistro baigiamajame darbe ištirta komandinio darbo organizavimo ypatumai trijose Ignalinos rajono viešojo sektoriaus organizacijose (,,Utenos regiono keliai Ignalinos kelių tarnyba”, ,, Ignalinos rajono gimnazija” ir ,,Ignalinos savivaldybės viešoji biblioteka”). Teorinėje darbo dalyje aptariama komandos sąvoka, jos atskirtis nuo grupės sąvokos, komandinio darbo privalumai bei efektyvumą skatinantys veiksniai, R. M. Belbin komandos vaidmenų svarba organizuojant komandinį darbą, komandinio d...

  3. Surface engineered nanoparticles for improved surface enhanced Raman scattering applications and method for preparing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Blake A.; Talin, Albert Alec

    2009-11-27

    A method for producing metal nanoparticles that when associated with an analyte material will generate an amplified SERS spectrum when the analyte material is illuminated by a light source and a spectrum is recorded. The method for preparing the metal nanoparticles comprises the steps of (i) forming a water-in-oil microemulsion comprising a bulk oil phase, a dilute water phase, and one or more surfactants, wherein the water phase comprises a transition metal ion; (ii) adding an aqueous solution comprising a mild reducing agent to the water-in-oil microemulsion; (iii) stirring the water-in-oil microemulsion and aqueous solution to initiate a reduction reaction resulting in the formation of a fine precipitate dispersed in the water-in-oil microemulsion; and (iv) separating the precipitate from the water-in-oil microemulsion.

  4. Numerical simulation of sloshing with large deforming free surface by MPS-LES method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xu-jie; Zhang, Huai-xin; Sun, Xue-yao

    2012-12-01

    Moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method is a fully Lagrangian particle method which can easily solve problems with violent free surface. Although it has demonstrated its advantage in ocean engineering applications, it still has some defects to be improved. In this paper, MPS method is extended to the large eddy simulation (LES) by coupling with a sub-particle-scale (SPS) turbulence model. The SPS turbulence model turns into the Reynolds stress terms in the filtered momentum equation, and the Smagorinsky model is introduced to describe the Reynolds stress terms. Although MPS method has the advantage in the simulation of the free surface flow, a lot of non-free surface particles are treated as free surface particles in the original MPS model. In this paper, we use a new free surface tracing method and the key point is "neighbor particle". In this new method, the zone around each particle is divided into eight parts, and the particle will be treated as a free surface particle as long as there are no "neighbor particles" in any two parts of the zone. As the number density parameter judging method has a high efficiency for the free surface particles tracing, we combine it with the neighbor detected method. First, we select out the particles which may be mistreated with high probabilities by using the number density parameter judging method. And then we deal with these particles with the neighbor detected method. By doing this, the new mixed free surface tracing method can reduce the mistreatment problem efficiently. The serious pressure fluctuation is an obvious defect in MPS method, and therefore an area-time average technique is used in this paper to remove the pressure fluctuation with a quite good result. With these improvements, the modified MPS-LES method is applied to simulate liquid sloshing problems with large deforming free surface. Results show that the modified MPS-LES method can simulate the large deforming free surface easily. It can not only capture

  5. Numerical Simulation of Sloshing with Large Deforming Free Surface by MPS-LES Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Xu-jie; ZHANG Huai-xin; SUN Xue-yao

    2012-01-01

    Moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method is a fully Lagrangian particle method which can easily solve problems with violent free surface.Although it has demonstrated its advantage in ocean engineering applications,it still has some defects to be improved.In this paper,MPS method is extended to the large eddy simulation (LES) by coupling with a sub-particle-scale (SPS) turbulence model.The SPS turbulence model turns into the Reynolds stress terms in the filtered momentum equation,and the Smagorinsky model is introduced to describe the Reynolds stress terms.Although MPS method has the advantage in the simulation of the free surface flow,a lot of non-free surface particles are treated as free surface particles in the original MPS model.In this paper,we use a new free surface tracing method and the key point is “neighbor particle”.In this new method,the zone around each particle is divided into eight parts,and the particle will be treated as a free surface particle as long as there are no “neighbor particles” in any two parts of the zone.As the number density parameter judging method has a high efficiency for the free surface particles tracing,we combine it with the neighbor detected method.First,we select out the particles which may be mistreated with high probabilities by using the number density parameter judging method.And then we deal with these particles with the neighbor detected method.By doing this,the new mixed free surface tracing method can reduce the mistreatment problem efficiently.The serious pressure fluctuation is an obvious defect in MPS method,and therefore an area-time average technique is used in this paper to remove the pressure fluctuation with a quite good result.With these improvements,the modified MPS-LES method is applied to simulate liquid sloshing problems with large deforming free surface.Results show that the modified MPS-LES method can simulate the large deforming free surface easily.It can not only capture the large impact

  6. Surface functionalization of cyclic olefin copolymer with aryldiazonium salts: A covalent grafting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisset, Florian, E-mail: florian.brisset@etu.univ-rouen.fr [UMR CNRS 6014 COBRA, FR 3038, Université de Rouen, 55 rue Saint Germain, 27000 Evreux (France); Vieillard, Julien, E-mail: julien.vieillard@univ-rouen.fr [UMR CNRS 6014 COBRA, FR 3038, Université de Rouen, 55 rue Saint Germain, 27000 Evreux (France); Berton, Benjamin, E-mail: benjamin.berton@univ-rouen.fr [EA 3233 SMS, Université de Rouen, 1 rue du 7ème Chasseurs, BP281, 27002 Evreux Cedex (France); Morin-Grognet, Sandrine, E-mail: sandrine.morin@univ-rouen.fr [EA 3829 MERCI, Université de Rouen, 1 rue du 7ème Chasseurs, BP281, 27002 Evreux Cedex (France); Duclairoir-Poc, Cécile, E-mail: cecile.duclairoir@univ-rouen.fr [EA 4312 LMSM, Université de Rouen, 55 rue Saint Germain, 27000 Evreux (France); Le Derf, Franck, E-mail: franck.lederf@univ-rouen.fr [UMR CNRS 6014 COBRA, FR 3038, Université de Rouen, 55 rue Saint Germain, 27000 Evreux (France)

    2015-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An effective method to modify cyclic olefin copolymer surface. • The surface of COC was modified by covalent grafting of aryl diazonium salts. • The wettability of COC surface was modulated by diazonium salts. • Photoinitiation and chemical reduction have to be combined to graft diazonium salt on COC surface. - Abstract: Covalent immobilization of biomolecules on the surface of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) is still a tough challenge. We developed a robust method for COC surface grafting through reaction with aryldiazonium. Chemical diazonium reduction generated an aryl radical and the formation of a grafted film layer on the organic surface. We also demonstrated that the chemical reduction of diazonium salt was not sufficient to form a film on the COC surface. UV illumination had to be combined with chemical reduction to graft an aryl layer onto the COC surface. We optimized organic film deposition by using different chemical reducers, different reaction times and reagent proportions. We characterized surface modifications by fluorescence microscopy and contact angle measurements, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, and assessed the topography of the aryl film by atomic force microscopy. This original strategy allowed us to evidence various organic functions to graft biomolecules onto COC surfaces with a fast and efficient technique.

  7. A Computer Vision Method for 3D Reconstruction of Curves-Marked Free-Form Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Hanwei; Zhang Xiangwei

    2001-01-01

    Visual method is now broadly used in reverse engineering for 3D reconstruction. Thetraditional computer vision methods are feature-based, i.e., they require that the objects must revealfeatures owing to geometry or textures. For textureless free-form surfaces, dense feature points areadded artificially. In this paper, a new method is put forward combining computer vision with CAGD.The surface is subdivided into N-side Gregory patches using marked curves, and a stereo algorithm isused to reconstruct the curves. Then, the cross boundary tangent vector is computed throughreflectance analysis. At last, the whole surface can be reconstructed by jointing these patches withG1 continuity.

  8. New hybrid method for reactive systems from integrating molecular orbital or molecular mechanics methods with analytical potential energy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Garciá, Joaquín; Rangel, Cipriano; Navarrete, Marta; Corchado, José C

    2004-09-15

    A computational approach to calculating potential energy surfaces for reactive systems is presented and tested. This hybrid approach is based on integrated methods where calculations for a small model system are performed by using analytical potential energy surfaces, and for the real system by using molecular orbital or molecular mechanics methods. The method is tested on a hydrogen abstraction reaction by using the variational transition-state theory with multidimensional tunneling corrections. The agreement between the calculated and experimental information depends on the quality of the method chosen for the real system. When the real system is treated by accurate quantum mechanics methods, the rate constants are in excellent agreement with the experimental measurements over a wide temperature range. When the real system is treated by molecular mechanics methods, the results are still good, which is very encouraging since molecular mechanics itself is not at all capable of describing this reactive system. Since no experimental information or additional fits are required to apply this method, it can be used to improve the accuracy of molecular orbital methods or to extend the molecular mechanics method to treat any reactive system with the single constraint of the availability of an analytical potential energy surface that describes the model system.

  9. Biomimetic superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces fabricated with a facile scraping, bonding and peeling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Huanhuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the superhydrophobicity of juicy peach surface, on which microscale hairs are standing vertically to the surface plane, an extremely simple, inexpensive physical method is developed for fabrication of superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces over large areas. This method includes three steps: abrasive paper scraping, adhesive tape bonding and 90° peeling. Scraping increases the roughness and enhence water contact angles (CAs on polyolefin surfaces. It increases more when the scraped surface are bonded with adhesive types and then then 90° peeled. The CA variation depends on the types of polyolefin and abrasive paper. Superhydrophobic lowdensity polyethylene (LDPE, high-density polyethylene (HDPE and polypropylene (PP surfaces (CA>150° are obtained and they all exhibit very low adhesive force and high resistance to strong acids and bases.

  10. Three-dimensional shape measurement of a highly reflected, specular surface with structured light method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongwei; Ji, Lishuan; Liu, Shugui; Li, Shaohui; Han, Shujian; Zhang, Xiaojie

    2012-11-01

    This paper proposes a mathematical measurement model of a highly reflected, specular surface with structured light method. In the measurement, an auxiliary fringe pattern named amplitude perturbation is adopted to be projected onto the measured surface. The amplitude perturbation can ease the procedure of searching the corresponding points between the phase map of the measured surface and that of the reference plane by locking up the most reliable point as the starting unwrapping point whose true phase can be calculated accurately. The proposed method is also suitable for measuring the step surfaces such as gauge blocks with different heights. Furthermore, the image segmentation technology is introduced in the phase unwrapping procedure to increase the speed. Based on the unwrapped phase map, zonal wave-front reconstruction algorithm is implemented to realize three-dimensional, highly reflected, specular surface reconstruction. Experimental studies show that the developed methodology displays accuracy and high stability for highly reflected, specular surface measurement.

  11. A Level Set Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Free Surface Flows - and Water-Wave Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grooss, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    We present a discontinuous Galerkin method on a fully unstructured grid for the modeling of unsteady incompressible fluid flows with free surfaces. The surface is modeled by a level set technique. We describe the discontinuous Galerkin method in general, and its application to the flow equations....... accurately. We present techniques for reinitialization, and outline the strengths and weaknesses of the level set method. Through a few numerical tests, the robustness and versatility of the proposed scheme is confirmed.......We present a discontinuous Galerkin method on a fully unstructured grid for the modeling of unsteady incompressible fluid flows with free surfaces. The surface is modeled by a level set technique. We describe the discontinuous Galerkin method in general, and its application to the flow equations....... The deferred correction method is applied on the fluid flow equations and show good results in periodic domains. We describe the design of a level set method for the free surface modeling. The level set utilize the high order accurate discontinuous Galerkin method fully and represent smooth surfaces very...

  12. The complementary graphical method used for profiling side mill for generation of helical surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroiu, N.; Berbinschi, S.; Teodor, V. G.; Susac, F.; Oancea, N.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a method developed in CATIA design environment, for profiling tools bounded by revolution peripheral surfaces — side mill tool. The graphical method is based on a complementary theorem of surface enveloping. They are presented specific algorithms and an example for profiling generating tools of helical flutes of compressors rotors with three lobes. The obtained results with graphical method are compared with those obtained by a classical method — the Nikolaev theorem. The graphical method is very intuitive and, at the same time, very rigorous. It is characterized by the simplicity of application and avoids the ambiguity case of solutions, which are frequently met in numerical methods, as profiles overlapping, generating of revolving surfaces or rotating a spatial curve around the tool’s axis. Other advantage of using graphical methods is that CNC machines tools, used for generating profiled tools, allows importing the files, which directly result from graphical modeling.

  13. Surface defect inspection of TFT-LCD panels based on 1D Fourier method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng-da; Lu, Rong-sheng

    2016-01-01

    Flat panel displays have been used in a wide range of electronic devices. The defects on their surfaces are an important factor affecting the product quality. Automated optical inspection (AOI) method is an important and effective means to perform the surface defection inspection. In this paper, a kind of defect extraction algorithm based on one dimensional (1D) Fourier theory for the surface defect extraction with periodic texture background is introduced. In the algorithm, the scanned surface images are firstly transformed from time domain to frequency domain by 1D Fourier transform. The periodic texture background on the surface is then removed by using filtering methods in the frequency domain. Then, a dual-threshold statistical control method is applied to separate the defects from the surface background. Traditional 1D Fourier transform scheme for detecting ordinary defects is very effective; however, the method is not where the defect direction is close to horizontal in periodic texture background. In order to tackle the problem, a mean threshold method based on faultless image is put forward. It firstly calculates the upper and lower control limits of the every reconstructed line scanned image with faultless and then computes the averages of the upper and lower limits. The averages then act as the constant double thresholds to extract the defects. The experimental results of different defects show that the method developed in the paper is very effective for TFT-LCD panel surface defect inspection even in the circumstance that the defect directions are close to horizontal.

  14. Fractal analysis of polyethylene catalysts surface morphologies based on wavelet transform modulus maxima method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CEN Wei; YANG ShiFeng; XUE Rong; XU RiWei; YU DingSheng

    2007-01-01

    Surface morphologies of supported polyethylene (PE) catalysts are investigated by an approach combining fractal with wavelet. The multiscale edge (detail) pictures of catalyst surface are extracted by wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method. And, the distribution of edge points on the edge image at every scale is studied with fractal and multifractal method. Furthermore, the singularity intensity distribution of edge points in the PE catalyst is analyzed by multifractal spectrum based on WTMM. The results reveal that the fractal dimension values and multifractal spectrums of edge images at small scales have a good relation with the activity and surface morphology of PE catalyst. Meanwhile the catalyst exhibiting the higher activity shows the wider singular strength span of multifractal spectrum based on WTMM, as well as the more edge points with the higher singular intensity. The research on catalyst surface morphology with hybrid fractal and wavelet method exerts the superiorities of wavelet and fractal theories and offers a thought for studying solid surfaces morphologies.

  15. Modeling the toxicity of aromatic compounds to tetrahymena pyriformis: the response surface methodology with nonlinear methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shijin

    2003-01-01

    Response surface models based on multiple linear regression had previously been developed for the toxicity of aromatic chemicals to Tetrahymena pyriformis. However, a nonlinear relationship between toxicity and one of the molecular descriptors in the response surface model was observed. In this study, response surface models were established using six nonlinear modeling methods to handle the nonlinearity exhibited in the aromatic chemicals data set. All models were validated using the method of cross-validation, and prediction accuracy was tested on an external data set. Results showed that response surface models based on locally weighted regression scatter plot smoothing (LOESS), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), neural networks (NN), and projection pursuit regression (PPR) provided satisfactory power of model fitting and prediction and had similar applicabilities. The response surface models based on nonlinear methods were difficult to interpret and conservative in discriminating toxicity mechanisms.

  16. Methods of improvement in hardness of composite surface layer on cast steel

    OpenAIRE

    J. Szajnar; P. Wróbel; T. Wróbel

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a method of usable properties of surface layers improvement of cast carbon steel 200–450, by put directly in founding process a composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy and next its remelting with use of welding technology TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas. Technology of composite surface layer guarantee mainly increase in hardness and abrasive wear resistance of cast steel castings on machine elements. This technology can be competition for generally applied welding te...

  17. Surface energy evaluation of unhydrogenated DLC thin film deposited by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladoiu, R.; Dinca, V.; Musa, G.

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this paper is concerned with the surface energy evaluation by contact angle measurements of DLC films deposited by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) on different substrates: glass plate, zinc foil, stainless steel and alumina foil. TVA is an original method based on a combination of the evaporation by electron bombardment and anodic arc. The evaluation of the surface free energy has been carried out by surface energy evaluation system (SEE System). The influence of the experimental conditions is also investigated.

  18. Deciphering fine molecular details of proteins' structure and function with a Protein Surface Topography (PST) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koromyslova, Anna D; Chugunov, Anton O; Efremov, Roman G

    2014-04-28

    Molecular surfaces are the key players in biomolecular recognition and interactions. Nowadays, it is trivial to visualize a molecular surface and surface-distributed properties in three-dimensional space. However, such a representation trends to be biased and ambiguous in case of thorough analysis. We present a new method to create 2D spherical projection maps of entire protein surfaces and manipulate with them--protein surface topography (PST). It permits visualization and thoughtful analysis of surface properties. PST helps to easily portray conformational transitions, analyze proteins' properties and their dynamic behavior, improve docking performance, and reveal common patterns and dissimilarities in molecular surfaces of related bioactive peptides. This paper describes basic usage of PST with an example of small G-proteins conformational transitions, mapping of caspase-1 intersubunit interface, and intrinsic "complementarity" in the conotoxin-acetylcholine binding protein complex. We suggest that PST is a beneficial approach for structure-function studies of bioactive peptides and small proteins.

  19. Negative transferred arc cleaning: a method for roughening and removing surface contamination from beryllium and other metallic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Hollis, K.J.; Maggiore, C.J.; Ayala, A.; Bartram, B.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.; Doerner, R.P. [California Univ., San Diego (United States). Fusion Energy Res.

    2000-04-01

    TA cleaning has been investigated for preparing the surface of beryllium plasma facing components (PFC's) inside of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) prior to depositing beryllium by plasma spraying. Plasma spraying of beryllium was evaluated during the ITER engineering design activity (EDA) for in-situ repair and initial fabrication of the beryllium first wall armor. Results have shown that surface roughening of beryllium, during the TA cleaning process, can result in bond strengths greater than 100 MPa between beryllium surfaces and plasma sprayed beryllium. In addition, the TA cleaning process was shown to be an effective method for removing contaminate layers of carbon and tungsten from the surface of beryllium. Investigations have been performed to characterize the different arc-types that occur during the TA cleaning process (type I, I and III arcs) and the effectiveness of the TA cleaning process for potentially removing co-deposited layers of carbon and deuterium from the surface of beryllium, stainless steel and tungsten. (orig.)

  20. Effect of Surface Roughness on Contact Angle Measurement of Nanofluid on Surface of Stainless Steel 304 by Sessile Drop Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajitno, D. H.; Maulana, A.; Syarif, D. G.

    2016-08-01

    Contact angles play an important role in the mass and heat transfer. Stainless steel 304 has been used for nuclear power plan structure material until now. An experiment to measure contact angle of demineralized aqua and nanofluid containing nano particle of zirconia on metal surface of stainless steel 304 with sessile drop method was conducted. The measurement to measure the static contact angle and drop of nano fluid containing nano particle zirconia on stainless steel with different surface roughness was carried out. It was observed that stainless steel 304 was good hydrophylic properties with decreasing surface roughness of stainless steel during drop of aqua demineralized and nano fluid respectively. As a result the contact angle of demineralized aqua is decreased from 97.39 to 78.42 and contact angle of nano fluid from 94.3 to 67.50, respectively with decreasing surface roughness of stainless stee 304. Wettability of nanofluid on surface stainless steel 304 is better than aqua demineralized.

  1. Adhesion of resin composites to biomaterials in dentistry : an evaluation of surface conditioning methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan, Mutlu

    2003-01-01

    Since previous investigations revealed that most clinical failures in adhesively luted ceramic restorations initiate from the cementation or internal surfaces, the study presented in Chapter II evaluated the effect of three different surface conditioning methods on the bond strength of a Bis-GMA bas

  2. Ion-step method for surface potential sensing of silicon nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Songyue; Nieuwkasteele, van Jan W.; Berg, van den Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel stimulus-response method for surface potential sensing of silicon nanowire (Si NW) field-effect transistors. When an "ion-step" from low to high ionic strength is given as a stimulus to the gate oxide surface, an increase of double layer capacitance is therefore expected.

  3. Adhesion of resin composites to biomaterials in dentistry : an evaluation of surface conditioning methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan, Mutlu

    2003-01-01

    Since previous investigations revealed that most clinical failures in adhesively luted ceramic restorations initiate from the cementation or internal surfaces, the study presented in Chapter II evaluated the effect of three different surface conditioning methods on the bond strength of a Bis-GMA

  4. Modification of three dimensional topography of the machined KDP crystal surface using wavelet analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. X.; Zong, W. J.; Sun, T.; Liu, Q.

    2010-06-01

    The wavelet analysis method has been extensively employed to analyze the surface structures and evaluate the surface roughness. In this work, however, the wavelet analysis method was introduced to decompose and reconstruct the sampled surface profile signals in the cutting direction that achieved by SPDT (single point diamond turning) operation, and the surface profile signals in tool feeding direction were reconstructed with the approximate harmonic functions directly. And moreover, the orthogonal design method, i.e. the combination design of general rotary method, was resorted to model the variations of the independent frequency and amplitude of different simulated harmonic signals in the cutting and tool feeding directions. As expected resultantly, a novel 3D surface topography modeling solution was established, which aims to predict and modify the finished KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate or KH 2PO 4) crystal surfaces. The validation tests were carried out finally under different cutting conditions, and the collected average surface roughness in any case was compared with the corresponding value as predicted. The results indicated the experimental data were well consistent with the predictions, and only an average relative error of 11.4% occurred in predicting the average surface roughness.

  5. Comparison of Three Methods for Generating Superhydrophobic, Superoleophobic Nylon Nonwoven Surfaces (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    AFRL-RX-TY-TP-2010-0076 COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS FOR GENERATING SUPERHYDROPHOBIC, SUPEROLEOPHOBIC NYLON NONWOVEN SURFACES Rahul Saraf...Generating Superhydrophobic, Superoleophobic Nylon Nonwoven Surfaces (POSTPRINT) FA8650-07-1-5916 0602102F GOVT L0 QL102006 ^Saraf, Rahul,; ^Lee, Hoon...three different techniques to achieve superhydrophobicity and superoleophobicity using hydroentangled nylon nonwoven fabric: pulsed plasma polymerization

  6. Preface: Special Topic Section on Advanced Electronic Structure Methods for Solids and Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelides, Angelos, E-mail: angelos.michaelides@ucl.ac.uk [London Centre for Nanotechnology and Department of Chemistry, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Martinez, Todd J. [Department of Chemistry and the PULSE Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Alavi, Ali [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany and Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Kresse, Georg [Faculty of Physics and Center for Computational Materials Science, Department of Physics, University of Vienna, Sensengasse 8/12, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Manby, Frederick R. [Centre for Computational Chemistry, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-14

    This Special Topic section on Advanced Electronic Structure Methods for Solids and Surfaces contains a collection of research papers that showcase recent advances in the high accuracy prediction of materials and surface properties. It provides a timely snapshot of a growing field that is of broad importance to chemistry, physics, and materials science.

  7. Surface exposure dating of non-terrestrial bodies using optically stimulated luminescence: A new method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Jain, Mayank; Murray, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method for in situ surface exposure dating of non-terrestrial geomorphological features using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL); our approach is based on the progressive emptying of trapped charge with exposure to light at depth into a mineral surface. A complete model of t...

  8. Electronic interconnects and devices with topological surface states and methods for fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. Phuan; Cava, Robert J.

    2017-04-04

    An interconnect is disclosed with enhanced immunity of electrical conductivity to defects. The interconnect includes a material with charge carriers having topological surface states. Also disclosed is a method for fabricating such interconnects. Also disclosed is an integrated circuit including such interconnects. Also disclosed is a gated electronic device including a material with charge carriers having topological surface states.

  9. Electronic interconnects and devices with topological surface states and methods for fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. Phuan; Cava, Robert J.

    2016-05-03

    An interconnect is disclosed with enhanced immunity of electrical conductivity to defects. The interconnect includes a material with charge carriers having topological surface states. Also disclosed is a method for fabricating such interconnects. Also disclosed is an integrated circuit including such interconnects. Also disclosed is a gated electronic device including a material with charge carriers having topological surface states.

  10. On the Surface Free Energy of PVC/EVA Polymer Blends: Comparison of Different Calculation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski; Hardy; Saramago

    1998-12-01

    The surface free energy of polymeric films of polyvinylchloride (PVC) + poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate) (EVA) blends was calculated using the van Oss treatment (Lifshitz and electron donor-electron acceptor components of surface free energy) and the Owens-Wendt treatment (dispersive and nondispersive components of surface free energy). Surface free energy results were found to be greatly dependent on the calculation method and on the number of standard liquids used for contact angle measurements. The nondispersive/donor-acceptor surface free energy component and the total surface free energy of polymeric films were always higher when the van Oss treatment was used compared to the Owens-Wendt treatment. Conversely, both methods led to similar apolar/Lifshitz components. All the calculation methods were in good agreement for the surface free energy of PVC; however, a discrepancy between the methods arose as EVA content in the blends increased. It seems that there is not yet a definite solution for the calculation of solid surface free energy. Further developments of existing models are needed in order to gain consistency when calculating this important physicochemical quantity. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  11. A Method for Identification and Compensation of Machining Errors of Digital Gear Tooth Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fulin; YI Chuanyun; CHEN Jing; YANG Shuzi

    2006-01-01

    In order to generate the digital gear tooth surfaces (DGTS) with high efficiency and high precision, a method for identification and compensation of machining errors is demonstrated in this paper. Machining errors are analyzed directly from the real tooth surfaces. The topography data of the part are off-line measured in the post-process. A comparison is made between two models: CAD model of DGTS and virtual model of the physical measured surface. And a matching rule is given to determine these two surfaces in an appropriate fashion. The developed error estimation model creates a point-to-point map of the real surface to the theoretical surface in the normal direction. A "pre-calibration error compensation" strategy is presented. Through processing the results of the first trail cutting, the total compensation error is predicted and an imaginary digital tooth surface is reconstructed. The machining errors in the final manufactured surfaces are minimized by generating this imaginary surface. An example of machining 2-D DGTS verifies the developed method. The research is of important theoretical and practical value to manufacture the DGTS and other digital conjugate surfaces.

  12. Simple method for preparation of nanostructure on microchannel surface and its usage for enzyme-immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Masaya; Kaneno, Jun; Uehara, Masato; Fujii, Masayuki; Shimizu, Hazime; Maeda, Hideaki

    2003-03-07

    We developed a novel preparation method of nanostructure on the microchannel surface formed by sol-gel like simple treatment with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, which is suitable for a highly efficient enzyme-immobilized microchannel reactor.

  13. Vibration reliability analysis for aeroengine compressor blade based on support vector machine response surface method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hai-feng; BAI Guang-chen

    2015-01-01

    To ameliorate reliability analysis efficiency for aeroengine components, such as compressor blade, support vector machine response surface method (SRSM) is proposed. SRSM integrates the advantages of support vector machine (SVM) and traditional response surface method (RSM), and utilizes experimental samples to construct a suitable response surface function (RSF) to replace the complicated and abstract finite element model. Moreover, the randomness of material parameters, structural dimension and operating condition are considered during extracting data so that the response surface function is more agreeable to the practical model. The results indicate that based on the same experimental data, SRSM has come closer than RSM reliability to approximating Monte Carlo method (MCM); while SRSM (17.296 s) needs far less running time than MCM (10958 s) and RSM (9840 s). Therefore, under the same simulation conditions, SRSM has the largest analysis efficiency, and can be considered a feasible and valid method to analyze structural reliability.

  14. Smooth connection method of segment test data in road surface profile measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hu-Ming; Ma, Ying; Shi, Feng; Zhang, Kai-Bin; Xie, Fei

    2012-01-01

    It's reviewed that the measurement system of road surface profile and the calculation method of segment road test data have been introduced. Because of there are sudden vertical steps at the connection points of segment data which will influence the application of road surface data in automotive engineering. So a new smooth connection method of segment test data is proposed which revised the sudden vertical steps connection by the Signal Local Baseline Adjustment (SLBA) method. Besides, there is an actual example which mentioned the detailed process of the smooth connection of segment test data by the SLBA method and the adjusting results at these connection points. The application and calculation results show that the SLBA method is simple and has achieved obvious effect in smooth connection of the segment road test data. The method of SLBA can be widely applied to segment road surface data processing or the long period vibration signal processing.

  15. Simple Method for Surface Selective Adsorption of Semiconductor Nanocrystals with Nanometric Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Koslovsky, O.; Yochelis, S.; Livneh, N.; Harats, M. G.; Rapaport, R.; Paltiel, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Self-assembly methods play a major role in many modern fabrication techniques for various nanotechnology applications. In this paper we demonstrate two alternatives for self-assembled patterning within the nanoscale resolution of optically active semiconductor nanocrystals. The first is substrate selective and uses any high resolution surface patterning to achieve localized self-assembly. The second method uses a surface with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) resist patterning adsorption of th...

  16. Simple Method for Surface Selective Adsorption of Semiconductor Nanocrystals with Nanometric Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Koslovsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembly methods play a major role in many modern fabrication techniques for various nanotechnology applications. In this paper we demonstrate two alternatives for self-assembled patterning within the nanoscale resolution of optically active semiconductor nanocrystals. The first is substrate selective and uses any high resolution surface patterning to achieve localized self-assembly. The second method uses a surface with poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA resist patterning adsorption of the nanocrystal with covalent bonds and liftoff.

  17. Adhesion of resin composites to biomaterials in dentistry: an evaluation of surface conditioning methods

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan, Mutlu

    2003-01-01

    Since previous investigations revealed that most clinical failures in adhesively luted ceramic restorations initiate from the cementation or internal surfaces, the study presented in Chapter II evaluated the effect of three different surface conditioning methods on the bond strength of a Bis-GMA based luting cement to glass ceramics, glass infiltrated alumina, glass infiltrated ZrO2 reinforced alumina. The three conditioning methods assesed were: (1) HF acid etching, (2) Air-borne particle ab...

  18. Mechanical theorem proving in the surfaces using the characteristic set method and Wronskian determinant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize the method of mechanical theorem proving in curves to prove theorems about surfaces in differential geometry with a mechanical procedure. We improve the classical result on Wronskian determinant, which can be used to decide whether the elements in a partial differential field are linearly dependent over its constant field. Based on Wronskian determinant, we can describe the geometry statements in the surfaces by an algebraic language and then prove them by the characteristic set method.

  19. A statistical method to get surface level air-temperature from satellite observations of precipitable water

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Shikauchi, A.; Sugimori, Y.; Kubota, M.

    Vol. 49, pp. 551 to 558. 1993 A Statistical Method to Get Surface Level Air-Temperature from Satellite Observations of Precipitable Water PANKAJAKSHAN THADATHIL*, AKIRA SHIKAUCHI, YASUHIRO SUGIMORI and MASAHISA KUBOTA School of Marine Science... observations for getting the estimates of heat flux across the air-sea boundary (Miller, 1981; Liu, 1988). Bulk method has widely been used for this purpose and the parameters required are: sea surface temperature, and wind speed, air-temperature and specific...

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Large Surface Area Yttrium Oxide by Precipitation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔大立; 龙志奇; 张顺利; 崔梅生; 黄小卫

    2004-01-01

    The method for preparing yttrium oxide with large specific surface area was introduced. By means of BET, SEM, TG and DTA analysis, the effects of precipitant, stirring velocity, non-RE impurity in solution, calcination temperature, on the surface area were studied respectively. The Y2O3 sample with specific surface area of more than 60 m2*g-1 and L.O.I less than 1% was prepared in the suitable precipitation condition and calcinations temperature when the ammonia used as precipitant. The SEM shows that the Y2O3 prepared with large surface area is the aggregation of about 50 nm particles.

  1. An inverse method for flue gas shielded metal surface temperature measurement based on infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Xu, C. L.; Wang, S. M.

    2016-07-01

    The infrared temperature measurement technique has been applied in various fields, such as thermal efficiency analysis, environmental monitoring, industrial facility inspections, and remote temperature sensing. In the problem of infrared measurement of the metal surface temperature of superheater surfaces, the outer wall of the metal pipe is covered by radiative participating flue gas. This means that the traditional infrared measurement technique will lead to intolerable measurement errors due to the absorption and scattering of the flue gas. In this paper, an infrared measurement method for a metal surface in flue gas is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The spectral emissivity of the metal surface, and the spectral absorption and scattering coefficients of the radiative participating flue gas are retrieved simultaneously using an inverse method called quantum particle swarm optimization. Meanwhile, the detected radiation energy simulated using a forward simulation method (named the source multi-flux method) is set as the input of the retrieval. Then, the temperature of the metal surface detected by an infrared CCD camera is modified using the source multi-flux method in combination with these retrieved physical properties. Finally, an infrared measurement system for metal surface temperature is built to assess the proposed method. Experimental results show that the modified temperature is closer to the true value than that of the direct measured temperature.

  2. Surface estimation methods with phased-arrays for adaptive ultrasonic imaging in complex components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, S.; Calmon, P.; Calvo, M.; Le Jeune, L.; Iakovleva, E.

    2015-03-01

    Immersion ultrasonic testing of structures with complex geometries may be significantly improved by using phased-arrays and specific adaptive algorithms that allow to image flaws under a complex and unknown interface. In this context, this paper presents a comparative study of different Surface Estimation Methods (SEM) available in the CIVA software and used for adaptive imaging. These methods are based either on time-of-flight measurements or on image processing. We also introduce a generalized adaptive method where flaws may be fully imaged with half-skip modes. In this method, both the surface and the back-wall of a complex structure are estimated before imaging flaws.

  3. Monte Carlo method of macroscopic modulation of small-angle charged particle reflection from solid surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bratchenko, M I

    2001-01-01

    A novel method of Monte Carlo simulation of small-angle reflection of charged particles from solid surfaces has been developed. Instead of atomic-scale simulation of particle-surface collisions the method treats the reflection macroscopically as 'condensed history' event. Statistical parameters of reflection are sampled from the theoretical distributions upon energy and angles. An efficient sampling algorithm based on combination of inverse probability distribution function method and rejection method has been proposed and tested. As an example of application the results of statistical modeling of particles flux enhancement near the bottom of vertical Wehner cone are presented and compared with simple geometrical model of specular reflection.

  4. The Soft-Confined Method for Creating Molecular Models of Amorphous Polymer Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Hongyi

    2012-02-09

    The goal of this work was to use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to build amorphous surface layers of polypropylene (PP) and cellulose and to inspect their physical and interfacial properties. A new method to produce molecular models for these surfaces was developed, which involved the use of a "soft" confining layer comprised of a xenon crystal. This method compacts the polymers into a density distribution and a degree of molecular surface roughness that corresponds well to experimental values. In addition, calculated properties such as density, cohesive energy density, coefficient of thermal expansion, and the surface energy agree with experimental values and thus validate the use of soft confining layers. The method can be applied to polymers with a linear backbone such as PP as well as those whose backbones contain rings, such as cellulose. The developed PP and cellulose surfaces were characterized by their interactions with water. It was found that a water nanodroplet spreads on the amorphous cellulose surfaces, but there was no significant change in the dimension of the droplet on the PP surface; the resulting MD water contact angles on PP and amorphous cellulose surfaces were determined to be 106 and 33°, respectively. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  5. Method of Stabilizing the Surface Energy of Fabrics Coated with Silicone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di Jianfeng(狄剑峰); Perwueiz Anne; Gueguen Virginie; Lam Thanh My

    2001-01-01

    Silicone coatings have been used in this study. The method adopted was the liquid drop analysis on the coated fabrics. The contact angle between a liquid drop and the fabric surface was measured with two liquids continuously and recorded by a computer. The surface energy was calculated by means of Owens method.Kinetic measurement was adopted. The contact angle of liquids on the fabric coated silicone decreased with time was found. A compound solution DX has been found, so that the contact angle of the liquids on the fabric washed with DX becomes constant, and the surface energy of the fabric can be reduced to below 15 mJ/m2.

  6. A surface tension based method for measuring oil dispersant concentration in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhengqing; Gong, Yanyan; Liu, Wen; Fu, Jie; O'Reilly, S E; Hao, Xiaodi; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-08-15

    This work developed a new method to determine concentration of Corexit EC9500A, and likely other oil dispersants, in seawater. Based on the principle that oil dispersants decrease surface tension, a linear correlation was established between the dispersant concentration and surface tension. Thus, the dispersant concentration can be determined by measuring surface tension. The method can accurately analyze Corexit EC9500A in the concentration range of 0.5-23.5mg/L. Minor changes in solution salinity (oil dispersants in water/seawater, which has been desired by the oil spill research community and industries.

  7. Comparison of sessile drop and captive bubble methods on rough homogeneous surfaces: a numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Marmur, A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

    2011-08-02

    Quasi-static experiments using sessile drops and captive bubbles are the most employed methods for measuring advancing and receding contact angles on real surfaces. These observable contact angles are the most easily accessible and reproducible. However, some properties of practical surfaces induce certain phenomena that cause a built-in uncertainty in the estimation of advancing and receding contact angles. These phenomena are well known in surface thermodynamics as stick-slip phenomena. Following the work of Marmur (Marmur, A. Colloids Surf., A 1998, 136, 209-215), where the stick-slip effects were studied with regard to sessile drops and captive bubbles on heterogeneous surfaces, we developed a novel extension of this study by adding the effects of roughness to both methods for contact angle measurement. We found that the symmetry between the surface roughness problem and the chemical heterogeneity problem breaks down for drops and bubbles subjected to stick-slip effects.

  8. Systems and Methods of Laser Texturing of Material Surfaces and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mool C. (Inventor); Nayak, Barada K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The surface of a material is textured and by exposing the surface to pulses from an ultrafast laser. The laser treatment causes pillars to form on the treated surface. These pillars provide for greater light absorption. Texturing and crystallization can be carried out as a single step process. The crystallization of the material provides for higher electric conductivity and changes in optical and electronic properties of the material. The method may be performed in vacuum or a gaseous environment. The gaseous environment may aid in texturing and/or modifying physical and chemical properties of the surfaces. This method may be used on various material surfaces, such as semiconductors, metals and their alloys, ceramics, polymers, glasses, composites, as well as crystalline, nanocrystalline, polycrystalline, microcrystalline, and amorphous phases.

  9. Research on testing method for combined aspheric surface with non-rotational symmetric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wencai; Xu, Feng; Wei, Xiaoxiao

    2016-09-01

    Non-rotational symmetric aspheric surface has many significant advantages, but it still can not be widely used because the limiting that there is no method can tests it precisely. At present, the coordinate contour measuring machine is the main testing method for the aspheric surface with non-rotational symmetric, but the measurement accuracy of this method is not high. In this paper, the method of diffraction compensator (computed graphic holograph) has been adopted to test the combined aspheric surface, which can compensate the phase caused by tested lens. The sample surface is the combined aspheric surface with diameter of 33.84mm, and the process from optical software simulation design, the fabrication of the computed graphic holograph (CGH) to experimental platform built is given in detail after testing via the CGH technology. The simulation results show that the root mean square (RMS) of remnant wave-front error is 0.004 λ, and the peak to valley (PV) is 0.0245 λ. The free-from surface has been tested by Zygo interferometer, and the experimental results show that the RMS is 0.49 λ, the PV is 4.69 λ. The accuracy of the result is higher than that of coordinate contour measuring machine. The system error caused by optical elements analysed is 0.1149λ. The accurate result means that the CGH technology for testing the combined aspheric surface is realized.

  10. Different methods to alter surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leber, M., E-mail: moritz.leber@utah.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shandhi, M.M.H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hogan, A. [Blackrock Microsystems, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Solzbacher, F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bhandari, R.; Negi, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Blackrock Microsystems, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Surface engineering of high aspect ratio silicon structures. - Highlights: • Multiple roughening techniques for high aspect ratio devices were investigated. • Modification of surface morphology of high aspect ratio silicon devices (1:15). • Decrease of 76% in impedance proves significant increase in surface area. - Abstract: In various applications such as neural prostheses or solar cells, there is a need to alter the surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures so that the real surface area is greater than geometrical area. The change in surface morphology enhances the devices functionality. One of the applications of altering the surface morphology is of neural implants such as the Utah electrode array (UEA) that communicate with single neurons by charge injection induced stimulation or by recording electrical neural signals. For high selectivity between single cells of the nervous system, the electrode surface area is required to be as small as possible, while the impedance is required to be as low as possible for good signal to noise ratios (SNR) during neural recording. For stimulation, high charge injection and charge transfer capacities of the electrodes are required, which increase with the electrode surface. Traditionally, researchers have worked with either increasing the roughness of the existing metallization (platinum grey, black) or other materials such as Iridium Oxide and PEDOT. All of these previously investigated methods lead to more complicated metal deposition processes that are difficult to control and often have a critical impact on the mechanical properties of the metal films. Therefore, a modification of the surface underneath the electrode's coating will increase its surface area while maintaining the standard and well controlled metal deposition process. In this work, the surfaces of the silicon micro-needles were engineered by creating a defined microstructure on the electrodes surface using several

  11. La principauté de Liège, le droit liégeois et la mainplévie

    OpenAIRE

    Lagasse, Benoît

    2017-01-01

    Le présent document tend à présenter le droit liégeois et les institutions politiques et juridictionnelles relatives à la principauté de Liège à la fin de l'Ancien Régime. Par ailleurs, il comporte quelques considérations sur la mainplévie, institution juridique spécifique au droit liégeois.

  12. A method for increasing the surface area of perovskite-type oxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Banerjee; V R Choudhary

    2000-10-01

    A method based on hydrothermal treatments is described for increasing the surface area of sintered ABO3-type perovskite oxides. Influence of hydrothermal treatments, such as water treatment at 125-300°C under autogeneous pressure and steam treatment at 350-800°C, to low surface area (or sintered) LaCoO3 and LaMnO3 perovskite oxides on their surface properties (viz. surface area, crystal size and morphology and surface La/(Co or Mn) ratio) and also catalytic activity in complete combustion of methane at different temperatures (450-600°C) has been thoroughly investigated. The hydrothermal treatments result in the activation of the perovskite oxides by increasing their surface area very markedly.

  13. Spreading Simulation of Droplet Impact on Solid Surface with CLSVOF Method and Its Experimental Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Jun; Li, Ping

    2016-04-01

    A coupled volume-of-fluid and level set (CLSVOF) method is applied for the simulation of droplet impacting on a solid surface. This two-phase flow approach combines the advantages of VOF and level set (LS) methods. Three cases are listed and simulated by CLSVOF method, and the wettability is evaluated by tracking the three-phase contact line (TPCL). Results showed that the change of liquid spreading ratio with time has a good fit with the experimental results of the above three cases and high accuracy is achieved by CLSVOF method compared with VOF method, which indicated that this model is suitable for researching the wetting problem. The spreading speed on good wettability surfaces is faster than that of on poor wettability surfaces significantly, and the recoiling phenomenon appears after the droplet spreading to its maximum.

  14. Method and System for Producing Full Motion Media to Display on a Spherical Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starobin, Michael A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method and system for producing full motion media for display on a spherical surface is described. The method may include selecting a subject of full motion media for display on a spherical surface. The method may then include capturing the selected subject as full motion media (e.g., full motion video) in a rectilinear domain. The method may then include processing the full motion media in the rectilinear domain for display on a spherical surface, such as by orienting the full motion media, adding rotation to the full motion media, processing edges of the full motion media, and/or distorting the full motion media in the rectilinear domain for instance. After processing the full motion media, the method may additionally include providing the processed full motion media to a spherical projection system, such as a Science on a Sphere system.

  15. Imaging of dielectric objects buried under a rough surface via distorted born iterative method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altuncu, Y [Nigde University, Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, Nigde (Turkey); Akleman, F; Semerci, O; Ozlem, C [Istanbul Technical University, Electrical and Electronic Faculty, Maslak-Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: altuncuy@itu.edu.tr

    2008-11-01

    A method is given for the shape, permittivity and conductivity reconstruction of lossy dielectric objects buried under rough surfaces using the Distorted Born Iterative Method (DBIM). The method is based on the refreshing of the Green's function of the two-part space media with rough interface by updating the complex permittivity of the reconstruction domain at each iteration step. The scattered field data are measured at multiple locations for multiple transmitters operating at a single frequency where both transmitters and receivers are located above the rough surface interface. The Green's function of the problem is obtained by using the buried object approach (BOA) method where the fluctuations of the rough surface from the flat one are assumed to be buried objects in a two-part space with planar interface. The performance of the method is tested by some numerical applications and satisfactory results are obtained.

  16. A novel and expeditious method to fabricate superhydrophobic metal carboxylate surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Geng, Xingguo; Chen, Zhi; Zhao, Lei

    2012-01-01

    This article has presented a novel method to fabricate superhydrophobic metal carboxylate surface on substrates like copper, ferrum, etc. This method markedly shortened the fabrication time to less than one second. The superhydrophobic effect is even better that the contact angle (CA) is 170±1° and the sliding angle (SA) fatty acid and metal salt plays a key role in this method. This method has tremendous potentials in industrial production of superhydrophobic materials.

  17. Development and application of QM/MM methods to study the solvation effects and surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibya, Pooja Arora [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Quantum mechanical (QM) calculations have the advantage of attaining high-level accuracy, however QM calculations become computationally inefficient as the size of the system grows. Solving complex molecular problems on large systems and ensembles by using quantum mechanics still poses a challenge in terms of the computational cost. Methods that are based on classical mechanics are an inexpensive alternative, but they lack accuracy. A good trade off between accuracy and efficiency is achieved by combining QM methods with molecular mechanics (MM) methods to use the robustness of the QM methods in terms of accuracy and the MM methods to minimize the computational cost. Two types of QM combined with MM (QM/MM) methods are the main focus of the present dissertation: the application and development of QM/MM methods for solvation studies and reactions on the Si(100) surface. The solvation studies were performed using a discreet solvation model that is largely based on first principles called the effective fragment potential method (EFP). The main idea of combining the EFP method with quantum mechanics is to accurately treat the solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions, such as electrostatic, polarization, dispersion and charge transfer, that are important in correctly calculating solvent effects on systems of interest. A second QM/MM method called SIMOMM (surface integrated molecular orbital molecular mechanics) is a hybrid QM/MM embedded cluster model that mimics the real surface.3 This method was employed to calculate the potential energy surfaces for reactions of atomic O on the Si(100) surface. The hybrid QM/MM method is a computationally inexpensive approach for studying reactions on larger surfaces in a reasonably accurate and efficient manner. This thesis is comprised of four chapters: Chapter 1 describes the general overview and motivation of the dissertation and gives a broad background of the computational methods that have been employed in this work

  18. Reliability-based design optimization via high order response surface method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong Shuang [Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China)

    2013-04-15

    To reduce the computational effort of reliability-based design optimization (RBDO), the response surface method (RSM) has been widely used to evaluate reliability constraints. We propose an efficient methodology for solving RBDO problems based on an improved high order response surface method (HORSM) that takes advantage of an efficient sampling method, Hermite polynomials and uncertainty contribution concept to construct a high order response surface function with cross terms for reliability analysis. The sampling method generates supporting points from Gauss-Hermite quadrature points, which can be used to approximate response surface function without cross terms, to identify the highest order of each random variable and to determine the significant variables connected with point estimate method. The cross terms between two significant random variables are added to the response surface function to improve the approximation accuracy. Integrating the nested strategy, the improved HORSM is explored in solving RBDO problems. Additionally, a sampling based reliability sensitivity analysis method is employed to reduce the computational effort further when design variables are distributional parameters of input random variables. The proposed methodology is applied on two test problems to validate its accuracy and efficiency. The proposed methodology is more efficient than first order reliability method based RBDO and Monte Carlo simulation based RBDO, and enables the use of RBDO as a practical design tool.

  19. An adaptive numerical method for free surface flows passing rigidly mounted obstacles

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, Kirill D; Terekhov, Kirill M; Vassilevski, Yuri V; Yanbarisov, Ruslan

    2016-01-01

    The paper develops a method for the numerical simulation of a free-surface flow of incompressible viscous fluid around a streamlined body. The body is a rigid stationary construction partially submerged in the fluid. The application we are interested in the paper is a flow around a surface mounted offshore oil platform. The numerical method builds on a hybrid finite volume / finite difference discretization using adaptive octree cubic meshes. The mesh is dynamically refined towards the free surface and the construction. Special care is taken to devise a discretization for the case of curvilinear boundaries and interfaces immersed in the octree Cartesian background computational mesh. To demonstrate the accuracy of the method, we show the results for two benchmark problems: the sloshing 3D container and the channel laminar flow passing the 3D cylinder of circular cross-section. Further, we simulate numerically a flow with surface waves around an offshore oil platform for the realistic set of geophysical data.

  20. Measurement of contact angle between stainless steel surface and carbon dioxide by pendant drop method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI NianQiang; GUO KaiHua; LIU Jie; LI TingXun

    2008-01-01

    To measure contact angle between CO2 and solid surface,in this study a visual high-pressure vessel has been developed,with a corresponding well-controlled constant temperature system.Pendant drop method is applied to the investigation of the contact angles of CO2 on a stainless steel surface in its own vapor.The image of the pendant drop is recorded by a camera,and a B-Snake method is used to analyze the contour and the contact angle of the droplet.The experimental results have provided a set of well tested data,which show that CO2 has good infiltration into stainless steel surface and the de-veloped method can be used as a standard testing one for measuring the contact angle between high-pressure liquid and solid surface.

  1. New Method of Road Surface Identification in Anti-Lock Braking System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Zhi-quan; LIU Zhao-du; ZHANG Jing-bo; MA Yue-feng

    2005-01-01

    Based on the vehicle-road dynamic model, the road characteristic parameter, which depends on different types of road surfaces, is introduced and a new method of road surface identification for automotive anti-lock braking system (ABS) is proposed. According to the characteristics of vehicle-road dynamic model, a simple math resolution method of the model's factors is established. Only using the information of wheel speed, the vehicle reference velocity and the wheel slip ratio are estimated real-timely. And based on the wheel dynamic model, the road characteristic parameter is determined to identify the road surface for the determination of thresholds of ABS regulative parameters. With this new method, the road surface identification can be accurately obtained and calculation time is short that it can meet the ABS real time control need, and it also improves the performance of ABS.

  2. Field methods to measure surface displacement and strain with the Video Image Correlation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Gary A.; Horton, Charles M.; Mcneill, Stephen R.; Lansing, Matthew D.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop methods and application procedures to measure displacement and strain fields during the structural testing of aerospace components using paint speckle in conjunction with the Video Image Correlation (VIC) system.

  3. Aspects et mesure de la qualité de vie : évolution et renouvellement des tableaux de bord métropolitains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre J. Hamel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available La mesure de la qualité de vie à l’intérieur des espaces urbains préoccupe les administrations publiques depuis nombre d’années. Cet article passe en revue les modèles de mesure de la qualité de vie développés par les métropoles canadiennes. Il s’interroge sur l’évolution de ces modèles de mesure et sur leur capacité à rendre compte des différentes problématiques désormais associées à la notion de qualité de vie comme le développement social, l’environnement, la société du risque, les ambiances urbaines ou la compétitivité urbaine.For a number of years now, government bodies at all levels have been concerned with measuring quality of life within urban areas. This paper reviews the models used by Canada’s metropolises to measure quality of life. It examines how the models have evolved and their capacity to consider various issues which have become associated with the notion of quality of life, such as social development, environment, risk society, urban surroundings, or urban competitiveness.

  4. Les «Amériques Noires» de Roger Bastide: un modèle pour une analyse anthropologique des styles de vie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Daccache

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Le nom de Roger Bastide est généralement associé à la sociologie des religions du Brésil. On peut cependant trouver dans son œuvre un paradigme pertinent pour une analyse anthropologique des styles de vie. Dans Les Amériques Noires, il propose une analyse des luttes ayant pour enjeu la définition et l'appropriation des biens et des pratiques culturels légitimes, ce qu'il nomme la «bataille des races pour l'égalisation», faisant suite à l'abolition de l'esclavage. Il s'intéresse notamment à trois faits sociaux constitutifs de styles de vie différents: la pratique de l'équitation, les pastorales et le carnaval. L'étude de cas proposée par R. Bastide a pour vertu de rendre particulièrement visible la logique de la distinction au principe de l'établissement de différents styles de vie. Elle fonctionne ainsi comme un miroir grossissant permettant d'objectiver de façon brutale les mécanismes à l'œuvre dans toute société, y compris celles dans lesquelles l'égalité formelle entre individus porte à croire que les écarts entre groupes sociaux doivent tout au hasard.

  5. Un regard oblique : « L’œil du sorcier » dans Une vie de boy de Ferdinand Oyono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Vaucher

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ce texte remet en question la lecture réaliste qui a généralement été faite d’Une vie de boy (1957, premier roman de la trilogie de Ferdinand Oyono. Partant d’une étude du regard, il vise à montrer que celui-ci détermine autant un contenu qu’il met l’accent sur une forme, une esthétique littéraire. En effet, dans le récit, si le regard renvoie à un instrument de pouvoir (celui qui oppose les colons et les colonisés et constitue un enjeu de subversion, il se traduit aussi par une écriture allusive, alliant la distance, l’ironie et l’insolite. Par son caractère indiciel, voire figural, cette « écriture du regard » dont témoigne le journal intime de Toundi en fait une sorte de « récit-forme », où l’espace du texte et le hors-texte (le social se convoquent mutuellement.

  6. A new curvature technique calculation for surface tension contribution in PLIC-VOF method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J.-M.; Chesneau, X.; Zeghmati, B.

    2006-01-01

    The volume of fluid (VOF) methods have been used for numerous numerical simulations. Among these techniques used to define the moving interface, the piecewise linear interface reconstruction (PLIC-VOF) is one of the most accurate. A study of the superficial tension impact on two-phase flow with free surface is presented. A new method based on direct staggered grid is developped to include surface tension in PLIC-VOF. The new numerical curvature calculation method doesn't need smoothed colour function and leads to less “spurious current”. This technique is applied to the calculus of surface tension force in the case of the rise of air bubble in viscous liquid and the fall of liquid drop in the same liquid on free surface. Droplets, thin layer and capillarity waves are observed after the free surface rupture for different Bond number. The influence of surface tension calculus is then obvioused and when the drop hit the free surface, wavelets propagate toward the virtual boundaries imposed.

  7. Pre-absorbed immunoproteomics: a novel method for the detection of Streptococcus suis surface proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2 is a zoonotic pathogen that can cause infections in pigs and humans. Bacterial surface proteins are often investigated as potential vaccine candidates and biomarkers of virulence. In this study, a novel method for identifying bacterial surface proteins is presented, which combines immunoproteomic and immunoserologic techniques. Critical to the success of this new method is an improved procedure for generating two-dimensional electrophoresis gel profiles of S. suis proteins. The S. suis surface proteins identified in this study include muramidase-released protein precursor (MRP and an ABC transporter protein, while MRP is thought to be one of the main virulence factors in SS2 located on the bacterial surface. Herein, we demonstrate that the ABC transporter protein can bind to HEp-2 cells, which strongly suggests that this protein is located on the bacterial cell surface and may be involved in pathogenesis. An immunofluorescence assay confirmed that the ABC transporter is localized to the bacterial outer surface. This new method may prove to be a useful tool for identifying surface proteins, and aid in the development of new vaccine subunits and disease diagnostics.

  8. Accurate computation of surface stresses and forces with immersed boundary methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goza, Andres; Liska, Sebastian; Morley, Benjamin; Colonius, Tim

    2016-09-01

    Many immersed boundary methods solve for surface stresses that impose the velocity boundary conditions on an immersed body. These surface stresses may contain spurious oscillations that make them ill-suited for representing the physical surface stresses on the body. Moreover, these inaccurate stresses often lead to unphysical oscillations in the history of integrated surface forces such as the coefficient of lift. While the errors in the surface stresses and forces do not necessarily affect the convergence of the velocity field, it is desirable, especially in fluid-structure interaction problems, to obtain smooth and convergent stress distributions on the surface. To this end, we show that the equation for the surface stresses is an integral equation of the first kind whose ill-posedness is the source of spurious oscillations in the stresses. We also demonstrate that for sufficiently smooth delta functions, the oscillations may be filtered out to obtain physically accurate surface stresses. The filtering is applied as a post-processing procedure, so that the convergence of the velocity field is unaffected. We demonstrate the efficacy of the method by computing stresses and forces that converge to the physical stresses and forces for several test problems.

  9. QUARRY STABILITY ANALYSIS FOR COMPLEX SLIP SURFACES USING THE MATHSLOPE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Hrženjak

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the specific characteristics of rock mass compared to other geological materials, the calculation of rock slope stability is very complex. One of the basic characteristics of rock masses is discontinuity, which, to the most degree, is formed by the geological structure and its elements. Because of discontinuities the slip surfaces of complex shapes are formed in rock slopes, mostly of straight and curved segments. The calculation of the stability factor of rock slopes for complex shapes of slip surfaces has been made possible by the development of the MathSlope method. The complex shape of slip surface has been achieved by introduction of planes of discontinuities in the slip surface. Thus, the setting up and searching procedure of critical slip surfaces of complex shapes is very different in the MathSlope method than in other ones. The example of back analysis for the quarry Vukov Dol shows the successfulness in determining the critical slip surface, as well as the calculation factor of stability for the complex shape of slip surface. Apart from calculating the factor of stability for the complex slip surface, the solution for the position of discontinuity on the slope is obtained, which matches with the real position on the quarry.

  10. Detecting Clostridium difficile spores from inanimate surfaces of the hospital environment: which method is best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Tânia; Daniels, Stephen; Humphreys, Hilary

    2014-09-01

    The recovery of Clostridium difficile spores from hospital surfaces was assessed using rayon swabs, flocked swabs, and contact plates. The contact plate method was less laborious, achieved higher recovery percentages, and detected spores at lower inocula than swabs. Rayon swabs were the least efficient method. However, further studies are required in health care settings.

  11. Effect of surface conditioning methods on the bond strength of luting cement to ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, M; Vallittu, PK; Özcan, Mutlu; Vallittu, Pekka K.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the effect of three different surface conditioning methods on the bond strength of a Bis-GMA based luting cement to six commercial dental ceramics. Methods. Six disc shaped ceramic specimens (glass ceramics, glass infiltrated alumina, glass infiltrated zirconium diox

  12. Variational space–time (dis)continuous Galerkin method for nonlinear free surface water waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gagarina, E.; Ambati, V.R.; Vegt, van der J.J.W.; Bokhove, O.

    2014-01-01

    A new variational finite element method is developed for nonlinear free surface gravity water waves using the potential flow approximation. This method also handles waves generated by a wave maker. Its formulation stems from Miles’ variational principle for water waves together with a finite element

  13. Variational space-time (dis)continuous Galerkin method for nonlinear free surface waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gagarina, E.; Vegt, van der J.J.W.; Ambati, V.R.; Bokhove, O.

    2013-01-01

    A new variational finite element method is developed for nonlinear free surface gravity water waves. This method also handles waves generated by a wave maker. Its formulation stems from Miles' variational principle for water waves together with a space-time finite element discretization that is cont

  14. Measurement of surface temperature and emissivity by a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Morgenstjerne, Axel; Rathmann, Ole

    1996-01-01

    Surface temperatures are estimated with high precision based on a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform spectrometers. The method is based on Planck's radiation law and a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm applied to two or more spectra at different sample temperatures and a single...

  15. Development of Data Registration and Fusion Methods for Measurement of Ultra-Precision Freeform Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ling Bao Kong; Ming Jun Ren; Min Xu

    2017-01-01

    .... The accuracy of the overlapping area is further improved by developing a Gaussian process based data fusion method with full consideration of the associated uncertainties in the measured datasets. Experimental studies are undertaken to examine the effectiveness of the proposed method. The study should contribute to the high precision and efficient measurement of ultra-precision freeform surfaces on multi-sensor systems.

  16. An experimental method to determine the electrostatic field enhancement factor of a practical conductor surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1989-01-01

    A method of determining the field enhancement factor of a practical conductor is presented. The method is developed from a modified theory of discharge onset in a gaseous medium. This modification incorporates the influence of conductor surface roughness. Onset data from an experimental study tha...

  17. A second-order boundary-fitted projection method for free-surface flow computations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, B.; Prosperetti, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to the high-fidelity simulation of axisymmetric free-surface flows. A boundary-fitted grid is coupled with a new projection method for the solution of the Navier–Stokes equations with second-order accuracy in space and time. Two variants of this new method are dev

  18. [Modern methods for studying the surface of titanium implants (literature review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suba, Csongor; Velich, Norbert; Vörös, János; Turi, Csaba; Szabó, György

    2004-02-01

    Studies of the coatings found on the surface of titanium implants employed in oral surgery are indispensable for understanding the interactions between the organism and the implant. This paper surveys the theory and practical applicability of the methods most frequently applied to study the surface structure and composition of the material. Detailed accounts are given of various structure investigation methods: scanning electron microscopy, stereo scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and interference microscopy; and of various composition investigation methods: secondary ion mass spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy; and also of the corrosion procedures for the study of electrochemical behaviour.

  19. A collocation method for surface tension calculations with the density gradient theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Mahler; Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2016-01-01

    Surface tension calculations are important in many industrial applications and over a wide range of temperatures, pressures and compositions. Empirical parachor methods are not suitable over a wide condition range and the combined use of density gradient theory with equations of state has been...... proposed in literature. Often, many millions of calculations are required in the gradient theory methods, which is computationally very intensive. In this work, we have developed an algorithm to calculate surface tensions an order of magnitude faster than the existing methods, with no loss of accuracy...

  20. An adaptive finite element method for simulating surface tension with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2014-01-01

    The gradient theory for the surface tension of simple fluids and mixtures is rigorously analyzed based on mathematical theory. The finite element approximation of surface tension is developed and analyzed, and moreover, an adaptive finite element method based on a physical-based estimator is proposed and it can be coupled efficiently with Newton\\'s method as well. The numerical tests are carried out both to verify the proposed theory and to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of atmospheric pressure plasma polishing method in machining of silicon ultra-smooth surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jufan ZHANG; Bo WANG; Shen DONG

    2008-01-01

    The modern optics industry demands rigorous surface quality with minimum defects, which presents challenges to optics machining technologies. There are always certain defects on the final surfaces of the compo-nents formed in conventional contacting machining proc-esses, such as micro-cracks, lattice disturbances, etc. It is especially serious for hard-brittle functional materials, such as crystals, glass and ceramics because of their special characteristics. To solve these problems, the atmospheric pressure plasma polishing (APPP) method is developed. It utilizes chemical reactions between reactive plasma and surface atoms to perform atom-scale material removal. Since the machining process is chemical in nature, APPP avoids the surface/subsurface defects mentioned above. As the key component, a capacitance coupled radio-fre-quency plasma torch is first introduced. In initial opera-tions, silicon wafers were machined as samples. Before applying operations, both the temperature distribution on the work-piece surface and the spatial gas diffusion in the machining process were studied qualitatively by finite element analysis. Then the following temperature measurement experiments demonstrate the formation of the temperature gradient on the wafer surface predicted by the theoretical analysis and indicated a peak temper-ature about 90℃ in the center. By using commercialized form talysurf, the machined surface was detected and the result shows regular removal profile that corresponds well to the flow field model. Moreover, the removal profile also indicates a 32 mm3/min removal rate. By using atomic force microscopy (AFM), the surface roughness was also measured and the result demonstrates an Ra 0.6 nm surface roughness. Then the element composition of the machined surface was detected and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technology. The results also demonstrate the occurrence of the anticipated main reactions. All the experiments have proved that

  2. a Method to Correct Yield Surface Drift in Soil Plasticity Under Mixed Control and Explicit Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Hans; Axelsson, Kennet; Klisinski, Marek

    1997-03-01

    When applying an explicit integration algorithm in e.g. soil plasticity, the predicted stress point at the end of an elastoplastic increment of loading might not be situated on the updated current yield surface. This so-called yield surface drift could generally be held under control by using small integration steps. Another possibility, when circumstances might demand larger steps, is to adopt a drift correction method. In this paper, a drift correction method for mixed control in soil plasticity, under drained as well as undrained conditions, is proposed. By simulating triaxial tests in a Constitutive Driver, the capability and efficiency of this correction method, under different choices of implementation, have been analysed. It was concluded that the proposed drift correction method, for quite marginal additional computational cost, was able to correct successfully for yield surface drift giving results in close agreement to those obtained with a very large number of integration steps.

  3. ADAPTIVE MEASUREMENT METHOD BASED ON CHANGING-CURVATURE FOR UNKNOWN FREE-FORM SURFACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Shixiong; Wang Wen; Chen Zichen

    2004-01-01

    Current measurement method for unknown free-form surface has low efficiency. To acquire given precision, a lot of null points are measured. Based on change surface curvature, a new measurement planning is put forward. Sample step is evaluated from the change curvature and the locally-bounded character of extrapolating curve. Two coefficients, maximum error coefficient and local camber coefficient, are used to optimize sampling step. The first coefficient is computed to avoid sampling-point exceeding the measurement range and the second control sampling precision. Compared with the other methods, the proposed planning method can reduce the number of the measuring-point efficiently for the given precision. Measuring point distributes adaptively by the change surface curvature. The method can be applied to improve measurement efficiency and accuracy.

  4. Two methods for glass surface modification and their application in protein immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ming; Hou, Sen; Wang, Likai; Feng, XiZeng; Wang, Rui; Yang, Yanlian; Wang, Chen; Yu, Lei; Shao, Bin; Qiao, MingQiang

    2007-11-15

    Protein immobilization is a crucial step in protein chip, biosensor, etc. Here, two methods to immobilize proteins on glass surface were analyzed, one is silanization method using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), and the other is hydrophobin HFBI coating. The modified glass surfaces were characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle measurement (WCA) and immunoassay. The results of XPS and WCA illustrated that the surface property of glass can be changed by both the two methods. The following immunoassay using microcontact printing (microCP) verified that both methods could help protein immobilization effectively on glass slides. Compared with the amine treatment, it is concluded that hydrophobin self-assemblies is a simple and generic way for protein immobilization on glass slides, which has potential application in protein chips and biosensors.

  5. Simulation of a free-surface and seepage face using boundary-fitted coordinate system method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-Kun; Leap, Darrell I.

    1997-09-01

    The boundary-fitted coordinate (BFC) system method is applied to simulate steady groundwater seepage with a free-surface and seepage face using the finite-difference method. The BFC system method eliminates the difficulty of fitting finite-difference grids to a changeable free-surface which is not known a priori but will be obtained as part of a solution. Also, grid generation with this approach is simpler than with the finite-element method. At each iterative sweep, the changeable free-surface becomes a part of the boundary-fitted grid lines, making boundary condition implementation easy and accurate. An example problem demonstrating the simulation procedure and numerical results compares very well with the analytical solution.

  6. A RAISED PANEL METHOD BASED ON NURBS FOR FREE-SURFACE POTENTIAL FLOWS WITH FORWARD SPEED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Gao; Ma Ling

    2003-01-01

    A raised panel method based on NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) for free-surface flows with forward speed is presented. In this generalized panel method, NURBS are employed to represent the body geometry, disturbed free surface, and to express the unknown source strength distribution, on the body surface and above the free surface. Compared with common higher-order panel methods, it has no need of adopting local coordinates. NURBS make the geometry representation of the body shape and the wave pattern more precise. Raised panels above the free surface produce less numerical dispersion error, need less CPU consumption and are helpful and combined with collocation-point shifting up-stream, can satisfy the radiation condition numerically. By using continuous and discrete Fourier analysis, numerical errors of this method are discussed and a general expression for the errors of numerical damping and dispersion, including the effects of the vertical distance of singularities to the free surface, the order of singularity distribution represented by B-splines in panels, and collocation-point shifting is derived.

  7. A shallow landslide analysis method consisting of contour line based method and slope stability model with critical slip surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, D.

    2015-12-01

    To mitigate sediment related disaster triggered by rainfall event, it is necessary to predict a landslide occurrence and subsequent debris flow behavior. Many landslide analysis method have been developed and proposed by numerous researchers for several decades. Among them, distributed slope stability models simulating temporal and spatial instability of local slopes are more essential for early warning or evacuation in area of lower part of hill-slopes. In the present study, a distributed, physically based landslide analysis method consisting of contour line-based method that subdivide a watershed area into stream tubes, and a slope stability analysis in which critical slip surface is searched to identify location and shape of the most instable slip surface in each stream tube, is developed. A target watershed area is divided into stream tubes using GIS technique, grand water flow for each stream tubes during a rainfall event is analyzed by a kinematic wave model, and slope stability for each stream tube is calculated by a simplified Janbu method searching for a critical slip surface using a dynamic programming method. Comparing to previous methods that assume infinite slope for slope stability analysis, the proposed method has advantage simulating landslides more accurately in spatially and temporally, and estimating amount of collapsed slope mass, that can be delivered to a debris flow simulation model as a input data. We applied this method to a small watershed in the Izu Oshima, Tokyo, Japan, where shallow and wide landslides triggered by heavy rainfall and subsequent debris flows attacked Oshima Town, in 2013. Figure shows the temporal and spatial change of simulated grand water level and landslides distribution. The simulated landslides are correspond to the uppermost part of actual landslide area, and the timing of the occurrence of landslides agree well with the actual landslides.

  8. Flexible calibration method for an inner surface detector based on circle structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ye; Gu, Yonggang; Jin, Yi; Zhai, Chao

    2016-02-10

    A new calibration method for an inner surface detector based on circle structured light is proposed in this study. Compared with existing methods, this technique is more flexible and practical and only requires a blank planar board and an additional camera, which is precalibrated under the detector's coordinate system. The board is observed by the detector and the additional camera at a few (at least two) different orientations, which need not be known. The mathematical model of this method considers different alignment errors, which are disregarded in existing methods; therefore, precise assembly is not required. The binocular intersection algorithm is used to calculate the coordinates of the calibration points. The measurement system calibrated by this method performs well in the field test in which the maximum relative error of the measured values is less than 0.18%. The experimental result indicates that this method is highly accurate and can be easily applied in inner surface detection.

  9. Surface defect detection method for glass substrate using improved Otsu segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyong; Sun, Lining

    2015-11-20

    The image quality degradation caused by noise makes the automatic optical inspection of surface defects difficult. This paper develops a method based on thresholding segmentation to detect the surface defects in a glass substrate. Traditional Otsu segmentation has poor anti-noise ability. In order to improve the traditional Otsu method, a straight-line intercept histogram is established directly from the two-dimensional information of an image, and then Otsu criteria can be used to find the best intercept threshold from the one-dimensional histogram established. The improved Otsu algorithm not only is simpler than the two-dimensional Otsu methods, but also has a robust anti-noise ability. In the surface defect detection, the contrast feature between object and background is simply extracted after the segmentation based on the improved Otsu method, and surface defects can be decided by the threshold of the contrast feature. The data used in the experiments include the surface images acquired by a line-scan CCD camera. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and computationally efficient.

  10. Ship Appearance Optimal Design on RCS Reduction Using Response Surface Method and Genetic Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG De-qing; GUO Feng-jun

    2008-01-01

    Radar cross section (RCS) reduction technologies are very important in survivability of the militarynaval vessels. Ship appearance shaping as an effective countermeasure of RCS reduction redirects the scatteredenergy from one angular region of interest in space to another region of little interest. To decrease the scatteringelectromagnetic signals from ship scientifically, optimization methods should be introduced in shaping design.Based on the assumption of the characteristic section design method, mathematical formulations for optimalshaping design were established. Because of the computation-intensive analysis and singularity in shapingoptimization, the response surface method (RSM) combined genetic algorithm (GA) was proposed. The poly-nomial response surface method was adopted in model approximation. Then genetic algorithms were employedto solve the surrogate optimization problem. By comparison RCS of the conventional and the optimal design,the superiority and effectiveness of proposed design methodology were verified.Ky words: radar cross section (RCS); characteristic section design method; response surface method; genetic algorithm (GA) was proposed. The polynomial response surface method was adopted in model approximation. Then genetic algorithms were employed to solve the surrogate optimization problem. By comparison RCS of the conventional and the optimal design, the superiority and effectiveness of proposed design methodology were verified.

  11. New method and uncertainty estimation for plate dimensions and surface measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Salah H. R.; Buajarern, Jariya

    2014-03-01

    Dimensional and surface quality for tile plate manufacturing control is facing difficult engineering challenges. One of these challenges being that plates in large-scale mass production contain geometrically uneven surfaces. There is a traditional measurement method used to assess the tile plate dimensions and surface quality based on standard specifications: ISO-10545-2: 1995, EOS-3168-2: 2007 and TIS 2398-2:2008. A new measurement method of the dimensions and surface quality for ceramic oblong large-scale tile plate has been developed compared to the traditional method. The strategy of the proposed method is based on CMM straightness measurement strategy instead of the centre point in the traditional method. Expanded uncertainties budgets in the measurements of each method have been estimated in detail. The capability of accurate estimations of real actual results of centre of curvature (CC), centre of edge (CE), warpage (W) and edge crack defects parameters has been achieved according to standards. Moreover, the obtained results showed not only a more accurate method but also improved the quality of tile plate products significantly.

  12. New Measurement Method and Uncertainty Estimation for Plate Dimensions and Surface Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah H. R. Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimensional and surface quality for plate production control is facing difficult engineering challenges. One of these challenges is that plates in large-scale mass production contain geometric uneven surfaces. There is a traditional measurement method used to assess the tile plate dimensions and surface quality based on standard specifications: ISO-10545-2: 1995, EOS-3168-2: 2007, and TIS 2398-2: 2008. A proposed measurement method of the dimensions and surface quality for ceramic oblong large-scale tile plate has been developed compared to the traditional method. The strategy of new method is based on CMM straightness measurement strategy instead of the centre point in the traditional method. Expanded uncertainties budgets in the measurements of each method have been estimated in detail. The capability of accurate estimations of real actual results for centre of curvature (CC, centre of edge (CE, warpage (W, and edge crack defects parameters has been achieved according to standards. Moreover, the obtained results not only showed better accurate new method but also improved the quality of plate products significantly.

  13. Surface profile and stress field evaluation using digital gradient sensing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, C.; Sundaram, B. M.; Huang, L.; Tippur, H. V.

    2016-09-01

    Shape and surface topography evaluation from measured orthogonal slope/gradient data is of considerable engineering significance since many full-field optical sensors and interferometers readily output such a data accurately. This has applications ranging from metrology of optical and electronic elements (lenses, silicon wafers, thin film coatings), surface profile estimation, wave front and shape reconstruction, to name a few. In this context, a new methodology for surface profile and stress field determination based on a recently introduced non-contact, full-field optical method called digital gradient sensing (DGS) capable of measuring small angular deflections of light rays coupled with a robust finite-difference-based least-squares integration (HFLI) scheme in the Southwell configuration is advanced here. The method is demonstrated by evaluating (a) surface profiles of mechanically warped silicon wafers and (b) stress gradients near growing cracks in planar phase objects.

  14. Direct methods determination of the Si(111)-(6x6)Au surface structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grozea, D.; Landree, E.; Marks, L.D.;

    1998-01-01

    The atomic structure of the Au 6 x 6 on Si(111) phase has been determined using direct methods and surface X-ray diffraction data. This surface structure is very complicated, with 14 independent gold atoms, relaxations in 24 independent silicon sites and three partially occupied gold sites. In on...... the gold structures in the coverage range 0.8-1.5 monolayers as pseudo-glasses with strong short-range order but varying degrees of long-range order. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......The atomic structure of the Au 6 x 6 on Si(111) phase has been determined using direct methods and surface X-ray diffraction data. This surface structure is very complicated, with 14 independent gold atoms, relaxations in 24 independent silicon sites and three partially occupied gold sites. In one...

  15. Methods for growth of relatively large step-free SiC crystal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, Philip G. (Inventor); Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method for growing arrays of large-area device-size films of step-free (i.e., atomically flat) SiC surfaces for semiconductor electronic device applications is disclosed. This method utilizes a lateral growth process that better overcomes the effect of extended defects in the seed crystal substrate that limited the obtainable step-free area achievable by prior art processes. The step-free SiC surface is particularly suited for the heteroepitaxial growth of 3C (cubic) SiC, AlN, and GaN films used for the fabrication of both surface-sensitive devices (i.e., surface channel field effect transistors such as HEMT's and MOSFET's) as well as high-electric field devices (pn diodes and other solid-state power switching devices) that are sensitive to extended crystal defects.

  16. Different methods to alter surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leber, M.; Shandhi, M. M. H.; Hogan, A.; Solzbacher, F.; Bhandari, R.; Negi, S.

    2016-03-01

    In various applications such as neural prostheses or solar cells, there is a need to alter the surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures so that the real surface area is greater than geometrical area. The change in surface morphology enhances the devices functionality. One of the applications of altering the surface morphology is of neural implants such as the Utah electrode array (UEA) that communicate with single neurons by charge injection induced stimulation or by recording electrical neural signals. For high selectivity between single cells of the nervous system, the electrode surface area is required to be as small as possible, while the impedance is required to be as low as possible for good signal to noise ratios (SNR) during neural recording. For stimulation, high charge injection and charge transfer capacities of the electrodes are required, which increase with the electrode surface. Traditionally, researchers have worked with either increasing the roughness of the existing metallization (platinum grey, black) or other materials such as Iridium Oxide and PEDOT. All of these previously investigated methods lead to more complicated metal deposition processes that are difficult to control and often have a critical impact on the mechanical properties of the metal films. Therefore, a modification of the surface underneath the electrode's coating will increase its surface area while maintaining the standard and well controlled metal deposition process. In this work, the surfaces of the silicon micro-needles were engineered by creating a defined microstructure on the electrodes surface using several methods such as laser ablation, focused ion beam, sputter etching, reactive ion etching (RIE) and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The surface modification processes were optimized for the high aspect ratio silicon structures of the UEA. The increase in real surface area while maintaining the geometrical surface area was verified using scanning electron

  17. Processing surface sizing starch using oxidation, enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrasonic treatment methods--Preparation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Tobias; Kiessler, Birgit; Radosta, Sylvia; Arndt, Tiemo

    2016-03-15

    The surface application of starch is a well-established method for increasing paper strength. In surface sizing, a solution of degraded starch is applied to the paper. Two procedures have proved valuable for starch degradation in the paper mill: enzymatic and thermo-oxidative degradation. The objective of this study was to determine achievable efficiencies of cavitation in preparing degraded starch for surface application on paper. It was found that ultrasonic-assisted starch degradation can provide a starch solution that is suitable for surface sizing. The molecular composition of starch solutions prepared by ultrasonic treatment differed from that of starch solutions degraded by enzymes or by thermo-oxidation. Compared to commercial degradation processes, this resulted in intensified film formation and in greater penetration during surface sizing and ultimately in a higher starch content of the paper. Paper sized with ultrasonically treated starch solutions show the same strength properties compared to commercially sized paper.

  18. Fabrication of superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic silicon-based surfaces via electroless etching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong Nhung; Dufour, Renaud; Thomy, Vincent; Senez, Vincent; Boukherroub, Rabah; Coffinier, Yannick

    2014-03-01

    This study reports on a simple method for the preparation of superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic nanostructured silicon surfaces. The technique relies on metal-assisted electroless etching of silicon in sodium tetrafluoroborate (NaBF4) aqueous solution. Then, silver particles were deposited on the obtained surfaces, changing their overall physical morphology. Finally, the surfaces were coated by either C4F8, a fluoropolymer deposited by plasma, or by SiOx overlayers chemically modified with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (PFTS) through silanization reaction. All these surfaces exhibit a superhydrophobic character (large apparent contact angle and low hysteresis with respect to water). In addition, they present high oleophobic properties, i.e. a high repellency to low surface energy liquids with various contact angle hysteresis, both depending on the morphology and type of coating.

  19. Super-hydrophobic surfaces from a simple coating method: a bionic nanoengineering approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yuyang; Chen Xianqiong; Xin, J H [Nanotechnology Center, ITC, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-07-14

    Inspired by the self-cleaning behaviour of lotus leaves in nature, we developed a simple coating method that can facilitate the bionic creation of super-hydrophobic surfaces on various substrates, thus providing a feasible way of fabricating super-hydrophobic surfaces for civil and industrial applications. Micro-nanoscale binary structured composite particles of silica/fluoropolymer were prepared using an emulsion-mediated sol-gel process, and then these composite particles were applied to various substrates to mimic the surface microstructures of lotus leaves. Super-hydrophobic surfaces with a water contact angle larger than 150 deg. are obtained, and these super-hydrophobic surfaces are expected to have potential applications for rusting-resistant, anti-fog and self-cleaning treatments.

  20. Fuzzy surfaces in GIS and geographical analysis theory, analytical methods, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lodwick, Weldon

    2007-01-01

    Surfaces are a central to geographical analysis. Their generation and manipulation are a key component of geographical information systems (GISs). However, geographical surface data is often not precise. When surfaces are used to model geographical entities, the data inherently contains uncertainty in terms of both position and attribute. Fuzzy Surface in GIS and Geographical Analysis sets out a process to identify the uncertainty in geographic entities. It describes how to successfully obtain, model, analyze, and display data, as well as interpret results within the context of GIS. Focusing on uncertainty that arises from transitional boundaries, the book limits its study to three types of uncertainties: intervals, fuzzy sets, and possibility distributions. The book explains that uncertainty in geographical data typically stems from these three and it is only natural to incorporate them into the analysis and display of surface data. The book defines the mathematics associated with each method for analysis,...

  1. FRACTIONAL-STEP FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR CALCULATION OF 3-D FREE SURFACE PROBLEM USING LEVEL SET METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lan-hao; LI Tong-chun; WANG Ling; HERREROS M. I.; PASTOR M.

    2006-01-01

    A two-step Taylor-Galerkin fractional-step finite element method, which is of second order accuracy in space and time, was proposed for the three-dimensional free surface problem. With this method, the intermediate velocity was explicitly obtained by neglecting pressure gradient term, and then the velocity was corrected by adding the effects of pressure once the pressure field had been obtained from the pressure Poisson equation. The level set approach was applied to track implicitly the free surface. In order to track the free surface, the transport equation of the level set function was solved at each time step and the level set function is reinitialized through iteration to maintain it as a distance function. The governing equations of the system were discretized by the two- step Taylor-Galerkin method, which is of high-order accuracy and easy to be used. The validity and reliability of this method in this article were proved by two numerical examples.

  2. Adhesion Evaluation of Asphalt-Aggregate Interface Using Surface Free Energy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Ji; Hui Yao; Luhou Liu; Zhi Suo; Peng Zhai; Xu Yang; Zhanping You

    2017-01-01

    The influence of organic additives (Sasobit and RH) and water on the adhesion of the asphalt-aggregate interface was studied according to the surface free energy theory. Two asphalt binders (SK-70 and SK-90), and two aggregate types (limestone and basalt) were used in this study. The sessile drop method was employed to test surface free energy components of asphalt, organic additives and aggregates. The adhesion models of the asphalt-aggregate interface in dry and wet conditions were establis...

  3. AFM and XPS Study of Glass Surface Coated with Titania Nanofilms by Sol-Gel Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Guo-Jun; SHI Zhi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ce3+-doped and undoped TiO2 nanofilms are prepared on glass surface using a sol-gel method.Crystal structure,surface morphology,chemical composition and element distribution of both glass substrates and TiO2 films were characterized by x-ray diffractometer(XRD),atomic force microscopy(AFM)and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS).

  4. Method of forming macro-structured high surface area transparent conductive oxide electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forman, Arnold J.; Chen, Zhebo; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2016-01-05

    A method of forming a high surface area transparent conducting electrode is provided that includes depositing a transparent conducting thin film on a conductive substrate, where the transparent conducting thin film includes transparent conductive particles and a solution-based transparent conducting adhesive layer which serves to coat and bind together the transparent conducting particles, and heat treating the transparent conducting adhesion layer on the conductive substrate, where an increased surface area transparent conducting electrode is formed.

  5. DEPTH MEASUREMENT OF DISRUPTED LAYER ON SILICON WAFER SURFACE USING AUGER SPECTROSCOPY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Solodukha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for depth measurement of a disrupted layer on silicon wafer surface which is based on application of Auger spectroscopy with the precision sputtering of surface silicon layers and registration of the Auger electron yield intensity. In order to measure the disrupted layer with the help of Auger spectroscopy it is necessary to determine dependence of the released Auger electron amount on sputtering time (profile and then the dependence is analyzed. Silicon amount in the disrupted layer is less than in the volume. While going deeper the disruptive layer is decreasing that corresponds to an increase of atom density in a single layer. The essence of the method lies in the fact the disruptive layer is removed by ion beam sputtering and detection of interface region is carried out with the help of registration of the Auger electron yield intensity from the sputtered surface up to the moment when it reaches the value which is equal to the Auger electron yield intensity for single-crystal silicon. While removing surface silicon layers the registration of the Auger electron yield intensity from silicon surface makes it possible to control efficiently a presence of the disrupted layer on the silicon wafer surface. In this case depth control locality is about 1.0 nm due to some peculiarities of Auger spectroscopy method. The Auger electron yield intensity is determined automatically while using Auger spectrometer and while removing the disrupted layer the intensity is gradually increasing. Depth of the disrupted layer is determined by measuring height of the step which has been formed as a result of removal of the disrupted layer from the silicon wafer surface. Auger spectroscopy methods ensures an efficient depth control surface disruptions at the manufacturing stages of silicon wafers and integrated circuits. The depth measurement range of disruptions constitutes 0.001–1.000 um.

  6. Increased Surface Roughness in Polydimethylsiloxane Films by Physical and Chemical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nicolás Cabrera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Two methods, the first physical and the other chemical, were investigated to modify the surface roughness of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS films. The physical method consisted of dispersing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and magnetic cobalt ferrites (CoFe2O4 prior to thermal cross-linking, and curing the composite system in the presence of a uniform magnetic field H. The chemical method was based on exposing the films to bromine vapours and then UV-irradiating. The characterizing techniques included scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM and magnetic force microscopy (MFM. The surface roughness was quantitatively analyzed by AFM. In the physical method, the random dispersion of MWCNTs (1% w/w and magnetic nanoparticles (2% w/w generated a roughness increase of about 200% (with respect to PDMS films without any treatment, but that change was 400% for films cured in the presence of H perpendicular to the surface. SEM, AFM and MFM showed that the magnetic particles always remained attached to the carbon nanotubes, and the effect on the roughness was interpreted as being due to a rupture of dispersion randomness and a possible induction of structuring in the direction of H. In the chemical method, the increase in roughness was even greater (1000%. Wells were generated with surface areas that were close to 100 μm2 and depths of up to 500 nm. The observations of AFM images and FTIR spectra were in agreement with the hypothesis of etching by Br radicals generated by UV on the polymer chains. Both methods induced important changes in the surface roughness (the chemical method generated the greatest changes due to the formation of surface wells, which are of great importance in superficial technological processes.

  7. Method for selective immobilization of macromolecules on self assembled monolayer surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Julia [Richland, WA; Wang, Peng [Billerica, MA

    2011-11-29

    Disclosed is a method for selective chemical binding and immobilization of macromolecules on solid supports in conjunction with self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces. Immobilization involves selective binding of peptides and other macromolecules to SAM surfaces using reactive landing (RL) of mass-selected, gas phase ions. SAM surfaces provide a simple and convenient platform for tailoring chemical properties of a variety of substrates. The invention finds applications in biochemistry ranging from characterization of molecular recognition events at the amino acid level and identification of biologically active motifs in proteins, to development of novel biosensors and substrates for stimulated protein and cell adhesion.

  8. Study of two grafting methods for obtaining a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane monolayer on silica surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A; Cohen-Bouhacina, T; Porté, M C; Aimé, J P; Baquey, C

    2002-07-15

    In order to establish a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) grafting procedure with limited number of APTESs noncovalently linked to the silica surface, two different methods of grafting (in acid-aqueous solution and in anhydrous solution) were compared. The grafted surface state was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The stability of the grafting was checked at different temperatures by AFM. Continuous and plane APTES grafted surfaces were successfully prepared using both grafting preparations. The grafting in an anhydrous solution behaves homogeneously and stably compared to the grafting in an acid-aqueous solution. Moreover, with anhydrous solution, results showed that a unique monolayer of APTES was grafted.

  9. Cork-resin ablative insulation for complex surfaces and method for applying the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, H. M.; Sharpe, M. H.; Simpson, W. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A method of applying cork-resin ablative insulation material to complex curved surfaces is disclosed. The material is prepared by mixing finely divided cork with a B-stage curable thermosetting resin, forming the resulting mixture into a block, B-stage curing the resin-containing block, and slicing the block into sheets. The B-stage cured sheet is shaped to conform to the surface being insulated, and further curing is then performed. Curing of the resins only to B-stage before shaping enables application of sheet material to complex curved surfaces and avoids limitations and disadvantages presented in handling of fully cured sheet material.

  10. A Survey on Methods for Reconstructing Surfaces from Unorganized Point Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilius Matiukas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of reconstructing and visualizing surfaces from unorganized point sets. These can be acquired using different techniques, such as 3D-laser scanning, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and multi-camera imaging. The problem of reconstructing surfaces from their unorganized point sets is common for many diverse areas, including computer graphics, computer vision, computational geometry or reverse engineering. The paper presents three alternative methods that all use variations in complementary cones to triangulate and reconstruct the tested 3D surfaces. The article evaluates and contrasts three alternatives.Article in English

  11. Broadband antireflective silicon carbide surface produced by cost-effective method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyraki, Aikaterini; Ou, Yiyu; Ou, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    A cost-effective method for fabricating antireflective subwavelength structures on silicon carbide is demonstrated. The nanopatterning is performed in a 2-step process: aluminum deposition and reactive ion etching. The effect, of the deposited aluminum film thickness and the reactive ion etching...... conditions, on the average surface reflectance and nanostructure landscape have been investigated systematically. The average reflectance of silicon carbide surface is significantly suppressed from 25.4% to 0.05%, under the optimal experimental conditions, in the wavelength range of 390-784 nm. The presence...... of stochastic nanostructures also changes the wetting properties of silicon carbide surface from hydrophilic (47°) to hydrophobic (108°)....

  12. Formation of Amine Groups on the Surface of GaN: A Method for Direct Biofunctionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    the formation of surface sensitive GaN /AlGaN two- dimensional electron gas HEMT devices [5–14]. Furthermore, GaN is robust in aqueous solutions [15...variations are particularly detrimental to GaN HEMT sensors, as they are highly sensitive to the separation between the target and the device surface. Because...locate /apsuscFormation of amine groups on the surface of GaN : A method for direct biofunctionalization R. Stine, B.S. Simpkins, S.P. Mulvaney, L.J

  13. Phonon dispersion on Ag (100) surface: A modified analytic embedded atom method study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Jun, Zhang; Chang-Le, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Within the harmonic approximation, the analytic expression of the dynamical matrix is derived based on the modified analytic embedded atom method (MAEAM) and the dynamics theory of surface lattice. The surface phonon dispersions along three major symmetry directions , and X¯M¯ are calculated for the clean Ag (100) surface by using our derived formulas. We then discuss the polarization and localization of surface modes at points X¯ and M¯ by plotting the squared polarization vectors as a function of the layer index. The phonon frequencies of the surface modes calculated by MAEAM are compared with the available experimental and other theoretical data. It is found that the present results are generally in agreement with the referenced experimental or theoretical results, with a maximum deviation of 10.4%. The agreement shows that the modified analytic embedded atom method is a reasonable many-body potential model to quickly describe the surface lattice vibration. It also lays a significant foundation for studying the surface lattice vibration in other metals. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61471301 and 61078057), the Scientific Research Program Funded by Shaanxi Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 14JK1301), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China (Grant No. 20126102110045).

  14. Sub-surface imaging of carbon nanotube-polymer composites using dynamic AFM methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Maria J; Misiego, Rocio; Smith, Kyle C; Avila, Alba; Pipes, Byron; Reifenberger, Ron; Raman, Arvind

    2013-04-05

    High-resolution sub-surface imaging of carbon nanotube (CNT) networks within polymer nanocomposites is demonstrated through electrical characterization techniques based on dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM). We compare three techniques implemented in the single-pass configuration: DC-biased amplitude modulated AFM (AM-AFM), electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) in terms of the physics of sub-surface image formation and experimental robustness. The methods were applied to study the dispersion of sub-surface networks of single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) in a polyimide (PI) matrix. We conclude that among these methods, the KPFM channel, which measures the capacitance gradient (∂C/∂d) at the second harmonic of electrical excitation, is the best channel to obtain high-contrast images of the CNT network embedded in the polymer matrix, without the influence of surface conditions. Additionally, we propose an analysis of the ∂C/∂d images as a tool to characterize the dispersion and connectivity of the CNTs. Through the analysis we demonstrate that these AFM-based sub-surface methods probe sufficiently deep within the SWNT composites, to resolve clustered networks that likely play a role in conductivity percolation. This opens up the possibility of dynamic AFM-based characterization of sub-surface dispersion and connectivity in nanostructured composites, two critical parameters for nanocomposite applications in sensors and energy storage devices.

  15. A new experimental method for determining liquid density and surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kjo-Chih; Hu, Jian-Hong

    1991-02-01

    A summary concerning the measurement of liquid density relying on the Archimedes principle has been presented, based on which a new effective method with a specially designed bob for determining liquid density has been suggested. The application of this method to ethyl alcohol solution and liquid glycerol, as well as a theoretical error analysis, shows that this new method is significant, because not only can it simplify the procedure of measurement but it can also offer more precise results. Besides, this method can further provide surface tension or contact angle simultaneously. It is expected that this new method will find its application in hightemperature melts.

  16. A Review of Optimization of Surface Roughness of Inconel 718 in End Milling using Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Kumar Mall

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nickel based super alloy, Inconel 718 is a very hard material (46 HRC. Because of its hardness, work hardening and low thermal conductivity, its machining is very difficult. End milling is an effective method for machining, drilling, slotting, and making key ways of Inconel 718. Tensile residual stress takes place during machining of Inconel 718. It is a critical problem, which is minimized to obtain better quality. Residual stress becomes more in the presence of rough machined surface. In this paper we optimize the surface roughness of Inconel 718 in end milling under dry condition. The surface roughness is optimized using four parameter nose radius, depth of cut, feed rate and cutting speed by using a cemented carbide tool. L27 orthogonal array of Taguchi method uses to analyse the result. 27 experimental runs based on L27 orthogonal array of Taguchi method.

  17. The Closest Point Method and Multigrid Solvers for Elliptic Equations on Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yujia

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Elliptic partial differential equations are important from both application and analysis points of view. In this paper we apply the closest point method to solve elliptic equations on general curved surfaces. Based on the closest point representation of the underlying surface, we formulate an embedding equation for the surface elliptic problem, then discretize it using standard finite differences and interpolation schemes on banded but uniform Cartesian grids. We prove the convergence of the difference scheme for the Poisson\\'s equation on a smooth closed curve. In order to solve the resulting large sparse linear systems, we propose a specific geometric multigrid method in the setting of the closest point method. Convergence studies in both the accuracy of the difference scheme and the speed of the multigrid algorithm show that our approaches are effective.

  18. Studies of Rigid Rotor-Rigid Surface Scattering in Dynamical Lie Algebraic Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Yan; DING Shi-Liang

    2004-01-01

    The dynamical Lie algebraic method is used for the description of statistical mechanics of rotationally inelastic molecule-surface scattering. It can give the time-evolution operators about the low power of a+ and a by solving a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. For considering the contribution of the high power of a+ and a, we use the Magnus formula. Thus, with the time-evolution operators we can get the statistical average values of the measurable quantities in terms of the density operator formalism in statistical mechanics. The method is applied to the scattering of N2 (rigid rotor) by a flat, rigid surface to illustrate its general procedure. The results demonstrate that the method is useful for describing the statistical dynamics of gas-surface scattering.

  19. Creeping Ray Tracing Algorithm for Arbitrary NURBS Surfaces Based on Adaptive Variable Step Euler Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the uniform theory of diffraction (UTD could be theoretically applied to arbitrarilyshaped convex objects modeled by nonuniform rational B-splines (NURBS, one of the great challenges in calculation of the UTD surface diffracted fields is the difficulty in determining the geodesic paths along which the creeping waves propagate on arbitrarilyshaped NURBS surfaces. In differential geometry, geodesic paths satisfy geodesic differential equation (GDE. Hence, in this paper, a general and efficient adaptive variable step Euler method is introduced for solving the GDE on arbitrarilyshaped NURBS surfaces. In contrast with conventional Euler method, the proposed method employs a shape factor (SF ξ to efficiently enhance the accuracy of tracing and extends the application of UTD for practical engineering. The validity and usefulness of the algorithm can be verified by the numerical results.

  20. A parametric finite element method for solid-state dewetting problems with anisotropic surface energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Weizhu; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Quan

    2017-02-01

    We propose an efficient and accurate parametric finite element method (PFEM) for solving sharp-interface continuum models for solid-state dewetting of thin films with anisotropic surface energies. The governing equations of the sharp-interface models belong to a new type of high-order (4th- or 6th-order) geometric evolution partial differential equations about open curve/surface interface tracking problems which include anisotropic surface diffusion flow and contact line migration. Compared to the traditional methods (e.g., marker-particle methods), the proposed PFEM not only has very good accuracy, but also poses very mild restrictions on the numerical stability, and thus it has significant advantages for solving this type of open curve evolution problems with applications in the simulation of solid-state dewetting. Extensive numerical results are reported to demonstrate the accuracy and high efficiency of the proposed PFEM.

  1. Four methods for determining the composition of trace radioactive surface contamination of low-radioactivity metal

    CERN Document Server

    O'Keeffe, H M; Cleveland, B T; Doucas, G; Gagnon, N; Jelley, N A; Kraus, C; Lawson, I T; Majerus, S; McGee, S R; Myers, A W; Poon, A W P; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Rosten, R C; Stonehill, L C; VanDevender, B A; Van Wechel, T D

    2011-01-01

    Four methods for determining the composition of low-level uranium- and thorium-chain surface contamination are presented. One method is the observation of Cherenkov light production in water. In two additional methods a position-sensitive proportional counter surrounding the surface is used to make both a measurement of the energy spectrum of alpha particle emissions and also coincidence measurements to derive the thorium-chain content based on the presence of short-lived isotopes in that decay chain. The fourth method is a radiochemical technique in which the surface is eluted with a weak acid, the eluate is concentrated, added to liquid scintillator and assayed by recording beta-alpha coincidences. These methods were used to characterize two `hotspots' on the outer surface of one of the He-3 proportional counters in the Neutral Current Detection array of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment. The methods have similar sensitivities, of order tens of ng, to both thorium- and uranium-chain contamination.

  2. Four methods for determining the composition of trace radioactive surface contamination of low-radioactivity metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keeffe, H.M. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Burritt, T.H. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Cleveland, B.T. [SNOLAB, Lively, Ontario, P3Y 1M3 (Canada); Doucas, G. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Gagnon, N. [SNOLAB, Lively, Ontario, P3Y 1M3 (Canada); Jelley, N.A. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Kraus, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada); Lawson, I.T. [SNOLAB, Lively, Ontario, P3Y 1M3 (Canada); Majerus, S. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); McGee, S.R.; Myers, A.W. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Poon, A.W.P. [Institute for Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics, and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rielage, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Robertson, R.G.H., E-mail: rghr@u.washington.edu [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Rosten, R.C. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); and others

    2011-12-11

    Four methods for determining the composition of low-level uranium- and thorium-chain surface contamination are presented. One method is the observation of Cherenkov light production in water. In two additional methods a position-sensitive proportional counter surrounding the surface is used to make both a measurement of the energy spectrum of alpha particle emissions and also coincidence measurements to derive the thorium-chain content based on the presence of short-lived isotopes in that decay chain. The fourth method is a radiochemical technique in which the surface is eluted with a weak acid, the eluate is concentrated, added to liquid scintillator and assayed by recording beta-alpha coincidences. These methods were used to characterize two 'hotspots' on the outer surface of one of the {sup 3}He proportional counters in the Neutral Current Detection array of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment. The methods have similar sensitivities, of order tens of ng, to both thorium- and uranium-chain contamination.

  3. Toward potent antibiofilm degradable medical devices: a generic method for the antibacterial surface modification of polylactide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Habnouni, Sarah; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Darcos, Vincent; Porsio, Barbara; Garric, Xavier; Coudane, Jean; Nottelet, Benjamin

    2013-08-01

    The effects of biomaterials on their environment must be carefully modulated in most biomedical applications. Among other approaches, this modulation can be obtained through the modification of the biomaterial surface. This paper proposes a simple and versatile strategy to produce non-leaching antibacterial polylactide (PLA) surfaces without any degradation of the polyester chains. The method is based on a one-pot procedure that provides a "clickable" PLA surface via anionic activation which is then functionalized with an antibacterial quaternized poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (QPDMAEMA) by covalent immobilization on the surface. The anti-adherence and antibiofilm activities of modified PLA surfaces are assessed for different QPDMAEMA molecular weights and different quaternization agents. Antibacterial PLA surfaces are shown to be very active against Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains, with adherence reduction factors superior to 99.999% and a marked reduction in biofilm on the most potent surfaces. In addition to this substantial antibacterial activity, the proposed PLA surfaces are also cytocompatible, as demonstrated through the proliferation of L929 fibroblasts. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Facile method for preparing superoleophobic surfaces with hierarchical microcubic/nanowire structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Wonshik; Hwang, Woonbong

    2016-02-01

    To facilitate the fabrication of superoleophobic surfaces having hierarchical microcubic/nanowire structures (HMNS), even for low surface tension liquids including octane (surface tension = 21.1 mN m-1), and to understand the influences of surface structures on the oleophobicity, we developed a convenient method to achieve superoleophobic surfaces on aluminum substrates using chemical acid etching, anodization and fluorination treatment. The liquid repellency of the structured surface was validated through observable experimental results the contact and sliding angle measurements. The etching condition required to ensure high surface roughness was established, and an optimal anodizing condition was determined, as a critical parameter in building the superoleophobicity. The microcubic structures formed by acid etching are essential for achieving the formation of the hierarchical structure, and therefore, the nanowire structures formed by anodization lead to an enhancement of the superoleophobicity for low surface tension liquids. Under optimized morphology by microcubic/nanowire structures with fluorination treatment, the contact angle over 150° and the sliding angle less than 10° are achieved even for octane.

  5. A fast and reliable readout method for quantitative analysis of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes on chip surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyejin; Kang, Homan; Jeong, Sinyoung; Ko, Eunbyeol; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Lee, Ho-Young; Jeong, Dae Hong

    2015-05-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering techniques have been widely used for bioanalysis due to its high sensitivity and multiplex capacity. However, the point-scanning method using a micro-Raman system, which is the most common method in the literature, has a disadvantage of extremely long measurement time for on-chip immunoassay adopting a large chip area of approximately 1-mm scale and confocal beam point of ca. 1-μm size. Alternative methods such as sampled spot scan with high confocality and large-area scan method with enlarged field of view and low confocality have been utilized in order to minimize the measurement time practically. In this study, we analyzed the two methods in respect of signal-to-noise ratio and sampling-led signal fluctuations to obtain insights into a fast and reliable readout strategy. On this basis, we proposed a methodology for fast and reliable quantitative measurement of the whole chip area. The proposed method adopted a raster scan covering a full area of 100 μm × 100 μm region as a proof-of-concept experiment while accumulating signals in the CCD detector for single spectrum per frame. One single scan with 10 s over 100 μm × 100 μm area yielded much higher sensitivity compared to sampled spot scanning measurements and no signal fluctuations attributed to sampled spot scan. This readout method is able to serve as one of key technologies that will bring quantitative multiplexed detection and analysis into practice.

  6. A fast and reliable readout method for quantitative analysis of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes on chip surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hyejin; Jeong, Sinyoung; Ko, Eunbyeol; Jeong, Dae Hong, E-mail: yslee@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com, E-mail: jeongdh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry Education, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Homan [Interdisciplinary Program in Nano-Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon-Sik, E-mail: yslee@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com, E-mail: jeongdh@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Nano-Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho-Young, E-mail: yslee@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com, E-mail: jeongdh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering techniques have been widely used for bioanalysis due to its high sensitivity and multiplex capacity. However, the point-scanning method using a micro-Raman system, which is the most common method in the literature, has a disadvantage of extremely long measurement time for on-chip immunoassay adopting a large chip area of approximately 1-mm scale and confocal beam point of ca. 1-μm size. Alternative methods such as sampled spot scan with high confocality and large-area scan method with enlarged field of view and low confocality have been utilized in order to minimize the measurement time practically. In this study, we analyzed the two methods in respect of signal-to-noise ratio and sampling-led signal fluctuations to obtain insights into a fast and reliable readout strategy. On this basis, we proposed a methodology for fast and reliable quantitative measurement of the whole chip area. The proposed method adopted a raster scan covering a full area of 100 μm × 100 μm region as a proof-of-concept experiment while accumulating signals in the CCD detector for single spectrum per frame. One single scan with 10 s over 100 μm × 100 μm area yielded much higher sensitivity compared to sampled spot scanning measurements and no signal fluctuations attributed to sampled spot scan. This readout method is able to serve as one of key technologies that will bring quantitative multiplexed detection and analysis into practice.

  7. An optimal design of wind turbine and ship structure based on neuro-response surface method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Chul Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The geometry of engineering systems affects their performances. For this reason, the shape of engineering systems needs to be optimized in the initial design stage. However, engineering system design problems consist of multi-objective optimization and the performance analysis using commercial code or numerical analysis is generally time-consuming. To solve these problems, many engineers perform the optimization using the approximation model (response surface. The Response Surface Method (RSM is generally used to predict the system performance in engi-neering research field, but RSM presents some prediction errors for highly nonlinear systems. The major objective of this research is to establish an optimal design method for multi-objective problems and confirm its applicability. The proposed process is composed of three parts: definition of geometry, generation of response surface, and optimization process. To reduce the time for performance analysis and minimize the prediction errors, the approximation model is generated using the Backpropagation Artificial Neural Network (BPANN which is considered as Neuro-Response Surface Method (NRSM. The optimization is done for the generated response surface by non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II. Through case studies of marine system and ship structure (substructure of floating offshore wind turbine considering hydrodynamics performances and bulk carrier bottom stiffened panels considering structure performance, we have confirmed the applicability of the proposed method for multi-objective side constraint optimization problems.

  8. Uniform surface polished method of complex holes in abrasive flow machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A-Cheng WANG; Lung TSAI; Kuo-Zoo LIANG; Chun-Ho LIU; Shi-Hong WENG

    2009-01-01

    Abrasive flow machining(AFM) is an effective method that can remove the recasting layer produced by wire electrical discharge machining(WEDM). However, the surface roughness will not be easily uniform when a complex hole is polished by this method. CFD numerical method is aided to design good passageways to find the smooth roughness on the complex hole in AFM. Through the present method, it reveals that the shear forces in the polishing process and the flow properties of the medium in AFM play the roles in controlling the roughness on the entire surface. A power law model was firstly set up by utilizing the effect of shear rates on the medium viscosities, and the coefficients of the power law would be found by solving the algebraic equation from the relations between the shear rates and viscosities. Then the velocities, strain rates and shear forces of the medium acting on the surface would be obtained in the constant pressure by CFD software. Finally, the optimal mold core put into the complex hole could be designed after these simulations. The results show that the shear forces and strain rates change sharply on the entire surface if no mold core is inserted into the complex hole, whereas they hardly make any difference when the core shape is similar to the complex hole. Three experimental types of mold core were used. The results demonstrate that the similar shape of the mold core inserted into the hole could find the uniform roughness on the surface.

  9. Characterisation of group behaviour surface texturing with multi-layers fitting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhengyang; Fu, Yonghong; Ji, Jinghu; Wang, Hao

    2016-07-01

    Surface texturing was widely applied in improving the tribological properties of mechanical components, but study of measurement of this technology was still insufficient. This study proposed the multi-layers fitting (MLF) method to characterise the dimples array texture surface. Based on the synergistic effect among the dimples, the 3D morphology of texture surface was rebuilt by 2D stylus profiler in the MLF method. The feasible regions of texture patterns and sensitive parameters were confirmed by non-linear programming, and the processing software of MLF method was developed based on the Matlab®. The characterisation parameters system of dimples was defined mathematically, and the accuracy of MLF method was investigated by comparison experiment. The surface texture specimens were made by laser surface texturing technology, in which high consistency of dimples' size and distribution was achieved. Then, 2D profiles of different dimples were captured by employing Hommel-T1000 stylus profiler, and the data were further processed by MLF software to rebuild 3D morphology of single dimple. The experiment results indicated that the MLF characterisation results were similar to those of Wyko T1100, the white light interference microscope. It was also found that the stability of MLF characterisation results highly depended on the number of captured cross-sections.

  10. Trace projection transformation: a new method for measurement of debris flow surface velocity fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Cui, Peng; Guo, Xiaojun; Ge, Yonggang

    2016-12-01

    Spatiotemporal variation of velocity is important for debris flow dynamics. This paper presents a new method, the trace projection transformation, for accurate, non-contact measurement of a debris-flow surface velocity field based on a combination of dense optical flow and perspective projection transformation. The algorithm for interpreting and processing is implemented in C ++ and realized in Visual Studio 2012. The method allows quantitative analysis of flow motion through videos from various angles (camera positioned at the opposite direction of fluid motion). It yields the spatiotemporal distribution of surface velocity field at pixel level and thus provides a quantitative description of the surface processes. The trace projection transformation is superior to conventional measurement methods in that it obtains the full surface velocity field by computing the optical flow of all pixels. The result achieves a 90% accuracy of when comparing with the observed values. As a case study, the method is applied to the quantitative analysis of surface velocity field of a specific debris flow.

  11. An optimal design of wind turbine and ship structure based on neuro-response surface method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jae-Chul

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The geometry of engineering systems affects their performances. For this reason, the shape of engineering systems needs to be optimized in the initial design stage. However, engineering system design problems consist of multi-objective optimization and the performance analysis using commercial code or numerical analysis is generally time-consuming. To solve these problems, many engineers perform the optimization using the approximation model (response surface. The Response Surface Method (RSM is generally used to predict the system performance in engineering research field, but RSM presents some prediction errors for highly nonlinear systems. The major objective of this research is to establish an optimal design method for multi-objective problems and confirm its applicability. The proposed process is composed of three parts: definition of geometry, generation of response surface, and optimization process. To reduce the time for performance analysis and minimize the prediction errors, the approximation model is generated using the Backpropagation Artificial Neural Network (BPANN which is considered as Neuro-Response Surface Method (NRSM. The optimization is done for the generated response surface by non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II. Through case studies of marine system and ship structure (substructure of floating offshore wind turbine considering hydrodynamics performances and bulk carrier bottom stiffened panels considering structure performance, we have confirmed the applicability of the proposed method for multi-objective side constraint optimization problems.

  12. Modified coherent gradient sensing method for slope measurement of reflective surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kang; Xie, Huimin

    2015-05-01

    A phase shifting method was developed for Coherent Gradient Sensing (CGS) using a three-step phase shifting method. Three different inteferograms were obtained by changing the distance between two gratings. The phase filed can be calculated accurately from the three inteferograms. The interference fringes (phase field) in reflection mode represent the gradient contours of the out-of-plane displacement of a surface. The curvatures and shape of the surface both can be calculated by numerical methods using the fringe patterns. The measurement principle and experimental setup were introduced in detail. As an application, a standard specimen with a curvature radius of 5 m was measured. From the analysis of the experimental results, we find that the relative error of the curvature using this method was about 0.78%. The method has good potentials for measuring the slopes, curvatures and shapes of thin film/substrate systems.

  13. Determination of Critical Slip Surface of Soil Slope by New Complex Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Liang; Chi Shichun; Lin Gao

    2006-01-01

    A new complex method is presented considering not only the improvement upon the "bad "design point, but also the diversity of the newly generated complex, which is obtained by replacing the "bad "design point with the better design point located at the line between the "bad "design point and the centroid of the remaining design points of the old complex. The new complex method is apphed to searching for the critical slip surface of two non-homogeneous soil slopes. The comparison of the results obtained by the new complex method with that by the basic complex method shows that the new complex method is much more likely to find the true critical surface for the randomly generated initial complex.

  14. Green's function surface-integral method for nonlocal response of plasmonic nanowires in arbitrary dielectric environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    We develop a nonlocal-response generalization to the Green's function surface-integral method (GSIM), also known as the boundary-element method. This numerically efficient method can accurately describe the linear hydrodynamic nonlocal response of arbitrarily shaped plasmonic nanowires in arbitrary...... dielectric backgrounds. All previous general-purpose methods for nonlocal response are bulk methods. We also expand the possible geometries to which the usual local-response GSIM can be applied, by showing how to regularize singularities that occur in the surface integrals when the nanoparticles touch...... close to and on top of planar dielectric substrates. Especially for the latter geometry, considerable differences in extinction cross sections are found for local as compared to nonlocal response, similar to what is found for plasmonic dimer structures....

  15. Selection of overburden surface mining method in West Virginia by analytical hierarchy process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timothy A.Nolan; Vladislav Kecojevic

    2014-01-01

    The broad objective of this research was to improve current surface mining practices and reduce negative environmental impact of overburden removal in West Virginia (WV). The specific objectives were to (i) compare con-ventional surface mining method (drilling, blasting, digging, and loading) to a surface miner (SM) method, and (ii) apply the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to help select the optimal mining method based on production, cost and envi-ronmental criteria. The design and the procedures used in this research involve five interrelated modules:(i) rock properties of overburden in WV, (ii) drilling and blasting, (iii) digging and loading, (iv) SM method, and (v) comparative analysis and selection of the optimal mining method by AHP. Results of this research indicate that application of SM method would yield higher cost of overburden removal than conventional mining methods in rocks with a high unconfined compressive strength and abrasivity. A significant advantage of SM method, where applicable, is the elimination of the negative environmental impacts associated with blasting.

  16. A NEW HIGH RESOLUTION OPTICAL METHOD FOR OBTAINING THE TOPOGRAPHY OF FRACTURE SURFACES IN ROCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Ogilvie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness plays a major role in the movement of fluids through fracture systems. Fracture surface profiling is necessary to tune the properties of numerical fractures required in fluid flow modelling to those of real rock fractures. This is achieved using a variety of (i mechanical and (ii optical techniques. Stylus profilometry is a popularly used mechanical method and can measure surface heights with high precision, but only gives a good horizontal resolution in one direction on the fracture plane. This method is also expensive and simultaneous coverage of the surface is not possible. Here, we describe the development of an optical method which images cast copies of rough rock fractures using in-house developed hardware and image analysis software (OptiProf™ that incorporates image improvement and noise suppression features. This technique images at high resolutions, 15-200 μm for imaged areas of 10 × 7.5 mm and 100 × 133 mm, respectively and a similar vertical resolution (15 μm for a maximum topography of 4 mm. It uses in-house developed hardware and image analysis (OptiProf™ software and is cheap and non-destructive, providing continuous coverage of the fracture surface. The fracture models are covered with dye and fluid thicknesses above the rough surfaces converted into topographies using the Lambert-Beer Law. The dye is calibrated using 2 devices with accurately known thickness; (i a polycarbonate tile with wells of different depths and (ii a wedge-shaped vial made from silica glass. The data from each of the two surfaces can be combined to provide an aperture map of the fracture for the scenario where the surfaces touch at a single point or any greater mean aperture. The topography and aperture maps are used to provide data for the generation of synthetic fractures, tuned to the original fracture and used in numerical flow modelling.

  17. A Surface Damage Investigation on Uniaxial Tensile Test Specimens Prepared by Common Cutting Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    REPORI’ A SURFACE DAMAGE INVESTIGATION ON UNIAXIAL TENSILE TEST SPECIMENSPREPARED BY COMMON CUTTING METHODS JUN 2 1931 THOMAS J. C. CHEW DALE A...Sýrfa-i-mage Investigation on Uniaxial Tensile Test Specimens Prepared by Common Cutting Method I Spi-.i t’ ,, ., • T7. AUTHORý#) . _" ’ /t’ .• r...Saw 10 2.1.3 Cutting by Milling Machine 11 2.1.4 Cutting by Die Cutter 11 2.2 Uniaxial Tensile Test 12 2.3 Electron Microscope Surface Examination 13 3

  18. A plateau–valley separation method for textured surfaces with a deterministic pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Kühle, Anders; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    The effective characterization of textured surfaces presenting a deterministic pattern of lubricant reservoirs is an issue with which many researchers are nowadays struggling. Existing standards are not suitable for the characterization of such surfaces, providing at times values without physical...... division of the two regions, which can be studied separately according to their specific function. The case of a turned multifunctional profile is presented depicting the lacks in efficacy of standardized methods and therefore studied with this new methodology. Limitations of the method are eventually...

  19. METHOD TO SOLVE ELASTIC CONJUGATE SURFACES IN MULTI-TEETH MESHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A method to solve the elastic conjugate surfaces in multi-teeth meshing is presented. In mechanicalmanufacturing and design, there exist a lot of problems relating to conjugate surfaces, such as three-dimensionalengagement, steel rolling and workpiece machining, which cause great effects on the quality of machining andperformances of transmission. This method describes relation between conjugate motion and elastic deformation in theprocess of mesh-in and mesh-out, and can be used to determine the profile of gear tooth by a certain given load sharing.

  20. Methods for generation of reporter phages and immobilization of active bacteriophages on a polymer surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Bruce Michael (Inventor); Perry, Lynda Louise (Inventor); Morgan, Mark Thomas (Inventor); Kothapalli, Aparna (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Novel reporter bacteriophages are provided. Provided are compositions and methods that allow bacteriophages that are used for specific detection or killing of E. coli 0157:H7 to be propagated in nonpathogenic E. coli, thereby eliminating the safety and security risks of propagation in E. coli 0157:H7. Provided are compositions and methods for attaching active bacteriophages to the surface of a polymer in order to kill target bacteria with which the phage comes into contact. Provided are modified bacteriophages immobilized to a surface, which capture E. coli 0157:H7 and cause the captured cells to emit light or fluorescence, allowing detection of the bacteria in a sample.

  1. Waveform synthesis of surface waves in a laterally heterogeneous earth by the Gaussian beam method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomogida, K.; Aki, K.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with an application of the Gaussian beam method to surface waves in the laterally heterogeneous earth. The employed method has been developed for ray tracing and synthesizing seismograms of surface waves in cases involving the laterally heterogeneous earth. The procedure is based on formulations derived by Yomogida (1985). Vertical structure of the wave field is represented by the eigenfunctions of normal mode theory, while lateral variation is expressed by the parabolic equation as in two-dimensional acoustic waves or elastic body waves. It is demonstrated that a large-amplitude change can result from a slight perturbation in the phase velocity model.

  2. Mechanical theorem proving in the surfaces using the characteristic set method and Wronskian determinant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG RuYong; YU JianPing

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we generalize the method of mechanical theorem proving in curves to prove theorems about surfaces in differential geometry with a mechanical procedure.We improve the classical result on Wronskian determinant,which can be used to decide whether the elements in a partial differential field are linearly dependent over its constant field.Based on Wronskian determinant,we can describe the geometry statements in the surfaces by an algebraic language and then prove them by the characteristic set method.

  3. DigiWarp: a method for deformable mouse atlas warping to surface topographic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Anand A; Shattuck, David W; Toga, Arthur W [Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Chaudhari, Abhijit J [Department of Radiology, UC Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Li Changqing; Cherry, Simon R [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Dutta, Joyita; Leahy, Richard M, E-mail: anand.joshi@loni.ucla.ed, E-mail: leahy@sipi.usc.ed [Signal and Image Processing Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States)

    2010-10-21

    For pre-clinical bioluminescence or fluorescence optical tomography, the animal's surface topography and internal anatomy need to be estimated for improving the quantitative accuracy of reconstructed images. The animal's surface profile can be measured by all-optical systems, but estimation of the internal anatomy using optical techniques is non-trivial. A 3D anatomical mouse atlas may be warped to the estimated surface. However, fitting an atlas to surface topography data is challenging because of variations in the posture and morphology of imaged mice. In addition, acquisition of partial data (for example, from limited views or with limited sampling) can make the warping problem ill-conditioned. Here, we present a method for fitting a deformable mouse atlas to surface topographic range data acquired by an optical system. As an initialization procedure, we match the posture of the atlas to the posture of the mouse being imaged using landmark constraints. The asymmetric L{sup 2} pseudo-distance between the atlas surface and the mouse surface is then minimized in order to register two data sets. A Laplacian prior is used to ensure smoothness of the surface warping field. Once the atlas surface is normalized to match the range data, the internal anatomy is transformed using elastic energy minimization. We present results from performance evaluation studies of our method where we have measured the volumetric overlap between the internal organs delineated directly from MRI or CT and those estimated by our proposed warping scheme. Computed Dice coefficients indicate excellent overlap in the brain and the heart, with fair agreement in the kidneys and the bladder.

  4. Improved response surface method and its application in stability reliability degree analysis of tunnel surrounding rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An approach of limit state equation for surrounding rock was put forward based on deformation criterion. A method of symmetrical sampling of basic random variables adopted by classical response surface method was mended, and peak value and deflection degree of basic random variables distribution curve were took into account in the mended sampling method. A calculation way of probability moment, based on mended Rosenbluth method, suitable for non-explicit performance function was put forward.The first, second, third and fourth order moments of functional function value were calculated by mended Rosenbluth method through the first, second, third and fourth order moments of basic random variable. A probability density the function(PDF) of functional function was deduced through its first, second, third and fourth moments, the PDF in the new method took the place of the method of quadratic polynomial to approximate real functional function and reliability probability was calculated through integral by the PDF for random variable of functional function value in the new method. The result shows that the improved response surface method can adapt to various statistic distribution types of basic random variables, its calculation process is legible and need not iterative circulation. In addition, a stability probability of surrounding rock for a tunnel was calculated by the improved method,whose workload is only 30% of classical method and its accuracy is comparative.

  5. Superhydrophobic and adhesive properties of surfaces: testing the quality by an elaborated scanning electron microscopy method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensikat, Hans J; Mayser, Matthias; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2012-10-09

    In contrast to advancements in the fabrication of new superhydrophobic materials, the characterization of their water repellency and quality is often coarse and unsatisfactory. In view of the problems and inaccuracies, particularly in the measurement of very high contact angles, we developed alternative methods for the characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces. It was found that adhering water remnants after immersion are a useful criterion in determining the repellency quality. In this study, we introduce microscopy methods to detect traces of water-resembling test liquids on superhydrophobic surfaces by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or fluorescence light microscopy (FLM). Diverse plant surfaces and some artificial superhydrophobic samples were examined. Instead of pure water, we used aqueous solutions containing a detectable stain and glycerol in order to prevent immediate evaporation of the microdroplets. For the SEM examinations, aqueous solutions of lead acetate were used, which could be detected in a frozen state at -90 °C with high sensitivity using a backscattered electron detector. For fluorescence microscopy, aqueous solutions of auramine were used. On different species of superhydrophobic plants, varying patterns of remaining microdroplets were found on their leaves. On some species, drop remnants occurred only on surface defects such as damaged epicuticular waxes. On others, microdroplets regularly decorated the locations of increased adhesion, particularly on hierarchically structured surfaces. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the method is suitable for testing the limits of repellency under harsh conditions, such as drop impact or long-enduring contact. The supplementation of the visualization method by the measurement of the pull-off force between a water drop and the sample allowed us to determine the adhesive properties of superhydrophobic surfaces quantitatively. The results were in good agreement with former studies of the water

  6. 3D automatic segmentation method for retinal optical coherence tomography volume data using boundary surface enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankui Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, much larger image datasets are routinely acquired compared to what was possible using the previous generation of time-domain OCT. Thus, there is a critical need for the development of three-dimensional (3D segmentation methods for processing these data. We present here a novel 3D automatic segmentation method for retinal OCT volume data. Briefly, to segment a boundary surface, two OCT volume datasets are obtained by using a 3D smoothing filter and a 3D differential filter. Their linear combination is then calculated to generate new volume data with an enhanced boundary surface, where pixel intensity, boundary position information, and intensity changes on both sides of the boundary surface are used simultaneously. Next, preliminary discrete boundary points are detected from the A-Scans of the volume data. Finally, surface smoothness constraints and a dynamic threshold are applied to obtain a smoothed boundary surface by correcting a small number of error points. Our method can extract retinal layer boundary surfaces sequentially with a decreasing search region of volume data. We performed automatic segmentation on eight human OCT volume datasets acquired from a commercial Spectralis OCT system, where each volume of datasets contains 97 OCT B-Scan images with a resolution of 496×512 (each B-Scan comprising 512 A-Scans containing 496 pixels; experimental results show that this method can accurately segment seven layer boundary surfaces in normal as well as some abnormal eyes.

  7. Bond of acrylic teeth to different denture base resins after various surface-conditioning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Reinhold; Kolbeck, Carola; Bergmann, Rainer; Handel, Gerhard; Rosentritt, Martin

    2012-02-01

    The study examined the bond between different denture base resins and highly cross-linked acrylic denture teeth with different base surface-conditioning methods. One hundred fifty highly cross-linked resin denture teeth (SR-Antaris, No. 11, Ivoclar-Vivadent, FL) were divided into five groups with different surface-conditioning methods of the base surfaces of the teeth (C = control, no surface conditioning, MM = application of methyl methacrylate monomer, SB = sand blasting, SBB = sand blasting + bonding agent, TSS = tribochemical silica coating + silanization). Teeth were bonded to either a cold-cured denture base resin (ProBase Cold, Ivoclar-Vivadent, FL) or heat-cured denture base resins (SR Ivocap Plus, Ivoclar-Vivadent, FL and Lucitone 199, Dentsply, USA). After 24 h of storage in distilled water, compressive load was applied at 90° on the palatal surface of each tooth until fracture. Median failure load ranged between 103 and 257 N for Probase Cold groups, 91 to 261 N for Lucitone 199, and 149 to 320 N for SR Ivocap Plus. For Probase Cold, significant highest failure loads resulted when teeth were treated with SB, SBB, or TSS. For Lucitone 199, significant highest failure loads has been found with MM and TSS treatment. For SR Ivocap Plus, highest failure loads resulted using SBB and TSS. Conditioning of the base surfaces of the teeth prior to denture base processing is highly recommended. Tooth bond is significantly affected by the surface-conditioning method and applied denture base resin. Tribochemical silica coating + silanization method can be recommended for pre-treatment of teeth applying either heat-cured or cold-cured denture base resin.

  8. Comparison of methods for quantifying surface sublimation over seasonally snow-covered terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexstone, Graham A.; Clow, David W.; Stannard, David I.; Fassnacht, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Snow sublimation can be an important component of the snow-cover mass balance, and there is considerable interest in quantifying the role of this process within the water and energy balance of snow-covered regions. In recent years, robust eddy covariance (EC) instrumentation has been used to quantify snow sublimation over snow-covered surfaces in complex mountainous terrain. However, EC can be challenging for monitoring turbulent fluxes in snow-covered environments because of intensive data, power, and fetch requirements, and alternative methods of estimating snow sublimation are often relied upon. To evaluate the relative merits of methods for quantifying surface sublimation, fluxes calculated by the EC, Bowen ratio–energy balance (BR), bulk aerodynamic flux (BF), and aerodynamic profile (AP) methods and their associated uncertainty were compared at two forested openings in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. Biases between methods are evaluated over a range of environmental conditions, and limitations of each method are discussed. Mean surface sublimation rates from both sites ranged from 0.33 to 0.36 mm day−1, 0.14 to 0.37 mm day−1, 0.10 to 0.17 mm day−1, and 0.03 to 0.10 mm day−1 for the EC, BR, BF and AP methods, respectively. The EC and/or BF methods are concluded to be superior for estimating surface sublimation in snow-covered forested openings. The surface sublimation rates quantified in this study are generally smaller in magnitude compared with previously published studies in this region and help to refine sublimation estimates for forested openings in the Colorado Rocky Mountains.

  9. Influence of different manipulation methods on surface roughness of auto polymerized acrylic resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Borges Retamoso

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness of acrylic resin according to the manipulation method.Methods: Sixty specimens were randomly divided into four groups (n=15 according to the manipulation method: G1 - addition with pressure, G2 - addition without pressure, G3 - mass with pressure and G4 - mass without pressure. After resin polymerization, all specimens were submitted to finishing with abrasive paper and mechanical polishing. Topographical surface analysis surfaces was performed twice on each sample using the rugosimeter. Results: The results were statistically analyzed and means were: G1 - 0,130μm; G2 - 0,120μm, G3 - 0,218μm e G4 - 0,192μm. ANOVA for one criterion and the Tukey test showed significant difference between G1 and G3, G2 and G3, G2 and G4. Conclusion: The manipulation method seems to affect the physical characteristics of auto polymerized acrylic resin. The addition manipulation method decreased the surface roughness.

  10. Auricular surface aging: a blind test of the revised method on historic Italians from Sardinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hens, Samantha M; Belcastro, M Giovanna

    2012-01-10

    Age determination from human skeletal remains is an important biological parameter in both forensic and bioarchaeological contexts. This study presents the results of a blind test of the revised auricular surface age estimation method proposed by Buckberry and Chamberlain (Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 119 (2002) 321-329) on a large sample (n=404) of known sex and age from the Sassari collection, housed at the Museum of Anthropology, University of Bologna, Italy. Ilia were scored for five features: transverse organization, surface texture, microporosity, macroporosity, and apical changes, which combined for a composite score. The results indicated that all features and the composite score were positively correlated with known age. Composite scores were significantly different between the sexes, suggesting that males and females should be treated separately. Bias and inaccuracy varied across age intervals. Age tended to be overestimated in individuals under age 59 and underestimated for those over age 60 years. However, the revised method showed improvement over the original auricular surface method (Lovejoy et al., Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 68 (1985) 15-28), especially for aging older individuals. Considerable variation exists in the age ranges derived from composite scores and few significant differences were found between age stages, suggesting that fewer stages with wider age ranges may be necessary. The independent, quantitative scoring of the surface features makes the revised method substantially easier to apply and the method shows significant improvement for aging older individuals.

  11. Dental implant surface treatments for osseointegration improvement: presentation and comparisonof methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faidra KAPOPOULOU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of dental implants and the increase in requirements directed scientists to search for the implant surface which will ensure the greater bone to implant contact (BIC. Nowadays, implants are acid- etched (HCl, H 2 S Ο 4 promoting the osteoconductive ac- tivity or are grit-blasted with alumina particles, titanium oxide or calcium phosphates or finally they undergo dual treatment (combination of the two previous methods, which seems to have the better results as a method until now. Anodization is another method of treating the tita- nium implant surface and increased osseointegration is reported for implants coated with hydroxyapatite or ti- tanium plasma. The use of fluoride or wettability of im- plant surface in saline solution are also methods which have been used for treating the implant surface with low rates of osseointegration. Finally, new techniques made their appearance such as the use of laser, the use of drugs and specifically those of bisphosphonates and the use of BMPs. The last methods are very promising and their re- sults are still under research.

  12. 3-D surface profilometry based on modulation measurement by applying wavelet transform method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Min; Chen, Feng; Xiao, Chao; Wei, Yongchao

    2017-01-01

    A new analysis of 3-D surface profilometry based on modulation measurement technique by the application of Wavelet Transform method is proposed. As a tool excelling for its multi-resolution and localization in the time and frequency domains, Wavelet Transform method with good localized time-frequency analysis ability and effective de-noizing capacity can extract the modulation distribution more accurately than Fourier Transform method. Especially for the analysis of complex object, more details of the measured object can be well remained. In this paper, the theoretical derivation of Wavelet Transform method that obtains the modulation values from a captured fringe pattern is given. Both computer simulation and elementary experiment are used to show the validity of the proposed method by making a comparison with the results of Fourier Transform method. The results show that the Wavelet Transform method has a better performance than the Fourier Transform method in modulation values retrieval.

  13. Tracking Methods to Study the Surface Regression of the Solid-Propellant Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Hsin Hwang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the work, we have successfully developed practical surface tracking methods to calculate the erosive volume and the associated burning areas which are the important parameters to solve a nonlinear, pressurization-rate dependent combustion ballistics. Three methodologies, namely the front tracking, the emanating ray and the least distance methods, are proposed. The front tracking method is based on the Lagrangian point of view; while both the emanating ray and the least distance methods are formulated from the Eulerian viewpoint. Two two-dimensional test problems have been examined to compare with the programming complexity, simulation accuracy and required CPU time of the proposed methods. It is found that the least distance method performs superior to the other two methods in numerical respects. The least distance method is implemented with tetrahedron grids to track the outward propagation of a three-dimensional cubic. Comparison between the predicted erosive volume and corresponding theoretical result yields satisfactory agreement.

  14. Methods of improvement in hardness of composite surface layer on cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of usable properties of surface layers improvement of cast carbon steel 200–450, by put directly in founding process a composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy and next its remelting with use of welding technology TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas. Technology of composite surface layer guarantee mainly increase in hardness and abrasive wear resistance of cast steel castings on machine elements. This technology can be competition for generally applied welding technology (surfacing by welding and thermal spraying. However the results of studies show, that is possible to connection of both methods founding and welding of surface hardening of cast steel castings. In range of experimental plan was made test castings with composite surface layer, which next were remelted with energy 0,8 and 1,6 kJ/cm. Usability for industrial applications of test castings was estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

  15. Method and apparatus for enhancing surface absorption and emissivity in optical pulsed infrared nondestructive evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yuxia; Zhang, Cunlin; Jin, Wanping; Wu, Naiming

    2009-07-01

    In the application of optical pulsed infrared NDE, the visible light absorption and IR emissivity of the detected object must be considered. One of the simple methods is spraying paint on the highly reflective and low IR emissivity surface before testing. However, for some materials such as with pore space in the surface or easily to be corrupted have to be pretreated by other method and apparatus. Two kinds of apparatus for surface pretreating are designed according to the dimension of the detected object and the testing conditions. One apparatus is independent of the former detecting system, and the other is an improvement of the former system. The basic principle of the two apparatus is covering a flexible membrane of high light absorption and IR emissivity on the specimen surface by vacuum pumping. The paper also present the applications of the method, including the detection of the metal mesh material and the honeycomb structures with aluminum coating. The experimental results show that the technique of covering thin film by vacuum pump is effective for enhancing surface absorption and emissivity; moreover, it does not pollute or damage the sample. The application of the technique has practical significance, because it extends the scope of the application of the optical pulsed thermography nondestructive evaluation.

  16. A novel method about online monitoring surface shape of optical elements in continuous polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jin; Zhu, Jianqiang; Jiao, Xiang; Wu, Yongzhong

    2016-10-01

    In conventional continuous polishing process, the surface shape of work-piece was measured by an optical plane template after being placed in such environment with constant temperature for 1 to 2 hours. During this period, uncertain influence may occur on the polishing pad due to the change of system state. Meanwhile, the regular off-line testing may cause re-processing. In this paper, a new method about on-line monitoring surface shape of optical elements is proposed by the theory of run sphere, and the change in curvature radius of the work-piece which lead to its radial tilt angle change. The change in work-piece surface shape indirectly obtain by the correction plate small angle with respect to the horizontal, and the angle were detected on line by the high-precision goniometer with the resolution 0.04 ''. According to theoretical calculations, the diameter of 200mm precision work-piece PV value up to 0.02λ (λ = 632.8nm). The fused quartz glass was measured by above method. The test results showed that the surface accuracy and processing efficiency were significantly promoted, and also improving the controllability of surface shape of work-piece based on this method.

  17. Fast calculation method of computer-generated cylindrical hologram using wave-front recording surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Piao, Mei-lan; Li, Gang; Kim, Nam

    2015-07-01

    Fast calculation method for a computer-generated cylindrical hologram (CGCH) is proposed. The method consists of two steps: the first step is a calculation of a virtual wave-front recording surface (WRS), which is located between the 3D object and CGCH. In the second step, in order to obtain a CGCH, we execute the diffraction calculation based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) from the WRS to the CGCH, which are in the same concentric arrangement. The computational complexity is dramatically reduced in comparison with direct integration method. The simulation results confirm that our proposed method is able to improve the computational speed of CGCH.

  18. Surface properties of diamond-like carbon films prepared by CVD and PVD methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Dong-Ping; Liu Yan-Hong; Chen Bao-Xiang

    2006-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been deposited using three different techniques: (a) electron cyclotron resonance-plasma source ion implantation, (b) low-pressure dielectric barrier discharge, (c) filtered-pulsed cathodic arc discharge. The surface and mechanical properties of these films are compared using atomic force microscopebased tests. The experimental results show that hydrogenated DLC films are covered with soft surface layers enriched with hydrogen and sp3 hybridized carbon while the soft surface layers of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films have graphite-like structure. The formation of soft surface layers can be associated with the surface diffusion and growth induced by the low-energy deposition process. For typical CVD methods, the atomic hydrogen in the plasmas can contribute to the formation of hydrogen and sp3 hybridized carbon enriched surface layers. The high-energy ion implantation causes the rearrangement of atoms beneath the surface layer and leads to an increase in film density. The ta-C films can be deposited using the medium energy carbon ions in the highly-ionized plasma.

  19. Surface tension method for determining binding constants for cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of ionic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmawardana, U.R.; Christian, S.D.; Tucker, E.E.; Taylor, R.W.; Scamehorn, J.F. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States))

    1993-09-01

    A new method has been developed for determining binding constants of complexes of cyclodextrins with surface-active compounds, including water-soluble ionic surfactants. The technique requires measuring the change in surface tension caused by addition of a cyclodextrin (CD) to aqueous solutions of the surfactant; the experimental results lead directly to inferred values of the thermodynamic activity of the surfactant. Surface tension results are reported for three different surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in the presence and in the absence of added [beta]-CD. Data for CPC have been obtained at surfactant concentrations below and above the critical micelle concentration. Correlations between surface tension and surfactant activity are expressed by the Szyszkowski equation, which subsumes the Langmuir adsorption model and the Gibbs equation. It is observed that the surface tension increases monotonically as [beta]-cyclodextrin is added to ionic surfactant solutions. At concentrations of CD well in excess of the surfactant concentration, the surface tension approaches that of pure water, indicating that neither the surfactant-CD complexes nor CD itself are surface active. Binding constants are inferred from a model that incorporates the parameters of the Szyszkowski equation and mass action constants relating to the formation of micelles from monomers of the surfactant and the counterion. Evidence is given that two molecules of CD can complex the C-16 hydrocarbon chain of the cetyl surfactants. 30 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. [Determination of critical surface tension--a comparison of 2 methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, B C; Ohm, A

    1988-03-01

    Two methods for the determination of the critical surface tension (gamma c) of pharmaceutical powders are compared: the so called "sinking-technique", which works by measuring the complete sinking of powders in liquids of varying surface tension and the determination of the critical surface tension by measuring the contact angle in dependence on the surface tension of wetting solvent/water-mixtures by means of the sessile drop-technique. The simple sinking-technique gives gamma c-values which only show a moderate degree of agreement with those determined by the sessile drop-technique. Thus the values determined by the sinking-technique are usually 1-3 mN/m higher than those determined by the sessile drop-technique.

  1. Solving eigenvalue problems on curved surfaces using the Closest Point Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Colin B.; Brandman, Jeremy; Ruuth, Steven J.

    2011-09-01

    Eigenvalue problems are fundamental to mathematics and science. We present a simple algorithm for determining eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on rather general curved surfaces. Our algorithm, which is based on the Closest Point Method, relies on an embedding of the surface in a higher-dimensional space, where standard Cartesian finite difference and interpolation schemes can be easily applied. We show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between a problem defined in the embedding space and the original surface problem. For open surfaces, we present a simple way to impose Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions while maintaining second-order accuracy. Convergence studies and a series of examples demonstrate the effectiveness and generality of our approach.

  2. Solving eigenvalue problems on curved surfaces using the Closest Point Method

    CERN Document Server

    Macdonald, Colin B; Ruuth, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    Eigenvalue problems are fundamental to mathematics and science. We present a simple algorithm for determining eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Laplace--Beltrami operator on rather general curved surfaces. Our algorithm, which is based on the Closest Point Method, relies on an embedding of the surface in a higher-dimensional space, where standard Cartesian finite difference and interpolation schemes can be easily applied. We show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between a problem defined in the embedding space and the original surface problem. For open surfaces, we present a simple way to impose Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions while maintaining second-order accuracy. Convergence studies and a series of examples demonstrate the effectiveness and generality of our approach.

  3. Solving eigenvalue problems on curved surfaces using the Closest Point Method

    KAUST Repository

    Macdonald, Colin B.

    2011-06-01

    Eigenvalue problems are fundamental to mathematics and science. We present a simple algorithm for determining eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on rather general curved surfaces. Our algorithm, which is based on the Closest Point Method, relies on an embedding of the surface in a higher-dimensional space, where standard Cartesian finite difference and interpolation schemes can be easily applied. We show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between a problem defined in the embedding space and the original surface problem. For open surfaces, we present a simple way to impose Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions while maintaining second-order accuracy. Convergence studies and a series of examples demonstrate the effectiveness and generality of our approach. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  4. Method for Correcting Control Surface Angle Measurements in Single Viewpoint Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, Alpheus W. (Inventor); Barrows, Danny A. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method of determining a corrected control surface angle for use in single viewpoint photogrammetry to correct control surface angle measurements affected by wing bending. First and second visual targets are spaced apart &om one another on a control surface of an aircraft wing. The targets are positioned at a semispan distance along the aircraft wing. A reference target separation distance is determined using single viewpoint photogrammetry for a "wind off condition. An apparent target separation distance is then computed for "wind on." The difference between the reference and apparent target separation distances is minimized by recomputing the single viewpoint photogrammetric solution for incrementally changed values of target semispan distances. A final single viewpoint photogrammetric solution is then generated that uses the corrected semispan distance that produced the minimized difference between the reference and apparent target separation distances. The final single viewpoint photogrammetric solution set is used to determine the corrected control surface angle.

  5. Method of making self-cleaning skin-like prosthetic polymer surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, John T.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Shibata, Jason

    2017-06-06

    An external covering and method of making an external covering for hiding the internal endoskeleton of a mechanical (e.g., prosthetic) device that exhibits skin-like qualities is provided. The external covering generally comprises an internal bulk layer in contact with the endoskeleton of the prosthetic device and an external skin layer disposed about the internal bulk layer. The external skin layer is comprised of a polymer composite with carbon nanotubes embedded therein. The outer surface of the skin layer has multiple cone-shaped projections that provide the external skin layer with superhydrophobicity. The carbon nanotubes are preferably vertically aligned between the inner surface and outer surface of the external skin layer in order to provide the skin layer with the ability to transmit heat. Superhydrophobic powders may optionally be used as part of the polymer composite or applied as a coating to the surface of the skin layer to enhance superhydrophobicity.

  6. Surface Nano Structures Manufacture Using Batch Chemical Processing Methods for Tooling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Calaon, Matteo; Gavillet, J.

    2011-01-01

    The patterning of large surface areas with nano structures by using chemical batch processes to avoid using highenergy intensive nano machining processes was investigated. The capability of different surface treatment methods of creating micro and nano structured adaptable mould inserts...... for subsequent polymer replication by injection moulding was analyzed. New tooling solutions to produce nano structured mould surfaces were investigated. Experiments based on three different chemical-based-batch techniques to establish surface nano (i.e. sub-μm) structures on large areas were performed. Three...... approaches were selected: (1) using Ø500 nm nano beads deposition for direct patterning of a 4” silicon wafer; (2) using Ø500 nm nano beads deposition as mask for 4” silicon wafer etching and subsequent nickel electroplating; (3) using the anodizing process to produce Ø500 nm structures on a 30x80 mm2...

  7. Theoretical study on real tooth surface of novel toroidal worm by the forming method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaoping

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The novel toroidal worm-gearing is a kind of worm transmission with spherical meshing elements, which is made up of worm, steel balls and worm gear, and its loading capacity and adaptability to errors can be improved by the mismatched technology applied to the meshing pair. Based on the directrix of worm surface, the mathematic model of worm surface is established, and the directrix-based forming method for machining worm surface is proposed. Further, the principle error in the machining process is analyzed, and the theoretic and real tooth surfaces of worm are fitted and compared on OpenGL platform. The results show that the tooth profile error can be controlled at the range of 0~1×10-5mm, and it is always 0 at the pressure angle.

  8. Method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jeffrey W.

    2009-09-22

    Reactive atom plasma processing can be used to shape, polish, planarize and clean the surfaces of difficult materials with minimal subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use a plasma torch, such as a conventional ICP torch. The workpiece and plasma torch are moved with respect to each other, whether by translating and/or rotating the workpiece, the plasma, or both. The plasma discharge from the torch can be used to shape, planarize, polish, and/or clean the surface of the workpiece, as well as to thin the workpiece. The processing may cause minimal or no damage to the workpiece underneath the surface, and may involve removing material from the surface of the workpiece.

  9. Standard test method for calibration of surface/stress measuring devices

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    Return to Contents page 1.1 This test method covers calibration or verification of calibration, or both, of surface-stress measuring devices used to measure stress in annealed and heat-strengthened or tempered glass using polariscopic or refractometry based principles. 1.2 This test method is nondestructive. 1.3 This test method uses transmitted light, and therefore, is applicable to light-transmitting glasses. 1.4 This test method is not applicable to chemically tempered glass. 1.5 Using the procedure described, surface stresses can be measured only on the “tin” side of float glass. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  10. A Study on a Multi-Objective Optimization Method Based on Neuro-Response Surface Method (NRSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jae-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The geometry of systems including the marine engineering problems needs to be optimized in the initial design stage. However, the performance analysis using commercial code is generally time-consuming. To solve this problem, many engineers perform the optimization process using the response surface method (RSM to predict the system performance, but RSM presents some prediction errors for nonlinear systems. The major objective of this research is to establish an optimal design framework. The framework is composed of three parts: definition of geometry, generation of response surface, and optimization process. To reduce the time for performance analysis and minimize the prediction errors, the response surface is generated using the artificial neural network (ANN which is considered as NRSM. The optimization process is done for the generated response surface by non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II. Through case study of a derrick structure, we have confirmed the proposed framework applicability. In the future, we will try to apply the constructed framework to multi-objective optimization problems.

  11. On-the-fly Numerical Surface Integration for Finite-Difference Poisson-Boltzmann Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qin; Ye, Xiang; Wang, Jun; Luo, Ray

    2011-11-01

    Most implicit solvation models require the definition of a molecular surface as the interface that separates the solute in atomic detail from the solvent approximated as a continuous medium. Commonly used surface definitions include the solvent accessible surface (SAS), the solvent excluded surface (SES), and the van der Waals surface. In this study, we present an efficient numerical algorithm to compute the SES and SAS areas to facilitate the applications of finite-difference Poisson-Boltzmann methods in biomolecular simulations. Different from previous numerical approaches, our algorithm is physics-inspired and intimately coupled to the finite-difference Poisson-Boltzmann methods to fully take advantage of its existing data structures. Our analysis shows that the algorithm can achieve very good agreement with the analytical method in the calculation of the SES and SAS areas. Specifically, in our comprehensive test of 1,555 molecules, the average unsigned relative error is 0.27% in the SES area calculations and 1.05% in the SAS area calculations at the grid spacing of 1/2Å. In addition, a systematic correction analysis can be used to improve the accuracy for the coarse-grid SES area calculations, with the average unsigned relative error in the SES areas reduced to 0.13%. These validation studies indicate that the proposed algorithm can be applied to biomolecules over a broad range of sizes and structures. Finally, the numerical algorithm can also be adapted to evaluate the surface integral of either a vector field or a scalar field defined on the molecular surface for additional solvation energetics and force calculations.

  12. The study of pervious concrete mix proportion by the method of specific surface area of aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liguang; Jiang, Dawei

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to solve the shortcoming of the mix proportion of pervious concrete. So we have done the research on the measurement of the specific surface area of aggregate, and the research on the volume change of cement after hydration, and the research on the best water-binder ratio and thickness of gelled material package. The experimental results show that the equivalent method is more accurate for measuring the specific surface area of aggregate. It can better reflect the specific surface area of aggregate. Moreover, the calculation method of the mix proportion of the cementing material can improve the utilization ratio of material and the quality of pervious concrete.

  13. Image method for induced surface charge from many-body system of dielectric spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian; de Pablo, Juan J.; Freed, Karl F.

    2016-09-01

    Charged dielectric spheres embedded in a dielectric medium provide the simplest model for many-body systems of polarizable ions and charged colloidal particles. We provide a multiple scattering formulation for the total electrostatic energy for such systems and demonstrate that the polarization energy can be rapidly evaluated by an image method that generalizes the image methods for conducting spheres. Individual contributions to the total electrostatic energy are ordered according to the number of polarized surfaces involved, and each additional surface polarization reduces the energy by a factor of (a/R)3ɛ, where a is the sphere radius, R the average inter-sphere separation, and ɛ the relevant dielectric mismatch at the interface. Explicit expressions are provided for both the energy and the forces acting on individual spheres, which can be readily implemented in Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations of polarizable charged spheres, thereby avoiding costly computational techniques that introduce a surface charge distribution that requires numerical solution.

  14. METHOD OF DETERMINING THE CURVE OF INTERSECTION BETWEEN A CYLINDRICAL SURFACE AND A TORUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Petre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The intersections of the cylindrical surfaces with a torus are often met in practice, for instance in the pneumatictransport installations for the intermediate products resulted from grist. The descriptive geometry is the foundation ofthe engineering sciences, giving force looking into space, much necessary to the specialists in this domain. She is theway to solve the problems in design and is one interdisciplinary link in the training of specialists in engineeringscience.The general method of construction of the curve of intersection of two surfaces is to find as many of its points, that itcan be drawn as accurately. Such points can be found using auxiliary surfaces (plan or spherical, which intersects thefirsts. The paper solves graphical one of these applications, using the classical method of the descriptive geometry.

  15. Dynamic simulation of free surfaces in capillaries with the finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trutschel, R.; Schellenberger, U.

    1998-02-01

    The mathematical formulation of the dynamics of free liquid surfaces including the effects of surface tension is governed by a non-linear system of elliptic differential equations. The major difficulty of getting unique closed solutions only in trivial cases is overcome by numerical methods. This paper considers transient simulations of liquid-gas menisci in vertical capillary tubes and gaps in the presence of gravity. Therefore the CFD code FIDAP 7.52 based on the Galerkin finite element method (FEM) is used. Calculations using the free surface model are presented for a variety of contact angles and cross-sections with experimental and theoretical verification. The liquid column oscillations are compared for numerical accuracy with a mechanical mathematical model, and the sensitivity with respect to the node density is investigated. The efficiency of the numerical treatment of geometric non-trivial problems is demonstrated by a prismatic capillary. Present restrictions limiting efficient transient simulations with irregularly shaped calculational domains are stated.

  16. Improvement of Surface Roughness Quality for Stainless Steel 420 Plate Using Magnetic Abrasive Finishing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya M. Hamad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out to improve the surface roughness quality of the stainless steel 420 using magnetic abrasive finishing method (MAF. Four independent operation parameters were studied (working gap, coil current, feed rate, and table stroke, and their effects on the MAF process were introduced. A rotating coil electromagnet was designed and implemented to use with plane surfaces. The magnetic abrasive powder used was formed from 33%Fe and 67% Quartz of (250µm mesh size. The lubricant type SAE 20W was used as a binder for the powder contents. Taguchi method was used for designing the experiments and the optimal values of the selected parameters were found. An empirical equation representing the relation between surface roughness with operation parameters have been achieved.

  17. Method of moving frames to solve the shallow water equations on arbitrary rotating curved surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, S.; Eskilsson, C.

    2017-03-01

    A novel numerical scheme is proposed to solve the shallow water equations (SWEs) on arbitrary rotating curved surfaces. Based on the method of moving frames (MMF) in which the geometry is represented by orthonormal vectors, the proposed scheme not only has the fewest dimensionality both in space and time, but also does not require either of metric tensors, composite meshes, or the ambient space. The MMF-SWE formulation is numerically discretized using the discontinuous Galerkin method of arbitrary polynomial order p in space and an explicit Runge-Kutta scheme in time. The numerical model is validated against six standard tests on the sphere and the optimal order of convergence of p + 1 is numerically demonstrated. The MMF-SWE scheme is also demonstrated for its efficiency and stability on the general rotating surfaces such as ellipsoid, irregular, and non-convex surfaces.

  18. Method for preparing microstructure arrays on the surface of thin film material

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Peng

    2017-02-09

    Methods are provided for growing a thin film of a nanoscale material. Thin films of nanoscale materials are also provided. The films can be grown with microscale patterning. The method can include vacuum filtration of a solution containing the nanostructured material through a porous substrate. The porous substrate can have a pore size that is comparable to the size of the nanoscale material. By patterning the pores on the surface of the substrate, a film can be grown having the pattern on a surface of the thin film, including on the top surface opposite the substrate. The nanoscale material can be graphene, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, molybdenum disulfide, hexagonal boron nitride, tungsten diselenide, molybdenum trioxide, or clays such as montmorillonite or lapnotie. The porous substrate can be a porous organic or inorganic membrane, a silicon stencil membrane, or similar membrane having pore sizes on the order of microns.

  19. Apparatus and method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for shaping of damage free surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr; Jeffrey W.

    2009-03-31

    Fabrication apparatus and methods are disclosed for shaping and finishing difficult materials with no subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use an atmospheric pressure mixed gas plasma discharge as a sub-aperture polisher of, for example, fused silica and single crystal silicon, silicon carbide and other materials. In one example, workpiece material is removed at the atomic level through reaction with fluorine atoms. In this example, these reactive species are produced by a noble gas plasma from trace constituent fluorocarbons or other fluorine containing gases added to the host argon matrix. The products of the reaction are gas phase compounds that flow from the surface of the workpiece, exposing fresh material to the etchant without condensation and redeposition on the newly created surface. The discharge provides a stable and predictable distribution of reactive species permitting the generation of a predetermined surface by translating the plasma across the workpiece along a calculated path.

  20. A Versatile Star PEG Grafting Method for the Generation of Nonfouling and Nonthrombogenic Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Thalla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG grafting has a great potential to create nonfouling and nonthrombogenic surfaces, but present techniques lack versatility and stability. The present work aimed to develop a versatile PEG grafting method applicable to most biomaterial surfaces, by taking advantage of novel primary amine-rich plasma-polymerized coatings. Star-shaped PEG covalent binding was studied using static contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D. Fluorescence and QCM-D both confirmed strong reduction of protein adsorption when compared to plasma-polymerized coatings and pristine poly(ethyleneterephthalate (PET. Moreover, almost no platelet adhesion was observed after 15 min perfusion in whole blood. Altogether, our results suggest that primary amine-rich plasma-polymerized coatings offer a promising stable and versatile method for PEG grafting in order to create nonfouling and nonthrombogenic surfaces and micropatterns.

  1. Analysis of the Contact Area of Smooth and Rough Surfaces in Contact with Sphere Indenter Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the contact area of the contact between a deformable rough surface (smooth and rough and a hard smooth sphere indenter using finite element method. A method was introduced to generate a three dimensional rough surfaces using Computer Aided Design (CAD software. The rough surface model was developed based on the surface measurement data, while the smooth surface model was generated from the CAD software. Contact area and contact deformation were analyzed. Results showed that the contact area between rough surface versus sphere and smooth surface versus sphere is different.

  2. Reaction sampling and reactivity prediction using the stochastic surface walking method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Zhi-Pan

    2015-01-28

    The prediction of chemical reactivity and thus the design of new reaction systems are the key challenges in chemistry. Here, we develop an unbiased general-purpose reaction sampling method, the stochastic surface walking based reaction sampling (SSW-RS) method, and show that the new method is a promising solution for reactivity prediction of complex reaction systems. The SSW-RS method is capable of sampling both the configuration space of the reactant and the reaction space of pathways, owing to the combination of two recently developed theoretical methods, namely, the stochastic surface walking (SSW) method for potential energy surface (PES) exploration and the double-ended surface walking (DESW) method for building pathways. By integrating with first principles calculations, we show that the SSW-RS method can be applied to investigate the kinetics of complex organic reactions featuring many possible reaction channels and complex hydrogen-bonding networks, as demonstrated here using two examples, epoxypropane hydrolysis in aqueous solution and β-d-glucopyranose decomposition. Our results show that simultaneous sampling of the soft hydrogen-bonding conformations and the chemical reactions involving hard bond making/breaking can be achieved in the SSW-RS simulation, and the mechanism and kinetics can be predicted without a priori information on the system. Unexpected new chemistry for these reactions is revealed and discussed. In particular, despite many possible pathways for β-d-glucopyranose decomposition, the SSW-RS shows that only β-d-glucose and levoglucosan are kinetically preferred direct products and the 5- or 7-member ring products should be secondary products derived from β-d-glucose or levoglucosan. As a general tool for reactivity prediction, the SSW-RS opens a new route for the design of rational reactions.

  3. Variational space-time (dis)continuous Galerkin method for nonlinear free surface waves

    OpenAIRE

    Gagarina, E; Vegt, van der, N.F.A.; Ambati, V.R.; Bokhove, O.

    2013-01-01

    A new variational finite element method is developed for nonlinear free surface gravity water waves. This method also handles waves generated by a wave maker. Its formulation stems from Miles' variational principle for water waves together with a space-time finite element discretization that is continuous in space and discontinuous in time. The key features of this formulation are: (i) a discrete variational approach that gives rise to conservation of discrete energy and phase space and prese...

  4. Comparison of two split-window methods for retrieving land surface temperature from MODIS data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shaohua Zhao; Qiming Qin; Yonghui Yang; Yujiu Xiong; Guoyu Qiu

    2009-08-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key parameter in environment and earth science study, especially for monitoring drought. The objective of this work is a comparison of two split-window methods: Mao method and Sobrino method, for retrieving LST using MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data in North China Plain. The results show that the max, min and mean errors of Mao method are 1.33K, 1.54K and 0.13K lower than the standard LST product respectively; while those of Sobrino method are 0.73K, 1.46K and 1.50K higher than the standard respectively. Validation of the two methods using LST product based on weather stations shows a good agreement between the standard and Sobrino method, with RMSE of 1.17K, whereas RMSE of Mao method is 1.85K. Finally, the study introduces the Sobmao method, which is based on Sobrino method but simplifies the estimation of atmospheric water vapour content using Mao method. The Sobmao method has almost the same accuracy with Sobrino method. With high accuracy and simplification of water vapour content estimation, the Sobmao method is recommendable in LST inversion for good application in Ningxia region, the northwest China, with mean error of 0.33K and the RMSE value of 0.91K.

  5. Surface Integral Method for the Second Harmonic Generation in Metal Nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Forestiere, Carlo; Miano, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Second harmonic (SH) radiation in metal nanoparticles is generated by both nonlocal-bulk and local-surface SH sources, induced by the electromagnetic field at the fundamental frequency. We propose a surface integral equation (SIE) method for evaluating the SH radiation generated by metal nanoparticles with arbitrary shapes, considering both the local-surface and nonlocal-bulk SH sources. We demonstrate that the contribution of the nonlocal-bulk SH source to the SH electromagnetic field can be rigorously taken into account through an equivalent surface magnetic current. We numerically solve the SIE problem by using the Galerkin method and the Rao-Wilton-Glisson basis functions in the framework of the distribution theory. The accuracy of the proposed method is verified by comparison with the SH-Mie formulation in the case of SH generation from a spherical nanoparticle. As an example of a complex-shaped particle, we investigate the SH radiation generated from a triangular nano-prism. The method paves the way for...

  6. Theoretical study of nonlinear triatomic molecular potential energy surfaces:Lie algebraic method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑雨军; 丁世良

    2000-01-01

    Triatomic molecular potential energy surfaces (PES) are obtained by using coherent state to take the classical limits of algebraic Hamiltonian. The algebraic Hamiltonian for bent tria-tomic molecules can be obtained using Lie algebraic method (the expansion coefficients are obtained by fitting spectroscopic data). This PES is applied to H2O molecule, and good results are obtained.

  7. Application of stereological methods to estimate post-mortem brain surface area using 3T MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furlong, Carolyn; García-Fiñana, Marta; Puddephat, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Cavalieri and Vertical Sections methods of design based stereology were applied in combination with 3 tesla (i.e. 3T) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to estimate cortical and subcortical volume, area of the pial surface, area of the grey-white matter boundary, and thickness of the cerebral...

  8. A new surface electromyography analysis method to determine spread of muscle fiber conduction velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, F; Van Weerden, TW; Van der Hoeven, JH

    2002-01-01

    Muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) estimation from surface signals is widely used to study muscle function, e. g., in neuromuscular disease and in fatigue studies. However, most analysis methods do not yield information about the velocity distribution of the various motor unit action potentials

  9. Variational space-time (dis)continuous Galerkin method for linear free surface waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambati, V.R.; Vegt, van der J.J.W.; Bokhove, O.

    2008-01-01

    A new variational (dis)continuous Galerkin finite element method is presented for the linear free surface gravity water wave equations. We formulate the space-time finite element discretization based on a variational formulation analogous to Luke's variational principle. The linear algebraic system

  10. Analysis of method of polarization surveying of water surface oil pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, B. S.

    1979-01-01

    A method of polarization surveying of oil films on the water surface is analyzed. Model calculations of contrasted oil and water obtained with different orientations of the analyzer are discussed. The model depends on the spectral range, water transparency and oil film, and the selection of observational direction.

  11. Device and method for enhanced collection and assay of chemicals with high surface area ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addleman, Raymond S.; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Cinson, Anthony D.; Bays, John T.; Wallace, Krys

    2016-02-16

    A method and device for enhanced capture of target analytes is disclosed. This invention relates to collection of chemicals for separations and analysis. More specifically, this invention relates to a solid phase microextraction (SPME) device having better capability for chemical collection and analysis. This includes better physical stability, capacity for chemical collection, flexible surface chemistry and high affinity for target analyte.

  12. A new method for the determination of particulate contamination levels for surface cleanliness of fluid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Levels of contamination in fluid systems can be determined by a definition of a particle by a mathematical model, a method for calculating the tolerance limits of contamination, and an estimation of the probability that the contamination on the surface will migrate with the fluid in the system.

  13. Methods and apparatus for delivering high power laser energy to a surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faircloth, Brian O; Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2013-04-23

    There is provided a system, apparatus and methods for providing a laser beam to borehole surface in a predetermined and energy deposition profile. The predetermined energy deposition profiles may be uniform or tailored to specific downhole applications. Optic assemblies for obtaining these predetermined energy deposition profiles are further provided.

  14. Four chemical methods of porcelain conditioning and their influence over bond strength and surface integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, João Paulo Fragomeni; Oliveira, Andrea Becker; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu; Marquezan, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess four different chemical surface conditioning methods for ceramic material before bracket bonding, and their impact on shear bond strength and surface integrity at debonding. METHODS: Four experimental groups (n = 13) were set up according to the ceramic conditioning method: G1 = 37% phosphoric acid etching followed by silane application; G2 = 37% liquid phosphoric acid etching, no rinsing, followed by silane application; G3 = 10% hydrofluoric acid etching alone; and G4 = 10% hydrofluoric acid etching followed by silane application. After surface conditioning, metal brackets were bonded to porcelain by means of the Transbond XP system (3M Unitek). Samples were submitted to shear bond strength tests in a universal testing machine and the surfaces were later assessed with a microscope under 8 X magnification. ANOVA/Tukey tests were performed to establish the difference between groups (α= 5%). RESULTS: The highest shear bond strength values were found in groups G3 and G4 (22.01 ± 2.15 MPa and 22.83 ± 3.32 Mpa, respectively), followed by G1 (16.42 ± 3.61 MPa) and G2 (9.29 ± 1.95 MPa). As regards surface evaluation after bracket debonding, the use of liquid phosphoric acid followed by silane application (G2) produced the least damage to porcelain. When hydrofluoric acid and silane were applied, the risk of ceramic fracture increased. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptable levels of bond strength for clinical use were reached by all methods tested; however, liquid phosphoric acid etching followed by silane application (G2) resulted in the least damage to the ceramic surface. PMID:26352845

  15. Four chemical methods of porcelain conditioning and their influence over bond strength and surface integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Fragomeni Stella

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess four different chemical surface conditioning methods for ceramic material before bracket bonding, and their impact on shear bond strength and surface integrity at debonding.METHODS: Four experimental groups (n = 13 were set up according to the ceramic conditioning method: G1 = 37% phosphoric acid etching followed by silane application; G2 = 37% liquid phosphoric acid etching, no rinsing, followed by silane application; G3 = 10% hydrofluoric acid etching alone; and G4 = 10% hydrofluoric acid etching followed by silane application. After surface conditioning, metal brackets were bonded to porcelain by means of the Transbond XP system (3M Unitek. Samples were submitted to shear bond strength tests in a universal testing machine and the surfaces were later assessed with a microscope under 8 X magnification. ANOVA/Tukey tests were performed to establish the difference between groups (α= 5%.RESULTS: The highest shear bond strength values were found in groups G3 and G4 (22.01 ± 2.15 MPa and 22.83 ± 3.32 Mpa, respectively, followed by G1 (16.42 ± 3.61 MPa and G2 (9.29 ± 1.95 MPa. As regards surface evaluation after bracket debonding, the use of liquid phosphoric acid followed by silane application (G2 produced the least damage to porcelain. When hydrofluoric acid and silane were applied, the risk of ceramic fracture increased.CONCLUSIONS: Acceptable levels of bond strength for clinical use were reached by all methods tested; however, liquid phosphoric acid etching followed by silane application (G2 resulted in the least damage to the ceramic surface.

  16. Surface Sampling Collection and Culture Methods for Escherichia coli in Household Environments with High Fecal Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exum, Natalie G; Kosek, Margaret N; Davis, Meghan F; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2017-08-22

    Empiric quantification of environmental fecal contamination is an important step toward understanding the impact that water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions have on reducing enteric infections. There is a need to standardize the methods used for surface sampling in field studies that examine fecal contamination in low-income settings. The dry cloth method presented in this manuscript improves upon the more commonly used swabbing technique that has been shown in the literature to have a low sampling efficiency. The recovery efficiency of a dry electrostatic cloth sampling method was evaluated using Escherichia coli and then applied to household surfaces in Iquitos, Peru, where there is high fecal contamination and enteric infection. Side-by-side measurements were taken from various floor locations within a household at the same time over a three-month period to compare for consistency of quantification of E. coli bacteria. The dry cloth sampling method in the laboratory setting showed 105% (95% Confidence Interval: 98%, 113%) E. coli recovery efficiency off of the cloths. The field application demonstrated strong agreement of side-by-side results (Pearson correlation coefficient for dirt surfaces was 0.83 (p samples (Pearson (0.53, p method can be utilized in households with high bacterial loads using either continuous (quantitative) or categorical (semi-quantitative) data. The standardization of this low-cost, dry electrostatic cloth sampling method can be used to measure differences between households in intervention and non-intervention arms of randomized trials.

  17. Construction of 4D high-definition cortical surface atlases of infants: Methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-10-01

    In neuroimaging, cortical surface atlases play a fundamental role for spatial normalization, analysis, visualization, and comparison of results across individuals and different studies. However, existing cortical surface atlases created for adults are not suitable for infant brains during the first two postnatal years, which is the most dynamic period of postnatal structural and functional development of the highly-folded cerebral cortex. Therefore, spatiotemporal cortical surface atlases for infant brains are highly desired yet still lacking for accurate mapping of early dynamic brain development. To bridge this significant gap, leveraging our infant-dedicated computational pipeline for cortical surface-based analysis and the unique longitudinal infant MRI dataset acquired in our research center, in this paper, we construct the first spatiotemporal (4D) high-definition cortical surface atlases for the dynamic developing infant cortical structures at seven time points, including 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months of age, based on 202 serial MRI scans from 35 healthy infants. For this purpose, we develop a novel method to ensure the longitudinal consistency and unbiasedness to any specific subject and age in our 4D infant cortical surface atlases. Specifically, we first compute the within-subject mean cortical folding by unbiased groupwise registration of longitudinal cortical surfaces of each infant. Then we establish longitudinally-consistent and unbiased inter-subject cortical correspondences by groupwise registration of the geometric features of within-subject mean cortical folding across all infants. Our 4D surface atlases capture both longitudinally-consistent dynamic mean shape changes and the individual variability of cortical folding during early brain development. Experimental results on two independent infant MRI datasets show that using our 4D infant cortical surface atlases as templates leads to significantly improved accuracy for spatial normalization

  18. An Explicit MOT-TD-VIE Solver for Time Varying Media

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin

    2016-03-15

    An explicit marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time domain electric field integral equation enforced on volumes with time varying dielectric permittivity is proposed. Unknowns of the integral equation and the constitutive relation, i.e., flux density and field intensity, are discretized using full and half Schaubert-Wilton-Glisson functions in space. Temporal interpolation is carried out using band limited approximate prolate spherical wave functions. The discretized coupled system of integral equation and constitutive relation is integrated in time using a PE(CE)m type linear multistep scheme. Unlike the existing MOT methods, the resulting explicit MOT scheme allows for straightforward incorporation of the time variation in the dielectric permittivity.

  19. Advancing extraction techniques : new technologies vie for a piece of the growing in situ pie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulfield, P.

    2010-09-15

    This article described 3 technologies that rely on heat to extract bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands. According to the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, in situ extraction is projected to soon surpass mining as the primary source of bitumen production in the region. Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations and cyclic steam stimulation (CSS), to a lesser extent, are set to lead the industry. Interest is also growing in other technologies, including toe-to-heel air injection (THAI), combustion overhead gravity drainage (COGD) and enhanced solvent extraction. These processes were all developed by Calgary-based organizations and claim to offer economic, environmental or operational improvements over traditional in situ extraction technologies. This article described the different methods they use to heat the reservoirs and the amount of heat required to recover the bitumen. The THAI technology uses combustion initiated from vertical air injection wells to heat the reservoir, and gravity to collect the oil in the horizontal production wells to recover heavy oil and bitumen. The COGD technology uses a set of vertical air injector ignition wells above a horizontal production well that is located at the base of the bitumen pay zone. A multi-step pre-ignition heating cycle that uses steam prepares the cold bitumen in the reservoir for ignition and makes it more mobile. The enhanced solvent method builds upon the SAGD technology whereby heated propane vapour is injected at moderate pressures into the gravity drainage chamber. The vapour flows from the injection well to the colder perimeter of the chamber where it condenses, delivering heat and fresh solvent directly to the bitumen extraction interface. 2 figs.

  20. Effect of Four Methods of Surface Treatment on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets to Zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaei, Soghra; Aghili, Hossein Agha; Davari, Abdolrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Providing reliable attachment between bracket base and zirconia surface is a prerequisite for exertion of orthodontic force. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of four zirconium surface treatment methods on shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: One block of zirconium was trimmed into four zirconium surfaces, which served as our four study groups and each had 18 metal brackets bonded to them. Once the glazed layer was removed, the first group was etched with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid (HF), and the remaining three groups were prepared by means of sandblasting and 1W, and 2W Er: YAG laser, respectively. After application of silane, central incisor brackets were bonded to the zirconium surfaces. The SBS values were measured by a Dartec testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD for multiple comparisons. Results: The highest SBS was achieved in the sandblasted group (7.81±1.02 MPa) followed in a descending order by 2W laser group (6.95±0.87 MPa), 1W laser group (6.87±0.92 MPa) and HF acid etched group (5.84±0.78 MPa). The differences between the study groups were statistically significant except between the laser groups (Pacid etching for zirconium surface treatment prior to bracket bonding. PMID:26622283

  1. A triangulation-invariant method for anisotropic geodesic map computation on surface meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sang Wook; Seong, Joon-Kyung; Sung, Min-Hyuk; Shin, Sung Yo; Cohen, Elaine

    2012-10-01

    This paper addresses the problem of computing the geodesic distance map from a given set of source vertices to all other vertices on a surface mesh using an anisotropic distance metric. Formulating this problem as an equivalent control theoretic problem with Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman partial differential equations, we present a framework for computing an anisotropic geodesic map using a curvature-based speed function. An ordered upwind method (OUM)-based solver for these equations is available for unstructured planar meshes. We adopt this OUM-based solver for surface meshes and present a triangulation-invariant method for the solver. Our basic idea is to explore proximity among the vertices on a surface while locally following the characteristic direction at each vertex. We also propose two speed functions based on classical curvature tensors and show that the resulting anisotropic geodesic maps reflect surface geometry well through several experiments, including isocontour generation, offset curve computation, medial axis extraction, and ridge/valley curve extraction. Our approach facilitates surface analysis and processing by defining speed functions in an application-dependent manner.

  2. Comparison of different polishing methods on the surface roughness of microhybrid, microfill, and nanofill composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Mariana D; Godas, André Gustavo de L; Fernandes, Juliana C; Suzuki, Thaís Y U; Guedes, Ana Paula A; Briso, André L F; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina; Dos Santos, Paulo H

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different polishing methods on the surface roughness of resin-based composites subjected to a thermocycling procedure. A total of 192 specimens were divided into 24 groups, according to composite materials (Filtek Z250, Point 4, Renamel Nanofill, Filtek Supreme Plus, Renamel Microfill, and Premise) and finishing and polishing systems (Sof-Lex Pop On, Super Snap, Flexidisc, and Flexidisc+Enamelize). The specimens were subjected to thermocycling (5000 cycles). Filtek Supreme Plus showed the lowest surface roughness values before thermocycling. After thermocycling, Filtek Supreme Plus continued to have the lowest surface roughness, with a statistically-significant difference for the other materials. After thermocycling, there was no statistically-significant difference among all the polishing techniques studied. The thermocycling was concluded as being able to change composite resins' surface roughness, whereas different finishing and polishing methods did not result in surface roughness changes after thermocycling. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. ICESat Observations of Inland Surface Water Stage, Slope, and Extent: a New Method for Hydrologic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David J.; Jasinski, Michael F.

    2004-01-01

    River discharge and changes in lake, reservoir and wetland water storage are critical terms in the global surface water balance, yet they are poorly observed globally and the prospects for adequate observations from in-situ networks are poor (Alsdorf et al., 2003). The NASA-sponsored Surface Water Working Group has established a framework for advancing satellite observations of river discharge and water storage changes which focuses on obtaining measurements of water surface height (stage), slope, and extent. Satellite laser altimetry, which can achieve centimeter-level elevation precision for single, small laser footprints, provides a method to obtain these inland water parameters and contribute to global water balance monitoring. Since its launch in January, 2003 the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), a NASA Earth Observing System mission, has achieved over 540 million laser pulse observations of ice sheet, ocean surface, land topography, and inland water elevations and cloud and aerosol height distributions. By recording the laser backscatter from 80 m diameter footprints spaced 175 m along track, ICESat acquires globally-distributed elevation profiles, using a 1064 nm laser altimeter channel, and cloud and aerosol profiles, using a 532 nm atmospheric lidar channel. The ICESat mission has demonstrated the following laser altimeter capabilities relevant to observations of inland water: (1) elevation measurements with a precision of 2 to 3 cm for flat surfaces, suitable for detecting river surface slopes along long river reaches or between multiple crossings of a meandering river channel, (2) from the laser backscatter waveform, detection of water surface elevations beneath vegetation canopies, suitable for measuring water stage in flooded forests, (3) single pulse absolute elevation accuracy of about 50 cm (1 sigma) for 1 degree sloped surfaces, with calibration work in progress indicating that a final accuracy of about 12 cm (1 sigma) will be

  4. New methods to quantify NH3 volatilization from fertilized surface soil with urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Alves

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous N losses from soil are considerable, resulting mostly from ammonia volatilization linked to agricultural activities such as pasture fertilization. The use of simple and accessible measurement methods of such losses is fundamental in the evaluation of the N cycle in agricultural systems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate quantification methods of NH3 volatilization from fertilized surface soil with urea, with minimal influence on the volatilization processes. The greenhouse experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with 13 treatments and five replications, with the following treatments: (1 Polyurethane foam (density 20 kg m-3 with phosphoric acid solution absorber (foam absorber, installed 1, 5, 10 and 20 cm above the soil surface; (2 Paper filter with sulfuric acid solution absorber (paper absorber, 1, 5, 10 and 20 cm above the soil surface; (3 Sulfuric acid solution absorber (1, 5 and 10 cm above the soil surface; (4 Semi-open static collector; (5 15N balance (control. The foam absorber placed 1 cm above the soil surface estimated the real daily rate of loss and accumulated loss of NH3N and proved efficient in capturing NH3 volatized from urea-treated soil. The estimates based on acid absorbers 1, 5 and 10 cm above the soil surface and paper absorbers 1 and 5 cm above the soil surface were only realistic for accumulated N-NH3 losses. Foam absorbers can be indicated to quantify accumulated and daily rates of NH3 volatilization losses similarly to an open static chamber, making calibration equations or correction factors unnecessary.

  5. Novel method for the measurement of liquid film thickness during fuel spray impingement on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, S; Beyrau, F; Hardalupas, Y; Taylor, A M K P

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a novel optical technique for the measurement of liquid film thickness formed on surfaces during the impingement of automotive fuel sprays. The technique makes use of the change of the light scattering characteristics of a metal surface with known roughness, when liquid is deposited. Important advantages of the technique over previously established methods are the ability to measure the time-dependent spatial distribution of the liquid film without a need to add a fluorescent tracer to the liquid, while the measurement principle is not influenced by changes of the pressure and temperature of the liquid or the surrounding gas phase. Also, there is no need for non-fluorescing surrogate fuels. However, an in situ calibration of the dependence of signal intensity on liquid film thickness is required. The developed method can be applied to measure the time-dependent and two-dimensional distribution of the liquid fuel film thickness on the piston or the liner of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. The applicability of this technique was evaluated with impinging sprays of several linear alkanes and alcohols with different thermo-physical properties. The surface temperature of the impingement plate was controlled to simulate the range of piston surface temperatures inside a GDI engine. Two sets of liquid film thickness measurements were obtained. During the first set, the surface temperature of the plate was kept constant, while the spray of different fuels interacted with the surface. In the second set, the plate temperature was adjusted to match the boiling temperature of each fuel. In this way, the influence of the surface temperature on the liquid film created by the spray of different fuels and their evaporation characteristics could be demonstrated.

  6. The Detection of Vertical Cracks in Asphalt Using Seismic Surface Wave Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodice, M.; Muggleton, J.; Rustighi, E.

    2016-09-01

    Assessment of the location and of the extension of cracking in road surfaces is important for determining the potential level of deterioration in the road overall and the infrastructure buried beneath it. Damage in a pavement structure is usually initiated in the tarmac layers, making the Rayleigh wave ideally suited for the detection of shallow surface defects. This paper presents an investigation of two surface wave methods to detect and locate top-down cracks in asphalt layers. The aim of the study is to compare the results from the well- established Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) and the more recent Multiple Impact of Surface Waves (MISW) in the presence of a discontinuity and to suggest the best surface wave technique for evaluating the presence and the extension of vertical cracks in roads. The study is conducted through numerical simulations alongside experimental investigations and it considers the cases for which the cracking is internal and external to the deployment of sensors. MISW is found to enhance the visibility of the reflected waves in the frequency wavenumber (f-k) spectrum, helping with the detection of the discontinuity. In some cases, by looking at the f-k spectrum obtained with MISW it is possible to extract information regarding the location and the depth of the cracking.

  7. A Fast Variational Method for the Construction of Resolution Adaptive C-Smooth Molecular Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Chandrajit L; Xu, Guoliang; Zhang, Qin

    2009-05-01

    We present a variational approach to smooth molecular (proteins, nucleic acids) surface constructions, starting from atomic coordinates, as available from the protein and nucleic-acid data banks. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations traditionally used in understanding protein and nucleic-acid folding processes, are based on molecular force fields, and require smooth models of these molecular surfaces. To accelerate MD simulations, a popular methodology is to employ coarse grained molecular models, which represent clusters of atoms with similar physical properties by psuedo- atoms, resulting in coarser resolution molecular surfaces. We consider generation of these mixed-resolution or adaptive molecular surfaces. Our approach starts from deriving a general form second order geometric partial differential equation in the level-set formulation, by minimizing a first order energy functional which additionally includes a regularization term to minimize the occurrence of chemically infeasible molecular surface pockets or tunnel-like artifacts. To achieve even higher computational efficiency, a fast cubic B-spline C(2) interpolation algorithm is also utilized. A narrow band, tri-cubic B-spline level-set method is then used to provide C(2) smooth and resolution adaptive molecular surfaces.

  8. Investigation on electromagnetic scattering from rough soil surface of layered medium using the small perturbation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Xin-Cheng; Guo Li-Xin

    2008-01-01

    Electromagnetic scattering from a rough surface of layered medium is investigated, and the formulae of the scattering coefficients for different polarizations are derived using the small perturbation method. A rough surface with exponential correlation function is presented for describing a rough soil surface of layered medium, the formula of its scattering coefficient is derived by considering the spectrum of the rough surface with exponential correlation function; the curves of the bistatic scattering coefficient of HH polarization with variation of the scattering angle are obtained by numerical calculation. The influence of the permittivity of layered medium, the mean layer thickness of intermediate medium, the roughness surface parameters and the frequency of the incident wave on the bistatic scattering coefficient is discussed. Numerical results show that the influence of the permittivity of layered medium, the mean layer thickness of intermediate medium, the rms and the correlation length of the rough surface, and the frequency of the incident wave on the bistatic scattering coefficient is very complex.

  9. Determination of Surface Area of Red Mud and BeringiteUsing Methylene Blue Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The adsorption of methylene blue (MB) on three soil amendments, red mud from Hungary, red mud from UK and beringite from Belgium, was studied to determine the surface areas of the amendments using a 0.005 mol L-1 NaCl solution and deionised water as background solutions. The surface areas determined by the methylene blue method in the 0.005 mol L-1 NaCl solution were 3.357, 2.340 and 5.576 m2 g-1 for red nmd (Hungary), red mud (UK) and beringite, respectively, slightly lower than those in the deionised water system. The largest surface area of beringite suggested that the MB could adsorb effectively on the interlayer surface of illite. The effect of NaCl on the surface areas was relatively small and may therefore be ignored. Both the 0.005 mol L-1 NaCl solution and deionised water could be used as a background solution for measurement of surface area of oxide-rich materials.

  10. Method of bonding functional surface materials to substrates and applications in microtechnology and anti-fouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiangdong; Liu, Jun; Liang, Liang

    2001-01-01

    A simple and effective method to bond a thin coating of poly(N-isopropylacylamide) (NIPAAm) on a glass surface by UV photopolymerization, and the use of such a coated surface in nano and micro technology applications. A silane coupling agent with a dithiocarbamate group is provided as a photosensitizer preferably, (N,N'-diethylamine) dithiocarbamoylpropyl-(trimethoxy) silane (DATMS). The thiocarbamate group of the sensitizer is then bonded to the glass surface by coupling the silane agent with the hydroxyl groups on the glass surface. The modified surface is then exposed to a solution of NIPAAm and a crosslinking agent which may be any organic molecule having an acrylamide group and at least two double bonds in its structure, such as N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide, and a polar solvent which may be any polar liquid which will dissolve the monomer and the crosslinking agent such as acetone, water, ethanol, or combinations thereof. By exposing the glass surface to a UV light, free radicals are generated in the thiocarbamate group which then bonds to the crosslinking agent and the NIPAAm. Upon bonding, the crosslinking agent and the NIPAAm polymerize to form a thin coating of PNIPAAm bonded to the glass. Depending upon the particular configuration of the glass, the properties of the PNIPAAm allow applications in micro and nano technology.

  11. Surface and Adsorption Properties of Activated Carbon Fabric Prepared from Cellulosic Polymer: Mixed Activation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhati, Surendra; Mahur, J. S.; Choubey, O. N. [Barkatullah Univ., Bhopal (India); Dixit, Mahur Savita [Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopla (India)

    2013-02-15

    In this study, activated carbon fabric was prepared from a cellulose-based polymer (viscose rayon) via a combination of physical and chemical activation (mixed activation) processes by means of CO{sub 2} as a gasifying agent and surface and adsorption properties were evaluated. Experiments were performed to investigate the consequence of activation temperature (750, 800, 850 and 925 .deg. C), activation time (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes) and CO{sub 2} flow rate (100, 200, 300 and 400 mL/min) on the surface and adsorption properties of ACF. The nitrogen adsorption isotherm at 77 K was measured and used for the determination of surface area, total pore volume, micropore volume, mesopore volume and pore size distribution using BET, t-plot, DR, BJH and DFT methods, respectively. It was observed that BET surface area and TPV increase with rising activation temperature and time due to the formation of new pores and the alteration of micropores into mesopores. It was also found that activation temperature dominantly affects the surface properties of ACF. The adsorption of iodine and CCl{sub 4} onto ACF was investigated and both were found to correlate with surface area.

  12. Response of surface-to-borehole SOTEM method on 2D earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiying; Younis Khan, Muhammad; Xue, Guoqiang

    2017-08-01

    Borehole TEM methods are mostly based on a ground loop source. In this paper, we propose a new surface-to-borehole SOTEM method that uses a horizontal grounded-wire source. In this method, the transmitter is deployed on the ground near a borehole and the receiver is moved along the borehole to record the transient signal. In order to gain a basic understanding of this method, we analyzed the response characteristics of a rectangular body in a homogeneous half space based on a pure two-dimensional (2D) modeling scheme. The electric field and magnetic field (time derivative) are obtained by using 2D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling. We demonstrated that the targets—especially the conductive targets—can be reflected according to the borehole SOTEM responses. The location and the electrical properties of the targets can also be estimated by qualitatively analyzing the response curves. However, the anomalous amplitude is weakened when the surface layer contains local inhomogeneous bodies or exhibits a conductive overburden. Compared with a loop source borehole TEM, electromagnetic fields for a borehole SOTEM decay more slowly and show greater sensitivity to anomalous bodies. This study provides aid for further data interpretation, and also indicates that surface-to-borehole SOTEM is an effective method for underground detection.

  13. A new passive seismic method based on seismic interferometry and multichannel analysis of surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Xia, Jianghai; Xu, Yixian; Xu, Zongbo; Pan, Yudi

    2015-06-01

    We proposed a new passive seismic method (PSM) based on seismic interferometry and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) to meet the demand for increasing investigation depth by acquiring surface-wave data at a low-frequency range (1 Hz ≤ f ≤ 10 Hz). We utilize seismic interferometry to sort common virtual source gathers (CVSGs) from ambient noise and analyze obtained CVSGs to construct 2D shear-wave velocity (Vs) map using the MASW. Standard ambient noise processing procedures were applied to the computation of cross-correlations. To enhance signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the empirical Green's functions, a new weighted stacking method was implemented. In addition, we proposed a bidirectional shot mode based on the virtual source method to sort CVSGs repeatedly. The PSM was applied to two field data examples. For the test along Han River levee, the results of PSM were compared with the improved roadside passive MASW and spatial autocorrelation method (SPAC). For test in the Western Junggar Basin, PSM was applied to a 70 km long linear survey array with a prominent directional urban noise source and a 60 km-long Vs profile with 1.5 km in depth was mapped. Further, a comparison about the dispersion measurements was made between PSM and frequency-time analysis (FTAN) technique to assess the accuracy of PSM. These examples and comparisons demonstrated that this new method is efficient, flexible, and capable to study near-surface velocity structures based on seismic ambient noise.

  14. A hybrid method for computing forces on curved dislocations threading to free surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, M; Cai, W; Xu, G; Bulatov, V V

    2005-06-06

    Dislocations threading to free surfaces present a challenge for numerical implementation of traction-free boundary conditions. The difficulty arises when canonical (singular) solutions of dislocation mechanics are used in combination with the Finite Element or Boundary Element (Green's function) methods. A new hybrid method is developed here in which the singular part and the non-singular (regular) part of the image stress are dealt with separately. A special analytical solution for a semi-infinite straight dislocation intersecting the surface of a half-space is used to account for the singular part of the image stress, while the remaining regular part of the image stress field is treated using the standard Finite Element Method. The numerical advantages of such regularization are demonstrated with examples.

  15. Une vie saine et active : des directives en matière d’activité physique chez les enfants et les adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnowski, Stan; LeBlanc, Claire MA

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ L’épidémie d’obésité juvénile augmente partout dans le monde. Même si les facteurs de risque d’obésité sont multifactoriels, bon nombre sont liés au mode de vie et se prêtent à une intervention. Ces facteurs incluent le comportement sédentaire et la thermogenèse sans activité physique, de même que la fréquence, l’intensité, la quantité et le type d’activité physique. Les dispensateurs de soins de première ligne sont en position idéale pour surveiller le taux d’activité physique des enfants, des adolescents et de leur famille, évaluer les choix liés au mode de vie et offrir des conseils pertinents. Le présent document de principes contient des directives visant à réduire le comportement sédentaire et à accroître le taux d’activité physique au sein de la population pédiatrique. Des recommandations d’activités physiques adaptées au développement et visant les nourrissons, les tout-petits, les enfants d’âge préscolaire, les enfants et les adolescents sont présentées. Des stratégies de promotion d’une vie saine et active sur les scènes locale, municipale, provinciale, territoriale et fédérale sont proposées.

  16. An iterative method for obtaining the optimum lightning location on a spherical surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Gao; Qiming, MA

    1991-01-01

    A brief introduction to the basic principles of an eigen method used to obtain the optimum source location of lightning is presented. The location of the optimum source is obtained by using multiple direction finders (DF's) on a spherical surface. An improvement of this method, which takes the distance of source-DF's as a constant, is presented. It is pointed out that using a weight factor of signal strength is not the most ideal method because of the inexact inverse signal strength-distance relation and the inaccurate signal amplitude. An iterative calculation method is presented using the distance from the source to the DF as a weight factor. This improved method has higher accuracy and needs only a little more calculation time. Some computer simulations for a 4DF system are presented to show the improvement of location through use of the iterative method.

  17. Annual and Seasonal Glacier-Wide Surface Mass Balance Quantified from Changes in Glacier Surface State: A Review on Existing Methods Using Optical Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Rabatel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers are one of the terrestrial essential climate variables (ECVs as they respond very sensitively to climate change. A key driver of their response is the glacier surface mass balance that is typically derived from field measurements. It deserves to be quantified over long time scales to better understand the accumulation and ablation processes at the glacier surface and their relationships with inter-annual changes in meteorological conditions and long-term climate changes. Glaciers with in situ monitoring of surface mass balance are scarce at the global scale, and satellite remote sensing provides a powerful tool to increase the number of monitored glaciers. In this study, we present a review of three optical remote sensing methods developed to quantify seasonal and annual glacier surface mass balances. These methodologies rely on the multitemporal monitoring of the end-of-summer snow line for the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA method, the annual cycle of glacier surface albedo for the albedo method and the mapping of the regional snow cover at the seasonal scale for the snow-map method. Together with a presentation of each method, an application is illustrated. The ELA method shows promising results to quantify annual surface mass balance and to reconstruct multi-decadal time series. The other two methods currently need a calibration on the basis of existing in situ data; however, a generalization of these methods (without calibration could be achieved. The two latter methods show satisfying results at the annual and seasonal scales, particularly for the summer surface mass balance in the case of the albedo method and for the winter surface mass balance in the case of the snow-map method. The limits of each method (e.g., cloud coverage, debris-covered glaciers, monsoon-regime and cold glaciers, their complementarities and the future challenges (e.g., automating of the satellite images processing, generalization of the methods needing

  18. Numerical simulation of bistatic scattering from fractal rough surface in the finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Zhongxin

    2001-01-01

    [1]Jin, Y. Q., Electromagnetic Scattering Modeling for Quantitative Remote Sensing, Singapore: World Scientific, 1994.[2]Axline, R. M., Fung, A. K., Numerical computation of scattering from a perfectly conducting random surface, IEEE Transactions on Antenna and Propagation, 1978, 26(3): 482.[3]Jin Ya-qiu, Li Gang, Detection of a scatter target over randomly rough surface by using angular correlation function in finite element approach, Waves in Random Media, 2000, 10(4): 273.[4]Lou, S. H., Tsang, L., Chan, C. H. et al., Application of the finite element method of Monte Carlo simulations of scattering of waves by random rough surfaces with the periodic boundary condition, Journal of Electromagnrtic Waves and Applications, 1991, 5(8): 835.[5]Jaggard, D. L., Sun, X., Scattering from fractally corrugated surfaces, Journal of the Optical Society of American A, 1990, 7(6): 1055.[6]Franceschetti, G., Migliaccio, M., Riccio, D., An electromagnetic fractal-based model for the study of fading, Radio Science, 1996, 13(6): 1749.[7]Guerin, C. A., Holschneider, M., Saillard, M., Electromagnetic scattering from multi-scale rough surfaces, Waves in Random Media, 1997, 7(3): 331.[8]Jaggard, D. L., Sun, X., Fractal surface scattering: A generalized Rayleigh solution, Journal of Applied Physics, 1990, 68(11): 5456.[9]Mattia, F., Backscattering properties of multi-scale rough surfaces, Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, 1999, 13: 493.[10]Savailis, S., Frangos, P., Jaggard, D. L. et al., Scattering from fractally corrugated surfaces with use of the extended boundary condition method, Journal of the Optical Society of American A, 1997, 14(2): 475.[11]Rouvier, S., Chenerie, I., Ultra wide band electromagnetic scattering of a fractal profiles, Radio Science, 1997, 32(2): 285.[12]Sanchez-Gil, J. A., Garcia-Ramon, J. V., Far-field intensity of electromagnetic waves scattered from random, self-affine fractal metal surfaces

  19. A novel method of aligning molecules by local surface shape similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. A.; Bayada, D. M.; Johnson, A. P.

    2000-08-01

    A novel shape-based method has been developed for overlaying a series of molecule surfaces into a common reference frame. The surfaces are represented by a set of circular patches of approximately constant curvature. Two molecules are overlaid using a clique-detection algorithm to find a set of patches in the two surfaces that correspond, and overlaying the molecules so that the similar patches on the two surfaces are coincident. The method is thus able to detect areas of local, rather than global, similarity. A consensus overlay for a group of molecules is performed by examining the scores of all pairwise overlays and performing a set of overlays with the highest scores. The utility of the method has been examined by comparing the overlaid and experimental configurations of 4 sets of molecules for which there are X-ray crystal structures of the molecules bound to a protein active site. Results for the overlays are generally encouraging. Of particular note is the correct prediction of the `reverse orientation' for ligands binding to human rhinovirus coat protein HRV14.

  20. Acceleration of curing of resin composite at the bottom surface using slow-start curing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takako; Morigami, Makoto; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two slow-start curing methods on acceleration of the curing of resin composite specimens at the bottom surface. The light-cured resin composite was polymerized using one of three curing techniques: (1) 600 mW/cm(2) for 60 s, (2) 270 mW/cm(2) for 10 s+0-s interval+600 mW/cm(2) for 50 s, and (3) 270 mW/cm(2) for 10 s+5-s interval+600 mW/cm(2) for 50 s. After light curing, Knoop hardness number was measured at the top and bottom surfaces of the resin specimens. The slow-start curing method with the 5-s interval caused greater acceleration of curing of the resin composite at the bottom surface of the specimens than the slow-start curing method with the 0-s interval. The light-cured resin composite, which had increased contrast ratios during polymerization, showed acceleration of curing at the bottom surface.

  1. Detoxification of Implant Surfaces Affected by Peri-Implant Disease: An Overview of Surgical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Valderrama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Peri-implantitis is one of the major causes of implant failure. The detoxification of the implant surface is necessary to obtain reosseointegration. The aim of this review was to summarize in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials that have evaluated surgical approaches for detoxification of the implant body surfaces. Materials and Methods. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (PubMed from 1966 to 2013. The outcome variables were the ability of the therapeutic method to eliminate the biofilm and endotoxins from the implant surface, the changes in clinical parameters, radiographic bone fill, and histological reosseointegration. Results. From 574 articles found, 76 were analyzed. The findings, advantages, and disadvantages of using mechanical, chemical methods and lasers are discussed. Conclusions. Complete elimination of the biofilms is difficult to achieve. All therapies induce changes of the chemical and physical properties of the implant surface. Partial reosseointegration after detoxification has been reported in animals. Combination protocols for surgical treatment of peri-implantitis in humans have shown some positive clinical and radiographic results, but long-term evaluation to evaluate the validity and reliability of the techniques is needed.

  2. Variational space-time (dis)continuous Galerkin method for nonlinear free surface water waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagarina, E.; Ambati, V. R.; van der Vegt, J. J. W.; Bokhove, O.

    2014-10-01

    A new variational finite element method is developed for nonlinear free surface gravity water waves using the potential flow approximation. This method also handles waves generated by a wave maker. Its formulation stems from Miles' variational principle for water waves together with a finite element discretization that is continuous in space and discontinuous in time. One novel feature of this variational finite element approach is that the free surface evolution is variationally dependent on the mesh deformation vis-à-vis the mesh deformation being geometrically dependent on free surface evolution. Another key feature is the use of a variational (dis)continuous Galerkin finite element discretization in time. Moreover, in the absence of a wave maker, it is shown to be equivalent to the second order symplectic Störmer-Verlet time stepping scheme for the free-surface degrees of freedom. These key features add to the stability of the numerical method. Finally, the resulting numerical scheme is verified against nonlinear analytical solutions with long time simulations and validated against experimental measurements of driven wave solutions in a wave basin of the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands.

  3. A simple method for estimating the size of nuclei on fractal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang

    2017-10-01

    Determining the size of nuclei on complex surfaces remains a big challenge in aspects of biological, material and chemical engineering. Here the author reported a simple method to estimate the size of the nuclei in contact with complex (fractal) surfaces. The established approach was based on the assumptions of contact area proportionality for determining nucleation density and the scaling congruence between nuclei and surfaces for identifying contact regimes. It showed three different regimes governing the equations for estimating the nucleation site density. Nuclei in the size large enough could eliminate the effect of fractal structure. Nuclei in the size small enough could lead to the independence of nucleation site density on fractal parameters. Only when nuclei match the fractal scales, the nucleation site density is associated with the fractal parameters and the size of the nuclei in a coupling pattern. The method was validated by the experimental data reported in the literature. The method may provide an effective way to estimate the size of nuclei on fractal surfaces, through which a number of promising applications in relative fields can be envisioned.

  4. Systems and methods for producing metal clusters; functionalized surfaces; and droplets including solvated metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Li, Anyin; Luo, Qingjie

    2017-08-01

    The invention generally relates to systems and methods for producing metal clusters; functionalized surfaces; and droplets including solvated metal ions. In certain aspects, the invention provides methods that involve providing a metal and a solvent. The methods additionally involve applying voltage to the solvated metal to thereby produce solvent droplets including ions of the metal containing compound, and directing the solvent droplets including the metal ions to a target. In certain embodiments, once at the target, the metal ions can react directly or catalyze reactions.

  5. Position error correction in absolute surface measurement based on a multi-angle averaging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weibo; Wu, Biwei; Liu, Pengfei; Liu, Jian; Tan, Jiubin

    2017-04-01

    We present a method for position error correction in absolute surface measurement based on a multi-angle averaging method. Differences in shear rotation measurements at overlapping areas can be used to estimate the unknown relative position errors of the measurements. The model and the solving of the estimation algorithm have been discussed in detail. The estimation algorithm adopts a least-squares technique to eliminate azimuthal errors caused by rotation inaccuracy. The cost functions can be minimized to determine the true values of the unknowns of Zernike polynomial coefficients and rotation angle. Experimental results show the validity of the method proposed.

  6. Systems and methods for producing metal clusters; functionalized surfaces; and droplets including solvated metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Li, Anyin; Luo, Qingjie

    2017-01-24

    The invention generally relates to systems and methods for producing metal clusters; functionalized surfaces; and droplets including solvated metal ions. In certain aspects, the invention provides methods that involve providing a metal and a solvent. The methods additionally involve applying voltage to the solvated metal to thereby produce solvent droplets including ions of the metal containing compound, and directing the solvent droplets including the metal ions to a target. In certain embodiments, once at the target, the metal ions can react directly or catalyze reactions.

  7. Surface hot-film method for the measurement of transition, separation and reattachment points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Akihiko; Stack, John P.; Lin, John C.; Valarezo, Walter O.

    1993-01-01

    A real-time method of determining positions of laminar-to-turbulent transition region, separation and reattachment points and stagnation points using an array of simultaneously operated surface-mounted hot-film sensors has been developed and applied to a wind-tunnel test of a multielement airfoil model. Determination of various types of transitions and flow directions in various regimes of flows seen on multielement airfoils are possible without precise sensor calibration or laborious post-test data analysis. The results agree with established method and theoretical methods, but determination of turbulent reattachment points are not yet satisfactory.

  8. Vie d’inclusione dei musulmani in Europa: marketing halal e banca islamica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Gradoli

    2016-07-01

      This work aims to highlight the obstacles of the social, political, economic and financial exclusion of the European Muslims in order to present eventual inclusive solutions. In Europe the Islamic presence is growing because of two main reasons: the immigration fluxes from Asia and from the Islamic Mediterranean countries and the high birth rates of the European Muslim families. Even if part of the European culture presents several features deriving from the Islamic heritage and even if the national and EU legislations present anti-discrimination laws and specific protections for religious freedom, the Muslims have been socially excluded. Furthermore, Islamophobia has been increasing since 9/11 and especially in the recent months after the jihadist attacks in Paris and Brussels. This feeling increased the exception of Muslims from the public and private life in the European countries. Because of these reasons nowadays it is necessary to improve the available normative tools and, at the same time, it seems crucial to adopt a multidisciplinary method that should involve the Islamic banking, that is fundamental for the development of the Islamic European entrepreneurs, or the halal marketing which considers religion as a new/old variable for the microsegmentation of the European market.

  9. Methods for atomistic abrasion simulations of laterally periodic polycrystalline substrates with fractal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, S. J.; Bianchi, D.; Cihak-Bayr, U.; Gkagkas, K.

    2017-03-01

    In this work we discuss a method to generate laterally periodic polycrystalline samples with fractal surfaces for use in molecular dynamics simulations of abrasion. We also describe a workflow that allows us to produce random lateral distributions of simple but realistically shaped hard abrasive particles with Gaussian size distribution and random particle orientations. We evaluate some on-the-fly analysis and visualization possibilities that may be applied during a molecular dynamics simulation to considerably reduce the post-processing effort. Finally, we elaborate on a parallelizable post-processing approach to evaluating and visualizing the surface topography, the grain structure and orientation, as well as the temperature distribution in large atomistic systems.

  10. Free surface simulation of a two-layer fluid by boundary element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weoncheol Koo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A two-layer fluid with free surface is simulated in the time domain by a two-dimensional potential-based Numerical Wave Tank (NWT. The developed NWT is based on the boundary element method and a leap-frog time integration scheme. A whole domain scheme including interaction terms between two layers is applied to solve the boundary integral equation. The time histories of surface elevations on both fluid layers in the respective wave modes are verified with analytic results. The amplitude ratios of upper to lower elevation for various density ratios and water depths are also compared.

  11. QUANTUM-CHEMICAL MODIFICATIONS OF SURFACE:NEW METHODS FOR PROTECTING MATERIALS FROM CORROSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. T. Malkhasyan

    2001-01-01

    A new method of corrosion-resistant coating of technical iron is presented. Processingby vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules of the iron surface covered with oxide filmof a-Fe2O3 results in modification of surface by creating a film of amorphous ironon it. The presence of iron films with crystalline and amorphous phases, having thedifferent Fermi levels, leads tO formation of potential differences between them. Thispotential difference is opposite to the external electric field, resulting in decrease ofanode current and increase of corrosion resistance.

  12. Surface exposure dating of non-terrestrial bodies using optically stimulated luminescence: A new method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Jain, Mayank; Murray, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method for in situ surface exposure dating of non-terrestrial geomorphological features using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL); our approach is based on the progressive emptying of trapped charge with exposure to light at depth into a mineral surface. A complete model of t...... charge population. The potential dating applications for (a) include dust accumulation, volcanic rocks and impact-related sediments, and for (b) fault scarps, rock-falls, landslides and ice-scoured bedrock. Using assumptions based on terrestrial observations we expect that this approach...

  13. A method for brain 3D surface reconstruction from MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, De-xin

    2014-09-01

    Due to the encephalic tissues are highly irregular, three-dimensional (3D) modeling of brain always leads to complicated computing. In this paper, we explore an efficient method for brain surface reconstruction from magnetic resonance (MR) images of head, which is helpful to surgery planning and tumor localization. A heuristic algorithm is proposed for surface triangle mesh generation with preserved features, and the diagonal length is regarded as the heuristic information to optimize the shape of triangle. The experimental results show that our approach not only reduces the computational complexity, but also completes 3D visualization with good quality.

  14. A stereo vision method for tracking particle flow on the weld pool surface

    OpenAIRE

    C. X. Zhao; Richardson, I. M.; Kenjeres, S.; Kleijn, C.R.; Saldi, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The oscillation of a weld pool surface makes the fluid flow motion quite complex. Two-dimensional results cannot reflect enough information to quantitatively describe the fluid flow in the weld pool; however, there are few direct three-dimensional results available. In this paper, we describe a three-dimensional reconstruction method to measure weld pool surface features based on a single high-speed camera. A stereo adapter was added in front of the high-speed camera lens to obtain two images...

  15. Sol–gel method as a way of carbonyl iron powder surface modification for interaction improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Małecki, P., E-mail: pawel.malecki@pwr.edu.pl [Polymer Engineering and Technology Division, W-3, Wrocław University of Technology, Smoluchowskiego 25, 50 370 Wrocław (Poland); Kolman, K.; Pigłowski, J. [Polymer Engineering and Technology Division, W-3, Wrocław University of Technology, Smoluchowskiego 25, 50 370 Wrocław (Poland); Kaleta, J. [Department of Mechanics, Materials Science and Engineering, W-10, Wrocław University of Technology, Smoluchowskiego 25, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Krzak, J., E-mail: justyna.krzak@pwr.edu.pl [Department of Mechanics, Materials Science and Engineering, W-10, Wrocław University of Technology, Smoluchowskiego 25, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland)

    2015-03-15

    This article presents a method for modification of carbonyl iron particles’ surface (CIP), (d{sub 50}=4–9 µm) by silica coatings obtained using the sol–gel method. Reaction parameters were determined to obtain dry magnetic powder with homogeneous silica coatings without further processing and without any by-product in the solid or liquid phase. This approach is new among the commonly used methods of silica coating of iron particles. No attempt has been made to cover a carbonyl iron surface by silica in a waste-free method, up to date. In the current work two different silica core/shell structures were made by the sol–gel process, based on different silica precursors: tetraethoxy-silane (TEOS) and tetramethoxy-silane (TMOS). The dependence between the synthesis procedure and thickness of silica shell covering carbonyl iron particles has been described. Surface morphology of the modified magnetic particles and the coating thickness were characterized with the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Determination of the physicochemical structure of the obtained materials was performed by the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS), and the infrared technique (IR). The surface composition was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Additionally, distribution of particle size was measured using light microscopy. The new, efficient process of covering micro-size CIP with a nanometric silica layer was shown. Results of a performed analysis confirm the effectiveness of the presented method. - Highlights: • Proper covering CIP by sol–gel silica layer avoids agglomeration. • A new solid waste-free method of CIP coating is proposed. • Examination of the properties of modified CIP in depends on washing process. • Coatings on CIP particles doesn’t change the magnetic properties of particles.

  16. Analysis shear wave velocity structure obtained from surface wave methods in Bornova, Izmir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamuk, Eren, E-mail: eren.pamuk@deu.edu.tr; Akgün, Mustafa, E-mail: mustafa.akgun@deu.edu.tr [Department of Geophysical Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey); Özdağ, Özkan Cevdet, E-mail: cevdet.ozdag@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University Rectorate, Izmir (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Properties of the soil from the bedrock is necessary to describe accurately and reliably for the reduction of earthquake damage. Because seismic waves change their amplitude and frequency content owing to acoustic impedance difference between soil and bedrock. Firstly, shear wave velocity and depth information of layers on bedrock is needed to detect this changing. Shear wave velocity can be obtained using inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods (MASW- the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, ReMi-Refraction Microtremor, SPAC-Spatial Autocorrelation). While research depth is limeted in active source study, a passive source methods are utilized for deep depth which is not reached using active source methods. ReMi method is used to determine layer thickness and velocity up to 100 m using seismic refraction measurement systems.The research carried out up to desired depth depending on radius using SPAC which is utilized easily in conditions that district using of seismic studies in the city. Vs profiles which are required to calculate deformations in under static and dynamic loads can be obtained with high resolution using combining rayleigh wave dispersion curve obtained from active and passive source methods. In the this study, Surface waves data were collected using the measurements of MASW, ReMi and SPAC at the İzmir Bornova region. Dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods were combined in wide frequency band and Vs-depth profiles were obtained using inversion. Reliability of the resulting soil profiles were provided by comparison with theoretical transfer function obtained from soil paremeters and observed soil transfer function from Nakamura technique and by examination of fitting between these functions. Vs values are changed between 200-830 m/s and engineering bedrock (Vs>760 m/s) depth is approximately 150 m.

  17. Antes da história, depois da dedicatória: uma leitura historiográfica da introdução de "Vie de Jésus" (1863 de Ernest Renan * Before history, after the dedication: a historiographical reading of Ernest Renan’s introduction of "Vie de Jésus" (1863

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THIAGO AUGUSTO MODESTO RUDI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A emergência da história da historiografia está intimamente ligada à necessidade de reflexão acerca do ofício do historiador. Nesse sentido, surge a possibilidade de se pensar objetos e sujeitos de maneira desnaturalizada, como fabricações históricas. Por meio desses pressupostos interpretativos, o presente artigo visa apresentar uma compreensão da introdução da obra Vie de Jésus (1863 de Ernest Renan (1823-1892 como um espaço privilegiado de apreensão de configurações do saber e de um projeto historiográfico. Dessa forma, serão enfatizados os elementos que denotam o lugar dessa introdução como um plano de escrita da história de Renan. Palavras-chave: Historiografia Francesa Oitocentista – Ernest Renan – Vie de Jésus (1863. Abstract: The emergence of the history of historiography is closely linked to the need for reflection on the historian's craft. In this sense, arises the possibility of thinking about objects and subjects on a denaturalized way, as historical fabrications. Through these interpretative’s assumptions, this article aims to provide an understanding of the introduction of Ernest Renan’s (1823-1892 introduction of the Vie de Jésus (1863 as a learning’s settings and historiographical project privileged space of apprehension. In this way, the elements that denote this introduction’s place as a written Renan’s plan will be emphasize.Keywords: French 19th Century Historiography – Ernest Renan – Vie de Jésus (1863.

  18. Evaluation of the surface roughness in dental ceramics submitted to different finishing and polishing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alex C; Oliveira, Mario C S; Lima, Emilena M C X; Rambob, Isabel; Leite, Mariana

    2013-09-01

    Ceramic restorations have been widely used in dentistry. These restorations often require intraoral adjustment with diamond burs after their cementation causing increasing roughness of the ceramic surface. Consequently some finishing and polishing methods have been used to minimize this occurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the roughness of the ceramic surfaces submitted to different finishing and polishing methods. 144 specimens of VITAVM(®)7, VM(®)9 and VM(®)13 (VITA Zahnfabrik) ceramics were fabricated and submitted to grinding using diamond burs. They were then divided into 15 groups (five of each ceramic type). Groups 1, 6 and 11-positive control (Glaze); Groups 2, 7 and 12-negative control (no polishing); Groups 3, 8 and 13-polished with abrasive rubbers (Edenta), felt disc and diamond polishing past; Groups 4, 9 and 14-polished with abrasive rubbers (Shofu), felt disc and diamond polishing past; Groups 5, 10 and 15-polished with aluminum oxide discs (Sof-Lex, 3M-ESPE), felt disc and diamond polishing paste. The roughness of the samples surfaces were measured using the rugosimeter Surfcorder SE 1700 and the data were submitted to statistical analysis using ANOVA and Tukey test at a level of significance of 5 %. There was statistically significance difference between the positive control groups and the other groups in all the ceramic types. Mechanical finishing and polishing methods were not able to provide a surface as smooth as the glazed surface for the tested ceramics. To assist dental practitioners to select the best finishing and polishing methods for the final adjustment of the ceramic restorations.

  19. Normal contour error measurement on-machine and compensation method for polishing complex surface by MRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Chen, Jihong; Wang, Baorui; Zheng, Yongcheng

    2016-10-01

    The Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) process, based on the dwell time method with the constant normal spacing for flexible polishing, would bring out the normal contour error in the fine polishing complex surface such as aspheric surface. The normal contour error would change the ribbon's shape and removal characteristics of consistency for MRF. Based on continuously scanning the normal spacing between the workpiece and the finder by the laser range finder, the novel method was put forward to measure the normal contour errors while polishing complex surface on the machining track. The normal contour errors was measured dynamically, by which the workpiece's clamping precision, multi-axis machining NC program and the dynamic performance of the MRF machine were achieved for the verification and security check of the MRF process. The unit for measuring the normal contour errors of complex surface on-machine was designed. Based on the measurement unit's results as feedback to adjust the parameters of the feed forward control and the multi-axis machining, the optimized servo control method was presented to compensate the normal contour errors. The experiment for polishing 180mm × 180mm aspherical workpiece of fused silica by MRF was set up to validate the method. The results show that the normal contour error was controlled in less than 10um. And the PV value of the polished surface accuracy was improved from 0.95λ to 0.09λ under the conditions of the same process parameters. The technology in the paper has been being applied in the PKC600-Q1 MRF machine developed by the China Academe of Engineering Physics for engineering application since 2014. It is being used in the national huge optical engineering for processing the ultra-precision optical parts.

  20. Essais préliminaires d'un enduit hydraulique pour couche de roulement à longue durée de vie

    OpenAIRE

    DE LARRARD, F; Garcin, F.; F. Hammoum; Travers, F.

    2005-01-01

    Dans le cadre d'un programme de recherche international, le LCPC propose une solution technique innovante intitulée " Enduit hydraulique fibré gravillonné (EHFG) ". Il s'agit d'essayer de développer une technique de couche de roulement à longue durée de vie, consistant à étaler, sur une couche de liaison bitumineuse, une couche de mortier fibré à ultra-hautes performances, dans laquelle des gravillons à forte résistance au polissage seraient engravés. Au stade actuel, on a vérifié que ce maté...