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Sample records for surfacing methods vie

  1. The surface analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deville, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Nowadays, there are a lot of surfaces analysis methods, each having its specificity, its qualities, its constraints (for instance vacuum) and its limits. Expensive in time and in investment, these methods have to be used deliberately. This article appeals to non specialists. It gives some elements of choice according to the studied information, the sensitivity, the use constraints or the answer to a precise question. After having recalled the fundamental principles which govern these analysis methods, based on the interaction between radiations (ultraviolet, X) or particles (ions, electrons) with matter, two methods will be more particularly described: the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-rays photoemission spectroscopy (ESCA or XPS). Indeed, they are the most widespread methods in laboratories, the easier for use and probably the most productive for the analysis of surface of industrial materials or samples submitted to treatments in aggressive media. (O.M.)

  2. Method of measuring surface density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregor, J.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described of measuring surface density or thickness, preferably of coating layers, using radiation emitted by a suitable radionuclide, e.g., 241 Am. The radiation impinges on the measured material, e.g., a copper foil and in dependence on its surface density or thickness part of the flux of impinging radiation is reflected and part penetrates through the material. The radiation which has penetrated through the material excites in a replaceable adjustable backing characteristic radiation of an energy close to that of the impinging radiation (within +-30 keV). Part of the flux of the characteristic radiation spreads back to the detector, penetrates through the material in which in dependence on surface density or thickness of the coating layer it is partly absorbed. The flux of the penetrated characteristic radiation impinging on the face of the detector is a function of surface density or thickness. Only that part of the energy is evaluated of the energy spectrum which corresponds to the energy of characteristic radiation. (B.S.)

  3. Improved method for lifetime measurements; Methode perfectionnee de mesure de la duree de vie; Usovershenstvovannyj metod izmereniya vremeni zhizni; Metodo perfeccionado para medir la vida media de los estados de excitacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinzierl, P; Bartl, W [Oesterreichische Studiengesellschaft fuer Atomenergie, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1962-04-15

    The measurement of the lifetime of excited states of nuclei is mostly based on the measurement of the delay of a {gamma}-ray (II) in respect to another {gamma}-ray (I) or a {beta}-particle. Organic scintillators allow the best time resolution for the measurement of this decay time, but for complicated decay schemes the identification of {gamma}-energy is important and best achieved by NaI(Tl) scintillators. To combine the merits of both detectors the {gamma}-ray (II) is at first scattered in an organic crystal (stilbene) and the scattered quantum is detected in a Nal(Tl) crystal. In order to allow large acceptance angles between the two scintillators, the measurement of the {gamma}-energy is achieved after adding the pulse heights of both scintillation pulses. To allow a reliable function of the adding unit the pulses from the organic crystal pass first through a gate circuit which is triggered by coincidence between the two scintillators. The pulse spectrum from the adding unit is fed to a single-channel analyser for energy selection. {gamma}-ray (I) is detected in another organic crystal. Fast pulses from both organic scintillators go to a time-to-pulse-height converter and multichannel analyser. This analyser is gated by a slow coincidence between the pulse-height discriminators. (author) [French] La mesure de la duree de vie des etats excites des noyaux repose essentiellement sur celle du retard d'un rayon gamma (II) par rapport a un autre rayon gamma (I) ou a une particule beta. Les scintillateurs organiques permettent de mesurer cette duree de vie avec la meilleure resolution en temps; toutefois, pour les processus des excitations complexes, il est important de determiner l'energie gamma; les scintillateurs a NaI(Tl) sont les plus indiques a cette fin. Pour combiner les avantages de ces deux types de detecteurs, les rayons gamma (II) sont d'abord diffuses dans un cristal organique (stilbene); le quantum emergeant est ensuite detecte dans un cristal de Nal

  4. Kohvik-restoran C'est La Vie = Cafe-restaurant C'est La Vie

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Kohvik-restorani C'est La Vie (Suur-Karja 5, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitekt: Maile Grünberg, kes kavandas ka valdavalt mööbli. Laevalgusti disainis Tõnis Vellama. Skulptuuride (koopiad) autor on keraamik Ülle Rajasalu. Maile Grünbergist, tema viimased tööd. Keldrikorruse ja I korruse plaan, 8 värv. vaadet, foto M. Grünbergist

  5. La vie privée en droit camerounais

    OpenAIRE

    Kameni, Guy Marcel

    2013-01-01

    La vie privée, notion sibylline et contingente, n’a pas de définition légale en droit Camerounais comme dans d’autres législations occidentales à l’exemple de la France. Cette légèreté du législateur pose de sérieux problèmes qui font de la vie privée, un objet juridique indéterminé justifiant la nécessité de la détermination de sa valeur juridique. La vie privée est un objet juridique indéterminé dans la mesure où tout effort de définition est délicat et plusieurs notions semblent y faire pa...

  6. METHODS TO DEVELOP A TOROIDAL SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANAILA Ligia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper work presents two practical methods to draw the development of a surface unable to be developed applying classical methods of Descriptive Geometry, the toroidal surface, frequently met in technical practice. The described methods are approximate ones; the development is obtained with the help of points. The accuracy of the methods is given by the number of points used when drawing. As for any other approximate method, when practically manufactured the development may need to be adjusted on site.

  7. Monte Carlo method for random surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, B.

    1985-01-01

    Previously two of the authors proposed a Monte Carlo method for sampling statistical ensembles of random walks and surfaces with a Boltzmann probabilistic weight. In the present paper we work out the details for several models of random surfaces, defined on d-dimensional hypercubic lattices. (orig.)

  8. Les estimations du capital humain au Canada : approche fondee sur le revenu de la vie entiere

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Wulong; Wong, Ambrose

    2010-01-01

    Dans le present document, nous produisons une estimation de l'investissement en capital humain fonde sur le marche et du stock de ce capital au Canada au cours de la periode s'etendant de 1970 a 2007 selon l'approche fondee sur le revenu de la vie entiere. Nous comparons cette estimation a celle de l'investissement en capital physique et naturel et du stock de ce capital. En suivant la methode elaboree par Jorgenson et Fraumeni, nous estimons le stock de capital humain sous forme du revenu de...

  9. Surface physics theoretical models and experimental methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mamonova, Marina V; Prudnikova, I A

    2016-01-01

    The demands of production, such as thin films in microelectronics, rely on consideration of factors influencing the interaction of dissimilar materials that make contact with their surfaces. Bond formation between surface layers of dissimilar condensed solids-termed adhesion-depends on the nature of the contacting bodies. Thus, it is necessary to determine the characteristics of adhesion interaction of different materials from both applied and fundamental perspectives of surface phenomena. Given the difficulty in obtaining reliable experimental values of the adhesion strength of coatings, the theoretical approach to determining adhesion characteristics becomes more important. Surface Physics: Theoretical Models and Experimental Methods presents straightforward and efficient approaches and methods developed by the authors that enable the calculation of surface and adhesion characteristics for a wide range of materials: metals, alloys, semiconductors, and complex compounds. The authors compare results from the ...

  10. Surface modifying method for metal member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Kazuo; Enomoto, Kunio; Hirano, Akihiko; Hirano, Atsuya; Hattori, Shigeo; Hayashi, Eisaku; Ueyama, Toshiharu; Hayashi, Makoto

    1998-01-01

    A surface of a metal member such as carbon steel to be used in a corrosion circumstance such as in a nuclear power plant and a thermoelectric plant are polished. A printing method is conducted for removing obstacles on the surface of the member. Namely, a photographing printing paper immersed in a diluted sulfuric acid solution is appended tightly to the portion with its surface polished smoothly. Sulfur present in the form of an obstacle of MnS or present alone in the material reacts with the sulfuric acid to form a sulfuric acid gas, and reacts with Ag of the printing paper to discolor the printing paper to brown. When a peeled printing paper is discolored to brown, sulfur printing is repeated. After conforming that the peeled printing paper is white, the surface is washed. Subsequently, surface plasticization is conducted by water jet peening or shot peening. (I.N.)

  11. Optimized method for manufacturing large aspheric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xusheng; Li, Shengyi; Dai, Yifan; Xie, Xuhui

    2007-12-01

    Aspheric optics are being used more and more widely in modern optical systems, due to their ability of correcting aberrations, enhancing image quality, enlarging the field of view and extending the range of effect, while reducing the weight and volume of the system. With optical technology development, we have more pressing requirement to large-aperture and high-precision aspheric surfaces. The original computer controlled optical surfacing (CCOS) technique cannot meet the challenge of precision and machining efficiency. This problem has been thought highly of by researchers. Aiming at the problem of original polishing process, an optimized method for manufacturing large aspheric surfaces is put forward. Subsurface damage (SSD), full aperture errors and full band of frequency errors are all in control of this method. Lesser SSD depth can be gained by using little hardness tool and small abrasive grains in grinding process. For full aperture errors control, edge effects can be controlled by using smaller tools and amendment model with material removal function. For full band of frequency errors control, low frequency errors can be corrected with the optimized material removal function, while medium-high frequency errors by using uniform removing principle. With this optimized method, the accuracy of a K9 glass paraboloid mirror can reach rms 0.055 waves (where a wave is 0.6328μm) in a short time. The results show that the optimized method can guide large aspheric surface manufacturing effectively.

  12. Surface wave velocity tracking by bisection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, T.

    2005-01-01

    Calculation of surface wave velocity is a classic problem dating back to the well-known Haskell's transfer matrix method, which contributes to solutions of elastic wave propagation, global subsurface structure evaluation by simulating observed earthquake group velocities, and on-site evaluation of subsurface structure by simulating phase velocity dispersion curves and/or H/V spectra obtained by micro-tremor observation. Recently inversion analysis on micro-tremor observation requires efficient method of generating many model candidates and also stable, accurate, and fast computation of dispersion curves and Raleigh wave trajectory. The original Haskell's transfer matrix method has been improved in terms of its divergence tendency mainly by the generalized transmission and reflection matrix method with formulation available for surface wave velocity; however, root finding algorithm has not been fully discussed except for the one by setting threshold to the absolute value of complex characteristic functions. Since surface wave number (reciprocal to the surface wave velocity multiplied by frequency) is a root of complex valued characteristic function, it is intractable to use general root finding algorithm. We will examine characteristic function in phase plane to construct two dimensional bisection algorithm with consideration on a layer to be evaluated and algorithm for tracking roots down along frequency axis. (author)

  13. Computational method for free surface hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirt, C.W.; Nichols, B.D.

    1980-01-01

    There are numerous flow phenomena in pressure vessel and piping systems that involve the dynamics of free fluid surfaces. For example, fluid interfaces must be considered during the draining or filling of tanks, in the formation and collapse of vapor bubbles, and in seismically shaken vessels that are partially filled. To aid in the analysis of these types of flow phenomena, a new technique has been developed for the computation of complicated free-surface motions. This technique is based on the concept of a local average volume of fluid (VOF) and is embodied in a computer program for two-dimensional, transient fluid flow called SOLA-VOF. The basic approach used in the VOF technique is briefly described, and compared to other free-surface methods. Specific capabilities of the SOLA-VOF program are illustrated by generic examples of bubble growth and collapse, flows of immiscible fluid mixtures, and the confinement of spilled liquids

  14. VIE-FG-FFT for Analyzing EM Scattering from Inhomogeneous Nonmagnetic Dielectric Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Wen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new realization of the volume integral equation (VIE in combination with the fast Fourier transform (FFT is established by fitting Green’s function (FG onto the nodes of a uniform Cartesian grid for analyzing EM scattering from inhomogeneous nonmagnetic dielectric objects. The accuracy of the proposed method is the same as that of the P-FFT and higher than that of the AIM and the IE-FFT especially when increasing the grid spacing size. Besides, the preprocessing time of the proposed method is obviously less than that of the P-FFT for inhomogeneous nonmagnetic dielectric objects. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

  15. Computational efficiency for the surface renewal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jason; Higgins, Chad

    2018-04-01

    Measuring surface fluxes using the surface renewal (SR) method requires programmatic algorithms for tabulation, algebraic calculation, and data quality control. A number of different methods have been published describing automated calibration of SR parameters. Because the SR method utilizes high-frequency (10 Hz+) measurements, some steps in the flux calculation are computationally expensive, especially when automating SR to perform many iterations of these calculations. Several new algorithms were written that perform the required calculations more efficiently and rapidly, and that tested for sensitivity to length of flux averaging period, ability to measure over a large range of lag timescales, and overall computational efficiency. These algorithms utilize signal processing techniques and algebraic simplifications that demonstrate simple modifications that dramatically improve computational efficiency. The results here complement efforts by other authors to standardize a robust and accurate computational SR method. Increased speed of computation time grants flexibility to implementing the SR method, opening new avenues for SR to be used in research, for applied monitoring, and in novel field deployments.

  16. Developpement d'une methode d'analyse du cycle de vie consequentielle prospective macroscopique : Evaluation d'une politique de bioenergie dans L'Union Europeenne a l'horizon 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandres, Thomas

    Most of the time, the increase in human activities harms the environment. Due to the capacity limit of the Earth to bear such impacts and considering the growth of world population and its demands, there is a need to manage the future growth of human society in order to mitigate its impacts on the environment. Life cycle assessment (LCA) seems to be a great methodology for this purpose because it assesses different types of environmental impacts of a product or service based on all of its life cycle stages. However, it appears that LCA is not adapted to the evaluation of large-scale international policies required for some environmental issues. Especially, current LCA methodology fails to properly model indirect consequences on the environment of a major change within the energy sector in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change. To model these indirect consequences on the environment, global economy modeling is required as a major change in the energy sector is expected to affect the rest of the economy and therefore to cause indirect environmental impacts. This is the goal of this university thesis: Develop a new decision tool "macroscopic life cycle assessment" using the LCA methodology and the GTAP macroeconomic model in order to assess environmental impacts caused by significant changes in human society. Application of macroscopic LCA to two different European energy policies for the 2005-2025 period shows its ability to model some rebound effects and to compare environmental benefits obtained from a bioenergy policy versus environmental impacts caused by the economic growth during 2005-2025. Additionally, the method allows to identify regions where and time periods when environmental impacts are expected to occur. Macroscopic LCA has important application opportunities for LCA: while the methodology is usually used to study the environmental profile of a product or service, it now becomes possible to evaluate environmental

  17. Surface analytical methods in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgaertner, F.

    1985-06-01

    Application of SEM-EDX, AES, XPS are exemplarily demonstrated for highly radioactive materials with ionizing dose rates of about 1 Sv near the surface. The samples studied are aerosols from the high level waste vitrification process, postprecipitation in a pretreated fuel solution and emulsifying sludge from a solvent extraction process. The results of the chemical composition differentiated down to microscopic level reveal much more information about the history of a sample than those available from the integral macro-methods analysing. Elucidication of chemical composition and body structure in micrometer level may give insight into the origin and generation processes of samples under investigation. (orig.)

  18. The surface analysis methods; Les methodes d`analyse des surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deville, J.P. [Institut de Physique et Chimie, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1998-11-01

    Nowadays, there are a lot of surfaces analysis methods, each having its specificity, its qualities, its constraints (for instance vacuum) and its limits. Expensive in time and in investment, these methods have to be used deliberately. This article appeals to non specialists. It gives some elements of choice according to the studied information, the sensitivity, the use constraints or the answer to a precise question. After having recalled the fundamental principles which govern these analysis methods, based on the interaction between radiations (ultraviolet, X) or particles (ions, electrons) with matter, two methods will be more particularly described: the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-rays photoemission spectroscopy (ESCA or XPS). Indeed, they are the most widespread methods in laboratories, the easier for use and probably the most productive for the analysis of surface of industrial materials or samples submitted to treatments in aggressive media. (O.M.) 11 refs.

  19. Method for surface treatment by electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, S.; Doehler, H.; Bartel, R.; Ardenne, T. von.

    1985-01-01

    The invention has been aimed at simplifying the technology and saving energy in modifying surfaces with the aid of electron beams. The described beam-object geometry allows to abandon additional heat treatments. It can be used for surface hardening

  20. Nowcasting Surface Meteorological Parameters Using Successive Correction Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henmi, Teizi

    2002-01-01

    The successive correction method was examined and evaluated statistically as a nowcasting method for surface meteorological parameters including temperature, dew point temperature, and horizontal wind vector components...

  1. Fait saillant : Du savoir à l'action : Améliorer la vie des femmes ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Fait saillant : Du savoir à l'action : Améliorer la vie des femmes. 18 avril 2016. Image. Débat dexperts pour améliorer la vie des femmes. TECKLES PHOTOGRAPHY. Les services de garde d'enfants pourraient-ils être le chaînon manquant à l'autonomisation des femmes en Inde, au Kenya et au Canada? Comment la ...

  2. System and method for free-boundary surface extraction

    KAUST Repository

    Algarni, Marei

    2017-10-26

    A method of extracting surfaces in three-dimensional data includes receiving as inputs three-dimensional data and a seed point p located on a surface to be extracted. The method further includes propagating a front outwardly from the seed point p and extracting a plurality of ridge curves based on the propagated front. A surface boundary is detected based on a comparison of distances between adjacent ridge curves and the desired surface is extracted based on the detected surface boundary.

  3. A volume-based method for denoising on curved surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Biddle, Harry; von Glehn, Ingrid; Macdonald, Colin B.; Marz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for removing noise from images or other data on curved surfaces. Our approach relies on in-surface diffusion: we formulate both the Gaussian diffusion and Perona-Malik edge-preserving diffusion equations in a surface-intrinsic way. Using the Closest Point Method, a recent technique for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) on general surfaces, we obtain a very simple algorithm where we merely alternate a time step of the usual Gaussian diffusion (and similarly Perona-Malik) in a small 3D volume containing the surface with an interpolation step. The method uses a closest point function to represent the underlying surface and can treat very general surfaces. Experimental results include image filtering on smooth surfaces, open surfaces, and general triangulated surfaces. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. A volume-based method for denoising on curved surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Biddle, Harry

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate a method for removing noise from images or other data on curved surfaces. Our approach relies on in-surface diffusion: we formulate both the Gaussian diffusion and Perona-Malik edge-preserving diffusion equations in a surface-intrinsic way. Using the Closest Point Method, a recent technique for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) on general surfaces, we obtain a very simple algorithm where we merely alternate a time step of the usual Gaussian diffusion (and similarly Perona-Malik) in a small 3D volume containing the surface with an interpolation step. The method uses a closest point function to represent the underlying surface and can treat very general surfaces. Experimental results include image filtering on smooth surfaces, open surfaces, and general triangulated surfaces. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. La Vie de Marillac : un essai hagiographique ? Analyse comparée des sources utilisées par Nicolas Lefèvre de Lezeau dans la Vie de Marillac et la Vie de Morvillier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora De Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considérer Nicolas Lefèvre de Lezeau comme le biographe de son grand oncle ou comme l’hagiographe de son ami Michel de Marillac revient à glorifier la mémoire des trois héros au détriment du projet d’écriture de l’auteur. La Vie de Jean de Morvillier et la Vie de Michel de Marillac sont vivement marquées par l’omniprésence de leur auteur, quand bien même l’illusion de la richesse documentaire sur les trois héros voudrait l’estomper. Parce qu’ils convoquent une documentation riche et de nombreuses références littéraires, les trois récits de vie retrouvés témoignent d’une quête d’authenticité par leur auteur. En ce sens, la Vie de Marillac se dégage des deux autres récits de vie écrits par Lezeau. Le conseiller d’état n’y cherche effectivement pas seulement à raviver la mémoire de la Ligue dans le milieu dévot, ni même à construire une filiation entre ces deux partis. L’originalité de la Vie de Marillac tient de l’abondance des références spirituelles et de l’autorité que les mystiques incarnent pour sa validation. Pour les mystiques, la vie chargée d’un officier d’état demeure incompatible avec le mode de vie humble et contemplatif d’un « petit ». Du côté des politiques, la « cabale des dévots » représente une menace croissante pour l’autorité du roi. Dès lors, la Vie de Marillac de Lezeau nous invite à réfléchir sur les caractéristiques de rejet d’un modèle de sainteté (E. Suire. La postérité retient Marillac pour sa témérité et sa faillite face à la raison d’état de Richelieu, comme l’attestent le peu de biographies des xixe-xxe siècles de ce garde des sceaux. Parallèlement, si Marillac est décrit comme un laïc ayant fait preuve d’une grande dévotion dans les Histoires de l’ordre des Carmélites déchaussées parues aux xixe et xxe siècles, sa part active à la fondation de l’ordre en France ne suffit pas à faire de lui un saint

  6. L'Avenir de la Vie sur la Terre

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Notre planète va mal : réchauffement climatique, épuisement des ressources naturelles, pollutions des sols et de l'eau provoquées par les industries civiles et guerrières, disparité des richesses, malnutrition des hommes, taux d'extinction effarant des espèces vivantes, etc. La situation est-elle vraiment dramatique ? Que penser des thèses qui contestent ce pessimisme ? À partir des données scientifiques les plus crédibles - et de leurs incertitudes -, Hubert Reeves dresse un bilan précis des menaces qui pèsent sur la planète. Son diagnostic est alarmant : si la vie sur Terre est robuste, c'est l'avenir de l'espèce humaine qui est en cause. Le sort de l'aventure humaine, entamée il y a des millions d'années, va-t-il se jouer en l'espace de quelques décennies ? Notre avenir est entre nos mains. Il faut réagir, et vite, avant qu'il ne soit trop tard. Auteur de nombreux ouvrages sur l'odyssée cosmique tel Patience dans l'azur ou Poussières d'étoiles, Hubert Reeves est astrophysicien et dire...

  7. Particules de vie conversation avec François Englert

    CERN Document Server

    Baré, François

    2014-01-01

    Ce fut l'événement de l'année 2013 : François Englert obtenait le prix Nobel de physique pour la découverte du boson. Le premier Belge à être honoré par ce prix depuis Ilya Prigogine en 1977. Françoise Baré, journaliste à la RTBF, et Guy Duplat, ingénieur civil physicien, ex-rédacteur en chef du Soir, auteur de Une vague belge (Racine) et journaliste à La Libre Belgique, ont rencontré plusieurs fois, longuement, François Englert, avant son prix et après celui-ci. Ils étaient là lors de l'annonce de la découverte du boson de BEH, lors de l'annonce du prix Nobel et, à Stockholm, lors de la remise du prix par le roi de Suède. À eux, François Englert a accepté de raconter sa chasse au boson, sa vie, ses idées. Au fil de la conversation se dessine alors le portrait attachant d'un homme brillant et libre, habité par un rêve, celui de comprendre, de décortiquer ce monde et de chercher la beauté de ses lois. Avec, en annexe, les grands points scientifiques qui éclairent le travail de F...

  8. Stahl et les âges de la vie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Carvallo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La vieillesse constitue une pierre de touche pour toute théorie médicale : elle oblige à rendre raison de la temporalité à l’œuvre dans la vie. Aux yeux de Stahl, les iatromécaniciens méconnaissent la dimension temporelle de l’organisme ; en particulier, ils en ignorent la périodicité. Comprendre la vieillesse suppose donc la critique de la représentation linéaire du temps organique, que développe la mécanique et qui réduit le vivant au seul composé physique et chimique. Il reste alors à trouver la cause de la périodicité organique : sur ce point, Georg Ernst Stahl critique Thomas Sydenham, qui reconnaît certes la périodicité du vivant mais nie la possibilité d’une médecine étiologique. Pour sa part, le médecin de Halle cherche à rendre compte du vieillissement en lien avec les actions organiques fondamentales : le tonus, la circulation, l’excrétion, la sécrétion.

  9. Une vie traversée : Unica Zürn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannine Paque

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Born in 1916 in Berlin, Unica Zürn committed suicide in Paris in 1970. During the last twenty years of her life, this artist, painter, and sentimental companion of Hans Bellmer, fought against schizophrenia. She spent many periods in psychiatric hospitals and has described her mental illness, her remissions from this illness and the psychiatric universe in El Hombre-Jazmín. This is an unusual autobiography, narrated in third person and in the present historic, and represents a direct and perturbed testimony of a lucid nature about her experiences. The book includes anagrams that sh developed over a long period of time. Née en 1916 à Berlin, Unica Zürn se suicide à Paris en 1970. Durant les quelque vingt dernières années de sa vie, cette artiste, peintre et écrivain, compagne de Hans Bellmer, luttera contre la schizophrénie. Elle fera de nombreux séjours en hôpital psychiatrique et décrira tant sa maladie mentale et ses rémissions que l’univers psychiatrique dans un texte majeur, L’Homme-Jasmin. Une étrange autobiographie à la troisième personne et au présent, troublant témoignage direct et lucide sur un vécu perturbé, qui inclut les textes anagrammatiques auxquels elle s’est longuement adonnée.

  10. Surface analysis methods in materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Sexton, Brett; Smart, Roger

    1992-01-01

    The idea for this book stemmed from a remark by Philip Jennings of Murdoch University in a discussion session following a regular meeting of the Australian Surface Science group. He observed that a text on surface analysis and applica­ tions to materials suitable for final year undergraduate and postgraduate science students was not currently available. Furthermore, the members of the Australian Surface Science group had the research experience and range of coverage of sur­ face analytical techniques and applications to provide a text for this purpose. A of techniques and applications to be included was agreed at that meeting. The list intended readership of the book has been broadened since the early discussions, particularly to encompass industrial users, but there has been no significant alter­ ation in content. The editors, in consultation with the contributors, have agreed that the book should be prepared for four major groups of readers: - senior undergraduate students in chemistry, physics, metallur...

  11. Application of the B.F.S. Method to Metallic Surfaces: Surface Alloys and Alloy Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzolo, Gullermo

    1997-01-01

    These notes introduce the BFS (Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith) method for alloys, in the framework of what is available today in terms of computationally efficient and physically sound techniques for modeling of atomic systems. The BFS method belongs to the family of semi-empirical methods, which aim to balance scientific rigour with practical applications. The goal is to provide a tool that aids in the process of material analysis and development, supplementing the experimental work which by itself has limitations in terms of time, money, technology and human resources. One of the main advantages of the BFS method, basically tailored to assist in the problem of alloy design, is that it is easily applicable to the analysis of surface structure, with a satisfactory degree of accuracy. In these notes, first the role of semiempirical methods among the available tools for atomistic simulations is reviewed, followed by a description of the BFS method and a simple application in order to understand the operational procedure, and conclude reviewing some of the topics of current interest where techniques such as the BFS method play an important role in furthering the understanding os fundamental issues

  12. Surface control alloy substrates and methods of manufacture therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Mendon, MA); Li, Qi (Marlborough, MA); Rupich, Martin W. (Framingham, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA); Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans (Westborough, MA); Annavarapu, Suresh (Brookline, MA); Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-05-04

    Methods and articles for controlling the surface of an alloy substrate for deposition of an epitaxial layer. The invention includes the use of an intermediate layer to stabilize the substrate surface against oxidation for subsequent deposition of an epitaxial layer.

  13. Synthesis of biocompatible surfaces by nanotechnology methods

    OpenAIRE

    Alekhin , A. ,; Boleiko , G. ,; Gudkova , S. ,; Markeev , A. ,; Sigarev , A. ,; Toknova , V. ,; Kirilenko , A. ,; Lapshin , R. ,; Kozlov , E. ,; Tetyukhin , D. ,

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The modification of the surface of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyurethane (PU) by means of the pulsed ion-plasma deposition of nanostructural carbon coatings at 20–60°C has been studied. The effect of this low-temperature treatment on the biocompatibility of the LDPE and PU has been assessed. Optimum technological parameters for the formation of mosaic carbon nanostructures with a thickness of 0.3–15 nm and a cluster lateral size of 10–500 nm are determined. ...

  14. Vienna VLBI and Satellite Software (VieVS) for Geodesy and Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Johannes; Böhm, Sigrid; Boisits, Janina; Girdiuk, Anastasiia; Gruber, Jakob; Hellerschmied, Andreas; Krásná, Hana; Landskron, Daniel; Madzak, Matthias; Mayer, David; McCallum, Jamie; McCallum, Lucia; Schartner, Matthias; Teke, Kamil

    2018-04-01

    The Vienna VLBI and Satellite Software (VieVS) is state-of-the-art Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) analysis software for geodesy and astrometry. VieVS has been developed at Technische Universität Wien (TU Wien) since 2008, where it is used for research purposes and for teaching space geodetic techniques. In the past decade, it has been successfully applied on Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations for the determination of celestial and terrestrial reference frames as well as for the estimation of celestial pole offsets, universal Time (UT1-UTC), and polar motion based on least-squares adjustment. Furthermore, VieVS is equipped with tools for scheduling and simulating VLBI observations to extragalactic radio sources as well as to satellites and spacecraft, features which proved to be very useful for a variety of applications. VieVS is now available as version 3.0 and we do provide the software to all interested persons and institutions. A wiki with more information about VieVS is available at http://vievswiki.geo.tuwien.ac.at/.

  15. Surface structure analysis by means of Rutherford scattering: methods to study surface relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkenburg, W.C.; Soszka, W.; Saris, F.W.; Kersten, H.H.; Colenbrander, B.G.

    1976-01-01

    The use of Rutherford backscattering for structural analysis of single crystal surfaces is reviewed, and a new method is introduced. With this method, which makes use of the channeling and blocking phenomenon of light ions of medium energy, surface atoms can be located with a precision of 0.02 A. This is demonstrated in a measurement of surface relaxation for the Cu(110) surface. (Auth.)

  16. Method of predicting surface deformation in the form of sinkholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudek, M.; Arkuszewski, J.

    1980-06-01

    Proposes a method for predicting probability of sinkhole shaped subsidence, number of funnel-shaped subsidences and size of individual funnels. The following factors which influence the sudden subsidence of the surface in the form of funnels are analyzed: geologic structure of the strata between mining workings and the surface, mining depth, time factor, and geologic disolocations. Sudden surface subsidence is observed only in the case of workings situated up to a few dozen meters from the surface. Using the proposed method is explained with some examples. It is suggested that the method produces correct results which can be used in coal mining and in ore mining. (1 ref.) (In Polish)

  17. Recent characterization of steel by surface analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigeru

    1996-01-01

    Surface analysis methods, such as Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, glow discharge optical emission spectrometry and so on, have become indispensable to characterize surface and interface of many kinds of steel. Although a number of studies on characterization of steel by these methods have been carried out, several problems still remain in quantification and depth profiling. Nevertheless, the methods have provided essential information on the concentration and chemical state of elements at the surface and interface. Recent results on characterization of oxide layers, coated films, etc. on the surface of steel are reviewed here. (author). 99 refs

  18. La vie privée à l’ère du numérique

    OpenAIRE

    Liscouët, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    L’ouvrage commence par une analyse historique de l’émergence des sphères privées et publiques et de la notion de vie privée. Le point de départ pourrait bien être l’apparition en Angleterre du concept d’habeas corpus. Bénédicte Rey retient le terme anglais de privacy pour désigner tout à la fois les notions de vie privée, de données personnelles et de « question du privé ». Elle souligne que la notion de vie privée est une nouvelle valeur humaine fondamentale bien qu’elle ne soit toujours pas...

  19. Modern methods of studying surfaces and their application to glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschenbach, B.; Haehnert, M.

    1977-05-01

    In the works are demonstrated modern methods for study of solid surfaces and its use of glasses. Study of the interaction of ions, electrons and photons with the glass surface provides information about the composition of the surface and its structure on an atomic scale. A qualitative analysis of a surface can be made with the aid of the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and the electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and with the ion scattering (ISS and RBS) and the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The structure of a surface can be studied by means of ion scattering and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and the topography of a surface by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ellipsometry is generally confined to measuring the thickness of very thin layers. The application these methods to the glass surfaces is demonstrated on series of examples. (author)

  20. Resenha de: La vie de la forêt française au XIVè siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurípedes Simões de Paula

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available DEVÈZE (M.. La vie de Ia forêt française au XIVe siècle. Paris. S. E. V. P. E. N. École Pratique des Hautes Études. Centre de Recharches historiques. VIe section. Coleção "Les hom-mes et la terre". Tomos I e II.

  1. Sliding surface searching method for slopes containing a potential weak structural surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijun Yao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Weak structural surface is one of the key factors controlling the stability of slopes. The stability of rock slopes is in general concerned with set of discontinuities. However, in soft rocks, failure can occur along surfaces approaching to a circular failure surface. To better understand the position of potential sliding surface, a new method called simplex-finite stochastic tracking method is proposed. This method basically divides sliding surface into two parts: one is described by smooth curve obtained by random searching, the other one is polyline formed by the weak structural surface. Single or multiple sliding surfaces can be considered, and consequently several types of combined sliding surfaces can be simulated. The paper will adopt the arc-polyline to simulate potential sliding surface and analyze the searching process of sliding surface. Accordingly, software for slope stability analysis using this method was developed and applied in real cases. The results show that, using simplex-finite stochastic tracking method, it is possible to locate the position of a potential sliding surface in the slope.

  2. Evaluation de la qualité de vie des personnes vivant avec le VIH à ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contexte: Lorsqu'en 2000 le Cameroun fait le choix du traitement par antirétroviraux pour les PVVIH, la qualité de vie (QdV) n'est pas un enjeu de la prise en charge. La chronicisation du sida place aujourd'hui l'évaluation de qualité de vie des PVVIH au sein des défis de santé publique. L'objectif de cette étude était ...

  3. In search of Godard’s ‘Sauve la vie (qui peut’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Witt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a little-known compilation film titled Sauve la vie (qui peut that Jean-Luc Godard created in 1981 within the framework of a series of lectures on cinema history that he delivered in Rotterdam in 1980-1981. To make this compilation film he combined sections from his Sauve qui peut (la vie with extracts from four other films. Based on archival research, the article considers the context for the screening, the film’s structure, Godard’s wider engagement with the filmmakers whose work he incorporated, the prints he used, my attempts to reconstruct the film, and its reception in 1981 and today.

  4. La tradition cosmique extraits du livre de la vie de Kelaouchi

    CERN Document Server

    Théon, Max; Ligaran

    2015-01-01

    Extrait : ""Dans une vision de la nuit, une voix me parla, disant : ""La matière n'est-elle pas suprême ?"" Ne sachant d'où venait cette vois, je ne répondis point. Comme je gardais le silence, une voix dit : La vie n'est-elle point suprême ?"" Une troisième voix, que je connaissais, dit alors : ""La matière et la vie sont inséparables dans tout le Cosmos de l'être, puisque tout ce qui est vit.""

  5. METHODS FOR THE REPRESENTATION OF THE HELICOIDAL SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCURTU Liviu-Iacob

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper there are presented the graphical methods to determine the parameters of an helicoidal stairs. The first part of this paper shows the used methods to generate the helicoidal curves using descriptive geometry methods. It has represented the state of the art of the generation of a helical surface studies. The second part of this study shows the helical stairs surface representation using descriptive geometry methods. For the representation of the helicoidal stairs are used two projections, the front and top view. A method of the stairs representation is solved using CAD modelling dedicated software. Following the helical surface representation in both methods, has been achieved a comparative study by using two representation methods. Conclusions about these two representation methods are presented in the end of this paper.

  6. Evaluation of surface sampling method performance for Bacillus Spores on clean and dirty outdoor surfaces.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Einfeld, Wayne; Boucher, Raymond M.; Brown, Gary Stephen; Tezak, Matthew Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Recovery of Bacillus atrophaeous spores from grime-treated and clean surfaces was measured in a controlled chamber study to assess sampling method performance. Outdoor surfaces investigated by wipe and vacuum sampling methods included stainless steel, glass, marble and concrete. Bacillus atrophaeous spores were used as a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis spores in this study designed to assess whether grime-coated surfaces significantly affected surface sampling method performance when compared to clean surfaces. A series of chamber tests were carried out in which known amounts of spores were allowed to gravitationally settle onto both clean and dirty surfaces. Reference coupons were co-located with test coupons in all chamber experiments to provide a quantitative measure of initial surface concentrations of spores on all surfaces, thereby allowing sampling recovery calculations. Results from these tests, carried out under both low and high humidity conditions, show that spore recovery from grime-coated surfaces is the same as or better than spore recovery from clean surfaces. Statistically significant differences between method performance for grime-coated and clean surfaces were observed in only about half of the chamber tests conducted.

  7. Estimating surface acoustic impedance with the inverse method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechowicz, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Sound field parameters are predicted with numerical methods in sound control systems, in acoustic designs of building and in sound field simulations. Those methods define the acoustic properties of surfaces, such as sound absorption coefficients or acoustic impedance, to determine boundary conditions. Several in situ measurement techniques were developed; one of them uses 2 microphones to measure direct and reflected sound over a planar test surface. Another approach is used in the inverse boundary elements method, in which estimating acoustic impedance of a surface is expressed as an inverse boundary problem. The boundary values can be found from multipoint sound pressure measurements in the interior of a room. This method can be applied to arbitrarily-shaped surfaces. This investigation is part of a research programme on using inverse methods in industrial room acoustics.

  8. A Level Set Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Free Surface Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grooss, Jesper; Hesthaven, Jan

    2006-01-01

    We present a discontinuous Galerkin method on a fully unstructured grid for the modeling of unsteady incompressible fluid flows with free surfaces. The surface is modeled by embedding and represented by a levelset. We discuss the discretization of the flow equations and the level set equation...

  9. Method for Surface Scanning in Medical Imaging and Related Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A method and apparatus for surface scanning in medical imaging is provided. The surface scanning apparatus comprises an image source, a first optical fiber bundle comprising first optical fibers having proximal ends and distal ends, and a first optical coupler for coupling an image from the image...

  10. A continuous surface reconstruction method on point cloud captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenyang [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Cheung, Yam; Sabouri, Pouya; Arai, Tatsuya J.; Sawant, Amit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To accurately and efficiently reconstruct a continuous surface from noisy point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). Methods: The authors have developed a level-set based surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). The proposed method reconstructs an implicit and continuous representation of the underlying patient surface by optimizing a regularized fitting energy, offering extra robustness to noise and missing measurements. By contrast to explicit/discrete meshing-type schemes, their continuous representation is particularly advantageous for subsequent surface registration and motion tracking by eliminating the need for maintaining explicit point correspondences as in discrete models. The authors solve the proposed method with an efficient narrowband evolving scheme. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both phantom and human subject data with two sets of complementary experiments. In the first set of experiment, the authors generated a series of surfaces each with different black patches placed on one chest phantom. The resulting VisionRT measurements from the patched area had different degree of noise and missing levels, since VisionRT has difficulties in detecting dark surfaces. The authors applied the proposed method to point clouds acquired under these different configurations, and quantitatively evaluated reconstructed surfaces by comparing against a high-quality reference surface with respect to root mean squared error (RMSE). In the second set of experiment, the authors applied their method to 100 clinical point clouds acquired from one human subject. In the absence of ground-truth, the authors qualitatively validated reconstructed surfaces by comparing the local geometry, specifically mean curvature distributions, against that of the surface extracted from a high-quality CT obtained from the same patient. Results: On phantom point clouds, their method

  11. Performance evaluation of sea surface simulation methods for target detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Renjie; Wu, Xin; Yang, Chen; Han, Yiping; Zhang, Jianqi

    2017-11-01

    With the fast development of sea surface target detection by optoelectronic sensors, machine learning has been adopted to improve the detection performance. Many features can be learned from training images by machines automatically. However, field images of sea surface target are not sufficient as training data. 3D scene simulation is a promising method to address this problem. For ocean scene simulation, sea surface height field generation is the key point to achieve high fidelity. In this paper, two spectra-based height field generation methods are evaluated. Comparison between the linear superposition and linear filter method is made quantitatively with a statistical model. 3D ocean scene simulating results show the different features between the methods, which can give reference for synthesizing sea surface target images with different ocean conditions.

  12. A continuous surface reconstruction method on point cloud captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyang; Cheung, Yam; Sabouri, Pouya; Arai, Tatsuya J; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan

    2015-11-01

    To accurately and efficiently reconstruct a continuous surface from noisy point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). The authors have developed a level-set based surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). The proposed method reconstructs an implicit and continuous representation of the underlying patient surface by optimizing a regularized fitting energy, offering extra robustness to noise and missing measurements. By contrast to explicit/discrete meshing-type schemes, their continuous representation is particularly advantageous for subsequent surface registration and motion tracking by eliminating the need for maintaining explicit point correspondences as in discrete models. The authors solve the proposed method with an efficient narrowband evolving scheme. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both phantom and human subject data with two sets of complementary experiments. In the first set of experiment, the authors generated a series of surfaces each with different black patches placed on one chest phantom. The resulting VisionRT measurements from the patched area had different degree of noise and missing levels, since VisionRT has difficulties in detecting dark surfaces. The authors applied the proposed method to point clouds acquired under these different configurations, and quantitatively evaluated reconstructed surfaces by comparing against a high-quality reference surface with respect to root mean squared error (RMSE). In the second set of experiment, the authors applied their method to 100 clinical point clouds acquired from one human subject. In the absence of ground-truth, the authors qualitatively validated reconstructed surfaces by comparing the local geometry, specifically mean curvature distributions, against that of the surface extracted from a high-quality CT obtained from the same patient. On phantom point clouds, their method achieved submillimeter

  13. L'information améliore les conditions de vie dans les Philippines ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Grâce à des données exactes et à jour sur leurs conditions de vie, les Philippins jouissent désormais de nombreux avantages : programmes de formation professionnelle à l'intention des jeunes de Pasay City, dans le grand Manille; nouvelles installations sanitaires et d'adduction d'eau potable à Margosatubig, dans la ...

  14. Les accidents de la vie courante chez l'enfant à Dakar: à propos de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les accidents de la vie courante chez l'enfant à Dakar: à propos de 201 cas. Azhar Salim Mohamed, Aloïse Sagna, Mbaye Fall, Ndeye Aby Ndoye, Papa Alassane Mbaye, Aimé Lakh Fall, Alou Diaby, Oumar Ndour, Gabriel Ngom ...

  15. The Vie Cave Geomorphological Site in Southern Tuscany (Italy: Problems of Decay and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pecchioni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Vie Cave are a suggestive network of roads deeply entrenched in the rock, dating back to the Etruscan civilization; these ancient roads connect various settlements and necropolises existing mainly in the area of Sovana, Sorano and Pitigliano towns (Southern Tuscany, Italy. The Vie Cave are located in a peculiar geomorphological site, characterized by the presence of extensive pyroclastic deposits, which have been incised by a parallel network of deep gorges. In this paper, the geomorphological, geological and lithological setting of the Vie Cave area, where several Etruscan archaeological sites are found, are described. The precarious stability of the Vie Cave walls and the several archaeological structures carved into them, the high grade of decay shown by the constituent materials, together with the dense vegetation that has developed over the rocky scarps, are taken into account with the aim to provide a complete assessment of the conditions in which the site lies. Finally, we propose some targeted actions related to the preservation of this territory, showing so distinctive morphology, in order to protect the area from further decay to which it would be subjected if it remained abandoned.

  16. Surface Treatment And Protection Method For Cadium Zinc Telluride Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Gomez W.; James, Ralph B.; Burger, Arnold; Chinn, Douglas A.

    2006-02-21

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that provides a native dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH4F and 10 w/o H2O2 in water.

  17. Laser method of acoustical emission control from vibrating surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyka, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    For limitation of the noise in environment, the necessity occurs of determining and location of sources of sounds emitted from surfaces of many machines and devices, assuring in effect the possibility of suitable constructional changes implementation, targeted at decreasing of their nuisance. In the paper, the results of tests and calculations are presented for plane surface sources emitting acoustic waves. The tests were realized with the use of scanning laser vibrometer which enabled remote registration and the spectral analysis of the surfaces vibrations. The known hybrid digital method developed for determination of sound wave emission from such surfaces divided into small finite elements was slightly modified by distinguishing the phase correlations between such vibrating elements. The final method being developed may find use in wide range of applications for different forms of vibrations of plane surfaces.

  18. A GPU-based mipmapping method for water surface visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Quan, Wei; Xu, Chao; Wu, Yan

    2018-03-01

    Visualization of water surface is a hot topic in computer graphics. In this paper, we presented a fast method to generate wide range of water surface with good image quality both near and far from the viewpoint. This method utilized uniform mesh and Fractal Perlin noise to model water surface. Mipmapping technology was enforced to the surface textures, which adjust the resolution with respect to the distance from the viewpoint and reduce the computing cost. Lighting effect was computed based on shadow mapping technology, Snell's law and Fresnel term. The render pipeline utilizes a CPU-GPU shared memory structure, which improves the rendering efficiency. Experiment results show that our approach visualizes water surface with good image quality at real-time frame rates performance.

  19. In situ surface roughness measurement using a laser scattering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, C. J.; Wang, S. H.; Quan, C.; Shang, H. M.

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, the design and development of an optical probe for in situ measurement of surface roughness are discussed. Based on this light scattering principle, the probe which consists of a laser diode, measuring lens and a linear photodiode array, is designed to capture the scattered light from a test surface with a relatively large scattering angle ϕ (=28°). This capability increases the measuring range and enhances repeatability of the results. The coaxial arrangement that incorporates a dual-laser beam and a constant compressed air stream renders the proposed system insensitive to movement or vibration of the test surface as well as surface conditions. Tests were conducted on workpieces which were mounted on a turning machine that operates with different cutting speeds. Test specimens which underwent different machining processes and of different surface finish were also studied. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of surface roughness measurement using the proposed method.

  20. Facile Method for Fabricating Superhydrophobic Surface on Magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Mun Hee; Park, Yeon Hwa; Hyun, June Won; Ahn, Yong Hyun [Dankook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    In conclusion, we have developed a simple and inexpensive method for fabricating a superhydrophobic surface of magnesium by metal deposition and stearic acid coating. We fabricated a superhydrophobic surface on magnesium by nickel deposition and surface coating of stearic acid. The fabricated surfaces were stable against acidic and basic solutions. In recent times, technologies based on the imitation of nature have attracted considerable attention. Lotus leaves are known for their self-cleaning effect. The micrometer-scale papillae structure and the epicuticular wax on the lotus leaf contribute to this effect. In a manner similar to the self-cleaning property of lotus leaves, the wettability of solid surfaces is of great interest in daily life and industry.1-4 Wettability is controlled by both the geometrical structure of a surface and a low surface energy material coating. A superhydrophobic surface is satisfied with a water contact angle of more than 150 .deg. and a sliding angle of less than 10 .deg. On such a surface, a water drop has a perfectly spherical shape and it easily rolls off and removes deposited contaminants. A superhydrophobic surface thus protects a material from contamination, fogging, and snow deposition.

  1. Free-surface viscous flow solution methods for ship hydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wackers, J.; Koren, B.; Raven, H.C.; Ploeg, van der A.; Starke, A.R.; Deng, G.; Queutey, P.; Visonneau, M.; Hino, T.; Ohashi, K.

    2011-01-01

    The simulation of viscous free-surface water flow is a subject that has reached a certain maturity and is nowadays used in industrial applications, like the simulation of the flow around ships. While almost all methods used are based on the Navier-Stokes equations, the discretisation methods for the

  2. Quantifying Uncertainty in Near Surface Electromagnetic Imaging Using Bayesian Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatter, D. B.; Ray, A.; Key, K.

    2017-12-01

    Geoscientists commonly use electromagnetic methods to image the Earth's near surface. Field measurements of EM fields are made (often with the aid an artificial EM source) and then used to infer near surface electrical conductivity via a process known as inversion. In geophysics, the standard inversion tool kit is robust and can provide an estimate of the Earth's near surface conductivity that is both geologically reasonable and compatible with the measured field data. However, standard inverse methods struggle to provide a sense of the uncertainty in the estimate they provide. This is because the task of finding an Earth model that explains the data to within measurement error is non-unique - that is, there are many, many such models; but the standard methods provide only one "answer." An alternative method, known as Bayesian inversion, seeks to explore the full range of Earth model parameters that can adequately explain the measured data, rather than attempting to find a single, "ideal" model. Bayesian inverse methods can therefore provide a quantitative assessment of the uncertainty inherent in trying to infer near surface conductivity from noisy, measured field data. This study applies a Bayesian inverse method (called trans-dimensional Markov chain Monte Carlo) to transient airborne EM data previously collected over Taylor Valley - one of the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica. Our results confirm the reasonableness of previous estimates (made using standard methods) of near surface conductivity beneath Taylor Valley. In addition, we demonstrate quantitatively the uncertainty associated with those estimates. We demonstrate that Bayesian inverse methods can provide quantitative uncertainty to estimates of near surface conductivity.

  3. An Optimization Method for Virtual Globe Ocean Surface Dynamic Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Wumeng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing visualization method in the virtual globe mainly uses the projection grid to organize the ocean grid. This special grid organization has the defects in reflecting the difference characteristics of different ocean areas. The method of global ocean visualization based on global discrete grid can make up the defect of the projection grid method by matching with the discrete space of the virtual globe, so it is more suitable for the virtual ocean surface simulation application.But the available global discrete grids method has many problems which limiting its application such as the low efficiency of rendering and loading, the need of repairing grid crevices. To this point, we propose an optimization for the global discrete grids method. At first, a GPU-oriented multi-scale grid model of ocean surface which develops on the foundation of global discrete grids was designed to organize and manage the ocean surface grids. Then, in order to achieve the wind-drive wave dynamic rendering, this paper proposes a dynamic wave rendering method based on the multi-scale ocean surface grid model to support real-time wind field updating. At the same time, considering the effect of repairing grid crevices on the system efficiency, this paper presents an efficient method for repairing ocean surface grid crevices based on the characteristics of ocean grid and GPU technology. At last, the feasibility and validity of the method are verified by the comparison experiment. The experimental results show that the proposed method is efficient, stable and fast, and can compensate for the lack of function of the existing methods, so the application range is more extensive.

  4. Optical description and design method with annularly stitched aspheric surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, De-Wen; Chen, Xue-Jiao; Xu, Chen; Hu, Yuan; Wang, Yong-Tian

    2015-12-01

    The relentless pressure for designs with new optical functions, small volume, and light weight has greatly increased the importance of aspheric surfaces. In this paper, we propose an annularly stitched aspheric surface (ASAS) description method to increase the freedom and flexibility of imaging system design. The rotationally symmetric ASAS consists of a circular central zone and one or more annular zones. Two neighboring zones are constrained to have the same derivatives on their joint curve, and this means the ASAS is C1 continuous. This finding is proved and verified by the mathematical deduction of the surface formulas. Two optimization strategies and two design methods with the C1 continuous constraints are also discussed. This surface can greatly facilitate the design and even achieve some previously impossible designs without increasing the fabrication difficulty. Two different systems with the proposed ASAS are optimized and the results are presented. The design results verified the practicability of the ASAS.

  5. Experimental Method for Measuring Dust Load on Surfaces in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, Philip; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, Alfred

    A new experimental setup to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airborne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust-related problems in rooms, there is a n......A new experimental setup to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airborne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust-related problems in rooms......, there is a need for better understanding of the mechanism of dust deposition and resuspension. With the presented experimental setup, the dust load on surfaces in a channel can be measured as a function of the environmental and surface conditions and the type of particles under controlled laboratory conditions....

  6. Multiscale Finite Element Methods for Flows on Rough Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present the Multiscale Finite Element Method (MsFEM) for problems on rough heterogeneous surfaces. We consider the diffusion equation on oscillatory surfaces. Our objective is to represent small-scale features of the solution via multiscale basis functions described on a coarse grid. This problem arises in many applications where processes occur on surfaces or thin layers. We present a unified multiscale finite element framework that entails the use of transformations that map the reference surface to the deformed surface. The main ingredients of MsFEM are (1) the construction of multiscale basis functions and (2) a global coupling of these basis functions. For the construction of multiscale basis functions, our approach uses the transformation of the reference surface to a deformed surface. On the deformed surface, multiscale basis functions are defined where reduced (1D) problems are solved along the edges of coarse-grid blocks to calculate nodalmultiscale basis functions. Furthermore, these basis functions are transformed back to the reference configuration. We discuss the use of appropriate transformation operators that improve the accuracy of the method. The method has an optimal convergence if the transformed surface is smooth and the image of the coarse partition in the reference configuration forms a quasiuniform partition. In this paper, we consider such transformations based on harmonic coordinates (following H. Owhadi and L. Zhang [Comm. Pure and Applied Math., LX(2007), pp. 675-723]) and discuss gridding issues in the reference configuration. Numerical results are presented where we compare the MsFEM when two types of deformations are used formultiscale basis construction. The first deformation employs local information and the second deformation employs a global information. Our numerical results showthat one can improve the accuracy of the simulations when a global information is used. © 2013 Global-Science Press.

  7. 3D electric field calculation with surface charge method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an outline and some examples of three dimensional electric field calculations with a computer code developed at NIRS. In the code, a surface charge method is adopted because of it's simplicity in the mesh establishing procedure. The charge density in a triangular mesh is assumed to distribute with a linear function of the position. The electric field distribution is calculated for a pair of drift tubes with the focusing fingers on the opposing surfaces. The field distribution in an acceleration gap is analyzed with a Fourier-Bessel series expansion method. The calculated results excellently reproduces the measured data with a magnetic model. (author)

  8. Functional Analysis in Public Sector Funkcinė analizė viešajame sektoriuje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živilė Tunčikienė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The main aim of the paper is to explore the theoretical aspects of functional analysis on purpose to identify the essence of functional analysis in public sector. This objective was chosen in reference to relevant problem of modern-day, i.e. inefficiency and ineffectiveness of public sector activities. The article contains functional analysis goals, tasks formed by different sources of literature; also, interpretations of the process of functional analysis are introduced. The conclusions were made that the main goal of functional analysis is to suggest an optimal set of functions that have to be performed in order to assure high quality of public services and minimal possible costs throughout all the hierarchical levels of government.

    Keywords: public sector, public administration reform, public institutions, functional analysis, effectiveness.

    Visuomenei itin aktuali per didelių viešojo sektoriaus išlaidų bei nepakankamai kokybiškų viešųjų paslaugų problema. Siekiant mažinti viešojo sektoriaus išlaidas ir kartu gerinti viešųjų paslaugų kokybę, būtina grįsti institucijų veiklos būtinumą ir kartu adekvatumą besikeičiantiems aplinkos reikalavimams. Siekiant išspręsti tokio pobūdžio uždavinius, viešajame sektoriuje vis tvirčiau įsigali tendencija taikyti verslo praktikoje patikrintas ir teigiamai pasitvirtinusias valdymo priemones. Viena svarbiausių i

  9. Designing Pulse Laser Surface Modification of H13 Steel Using Response Surface Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqida, S. N.; Brabazon, D.; Naher, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a design of experiment (DOE) for laser surface modification process of AISI H13 tool steel in achieving the maximum hardness and minimum surface roughness at a range of modified layer depth. A Rofin DC-015 diffusion-cooled CO2 slab laser was used to process AISI H13 tool steel samples. Samples of 10 mm diameter were sectioned to 100 mm length in order to process a predefined circumferential area. The parameters selected for examination were laser peak power, overlap percentage and pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The response surface method with Box-Behnken design approach in Design Expert 7 software was used to design the H13 laser surface modification process. Metallographic study and image analysis were done to measure the modified layer depth. The modified surface roughness was measured using two-dimensional surface profilometer. The correlation of the three laser processing parameters and the modified surface properties was specified by plotting three-dimensional graph. The hardness properties were tested at 981 mN force. From metallographic study, the laser modified surface depth was between 37 μm and 150 μm. The average surface roughness recorded from the 2D profilometry was at a minimum value of 1.8 μm. The maximum hardness achieved was between 728 and 905 HV0.1. These findings are significant to modern development of hard coatings for wear resistant applications.

  10. Specific surface area evaluation method by using scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrescu, Camelia; Petrescu, Cristian; Axinte, Adrian

    2000-01-01

    Ceramics are among the most interesting materials for a large category of applications, including both industry and health. Among the characteristic of the ceramic materials, the specific surface area is often difficult to evaluate.The paper presents a method of evaluation for the specific surface area of two ceramic powders by means of scanning electron microscopy measurements and an original method of computing the specific surface area.Cumulative curves are used to calculate the specific surface area under assumption that the values of particles diameters follow a normal logarithmic distribution. For two powder types, X7R and NPO the results are the following: - for the density ρ (g/cm 2 ), 5.5 and 6.0, respectively; - for the average diameter D bar (μm), 0.51 and 0.53, respectively; - for σ, 1.465 and 1.385, respectively; - for specific surface area (m 2 /g), 1.248 and 1.330, respectively. The obtained results are in good agreement with the values measured by conventional methods. (authors)

  11. Diffusion accessibility as a method for visualizing macromolecular surface geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yingssu; Holton, Thomas; Yeates, Todd O

    2015-10-01

    Important three-dimensional spatial features such as depth and surface concavity can be difficult to convey clearly in the context of two-dimensional images. In the area of macromolecular visualization, the computer graphics technique of ray-tracing can be helpful, but further techniques for emphasizing surface concavity can give clearer perceptions of depth. The notion of diffusion accessibility is well-suited for emphasizing such features of macromolecular surfaces, but a method for calculating diffusion accessibility has not been made widely available. Here we make available a web-based platform that performs the necessary calculation by solving the Laplace equation for steady state diffusion, and produces scripts for visualization that emphasize surface depth by coloring according to diffusion accessibility. The URL is http://services.mbi.ucla.edu/DiffAcc/. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  12. Comparison of Transmission Line Methods for Surface Acoustic Wave Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, extremely low power and can be used to develop passive wireless sensors. For these reasons, NASA is investigating the use of SAW technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace structures. To facilitate rapid prototyping of passive SAW sensors for aerospace applications, SAW models have been developed. This paper reports on the comparison of three methods of modeling SAWs. The three models are the Impulse Response Method (a first order model), and two second order matrix methods; the conventional matrix approach, and a modified matrix approach that is extended to include internal finger reflections. The second order models are based upon matrices that were originally developed for analyzing microwave circuits using transmission line theory. Results from the models are presented with measured data from devices. Keywords: Surface Acoustic Wave, SAW, transmission line models, Impulse Response Method.

  13. Un brevet pour la vie : La propriété intellectuelle et ses effets sur le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Un brevet pour la vie : La propriété intellectuelle et ses effets sur le commerce, la biodiversité et le monde rural. Couverture du livre Un brevet pour la vie : La propriété intellectuelle et ses effets sur. Auteur(s):. The Crucible Group. Maison(s) d'édition: CRDI. 1 janvier 1994. ISBN : Épuisé. 120 pages. e-ISBN : 1552503917.

  14. Method and Apparatus for Creating a Topography at a Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David P.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Mayer, Thomas M.; Vasile, Michael J.; Sweatt, William C.

    2008-11-11

    Methods and apparatus whereby an optical interferometer is utilized to monitor and provide feedback control to an integrated energetic particle column, to create desired topographies, including the depth, shape and/or roughness of features, at a surface of a specimen. Energetic particle columns can direct energetic species including, ions, photons and/or neutral particles to a surface to create features having in-plane dimensions on the order of 1 micron, and a height or depth on the order of 1 nanometer. Energetic processes can include subtractive processes such as sputtering, ablation, focused ion beam milling and, additive processes, such as energetic beam induced chemical vapor deposition. The integration of interferometric methods with processing by energetic species offers the ability to create desired topographies at surfaces, including planar and curved shapes.

  15. Multi-phase-field method for surface tension induced elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiedung, Raphael; Steinbach, Ingo; Varnik, Fathollah

    2018-01-01

    A method, based on the multi-phase-field framework, is proposed that adequately accounts for the effects of a coupling between surface free energy and elastic deformation in solids. The method is validated via a number of analytically solvable problems. In addition to stress states at mechanical equilibrium in complex geometries, the underlying multi-phase-field framework naturally allows us to account for the influence of surface energy induced stresses on phase transformation kinetics. This issue, which is of fundamental importance on the nanoscale, is demonstrated in the limit of fast diffusion for a solid sphere, which melts due to the well-known Gibbs-Thompson effect. This melting process is slowed down when coupled to surface energy induced elastic deformation.

  16. Temperature sensitive surfaces and methods of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang [Richland, WA; Rieke, Peter C [Pasco, WA; Alford, Kentin L [Pasco, WA

    2002-09-10

    Poly-n-isopropylacrylamide surface coatings demonstrate the useful property of being able to switch charateristics depending upon temperature. More specifically, these coatings switch from being hydrophilic at low temperature to hydrophobic at high temperature. Research has been conducted for many years to better characterize and control the properties of temperature sensitive coatings. The present invention provides novel temperature sensitive coatings on articles and novel methods of making temperature sensitive coatings that are disposed on the surfaces of various articles. These novel coatings contain the reaction products of n-isopropylacrylamide and are characterized by their properties such as advancing contact angles. Numerous other characteristics such as coating thickness, surface roughness, and hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic transition temperatures are also described. The present invention includes articles having temperature-sensitve coatings with improved properties as well as improved methods for forming temperature sensitive coatings.

  17. Localized surface plasmon resonance mercury detection system and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jay; Lucas, Donald; Crosby, Jeffrey Scott; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2016-03-22

    A mercury detection system that includes a flow cell having a mercury sensor, a light source and a light detector is provided. The mercury sensor includes a transparent substrate and a submonolayer of mercury absorbing nanoparticles, e.g., gold nanoparticles, on a surface of the substrate. Methods of determining whether mercury is present in a sample using the mercury sensors are also provided. The subject mercury detection systems and methods find use in a variety of different applications, including mercury detecting applications.

  18. Cour du prince et vie religieuse à la fin du Moyen Âge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Tabbagh

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Il y a quelque paradoxe à vouloir unir ce que tout paraît opposer : la cour n’est-elle pas le lieu même d’une mondanité dont tout le cheminement de la vie religieuse consiste à s’éloigner ? Au XIIe siècle, Jean de Salisbury assimilait celle d’Henri II Plantagenêt à l’Enfer. Comment ce qui est d’abord une manifestation de la puissance seigneuriale et le foyer d’une culture courtoise pourrait-il porter une vie spirituelle spécifique et approfondie ? Cette interrogation animait la demie journée ...

  19. Direct methods for surface X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldin, D. K.; Harder, R.; Shneerson, V. L.; Vogler, H.; Moritz, W.

    2000-01-01

    We develop of a direct method for surface X-ray diffraction that exploits the holographic feature of a known reference wave from the substrate. A Bayesian analysis of the optimal inference to be made from an incomplete data set suggests a maximum entropy algorithm that balances agreement with the data and other statistical considerations

  20. Response surface method to optimize the low cost medium for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A protease producing Bacillus sp. GA CAS10 was isolated from ascidian Phallusia arabica, Tuticorin, Southeast coast of India. Response surface methodology was employed for the optimization of different nutritional and physical factors for the production of protease. Plackett-Burman method was applied to identify ...

  1. Surface sterilization method for reducing microbial contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An effective disinfection method for strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cv. Senga Sengana micropropagation using runner tips and nodal segments as explants was developed. The explants were surface sterilized with different sterilants for different durations. The present studies on the effect of different regimes of ...

  2. Assessment methods of injection moulded nano-patterned surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, S.; Bisacco, G.; Hansen, H. N.

    2014-01-01

    algorithm for feature recognition. To compare the methods, the mould insert and a number of replicated nano-patterned surfaces, injection moulded with an induction heating aid, were measured on nominally identical locations by means of an atomic force microscope mounted on a manual CMM....

  3. Surface zwitterionization: Effective method for preventing oral bacterial biofilm formation on hydroxyapatite surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoungjin; Kim, Heejin; Seo, Jiae; Kang, Minji; Kang, Sunah; Jang, Joomyung; Lee, Yan; Seo, Ji-Hun

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we conducted surface zwitterionization of hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces by immersing them in the zwitterionic polymer solutions to provide anti-bacterial properties to the HA surface. Three different monomers containing various zwitterionic groups, i.e., phosphorylcholine (PC), sulfobetaine (SB), and carboxybetaine (CB), were copolymerized with the methacrylic monomer containing a Ca2+-binding moiety, using the free radical polymerization method. As a control, functionalization of the copolymer containing the Ca2+-binding moiety was synthesized using a hydroxy group. The stable immobilization of the zwitterionic functional groups was confirmed by water contact angle analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement conducted after the sonication process. The zwitterionized HA surface showed significantly decreased protein adsorption, whereas the hydroxyl group-coated HA surface showed limited efficacy. The anti-bacterial adhesion property was confirmed by conducting Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) adhesion tests for 6 h and 24 h. When furanone C-30, a representative anti-quorum sensing molecule for S. mutans, was used, only a small amount of bacteria adhered after 6 h and the population did not increase after 24 h. In contrast, zwitterionized HA surfaces showed almost no bacterial adhesion after 6 h and the effect was retained for 24 h, resulting in the lowest level of oral bacterial adhesion. These results confirm that surface zwitterionization is a promising method to effectively prevent oral bacterial adhesion on HA-based materials.

  4. A novel test method for quantifying surface tack of polypropylene compound surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available While adhesiveness is required for polymer surfaces in special applications, tacky surfaces are generally undesirable in many applications like automotive interior parts. The tackiness of polymer surface results from a combination of composition and additivation, and it can change significantly in natural or accelerated ageing. Since there is no established, uniform method to characterize surface tack, the major focus of the present work was on the development of an objective quantification method. A setup having a soft die tip attached to a standard tensile tester was developed aiming for correlation to the human sense of touch. Three different model thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO compound formulations based on a high-impact isotactic polypropylene (iPP composition with varying amounts and types of anti-scratch additives were used for these investigations. As the surface tack phenomenon is related to ageing and weathering, the material’s examination was also performed after various intervals of weathering. The developed method allows a fast assessment of the effect of polymer composition variations and different additive formulations on surface tack and gives identical rankings as the standardized haptic panel.

  5. La participation des femmes à la vie politique se traduit par des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La participation des femmes à la vie politique se traduit par des économies locales plus vigoureuses. 08 juin 2016. Image. Des femmes assistent à une réunion d'un groupe d'entraide près d'. Edgard Rodriguez - IDRC. Des femmes assistent à une réunion d'un groupe d'entraide près d'Hyderabad, en Inde. Keenara ...

  6. Participation des jeunes femmes à la vie politique au Malawi | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Conscients de la corrélation entre la pauvreté, la vulnérabilité sociale et les inégalités entre les sexes, les chercheurs se demanderont dans quelle mesure la situation sociale, économique, culturelle et politique des femmes qui vivent en milieu rural au Malawi influe sur la participation, à la vie politique locale, des jeunes ...

  7. Mesurer le droit de participer à la vie culturelle: le développement des indicateurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.; Bouchard, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Meyer-Bisch, P.

    2013-01-01

    Dans les domaines des droits de l'homme, de la culture et du développement, des cadres et mécanismes sont développés afin de mesurer et de qualifier les relations entre ces domaines et leur impact sur la vie des individus en des communautés. Les indicateurs constituent un élément important de ces

  8. Améliorer les conditions de vie des jeunes et des femmes en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Améliorer les conditions de vie des jeunes et des femmes en développant la petite entreprise : mesure de l'impact. Durant les années 2000, la croissance économique et l'augmentation des investissements sociaux ont réduit la pauvreté et offert aux populations de l'Amérique latine de multiples débouchés sur le marché du ...

  9. The method of synthesizing of superhydrophobic surfaces by PECVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazbayev, Sagi; Gabdullin, Maratbek; Ramazanov, Tlekkabul; Dosbolayev, Merlan; Zhunisbekov, Askar; Omirbekov, Dulat; Otarbay, Zhuldyz

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain superhydrophobic surfaces in a plasma medium. The experiment was carried out using the PECVD method in two different modes: constant and pulsing. The surface roughness was obtained by applying nanoparticles synthesized in plasma in a mixture of argon and methane. The resulting particles were deposited on the surface of silicon and glass materials. The contact angle increased linearly depending on the number of cycles, until it reached 160° at 150-160th cycles, after that the increase in cycles does not affect the contact angle, since the saturation process is in progress. Also the effect of the working gas composition on the hydrophobicity of the surface was studied. At low concentrations of methane (1%) only particles are synthesized in the working gas, and hydrophobicity is unstable, with an increase in methane concentration (7%) nanofilms are synthesized from nanoclusters, and surface hydrophobicity is relatively stable. In addition, a pulsing plasma mode was used to obtain superhydrophobic surfaces. The hydrophobicity of the sample showed that the strength of the nanofilm was stable in comparison with the sample obtained in the first mode, but the contact angle was lower. The obtained samples were examined using SEM, SPM, optical analysis, and their contact angles were determined.

  10. Advances in the Surface Renewal Flux Measurement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapland, T. M.; McElrone, A.; Paw U, K. T.; Snyder, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    The measurement of ecosystem-scale energy and mass fluxes between the planetary surface and the atmosphere is crucial for understanding geophysical processes. Surface renewal is a flux measurement technique based on analyzing the turbulent coherent structures that interact with the surface. It is a less expensive technique because it does not require fast-response velocity measurements, but only a fast-response scalar measurement. It is therefore also a useful tool for the study of the global cycling of trace gases. Currently, surface renewal requires calibration against another flux measurement technique, such as eddy covariance, to account for the linear bias of its measurements. We present two advances in the surface renewal theory and methodology that bring the technique closer to becoming a fully independent flux measurement method. The first advance develops the theory of turbulent coherent structure transport associated with the different scales of coherent structures. A novel method was developed for identifying the scalar change rate within structures at different scales. Our results suggest that for canopies less than one meter in height, the second smallest coherent structure scale dominates the energy and mass flux process. Using the method for resolving the scalar exchange rate of the second smallest coherent structure scale, calibration is unnecessary for surface renewal measurements over short canopies. This study forms the foundation for analysis over more complex surfaces. The second advance is a sensor frequency response correction for measuring the sensible heat flux via surface renewal. Inexpensive fine-wire thermocouples are frequently used to record high frequency temperature data in the surface renewal technique. The sensible heat flux is used in conjunction with net radiation and ground heat flux measurements to determine the latent heat flux as the energy balance residual. The robust thermocouples commonly used in field experiments

  11. Continuum damage mechanics method for fatigue growth of surface cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xiqiao; He Shuyan

    1997-01-01

    With the background of leak-before-break (LBB) analysis of pressurized vessels and pipes in nuclear plants, the fatigue growth problem of either circumferential or longitudinal semi-elliptical surface cracks subjected to cyclic loading is studied by using a continuum damage mechanics method. The fatigue damage is described by a scalar damage variable. From the damage evolution equation at the crack tip, a crack growth equation similar to famous Paris' formula is derived, which shows the physical meaning of Paris' formula. Thereby, a continuum damage mechanics approach is developed to analyze the configuration evolution of surface cracks during fatigue growth

  12. The new fabrication method of standard surface sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yasushi E-mail: yss.sato@aist.go.jp; Hino, Yoshio; Yamada, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Mikio

    2004-04-01

    We developed a new fabrication method for standard surface sources by using an inkjet printer with inks in which a radioactive material is mixed to print on a sheet of paper. Three printed test patterns have been prepared: (1) 100 mmx100 mm uniformity-test patterns, (2) positional-resolution test patterns with different widths and intervals of straight lines, and (3) logarithmic intensity test patterns with different radioactive intensities. The results revealed that the fabricated standard surface sources had high uniformity, high positional resolution, arbitrary shapes and a broad intensity range.

  13. A density gradient theory based method for surface tension calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Xiaodong; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    The density gradient theory has been becoming a widely used framework for calculating surface tension, within which the same equation of state is used for the interface and bulk phases, because it is a theoretically sound, consistent and computationally affordable approach. Based on the observation...... that the optimal density path from the geometric mean density gradient theory passes the saddle point of the tangent plane distance to the bulk phases, we propose to estimate surface tension with an approximate density path profile that goes through this saddle point. The linear density gradient theory, which...... assumes linearly distributed densities between the two bulk phases, has also been investigated. Numerical problems do not occur with these density path profiles. These two approximation methods together with the full density gradient theory have been used to calculate the surface tension of various...

  14. Simulating condensation on microstructured surfaces using Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Alexander; Vasyliv, Yaroslav

    2017-11-01

    We simulate a single component fluid condensing on 2D structured surfaces with different wettability. To simulate the two phase fluid, we use the athermal Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) driven by a pseudopotential force. The pseudopotential force results in a non-ideal equation of state (EOS) which permits liquid-vapor phase change. To account for thermal effects, the athermal LBM is coupled to a finite volume discretization of the temperature evolution equation obtained using a thermal energy rate balance for the specific internal energy. We use the developed model to probe the effect of surface structure and surface wettability on the condensation rate in order to identify microstructure topographies promoting condensation. Financial support is acknowledged from Kimberly-Clark.

  15. Full surface inspection methods regarding reinforcement corrosion of concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichling, K.; Raupach, M.; Broomfield, J.; Gulikers, J.; L'Hostis, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    For reinforced concrete structures a localisation of all significant critical areas can only be done by a full surface inspection. The economic advantages are obvious: uncritical areas have not to be repaired expensively.The first step of the assessment should always be a visual inspection. The range of deterioration causes can be limited and the degree of deterioration may be estimated roughly. The inspection program can be adjusted to the requirements. By means of a full surface potential mapping areas with a high risk for chloride induced reinforcement corrosion can be localised, although no deteriorations are visually detectable at the concrete surface. In combination with concrete cover depth and resistivity measurements areas with corrosion promoting exposure conditions can be localised even if the reinforcement is not yet de-passivated. The following publication gives an overview about the essential full surface investigation methods to localise critical areas regarding corrosion of steel in concrete. The selection of methods is based on the inspection procedure given in reference 2. (authors)

  16. Comparison of optical methods for surface roughness characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Hansen, Poul Erik; Pilny, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    We report a study of the correlation between three optical methods for characterizing surface roughness: a laboratory scatterometer measuring the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF instrument), a simple commercial scatterometer (rBRDF instrument), and a confocal optical profiler....... For each instrument, the effective range of spatial surface wavelengths is determined, and the common bandwidth used when comparing the evaluated roughness parameters. The compared roughness parameters are: the root-mean-square (RMS) profile deviation (Rq), the RMS profile slope (Rdq), and the variance...... of the scattering angle distribution (Aq). The twenty-two investigated samples were manufactured with several methods in order to obtain a suitable diversity of roughness patterns.Our study shows a one-to-one correlation of both the Rq and the Rdq roughness values when obtained with the BRDF and the confocal...

  17. Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces and computational methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, R. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project involves the development, implementation, and application of theoretical methods for the calculation and characterization of potential energy surfaces involving molecular species that occur in hydrocarbon combustion. These potential energy surfaces require an accurate and balanced treatment of reactants, intermediates, and products. This difficult challenge is met with general multiconfiguration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) and multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) methods. In contrast to the more common single-reference electronic structure methods, this approach is capable of describing accurately molecular systems that are highly distorted away from their equilibrium geometries, including reactant, fragment, and transition-state geometries, and of describing regions of the potential surface that are associated with electronic wave functions of widely varying nature. The MCSCF reference wave functions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to describe qualitatively the changes in the electronic structure over the broad range of geometries of interest. The necessary mixing of ionic, covalent, and Rydberg contributions, along with the appropriate treatment of the different electron-spin components (e.g. closed shell, high-spin open-shell, low-spin open shell, radical, diradical, etc.) of the wave functions, are treated correctly at this level. Further treatment of electron correlation effects is included using large scale multireference CI wave functions, particularly including the single and double excitations relative to the MCSCF reference space. This leads to the most flexible and accurate large-scale MRSDCI wave functions that have been used to date in global PES studies.

  18. Comparison of optical methods for surface roughness characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feidenhans’l, Nikolaj A; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Madsen, Morten H; Petersen, Jan C; Pilný, Lukáš; Bissacco, Giuliano; Taboryski, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    We report a study of the correlation between three optical methods for characterizing surface roughness: a laboratory scatterometer measuring the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF instrument), a simple commercial scatterometer (rBRDF instrument), and a confocal optical profiler. For each instrument, the effective range of spatial surface wavelengths is determined, and the common bandwidth used when comparing the evaluated roughness parameters. The compared roughness parameters are: the root-mean-square (RMS) profile deviation (Rq), the RMS profile slope (Rdq), and the variance of the scattering angle distribution (Aq). The twenty-two investigated samples were manufactured with several methods in order to obtain a suitable diversity of roughness patterns.Our study shows a one-to-one correlation of both the Rq and the Rdq roughness values when obtained with the BRDF and the confocal instruments, if the common bandwidth is applied. Likewise, a correlation is observed when determining the Aq value with the BRDF and the rBRDF instruments.Furthermore, we show that it is possible to determine the Rq value from the Aq value, by applying a simple transfer function derived from the instrument comparisons. The presented method is validated for surfaces with predominantly 1D roughness, i.e. consisting of parallel grooves of various periods, and a reflectance similar to stainless steel. The Rq values are predicted with an accuracy of 38% at the 95% confidence interval. (paper)

  19. Novel titration method for surface-functionalised silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofen, Kai; Weber, Siegfried [Department of Biotechnology, University of Applied Sciences, Mannheim (Germany); Chan, Chiu Ping Candace [School of Advanced Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering, Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Blvd, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia); Majewski, Peter, E-mail: peter.majewski@unisa.edu.au [School of Advanced Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering, Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Blvd, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    This paper describes three inexpensive and fast analytical methods to characterise grafted particle surfaces. The reaction of silica with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane and N-(phosphonomethyl)iminodiacetic acid hydrate, respectively, leads to NH{sub 2}-, SO{sub 3}H- or COOH-functionalised silica, which were characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and titration in nonaqueous media as well as with two titration methods in a water-based environment. In the work presented, factors influencing the titrations are pointed out and solutions are presented to overcome these limiting factors are shown.

  20. Novel titration method for surface-functionalised silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofen, Kai; Weber, Siegfried; Chan, Chiu Ping Candace; Majewski, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes three inexpensive and fast analytical methods to characterise grafted particle surfaces. The reaction of silica with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane and N-(phosphonomethyl)iminodiacetic acid hydrate, respectively, leads to NH 2 -, SO 3 H- or COOH-functionalised silica, which were characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and titration in nonaqueous media as well as with two titration methods in a water-based environment. In the work presented, factors influencing the titrations are pointed out and solutions are presented to overcome these limiting factors are shown.

  1. Strateginis paslaugų kokybės viešajame sektoriuje valdymas: Klaipėdos regiono aprūpinimo elektros energija atvejis

    OpenAIRE

    Tamošiūnas, Teodoras; Pečiulytė, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Tyrimo aktualumas ir problematika. Europos šalyse pastebimas viešojo sektoriaus modernizavimas, pritaikant naujausius, pažangiausius vadybos modelius, tarp jų – ir naujosios viešosios vadybos (Židonis, Rudnickas, 2005). Žvelgiant sistemiškai į šiuo metu keičiamus Lietuvos teisės aktus, matyti, kad viešajame sektoriuje rengiama norminė bazė, kuri gali būti tinkamas teisinis pagrindas įgyvendinant naujus viešojo administravimo principus (Vanagas, 2006). Teorinius strateginio kokybės valdymo asp...

  2. TWO METHODS FOR REMOTE ESTIMATION OF COMPLETE URBAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jiang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Complete urban surface temperature (TC is a key parameter for evaluating the energy exchange between the urban surface and atmosphere. At the present stage, the estimation of TC still needs detailed 3D structure information of the urban surface, however, it is often difficult to obtain the geometric structure and composition of the corresponding temperature of urban surface, so that there is still lack of concise and efficient method for estimating the TC by remote sensing. Based on the four typical urban surface scale models, combined with the Envi-met model, thermal radiant directionality forward modeling and kernel model, we analyzed a complete day and night cycle hourly component temperature and radiation temperature in each direction of two seasons of summer and winter, and calculated hemispherical integral temperature and TC. The conclusion is obtained by examining the relationship of directional radiation temperature, hemispherical integral temperature and TC: (1 There is an optimal angle of radiation temperature approaching the TC in a single observation direction when viewing zenith angle is 45–60°, the viewing azimuth near the vertical surface of the sun main plane, the average absolute difference is about 1.1 K in the daytime. (2 There are several (3–5 times directional temperatures of different view angle, under the situation of using the thermal radiation directionality kernel model can more accurately calculate the hemispherical integral temperature close to TC, the mean absolute error is about 1.0 K in the daytime. This study proposed simple and effective strategies for estimating TC by remote sensing, which are expected to improve the quantitative level of remote sensing of urban thermal environment.

  3. Repairability of Compomers with Different Methods of Surface Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Samimi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Considering the cost and amount of time and also the quantity of tooth loss in the process of cavity preparation, repair of the restoration instead of itsreplacement would be much more efficient.Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different methods of surface conditioning on the shear bond strength of repaired compomers.Materials and Methods: Sixty blocks of compomer were prepared in acrylic molds and then they were randomly divided into five groups of 12. Group I (control groupreceived no treatment. The remaining samples were immersed in 37 ºC distilled water for one week, then the surfaces were roughened with a coarse diamond bur. Samples ineach group were prepared by different surface treatment and conditioning: In group II specimens were conditioned with 35% phosphoric acid for 20s. Specimens in group III were etched with 10% polyacrylic acid for 20s. In group IV 1.23% acidulated phosphatefluoride was applied for 30s, and compomer surfaces were sandblasted with 50μm Al2O3 powder in group V. After the initial preparations, all groups were treated with silane and resin before bonding of the second mix of compomer. Shear forces were applied with a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 5mm/min. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range tests.Results: The mean shear bond strengths and standard deviations (in parentheses for groups I to V were 31.56(10.86, 20.02(5.49, 17.74(7.34, 19.31(4.31 and 27.7(6.33MPa, respectively. The mean bond strengths for Groups I and V were significantly higher than that of the other groups (P<0.05.Conclusion: The results showed that among the surface treatments used in this study,sandblasting with alumina could be the best surface preparation method for repairing compomer restorations.

  4. Non thermal plasma surface cleaner and method of use

    KAUST Repository

    Neophytou, Marios

    2017-09-14

    Described herein are plasma generation devices and methods of use of the devices. The devices can be used for the cleaning of various surfaces and/or for inhibiting or preventing the accumulation of particulates, such as dust, or moisture on various surfaces. The devices can be used to remove dust and other particulate contaminants from solar panels and windows, or to avoid or minimize condensation on various surfaces. In an embodiment a plasma generation device is provided. The plasma generation device can comprise: a pair of electrodes (1,2) positioned in association with a surface of a dielectric substrate (3). The pair of electrodes (1,2) can comprise a first electrode (1) and a second electrode (2). The first electrode and second electrode can be of different sizes, one of the electrodes being smaller than the other of the electrodes. The first electrode and second electrode can be separated by a distance and electrically connected to a voltage source (4,5).

  5. Non thermal plasma surface cleaner and method of use

    KAUST Repository

    Neophytou, Marios; Lacoste, Deanna A.; Kirkus, Mindaugas

    2017-01-01

    Described herein are plasma generation devices and methods of use of the devices. The devices can be used for the cleaning of various surfaces and/or for inhibiting or preventing the accumulation of particulates, such as dust, or moisture on various surfaces. The devices can be used to remove dust and other particulate contaminants from solar panels and windows, or to avoid or minimize condensation on various surfaces. In an embodiment a plasma generation device is provided. The plasma generation device can comprise: a pair of electrodes (1,2) positioned in association with a surface of a dielectric substrate (3). The pair of electrodes (1,2) can comprise a first electrode (1) and a second electrode (2). The first electrode and second electrode can be of different sizes, one of the electrodes being smaller than the other of the electrodes. The first electrode and second electrode can be separated by a distance and electrically connected to a voltage source (4,5).

  6. Surface charge method for molecular surfaces with curved areal elements I. Spherical triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2018-03-01

    Parametrizing a curved surface with flat triangles in electrostatics problems creates a diverging electric field. One way to avoid this is to have curved areal elements. However, charge density integration over curved patches appears difficult. This paper, dealing with spherical triangles, is the first in a series aiming to solve this problem. Here, we lay the ground work for employing curved patches for applying the surface charge method to electrostatics. We show analytically how one may control the accuracy by expanding in powers of the the arc length (multiplied by the curvature). To accommodate not extremely small curved areal elements, we have provided enough details to include higher order corrections that are needed for better accuracy when slightly larger surface elements are used.

  7. Investigation of synthetic aperture methods in ultrasound surface imaging using elementary surface types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, W; Pierce, S G; Rowe, P

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic aperture imaging methods have been employed widely in recent research in non-destructive testing (NDT), but uptake has been more limited in medical ultrasound imaging. Typically offering superior focussing power over more traditional phased array methods, these techniques have been employed in NDT applications to locate and characterise small defects within large samples, but have rarely been used to image surfaces. A desire to ultimately employ ultrasonic surface imaging for bone surface geometry measurement prior to surgical intervention motivates this research, and results are presented for initial laboratory trials of a surface reconstruction technique based on global thresholding of ultrasonic 3D point cloud data. In this study, representative geometry artefacts were imaged in the laboratory using two synthetic aperture techniques; the Total Focusing Method (TFM) and the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) employing full and narrow synthetic apertures, respectively. Three high precision metallic samples of known geometries (cuboid, sphere and cylinder) which featured a range of elementary surface primitives were imaged using a 5MHz, 128 element 1D phased array employing both SAFT and TFM approaches. The array was manipulated around the samples using a precision robotic positioning system, allowing for repeatable ultrasound derived 3D surface point clouds to be created. A global thresholding technique was then developed that allowed the extraction of the surface profiles, and these were compared with the known geometry samples to provide a quantitative measure of error of 3D surface reconstruction. The mean errors achieved with optimised SAFT imaging for the cuboidal, spherical and cylindrical samples were 1.3mm, 2.9mm and 2.0mm respectively, while those for TFM imaging were 3.7mm, 3.0mm and 3.1mm, respectively. These results were contrary to expectations given the higher information content associated with the TFM images. However, it was

  8. A Comparison of Surface Acoustic Wave Modeling Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W. c.; Atkinson, G. M.

    2009-01-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, extremely low power and can be used to develop passive wireless sensors. For these reasons, NASA is investigating the use of SAW technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace structures. To facilitate rapid prototyping of passive SAW sensors for aerospace applications, SAW models have been developed. This paper reports on the comparison of three methods of modeling SAWs. The three models are the Impulse Response Method a first order model, and two second order matrix methods; the conventional matrix approach, and a modified matrix approach that is extended to include internal finger reflections. The second order models are based upon matrices that were originally developed for analyzing microwave circuits using transmission line theory. Results from the models are presented with measured data from devices.

  9. New method to design stellarator coils without the winding surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Caoxiang; Hudson, Stuart R.; Song, Yuntao; Wan, Yuanxi

    2018-01-01

    Finding an easy-to-build coils set has been a critical issue for stellarator design for decades. Conventional approaches assume a toroidal ‘winding’ surface, but a poorly chosen winding surface can unnecessarily constrain the coil optimization algorithm, This article presents a new method to design coils for stellarators. Each discrete coil is represented as an arbitrary, closed, one-dimensional curve embedded in three-dimensional space. A target function to be minimized that includes both physical requirements and engineering constraints is constructed. The derivatives of the target function with respect to the parameters describing the coil geometries and currents are calculated analytically. A numerical code, named flexible optimized coils using space curves (FOCUS), has been developed. Applications to a simple stellarator configuration, W7-X and LHD vacuum fields are presented.

  10. Corrosion protection of ENIG surface finishing using electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, Q.V.; Nam, N.D.; Choi, D.H.; Lee, J.B.; Lee, C.Y.; Kar, A.; Kim, J.G.; Jung, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    Four types of thin film coating were carried out on copper for electronic materials by the electroless plating method at a pH range from 3 to 9. The coating performance was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization testing in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. In addition, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction were also used to analyze the coating surfaces. The electrochemical behavior of the coatings was improved using the electroless nickel plating solution of pH 5. The electroless nickel/immersion gold on the copper substrate exhibited high protective efficiency, charge transfer resistance and very low porosity, indicating an increase in corrosion resistance. Atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses confirmed the surface uniformity and the formation of the crystalline-refined NiP {1 2 2} phase at pH 5.

  11. Apparatus and method for carbon fiber surface treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskas, Felix L; Sherman, Daniel M

    2014-06-03

    An apparatus and method for enhancing the surface energy and/or surface chemistry of carbon fibers involves exposing the fibers to direct or indirect contact with atmospheric pressure plasma generated using a background gas containing at least some oxygen or other reactive species. The fiber may be exposed directly to the plasma, provided that the plasma is nonfilamentary, or the fiber may be exposed indirectly through contact with gases exhausting from a plasma discharge maintained in a separate volume. In either case, the process is carried out at or near atmospheric pressure, thereby eliminating the need for vacuum equipment. The process may be further modified by moistening the fibers with selected oxygen-containing liquids before exposure to the plasma.

  12. Economic method for helical gear flank surface characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulin, G.; Reavie, T.; Frazer, R. C.; Shaw, B. A.

    2018-03-01

    Typically the quality of a gear pair is assessed based on simplified geometric tolerances which do not always correlate with functional performance. In order to identify and quantify functional performance based parameters, further development of the gear measurement approach is required. Methodology for interpolation of the full active helical gear flank surface, from sparse line measurements, is presented. The method seeks to identify the minimum number of line measurements required to sufficiently characterise an active gear flank. In the form ground gear example presented, a single helix and three profile line measurements was considered to be acceptable. The resulting surfaces can be used to simulate the meshing engagement of a gear pair and therefore provide insight into functional performance based parameters. Therefore the assessment of the quality can be based on the predicted performance in the context of an application.

  13. An experimental method for making spectral emittance and surface temperature measurements of opaque surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Travis J.; Jones, Matthew R.; Tree, Dale R.; Daniel Maynes, R.; Baxter, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental procedure has been developed to make spectral emittance and temperature measurements. The spectral emittance of an object is calculated using measurements of the spectral emissive power and of the surface temperature of the object obtained using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. A calibration procedure is described in detail which accounts for the temperature dependence of the detector. The methods used to extract the spectral emissive power and surface temperature from measured infrared spectra were validated using a blackbody radiator at known temperatures. The average error in the measured spectral emittance was 2.1% and the average difference between the temperature inferred from the recorded spectra and the temperature indicated on the blackbody radiator was 1.2%. The method was used to measure the spectral emittance of oxidized copper at various temperatures.

  14. The estimation of dynamic contact angle of ultra-hydrophobic surfaces using inclined surface and impinging droplet methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasikova, Darina; Kotek, Michal

    2014-03-01

    The development of industrial technology also brings with optimized surface quality, particularly where there is contact with food. Application ultra-hydrophobic surface significantly reduces the growth of bacteria and facilitates cleaning processes. Testing and evaluation of surface quality are used two methods: impinging droplet and inclined surface method optimized with high speed shadowgraphy, which give information about dynamic contact angle. This article presents the results of research into new methods of measuring ultra-hydrophobic patented technology.

  15. Roman sophisticated surface modification methods to manufacture silver counterfeited coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingo, G. M.; Riccucci, C.; Faraldi, F.; Pascucci, M.; Messina, E.; Fierro, G.; Di Carlo, G.

    2017-11-01

    By means of the combined use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) the surface and subsurface chemical and metallurgical features of silver counterfeited Roman Republican coins are investigated to decipher some aspects of the manufacturing methods and to evaluate the technological ability of the Roman metallurgists to produce thin silver coatings. The results demonstrate that over 2000 ago important advances in the technology of thin layer deposition on metal substrates were attained by Romans. The ancient metallurgists produced counterfeited coins by combining sophisticated micro-plating methods and tailored surface chemical modification based on the mercury-silvering process. The results reveal that Romans were able systematically to chemically and metallurgically manipulate alloys at a micro scale to produce adherent precious metal layers with a uniform thickness up to few micrometers. The results converge to reveal that the production of forgeries was aimed firstly to save expensive metals as much as possible allowing profitable large-scale production at a lower cost. The driving forces could have been a lack of precious metals, an unexpected need to circulate coins for trade and/or a combinations of social, political and economic factors that requested a change in money supply. Finally, some information on corrosion products have been achieved useful to select materials and methods for the conservation of these important witnesses of technology and economy.

  16. Methods on estimation of the evaporation from water surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trajanovska, Lidija; Tanushevska, Dushanka; Aleksovska, Nina

    2001-01-01

    The whole world water supply on the Earth is in close dependence on hydrological cycle connected with water circulation at Earth-Atmosphere route through evaporation, precipitation and water runoff. Evaporation exists worldwide where the atmosphere is unsatiated of water steam (when there is humidity in short supply) and it depends on climatic conditions in some regions. The purpose of this paper is to determine a method for estimation of evaporation of natural water surface in our areas, that means its determination as exact as possible. (Original)

  17. Measurement of annual dose on porcelain using surface TLD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Junding; Wang Weida; Leung, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    In order to improve accuracy of TL authentication test for porcelain, a method of measurement of annual dose using ultrathin (CaSO 4 :Tm) dosage layer on porcelain was studied. The TLD was placed on the part of porcelain without glaze. A comparison of measurement of annual dose for surface TLD, inside TLD and alpha counting on porcelain was made. The results show that this technique is suitable for measuring annual dose and improving accuracy of TL authentication test for both porcelain and pottery

  18. Methods To Identify Aptamers against Cell Surface Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Ducongé

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are nucleic acid-based ligands identified through a process of molecular evolution named SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment. During the last 10-15 years, numerous aptamers have been developed specifically against targets present on or associated with the surface of human cells or infectious pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi or parasites. Several of the aptamers have been described as potent probes, rivalling antibodies, for use in flow cytometry or microscopy. Some have also been used as drugs by inhibiting or activating functions of their targets in a manner similar to neutralizing or agonistic antibodies. Additionally, it is straightforward to conjugate aptamers to other agents without losing their affinity and they have successfully been used in vitro and in vivo to deliver drugs, siRNA, nanoparticles or contrast agents to target cells. Hence, aptamers identified against cell surface biomarkers represent a promising class of ligands. This review presents the different strategies of SELEX that have been developed to identify aptamers for cell surface-associated proteins as well as some of the methods that are used to study their binding on living cells.

  19. Slope failures in surface mines, methods of studying landslides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flisiak, J; Korman, S; Mazurek, J

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents a review of methods of measuring landslide fissures, displacement of ground surface points in the landslide area and of points inside the landslide. An analysis of the landslide process is given, stressing various stages and phases of a landslide. Studies carried out by the Institute of Mining Geomechanics of the Technical University of Mining and Metallurgy in Cracow are evaluated. The studies concentrated on the final state of slopes in brown coal surface mines after a landslide occurs. The necessity of developing an apparatus for continuous recording of displacements of points on a landslide surface is stressed. An apparatus developed by the Institute and used for continuous measuring and recording of displacements is described. The apparatus is used to measure displacements of points during the initial phase of a landslide and during the phase of the largest displacements. The principle of the system consists in locating a number of observation points on the ground and a slope. The points are connected among themselves by flexible connectors. The connectors are equipped with potentiometric transmitters which transform the relative displacements into electric pulses. These pulses are recorded by a conventional recording apparatus. (55 refs.) (In Polish)

  20. A new surface resistance measurement method with ultrahigh sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Changnian.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting niobium triaxial cavity has been designed and fabricated to study residual surface resistance of planar superconducting materials. The edge of a 25.4 mm or larger diameter sample in the triaxial cavity is located outside the strong field region. Therefore, the edge effects and possible losses between the thin film and the substrate have been minimized, ensuring that induced RF losses are intrinsic to the test material. The fundamental resonant frequency of the cavity is the same as the working frequency of CEBAF cavities. The cavity has a compact size compared to its TE 011 counterpart, which makes it more sensitive to the sample's loss. For even higher sensitivity, a calorimetry method has been used to measure the RF losses on the superconducting sample. At 2 K, a 2 μK temperature change can be resolved by using carbon resistor sensors. The temperature distribution caused by RF heating is measured by 16 carbon composition resistor sensors. A 0.05 μW heating power can be detected as such a resolution, which translates to a surface resistance of 0.02 nΩ at a surface magnetic field of 52 Oe. This is the most sensitive device for surface resistance measurements to date. In addition, losses due to the indium seal, coupling probes, field emission sites other than the sample, and all of the high field resonator surface, are excluded in the measurement. Surface resistance of both niobium and high-Tc superconducting thin films has been measured. A low R s of 35.2 μΩ was measured for a 25.4 mm diameter YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 thin film at 1.5 GHz and at 2 K. The measurement result is the first result for a large area epitaxially grown thin film sample at such a low RF frequency. The abrupt disappearance of multipacting between two parallel plates has been observed and monitored with the 16 temperature mapping sensors. Field emission or some field dependent anomalous RF losses on the niobium plate have also been observed

  1. Implementation of surface hopping molecular dynamics using semiempirical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabiano, E.; Keal, T.W.; Thiel, W.

    2008-01-01

    A molecular dynamics driver and surface hopping algorithm for nonadiabatic dynamics has been implemented in a development version of the MNDO semiempirical electronic structure package. The required energies, gradients and nonadiabatic couplings are efficiently evaluated on the fly using semiempirical configuration interaction methods. The choice of algorithms for the time evolution of the nuclear motion and quantum amplitudes is discussed, and different schemes for the computation of nonadiabatic couplings are analysed. The importance of molecular orbital tracking and electronic state following is underlined in the context of configuration interaction calculations. The method is applied to three case studies (ethylene, methaniminium ion, and methanimine) using the orthogonalization corrected OM2 Hamiltonian. In all three cases decay times and dynamics paths similar to high-level ab initio results are obtained

  2. A Method to Identify Flight Obstacles on Digital Surface Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Min; LIN Xinggang; SUN Shouyu; WANG Youzhi

    2005-01-01

    In modern low-altitude terrain-following guidance, a constructing method of the digital surface model (DSM) is presented in the paper to reduce the threat to flying vehicles of tall surface features for safe flight. The relationship between an isolated obstacle size and the intervals of vertical- and cross-section in the DSM model is established. The definition and classification of isolated obstacles are proposed, and a method for determining such isolated obstacles in the DSM model is given. The simulation of a typical urban district shows that when the vertical- and cross-section DSM intervals are between 3 m and 25 m, the threat to terrain-following flight at low-altitude is reduced greatly, and the amount of data required by the DSM model for monitoring in real time a flying vehicle is also smaller. Experiments show that the optimal results are for an interval of 12.5 m in the vertical- and cross-sections in the DSM model, with a 1:10 000 DSM scale grade.

  3. Comparison of different surface quantitative analysis methods. Application to corium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilbaud, N.; Blin, D.; Perodeaud, Ph.; Dugne, O.; Gueneau, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    In case of a severe hypothetical accident in a pressurized water reactor, the reactor assembly melts partially or completely. The material formed, called corium, flows out and spreads at the bottom of the reactor. To limit and control the consequences of such an accident, the specifications of the O-U-Zr basic system must be known accurately. To achieve this goal, the corium mix was melted by electron bombardment at very high temperature (3000 K) followed by quenching of the ingot in the Isabel 1 evaporator. Metallographic analyses were then required to validate the thermodynamic databases set by the Thermo-Calc software. The study consists in defining an overall surface quantitative analysis method that is fast and reliable, in order to determine the overall corium composition. The analyzed ingot originated in a [U+Fe+Y+UO 2 +ZrO 2 ) mix, with a total mass of 2253.7 grams. Several successive heating with average power were performed before a very brief plateau at very high temperature, so that the ingot was formed progressively and without any evaporation liable to modify its initial composition. The central zone of the ingot was then analyzed by qualitative and quantitative global surface methods, to yield the volume composition of the analyzed zone. Corium sample analysis happens to be very complex because of the variety and number of elements present, and also because of the presence of oxygen in a heavy element like the uranium based matrix. Three different global quantitative surface analysis methods were used: global EDS analysis (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry), with SEM, global WDS analysis (Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometry) with EPMA, and coupling of image analysis with EDS or WDS point spectroscopic analyses. The difficulties encountered during the study arose from sample preparation (corium is very sensitive to oxidation), and the choice of acquisition parameters of the images and analyses. The corium sample studied consisted of two zones displaying

  4. Evaluation of Surface Treatment Methods on the Bond Strength of Zirconia Ceramics Systems, Resin Cements and Tooth Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkuş Emek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the effects of airborne-particle abrasion (APA and tribochemical silica coating (TSC surface treatment methods on the shear bond strength of zirconia ceramics systems, resin cements and tooth surface

  5. Delta self-consistent field method to obtain potential energy surfaces of excited molecules on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavnholt, Jeppe; Olsen, Thomas; Engelund, Mads

    2008-01-01

    is a density-functional method closely resembling standard density-functional theory (DFT), the only difference being that in Delta SCF one or more electrons are placed in higher lying Kohn-Sham orbitals instead of placing all electrons in the lowest possible orbitals as one does when calculating the ground......-state energy within standard DFT. We extend the Delta SCF method by allowing excited electrons to occupy orbitals which are linear combinations of Kohn-Sham orbitals. With this extra freedom it is possible to place charge locally on adsorbed molecules in the calculations, such that resonance energies can...... be estimated, which is not possible in traditional Delta SCF because of very delocalized Kohn-Sham orbitals. The method is applied to N2, CO, and NO adsorbed on different metallic surfaces and compared to ordinary Delta SCF without our modification, spatially constrained DFT, and inverse...

  6. C'est La Vie! The Game of Social Life: Using an Intersectionality Approach to Teach About Privilege and Structural Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramesfeld, Kosha D.; Good, Arla

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present the results of two studies that evaluated an experiential intersectionality awareness activity, "C'est La Vie: The Game of Social Life." For Study 1 (N = 55), we content analyzed students' short answer responses about inequality written before and after playing "C'est La Vie." Study 2 compared a…

  7. Naratīvie elementi kiberpanka literatūrā

    OpenAIRE

    Beņko, Oļegs

    2011-01-01

    Darba tēma ir „Naratīvie elementi kiberpanka literatūrā”. Naratīvie elementi veido stāstu. Dažādiem žanriem ir raksturīgi atšķirīgi elementi. Līdz ar to, saskaroties ar noteiktu naratīvo elementu – darbības vidi, tēlu vai sižetu, kas attīstās ap kādu tēmu, – varam identificēt arī žanru. Darba mērķis ir noskaidrot kopējos kiberpanka literatūrai raksturīgos naratīvos elementus. Lai īstenotu šo mērķi, tiek analizēti un salīdzināti divi kibepanka žanrā tapuši darbi – Viljama Gibsona „Neirom...

  8. VieSLAF Framework: Enabling Adaptive and Versatile SLA-Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandic, Ivona; Music, Dejan; Leitner, Philipp; Dustdar, Schahram

    Novel computing paradigms like Grid and Cloud computing demand guarantees on non-functional requirements such as application execution time or price. Such requirements are usually negotiated following a specific Quality of Service (QoS) model and are expressed using Service Level Agreements (SLAs). Currently available QoS models assume either that service provider and consumer have matching SLA templates and common understanding of the negotiated terms or provide public templates, which can be downloaded and utilized by the end users. On the one hand, matching SLA templates represent an unrealistic assumption in systems where service consumer and provider meet dynamically and on demand. On the other hand, handling of public templates seems to be a rather challenging issue, especially if the templates do not reflect users’ needs. In this paper we present VieSLAF, a novel framework for the specification and management of SLA mappings. Using VieSLAF users may specify, manage, and apply SLA mapping bridging the gap between non-matching SLA templates. Moreover, based on the predefined learning functions and considering accumulated SLA mappings, domain specific public SLA templates can be derived reflecting users’ needs.

  9. Comparison of parametric methods for modeling corneal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazizi, Hala; Brunette, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean

    2017-02-01

    Corneal topography is a medical imaging technique to get the 3D shape of the cornea as a set of 3D points of its anterior and posterior surfaces. From these data, topographic maps can be derived to assist the ophthalmologist in the diagnosis of disorders. In this paper, we compare three different mathematical parametric representations of the corneal surfaces leastsquares fitted to the data provided by corneal topography. The parameters obtained from these models reduce the dimensionality of the data from several thousand 3D points to only a few parameters and could eventually be useful for diagnosis, biometry, implant design etc. The first representation is based on Zernike polynomials that are commonly used in optics. A variant of these polynomials, named Bhatia-Wolf will also be investigated. These two sets of polynomials are defined over a circular domain which is convenient to model the elevation (height) of the corneal surface. The third representation uses Spherical Harmonics that are particularly well suited for nearly-spherical object modeling, which is the case for cornea. We compared the three methods using the following three criteria: the root-mean-square error (RMSE), the number of parameters and the visual accuracy of the reconstructed topographic maps. A large dataset of more than 2000 corneal topographies was used. Our results showed that Spherical Harmonics were superior with a RMSE mean lower than 2.5 microns with 36 coefficients (order 5) for normal corneas and lower than 5 microns for two diseases affecting the corneal shapes: keratoconus and Fuchs' dystrophy.

  10. Biological methods used to assess surface water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczerbiñska Natalia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the guidelines of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60 (WFD, both ecological and chemical statuses determine the assessment of surface waters. The profile of ecological status is based on the analysis of various biological components, and physicochemical and hydromorphological indicators complement this assessment. The aim of this article is to present the biological methods used in the assessment of water status with a special focus on bioassay, as well as to provide a review of methods of monitoring water status. Biological test methods include both biomonitoring and bioanalytics. Water biomonitoring is used to assess and forecast the status of water. These studies aim to collect data on water pollution and forecast its impact. Biomonitoring uses organisms which are characterized by particular vulnerability to contaminants. Bioindicator organisms are algae, fungi, bacteria, larval invertebrates, cyanobacteria, macroinvertebrates, and fish. Bioanalytics is based on the receptors of contaminants that can be biologically active substances. In bioanalytics, biosensors such as viruses, bacteria, antibodies, enzymes, and biotests are used to assess degrees of pollution.

  11. Definition of a critical confining zone using surface geophysical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy-Dilek, C.A.; Hoekstra, P.; Harthill, N.; Blohm, M.; Phillips, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Definition of the hydrogeologic framework in layered sediments of fluvial and deltaic origin is a difficult challenge for environmental characterization and remediation programs due to the lithologic and stratigraphic heterogeneities inherent in these settings. These heterogeneties often control contaminant transport and the effectiveness of remediation alternatives, Surface geophysical surveys can be cost-effective methods for characterization, but individual methods have inherent limitations in resolution and sensitivity. A synergistic approach, utilizing two geophysical survey methods was applied, to define and examine the nature and extent of a deep confining zone of regulatory importance, the Crouch Branch Confining Unit, in Coastal Plain sediments at the Savannah River Site. TDEM accurately maps the overall conductance (product of thickness and electrical conductivity) of a confining zone clay facies; from variation in conductance, changes in lithology of the conforming zone can be inferred. Shear wave seismic reflection surveys map the depth to the clay layers, and the clay layer thickness, but provides little information on the lithologic nature of the confining zone. Integrated interpretation of the combined data set (including all available borehole logs) allows for delineation of the lateral and vertical extent of clay-dominated zones, sand-dominated zones, key stratigraphic horizons, and erosional features associated with unconformities. This approach has resulted in the collection of critical information that will be used to optimize remedial system design, representing a significant cost savings to environmental restoration programs at the Savannah River Site

  12. Integral methods for shallow free-surface flows with separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, S.; Putkaradze, V.; Bohr, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    eddy and separated flow. Assuming a variable radial velocity profile as in Karman-Pohlhausen's method, we obtain a system of two ordinary differential equations for stationary states that can smoothly go through the jump. Solutions of the system are in good agreement with experiments. For the flow down...... an inclined plane we take a similar approach and derive a simple model in which the velocity profile is not restricted to a parabolic or self-similar form. Two types of solutions with large surface distortions are found: solitary, kink-like propagating fronts, obtained when the flow rate is suddenly changed......, and stationary jumps, obtained, for instance, behind a sluice gate. We then include time dependence in the model to study the stability of these waves. This allows us to distinguish between sub- and supercritical flows by calculating dispersion relations for wavelengths of the order of the width of the layer....

  13. Standardization method for alpha and beta surface sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahagia, M; Grigorescu, E L; Razdolescu, A C; Ivan, C [Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Institute of Atomic Physics, PO Box MG-6, R-76900 Bucharest, (Romania)

    1994-01-01

    The installation and method of standardization of large surface alpha and beta sources are presented. A multiwire, flow-type proportional counter and the associated electronics is used. The counter is placed in a lead-shield. The response of the system in (s[sup -1]/Bq) or (s[sup -1]/(particle x s[sup -1])) was determined for [sup 241] Am, [sup 239] Pu, [sup 147] Pm, [sup 204] Tl, [sup 90](Sr+Y) and [sup 137] Cs using standard sources with different dimensions, from some mm[sup 2] to 180 x 220 mm[sup 2]. The system was legally attested for expanded uncertainties of +7%. (Author).

  14. The epidemiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD in community-living seniors: protocol of the MemoVie cohort study, Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perquin Magali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease (AD are increasingly considered a major public health problem. The MemoVie cohort study aims to investigate the living conditions or risk factors under which the normal cognitive capacities of the senior population in Luxembourg (≥ 65 year-old evolve (1 to mild cognitive impairment (MCI – transitory non-clinical stage – and (2 to AD. Identifying MCI and AD predictors undeniably constitutes a challenge in public health in that it would allow interventions which could protect or delay the occurrence of cognitive disorders in elderly people. In addition, the MemoVie study sets out to generate hitherto unavailable data, and a comprehensive view of the elderly population in the country. Methods/design The study has been designed with a view to highlighting the prevalence in Luxembourg of MCI and AD in the first step of the survey, conducted among participants selected from a random sample of the general population. A prospective cohort is consequently set up in the second step, and appropriate follow-up of the non-demented participants allows improving the knowledge of the preclinical stage of MCI. Case-control designs are used for cross-sectional or retrospective comparisons between outcomes and biological or clinical factors. To ensure maximal reliability of the information collected, we decided to opt for structured face to face interviews. Besides health status, medical and family history, demographic and socio-cultural information are explored, as well as education, habitat network, social behavior, leisure and physical activities. As multilingualism is expected to challenge the cognitive alterations associated with pathological ageing, it is additionally investigated. Data relative to motor function, including balance, walk, limits of stability, history of falls and accidents are further detailed. Finally, biological examinations, including ApoE genetic polymorphism are

  15. Response surface reconciliation method of bolted joints structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Mohd Azmi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural joining methods such as bolted joints are commonly used for the assembly of structural components due to their simplicity and easy maintenance. Understandably, the dynamic characteristic of bolted joined structure is mainly influenced by the properties of their joints such as preload on the bolts and joints stiffness which alter the measured dynamics response of the structure. Therefore, the need to include the local effect of the bolted joints into the numerical model of the bolted joined structure is vitally important in order to represent the model accurately. In this paper, a few types of connector elements that can be used to represent the bolted joints such as CBAR, CBEAM and CELAS have been investigated numerically and experimentally. The initial numerical results of these element connectors are compared with the experimental results in term of natural frequencies and mode shapes. The comparative evaluation of numerical and the experimental data are performed in order to provide some insights of inaccuracies in the numerical model due to invalid assumption in the numerical modelling such as geometry, material properties, and boundary conditions. The discrepancies between both results (numerical and experimental data are then corrected using the response surface reconciliation method (RSRM through which the finite element model is altered in order to provide closer agreement with the measured data so that it can be used for subsequence analysis.

  16. Rapid surface enhanced Raman scattering detection method for chloramphenicol residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Yao, Weirong

    2015-06-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a widely used amide alcohol antibiotics, which has been banned from using in food producing animals in many countries. In this study, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) coupled with gold colloidal nanoparticles was used for the rapid analysis of CAP. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were conducted with Gaussian 03 at the B3LYP level using the 3-21G(d) and 6-31G(d) basis sets to analyze the assignment of vibrations. Affirmatively, the theoretical Raman spectrum of CAP was in complete agreement with the experimental spectrum. They both exhibited three strong peaks characteristic of CAP at 1104 cm-1, 1344 cm-1, 1596 cm-1, which were used for rapid qualitative analysis of CAP residues in food samples. The use of SERS as a method for the measurements of CAP was explored by comparing use of different solvents, gold colloidal nanoparticles concentration and absorption time. The method of the detection limit was determined as 0.1 μg/mL using optimum conditions. The Raman peak at 1344 cm-1 was used as the index for quantitative analysis of CAP in food samples, with a linear correlation of R2 = 0.9802. Quantitative analysis of CAP residues in foods revealed that the SERS technique with gold colloidal nanoparticles was sensitive and of a good stability and linear correlation, and suited for rapid analysis of CAP residue in a variety of food samples.

  17. Method for Qualification of Coatings Applied to Wet Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-16

    The field application of a pipeline repair or rehabilitation coating usually cannot wait until ambient conditions become optimal. In a humid environment, water can condense on the pipe surface because the pipe surface is usually cooler than the ambie...

  18. A New Method Based on TOPSIS and Response Surface Method for MCDM Problems with Interval Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the preference of design maker (DM is always ambiguous, we have to face many multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM problems with interval numbers in our daily life. Though there have been some methods applied to solve this sort of problem, it is always complex to comprehend and sometimes difficult to implement. The calculation processes are always ineffective when a new alternative is added or removed. In view of the weakness like this, this paper presents a new method based on TOPSIS and response surface method (RSM for MCDM problems with interval numbers, RSM-TOPSIS-IN for short. The key point of this approach is the application of deviation degree matrix, which ensures that the DM can get a simple response surface (RS model to rank the alternatives. In order to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method, three illustrative MCMD problems with interval numbers are analysed, including (a selection of investment program, (b selection of a right partner, and (c assessment of road transport technologies. The contrast of ranking results shows that the RSM-TOPSIS-IN method is in good agreement with those derived by earlier researchers, indicating it is suitable to solve MCDM problems with interval numbers.

  19. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

    2014-07-22

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  20. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tiziana C; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James; Liu, Gang Logan

    2015-11-03

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  1. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

    2015-07-14

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  2. « Vie » et « vivant » : perspectives épistémologiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dell’Angelo-Sauvage Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Des idées des philosophes de la Grèce ancienne, à celles que suggèrent les avancées contemporaines de la biologie, différentes conceptions de la vie et du vivant sont proposées sans qu’un consensus ne soit obtenu. Différents auteurs ont présenté la vie comme l’affaire des philosophes, sous ses aspects politiques et sociaux, tandis que le vivant était l’affaire des biologistes préoccupés du fonctionnement des organismes (Canguilhem, 1990; Fassin, 2000; Jacob, 1970; Pichot, 2011. Mais cette distinction est actuellement rediscutée (Cherlonneix, 2013; Morange, 2013. D’autres auteurs mettent en contraste les approches réductionnistes et holistes et présentent les conséquences de ces points de vue. Dès 2006, Guespin-Michel et Stewart envisageaient un changement de paradigme inévitable face aux modifications de méthodes dans différents groupes de recherche. Nous proposons de porter un regard croisé sur les concepts de vie et de vivant dans le but d’éclaircir les fondements épistémologiques sous-jacents à un enseignement relatif au vivant : observe-t-on une influence réciproque des conceptions de « vie » et de « vivant » dans les différents courants de pensée ? Les changements épistémologiques liés aux observations faites à différentes échelles biologiques modifient-ils les réflexions philosophiques, scientifiques et sociétales ? Qu’en est-il actuellement de la distinction vie/vivant ?

  3. La mort d’un couple : prière(s) et vie publiques

    OpenAIRE

    Touzeil-Divina, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    Si, avant la Loi du 5 décembre 1905, les Eglises et l’Etat concrétisaient matériellement leurs liens étroits par des rites officiels nommés prières publiques, ceux-ci sont censés avoir été supprimés depuis. C’est l’histoire de cette suppression (après en avoir retenu une définition) qui est ici envisagée à travers trois secteurs cardinaux de l’action administrative : la vie universitaire, parlementaire et judiciaire. Dans ces trois hypothèses les prières publiques ont été supprimées de façon ...

  4. Récits de vie d’adolescents. Humeur dépressive et figures parentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poudat Céline

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La présente étude se propose d’explorer d’explorer les liens entre l’humeur dépressive et le langage sur la base d’un corpus de récits de vie oraux spontanés produits par 206 adolescents âgés de 12 à 18 ans. On se concentrera plus spécifiquement sur les représentations des figures d’attachement parentales dans les discours, premiers paramètres à jouer un rôle déterminant pour spécifier les différences d’humeur de l’adolescent, en mobilisant des méthodes issues de l’analyse de données textuelles et de la linguistique de corpus.

  5. Viedās tehnoloģijas ikdienas dzīvē

    OpenAIRE

    Sakss, Imants

    2010-01-01

    Autors darbā dod ieskatu viedo tehnoloģiju izmantošanu ēku un māju automatizācijas sistēmās, to protokolus un kontroles principus. Plašais apskats ļauj izprast galvenajās vadlīnijās par automatizācijas sistēmu pielietošanu aktīvas komercdarbības procesos. Lietojot vizuālo materiālu un pārskatu ir vieglāk izvēlēties atbilstošos protokolus, lai izveidotu automatizācijas kontroles sistēmu. Darbs ļauj izprast, ko nozīme viedās tehnoloģijas ikdienas dzīvē. Tiek apskatītas automatizācijas sistēmas ...

  6. Surface modification method for reactor incore structural component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, Minoru; Sudo, Akira.

    1996-01-01

    A large number of metal or ceramic small spheres accelerated by pressurized air are collided against a surface of a reactor incore structures or a welded surface of the structural components, and then finishing is applied by polishing to form compression stresses on the surface. This can change residual stresses into compressive stress without increasing the strength of the surface. Accordingly, stress corrosion crackings of the incore structural components or welded portions thereof can be prevented thereby enabling to extend the working life of equipments. (T.M.)

  7. Radiation induced diffusion as a method to protect surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumvol, I.J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation induced diffusion forms a coating adeherent and without interface on the surface of metalic substrates. This coating improves the behaviour of metal to corrosion and abrasion. The effect of radiation induced diffusion of tin and calcium on pure iron surface is described and analyzed in this work. (author) [pt

  8. Freedom in the time of oppression in L. Gutauskas’ novels “Letters from Viešvilė” and “The Feathers”

    OpenAIRE

    Bernotienė, Gintarė

    2011-01-01

    In the novels "Laiškai iš Viešvilės" ("Letters from Viešvilė") and "Plunksnos" ("The feathers") Leonardas Gutauskas considers themes of freedom and artistic creation, which in certain political situation are closely related to the problem of individual freedom and restriction of liberty in the annexed country as well. According to the metaphor of the novel "Laiškai iš Viešvilės", in the time of oppression characters live their lives as bounded by wire mesh, and despite of that freedom in this...

  9. Analytical methods for the characterization of surface finishing in bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardini, I.; Zendri, E.; Biscontin, G.; Brunetin, A.

    2006-01-01

    The recent restoration works of Santo Stefano Church Facade (XV century) in Venice have shown traces variously saved of different kind of surface finishes. These finishes were found on the brick's surface both in the masonry and in the decorative elements. Different brick's surface and decorative tile samples were investigated using several techniques: optical microscopy, scanning electron-microscopy, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and reflectance Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. The evaluation of the reached results was used to understand the decorative techniques and to recognize the material employed

  10. Contribution of surface analysis spectroscopic methods to the lubrication field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, C.

    1979-01-01

    The analytical surface technics such as ESCA, AES and SIMS are tested to be applied to a particular lubrication field. One deals with a 100 C 6 steel surface innumered in tricresylphosphate at 110 0 C for 15 days. The nature of the first layers is studied after relevant solvant cleaning. An iron oxide layer is produced on the bearing surface, namely αFe 2 -O 3 . ESCA, AES and SIMS studies show an overlayer of iron phosphate. The exact nature of iron phosphate is not clearly established but the formation of a ferrous phosphate coating can be assumed from ESCA analysis [fr

  11. Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Googin, J.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Thompson, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140 F and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140 F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material

  12. A simple method to assess bacterial attachment to surfaces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sonak, S.; Bhosle, N.B.

    The crystal violet microplate adhension assay was modified to evaluate bacterial adhesion to metal and non-metal surfaces. Both viable cell count and the absorbance of the crystal violet stained cells attached to aluminium increased over the period...

  13. Method and coating composition for protecting and decontaminating surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overhold, D C; Peterson, M D

    1959-03-10

    A protective coating useful in the decontamination of surfaces exposed to radioactive substances is described. This coating is placed on the surface before use and is soluble in water, allowing its easy removal in the event decontamination becomes necessary. Suitable coating compositions may be prepared by mixing a water soluble carbohydrate such as sucrose or dextrin, together with a hygroscopic agent such as calcium chloride or zinc chloride.

  14. Method For Creating Corrosion Resistant Surface On An Aluminum Copper Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfeld, Florian B.; Wang, You; Lin, Simon H.

    1997-06-03

    A method for treating the surface of aluminum alloys hang a relatively high copper content is provided which includes the steps of removing substantially all of the copper from the surface, contacting the surface with a first solution containing cerium, electrically charging the surface while contacting the surface in an aqueous molybdate solution, and contacting the surface with a second solution containing cerium. The copper is substantially removed from the surface in the first step either by (i) contacting the surface with an acidic chromate solution or by (ii) contacting the surface with an acidic nitrate solution while subjecting the surface to an electric potential. The corrosion-resistant surface resulting from the invention is excellent, consistent and uniform throughout the surface. Surfaces treated by the invention may often be certified for use in salt-water services.

  15. Forensic Examination Using a Nondestructive Evaluation Method for Surface Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, David J.; Chumbley, L. Scott

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the use of a new technique of optical profilometry in a nondestructive, non-contact fashion for the comparison of two metallic surfaces, one hard and one soft. When brought in contact with one another, the harder material (i.e. the tool) will impress its surface roughness onto the softer. It is understood that the resulting set of impressions left from a tool tip act in a manner similar to a photographic negative, in that it leaves a reverse, or negative impression on the surface of a plate. If properly inverted and reversed, measurements from the softer material should be identical to the harder indenting object with regard to surface texture and roughness. This assumption is inherent in the area of forensics, where bullets, cartridge cases, and toolmarked surfaces from crime scenes are compared to similar marks made under controlled conditions in the forensic laboratory. This paper will examine the methodology used to compare two surfaces for similarities and dissimilarities, and comment on the applicability of this technique to other studies.

  16. Influence of various surface-conditioning methods on the bond strength of metal brackets to ceramic surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmage, P; Nergiz, [No Value; Herrmann, W; Ozcan, M; Nergiz, Ibrahim; �zcan, Mutlu

    With the increase in adult orthodontic treatment comes the need to find a reliable method for bonding orthodontic brackets onto metal or ceramic crowns and fixed partial dentures. In this study, shear bond strength and surface roughness tests were used to examine the effect of 4 different surface

  17. A novel surface cleaning method for chemical removal of fouling lead layer from chromium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholivand, Kh.; Khosravi, M.; Hosseini, S.G.; Fathollahi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Most products especially metallic surfaces require cleaning treatment to remove surface contaminations that remain after processing or usage. Lead fouling is a general problem which arises from lead fouling on the chromium surfaces of bores and other interior parts of systems which have interaction with metallic lead in high temperatures and pressures. In this study, a novel chemical solution was introduced as a cleaner reagent for removing metallic lead pollution, as a fouling metal, from chromium surfaces. The cleaner aqueous solution contains hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as oxidizing agent of lead layer on the chromium surface and acetic acid (CH 3 COOH) as chelating agent of lead ions. The effect of some experimental parameters such as acetic acid concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration and temperature of the cleaner solution during the operation on the efficiency of lead cleaning procedure was investigated. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that using this procedure, the lead pollution layer could be completely removed from real chromium surfaces without corrosion of the original surface. Finally, the optimum conditions for the complete and fast removing of lead pollution layer from chromium surfaces were proposed. The experimental results showed that at the optimum condition (acetic acid concentration 28% (V/V), hydrogen peroxide 8% (V/V) and temperature 35 deg. C), only 15-min time is needed for complete removal of 3 g fouling lead from a chromium surface.

  18. Group IV nanocrystals with ion-exchangeable surface ligands and methods of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lance M.; Nichols, Asa W.; Chernomordik, Boris D.; Anderson, Nicholas C.; Beard, Matthew C.; Neale, Nathan R.

    2018-01-09

    Methods are described that include reacting a starting nanocrystal that includes a starting nanocrystal core and a covalently bound surface species to create an ion-exchangeable (IE) nanocrystal that includes a surface charge and a first ion-exchangeable (IE) surface ligand ionically bound to the surface charge, where the starting nanocrystal core includes a group IV element.

  19. Reducing Motional Decoherence in Ion Traps with Surface Science Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeffner, Hartmut

    2014-03-01

    Many trapped ions experiments ask for low motional heating rates while trapping the ions close to trapping electrodes. However, in practice small ion-electrode distances lead to unexpected high heating rates. While the mechanisms for the heating is still unclear, it is now evident that surface contamination of the metallic electrodes is at least partially responsible for the elevated heating rates. I will discuss heating rate measurements in a microfabricated surface trap complemented with basic surface science studies. We monitor the elemental surface composition of the Cu-Al alloy trap with an Auger spectrometer. After bake-out, we find a strong Carbon and Oxygen contamination and heating rates of 200 quanta/s at 1 MHz trap frequency. After removing most of the Carbon and Oxygen with Ar-Ion sputtering, the heating rates drop to 4 quanta/s. Interestingly, we still measure the decreased heating rate even after the surface oxidized from the background gas throughout a 40-day waiting time in UHV.

  20. A new method of constructing scalar-flat Kaehler surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongsu; Pontecorvo, M.

    1993-10-01

    Building on the work of Donaldson-Friedman we present a geometric way of constructing anti-self-dual hermitian metrics on compact complex surfaces which is based on the relative complex deformations of singular 3-folds with divisors. Some of the consequences are that under a mild condition, fully described by LeBrun-Singer, any blow up of a scalar-flat Kaehler surface admits scalar-flat Kaehler metrics; this is used to prove that such extremal Kaehler metrics exists on an open dense subset of the moduli space of non-minimal ruled surfaces of genus g ≥ 2. Related results have been obtained by LeBrun-Singer. (author). 25 refs

  1. Membrane mimetic surface functionalization of nanoparticles: Methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingart, Jacob; Vabbilisetty, Pratima; Sun, Xue-Long

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs), due to their size-dependent physical and chemical properties, have shown remarkable potential for a wide range of applications over the past decades. Particularly, the biological compatibilities and functions of NPs have been extensively studied for expanding their potential in areas of biomedical application such as bioimaging, biosensing, and drug delivery. In doing so, surface functionalization of NPs by introducing synthetic ligands and/or natural biomolecules has become a critical component in regards to the overall performance of the NP system for its intended use. Among known examples of surface functionalization, the construction of an artificial cell membrane structure, based on phospholipids, has proven effective in enhancing biocompatibility and has become a viable alternative to more traditional modifications, such as direct polymer conjugation. Furthermore, certain bioactive molecules can be immobilized onto the surface of phospholipid platforms to generate displays more reminiscent of cellular surface components. Thus, NPs with membrane-mimetic displays have found use in a range of bioimaging, biosensing, and drug delivery applications. This review herein describes recent advances in the preparations and characterization of integrated functional NPs covered by artificial cell membrane structures and their use in various biomedical applications. PMID:23688632

  2. Method for plasma surface treating and preparation of membrane layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1992-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus suitable for plasma surface treating (e.g. forming a membrane layer on a substrate) which comprises a plasma generation section (2) which is in communication via at least one plasma inlet means (4) (e.g. a nozzle) with an enclosed plasma treating section (3)

  3. A Method of Retrieving BRDF from Surface-Reflected Radiance Using Decoupling of Atmospheric Radiative Transfer and Surface Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Radkevich

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF defines anisotropy of the surface reflection. It is required to specify the boundary condition for radiative transfer (RT modeling used in aerosol retrievals, cloud retrievals, atmospheric modeling, and other applications. Ground based measurements of reflected radiance draw increasing attention as a source of information about anisotropy of surface reflection. Derivation of BRDF from surface radiance requires atmospheric correction. This study develops a new method of retrieving BRDF on its whole domain, making it immediately suitable for further atmospheric RT modeling applications. The method is based on the integral equation relating surface-reflected radiance, BRDF, and solutions of two auxiliary atmosphere-only RT problems. The method requires kernel-based BRDF. The weights of the kernels are obtained with a quickly converging iterative procedure. RT modeling has to be done only one time before the start of iterative process.

  4. Une autre ville pour une autre vie. Henri Lefebvre et les situationnistes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Simay

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available L’un des traits distinctifs du mouvement situationniste est de s’être constamment préoccupé de la question urbaine. Conçue comme l’espace de production de la société du spectacle mais aussi comme un terrain de lutte et d’expérimentation, la ville a représenté pour ce mouvement estudiantin, proche d’Henri Lefebvre, le lieu d’une réinvention radicale de la vie quotidienne. Cet article revient sur la critique situationniste de l’urbanisme de l’après-guerre ainsi que sur les pratiques auxquelles elle a donné lieu (détournement, dérive, cartes psychogéographiques, construction de situations éphémères. Celles-ci peuvent être regardées comme la première expression d’un « droit à la ville », tel que l’entendait Lefebvre. Reste à savoir si le groupe de Guy Debord souhaitait véritablement « changer la ville pour changer la vie » ou si la ville n’était que le théâtre d’une révolution à venir.One of the distinctive traits of the situationist movement is its constant preoccupation with the urban issue. For this student movement close to Henri Lefebvre, the city has been thought of as a choice generic location for the production of the Society of the Spectacle, but also as a test ground for struggle and experimentation – the place where a radical reinvention of daily life can occur. This paper goes back to the situationist critique of post-war urbanism, as well as the behaviors and practices it has given birth to (misappropriation, drifts in meaning, psychogeographic maps, the construct of short-lived situations. These can be seen as the first expression of a « right to the city », in the sense Lefebvre originally meant it have. However, it is still unknown whether Guy Debord's group really wished to « change city-life to change life itself », or if to them the city was merely a theater for the enactment of a revolution to come.

  5. Effects of VIE tagging and partial tissue sampling on the immune response of three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, T; Hafer, N; Mobley, K B

    2014-09-01

    A 14 day experiment on effects of visible implant elastomer (VIE) tagging and spine-clipping of three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus showed significant increases in immune response, particularly in the granulocyte:lymphocyte ratio, in both treatments and the sham control. A minimum two-week recovery after handling, anaesthesia, tagging and spine-clipping is recommended to minimize effect of manipulation on the immune system. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Niveaux d'analyse et cartographie thématique: groupes ethniques et conditions de vie en Bolivie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude ROUX

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Les cartes des conditions de vie en Bolivie montrent des formes d’organisation spatiale récurrentes coïncidant étroitement avec celle des langues quechua et aymara. Mais les conclusions sont tout autres lorsque change le niveau d’analyse notamment en raison des différienciations sociales qui apparaissent à l’échelle locale.

  7. Protection de la vie privée dans l'univers numérique des pays en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'augmentation fulgurante du nombre d'internautes et l'amélioration de la capacité informatique permettent aux gouvernements et au secteur privé de recueillir et de partager des renseignements sur toutes les facettes de la vie des particuliers. Dans les pays en développement, où habitent la majeure partie des utilisateurs ...

  8. New surface modification method of bio-titanium alloy by EB polishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Akira; Uno, Yoshiyuki; Iio, Atsuo; Fujiwara, Kunihiko; Doi, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    A new surface modification for bio-titanium alloy products by electron beam (EB) polishing is proposed. In this EB polishing method, high energy density EB can be irradiated without concentrating the beam. Therefore, large-area EB with a maximum diameter of 60 mm can be used for instantaneously melting or evaporating metal surface. Experimental results made it clear that surface characteristics, such as repellency, corrosion resistance and coefficient of friction could be improved simultaneously with the surface smoothing in a few minutes under a proper condition. Therefore, EB polishing method has a possibility of high efficient surface smoothing and surface modification process for bio-titanium alloy. (author)

  9. Imaging method of brain surface anatomy structures using conventional T2-weighted MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatanaka, Masahiko; Machida, Yoshio; Yoshida, Tadatoki; Katada, Kazuhiro.

    1992-01-01

    As a non-invasive technique for visualizing the brain surface structure by MRI, surface anatomy scanning (SAS) and the multislice SAS methods have been developed. Both techniques require additional MRI scanning to obtain images for the brain surface. In this paper, we report an alternative method to obtain the brain surface image using conventional T2-weighted multislice images without any additional scanning. The power calculation of the image pixel values, which is incorporated in the routine processing, has been applied in order to enhance the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contrast. We think that this method is one of practical approaches for imaging the surface anatomy of the brain. (author)

  10. Analysis of multi lobe journal bearings with surface roughness using finite difference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    PhaniRaja Kumar, K.; Bhaskar, SUdaya; Manzoor Hussain, M.

    2018-04-01

    Multi lobe journal bearings are used for high operating speeds and high loads in machines. In this paper symmetrical multi lobe journal bearings are analyzed to find out the effect of surface roughnessduring non linear loading. Using the fourth order RungeKutta method, time transient analysis was performed to calculate and plot the journal centre trajectories. Flow factor method is used to evaluate the roughness and the finite difference method (FDM) is used to predict the pressure distribution over the bearing surface. The Transient analysis is done on the multi lobe journal bearings for threedifferent surface roughness orientations. Longitudinal surface roughness is more effective when compared with isotopic and traverse surface roughness.

  11. The orthogonal gradients method: A radial basis functions method for solving partial differential equations on arbitrary surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Piret, Cécile

    2012-05-01

    Much work has been done on reconstructing arbitrary surfaces using the radial basis function (RBF) method, but one can hardly find any work done on the use of RBFs to solve partial differential equations (PDEs) on arbitrary surfaces. In this paper, we investigate methods to solve PDEs on arbitrary stationary surfaces embedded in . R3 using the RBF method. We present three RBF-based methods that easily discretize surface differential operators. We take advantage of the meshfree character of RBFs, which give us a high accuracy and the flexibility to represent the most complex geometries in any dimension. Two out of the three methods, which we call the orthogonal gradients (OGr) methods are the result of our work and are hereby presented for the first time. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  12. A method of non-destructive quantitative analysis of the ancient ceramics with curved surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Wenquan; Xiong Yingfei

    2002-01-01

    Generally the surface of the sample should be smooth and flat in XRF analysis, but the ancient ceramics and hardly match this condition. Two simple methods are put forward in fundamental method and empirical correction method of XRF analysis, so the analysis of little sample or the sample with curved surface can be easily completed

  13. Advances in surface wave methods: Cascaded MASW-SASW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhoff, R.S.; Brouwer, J.H.; Meekes, J.A.C.

    2005-01-01

    The application of the MASW method in areas that show strong lateral variations in subsurface properties is limited. Traditional SASW may yield a better lateral resolution but the dispersion curves (and thus the subsurface models) obtained with the method may be poor. The joint application of MASW

  14. Review of Electrical and Gravity Methods of Near-Surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT: The theory and practice of electrical and gravity methods of geophysics for groundwater exploration was reviewed with illustrations and data examples. With the goal of reducing cases of borehole/water-well failure attributed to the lack of the knowledge of the methods of geophysics for groundwater exploration ...

  15. Photoswitchable method for the ordered attachment of proteins to surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, Julio A.; De Yoreo, James J.; Kwon, Youngeun

    2010-04-20

    Described herein is a method for the attachment of proteins to any solid support with control over the orientation of the attachment. The method is extremely efficient, not requiring the previous purification of the protein to be attached, and can be activated by UV-light. Spatially addressable arrays of multiple protein components can be generated by using standard photolithographic techniques.

  16. Photoswitchable method for the ordered attachment of proteins to surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, Julio A [Livermore, CA; DeYoreo, James J [Clayton, CA; Kwon, Youngeun [Livermore, CA

    2011-07-05

    Described herein is a method for the attachment of proteins to any solid support with control over the orientation of the attachment. The method is extremely efficient, not requiring the previous purification of the protein to be attached, and can be activated by UV-light. Spatially addressable arrays of multiple protein components can be generated by using standard photolithographic techniques.

  17. Ernst Equation and Riemann Surfaces: Analytical and Numerical Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, Frederick J

    2007-01-01

    metric tensor components. The first two chapters of this book are devoted to some basic ideas: in the introductory chapter 1 the authors discuss the concept of integrability, comparing the integrability of the vacuum Ernst equation with the integrability of nonlinear equations of Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) type, while in chapter 2 they describe various circumstances in which the vacuum Ernst equation has been determined to be relevant, not only in connection with gravitation but also, for example, in the construction of solutions of the self-dual Yang-Mills equations. It is also in this chapter that one of several equivalent linear systems for the Ernst equation is described. The next two chapters are devoted to Dmitry Korotkin's concept of algebro-geometric solutions of a linear system: in chapter 3 the structure of such solutions of the vacuum Ernst equation, which involve Riemann theta functions of hyperelliptic algebraic curves of any genus, is contrasted with the periodic structure of such solutions of the KdV equation. How such solutions can be obtained, for example, by solving a matrix Riemann-Hilbert problem and how the metric tensor of the associated spacetime can be evaluated is described in detail. In chapter 4 the asymptotic behaviour and the similarity structure of the general algebro-geometric solutions of the Ernst equation are described, and the relationship of such solutions to the perhaps more familiar multi-soliton solutions is discussed. The next three chapters are based upon the authors' own published research: in chapter 5 it is shown that a problem involving counter-rotating infinitely thin disks of matter can be solved in terms of genus two Riemann theta functions, while in chapter 6 the authors describe numerical methods that facilitate the construction of such solutions, and in chapter 7 three-dimensional graphs are displayed that depict all metrical fields of the associated spacetime. Finally, in chapter 8, the difficulties associated with

  18. A new method for background rejection with surface sensitive bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nones, C.; Foggetta, L.; Giuliani, A.; Pedretti, M.; Salvioni, C.; Sangiorgio, S.

    2006-01-01

    We report the performance of three prototype TeO 2 macrobolometers, able to identify events due to energy deposited at the detector surface. This capability is obtained by thermally coupling thin active layers to the main absorber of the bolometer, and is proved by irradiating the detectors with alpha particles. This technique can be very useful in view of background study and reduction for the CUORE experiment, a next generation Double Beta Decay search based on TeO 2 macrobolometers and to be installed in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso

  19. Soil bioengineering methods for abandoned mine land surface drainage channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotir, R.B.; Simms, A.P.; Sweigard, R.J.; Hammer, P.; Graves, D.H.; Adkins, M. [Robbin B. Sotir & Associates, Marietta, GA (USA)

    1999-07-01

    Research to determine the suitability of soil bioengineering for slope stabilization at abandoned surface mining sites is described. The technology uses live woody plant material as a structural component, in this case live fascine with coir erosion control fabric made from coconut. A large water collection pond draining to nine channels on the slope below was constructed as a test site. The pond has drainage channels for testing at low, intermediate, and steep slope grades. Each group of three channels is composed of one riprap rock channel, one gabion channel, and one soil bioengineering channel. The channels will be tested summer 1999. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs., 8 photos.

  20. Experimental innovations in surface science a guide to practical laboratory methods and instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, John T

    2015-01-01

    This book is a new edition of a classic text on experimental methods and instruments in surface science. It offers practical insight useful to chemists, physicists, and materials scientists working in experimental surface science. This enlarged second edition contains almost 300 descriptions of experimental methods. The more than 50 active areas with individual scientific and measurement concepts and activities relevant to each area are presented in this book. The key areas covered are: Vacuum System Technology, Mechanical Fabrication Techniques, Measurement Methods, Thermal Control, Delivery of Adsorbates to Surfaces, UHV Windows, Surface Preparation Methods, High Area Solids, Safety. The book is written for researchers and graduate students.

  1. Labourer: Globalement plus néfaste sur la vie du sol que les pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hupin, Frédérique; Petersen, Søren O.; Krogh, Paul Henning

    2017-01-01

    Danemark ont étudié ces interactions pendant deux ans. Le rapport vient d’être publié au Danemark. Les résultats confirment que les effets des pesticides sur la vie du sol sont assez fortement influen-cés par le type de travail du sol et le type de fertilisation. Dans quelle mesure, dans quel sens, quels......Quels sont les impacts de l’application de produits phytosanitaires sur les populations de vers de terre et des autres organismes du sol ? Ces impacts sont-ils simples et directs ? Ou sont-ils influencés par le travail du sol et la fertilisation ? Des recherches menées à l’université d’Aarhus au...... sont les organismes affectés ? TCS a contacté pour vous les deux principaux protagonistes de l’étude : les chercheurs Danois Søren Petersen et Paul Henning Krogh. What are the impacts of the application of plant protection products on earthworms and other soil organisms? Are these impacts simple...

  2. An alternative safer and cost effective surface sterilization method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-10-30

    Oct 30, 2013 ... 110 countries and 50% of the production occurs in Brazil and India (FAO, 2008). ... capital formation, agriculture and other industries develop- ment, urbanization and ... Moreover, the method requires large nursery space: one.

  3. Using of the surface activation method for enhancement of machine realibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postnikov, V.I.; Garbar, I.N.

    1979-01-01

    A surface activation method is described for controlling the wear of units and details, allowing one to measure the wear at continuous operation of the mechanism by any program. The main advantages of the surface activation method for the wear tests are shown. By means of that method it was possible to develop a simultaneous controlling conjugate detail wear, and a method of different-activity brands, as well as the method for repeated activation of details. Development of theory for the engineering and technology of engine wear control by the surface activation method allowed one to improve the efficiency and reduce the time of research in the field of friction and wear

  4. Definition of a critical confining zone using surface geophysical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy-Dilek, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Hoekstra, P.; Harthill, N.; Blohm, M.; Phillips, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Definition of the hydrologic framework in layered sediments of fluvial and deltaic origin is a difficult challenge for environmental characterization and remediation programs due to the lithologic and stratigraphic heterogeneities inherent in these settings. The authors set out to use complementary geophysical surveys to determine the nature and extent of a deep confining unit at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) soundings were used to define the electrical conductance of the clayey confining unit (aquitard), and shear-wave reflection seismic was used to define the stratigraphic framework. Based on correlations with borehole geophysical logs and sieve data, the shear-wave seismic proved capable of defining relatively fine layering in the coastal plain sediments, the upper and lower surfaces of a critical confining unit, and erosional features on the surface of the confining unit. The TDEM surveys defined the presence or absence of the clay facies of the confining unit. Moreover, by constraining the interpretation of the TDEM data with the thickness of the confining unit derived from the seismic data, the authors mapped the extent of the unit, showing where the clay is thicker, where it probably was never deposited, and where it was eroded by downcutting channels. These results have significant implications on the design and optimization of remedial systems

  5. A surface refractive index scanning system and method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to a surface refractive index scanning system for characterization of a sample. The system comprises a grating device for holding or receiving the sample, the device comprising at least a first grating region having a first grating width along a transverse direction, and a s......The invention relates to a surface refractive index scanning system for characterization of a sample. The system comprises a grating device for holding or receiving the sample, the device comprising at least a first grating region having a first grating width along a transverse direction...... a grating period Λ2 in the longitudinal direction, where the longitudinal direction is orthogonal to the transverse direction. A grating period spacing ΔΛ = Λ1 - Λ2 is finite. Further, the first and second grating periods are chosen to provide optical resonances for light respectively in a first...... wavelength band and a second wavelength band, light is being emitted, transmitted, or reflected in an out-of-plane direction, wherein the first wavelength band and the second wavelength band are at least partially non-overlapping in wavelength. The system further comprises a light source for illuminating...

  6. Method and system for formation and withdrawal of a sample from a surface to be analyzed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J.; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2017-10-03

    A method and system for formation and withdrawal of a sample from a surface to be analyzed utilizes a collection instrument having a port through which a liquid solution is conducted onto the surface to be analyzed. The port is positioned adjacent the surface to be analyzed, and the liquid solution is conducted onto the surface through the port so that the liquid solution conducted onto the surface interacts with material comprising the surface. An amount of material is thereafter withdrawn from the surface. Pressure control can be utilized to manipulate the solution balance at the surface to thereby control the withdrawal of the amount of material from the surface. Furthermore, such pressure control can be coordinated with the movement of the surface relative to the port of the collection instrument within the X-Y plane.

  7. Life Cycle Assessment Applied to Naphtha Catalytic Reforming Analyse de cycle de vie appliquée au reformage catalytique du naphta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portha J.-F.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Facing the increase of environmental concerns in the oil and gas industry, engineers and scientists need information to assess sustainability of chemical processes. Among the different methods available, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is widely used. In this study, LCA is applied to a catalytic reforming process using the Eco- Indicator 99 as life cycle impact assessment method. The main identified environmental impacts are fossil fuels consumption, climate change and respiratory effects due to inorganics compounds. The influence of different process parameters (feed composition, reaction temperature is determined with respect to environmental impacts. Two allocation methods are analysed (mass and exergetic allocation and two different process versions are compared in order to determine the effect of some improvements on environmental impact. Les considérations liées à l’environnement doivent de plus en plus être prises en compte par les ingénieurs et les scientifiques afin de juger de la durabilité des procédés chimiques dans l’industrie pétrolière et gazière. Parmi les différentes méthodes d’analyse environnementale, l’Analyse de Cycle de Vie (ACV est très utilisée. Dans cette étude, l’ACV est appliquée au procédé de reformage catalytique du naphta en utilisant la méthode Eco-Indicateur 99 comme méthode d’analyse des impacts du cycle de vie. Les principaux impacts environnementaux du procédé sont la consommation de combustibles fossiles, le changement climatique et les effets sur la respiration liés aux composés organiques. L’influence de différents paramètres (composition de l’alimentation, température de réaction sur les impacts environnementaux est testée. Deux méthodes d’allocation sont analysées (allocation massique et énergétique et deux versions du procédé de reformage catalytique sont comparées afin de déterminer les améliorations possibles permettant de minimiser les impacts.

  8. Validation of a laboratory method for evaluating dynamic properties of reconstructed equine racetrack surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J Setterbo

    Full Text Available Racetrack surface is a risk factor for racehorse injuries and fatalities. Current research indicates that race surface mechanical properties may be influenced by material composition, moisture content, temperature, and maintenance. Race surface mechanical testing in a controlled laboratory setting would allow for objective evaluation of dynamic properties of surface and factors that affect surface behavior.To develop a method for reconstruction of race surfaces in the laboratory and validate the method by comparison with racetrack measurements of dynamic surface properties.Track-testing device (TTD impact tests were conducted to simulate equine hoof impact on dirt and synthetic race surfaces; tests were performed both in situ (racetrack and using laboratory reconstructions of harvested surface materials. Clegg Hammer in situ measurements were used to guide surface reconstruction in the laboratory. Dynamic surface properties were compared between in situ and laboratory settings. Relationships between racetrack TTD and Clegg Hammer measurements were analyzed using stepwise multiple linear regression.Most dynamic surface property setting differences (racetrack-laboratory were small relative to surface material type differences (dirt-synthetic. Clegg Hammer measurements were more strongly correlated with TTD measurements on the synthetic surface than the dirt surface. On the dirt surface, Clegg Hammer decelerations were negatively correlated with TTD forces.Laboratory reconstruction of racetrack surfaces guided by Clegg Hammer measurements yielded TTD impact measurements similar to in situ values. The negative correlation between TTD and Clegg Hammer measurements confirms the importance of instrument mass when drawing conclusions from testing results. Lighter impact devices may be less appropriate for assessing dynamic surface properties compared to testing equipment designed to simulate hoof impact (TTD.Dynamic impact properties of race surfaces

  9. Evaluation of chemical surface treatment methods for mitigation of PWSCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dame, C.; Marks, C.; Olender, A.; Farias, J.

    2015-01-01

    As part of its mission to propose innovative and safe technologies to mitigate Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), EPRI recently initiated a program to evaluate potential new chemical surface treatments that might delay the occurrence of PWSCC such that no failure of components would be observed during their lifetime. Among the initial screening of more than thirty technologies, seven were selected for a more detailed review. The selected technologies were: nickel and nickel alloy plating, organic inhibitors, chromium-based inhibitors, silicon carbide, titanium-based inhibitors, rare earth metal (REM)-based inhibitors and encapsulation. The conclusions of the review of these technologies were that two of them were worth pursuing, titanium-based and REM-based inhibitors, and that evaluating the radiological consequences of injecting these products in the primary system, as well as assessing their efficacy to mitigate PWSCC, should be prioritized as the next required steps in qualification for implementation. (authors)

  10. Seismic data enhancement with Common Reflection Surface (CRS) stack method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baykulov, M.; Brink, H.J.; Gajewski, D.; Yoon, Mi-Kyung [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik

    2008-10-23

    We present the results of partial stacking of prestack seismic reflection data based on the kinematic wavefield attributes computed during the automatic CRS stack. The resulting CRS supergathers are more regularised and have better signal to noise ratio compared to original CMP gathers. The improved data can be used in any conventional processing tool instead of the original data, providing enhanced images of better quality. The CRS supergather method is especially suited for low fold seismic reflection data. Application of the new method to synthetic and real low fold data shows a clear improvement of seismograms as well as time and depth-migrated sections. (orig.)

  11. Review of Electrical and Gravity Methods of Near-Surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    In every big city, dozen of new boreholes or hand-dug wells are .... This paper is a review of the electrical and gravity methods of ... audience/readership. II. ..... W. W. Northon and Company, New York. Butler ... McGraw Hill Books Co. New York ...

  12. The modal surface interpolation method for damage localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina Limongelli, Maria

    2017-05-01

    The Interpolation Method (IM) has been previously proposed and successfully applied for damage localization in plate like structures. The method is based on the detection of localized reductions of smoothness in the Operational Deformed Shapes (ODSs) of the structure. The IM can be applied to any type of structure provided the ODSs are estimated accurately in the original and in the damaged configurations. If the latter circumstance fails to occur, for example when the structure is subjected to an unknown input(s) or if the structural responses are strongly corrupted by noise, both false and missing alarms occur when the IM is applied to localize a concentrated damage. In order to overcome these drawbacks a modification of the method is herein investigated. An ODS is the deformed shape of a structure subjected to a harmonic excitation: at resonances the ODS are dominated by the relevant mode shapes. The effect of noise at resonance is usually lower with respect to other frequency values hence the relevant ODS are estimated with higher reliability. Several methods have been proposed to reliably estimate modal shapes in case of unknown input. These two circumstances can be exploited to improve the reliability of the IM. In order to reduce or eliminate the drawbacks related to the estimation of the ODSs in case of noisy signals, in this paper is investigated a modified version of the method based on a damage feature calculated considering the interpolation error relevant only to the modal shapes and not to all the operational shapes in the significant frequency range. Herein will be reported the comparison between the results of the IM in its actual version (with the interpolation error calculated summing up the contributions of all the operational shapes) and in the new proposed version (with the estimation of the interpolation error limited to the modal shapes).

  13. The orthogonal gradients method: A radial basis functions method for solving partial differential equations on arbitrary surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Piret, Cé cile

    2012-01-01

    Much work has been done on reconstructing arbitrary surfaces using the radial basis function (RBF) method, but one can hardly find any work done on the use of RBFs to solve partial differential equations (PDEs) on arbitrary surfaces. In this paper

  14. The calculation of surface free energy based on embedded atom method for solid nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Wenhua; Hu Wangyu; Su Kalin; Liu Fusheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new solution for accurate prediction of surface free energy based on embedded atom method was proposed. ► The temperature dependent anisotropic surface energy of solid nickel was obtained. ► In isotropic environment, the approach does not change most predictions of bulk material properties. - Abstract: Accurate prediction of surface free energy of crystalline metals is a challenging task. The theory calculations based on embedded atom method potentials often underestimate surface free energy of metals. With an analytical charge density correction to the argument of the embedding energy of embedded atom method, an approach to improve the prediction for surface free energy is presented. This approach is applied to calculate the temperature dependent anisotropic surface energy of bulk nickel and surface energies of nickel nanoparticles, and the obtained results are in good agreement with available experimental data.

  15. Experimental Study in Taguchi Method on Surface Quality Predication of HSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yan; Li, Yueen

    2018-05-01

    Based on the study of ball milling mechanism and machining surface formation mechanism, the formation of high speed ball-end milling surface is a time-varying and cumulative Thermos-mechanical coupling process. The nature of this problem is that the uneven stress field and temperature field affect the machined surface Process, the performance of the processing parameters in the processing interaction in the elastic-plastic materials produced by the elastic recovery and plastic deformation. The surface quality of machining surface is characterized by multivariable nonlinear system. It is still an indispensable and effective method to study the surface quality of high speed ball milling by experiments.

  16. Comparison of two methods of surface profile extraction from multiple ultrasonic range measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barshan, B; Baskent, D

    Two novel methods for surface profile extraction based on multiple ultrasonic range measurements are described and compared. One of the methods employs morphological processing techniques, whereas the other employs a spatial voting scheme followed by simple thresholding. Morphological processing

  17. Detecting surface runoff location in a small catchment using distributed and simple observation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehotin, Judicaël; Breil, Pascal; Braud, Isabelle; de Lavenne, Alban; Lagouy, Mickaël; Sarrazin, Benoît

    2015-06-01

    Surface runoff is one of the hydrological processes involved in floods, pollution transfer, soil erosion and mudslide. Many models allow the simulation and the mapping of surface runoff and erosion hazards. Field observations of this hydrological process are not common although they are crucial to evaluate surface runoff models and to investigate or assess different kinds of hazards linked to this process. In this study, a simple field monitoring network is implemented to assess the relevance of a surface runoff susceptibility mapping method. The network is based on spatially distributed observations (nine different locations in the catchment) of soil water content and rainfall events. These data are analyzed to determine if surface runoff occurs. Two surface runoff mechanisms are considered: surface runoff by saturation of the soil surface horizon and surface runoff by infiltration excess (also called hortonian runoff). The monitoring strategy includes continuous records of soil surface water content and rainfall with a 5 min time step. Soil infiltration capacity time series are calculated using field soil water content and in situ measurements of soil hydraulic conductivity. Comparison of soil infiltration capacity and rainfall intensity time series allows detecting the occurrence of surface runoff by infiltration-excess. Comparison of surface soil water content with saturated water content values allows detecting the occurrence of surface runoff by saturation of the soil surface horizon. Automatic records were complemented with direct field observations of surface runoff in the experimental catchment after each significant rainfall event. The presented observation method allows the identification of fast and short-lived surface runoff processes at a small spatial and temporal resolution in natural conditions. The results also highlight the relationship between surface runoff and factors usually integrated in surface runoff mapping such as topography, rainfall

  18. STUDY OF STATIC ELECTRICITY CHARGE ACCUMULATION ON SURFACE OF FLUOROPOLYMER-4 PRODUCTS USING VIBRATING CAPACITOR METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. А. Vershina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents investigations of processes pertaining to surface charge accumulation and running of fluoropolymer-4 products using vibrating capacitor method. Modification of a measurement technique allowing to register distribution of dielectric surface potential without disturbance of the surface charged state has been described in the paper. The paper contains graphics of spatial distribution of surface potential of fluoropolymer-4 products after various treatments. The paper reveals that thermal treatment (tempering reduces static characteristics of fluoropolymer-4.

  19. A New Method to Simulate Free Surface Flows for Viscoelastic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free surface flows arise in a variety of engineering applications. To predict the dynamic characteristics of such problems, specific numerical methods are required to accurately capture the shape of free surface. This paper proposed a new method which combined the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE technique with the Finite Volume Method (FVM to simulate the time-dependent viscoelastic free surface flows. Based on an open source CFD toolbox called OpenFOAM, we designed an ALE-FVM free surface simulation platform. In the meantime, the die-swell flow had been investigated with our proposed platform to make a further analysis of free surface phenomenon. The results validated the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method for free surface simulation in both Newtonian fluid and viscoelastic fluid.

  20. Studies of non-contact methods for roughness measurements on wood surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, I.A.S.; Porankiewicz, B.

    1995-01-01

    The quality of wood surfaces after different kinds of machining processes is a property of great importance for the wood processing industries. Present work is a study, whose objective was to evaluate different non-contact methods, for measurement of the quality of the wood surfaces by correlating them with stylus tracing. A number of Scots Pine samples were prepared by different kinds of wood machining processing. Surface roughness measurements were performed, utilizing two optical noncontact methods. The results indicate that the laser scan method can measure surface roughness on sawn wood with a sufficient degree of accuracy. (author) [de

  1. Stress intensity evaluation for surface crack with use of boundary element method and influence function method and the surface crack extension analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuuki, R.; Ejima, K.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, three-dimensional boundary element elastostatic analysis is carried out on various surface crack problems. The present BEM uses a Mindlin's solution as well as a Kelvin's solution as a fundamental solution. So we can obtain accurate solutions for a surface crack just before or after a penetration. The obtained solutions for various shapes of surface cracks are stored as the data base, based on the influence function method. We develop the surface crack extension analysis system using the stress intensity factor data base and also the fatigue crack growth law. Our system seems to be useful especially for the analysis of the surface crack just before or after the penetration and also under the residual stresses

  2. Determination of optimum "multi-channel surface wave method" field parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Multi-channel surface wave methods (especially the multi-channel analyses of surface wave method; MASW) are routinely used to : determine the shear-wave velocity of the subsurface to depths of 100 feet for site classification purposes. Users are awar...

  3. Surface area of antimony oxide by isotope exchange and other methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Y.K.; Acharya, B.V.; Rangamannar, B.

    1985-06-17

    Specific surface areas of antimony oxide samples, one commercial, the other prepared from antimony trichloride were measured by heterogeneous isotope exchange, gas adsorption, air permeability and microscopic methods. Specific surface areas obtained by these four methods for the two samples were compared and the observed differences are explained.

  4. Developments of a bonding technique for optical materials by a surface activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Akira; Oda, Tomohiro; Abe, Tomoyuki; Kusunoki, Isao

    2005-01-01

    We started developing the laser crystal bounding by the surface activation method which can splice crystals together without using hydrogen bonding. For the surface activation, neutral argon beams were used for irradiation of specimens. In the bonding trials with sapphire crystals, we recognized possibility of the bonding method for optical elements. (author)

  5. Method of electrode printing on one or more surfaces of a dielectric substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Neophytou, Marios

    2017-09-14

    Described herein is a method for printing electrodes surfaces of a dielectric substrate. Provided herein is a new method of depositing electrically conductive electrodes of any shape on flexible and/or rigid dielectric substrates/surfaces and devices so produced. In various embodiments, the devices can generate ionic wind, for example to remove dust or other debris or contaminants or to remove ice or humidity from a surface.

  6. Method of electrode printing on one or more surfaces of a dielectric substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Neophytou, Marios; Kirkus, Mindaugas; Lacoste, Deanna A.

    2017-01-01

    Described herein is a method for printing electrodes surfaces of a dielectric substrate. Provided herein is a new method of depositing electrically conductive electrodes of any shape on flexible and/or rigid dielectric substrates/surfaces and devices so produced. In various embodiments, the devices can generate ionic wind, for example to remove dust or other debris or contaminants or to remove ice or humidity from a surface.

  7. A high-order boundary integral method for surface diffusions on elastically stressed axisymmetric rods

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaofan; Nie, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Many applications in materials involve surface diffusion of elastically stressed solids. Study of singularity formation and long-time behavior of such solid surfaces requires accurate simulations in both space and time. Here we present a high-order boundary integral method for an elastically stressed solid with axi-symmetry due to surface diffusions. In this method, the boundary integrals for isotropic elasticity in axi-symmetric geometry are approximated through modified alternating quadratu...

  8. Digital photography and transparency-based methods for measuring wound surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhedi, Amul; Saxena, Atul K; Gadani, Ravi; Patel, Ritesh

    2013-04-01

    To compare and determine a credible method of measurement of wound surface area by linear, transparency, and photographic methods for monitoring progress of wound healing accurately and ascertaining whether these methods are significantly different. From April 2005 to December 2006, 40 patients (30 men, 5 women, 5 children) admitted to the surgical ward of Shree Sayaji General Hospital, Baroda, had clean as well as infected wound following trauma, debridement, pressure sore, venous ulcer, and incision and drainage. Wound surface areas were measured by these three methods (linear, transparency, and photographic methods) simultaneously on alternate days. The linear method is statistically and significantly different from transparency and photographic methods (P value transparency and photographic methods (P value >0.05). Photographic and transparency methods provided measurements of wound surface area with equivalent result and there was no statistically significant difference between these two methods.

  9. Neutron radiative capture methods for surface elemental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombka, J.I.; Senftle, F.; Schmadebeck, R.

    1970-01-01

    Both an accelerator and a 252Cf neutron source have been used to induce characteristic gamma radiation from extended soil samples. To demonstrate the method, measurements of the neutron-induced radiative capture and activation gamma rays have been made with both Ge(Li) and NaI(Tl) detectors, Because of the possible application to space flight geochemical analysis, it is believed that NaI(Tl) detectors must be used. Analytical procedures have been developed to obtain both qualitative and semiquantitative results from an interpretation of the measured NaI(Tl) pulse-height spectrum. Experiment results and the analytic procedure are presented. ?? 1970.

  10. A robust real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wenyang; Cheung, Yam; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a robust and real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system. Methods: The authors have developed a robust and fast surface reconstruction method on point clouds acquired by the photogrammetry system, without explicitly solving the partial differential equation required by a typical variational approach. Taking advantage of the overcomplete nature of the acquired point clouds, their method solves and propagates a sparse linear relationship from the point cloud manifold to the surface manifold, assuming both manifolds share similar local geometry. With relatively consistent point cloud acquisitions, the authors propose a sparse regression (SR) model to directly approximate the target point cloud as a sparse linear combination from the training set, assuming that the point correspondences built by the iterative closest point (ICP) is reasonably accurate and have residual errors following a Gaussian distribution. To accommodate changing noise levels and/or presence of inconsistent occlusions during the acquisition, the authors further propose a modified sparse regression (MSR) model to model the potentially large and sparse error built by ICP with a Laplacian prior. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both clinical point clouds acquired under consistent acquisition conditions and on point clouds with inconsistent occlusions. The authors quantitatively evaluated the reconstruction performance with respect to root-mean-squared-error, by comparing its reconstruction results against that from the variational method. Results: On clinical point clouds, both the SR and MSR models have achieved sub-millimeter reconstruction accuracy and reduced the reconstruction time by two orders of magnitude to a subsecond reconstruction time. On point clouds with inconsistent occlusions, the MSR model has demonstrated its advantage in achieving consistent and robust performance despite the introduced

  11. A robust real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenyang [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Cheung, Yam [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Sawant, Amit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas, 75390 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: To develop a robust and real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system. Methods: The authors have developed a robust and fast surface reconstruction method on point clouds acquired by the photogrammetry system, without explicitly solving the partial differential equation required by a typical variational approach. Taking advantage of the overcomplete nature of the acquired point clouds, their method solves and propagates a sparse linear relationship from the point cloud manifold to the surface manifold, assuming both manifolds share similar local geometry. With relatively consistent point cloud acquisitions, the authors propose a sparse regression (SR) model to directly approximate the target point cloud as a sparse linear combination from the training set, assuming that the point correspondences built by the iterative closest point (ICP) is reasonably accurate and have residual errors following a Gaussian distribution. To accommodate changing noise levels and/or presence of inconsistent occlusions during the acquisition, the authors further propose a modified sparse regression (MSR) model to model the potentially large and sparse error built by ICP with a Laplacian prior. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both clinical point clouds acquired under consistent acquisition conditions and on point clouds with inconsistent occlusions. The authors quantitatively evaluated the reconstruction performance with respect to root-mean-squared-error, by comparing its reconstruction results against that from the variational method. Results: On clinical point clouds, both the SR and MSR models have achieved sub-millimeter reconstruction accuracy and reduced the reconstruction time by two orders of magnitude to a subsecond reconstruction time. On point clouds with inconsistent occlusions, the MSR model has demonstrated its advantage in achieving consistent and robust performance despite the introduced

  12. Qualité de vie et consommation soutenable : une perspective pratique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Mardellat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ce texte tente de parvenir à une meilleure compréhension du rôle de la consommation relativement à l’objectif de soutenabilité de nos modes de vie. À cette fin, on croise deux thématiques : consommation et bonheur, consommation et soutenabilité. Les paradigmes standard et institutionnalistes de la consommation soutenable sont questionnés du point de vue de la tradition pratique – aristotélicienne – qui en montre les limites et les insuffisances. L’approche quantitative de la limitation de la consommation caractéristique de ces deux approches conduit à une impasse. La réception de cette notion de consommation soutenable dans la tradition pratique est ensuite esquissée, faisant apparaître l’existence d’une vertu propre à l’économie, d’un lieu et d’une institution de la consommation accueillis dans une constellation de régimes politiques possibles.This text aims to reach a better understanding of the role of consumption with regard to the objective of sustainability of our lifestyles. We cross two themes: consumption and happiness, consumption and sustainability. The standard and institutionalist paradigms of sustainable consumption are questioned parts from the viewpoint of the Aristotelian tradition which shows their limits and failures. The quantitative approach of the limitation of consumption specific of these two approaches leads to a dead end. Then the reception of this notion of sustainable consumption in the practical tradition is sketched. The existence of an appropriate virtue for the economy, a place and an institution of the consumption welcomed in a constellation of possible political regimes clearly appear as the keystones of the practical conception of sustainable consumption.  

  13. Physique du deuil. Note sur la dernière vie de Roland Barthes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maïté Snauwaert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Les remarques sur la tenue de la maison et du corps dans le quotidien domestique, conçue comme une éthique de la fidélité à la mère récemment disparue, apparaissent dans l’écrit privé du Journal de deuil de Roland Barthes comme un écho des observations faites dans le cours sur La préparation du roman. Participant d’une physique du vivre et de l’habiter qui met l’accent sur l’entretien quotidien du lieu, le silence et la difficulté de tout voyage, les « notations » du journal rendent compte de la condensation dans le corps de l’épreuve du deuil, et de la prise de conscience d’un dernier âge de la vie.In the personal writings of Journal de deuil, Roland Barthes’ remarks regarding the maintenance of the home and body are conceived of as an ethic of faithfulness to his recently deceased mother. They are considered in this article as an echo to the observations he makes during his lectures in the course La préparation du roman. Both emphasize the physicality of everyday life and the role played by one’s relationship to the home. By stressing the necessity of silence and the difficulties of leaving “the apartment”, the brief “notations” in the diary translate the physical concentration of the mourning experience, as well as the emergent understanding of a final stage of life.

  14. FJ-2207 measuring instrument detection pipe surface a level of pollution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiangong

    2010-01-01

    On the pipe surface contamination were detected α level of pollution is a frequently encountered dose-detection work. Because the pipeline surface arc, while the measuring probe for the plane, which for accurate measurement difficult. In this paper, on the FJ-2207-type pipe surface contamination measuring instrument measuring pollution levels in the α method was studied. Introduced the FJ-2207 measuring instrument detection pipe surface α pollution levels. Studied this measuring instrument on the same sources of surface, plane α level of radioactivity measured differences in the results obtained control of the apparatus when the direct measurement of the surface correction factor, and gives 32-216 specifications commonly used pipe direct measurement of the amendment factor. Convenient method, test results are reliable for the accurate measurement of pipe pollution levels in the surface of α as a reference and learning. (authors)

  15. Lifetime measurement in Proserpine by reactivity modulation (1960); Mesure du temps de vie dans proserpine par modulation de la reactivite (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clouet d' Orval, C; Tachon, J; Bertrand, J; Lecoustey, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The measurement method consists in varying the neutron flux periodically by means of an oscillator with cadmium sectors. From the signal received on a detector the lifetime {tau} can be determined; for various velocities {omega}, we have: (n/{delta}n){sup 2} = ({beta}{sub eff}/{delta}k){sup 2} + ({tau}/{delta}k){sup 2}{omega}{sup 2}. Various corrections are involved, in particular the calculation of the rates of different harmonics in the oscillator signal. (author) [French] La methode de mesure consiste a faire varier periodiquement le flux de neutrons au moyen d'un oscillateur a secteurs de cadmium. Le signal recu sur un detecteur permet la determination du temps de vie {tau}; pour differentes vitesses {omega}, on a: (n/{delta}n){sup 2} = ({beta}{sub eff}/{delta}k){sup 2} + ({tau}/{delta}k){sup 2}{omega}{sup 2}. Differentes corrections interviennent, en particulier, le calcul du taux des differents harmoniques dans le signal de l'oscillateur. (auteur)

  16. Measurement of the specific surface area of loose copper deposit by electrochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Dolmatova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the work the surface area of the electrode with dispersed copper deposit obtained within 30 seconds was evaluated by techniques of chronopotentiometry (CPM and impedance spectroscopy. In method CPM the electrode surface available for measurement depends on the value of the polarizing current. At high currents during the transition time there is a change of surface relief that can not determine the full surface of loose deposit. The electrochemical impedance method is devoid of this shortcoming since the measurements are carried out in indifferent electrolyte in the absence of current. The area measured by the impedance is tens of times higher than the value obtained by chronopotentiometry. It is found that from a solution containing sulfuric acid the deposits form with a high specific surface area. Based on these data it was concluded that the method of impedance spectroscopy can be used to measure in situ the surface area of the dispersed copper deposits.

  17. Comparison of diffusion charging and mobility-based methods for measurement of aerosol agglomerate surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Bon Ki; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2012-05-01

    We compare different approaches to measure surface area of aerosol agglomerates. The objective was to compare field methods, such as mobility and diffusion charging based approaches, with laboratory approach, such as Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) method used for bulk powder samples. To allow intercomparison of various surface area measurements, we defined 'geometric surface area' of agglomerates (assuming agglomerates are made up of ideal spheres), and compared various surface area measurements to the geometric surface area. Four different approaches for measuring surface area of agglomerate particles in the size range of 60-350 nm were compared using (i) diffusion charging-based sensors from three different manufacturers, (ii) mobility diameter of an agglomerate, (iii) mobility diameter of an agglomerate assuming a linear chain morphology with uniform primary particle size, and (iv) surface area estimation based on tandem mobility-mass measurement and microscopy. Our results indicate that the tandem mobility-mass measurement, which can be applied directly to airborne particles unlike the BET method, agrees well with the BET method. It was also shown that the three diffusion charging-based surface area measurements of silver agglomerates were similar within a factor of 2 and were lower than those obtained from the tandem mobility-mass and microscopy method by a factor of 3-10 in the size range studied. Surface area estimated using the mobility diameter depended on the structure or morphology of the agglomerate with significant underestimation at high fractal dimensions approaching 3.

  18. A robust real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyang; Cheung, Yam; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan

    2016-05-01

    To develop a robust and real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system. The authors have developed a robust and fast surface reconstruction method on point clouds acquired by the photogrammetry system, without explicitly solving the partial differential equation required by a typical variational approach. Taking advantage of the overcomplete nature of the acquired point clouds, their method solves and propagates a sparse linear relationship from the point cloud manifold to the surface manifold, assuming both manifolds share similar local geometry. With relatively consistent point cloud acquisitions, the authors propose a sparse regression (SR) model to directly approximate the target point cloud as a sparse linear combination from the training set, assuming that the point correspondences built by the iterative closest point (ICP) is reasonably accurate and have residual errors following a Gaussian distribution. To accommodate changing noise levels and/or presence of inconsistent occlusions during the acquisition, the authors further propose a modified sparse regression (MSR) model to model the potentially large and sparse error built by ICP with a Laplacian prior. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both clinical point clouds acquired under consistent acquisition conditions and on point clouds with inconsistent occlusions. The authors quantitatively evaluated the reconstruction performance with respect to root-mean-squared-error, by comparing its reconstruction results against that from the variational method. On clinical point clouds, both the SR and MSR models have achieved sub-millimeter reconstruction accuracy and reduced the reconstruction time by two orders of magnitude to a subsecond reconstruction time. On point clouds with inconsistent occlusions, the MSR model has demonstrated its advantage in achieving consistent and robust performance despite the introduced occlusions. The authors have

  19. Method of driving liquid flow at or near the free surface using magnetic microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snezhko, Oleksiy [Woodridge, IL; Aronson, Igor [Darien, IL; Kwok, Wai-Kwong [Evanston, IL; Belkin, Maxim V [Woodridge, IL

    2011-10-11

    The present invention provides a method of driving liquid flow at or near a free surface using self-assembled structures composed of magnetic particles subjected to an external AC magnetic field. A plurality of magnetic particles are supported at or near a free surface of liquid by surface tension or buoyancy force. An AC magnetic field traverses the free surface and dipole-dipole interaction between particles produces in self-assembled snake structures which oscillate at the frequency of the traverse AC magnetic field. The snake structures independently move across the free surface and may merge with other snake structures or break up and coalesce into additional snake structures experiencing independent movement across the liquid surface. During this process, the snake structures produce asymmetric flow vortices across substantially the entirety of the free surface, effectuating liquid flow across the free surface.

  20. Reliability Evaluation of Bridges Based on Nonprobabilistic Response Surface Limit Method

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xuyong; Chen, Qian; Bian, Xiaoya; Fan, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    Due to many uncertainties in nonprobabilistic reliability assessment of bridges, the limit state function is generally unknown. The traditional nonprobabilistic response surface method is a lengthy and oscillating iteration process and leads to difficultly solving the nonprobabilistic reliability index. This article proposes a nonprobabilistic response surface limit method based on the interval model. The intention of this method is to solve the upper and lower limits of the nonprobabilistic ...

  1. An Intelligent Method for Structural Reliability Analysis Based on Response Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂劲松; 刘红; 康海贵

    2004-01-01

    As water depth increases, the structural safety and reliability of a system become more and more important and challenging. Therefore, the structural reliability method must be applied in ocean engineering design such as offshore platform design. If the performance function is known in structural reliability analysis, the first-order second-moment method is often used. If the performance function could not be definitely expressed, the response surface method is always used because it has a very clear train of thought and simple programming. However, the traditional response surface method fits the response surface of quadratic polynomials where the problem of accuracy could not be solved, because the true limit state surface can be fitted well only in the area near the checking point. In this paper, an intelligent computing method based on the whole response surface is proposed, which can be used for the situation where the performance function could not be definitely expressed in structural reliability analysis. In this method, a response surface of the fuzzy neural network for the whole area should be constructed first, and then the structural reliability can be calculated by the genetic algorithm. In the proposed method, all the sample points for the training network come from the whole area, so the true limit state surface in the whole area can be fitted. Through calculational examples and comparative analysis, it can be known that the proposed method is much better than the traditional response surface method of quadratic polynomials, because, the amount of calculation of finite element analysis is largely reduced, the accuracy of calculation is improved,and the true limit state surface can be fitted very well in the whole area. So, the method proposed in this paper is suitable for engineering application.

  2. Preparing the generalized Harvey–Shack rough surface scattering method for use with the discrete ordinates method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Villads Egede

    2015-01-01

    The paper shows how to implement the generalized Harvey–Shack (GHS) method for isotropic rough surfaces discretized in a polar coordinate system and approximated using Fourier series. This is particularly relevant for the use of the GHS method as a boundary condition for radiative transfer proble...

  3. Surface functionalization of cyclic olefin copolymer with aryldiazonium salts: A covalent grafting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisset, Florian; Vieillard, Julien; Berton, Benjamin; Morin-Grognet, Sandrine; Duclairoir-Poc, Cécile; Le Derf, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An effective method to modify cyclic olefin copolymer surface. • The surface of COC was modified by covalent grafting of aryl diazonium salts. • The wettability of COC surface was modulated by diazonium salts. • Photoinitiation and chemical reduction have to be combined to graft diazonium salt on COC surface. - Abstract: Covalent immobilization of biomolecules on the surface of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) is still a tough challenge. We developed a robust method for COC surface grafting through reaction with aryldiazonium. Chemical diazonium reduction generated an aryl radical and the formation of a grafted film layer on the organic surface. We also demonstrated that the chemical reduction of diazonium salt was not sufficient to form a film on the COC surface. UV illumination had to be combined with chemical reduction to graft an aryl layer onto the COC surface. We optimized organic film deposition by using different chemical reducers, different reaction times and reagent proportions. We characterized surface modifications by fluorescence microscopy and contact angle measurements, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, and assessed the topography of the aryl film by atomic force microscopy. This original strategy allowed us to evidence various organic functions to graft biomolecules onto COC surfaces with a fast and efficient technique

  4. Surface functionalization of cyclic olefin copolymer with aryldiazonium salts: A covalent grafting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisset, Florian, E-mail: florian.brisset@etu.univ-rouen.fr [UMR CNRS 6014 COBRA, FR 3038, Université de Rouen, 55 rue Saint Germain, 27000 Evreux (France); Vieillard, Julien, E-mail: julien.vieillard@univ-rouen.fr [UMR CNRS 6014 COBRA, FR 3038, Université de Rouen, 55 rue Saint Germain, 27000 Evreux (France); Berton, Benjamin, E-mail: benjamin.berton@univ-rouen.fr [EA 3233 SMS, Université de Rouen, 1 rue du 7ème Chasseurs, BP281, 27002 Evreux Cedex (France); Morin-Grognet, Sandrine, E-mail: sandrine.morin@univ-rouen.fr [EA 3829 MERCI, Université de Rouen, 1 rue du 7ème Chasseurs, BP281, 27002 Evreux Cedex (France); Duclairoir-Poc, Cécile, E-mail: cecile.duclairoir@univ-rouen.fr [EA 4312 LMSM, Université de Rouen, 55 rue Saint Germain, 27000 Evreux (France); Le Derf, Franck, E-mail: franck.lederf@univ-rouen.fr [UMR CNRS 6014 COBRA, FR 3038, Université de Rouen, 55 rue Saint Germain, 27000 Evreux (France)

    2015-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An effective method to modify cyclic olefin copolymer surface. • The surface of COC was modified by covalent grafting of aryl diazonium salts. • The wettability of COC surface was modulated by diazonium salts. • Photoinitiation and chemical reduction have to be combined to graft diazonium salt on COC surface. - Abstract: Covalent immobilization of biomolecules on the surface of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) is still a tough challenge. We developed a robust method for COC surface grafting through reaction with aryldiazonium. Chemical diazonium reduction generated an aryl radical and the formation of a grafted film layer on the organic surface. We also demonstrated that the chemical reduction of diazonium salt was not sufficient to form a film on the COC surface. UV illumination had to be combined with chemical reduction to graft an aryl layer onto the COC surface. We optimized organic film deposition by using different chemical reducers, different reaction times and reagent proportions. We characterized surface modifications by fluorescence microscopy and contact angle measurements, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, and assessed the topography of the aryl film by atomic force microscopy. This original strategy allowed us to evidence various organic functions to graft biomolecules onto COC surfaces with a fast and efficient technique.

  5. Method for Pre-Conditioning a Measured Surface Height Map for Model Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin

    2012-01-01

    This software allows one to up-sample or down-sample a measured surface map for model validation, not only without introducing any re-sampling errors, but also eliminating the existing measurement noise and measurement errors. Because the re-sampling of a surface map is accomplished based on the analytical expressions of Zernike-polynomials and a power spectral density model, such re-sampling does not introduce any aliasing and interpolation errors as is done by the conventional interpolation and FFT-based (fast-Fourier-transform-based) spatial-filtering method. Also, this new method automatically eliminates the measurement noise and other measurement errors such as artificial discontinuity. The developmental cycle of an optical system, such as a space telescope, includes, but is not limited to, the following two steps: (1) deriving requirements or specs on the optical quality of individual optics before they are fabricated through optical modeling and simulations, and (2) validating the optical model using the measured surface height maps after all optics are fabricated. There are a number of computational issues related to model validation, one of which is the "pre-conditioning" or pre-processing of the measured surface maps before using them in a model validation software tool. This software addresses the following issues: (1) up- or down-sampling a measured surface map to match it with the gridded data format of a model validation tool, and (2) eliminating the surface measurement noise or measurement errors such that the resulted surface height map is continuous or smoothly-varying. So far, the preferred method used for re-sampling a surface map is two-dimensional interpolation. The main problem of this method is that the same pixel can take different values when the method of interpolation is changed among the different methods such as the "nearest," "linear," "cubic," and "spline" fitting in Matlab. The conventional, FFT-based spatial filtering method used to

  6. Porcelain surface alterations and refinishing after use of two orthodontic bonding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herion, Drew T; Ferracane, Jack L; Covell, David A

    2010-01-01

    To compare porcelain surfaces at debonding after use of two surface preparation methods and to evaluate a method for restoring the surface. Lava Ceram feldspathic porcelain discs (n = 40) underwent one of two surface treatments prior to bonding orthodontic brackets. Half the discs had sandblasting, hydrofluoric acid, and silane (SB + HF + S), and the other half, phosphoric acid and silane (PA + S). Brackets were debonded using bracket removing pliers, and resin was removed with a 12-fluted carbide bur. The surface was refinished using a porcelain polishing kit, followed by diamond polishing paste. Measurements for surface roughness (Ra), gloss, and color were made before bonding (baseline), after debonding, and after each step of refinishing. Surfaces were also examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data was analyzed with 2-way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD tests (alpha = 0.05). The SB + HF + S bonding method increased Ra (0.160 to 1.121 microm), decreased gloss (41.3 to 3.7) and altered color (DeltaE = 4.37; P gloss (41.7 to 38.0) and color (DeltaE = 0.50). The measurements and SEM observations showed that changes were fully restored to baseline with refinishing. The PA + S method caused significantly less damage to porcelain than the SB + HF + S method. The refinishing protocol fully restored the porcelain surfaces.

  7. La vie rurale en pays kpélé dans le Togo méridional : une ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Il apparaît au regard de nos travaux que le pays kpélé présente des traits identiques au reste des régions de la grande aire culturelle Adja-Tado, mais dispose aussi, de traits originaux dictés par le cadre de vie et la dynamique sociale interne née depuis les périodes d'occupation du milieu. Enfin, l'étude démontre que ...

  8. Temperature Dependence of Arn+ Cluster Backscattering from Polymer Surfaces: a New Method to Determine the Surface Glass Transition Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleunis, Claude; Cristaudo, Vanina; Delcorte, Arnaud

    2018-01-01

    In this work, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to study the intensity variations of the backscattered Ar n + clusters as a function of temperature for several amorphous polymer surfaces (polyolefins, polystyrene, and polymethyl methacrylate). For all these investigated polymers, our results show a transition of the ratio Ar 2 + /(Ar 2 + + Ar 3 + ) when the temperature is scanned from -120 °C to +125 °C (the exact limits depend on the studied polymer). This transition generally spans over a few tens of degrees and the temperature of the inflection point of each curve is always lower than the bulk glass transition temperature (T g ) reported for the considered polymer. Due to the surface sensitivity of the cluster backscattering process (several nanometers), the presented analysis could provide a new method to specifically evaluate a surface transition temperature of polymers, with the same lateral resolution as the gas cluster beam. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  9. A new capacitive/resistive probe method for studying magnetic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, Sumio; Takayama, Masakazu; Zama, Tatsuya; Takaya, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Nobunao; Watanabe, Hiroshige

    1991-01-01

    A new capacitive/resistive probe method for mapping the magnetic surfaces from resistance or capacitance between a magnetic surface and a vacuum vessel was developed and tested. Those resistances and capacitances can be regarded as components of a simple electrical bridge circuit. This method exploits electrical transient response of the bridge circuit for a square pulse. From equiresistance or equicapacitance points, the magnetic surface structure can be deduced. Measurements on the Tohoku University Heliac, which is a small-size standard heliac, show good agreement with numerical calculations. This method is particularly useful for pulse-operated machines. (author)

  10. A Method for Retrieving Daily Land Surface Albedo from Space at 30-m Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Land surface albedo data with high spatio-temporal resolution are increasingly important for scientific studies addressing spatially and/or temporally small-scale phenomena, such as urban heat islands and urban land surface energy balance. Our previous study derived albedo data with 2–4-day and 30-m temporal and spatial resolution that have better spatio-temporal resolution than existing albedo data, but do not completely satisfy the requirements for monitoring high-frequency land surface changes at the small scale. Downscaling technology provides a chance to further improve the albedo data spatio-temporal resolution and accuracy. This paper introduces a method that combines downscaling technology for land surface reflectance with an empirical method of deriving land surface albedo. Firstly, downscaling daily MODIS land surface reflectance data (MOD09GA from 500 m to 30 m on the basis of HJ-1A/B BRDF data with 2–4-day and 30-m temporal and spatial resolution is performed: this is the key step in the improved method. Subsequently, the daily 30-m land surface albedo data are derived by an empirical method combining prior knowledge of the MODIS BRDF product and the downscaled daily 30-m reflectance. Validation of albedo data obtained using the proposed method shows that the new method has both improved spatio-temporal resolution and good accuracy (a total absolute accuracy of 0.022 and a total root mean squared error at six sites of 0.028.

  11. A Two-stage Improvement Method for Robot Based 3D Surface Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, F. B.; Liang, Y. D.; Wang, R. F.; Lin, Y. S.

    2018-03-01

    As known that the surface of unknown object was difficult to measure or recognize precisely, hence the 3D laser scanning technology was introduced and used properly in surface reconstruction. Usually, the surface scanning speed was slower and the scanning quality would be better, while the speed was faster and the quality would be worse. In this case, the paper presented a new two-stage scanning method in order to pursuit the quality of surface scanning in a faster speed. The first stage was rough scanning to get general point cloud data of object’s surface, and then the second stage was specific scanning to repair missing regions which were determined by chord length discrete method. Meanwhile, a system containing a robotic manipulator and a handy scanner was also developed to implement the two-stage scanning method, and relevant paths were planned according to minimum enclosing ball and regional coverage theories.

  12. A New Approach to Bézier Surface Visualization by a Ray Tracing Method

    OpenAIRE

    Glazs, A; Sisojevs, A

    2008-01-01

    Problem of free – form surfaces visualization is actual in various areas of a science and engineering. One of mathematical models used for this purpose is the mathematical description of a Bézier surface. Classical methods of computer graphics based on polygonal models use only polygonal interpolation of a Bézier surface. Such approach inevitably leads to occurrence of an error and as a consequence – to discrepancy of an image.

  13. Comparison of 3 methods on fabricating micro- /nano- structured surface on 3D mold cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    The methods to manufacture micro- or nano- structures on surfaces have been an area of intense investigation. Demands are shown for technologies for surface structuring on real 3D parts in many fields. However, most technologies for the fabrication of micro-structured functional surfaces are still...... limited to flat or simple shaped geometries. In this paper, 3 approaches for fabricating micro and nano- structured surfaces on a mold cavity for injection moulding are investigated and compared. The first approach is to use pre-fabricated plate with micro-structured surface as an insert for the mold......, in this way micro holes (Ø4 μm) was obtained. The second approach is to produce the cavity part using anodizing process chain, and in this way sub-micro structures can be obtained all over the cavity surface. The third approach is to machine the surface inside the cavity directly by femtosecond laser combined...

  14. Fabrication of metallic surfaces with long-term superhydrophilic property using one-stop laser method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Y.C.; Luo, F.F.; Lim, G.C.; Hong, M.H.; Zheng, H.Y.; Qi, Bojin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • One-stop laser method is presented to fabricate superhydrophilic surface on metals. • Wettability study shows the longest superhydrophilic duration as more than 1 month. • Water-soluble compounds, polar functional groups and dual-scale structures were formed. • Surface roughness shows an amplification effect of the wetting behavior. - Abstract: A simple method for fabricating stable superhydrophilic surface at metallic substrates is reported. This technique comprises irradiating the surface with multiple laser pulses. Surface wettability can be taylored through controlling laser parameters and processing conditions. The substrates were selected as aluminum alloy and stainless steel. Physical morphology and chemical composition of laser-textured surfaces were characterized by SEM, XPS, and 3D profiler measurements. Results showed that the longest wettability duration was achieved as more than 1 month for stainless steel and more than 200 h for Al alloy, respectively. The possible mechanism of hydrophilic behavior of laser-textured surfaces was discussed. The effect of surface topography on superhydrophilicity property was also evaluated. This study presents a promising method in fabricating long-term superhydrophilic surfaces, which is useful for improving adhesion or achieving water-assisted flow in industrial applications as well as developing cell-based technologies in biomedical applications

  15. Synthesis of present methods of surface contamination detection (skin, clothes, laboratories)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joudrier, P.

    1983-01-01

    The signification of the term ''contamination'' is briefly recalled. To measure the levels of contamination, there are only two methods: the direct method and the indirect method. Finally, the recent improvements in the surface contamination detection field are shortly reviewed [fr

  16. Method for the indication of failures on the surface of magnetizable workpieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Using the magnetic powder method as a quality test of ferromagnetic work pieces, solid iron powder, pigment and lac are put on the surface and the powder agglomeration sprayed with a solvent. This way the varnish softens and adheres the powder to the surface. A non-explosive solvent is used and with help of additives the contrast increases. (TK) [de

  17. Electronic interconnects and devices with topological surface states and methods for fabricating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. Phuan; Cava, Robert J.

    2016-05-03

    An interconnect is disclosed with enhanced immunity of electrical conductivity to defects. The interconnect includes a material with charge carriers having topological surface states. Also disclosed is a method for fabricating such interconnects. Also disclosed is an integrated circuit including such interconnects. Also disclosed is a gated electronic device including a material with charge carriers having topological surface states.

  18. Determining surface areas of marine alga cells by acid-base titration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Ma, Y; Su, Y

    1997-09-01

    A new method for determining the surface area of living marine alga cells was described. The method uses acid-base titration to measure the surface acid/base amount on the surface of alga cells and uses the BET (Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller) equation to estimate the maximum surface acid/base amount, assuming that hydrous cell walls have carbohydrates or other structural compounds which can behave like surface Brönsted acid-base sites due to coordination of environmental H2O molecules. The method was applied to 18 diverse alga species (including 7 diatoms, 2 flagellates, 8 green algae and 1 red alga) maintained in seawater cultures. For the species examined, the surface areas of individual cells ranged from 2.8 x 10(-8) m2 for Nannochloropsis oculata to 690 x 10(-8) m2 for Dunaliella viridis, specific surface areas from 1,030 m2.g-1 for Dunaliella salina to 28,900 m2.g-1 for Pyramidomonas sp. Measurement accuracy was 15.2%. Preliminary studies show that the method may be more promising and accurate than light/electron microscopic measurements for coarse estimation of the surface area of living algae.

  19. Methods for surface treating metals, ceramics, and plastics before adhesive bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Althouse, L.P.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for pretreating the surfaces of metals, ceramics, and plastics before they are coated with adhesive and used in assembly are described. The treatments recommended have been used successfully in the laboratory at LLL. Many are used in the assembly of nuclear devices. However, an unusual alloy or complex configuration may require trials before a specific surface treatment is chosen

  20. Ion-step method for surface potential sensing of silicon nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan William; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel stimulus-response method for surface potential sensing of silicon nanowire (Si NW) field-effect transistors. When an "ion-step" from low to high ionic strength is given as a stimulus to the gate oxide surface, an increase of double layer capacitance is therefore expected.

  1. Adhesion of resin composites to biomaterials in dentistry : an evaluation of surface conditioning methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan, Mutlu

    2003-01-01

    Since previous investigations revealed that most clinical failures in adhesively luted ceramic restorations initiate from the cementation or internal surfaces, the study presented in Chapter II evaluated the effect of three different surface conditioning methods on the bond strength of a Bis-GMA

  2. Electronic interconnects and devices with topological surface states and methods for fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. Phuan; Cava, Robert J.

    2017-04-04

    An interconnect is disclosed with enhanced immunity of electrical conductivity to defects. The interconnect includes a material with charge carriers having topological surface states. Also disclosed is a method for fabricating such interconnects. Also disclosed is an integrated circuit including such interconnects. Also disclosed is a gated electronic device including a material with charge carriers having topological surface states.

  3. Surface Nano Structures Manufacture Using Batch Chemical Processing Methods for Tooling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Calaon, Matteo; Gavillet, J.

    2011-01-01

    The patterning of large surface areas with nano structures by using chemical batch processes to avoid using highenergy intensive nano machining processes was investigated. The capability of different surface treatment methods of creating micro and nano structured adaptable mould inserts for subse...

  4. Calculation of parameter failure probability of thermodynamic system by response surface and importance sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Yanlong; Cai Qi; Chen Lisheng; Zhang Yangwei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the combined method of response surface and importance sampling was applied for calculation of parameter failure probability of the thermodynamic system. The mathematics model was present for the parameter failure of physics process in the thermodynamic system, by which the combination arithmetic model of response surface and importance sampling was established, then the performance degradation model of the components and the simulation process of parameter failure in the physics process of thermodynamic system were also present. The parameter failure probability of the purification water system in nuclear reactor was obtained by the combination method. The results show that the combination method is an effective method for the calculation of the parameter failure probability of the thermodynamic system with high dimensionality and non-linear characteristics, because of the satisfactory precision with less computing time than the direct sampling method and the drawbacks of response surface method. (authors)

  5. Research on the method of improving the accuracy of CMM (coordinate measuring machine) testing aspheric surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wang; Xu, Lingdi; Li, Ang

    2017-10-01

    Large aspheric surface which have the deviation with spherical surface are being used widely in various of optical systems. Compared with spherical surface, Large aspheric surfaces have lots of advantages, such as improving image quality, correcting aberration, expanding field of view, increasing the effective distance and make the optical system compact, lightweight. Especially, with the rapid development of space optics, space sensor resolution is required higher and viewing angle is requred larger. Aspheric surface will become one of the essential components in the optical system. After finishing Aspheric coarse Grinding surface profile error is about Tens of microns[1].In order to achieve the final requirement of surface accuracy,the aspheric surface must be quickly modified, high precision testing is the basement of rapid convergence of the surface error . There many methods on aspheric surface detection[2], Geometric ray detection, hartmann detection, ronchi text, knifeedge method, direct profile test, interferometry, while all of them have their disadvantage[6]. In recent years the measure of the aspheric surface become one of the import factors which are restricting the aspheric surface processing development. A two meter caliber industrial CMM coordinate measuring machine is avaiable, but it has many drawbacks such as large detection error and low repeatability precision in the measurement of aspheric surface coarse grinding , which seriously affects the convergence efficiency during the aspherical mirror processing. To solve those problems, this paper presents an effective error control, calibration and removal method by calibration mirror position of the real-time monitoring and other effective means of error control, calibration and removal by probe correction and the measurement mode selection method to measure the point distribution program development. This method verified by real engineer examples, this method increases the original industrial

  6. METHOD TO DEVELOP THE DOUBLE-CURVED SURFACE OF THE ROOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JURCO Ancuta Nadia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This work present two methods for determining the development of double-curved surface. The aims of this paper is to show a comparative study between methods for determination of the sheet metal requirements for complex roof cover shape. In first part of the paper are presented the basic sketch and information about the roof shape and some consecrated buildings, which have a complex roof shape. The second part of the paper shows two methods for determining the developed of the spherical roof. The graphical method is the first method used for developing of the spherical shape. In this method it used the poly-cylindrical method to develop the double-curved surface. The second method is accomplishing by using the dedicated CAD software method.

  7. A method of analyzing rectal surface area irradiated and rectal complications in prostate conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yong; Song, Paul Y.; Li Shidong; Spelbring, Danny R.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Haraf, Daniel J.; Chen, George T.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method of analyzing rectal surface area irradiated and rectal complications in prostate conformal radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Dose-surface histograms of the rectum, which state the rectal surface area irradiated to any given dose, were calculated for a group of 27 patients treated with a four-field box technique to a total (tumor minimum) dose ranging from 68 to 70 Gy. Occurrences of rectal toxicities as defined by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) were recorded and examined in terms of dose and rectal surface area irradiated. For a specified end point of rectal complication, the complication probability was analyzed as a function of dose irradiated to a fixed rectal area, and as a function of area receiving a fixed dose. Lyman's model of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) was used to fit the data. Results: The observed occurrences of rectal complications appear to depend on the rectal surface area irradiated to a given dose level. The patient distribution of each toxicity grade exhibits a maximum as a function of percentage surface area irradiated, and the maximum moves to higher values of percentage surface area as the toxicity grade increases. The dependence of the NTCP for the specified end point on dose and percentage surface area irradiated was fitted to Lyman's NTCP model with a set of parameters. The curvature of the NTCP as a function of the surface area suggests that the rectum is a parallel structured organ. Conclusions: The described method of analyzing rectal surface area irradiated yields interesting insight into understanding rectal complications in prostate conformal radiotherapy. Application of the method to a larger patient data set has the potential to facilitate the construction of a full dose-surface-complication relationship, which would be most useful in guiding clinical practice

  8. Condition Assessment for Wastewater Pipes: Method for Assessing Cracking and Surface Damage of Concrete Pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Hauge, Petter

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the Master Thesis has been to provide an improved method for condition assessment, which will give a better correlation between Condition class and actual Condition of concrete pipes with cracking and/or surface damages. Additionally improvement of the characterization of cracking (SR) and surface (KO) damages was a sub goal.Based on the findings described in my Thesis and my Specialization Project (Hauge 2012), I recommend that the Norwegian condition assessment method based...

  9. Visible implant elastomer (VIE) tagging and simulated predation risk elicit similar physiological stress responses in three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürtbauer, I; King, A J; Heistermann, M

    2015-05-01

    The effect of visible implant elastomer (VIE) tagging on the immediate physiological stress response was tested in female three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus, using non-invasive waterborne cortisol analysis. Post-tagging cortisol levels were significantly higher compared with pretreatment baseline concentrations; however, when comparing post-tagging cortisol levels with cortisol levels after exposure to a simulated aerial predator, no significant differences were found. This study indicates that VIE tagging elicits a physiological stress response similar to those occurring in the everyday lives of this important biological model organism. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. The measurement of surface roughness to determine the suitability of different methods for stone cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Calvo, Carmen; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Fort, Rafael; Varas-Muriel, Maria Jose

    2012-01-01

    The roughness of stone surface was measured, before and after bead blasting-based cleaning methods, to select the most efficient one to be used in masonry and stonework of specific areas of the Cathedral of Segovia (Spain). These types of cleaning methods can, besides the removal of soiling and surface deposits, leave a rougher surface, which would mean higher and more rapid water retention and deposit accumulation due to a specific surface increase, therefore accelerating stone decay. Or, in contrast, the cleaning method can be so aggressive that it can smooth the surface by reducing its roughness, a fact that usually corresponds to excessive material removal—soot and deposits–-but also part of the stone substrate. Roughness results were complemented with scanning electron microscopy observations and analyses and colour measurements. Finally, it was possible to select the best cleaning method among the six that were analysed, for different areas and different stone materials. Therefore, this study confirms the measurement of surface roughness as a reliable test to determine the suitability of stone cleaning methods; it is a non-destructive technique, portable and friendly to use, which can help us to rapidly assess—together with other techniques—the efficacy and aggressiveness of the stone cleaning method. (paper)

  11. A hybrid 3D SEM reconstruction method optimized for complex geologic material surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shang; Adegbule, Aderonke; Kibbey, Tohren C G

    2017-08-01

    Reconstruction methods are widely used to extract three-dimensional information from scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. This paper presents a new hybrid reconstruction method that combines stereoscopic reconstruction with shape-from-shading calculations to generate highly-detailed elevation maps from SEM image pairs. The method makes use of an imaged glass sphere to determine the quantitative relationship between observed intensity and angles between the beam and surface normal, and the detector and surface normal. Two specific equations are derived to make use of image intensity information in creating the final elevation map. The equations are used together, one making use of intensities in the two images, the other making use of intensities within a single image. The method is specifically designed for SEM images captured with a single secondary electron detector, and is optimized to capture maximum detail from complex natural surfaces. The method is illustrated with a complex structured abrasive material, and a rough natural sand grain. Results show that the method is capable of capturing details such as angular surface features, varying surface roughness, and surface striations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. La prolongation de la vie humaine selon Francis Bacon. Ou : quel Tithon voulons-nous être ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Weber

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Afin de comprendre avec exactitude la manière dont Francis Bacon envisage la question de la prolongation de la vie humaine, il faut impérativement examiner l’assise théologique de la réflexion du philosophe à ce sujet. Il convient aussi de restituer l’intégration de cette réflexion dans les objectifs plus amples de la philosophie naturelle nouvelle. Enfin, il est nécessaire de comprendre les dimensions proprement morales de la question. Car la prolongation de la vie humaine n’est pas seulement, au sein de la philosophie naturelle nouvelle, un cas parmi d’autres des recherches qu’il faut désormais effectuer : en réalité, c’est elle qui lui donne et qui lui fixe son sens ; avec elle se joue l’effectivité de l’identité espérée entre science et puissance. Mais il faut encore préciser qu’il ne s’agit aucunement pour l’homme de vieillir pour vieillir : il s’agit pour lui de pouvoir vieillir bien. Les leçons que Bacon tire de la fable de Tithon sont ici véritablement décisives.

  13. A method of reconstructing complex stratigraphic surfaces with multitype fault constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shi-Wu; Jia, Yu; Yao, Xing-Miao; Liu, Zhi-Ning

    2017-06-01

    The construction of complex stratigraphic surfaces is widely employed in many fields, such as petroleum exploration, geological modeling, and geological structure analysis. It also serves as an important foundation for data visualization and visual analysis in these fields. The existing surface construction methods have several deficiencies and face various difficulties, such as the presence of multitype faults and roughness of resulting surfaces. In this paper, a surface modeling method that uses geometric partial differential equations (PDEs) is introduced for the construction of stratigraphic surfaces. It effectively solves the problem of surface roughness caused by the irregularity of stratigraphic data distribution. To cope with the presence of multitype complex faults, a two-way projection algorithm between threedimensional space and a two-dimensional plane is proposed. Using this algorithm, a unified method based on geometric PDEs is developed for dealing with multitype faults. Moreover, the corresponding geometric PDE is derived, and an algorithm based on an evolutionary solution is developed. The algorithm proposed for constructing spatial surfaces with real data verifies its computational efficiency and its ability to handle irregular data distribution. In particular, it can reconstruct faulty surfaces, especially those with overthrust faults.

  14. The Soft-Confined Method for Creating Molecular Models of Amorphous Polymer Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Hongyi; Li, Yan; Krause, Wendy E.; Rojas, Orlando J.; Pasquinelli, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this work was to use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to build amorphous surface layers of polypropylene (PP) and cellulose and to inspect their physical and interfacial properties. A new method to produce molecular models for these surfaces was developed, which involved the use of a "soft" confining layer comprised of a xenon crystal. This method compacts the polymers into a density distribution and a degree of molecular surface roughness that corresponds well to experimental values. In addition, calculated properties such as density, cohesive energy density, coefficient of thermal expansion, and the surface energy agree with experimental values and thus validate the use of soft confining layers. The method can be applied to polymers with a linear backbone such as PP as well as those whose backbones contain rings, such as cellulose. The developed PP and cellulose surfaces were characterized by their interactions with water. It was found that a water nanodroplet spreads on the amorphous cellulose surfaces, but there was no significant change in the dimension of the droplet on the PP surface; the resulting MD water contact angles on PP and amorphous cellulose surfaces were determined to be 106 and 33°, respectively. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. The Soft-Confined Method for Creating Molecular Models of Amorphous Polymer Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Hongyi

    2012-02-09

    The goal of this work was to use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to build amorphous surface layers of polypropylene (PP) and cellulose and to inspect their physical and interfacial properties. A new method to produce molecular models for these surfaces was developed, which involved the use of a "soft" confining layer comprised of a xenon crystal. This method compacts the polymers into a density distribution and a degree of molecular surface roughness that corresponds well to experimental values. In addition, calculated properties such as density, cohesive energy density, coefficient of thermal expansion, and the surface energy agree with experimental values and thus validate the use of soft confining layers. The method can be applied to polymers with a linear backbone such as PP as well as those whose backbones contain rings, such as cellulose. The developed PP and cellulose surfaces were characterized by their interactions with water. It was found that a water nanodroplet spreads on the amorphous cellulose surfaces, but there was no significant change in the dimension of the droplet on the PP surface; the resulting MD water contact angles on PP and amorphous cellulose surfaces were determined to be 106 and 33°, respectively. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. Use of modern methods of fibre surface modification to obtain the multifunctional properties of textile materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocić Dragan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern textile fibre treatments aim to obtain the required level of beneficial effect while attempting to confine the modification to the fibre surface. Recently, much attention has been focused on different physical methods of fibre surface modification, cold plasma treatment being considered as very useful. Moreover, there are efficient chemical methods available, such as peroxide, biopolymer and enzyme treatment. Some interesting combinations of these physical and chemical surface modification methods as means to modify fibre surface topography and thus controlling the surface-related properties of the fibre are presented in this paper. The properties obtained are discussed on the basis of the physico-chemical changes in the surface layer of the fibre, being assessed by wettability and contact angle measurements, as well as by FTIR-ATR and XPS analysis. The SEM and AFM technique are used to assess the changes in the fibre surface topography and to correlate these changes to the effectiveness, uniformity and severity of the textile fibre surface modification treatments.

  17. Fabricating superhydrophobic polymer surfaces with excellent abrasion resistance by a simple lamination templating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian Feng; Mondal, Bikash; Lyons, Alan M

    2011-09-01

    Fabricating robust superhydrophobic surfaces for commercial applications is challenging as the fine-scale surface features, necessary to achieve superhydrophobicity, are susceptible to mechanical damage. Herein, we report a simple and inexpensive lamination templating method to create superhydrophobic polymer surfaces with excellent abrasion resistance and water pressure stability. To fabricate the surfaces, polyethylene films were laminated against woven wire mesh templates. After cooling, the mesh was peeled from the polymer creating a 3D array of ordered polymer microposts on the polymer surface. The resulting texture is monolithic with the polymer film and requires no chemical modification to exhibit superhydrophobicity. By controlling lamination parameters and mesh dimensions, polyethylene surfaces were fabricated that exhibit static contact angles of 160° and slip angles of 5°. Chemical and mechanical stability was evaluated using an array of manual tests as well as a standard reciprocating abraser test. Surfaces remained superhydrophobic after more than 5500 abrasion cycles at a pressure of 32.0 kPa. In addition, the surface remains dry after immersing into water for 5 h at 55 kPa. This method is environmental friendly, as it employs no solvents or harsh chemicals and may provide an economically viable path to manufacture large areas of mechanically robust superhydrophobic surfaces from inexpensive polymers and reusable templates.

  18. A method for the characterization of the reflectance of anisotropic functional surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regi, Francesco; Nielsen, J B; Li, Dongya

    2018-01-01

    The functional properties of micro-structured surfaces have gained increasing interest thanks to many applications such as wetting, adhesion, thermal and/or electrical conductivity. In this study, directional optical properties, i.e. contrast between two regions of a surface, were achieved...... reflectance of the surface for a range of design-specific view-illumination configurations was determined using a method that involves a Hirox RH-2000 digital microscope, used as a gonioreflectometer. This method allows the empirical determination of the optimum surface microstructure for maximizing contrast...... between two horizontally orthogonal views. The results show that even if the uncertainty related to the instrumentation is up to 20% in some cases, this procedure is suitable for the characterization of the surface of both metal and plastic counterpart....

  19. Different methods to alter surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leber, M., E-mail: moritz.leber@utah.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shandhi, M.M.H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hogan, A. [Blackrock Microsystems, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Solzbacher, F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bhandari, R.; Negi, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Blackrock Microsystems, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Surface engineering of high aspect ratio silicon structures. - Highlights: • Multiple roughening techniques for high aspect ratio devices were investigated. • Modification of surface morphology of high aspect ratio silicon devices (1:15). • Decrease of 76% in impedance proves significant increase in surface area. - Abstract: In various applications such as neural prostheses or solar cells, there is a need to alter the surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures so that the real surface area is greater than geometrical area. The change in surface morphology enhances the devices functionality. One of the applications of altering the surface morphology is of neural implants such as the Utah electrode array (UEA) that communicate with single neurons by charge injection induced stimulation or by recording electrical neural signals. For high selectivity between single cells of the nervous system, the electrode surface area is required to be as small as possible, while the impedance is required to be as low as possible for good signal to noise ratios (SNR) during neural recording. For stimulation, high charge injection and charge transfer capacities of the electrodes are required, which increase with the electrode surface. Traditionally, researchers have worked with either increasing the roughness of the existing metallization (platinum grey, black) or other materials such as Iridium Oxide and PEDOT. All of these previously investigated methods lead to more complicated metal deposition processes that are difficult to control and often have a critical impact on the mechanical properties of the metal films. Therefore, a modification of the surface underneath the electrode's coating will increase its surface area while maintaining the standard and well controlled metal deposition process. In this work, the surfaces of the silicon micro-needles were engineered by creating a defined microstructure on the electrodes surface using several

  20. Facile method to fabricate raspberry-like particulate films for superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hui-Jung; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2007-12-04

    A facile method using layer-by-layer assembly of silica particles is proposed to prepare raspberry-like particulate films for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces. Silica particles 0.5 microm in diameter were used to prepare a surface with a microscale roughness. Nanosized silica particles were then assembled on the particulate film to construct a finer structure on top of the coarse one. After surface modification with dodecyltrichlorosilane, the advancing and receding contact angles of water on the dual-sized structured surface were 169 and 165 degrees , respectively. The scale ratio of the micro/nano surface structure and the regularity of the particulate films on the superhydrophobic surface performance are discussed.

  1. Development and application of QM/MM methods to study the solvation effects and surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibya, Pooja Arora [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Quantum mechanical (QM) calculations have the advantage of attaining high-level accuracy, however QM calculations become computationally inefficient as the size of the system grows. Solving complex molecular problems on large systems and ensembles by using quantum mechanics still poses a challenge in terms of the computational cost. Methods that are based on classical mechanics are an inexpensive alternative, but they lack accuracy. A good trade off between accuracy and efficiency is achieved by combining QM methods with molecular mechanics (MM) methods to use the robustness of the QM methods in terms of accuracy and the MM methods to minimize the computational cost. Two types of QM combined with MM (QM/MM) methods are the main focus of the present dissertation: the application and development of QM/MM methods for solvation studies and reactions on the Si(100) surface. The solvation studies were performed using a discreet solvation model that is largely based on first principles called the effective fragment potential method (EFP). The main idea of combining the EFP method with quantum mechanics is to accurately treat the solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions, such as electrostatic, polarization, dispersion and charge transfer, that are important in correctly calculating solvent effects on systems of interest. A second QM/MM method called SIMOMM (surface integrated molecular orbital molecular mechanics) is a hybrid QM/MM embedded cluster model that mimics the real surface.3 This method was employed to calculate the potential energy surfaces for reactions of atomic O on the Si(100) surface. The hybrid QM/MM method is a computationally inexpensive approach for studying reactions on larger surfaces in a reasonably accurate and efficient manner. This thesis is comprised of four chapters: Chapter 1 describes the general overview and motivation of the dissertation and gives a broad background of the computational methods that have been employed in this work

  2. Reliability-based design optimization via high order response surface method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hong Shuang

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the computational effort of reliability-based design optimization (RBDO), the response surface method (RSM) has been widely used to evaluate reliability constraints. We propose an efficient methodology for solving RBDO problems based on an improved high order response surface method (HORSM) that takes advantage of an efficient sampling method, Hermite polynomials and uncertainty contribution concept to construct a high order response surface function with cross terms for reliability analysis. The sampling method generates supporting points from Gauss-Hermite quadrature points, which can be used to approximate response surface function without cross terms, to identify the highest order of each random variable and to determine the significant variables connected with point estimate method. The cross terms between two significant random variables are added to the response surface function to improve the approximation accuracy. Integrating the nested strategy, the improved HORSM is explored in solving RBDO problems. Additionally, a sampling based reliability sensitivity analysis method is employed to reduce the computational effort further when design variables are distributional parameters of input random variables. The proposed methodology is applied on two test problems to validate its accuracy and efficiency. The proposed methodology is more efficient than first order reliability method based RBDO and Monte Carlo simulation based RBDO, and enables the use of RBDO as a practical design tool.

  3. Method and apparatus for reducing the drag of flows over surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Laurence R. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus, and its accompanying method, for reducing the drag of flows over a surface includes arrays of small disks and sensors. The arrays are embedded in the surface and may extend above, or be depressed below, the surface, provided they remain hydraulically smooth either when operating or when inactive. The disks are arranged in arrays of various shapes, and spaced according to the cruising speed of the vehicle on which the arrays are installed. For drag reduction at speeds of the order of 30 meters/second, preferred embodiments include disks that are 0.2 millimeter in diameter and spaced 0.4 millimeter apart. For drag reduction at speeds of the order of 300 meters/second, preferred embodiments include disks that are 0.045 millimeter in diameter and spaced 0.09 millimeter apart. Smaller and larger dimensions for diameter and spacing are also possible. The disks rotate in the plane of the surface, with their rotation axis substantially perpendicular to the surface. The rotating disks produce velocity perturbations parallel to the surface in the overlying boundary layer. The sensors sense the flow at the surface and connect to control circuitry that adjusts the rotation rates and duty cycles of the disks accordingly. Suction and blowing holes can be interspersed among, or made coaxial with, the disks for creating general three-component velocity perturbations in the near-surface region. The surface can be a flat, planar surface or a nonplanar surface, such as a triangular riblet surface. The present apparatus and method have potential applications in the field of aeronautics for improving performance and efficiency of commercial and military aircraft, and in other industries where drag is an obstacle, including gas and oil delivery through long-haul pipelines.

  4. Development of autoradiographic method for measuring sorption of radionuclides on natural fracture surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muuronen, S.

    1983-11-01

    On the basis of positive results about sorption of radionuclides in rock thin sections an autoradiographic method applicable for measurement sorption of radionuclides on rough rock surfaces was developed. There is no method available because 1) a plane film cannot be used because due to the roughness of rock surfaces 2) rock samples used in this investigation cannot be studied with microscopes and 3) autoradiogram cannot be studied fixed on the surface of a rock sample because the colours of the minerals in the sample will interfere with the interpretation. This report discusses experimental work done to find an useful proedure. In the development of the method main emphasis was put on investigation of the following steps: 1) preparation of the sample for equilibration and spiking; 2) properties of the covering paint for the rock surface and 3) testing of autoradiographic methods using different nuclear emulsions. As the result of these experiments promising autoradiograms with gel emulsion for sawed rock surfaces and with stripping film for rough rock surfaces were obtained. The mineralogic disribution of sorbed activity is easily seen in autoradiograms. Much work must still be done to get reliable quantitative information from autoradiograms. For developing of the autoradiographic method sawed plane rock samples of quartz feldspar intergrowth, pegmatite and limestone were used. In addition core samples of tonalite and mica gneiss from Olkiluoto were utilized. The distribution coefficients (Ksub(a)) obtained for cesium were 560 x 10 -4 and 620 x 10 -4 m 3 /m 2 for tonalite and mica gneiss, respectively. The results are little higher but of the same order of magnitude as obtained by the autoradiographic method using rock thin sections and by the batch method using crused samples. The natural fracture surface sorption study is a logical step in determining the scaling factor from laboratory to field studies. Field data will be needed to determine whether laboratory

  5. A high-order boundary integral method for surface diffusions on elastically stressed axisymmetric rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofan; Nie, Qing

    2009-07-01

    Many applications in materials involve surface diffusion of elastically stressed solids. Study of singularity formation and long-time behavior of such solid surfaces requires accurate simulations in both space and time. Here we present a high-order boundary integral method for an elastically stressed solid with axi-symmetry due to surface diffusions. In this method, the boundary integrals for isotropic elasticity in axi-symmetric geometry are approximated through modified alternating quadratures along with an extrapolation technique, leading to an arbitrarily high-order quadrature; in addition, a high-order (temporal) integration factor method, based on explicit representation of the mean curvature, is used to reduce the stability constraint on time-step. To apply this method to a periodic (in axial direction) and axi-symmetric elastically stressed cylinder, we also present a fast and accurate summation method for the periodic Green's functions of isotropic elasticity. Using the high-order boundary integral method, we demonstrate that in absence of elasticity the cylinder surface pinches in finite time at the axis of the symmetry and the universal cone angle of the pinching is found to be consistent with the previous studies based on a self-similar assumption. In the presence of elastic stress, we show that a finite time, geometrical singularity occurs well before the cylindrical solid collapses onto the axis of symmetry, and the angle of the corner singularity on the cylinder surface is also estimated.

  6. Self-cleaning Foliar Surfaces Characterization using RIMAPS Technique and Variogram Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosi, Pablo E.

    2002-01-01

    Along the last ten years many important studies about characterization of self-cleaning foliar surfaces have been done and focused new interest on this kind of surfaces.These studies were possible due to the development of a novel preparation technique for this biological material that let us observe the delicate structures of a foliar surface under scanning electron microscope (S.E.M.).This technique consists of replacing the natural water of the specimen by glycerol. Digital S.E.M. images from both self-cleaning and non-self-cleaning foliar surfaces were obtained and analyzed using RIMAPS technique and Variograms method. Our results revealed the existence of a common and exclusive geometrical pattern that is found in species which present self-cleaning foliar surfaces.This pattern combines at least nine different directions.The results from the Variograms method showed that the stomata play a key role in the determination of foliar surface roughness. In addition, spectra from RIMAPS technique constitute a fingerprint of a foliar surface so they can be used to find evolutionary relationships among species.Further studies will provide more detailed information to fully elucidate the self-cleaning pattern, so it might be possible to reproduce it on an artificial surface and make it self-cleaning

  7. Pre-absorbed immunoproteomics: a novel method for the detection of Streptococcus suis surface proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2 is a zoonotic pathogen that can cause infections in pigs and humans. Bacterial surface proteins are often investigated as potential vaccine candidates and biomarkers of virulence. In this study, a novel method for identifying bacterial surface proteins is presented, which combines immunoproteomic and immunoserologic techniques. Critical to the success of this new method is an improved procedure for generating two-dimensional electrophoresis gel profiles of S. suis proteins. The S. suis surface proteins identified in this study include muramidase-released protein precursor (MRP and an ABC transporter protein, while MRP is thought to be one of the main virulence factors in SS2 located on the bacterial surface. Herein, we demonstrate that the ABC transporter protein can bind to HEp-2 cells, which strongly suggests that this protein is located on the bacterial cell surface and may be involved in pathogenesis. An immunofluorescence assay confirmed that the ABC transporter is localized to the bacterial outer surface. This new method may prove to be a useful tool for identifying surface proteins, and aid in the development of new vaccine subunits and disease diagnostics.

  8. An experimental method to determine the electrostatic field enhancement factor of a practical conductor surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1989-01-01

    A method of determining the field enhancement factor of a practical conductor is presented. The method is developed from a modified theory of discharge onset in a gaseous medium. This modification incorporates the influence of conductor surface roughness. Onset data from an experimental study...

  9. Pseudo forward ray-tracing: A new method for surface validation in cornea topography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicam, V.; Snellenburg, J.J.; van der Heijde, R.G.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE. A pseudo forward ray-tracing (PFRT) algorithm is developed to evaluate surface reconstruction in corneal topography. The method can be applied to topographers where one-to-one correspondence between mire and image points can be established. METHODS. The PFRT algorithm was applied on a

  10. A surface capturing method for the efficient computation of steady water waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wackers, J.; Koren, B.

    2008-01-01

    A surface capturing method is developed for the computation of steady water–air flow with gravity. Fluxes are based on artificial compressibility and the method is solved with a multigrid technique and line Gauss–Seidel smoother. A test on a channel flow with a bottom bump shows the accuracy of the

  11. Analyzing containment leakage from a sodium fire by the response surface method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, L.W.

    1978-01-01

    The SPOOL-FIRE code has been used with the response surface method and a Monte Carlo simulation to study sodium fire accidents. The study provides a simple method of estimating the radioactive release via containment leakage; the sensitivity of the output consequences to the variations in the input parameters is also presented

  12. Study of the possibilities of using nuclear methods for characterizing the surface region of glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiung, P.

    1983-01-01

    Following a review of the different methods used for the analysis of surfaces, we give a detailed description of charged particle elastic backscattering and the experimental devices. We then apply this method to the study of the lixiviation of borosilicate glasses in aqueous media and to the characterization of two heavy elements, cerium and thorium and their possible interaction in simple borosilicates [fr

  13. An adaptive finite element method for simulating surface tension with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng; Sun, Shuyu

    2014-01-01

    The gradient theory for the surface tension of simple fluids and mixtures is rigorously analyzed based on mathematical theory. The finite element approximation of surface tension is developed and analyzed, and moreover, an adaptive finite element method based on a physical-based estimator is proposed and it can be coupled efficiently with Newton's method as well. The numerical tests are carried out both to verify the proposed theory and to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An adaptive finite element method for simulating surface tension with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2014-01-01

    The gradient theory for the surface tension of simple fluids and mixtures is rigorously analyzed based on mathematical theory. The finite element approximation of surface tension is developed and analyzed, and moreover, an adaptive finite element method based on a physical-based estimator is proposed and it can be coupled efficiently with Newton\\'s method as well. The numerical tests are carried out both to verify the proposed theory and to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Facile method to stain the bacterial cell surface for super-resolution fluorescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunsolus, Ian L.; Hu, Dehong; Mihai, Cosmin; Lohse, Samuel E.; Lee, Chang-Soo; Torelli, Marco; Hamers, Robert J.; Murphy, Catherine; Orr, Galya; Haynes, Christy L.

    2014-01-01

    A method to fluorescently stain the surfaces of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial cells compatible with super-resolution fluorescence microscopy is presented. This method utilizes a commercially-available fluorescent probe to label primary amines at the surface of the cell. We demonstrate efficient staining of two bacterial strains, the Gram-negative Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis 168. Using structured illumination microscopy and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, which require high quantum yield or specialized dyes, we show that this staining method may be used to resolve the bacterial cell surface with sub-diffraction-limited resolution. We further use this method to identify localization patterns of nanomaterials, specifically cadmium selenide quantum dots, following interaction with bacterial cells.

  16. Bone surface enhancement in ultrasound images using a new Doppler-based acquisition/processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Tang, Songyuan; Tasciotti, Ennio; Righetti, Raffaella

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) imaging has long been considered as a potential aid in orthopedic surgeries. US technologies are safe, portable and do not use radiations. This would make them a desirable tool for real-time assessment of fractures and to monitor fracture healing. However, image quality of US imaging methods in bone applications is limited by speckle, attenuation, shadow, multiple reflections and other imaging artifacts. While bone surfaces typically appear in US images as somewhat ‘brighter’ than soft tissue, they are often not easily distinguishable from the surrounding tissue. Therefore, US imaging methods aimed at segmenting bone surfaces need enhancement in image contrast prior to segmentation to improve the quality of the detected bone surface. In this paper, we present a novel acquisition/processing technique for bone surface enhancement in US images. Inspired by elastography and Doppler imaging methods, this technique takes advantage of the difference between the mechanical and acoustic properties of bones and those of soft tissues to make the bone surface more easily distinguishable in US images. The objective of this technique is to facilitate US-based bone segmentation methods and improve the accuracy of their outcomes. The newly proposed technique is tested both in in vitro and in vivo experiments. The results of these preliminary experiments suggest that the use of the proposed technique has the potential to significantly enhance the detectability of bone surfaces in noisy ultrasound images.

  17. Bone surface enhancement in ultrasound images using a new Doppler-based acquisition/processing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Tang, Songyuan; Tasciotti, Ennio; Righetti, Raffaella

    2018-01-17

    Ultrasound (US) imaging has long been considered as a potential aid in orthopedic surgeries. US technologies are safe, portable and do not use radiations. This would make them a desirable tool for real-time assessment of fractures and to monitor fracture healing. However, image quality of US imaging methods in bone applications is limited by speckle, attenuation, shadow, multiple reflections and other imaging artifacts. While bone surfaces typically appear in US images as somewhat 'brighter' than soft tissue, they are often not easily distinguishable from the surrounding tissue. Therefore, US imaging methods aimed at segmenting bone surfaces need enhancement in image contrast prior to segmentation to improve the quality of the detected bone surface. In this paper, we present a novel acquisition/processing technique for bone surface enhancement in US images. Inspired by elastography and Doppler imaging methods, this technique takes advantage of the difference between the mechanical and acoustic properties of bones and those of soft tissues to make the bone surface more easily distinguishable in US images. The objective of this technique is to facilitate US-based bone segmentation methods and improve the accuracy of their outcomes. The newly proposed technique is tested both in in vitro and in vivo experiments. The results of these preliminary experiments suggest that the use of the proposed technique has the potential to significantly enhance the detectability of bone surfaces in noisy ultrasound images.

  18. Comparison of the surface wave method and the indentation method for measuring the elasticity of gelatin phantoms of different concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Qiang, Bo; Greenleaf, James

    2011-02-01

    The speed of the surface Rayleigh wave, which is related to the viscoelastic properties of the medium, can be measured by noninvasive and noncontact methods. This technique has been applied in biomedical applications such as detecting skin diseases. Static spherical indentation, which quantifies material elasticity through the relationship between loading force and displacement, has been applied in various areas including a number of biomedical applications. This paper compares the results obtained from these two methods on five gelatin phantoms of different concentrations (5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15%). The concentrations are chosen because the elasticity of such gelatin phantoms is close to that of tissue types such as skin. The results show that both the surface wave method and the static spherical indentation method produce the same values for shear elasticity. For example, the shear elasticities measured by the surface wave method are 1.51, 2.75, 5.34, 6.90 and 8.40kPa on the five phantoms, respectively. In addition, by studying the dispersion curve of the surface wave speed, shear viscosity can be extracted. The measured shear viscosities are 0.00, 0.00, 0.13, 0.39 and 1.22Pa.s on the five phantoms, respectively. The results also show that the shear elasticity of the gelatin phantoms increases linearly with their prepared concentrations. The linear regressions between concentration and shear elasticity have R(2) values larger than 0.98 for both methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional limitations and overweight among migrants in the Histoire de Vie study (Insee, 2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lert, F; Melchior, M; Ville, I

    2007-12-01

    In France, epidemiological data on immigrant population are limited since characterization of immigrants is viewed as a sensitive issue. The Histoire de Vie survey has enabled the description of the association of immigration characteristics and two health indicators. Health-related functional limitations and overweight status (BMI> or =25 kg/m(2)) were studied among 18 to 64 years old using indirect age standardization. Immigration status was characterized in four different ways: via the migratory pathways of interviewees and their parents (French born to two French-born parents, second-generation, immigrated at the age of 15 or younger, immigrated at the age of 16 or older), citizenship (French by birth, French by naturalisation, non French), geographical origin (France, Europe, outside Europe) and language(s) spoken at home (French mother tongue, French for persons who do not have French as mother tongue, French and another language, another language). The analyses were conducted separately in men and in women and stratified by occupational status (upper and lower). For functional limitations, the analysis was repeated excluding participants whose limitations occurred before the age of 19, which was the average age of immigration, to assess a possible healthy migrant effect. Compared to French men born to two French parents, an increased rate of functional limitations was observed among men born in Europe and/or who had at least one parent born in Europe (SMR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.06-1.81) and a reduced rate among participants born outside Europe or who had at least one parent born outside Europe (SMR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46-0.86); these differences remained when social status was taken into account. Among women, a tendency towards a lower rate of functional limitations was found in lower social status groups among those who immigrated as adults, among non French citizens and among non Europeans. Restricting the analysis to individuals free of limitations at the age of 19

  20. Evaluating polymer degradation with complex mixtures using a simplified surface area method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Kandace M; Pelham, Todd; Phalen, Robert N

    2017-09-01

    Chemical-resistant gloves, designed to protect workers from chemical hazards, are made from a variety of polymer materials such as plastic, rubber, and synthetic rubber. One material does not provide protection against all chemicals, thus proper polymer selection is critical. Standardized testing, such as chemical degradation tests, are used to aid in the selection process. The current methods of degradation ratings based on changes in weight or tensile properties can be expensive and data often do not exist for complex chemical mixtures. There are hundreds of thousands of chemical products on the market that do not have chemical resistance data for polymer selection. The method described in this study provides an inexpensive alternative to gravimetric analysis. This method uses surface area change to evaluate degradation of a polymer material. Degradation tests for 5 polymer types against 50 complex mixtures were conducted using both gravimetric and surface area methods. The percent change data were compared between the two methods. The resulting regression line was y = 0.48x + 0.019, in units of percent, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was r = 0.9537 (p ≤ 0.05), which indicated a strong correlation between percent weight change and percent surface area change. On average, the percent change for surface area was about half that of the weight change. Using this information, an equivalent rating system was developed for determining the chemical degradation of polymer gloves using surface area.

  1. Effects of storage methods on time-related changes of titanium surface properties and cellular response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Haibin; Zhou Lei; Wan Lei; Li Shaobing; Rong Mingdeng; Guo Zehong

    2012-01-01

    Titanium implants are sold in the market as storable medical devices. All the implants have a certain shelf life during which they maintain their sterility, but variations of the surface properties through this duration have not been subject to a comprehensive assessment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of storage methods on time-related changes of titanium surface properties. Acid-etched titanium discs (Sa = 0.82 µm) were placed in a sealed container (tradition method) or submerged in the ddH 2 O/NaCl solution (0.15 mol L −1 )/CaCl 2 solution (0.15 mol L −1 ), and new titanium discs were used as a control group. SEM and optical profiler showed that surface morphology and roughness did not change within different groups, but the XPS analysis confirmed that the surface chemistry altered by different storage protocols as the storage duration increased, and the contact angle also varied with storage methods. The storage method also affected the protein adsorption capacity and cellular response on the titanium surface. All titanium discs stored in the solution maintained their excellent bioactivity even after four weeks storage time, but titanium discs stored in a traditional manner decreased substantially in an age-dependent manner. Much effort is needed to improve the storage methods in order to maintain the bioactivity of a titanium dental implant. (paper)

  2. An Improved Local Gradient Method for Sea Surface Wind Direction Retrieval from SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhang Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface wind affects the fluxes of energy, mass and momentum between the atmosphere and ocean, and therefore regional and global weather and climate. With various satellite microwave sensors, sea surface wind can be measured with large spatial coverage in almost all-weather conditions, day or night. Like any other remote sensing measurements, sea surface wind measurement is also indirect. Therefore, it is important to develop appropriate wind speed and direction retrieval models for different types of microwave instruments. In this paper, a new sea surface wind direction retrieval method from synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery is developed. In the method, local gradients are computed in frequency domain by combining the operation of smoothing and computing local gradients in one step to simplify the process and avoid the difference approximation. This improved local gradients (ILG method is compared with the traditional two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D FFT method and local gradients (LG method, using interpolating wind directions from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF reanalysis data and the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP wind vector product. The sensitivities to the salt-and-pepper noise, the additive noise and the multiplicative noise are analyzed. The ILG method shows a better performance of retrieval wind directions than the other two methods.

  3. Prediction of surface tension of binary mixtures with the parachor method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Němec Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The parachor method for the estimation of the surface tension of binary mixtures is modified by considering temperature-dependent values of the parachor parameters. The temperature dependence is calculated by a least-squares fit of pure-solvent surface tension data to the binary parachor equation utilizing the Peng-Robinson equation of state for the calculation of equilibrium densities. A very good agreement between experimental binary surface tension data and the predictions of the modified parachor method are found for the case of the mixtures of carbon dioxide and butane, benzene, and cyclohexane, respectively. The surface tension is also predicted for three refrigerant mixtures, i.e. propane, isobutane, and chlorodifluoromethane, with carbon dioxide.

  4. Methods for growth of relatively large step-free SiC crystal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, Philip G. (Inventor); Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method for growing arrays of large-area device-size films of step-free (i.e., atomically flat) SiC surfaces for semiconductor electronic device applications is disclosed. This method utilizes a lateral growth process that better overcomes the effect of extended defects in the seed crystal substrate that limited the obtainable step-free area achievable by prior art processes. The step-free SiC surface is particularly suited for the heteroepitaxial growth of 3C (cubic) SiC, AlN, and GaN films used for the fabrication of both surface-sensitive devices (i.e., surface channel field effect transistors such as HEMT's and MOSFET's) as well as high-electric field devices (pn diodes and other solid-state power switching devices) that are sensitive to extended crystal defects.

  5. The impact of accelerometer mounting methods on the level of vibrations recorded at ground surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Czech

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of field research based on the measurements of accelerations recorded at ground surface. The source of the vibration characterized by high repetition rate of pulse parameters was light falling weight deflectometer ZFG-01. Measurements of vibrations have been carried out using top quality high-precision measuring system produced by Brüel&Kiær. Accelerometers were mounted on a sandy soil surface at the measuring points located radially at 5-m and 10-m distances from the source of vibration. The paper analyses the impact that the method of mounting accelerometers on the ground has on the level of the recorded values of accelerations of vibrations. It has been shown that the method of attaching the sensor to the surface of the ground is crucial for the credibility of the performed measurements.[b]Keywords[/b]: geotechnics, surface vibrations, ground, vibration measurement

  6. Analysis of WEDM Process Parameters on Surface Roughness and Kerf using Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfana Banu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In obtaining the best quality of engineering parts, the quality of machined surface plays an essential role. The fatigue strength, wear resistance, and corrosion of workpiece are some of the aspects of the qualities that can be improved. This paper investigates the effect of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM process parameters on surface roughness and kerf on stainless steel using distilled water as dielectric fluid and brass wire as tool electrode. The selected process parameters are voltage open, wire speed, wire tension, voltage gap, and off time. Empirical models using Taguchi method were developed for the estimation of surface roughness and kerf. The analysis revealed that off time has major influence on surface roughness and kerf. The optimum machining parameters for minimum surface roughness and kerf were found to be 10 V open voltage, 2.84 µs off time, 12 m/min wire speed, 6.3 N wire tension, and 54.91 V voltage gap.

  7. Effects of various debonding and adhesive clearance methods on enamel surface: an in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Xiao-Chuan; Chen, Li; Huang, Xiao-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate orthodontic debonding methods by comparing the surface roughness and enamel morphology of teeth after applying two different debonding methods and three different polishing techniques. Methods Forty eight human maxillary premolars, extracted for orthodontic reasons, were randomly divided into three groups. Brackets were bonded to teeth with RMGIC (Fuji Ortho LC, GC, Tokyo, Japan) (two groups, n?=?18 each) after acid etching (30s), light cur...

  8. Critical Assessment of the Surface Tension determined by the Maximum Pressure Bubble Method

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetto, Franco Emmanuel; Zolotucho, Hector; Prado, Miguel Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The main factors that influence the value of surface tension of a liquid measured with the Maximum Pressure Bubble Method are critically evaluated. We present experimental results showing the effect of capillary diameter, capillary depth, bubble spheroidicity and liquid density at room temperature. We show that the decrease of bubble spheroidicity due to increase of capillary immersion depth is not sufficient to explain the deviations found in the measured surface tension values. Thus, we pro...

  9. DEPTH MEASUREMENT OF DISRUPTED LAYER ON SILICON WAFER SURFACE USING AUGER SPECTROSCOPY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Solodukha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for depth measurement of a disrupted layer on silicon wafer surface which is based on application of Auger spectroscopy with the precision sputtering of surface silicon layers and registration of the Auger electron yield intensity. In order to measure the disrupted layer with the help of Auger spectroscopy it is necessary to determine dependence of the released Auger electron amount on sputtering time (profile and then the dependence is analyzed. Silicon amount in the disrupted layer is less than in the volume. While going deeper the disruptive layer is decreasing that corresponds to an increase of atom density in a single layer. The essence of the method lies in the fact the disruptive layer is removed by ion beam sputtering and detection of interface region is carried out with the help of registration of the Auger electron yield intensity from the sputtered surface up to the moment when it reaches the value which is equal to the Auger electron yield intensity for single-crystal silicon. While removing surface silicon layers the registration of the Auger electron yield intensity from silicon surface makes it possible to control efficiently a presence of the disrupted layer on the silicon wafer surface. In this case depth control locality is about 1.0 nm due to some peculiarities of Auger spectroscopy method. The Auger electron yield intensity is determined automatically while using Auger spectrometer and while removing the disrupted layer the intensity is gradually increasing. Depth of the disrupted layer is determined by measuring height of the step which has been formed as a result of removal of the disrupted layer from the silicon wafer surface. Auger spectroscopy methods ensures an efficient depth control surface disruptions at the manufacturing stages of silicon wafers and integrated circuits. The depth measurement range of disruptions constitutes 0.001–1.000 um.

  10. Increased Surface Roughness in Polydimethylsiloxane Films by Physical and Chemical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nicolás Cabrera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Two methods, the first physical and the other chemical, were investigated to modify the surface roughness of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS films. The physical method consisted of dispersing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and magnetic cobalt ferrites (CoFe2O4 prior to thermal cross-linking, and curing the composite system in the presence of a uniform magnetic field H. The chemical method was based on exposing the films to bromine vapours and then UV-irradiating. The characterizing techniques included scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM and magnetic force microscopy (MFM. The surface roughness was quantitatively analyzed by AFM. In the physical method, the random dispersion of MWCNTs (1% w/w and magnetic nanoparticles (2% w/w generated a roughness increase of about 200% (with respect to PDMS films without any treatment, but that change was 400% for films cured in the presence of H perpendicular to the surface. SEM, AFM and MFM showed that the magnetic particles always remained attached to the carbon nanotubes, and the effect on the roughness was interpreted as being due to a rupture of dispersion randomness and a possible induction of structuring in the direction of H. In the chemical method, the increase in roughness was even greater (1000%. Wells were generated with surface areas that were close to 100 μm2 and depths of up to 500 nm. The observations of AFM images and FTIR spectra were in agreement with the hypothesis of etching by Br radicals generated by UV on the polymer chains. Both methods induced important changes in the surface roughness (the chemical method generated the greatest changes due to the formation of surface wells, which are of great importance in superficial technological processes.

  11. Method for selective immobilization of macromolecules on self assembled monolayer surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Julia [Richland, WA; Wang, Peng [Billerica, MA

    2011-11-29

    Disclosed is a method for selective chemical binding and immobilization of macromolecules on solid supports in conjunction with self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces. Immobilization involves selective binding of peptides and other macromolecules to SAM surfaces using reactive landing (RL) of mass-selected, gas phase ions. SAM surfaces provide a simple and convenient platform for tailoring chemical properties of a variety of substrates. The invention finds applications in biochemistry ranging from characterization of molecular recognition events at the amino acid level and identification of biologically active motifs in proteins, to development of novel biosensors and substrates for stimulated protein and cell adhesion.

  12. Monitoring of biofilm formation on different material surfaces of medical devices using hyperspectral imaging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hyun; Kim, Moon S.; Hwang, Jeeseong

    2012-03-01

    Contamination of the inner surface of indwelling (implanted) medical devices by microbial biofilm is a serious problem. Some microbial bacteria such as Escherichia coli form biofilms that lead to potentially lifethreatening infections. Other types of medical devices such as bronchoscopes and duodenoscopes account for the highest number of reported endoscopic infections where microbial biofilm is one of the major causes for these infections. We applied a hyperspectral imaging method to detect biofilm contamination on the surface of several common materials used for medical devices. Such materials include stainless steel, titanium, and stainless-steeltitanium alloy. Potential uses of hyperspectral imaging technique to monitor biofilm attachment to different material surfaces are discussed.

  13. Broadband antireflective silicon carbide surface produced by cost-effective method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyraki, Aikaterini; Ou, Yiyu; Ou, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    A cost-effective method for fabricating antireflective subwavelength structures on silicon carbide is demonstrated. The nanopatterning is performed in a 2-step process: aluminum deposition and reactive ion etching. The effect, of the deposited aluminum film thickness and the reactive ion etching...... conditions, on the average surface reflectance and nanostructure landscape have been investigated systematically. The average reflectance of silicon carbide surface is significantly suppressed from 25.4% to 0.05%, under the optimal experimental conditions, in the wavelength range of 390-784 nm. The presence...... of stochastic nanostructures also changes the wetting properties of silicon carbide surface from hydrophilic (47°) to hydrophobic (108°)....

  14. Cork-resin ablative insulation for complex surfaces and method for applying the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, H. M.; Sharpe, M. H.; Simpson, W. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A method of applying cork-resin ablative insulation material to complex curved surfaces is disclosed. The material is prepared by mixing finely divided cork with a B-stage curable thermosetting resin, forming the resulting mixture into a block, B-stage curing the resin-containing block, and slicing the block into sheets. The B-stage cured sheet is shaped to conform to the surface being insulated, and further curing is then performed. Curing of the resins only to B-stage before shaping enables application of sheet material to complex curved surfaces and avoids limitations and disadvantages presented in handling of fully cured sheet material.

  15. A Survey on Methods for Reconstructing Surfaces from Unorganized Point Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilius Matiukas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of reconstructing and visualizing surfaces from unorganized point sets. These can be acquired using different techniques, such as 3D-laser scanning, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and multi-camera imaging. The problem of reconstructing surfaces from their unorganized point sets is common for many diverse areas, including computer graphics, computer vision, computational geometry or reverse engineering. The paper presents three alternative methods that all use variations in complementary cones to triangulate and reconstruct the tested 3D surfaces. The article evaluates and contrasts three alternatives.Article in English

  16. Phonon dispersion on Ag (100) surface: A modified analytic embedded atom method study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiao-Jun; Chen Chang-Le

    2016-01-01

    Within the harmonic approximation, the analytic expression of the dynamical matrix is derived based on the modified analytic embedded atom method (MAEAM) and the dynamics theory of surface lattice. The surface phonon dispersions along three major symmetry directions, and XM-bar are calculated for the clean Ag (100) surface by using our derived formulas. We then discuss the polarization and localization of surface modes at points X-bar and M-bar by plotting the squared polarization vectors as a function of the layer index. The phonon frequencies of the surface modes calculated by MAEAM are compared with the available experimental and other theoretical data. It is found that the present results are generally in agreement with the referenced experimental or theoretical results, with a maximum deviation of 10.4%. The agreement shows that the modified analytic embedded atom method is a reasonable many-body potential model to quickly describe the surface lattice vibration. It also lays a significant foundation for studying the surface lattice vibration in other metals. (paper)

  17. Analysis of fracture surface of CFRP material by three-dimensional reconstruction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Raquel M.; Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Fracture surfaces of CFRP (carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) materials, used in the nuclear fuel cycle, presents an elevated roughness, mainly due to the fracture mode known as pulling out, that displays pieces of carbon fibers after debonding between fiber and matrix. The fractographic analysis, by bi-dimensional images is deficient for not considering the so important vertical resolution as much as the horizontal resolution. In this case, the knowledge of this heights distribution that occurs during the breaking, can lead to the calculation of the involved energies in the process that would allows a better agreement on the fracture mechanisms of the composite material. An important solution for the material characterization, whose surface presents a high roughness due to the variation in height, is to reconstruct three-dimensionally these fracture surfaces. In this work, the 3D reconstruction was done by two different methods: the variable focus reconstruction, through a stack of images obtained by optical microscopy (OM) and the parallax reconstruction, carried through with images acquired by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of both methods present an elevation map of the reconstructed image that determine the height of the surface pixel by pixel,. The results obtained by the methods of reconstruction for the CFRP surfaces, have been compared with others materials such as aluminum and copper that present a ductile type fracture surface, with lower roughness. (author)

  18. A fast and reliable readout method for quantitative analysis of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes on chip surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hyejin; Jeong, Sinyoung; Ko, Eunbyeol; Jeong, Dae Hong, E-mail: yslee@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com, E-mail: jeongdh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry Education, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Homan [Interdisciplinary Program in Nano-Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon-Sik, E-mail: yslee@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com, E-mail: jeongdh@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Nano-Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho-Young, E-mail: yslee@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com, E-mail: jeongdh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering techniques have been widely used for bioanalysis due to its high sensitivity and multiplex capacity. However, the point-scanning method using a micro-Raman system, which is the most common method in the literature, has a disadvantage of extremely long measurement time for on-chip immunoassay adopting a large chip area of approximately 1-mm scale and confocal beam point of ca. 1-μm size. Alternative methods such as sampled spot scan with high confocality and large-area scan method with enlarged field of view and low confocality have been utilized in order to minimize the measurement time practically. In this study, we analyzed the two methods in respect of signal-to-noise ratio and sampling-led signal fluctuations to obtain insights into a fast and reliable readout strategy. On this basis, we proposed a methodology for fast and reliable quantitative measurement of the whole chip area. The proposed method adopted a raster scan covering a full area of 100 μm × 100 μm region as a proof-of-concept experiment while accumulating signals in the CCD detector for single spectrum per frame. One single scan with 10 s over 100 μm × 100 μm area yielded much higher sensitivity compared to sampled spot scanning measurements and no signal fluctuations attributed to sampled spot scan. This readout method is able to serve as one of key technologies that will bring quantitative multiplexed detection and analysis into practice.

  19. The Closest Point Method and Multigrid Solvers for Elliptic Equations on Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yujia

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Elliptic partial differential equations are important from both application and analysis points of view. In this paper we apply the closest point method to solve elliptic equations on general curved surfaces. Based on the closest point representation of the underlying surface, we formulate an embedding equation for the surface elliptic problem, then discretize it using standard finite differences and interpolation schemes on banded but uniform Cartesian grids. We prove the convergence of the difference scheme for the Poisson\\'s equation on a smooth closed curve. In order to solve the resulting large sparse linear systems, we propose a specific geometric multigrid method in the setting of the closest point method. Convergence studies in both the accuracy of the difference scheme and the speed of the multigrid algorithm show that our approaches are effective.

  20. A parametric finite element method for solid-state dewetting problems with anisotropic surface energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Weizhu; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Quan

    2017-02-01

    We propose an efficient and accurate parametric finite element method (PFEM) for solving sharp-interface continuum models for solid-state dewetting of thin films with anisotropic surface energies. The governing equations of the sharp-interface models belong to a new type of high-order (4th- or 6th-order) geometric evolution partial differential equations about open curve/surface interface tracking problems which include anisotropic surface diffusion flow and contact line migration. Compared to the traditional methods (e.g., marker-particle methods), the proposed PFEM not only has very good accuracy, but also poses very mild restrictions on the numerical stability, and thus it has significant advantages for solving this type of open curve evolution problems with applications in the simulation of solid-state dewetting. Extensive numerical results are reported to demonstrate the accuracy and high efficiency of the proposed PFEM.

  1. Measurement of surface temperature and emissivity by a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Morgenstjerne, Axel; Rathmann, Ole

    1996-01-01

    Surface temperatures are estimated with high precision based on a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform spectrometers. The method is based on Planck's radiation law and a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm applied to two or more spectra at different sample temperatures and a single...... of blackbody sources are estimated with an uncertainty of 0.2-2 K. The method is demonstrated for measuring the spectral emissivity of a brass specimen and an oxidized nickel specimen. (C) 1996 Optical Society of America...... measurement at a known sample temperature, for example, at ambient temperature. The temperature of the sample surface can be measured rather easily at ambient temperature. The spectrum at ambient temperature is used to eliminate background effects from spectra as measured at other surface temperatures...

  2. ALE finite volume method for free-surface Bingham plastic fluids with general curvilinear coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Katsuaki; Ushijima, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    A numerical prediction method has been proposed to predict Bingham plastic fluids with free-surface in a two-dimensional container. Since the linear relationships between stress tensors and strain rate tensors are not assumed for non-Newtonian fluids, the liquid motions are described with Cauchy momentum equations rather than Navier-Stokes equations. The profile of a liquid surface is represented with the two-dimensional curvilinear coordinates which are represented in each computational step on the basis of the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method. Since the volumes of the fluid cells are transiently changed in the physical space, the geometric conservation law is applied to the finite volume discretizations. As a result, it has been shown that the present method enables us to predict reasonably the Bingham plastic fluids with free-surface in a container.

  3. ALE finite volume method for free-surface Bingham plastic fluids with general curvilinear coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Katsuaki; Ushijima, Satoru

    2010-06-01

    A numerical prediction method has been proposed to predict Bingham plastic fluids with free-surface in a two-dimensional container. Since the linear relationships between stress tensors and strain rate tensors are not assumed for non-Newtonian fluids, the liquid motions are described with Cauchy momentum equations rather than Navier-Stokes equations. The profile of a liquid surface is represented with the two-dimensional curvilinear coordinates which are represented in each computational step on the basis of the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method. Since the volumes of the fluid cells are transiently changed in the physical space, the geometric conservation law is applied to the finite volume discretizations. As a result, it has been shown that the present method enables us to predict reasonably the Bingham plastic fluids with free-surface in a container.

  4. Source signature estimation from multimode surface waves via mode-separated virtual real source method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lingli; Pan, Yudi

    2018-05-01

    The correct estimation of the seismic source signature is crucial to exploration geophysics. Based on seismic interferometry, the virtual real source (VRS) method provides a model-independent way for source signature estimation. However, when encountering multimode surface waves, which are commonly seen in the shallow seismic survey, strong spurious events appear in seismic interferometric results. These spurious events introduce errors in the virtual-source recordings and reduce the accuracy of the source signature estimated by the VRS method. In order to estimate a correct source signature from multimode surface waves, we propose a mode-separated VRS method. In this method, multimode surface waves are mode separated before seismic interferometry. Virtual-source recordings are then obtained by applying seismic interferometry to each mode individually. Therefore, artefacts caused by cross-mode correlation are excluded in the virtual-source recordings and the estimated source signatures. A synthetic example showed that a correct source signature can be estimated with the proposed method, while strong spurious oscillation occurs in the estimated source signature if we do not apply mode separation first. We also applied the proposed method to a field example, which verified its validity and effectiveness in estimating seismic source signature from shallow seismic shot gathers containing multimode surface waves.

  5. Inverse gas chromatography as a method for determination of surface properties of binding materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jihai; Lu, Xiaolei; Yang, Chunxia; Du, Baoli; Wang, Shuxian; Ye, Zhengmao

    2017-09-01

    Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is a promising measurement technique for investigating the surface properties of binding materials, which are the major influence element for the adsorption performance of superplasticizer. In this work, using the IGC method, blast furnace slag (BFS), sulphoaluminate cement (SAC) and portland cement (P·O) are employed to systematically evaluate the corresponding dispersive component (γsd), specific surface free energy (γsab), and acid-base properties. The obtained results show that γsd contributes to a major section of the surface free energy in the three binding materials, suggesting they are of a relatively low polarity. Compared to the two kinds of cements, the BFS possesses the highest dispersive and specific surface free energies (the values are 45.01 mJ/m2 and 11.68 mJ/m2, respectively), and also exhibits a wider distribution range of γsd, indicating their surfaces are heterogeneous. For acid-base properties, the results indicate the surfaces of three samples are basic in nature. In addition, the adsorption investigation shows that per unit surface of BFS adsorbs the most superplasticizer molecules, which indicates the higher surface free energies is beneficial to the superplasticizer adsorption.

  6. Facile method for preparing superoleophobic surfaces with hierarchical microcubic/nanowire structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Wonshik; Hwang, Woonbong

    2016-02-01

    To facilitate the fabrication of superoleophobic surfaces having hierarchical microcubic/nanowire structures (HMNS), even for low surface tension liquids including octane (surface tension = 21.1 mN m-1), and to understand the influences of surface structures on the oleophobicity, we developed a convenient method to achieve superoleophobic surfaces on aluminum substrates using chemical acid etching, anodization and fluorination treatment. The liquid repellency of the structured surface was validated through observable experimental results the contact and sliding angle measurements. The etching condition required to ensure high surface roughness was established, and an optimal anodizing condition was determined, as a critical parameter in building the superoleophobicity. The microcubic structures formed by acid etching are essential for achieving the formation of the hierarchical structure, and therefore, the nanowire structures formed by anodization lead to an enhancement of the superoleophobicity for low surface tension liquids. Under optimized morphology by microcubic/nanowire structures with fluorination treatment, the contact angle over 150° and the sliding angle less than 10° are achieved even for octane.

  7. An optimal design of wind turbine and ship structure based on neuro-response surface method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Chul Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The geometry of engineering systems affects their performances. For this reason, the shape of engineering systems needs to be optimized in the initial design stage. However, engineering system design problems consist of multi-objective optimization and the performance analysis using commercial code or numerical analysis is generally time-consuming. To solve these problems, many engineers perform the optimization using the approximation model (response surface. The Response Surface Method (RSM is generally used to predict the system performance in engi-neering research field, but RSM presents some prediction errors for highly nonlinear systems. The major objective of this research is to establish an optimal design method for multi-objective problems and confirm its applicability. The proposed process is composed of three parts: definition of geometry, generation of response surface, and optimization process. To reduce the time for performance analysis and minimize the prediction errors, the approximation model is generated using the Backpropagation Artificial Neural Network (BPANN which is considered as Neuro-Response Surface Method (NRSM. The optimization is done for the generated response surface by non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II. Through case studies of marine system and ship structure (substructure of floating offshore wind turbine considering hydrodynamics performances and bulk carrier bottom stiffened panels considering structure performance, we have confirmed the applicability of the proposed method for multi-objective side constraint optimization problems.

  8. An optimal design of wind turbine and ship structure based on neuro-response surface method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Chul; Shin, Sung-Chul; Kim, Soo-Young

    2015-07-01

    The geometry of engineering systems affects their performances. For this reason, the shape of engineering systems needs to be optimized in the initial design stage. However, engineering system design problems consist of multi-objective optimization and the performance analysis using commercial code or numerical analysis is generally time-consuming. To solve these problems, many engineers perform the optimization using the approximation model (response surface). The Response Surface Method (RSM) is generally used to predict the system performance in engineering research field, but RSM presents some prediction errors for highly nonlinear systems. The major objective of this research is to establish an optimal design method for multi-objective problems and confirm its applicability. The proposed process is composed of three parts: definition of geometry, generation of response surface, and optimization process. To reduce the time for performance analysis and minimize the prediction errors, the approximation model is generated using the Backpropagation Artificial Neural Network (BPANN) which is considered as Neuro-Response Surface Method (NRSM). The optimization is done for the generated response surface by non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II). Through case studies of marine system and ship structure (substructure of floating offshore wind turbine considering hydrodynamics performances and bulk carrier bottom stiffened panels considering structure performance), we have confirmed the applicability of the proposed method for multi-objective side constraint optimization problems.

  9. Prediction method of long-term reliability in improving residual stresses by means of surface finishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, Takehiko; Hirano, Shinro; Chigusa, Naoki; Okano, Shigetaka; Saida, Kazuyoshi; Mochizuki, Masahito; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi

    2012-01-01

    Surface finishing methods, such as Water Jet Peening (WJP), have been applied to welds in some major components of nuclear power plants as a counter measure to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC). In addition, the methods of surface finishing (buffing treatment) is being standardized, and thus the buffing treatment has been also recognized as the well-established method of improving stress. On the other hand, the long-term stability of peening techniques has been confirmed by accelerated test. However, the effectiveness of stress improvement by surface treatment is limited to thin layers and the effect of complicated residual stress distribution in the weld metal beneath the surface is not strictly taken into account for long-term stability. This paper, therefore, describes the accelerated tests, which confirmed that the long-term stability of the layer subjected to buffing treatment was equal to that subjected to WJP. The long-term reliability of very thin stress improved layer was also confirmed through a trial evaluation by thermal elastic-plastic creep analysis, even if the effect of complicated residual stress distribution in the weld metal was excessively taken into account. Considering the above findings, an approach is proposed for constructing the prediction method of the long-term reliability of stress improvement by surface finishing. (author)

  10. Cheap and fast measuring roughness on big surfaces with an imprint method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, C.; Liebl, J.; Rascher, R.

    2017-10-01

    Roughness, shape and structure of a surface offer information on the state, shape and surface characteristics of a component. Particularly the roughness of the surface dictates the subsequent polishing of the optical surface. The roughness is usually measured by a white light interferometer, which is limited by the size of the components. Using a moulding method of surfaces that are difficult to reach, an imprint is taken and analysed regarding to roughness and structure. This moulding compound method is successfully used in dental technology. In optical production, the moulding compound method is advantageous in roughness determination in inaccessible spots or on large components (astrological optics). The "replica method" has been around in metal analysis and processing. Film is used in order to take an impression of a surface. Then, it is analysed for structures. In optical production, compound moulding seems advantageous in roughness determination in inaccessible spots or on large components (astrological optics). In preliminary trials, different glass samples with different roughness levels were manufactured. Imprints were taken from these samples (based on DIN 54150 "Abdruckverfahren für die Oberflächenprüfung"). The objective of these feasibility tests was to determine the limits of this method (smallest roughness determinable / highest roughness). The roughness of the imprint was compared with the roughness of the glass samples. By comparing the results, the uncertainty of the measuring method was determined. The spectrum for the trials ranged from rough grind (0.8 μm rms), over finishing grind (0.6 μm rms) to polishing (0.1 μm rms).

  11. New laboratory methods to study tooth surface coverage and interproximal plaque control by dentifrice products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Herles, Susan M; Barnes, Virginia M

    2004-01-01

    To develop and test an in vitro tooth model for use in conjunction with laboratory methods to study interproximal effects and efficacy of dentifrices. The application of the model should offer visual evaluation of dentifrice coverage of the tooth surface, and measure dental plaque control at posterior interdental spaces with a dentifrice. The dentifrice products tested with the model were: Colgate Total 2 in 1 Toothpaste and Mouthwash (CTTM), Colgate Total dentifrice (CTD), and Colgate Regular dentifrice (CRD). Extracted human posterior teeth were disinfected, cleaned, aligned, and mounted in denture acrylic. In the area coverage method, tooth surface coverage and penetration of two different forms of dentifrice products (CTTM and CRD) were compared using digital photography. In the interproximal plaque control method, the teeth were coated with human saliva and incubated anaerobically with a mixture of representative oral bacteria for six hours at 37 degrees C. In vitro dental plaque was assessed after brushing the facial surface with one of the three dentifrice products using a clinical plaque scoring index. The area coverage method demonstrated that both dentifrice products tested covered approximately 70% of the facial tooth surface; the CTTM dentifrice coverage on the lingual tooth surface was significantly higher than the coverage for the CRD dentifrice. With the interproximal plaque control method, in the presence of an active ingredient, the CTTM dentifrice had equivalent efficacy to the CTD dentifrice. Both CTTM and CTD were significantly superior to the CRD for interproximal dental plaque control. Using the developed tooth model, two assessment methods have been shown to have the potential to demonstrate tooth surface coverage, and to assess the potential efficacy of a dentifrice for the control of interproximal dental plaque. This process can indicate potential clinical evaluation of an oral care product, and support clinical findings with controlled

  12. Method to conjugate polysaccharide antigens to surfaces for the detection of antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Ulrik; Lind, Peter; Riber, Ulla

    2014-11-15

    A new generic method for the conjugation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-derived polysaccharide antigens from gram-negative bacteria has been developed using Salmonella as a model. After removal of lipid A from the LPS by mild acidolysis, the polysaccharide antigen was conjugated to polystyrene microbeads modified with N-alkyl hydroxylamine and N-alkyl-O-methyl hydroxylamine surface groups by incubation of antigen and beads for 16 h at 40 °C without the need for coupling agents. The efficiency of the new method was evaluated by flow cytometry in model samples and serum samples containing antibodies against Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella dublin. The presented method was compared with a similar method for conjugation of Salmonella polysaccharide antigens to surfaces. Here, the new method showed higher antigen coupling efficiency by detecting low concentrations of antibodies. Furthermore, the polysaccharide-conjugated beads showed preserved bioactivity after 1 year of use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Environmental Surface Modification Methods on Physical Properties of Hemp Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigar MERDAN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, hemp fibers have been pre-treated with laccase enzyme in different concentrations (1%, 2% and 3% w/v for different durations using conventional, ultrasonic energy and microwave energy methods. Weight loss (%, tensile strength, elongation (%, whiteness (%, and surface topography (SEM properties of pre-treated hemp fibers were investigated. After processing with laccase enzyme, the energy consumptions of these three methods were compared. Best results have been obtained in 20 minutes with the conventional method, 5 minutes with the ultrasonic energy method, and 1 minute with the microwave energy method. With laccase enzyme, microwave treated hemp fibers were improved after 3 minutes treatment. SEM results have also proved the improved physical properties and color changes due to the rough surface structure. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.4.17469

  14. A novel technique for including surface tension in PLIC-VOF methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, M.; Yadigaroglu, G. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Nuclear Engineering Lab. ETH-Zentrum, CLT, Zurich (Switzerland); Smith, B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. for Thermal-Hydraulics

    2002-02-01

    Various versions of Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) methods have been used successfully for the numerical simulation of gas-liquid flows with an explicit tracking of the phase interface. Of these, Piecewise-Linear Interface Construction (PLIC-VOF) appears as a fairly accurate, although somewhat more involved variant. Including effects due to surface tension remains a problem, however. The most prominent methods, Continuum Surface Force (CSF) of Brackbill et al. and the method of Zaleski and co-workers (both referenced later), both induce spurious or 'parasitic' currents, and only moderate accuracy in regards to determining the curvature. We present here a new method to determine curvature accurately using an estimator function, which is tuned with a least-squares-fit against reference data. Furthermore, we show how spurious currents may be drastically reduced using the reconstructed interfaces from the PLIC-VOF method. (authors)

  15. A NEW HIGH RESOLUTION OPTICAL METHOD FOR OBTAINING THE TOPOGRAPHY OF FRACTURE SURFACES IN ROCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Ogilvie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness plays a major role in the movement of fluids through fracture systems. Fracture surface profiling is necessary to tune the properties of numerical fractures required in fluid flow modelling to those of real rock fractures. This is achieved using a variety of (i mechanical and (ii optical techniques. Stylus profilometry is a popularly used mechanical method and can measure surface heights with high precision, but only gives a good horizontal resolution in one direction on the fracture plane. This method is also expensive and simultaneous coverage of the surface is not possible. Here, we describe the development of an optical method which images cast copies of rough rock fractures using in-house developed hardware and image analysis software (OptiProf™ that incorporates image improvement and noise suppression features. This technique images at high resolutions, 15-200 μm for imaged areas of 10 × 7.5 mm and 100 × 133 mm, respectively and a similar vertical resolution (15 μm for a maximum topography of 4 mm. It uses in-house developed hardware and image analysis (OptiProf™ software and is cheap and non-destructive, providing continuous coverage of the fracture surface. The fracture models are covered with dye and fluid thicknesses above the rough surfaces converted into topographies using the Lambert-Beer Law. The dye is calibrated using 2 devices with accurately known thickness; (i a polycarbonate tile with wells of different depths and (ii a wedge-shaped vial made from silica glass. The data from each of the two surfaces can be combined to provide an aperture map of the fracture for the scenario where the surfaces touch at a single point or any greater mean aperture. The topography and aperture maps are used to provide data for the generation of synthetic fractures, tuned to the original fracture and used in numerical flow modelling.

  16. A Novel Method for Surface Defect Detection of Photovoltaic Module Based on Independent Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewu Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a new method for surface defect detection of photovoltaic module based on independent component analysis (ICA reconstruction algorithm. Firstly, a faultless image is used as the training image. The demixing matrix and corresponding ICs are obtained by applying the ICA in the training image. Then we reorder the ICs according to the range values and reform the de-mixing matrix. Then the reformed de-mixing matrix is used to reconstruct the defect image. The resulting image can remove the background structures and enhance the local anomalies. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method can effectively detect the presence of defects in periodically patterned surfaces.

  17. Spectral analysis of surface waves method to assess shear wave velocity within centrifuge models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Carol Andrea; Thorel, Luc; Caicedo, Bernardo

    2009-06-01

    The method of the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is tested out on reduced scale centrifuge models, with a specific device, called the mini Falling Weight, developed for this purpose. Tests are performed on layered materials made of a mixture of sand and clay. The shear wave velocity VS determined within the models using the SASW is compared with the laboratory measurements carried out using the bender element test. The results show that the SASW technique applied to centrifuge testing is a relevant method to characterize VS near the surface.

  18. Methods for generation of reporter phages and immobilization of active bacteriophages on a polymer surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Mark Thomas (Inventor); Kothapalli, Aparna (Inventor); Applegate, Bruce Michael (Inventor); Perry, Lynda Louise (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Novel reporter bacteriophages are provided. Provided are compositions and methods that allow bacteriophages that are used for specific detection or killing of E. coli 0157:H7 to be propagated in nonpathogenic E. coli, thereby eliminating the safety and security risks of propagation in E. coli 0157:H7. Provided are compositions and methods for attaching active bacteriophages to the surface of a polymer in order to kill target bacteria with which the phage comes into contact. Provided are modified bacteriophages immobilized to a surface, which capture E. coli 0157:H7 and cause the captured cells to emit light or fluorescence, allowing detection of the bacteria in a sample.

  19. Finite element method for starved hydrodynamic lubrication with film separation and free surface effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Vølund, Anders; Klit, Peder

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a numerical method for determining the evolution of lubricant film thickness and pressure in partially and fully flooded regions of a hydrodynamic contact between two non-conformal rigid surfaces. The proposed method accounts for the classical Reynolds equation within the fully...... thickness is zero. Both pressure and film thickness fields are considered as unknowns to solve for in each time step and they are approximated through quadratic B-spline finite elements. The geometry of the gap between the rigid surfaces delimiting the lubricant is accounted for in the form of a unilateral...

  20. DigiWarp: a method for deformable mouse atlas warping to surface topographic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Anand A; Shattuck, David W; Toga, Arthur W [Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Chaudhari, Abhijit J [Department of Radiology, UC Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Li Changqing; Cherry, Simon R [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Dutta, Joyita; Leahy, Richard M, E-mail: anand.joshi@loni.ucla.ed, E-mail: leahy@sipi.usc.ed [Signal and Image Processing Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States)

    2010-10-21

    For pre-clinical bioluminescence or fluorescence optical tomography, the animal's surface topography and internal anatomy need to be estimated for improving the quantitative accuracy of reconstructed images. The animal's surface profile can be measured by all-optical systems, but estimation of the internal anatomy using optical techniques is non-trivial. A 3D anatomical mouse atlas may be warped to the estimated surface. However, fitting an atlas to surface topography data is challenging because of variations in the posture and morphology of imaged mice. In addition, acquisition of partial data (for example, from limited views or with limited sampling) can make the warping problem ill-conditioned. Here, we present a method for fitting a deformable mouse atlas to surface topographic range data acquired by an optical system. As an initialization procedure, we match the posture of the atlas to the posture of the mouse being imaged using landmark constraints. The asymmetric L{sup 2} pseudo-distance between the atlas surface and the mouse surface is then minimized in order to register two data sets. A Laplacian prior is used to ensure smoothness of the surface warping field. Once the atlas surface is normalized to match the range data, the internal anatomy is transformed using elastic energy minimization. We present results from performance evaluation studies of our method where we have measured the volumetric overlap between the internal organs delineated directly from MRI or CT and those estimated by our proposed warping scheme. Computed Dice coefficients indicate excellent overlap in the brain and the heart, with fair agreement in the kidneys and the bladder.

  1. DigiWarp: a method for deformable mouse atlas warping to surface topographic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Anand A; Shattuck, David W; Toga, Arthur W; Chaudhari, Abhijit J; Li Changqing; Cherry, Simon R; Dutta, Joyita; Leahy, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    For pre-clinical bioluminescence or fluorescence optical tomography, the animal's surface topography and internal anatomy need to be estimated for improving the quantitative accuracy of reconstructed images. The animal's surface profile can be measured by all-optical systems, but estimation of the internal anatomy using optical techniques is non-trivial. A 3D anatomical mouse atlas may be warped to the estimated surface. However, fitting an atlas to surface topography data is challenging because of variations in the posture and morphology of imaged mice. In addition, acquisition of partial data (for example, from limited views or with limited sampling) can make the warping problem ill-conditioned. Here, we present a method for fitting a deformable mouse atlas to surface topographic range data acquired by an optical system. As an initialization procedure, we match the posture of the atlas to the posture of the mouse being imaged using landmark constraints. The asymmetric L 2 pseudo-distance between the atlas surface and the mouse surface is then minimized in order to register two data sets. A Laplacian prior is used to ensure smoothness of the surface warping field. Once the atlas surface is normalized to match the range data, the internal anatomy is transformed using elastic energy minimization. We present results from performance evaluation studies of our method where we have measured the volumetric overlap between the internal organs delineated directly from MRI or CT and those estimated by our proposed warping scheme. Computed Dice coefficients indicate excellent overlap in the brain and the heart, with fair agreement in the kidneys and the bladder.

  2. Surface Modification of Ceramic Membranes with Thin-film Deposition Methods for Wastewater Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Jahangir, Daniyal

    2017-12-01

    Membrane fouling, which is caused by deposition/adsorption of foulants on the surface or within membrane pores, still remains a bottleneck that hampers the widespread application of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for wastewater treatment. Recently membrane surface modification has proved to be a useful method in water/wastewater treatment to improve the surface hydrophilicity of membranes to obtain higher water fluxes and to reduce fouling. In this study, membrane modification was investigated by depositing a thin film of same thickness of TiO2 on the surface of an ultrafiltration alumina membrane. Various thin-film deposition (TFD) methods were employed, i.e. electron-beam evaporation, sputter and atomic layer deposition (ALD), and a comparative study of the methods was conducted to assess fouling inhibition performance in a lab-scale anaerobic MBR (AnMBR) fed with synthetic municipal wastewater. Thorough surface characterization of all modified membranes was carried out along with clean water permeability (CWP) tests and fouling behavior by bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption tests. The study showed better fouling inhibition performance of all modified membranes; however the effect varied due to different surface characteristics obtained by different deposition methods. As a result, ALD-modified membrane showed a superior status in terms of surface characteristics and fouling inhibition performance in AnMBR filtration tests. Hence ALD was determined to be the best TFD method for alumina membrane surface modification for this study. ALD-modified membranes were further characterized to determine an optimum thickness of TiO2-film by applying different ALD cycles. ALD treatment significantly improved the surface hydrophilicity of the unmodified membrane. Also ALD-TiO2 modification was observed to reduce the surface roughness of original alumina membrane, which in turn enhanced the anti-fouling properties of modified membranes. Finally, a same thickness of ALD

  3. 3D automatic segmentation method for retinal optical coherence tomography volume data using boundary surface enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankui Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, much larger image datasets are routinely acquired compared to what was possible using the previous generation of time-domain OCT. Thus, there is a critical need for the development of three-dimensional (3D segmentation methods for processing these data. We present here a novel 3D automatic segmentation method for retinal OCT volume data. Briefly, to segment a boundary surface, two OCT volume datasets are obtained by using a 3D smoothing filter and a 3D differential filter. Their linear combination is then calculated to generate new volume data with an enhanced boundary surface, where pixel intensity, boundary position information, and intensity changes on both sides of the boundary surface are used simultaneously. Next, preliminary discrete boundary points are detected from the A-Scans of the volume data. Finally, surface smoothness constraints and a dynamic threshold are applied to obtain a smoothed boundary surface by correcting a small number of error points. Our method can extract retinal layer boundary surfaces sequentially with a decreasing search region of volume data. We performed automatic segmentation on eight human OCT volume datasets acquired from a commercial Spectralis OCT system, where each volume of datasets contains 97 OCT B-Scan images with a resolution of 496×512 (each B-Scan comprising 512 A-Scans containing 496 pixels; experimental results show that this method can accurately segment seven layer boundary surfaces in normal as well as some abnormal eyes.

  4. Comparison of two perturbation methods to estimate the land surface modeling uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H.; Houser, P.; Tian, Y.; Kumar, S.; Geiger, J.; Belvedere, D.

    2007-12-01

    In land surface modeling, it is almost impossible to simulate the land surface processes without any error because the earth system is highly complex and the physics of the land processes has not yet been understood sufficiently. In most cases, people want to know not only the model output but also the uncertainty in the modeling, to estimate how reliable the modeling is. Ensemble perturbation is an effective way to estimate the uncertainty in land surface modeling, since land surface models are highly nonlinear which makes the analytical approach not applicable in this estimation. The ideal perturbation noise is zero mean Gaussian distribution, however, this requirement can't be satisfied if the perturbed variables in land surface model have physical boundaries because part of the perturbation noises has to be removed to feed the land surface models properly. Two different perturbation methods are employed in our study to investigate their impact on quantifying land surface modeling uncertainty base on the Land Information System (LIS) framework developed by NASA/GSFC land team. One perturbation method is the built-in algorithm named "STATIC" in LIS version 5; the other is a new perturbation algorithm which was recently developed to minimize the overall bias in the perturbation by incorporating additional information from the whole time series for the perturbed variable. The statistical properties of the perturbation noise generated by the two different algorithms are investigated thoroughly by using a large ensemble size on a NASA supercomputer and then the corresponding uncertainty estimates based on the two perturbation methods are compared. Their further impacts on data assimilation are also discussed. Finally, an optimal perturbation method is suggested.

  5. Fahrstuhlfahrten und Einstiegsschwierigkeiten. Erschließungstechniken in Georges Perecs »La Vie mode d’emploi«

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanne Mohs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Der Artikel ist eine produktionsästhetische Untersuchung zu Einstiegsschwierigkeiten in literarische Schreibprozesse und ihre Auflösung mithilfe räumlicher und sprachspielerischer Erschließungstechniken. Als Beispiel dient mir die Poetik des OuLiPo (»Ouvroir de littérature potentielle« und hier insbesondere (die Genese von Georges Perecs Roman »La vie mode d’emploi«. Genauer wird daran gezeigt, wie Perec eine blockierte Fahrstuhlfahrt als metaphorische Referenz auf seine anfängliche Schreibhemmung in den Roman einfügt und wie diese Referenz als Kommentar zur Erzählbarkeit komplexer Raum-Zeit-Gefüge im Gesellschaftsroman des 20. Jahrhunderts, insbesondere zu Marcel Prousts »Recherche«, verstanden werden kann.

  6. William Grossin, J’ai connu le Moyen-Âge. Récit de vie : enfance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Gadea

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available À côté de son œuvre scientifique, William Grossin a publié une série de livres relevant de divers genres : plusieurs romans, des poèmes satiriques et un récit de vie évoquant son enfance. Avec un peu d’attention, on pourra reconnaître dans chacun d’eux la « touche » d’un auteur tardif mais productif. Il y a d’abord  son style : travaillé, nerveux, vivant, sobre et même un peu austère mais sans excès, comme certains Vouvray secs. Les mots sont choisis avec soin, à tel point que les phrases com...

  7. Pirminio akcijų viešojo siūlymo sandorių efektyvumo analizė

    OpenAIRE

    Cibulskienė, Diana; Grigaliūnienė, Žana; Petrauskienė, Daiva

    2009-01-01

    Nuo XX a. 9-ojo dešimtmečio vis labiau populiarėjančiu kapitalo pritraukimo būdu tampa įmonių išėjimas į atvirą vertybinių popierių rinką. Sėkmingai įvykdytas pirminis akcijų viešas siūlymas (angl. IPO – Initial Public Offering) (toliau – IPO) vertybinių popierių biržose garantuoja emitentams dideles papildomo nuosavo kapitalo įplaukas, taip pat suteikia ir kai kuriuos kitus privalumus: įmonės gali tikėtis stabilaus jų akcijų kainų kilimo, geresnių kreditavimo sąlygų, strateginių sutarčių pas...

  8. Improved Techniques for Low-Flux Measurement of Prompt Neutron Lifetime, Conversion Ratio and Fast Spectra; Methodes Perfectionnees de Mesure de la Duree de Vie des Neutrons Instantanes, du Rapport de Conversion et des Spectres de Neutrons Rapides, dans un Reacteur a Bas Flux; Usovershenstvovannye metody izmereniya vremeni zhizni mgnovennykh nejtronov, koehffitsienta konversii i spektra bystrykh nejtronov pri slabykh potokakh nejtronov; Tecnicas Perfeccionadas para la Determinacion del Periodo de los Neutrones Inmediatos, la Razon de Conversion y los Espectros de Neutrones Rapidos, con Flujos Reducidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armani, R. J.; Bennett, E. F.; Brenner, M. W.; Bretscher, M. M.; Cohn, C. E.; Huber, R. J.; Kaufmann, S. G.; Redman, W. C. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1964-02-15

    been concentrated on the use of pulse shape analysis to reject gamma-ray initiated events in hydrogen recoil proportional counters and the introduction of collimation in Li{sup 6}F solid-state detector ''sandwiches'' to improve the resolution obtained. A number of such instruments have been built and their response to mono-kinetic and reactor neutrons has been investigated. Use of the gamma-ray rejection technique was equivalent to a several hundred-fold effective reduction in gamma-ray sensitivity of the recoil counter and extends the usable range down to at least 30 keV. For the Li{sup 6} solid-state devices, resolutions as low as 70 keV full-width at half maximum (1.5%) have been observed for the sum pulse in thermal neutron irradiation. (author) [French] Dans le programme des reacteurs de puissance zero, on a utilise diverses methodes statistiques pour mesurer le rapport duree de vie des neutrons instantanes/duree de vie des neutrons differes. Les auteurs ont mis au point une methode nouvelle, qui consiste a analyser le bruit du reacteur a l'aide d'un filtre passe-bande, et ont perfectionne d'autres methodes telles que la mesure, a l'aide d'un compteur a impulsions, de la frequence des coincidences retardees en fonction du temps de retard et celle de la variance relative des flux de neutrons integres en fonction du temps d'integration. Ils ont etudie les domaines dans lesquels les differentes methodes peuvent etre utilisees avec le plus d'interet. II se sont aussi preoccupes de l'interpretation des resultats de ces mesures, et montrent que l'interpretation fondee sur un modele cinetique simple peut s'appliquer dans la pratique a une grande diversite de cas. Les auteurs decrivent plusieurs perfectionnements de leur methode d'activation pour la determination du rapport de conversion: application de techniques chimiques tres sensibles pour confirmer les resultats obtenus; correction pour les coups parasites en utilisant, dans la determination de la capture, des

  9. Analysis of the trajectory surface hopping method from the Markov state model perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, Alexey V.; Wang, Linjun; Prezhdo, Oleg V.; Trivedi, Dhara

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the applicability of the seminal fewest switches surface hopping (FSSH) method of Tully to modeling quantum transitions between electronic states that are not coupled directly, in the processes such as Auger recombination. We address the known deficiency of the method to describe such transitions by introducing an alternative definition for the surface hopping probabilities, as derived from the Markov state model perspective. We show that the resulting transition probabilities simplify to the quantum state populations derived from the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, reducing to the rapidly switching surface hopping approach of Tully and Preston. The resulting surface hopping scheme is simple and appeals to the fundamentals of quantum mechanics. The computational approach is similar to the FSSH method of Tully, yet it leads to a notably different performance. We demonstrate that the method is particularly accurate when applied to superexchange modeling. We further show improved accuracy of the method, when applied to one of the standard test problems. Finally, we adapt the derived scheme to atomistic simulation, combine it with the time-domain density functional theory, and show that it provides the Auger energy transfer timescales which are in good agreement with experiment, significantly improving upon other considered techniques. (author)

  10. Influence of different manipulation methods on surface roughness of auto polymerized acrylic resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Borges Retamoso

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness of acrylic resin according to the manipulation method.Methods: Sixty specimens were randomly divided into four groups (n=15 according to the manipulation method: G1 - addition with pressure, G2 - addition without pressure, G3 - mass with pressure and G4 - mass without pressure. After resin polymerization, all specimens were submitted to finishing with abrasive paper and mechanical polishing. Topographical surface analysis surfaces was performed twice on each sample using the rugosimeter. Results: The results were statistically analyzed and means were: G1 - 0,130μm; G2 - 0,120μm, G3 - 0,218μm e G4 - 0,192μm. ANOVA for one criterion and the Tukey test showed significant difference between G1 and G3, G2 and G3, G2 and G4. Conclusion: The manipulation method seems to affect the physical characteristics of auto polymerized acrylic resin. The addition manipulation method decreased the surface roughness.

  11. Lightweight hull surface self-design vertical parameterization method based on NURBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yanru

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] At present, conventional design is limited to parent ship design space, and cannot drive ship hull design using as few parameters as possible. In order to solve the above problems, [Methods] by combining the draught function with NURBS, a ship hull surface self-design method based on vertical parameterization is proposed. In this method, the waterline is designated as the basic design unit; the bottom flat end line, designed waterline, stem and stern contours, side flat end line and maximum section line are designated as the characteristic constraints of the ship hull; and the draught function values corresponding to the characteristic parameters are designated as the design objectives. In this way, a waterline approximation model is built, and an evolutionary algorithm can be used to solve the approximation model. Finally, the ship hull surface is generated on the basis of the waterline using the NURBS skinning technique.[Results] The design examples of the characteristic curves of the full-scale ship hull surface indicate the practicable and advanced nature of this method.[Conclusions] The hull surface can be designed with as little data as possible using this method, making it much more suitable for the self-design of new ship forms.

  12. Safety evaluation of an acai-fortified fruit and berry functional juice beverage (MonaVie Active®)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauss, Alexander G.; Clewell, Amy; Balogh, Lajos; Szakonyi, Ilona Pasics; Financsek, Istvan; Horvath, Janos; Thuroczy, Julianna; Beres, Erzsebet; Vertesi, Adel; Hirka, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    The safety of an acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp enriched fruit and berry juice, MonaVie Active ® , fortified with the functional ingredient, glucosamine, was studied. The beverage was found not to be mutagenic, clastogenic, cytotoxic, or genotoxic, as determined by the bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosomal aberration assay, mouse micronucleus assay, and mammalian cell gene mutation (L5178Y) assay. The single dose LD50 based on a 14-day acute oral toxicity study is greater than 20,000 mg/kg bw, the highest dose tested. In a repeat dose 90-day oral subchronic toxicity study by gavage, 220 animals were randomly assigned to a control group, an untreated group, or one of three experimental groups (10, 20 and 40 g/kg bw). No treatment-related significant changes in body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmology, organ weights, urinanalysis, hematological and clinical chemistry, or gross pathology, were observed in surviving animals compared to the control groups. Three animals died midway through the observation period (male, 20 g/kg bw/day; male 40 g/kg bw/day; and, female, 10 g/kg bw/day). These animals died without preceding clinical symptoms, histopathological lesions, or evidence of injury to tissue or organs except for signs of suffocation/aspiration congestion, which was concluded to be due to problems with the gavage administration of the fluid test article, and not due to the test article itself. The NOEAL was determined to be 40 g/kg bw/day for male and female rats, which was the highest dose tested. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) content averaged 21.7 μg/100 g, comparable to amounts found in iceberg lettuce. In conclusion, the results provide additional experimental evidence that MonaVie Active ® juice is non-toxic.

  13. A Strontium-Modified Titanium Surface Produced by a New Method and Its Biocompatibility In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chundong Liu

    Full Text Available To present a new and effective method of producing titanium surfaces modified with strontium and to investigate the surface characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of titanium (Ti surfaces modified with strontium (Sr for bone implant applications.Sr-modified Ti surfaces were produced by sequential treatments with NaOH, strontium acetate, heat and water. The surface characteristics and the concentration of the Sr ions released from the samples were examined. Cell adhesion, morphology and growth were investigated using osteoblasts isolated from the calvaria of neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. Expression of osteogenesis-related genes and proteins was examined to assess the effect of the Sr-modified Ti surfaces on osteoblasts.The modified titanium surface had a mesh structure with significantly greater porosity, and approximately5.37±0.35at.% of Sr was incorporated into the surface. The hydrophilicity was enhanced by the incorporation of Sr ions and water treatment. The average amounts of Sr released from the Sr-modified plates subjected to water treatment were slight higher than the plates without water treatment. Sr promoted cellular adhesion, spreading and growth compared with untreated Ti surfaces. The Sr-modified Ti plates also promoted expression of osteogenesis-related genes,and expression of OPN and COL-І by osteoblasts. Ti plates heat treated at 700°C showed increased bioactivity in comparison with those treated at 600°C. Water treatment upregulated the expression of osteogenesis-related genes.These results show that Sr-modification of Ti surfaces may improve bioactivity in vitro. Water treatment has enhanced the response of osteoblasts. The Sr-modified Ti heat-treated at 700°C exhibited better bioactivity compared with that heated at 600°C.

  14. A Strontium-Modified Titanium Surface Produced by a New Method and Its Biocompatibility In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chundong; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Lichao; Zhang, Xinhua; Chen, Qiuyue; Wu, Buling

    2015-01-01

    To present a new and effective method of producing titanium surfaces modified with strontium and to investigate the surface characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of titanium (Ti) surfaces modified with strontium (Sr) for bone implant applications. Sr-modified Ti surfaces were produced by sequential treatments with NaOH, strontium acetate, heat and water. The surface characteristics and the concentration of the Sr ions released from the samples were examined. Cell adhesion, morphology and growth were investigated using osteoblasts isolated from the calvaria of neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. Expression of osteogenesis-related genes and proteins was examined to assess the effect of the Sr-modified Ti surfaces on osteoblasts. The modified titanium surface had a mesh structure with significantly greater porosity, and approximately5.37±0.35at.% of Sr was incorporated into the surface. The hydrophilicity was enhanced by the incorporation of Sr ions and water treatment. The average amounts of Sr released from the Sr-modified plates subjected to water treatment were slight higher than the plates without water treatment. Sr promoted cellular adhesion, spreading and growth compared with untreated Ti surfaces. The Sr-modified Ti plates also promoted expression of osteogenesis-related genes,and expression of OPN and COL-І by osteoblasts. Ti plates heat treated at 700°C showed increased bioactivity in comparison with those treated at 600°C. Water treatment upregulated the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. These results show that Sr-modification of Ti surfaces may improve bioactivity in vitro. Water treatment has enhanced the response of osteoblasts. The Sr-modified Ti heat-treated at 700°C exhibited better bioactivity compared with that heated at 600°C.

  15. Modelling and investigation of partial wetting surfaces for drop dynamics using lattice Boltzmann method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pravinraj, T., E-mail: pravinraj1711@gmail.com; Patrikar, Rajendra

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • A LBM model on partial wetting surface for droplet dynamics is presented by introducing a simple initial partial wetting boundary condition in SC model. • With our approach one can tune the splitting volume and time by carefully choosing strip width and position. • It is shown that the droplet spreading on chemically heterogeneous surfaces can be controlled not only by Weber number but also by tuning strip width ratio. • The directional transportation of a droplet due to chemical wetting gradient is simulated and analyzed using hybrid thermodynamic-image processing technique. • Microstructure surface and its influence on the directional wetting based transportation of droplet are demonstrated. - Abstract: Partial wetting surfaces and its influence on the droplet movement of micro and nano scale being contemplated for many useful applications. The dynamics of the droplet usually analyzed with a multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). In this paper, the influence of partial wetting surface on the dynamics of droplet is systematically analyzed for various cases. Splitting of droplets due to chemical gradient of the surface is studied and analyses of splitting time for various widths of the strips for different Weber numbers are computed. With the proposed model one can tune the splitting volume and time by carefully choosing a strip width and droplet position. The droplet spreading on chemically heterogeneous surfaces shows that the spreading can be controlled not only by parameters of Weber number but also by tuning strip width ratio. The transportation of the droplet from hydrophobic surface to hydrophilic surface due to chemical gradient is simulated and analyzed using our hybrid thermodynamic-image processing technique. The results prove that with the progress of time the surface free energy decreases with increase in spreading area. Finally, the transportation of a droplet on microstructure gradient is demonstrated. The model explains

  16. Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates Made by Oblique Angle Deposition: Methods and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hin On Chu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy presents a rapid, non-destructive method to identify chemical and biological samples with up to single molecule sensitivity. Since its discovery in 1974, the technique has become an intense field of interdisciplinary research, typically generating >2000 publications per year since 2011. The technique relies on the localised surface plasmon resonance phenomenon, where incident light can couple with plasmons at the interface that result in the generation of an intense electric field. This field can propagate from the surface from the metal-dielectric interface, so molecules within proximity will experience more intense Raman scattering. Localised surface plasmon resonance wavelength is determined by a number of factors, such as size, geometry and material. Due to the requirements of the surface optical response, Ag and Au are typical metals used for surface enhanced Raman applications. These metals then need to have nano features that improve the localised surface plasmon resonance, several variants of these substrates exist; surfaces can range from nanoparticles in a suspension, electrochemically roughened electrodes to metal nanostructures on a substrate. The latter will be the focus of this review, particularly reviewing substrates made by oblique angle deposition. Oblique angle deposition is the technique of growing thin films so that the material flux is not normal to the surface. Films grown in this fashion will possess nanostructures, due to the atomic self-shadowing effect, that are dependent mainly on the deposition angle. Recent developments, applications and highlights of surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates made by oblique angle deposition will be reviewed.

  17. Investigation on multi-objective performance optimization algorithm application of fan based on response surface method and entropy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wu, Kexin; Liu, Yang

    2017-12-01

    A multi-objective performance optimization method is proposed, and the problem that single structural parameters of small fan balance the optimization between the static characteristics and the aerodynamic noise is solved. In this method, three structural parameters are selected as the optimization variables. Besides, the static pressure efficiency and the aerodynamic noise of the fan are regarded as the multi-objective performance. Furthermore, the response surface method and the entropy method are used to establish the optimization function between the optimization variables and the multi-objective performances. Finally, the optimized model is found when the optimization function reaches its maximum value. Experimental data shows that the optimized model not only enhances the static characteristics of the fan but also obviously reduces the noise. The results of the study will provide some reference for the optimization of multi-objective performance of other types of rotating machinery.

  18. Methods of improvement in hardness of composite surface layer on cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of usable properties of surface layers improvement of cast carbon steel 200–450, by put directly in founding process a composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy and next its remelting with use of welding technology TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas. Technology of composite surface layer guarantee mainly increase in hardness and abrasive wear resistance of cast steel castings on machine elements. This technology can be competition for generally applied welding technology (surfacing by welding and thermal spraying. However the results of studies show, that is possible to connection of both methods founding and welding of surface hardening of cast steel castings. In range of experimental plan was made test castings with composite surface layer, which next were remelted with energy 0,8 and 1,6 kJ/cm. Usability for industrial applications of test castings was estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

  19. Method of surface error visualization using laser 3D projection technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lili; Li, Lijuan; Lin, Xuezhu

    2017-10-01

    In the process of manufacturing large components, such as aerospace, automobile and shipping industry, some important mold or stamped metal plate requires precise forming on the surface, which usually needs to be verified, if necessary, the surface needs to be corrected and reprocessed. In order to make the correction of the machined surface more convenient, this paper proposes a method based on Laser 3D projection system, this method uses the contour form of terrain contour, directly showing the deviation between the actually measured data and the theoretical mathematical model (CAD) on the measured surface. First, measure the machined surface to get the point cloud data and the formation of triangular mesh; secondly, through coordinate transformation, unify the point cloud data to the theoretical model and calculate the three-dimensional deviation, according to the sign (positive or negative) and size of the deviation, use the color deviation band to denote the deviation of three-dimensional; then, use three-dimensional contour lines to draw and represent every coordinates deviation band, creating the projection files; finally, import the projection files into the laser projector, and make the contour line projected to the processed file with 1:1 in the form of a laser beam, compare the Full-color 3D deviation map with the projection graph, then, locate and make quantitative correction to meet the processing precision requirements. It can display the trend of the machined surface deviation clearly.

  20. Soil surface roughness: comparing old and new measuring methods and application in a soil erosion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, L. M.; Baartman, J. E. M.; Barneveld, R. J.; Starkloff, T.; Stolte, J.

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of soil roughness, i.e. the irregularities of the soil surface due to soil texture, aggregates, rock fragments and land management, is important as it affects surface storage, infiltration, overland flow, and ultimately sediment detachment and erosion. Roughness has been measured in the field using both contact methods (such as roller chain and pinboard) and sensor methods (such as stereophotogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS)). A novel depth-sensing technique, originating in the gaming industry, has recently become available for earth sciences: the Xtion Pro method. Roughness data obtained using various methods are assumed to be similar; this assumption is tested in this study by comparing five different methods to measure roughness in the field on 1 m2 agricultural plots with different management (ploughing, harrowing, forest and direct seeding on stubble) in southern Norway. Subsequently, the values were used as input for the LISEM soil erosion model to test their effect on the simulated hydrograph at catchment scale. Results show that statistically significant differences between the methods were obtained only for the fields with direct seeding on stubble; for the other land management types the methods were in agreement. The spatial resolution of the contact methods was much lower than for the sensor methods (10 000 versus at least 57 000 points per square metre). In terms of costs and ease of use in the field, the Xtion Pro method is promising. Results from the LISEM model indicate that especially the roller chain overestimated the random roughness (RR) values and the model subsequently calculated less surface runoff than measured. In conclusion, the choice of measurement method for roughness data matters and depends on the required accuracy, resolution, mobility in the field and available budget. It is recommended to use only one method within one study.

  1. An Evaluation of Fractal Surface Measurement Methods for Characterizing Landscape Complexity from Remote-Sensing Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nina Siu-Ngan; Qiu, Hong-Lie; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Emerson, Charles W.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The rapid increase in digital data volumes from new and existing sensors necessitates the need for efficient analytical tools for extracting information. We developed an integrated software package called ICAMS (Image Characterization and Modeling System) to provide specialized spatial analytical functions for interpreting remote sensing data. This paper evaluates the three fractal dimension measurement methods: isarithm, variogram, and triangular prism, along with the spatial autocorrelation measurement methods Moran's I and Geary's C, that have been implemented in ICAMS. A modified triangular prism method was proposed and implemented. Results from analyzing 25 simulated surfaces having known fractal dimensions show that both the isarithm and triangular prism methods can accurately measure a range of fractal surfaces. The triangular prism method is most accurate at estimating the fractal dimension of higher spatial complexity, but it is sensitive to contrast stretching. The variogram method is a comparatively poor estimator for all of the surfaces, particularly those with higher fractal dimensions. Similar to the fractal techniques, the spatial autocorrelation techniques are found to be useful to measure complex images but not images with low dimensionality. These fractal measurement methods can be applied directly to unclassified images and could serve as a tool for change detection and data mining.

  2. Improvement of gas entrainment prediction method. Introduction of surface tension effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kei; Sakai, Takaaki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Uchibori, Akihiro; Eguchi, Yuzuru; Monji, Hideaki; Xu, Yongze

    2010-01-01

    A gas entrainment (GE) prediction method has been developed to establish design criteria for the large-scale sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR) systems. The prototype of the GE prediction method was already confirmed to give reasonable gas core lengths by simple calculation procedures. However, for simplification, the surface tension effects were neglected. In this paper, the evaluation accuracy of gas core lengths is improved by introducing the surface tension effects into the prototype GE prediction method. First, the mechanical balance between gravitational, centrifugal, and surface tension forces is considered. Then, the shape of a gas core tip is approximated by a quadratic function. Finally, using the approximated gas core shape, the authors determine the gas core length satisfying the mechanical balance. This improved GE prediction method is validated by analyzing the gas core lengths observed in simple experiments. Results show that the analytical gas core lengths calculated by the improved GE prediction method become shorter in comparison to the prototype GE prediction method, and are in good agreement with the experimental data. In addition, the experimental data under different temperature and surfactant concentration conditions are reproduced by the improved GE prediction method. (author)

  3. Comparison of optical design methods of freeform surfaces for imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agócs, Tibor

    2015-09-01

    Optical systems based on freeform optical components offer many advantages over conventional systems in imaging applications, e.g. superior image quality, compact and lightweight designs. There are a few well established manufacturing method that can be used for the generation of freeform surfaces with low surface form error and low surface roughness, in the case of freeform mirrors e.g. diamond turning, nickel plating and post-polishing. Metrology is evolving rapidly, although developments are still needed in order to verify the manufactured surface with the necessary accuracy. Optical design methods of freeform surfaces are also lagging behind, many algorithms address non-imaging applications, but in the field of imaging (image-forming) only a few exists and works with various limitations. We compare the available techniques in freeform optical design for imaging and explore the advantages, disadvantages and boundary conditions of the different methods. We also intend to identify the most useful concepts and investigate how they can be embedded into commercially available optical design software.

  4. Evaluation on Dorsey Method in Surface Tension Measurement of Solder Liquids Containing Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingke; Xie, Feiming; Fan, Jinsheng; Liu, Dayong; Huang, Jihua; Chen, Shuhai

    2018-06-01

    With the purpose of developing a feasible approach for measuring the surface tension of solders containing surfactants, the surface tension of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu-xP solder alloys, with various drop sizes as well as different phosphorus (P) content, was evaluated using the Dorsey method based on the sessile drop test. The results show that the accuracy of the surface tension calculations depends on both of sessile drop size and the liquid metal composition. With a proper drop size, in the range of 4.5 mm to 5.3 mm in equivalent spherical diameters, the deviation of the surface tension calculation can be limited to 1.43 mN·m-1 and 6.30 mN·m-1 for SnAgCu and SnAgCu-P, respectively. The surface tension of SnAgCu-xP solder alloys decreases quickly to a minimum value when the P content reaches 0.5 wt% and subsequently increases slowly with the P content further increasing. The formation of a P-enriched surface layer and Sn4P3 intermetallic phases is regarded to be responsible for the decreasing and subsequent increasing of surface tension, respectively.

  5. Modelling and investigation of partial wetting surfaces for drop dynamics using lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravinraj, T.; Patrikar, Rajendra

    2017-07-01

    Partial wetting surfaces and its influence on the droplet movement of micro and nano scale being contemplated for many useful applications. The dynamics of the droplet usually analyzed with a multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). In this paper, the influence of partial wetting surface on the dynamics of droplet is systematically analyzed for various cases. Splitting of droplets due to chemical gradient of the surface is studied and analyses of splitting time for various widths of the strips for different Weber numbers are computed. With the proposed model one can tune the splitting volume and time by carefully choosing a strip width and droplet position. The droplet spreading on chemically heterogeneous surfaces shows that the spreading can be controlled not only by parameters of Weber number but also by tuning strip width ratio. The transportation of the droplet from hydrophobic surface to hydrophilic surface due to chemical gradient is simulated and analyzed using our hybrid thermodynamic-image processing technique. The results prove that with the progress of time the surface free energy decreases with increase in spreading area. Finally, the transportation of a droplet on microstructure gradient is demonstrated. The model explains the temporal behaviour of droplet during the spreading, recoiling and translation along with tracking of contact angle hysteresis phenomenon.

  6. Experimental analysis on removal factor of smear method in measurement of surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Taira, Junichi; Takenaka, Keisuke; Yamanaka, Kazuo; Sugai, Kenji; Kosako, Toshiso

    2007-01-01

    The smear test is one of the important ways to measure surface contamination. The loose contamination under the high background radiation, which is more significant in handling non-sealed radioisotopes, can be evaluated by this method. The removal factor is defined as the ratio of the activity removed from the surface by one smear to the whole activity of the removable surface contamination. The removal factor is greatly changed by the quality and condition of surface materials. In this study, the values of removal factor at several typical surface conditions were evaluated experimentally and the practical application of those values was considered. It is required the smear should be pressed by moderate pressure when wiping the surface. The pressure from 1.0 kg to 1.5 kg per filter paper was recommended. The removal factor showed lower value in wiping by the pressure below 1.0 kg. The value of 0.5 for the removal factor could be applied to the smooth surface of linoleum, concrete coated with paint or epoxy resin, stainless steel and glass with the statistical allowance. (author)

  7. Room temperature Cu-Cu direct bonding using surface activated bonding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.H.; Howlader, M.M.R.; Itoh, T.; Suga, T.

    2003-01-01

    Thin copper (Cu) films of 80 nm thickness deposited on a diffusion barrier layered 8 in. silicon wafers were directly bonded at room temperature using the surface activated bonding method. A low energy Ar ion beam of 40-100 eV was used to activate the Cu surface prior to bonding. Contacting two surface-activated wafers enables successful Cu-Cu direct bonding. The bonding process was carried out under an ultrahigh vacuum condition. No thermal annealing was required to increase the bonding strength since the bonded interface was strong enough at room temperature. The chemical constitution of the Cu surface was examined by Auger electron spectroscope. It was observed that carbon-based contaminations and native oxides on copper surface were effectively removed by Ar ion beam irradiation for 60 s without any wet cleaning processes. An atomic force microscope study shows that the Ar ion beam process causes no surface roughness degradation. Tensile test results show that high bonding strength equivalent to bulk material is achieved at room temperature. The cross-sectional transmission electron microscope observations reveal the presence of void-free bonding interface without intermediate layer at the bonded Cu surfaces

  8. Non-destructive test method of determination of surface defects in objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, C.B.; Sewell, M.H.; Taber, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    In the radiographic method, adsorbed radioactive gas, e.g. krypton 85, is used to determine surface defects such as failures, cracks, and breaks on, e.g. nozzle turbine blades. The surface defects preferably retain the radioactive gas. The defects can be identified by means of a radiographic silver halide emulsion or dispersion made intensive to high energy radiation which is put on the surface or held at a distance to it. Piazine, thiuram disulphide, nitro-1,2,3-benzothiazole or a combination of thiuram disulphide and piazine are amongst others suitable as desensitizing agents. To prevent the adsorbed gases from diffusing out of the defects, the surface can be coated with an insulating mass of e.g. a polymer. The silver halide emulsions are in the form of single, double, or ammoniac emulsions. (DG/LH) [de

  9. An Effective Surface Modeling Method for Car Styling from a Side-View Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIBao-jun; ZHANGXue-fang; LVZhang-quan; QIYi-chao

    2014-01-01

    We introduce an almost-automatic technique for generating 3D car styling surface models based on a single side-view image. Our approach combines the prior knowledge of car styling and deformable curve network model to obtain an automatic modeling process. Firstly, we define the consistent parameterized curve template for 2D and 3D case respectivelyby analyzingthe characteristic lines for car styling. Then, a semi-automatic extraction from a side-view car image is adopted. Thirdly, statistic morphable model of 3D curve network isused to get the initial solution with sparse point constraints.Withonly afew post-processing operations, the optimized curve network models for creating surfaces are obtained. Finally, the styling surfaces are automatically generated using template-based parametric surface modeling method. More than 50 3D curve network models are constructed as the morphable database. We show that this intelligent modeling toolsimplifiesthe exhausted modeling task, and also demonstratemeaningful results of our approach.

  10. Solving eigenvalue problems on curved surfaces using the Closest Point Method

    KAUST Repository

    Macdonald, Colin B.

    2011-06-01

    Eigenvalue problems are fundamental to mathematics and science. We present a simple algorithm for determining eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on rather general curved surfaces. Our algorithm, which is based on the Closest Point Method, relies on an embedding of the surface in a higher-dimensional space, where standard Cartesian finite difference and interpolation schemes can be easily applied. We show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between a problem defined in the embedding space and the original surface problem. For open surfaces, we present a simple way to impose Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions while maintaining second-order accuracy. Convergence studies and a series of examples demonstrate the effectiveness and generality of our approach. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  11. Method of making self-cleaning skin-like prosthetic polymer surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Shibata, Jason

    2017-06-06

    An external covering and method of making an external covering for hiding the internal endoskeleton of a mechanical (e.g., prosthetic) device that exhibits skin-like qualities is provided. The external covering generally comprises an internal bulk layer in contact with the endoskeleton of the prosthetic device and an external skin layer disposed about the internal bulk layer. The external skin layer is comprised of a polymer composite with carbon nanotubes embedded therein. The outer surface of the skin layer has multiple cone-shaped projections that provide the external skin layer with superhydrophobicity. The carbon nanotubes are preferably vertically aligned between the inner surface and outer surface of the external skin layer in order to provide the skin layer with the ability to transmit heat. Superhydrophobic powders may optionally be used as part of the polymer composite or applied as a coating to the surface of the skin layer to enhance superhydrophobicity.

  12. Method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jeffrey W [Livermore, CA

    2009-09-22

    Reactive atom plasma processing can be used to shape, polish, planarize and clean the surfaces of difficult materials with minimal subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use a plasma torch, such as a conventional ICP torch. The workpiece and plasma torch are moved with respect to each other, whether by translating and/or rotating the workpiece, the plasma, or both. The plasma discharge from the torch can be used to shape, planarize, polish, and/or clean the surface of the workpiece, as well as to thin the workpiece. The processing may cause minimal or no damage to the workpiece underneath the surface, and may involve removing material from the surface of the workpiece.

  13. Numerical simulation of liquid film flow on revolution surfaces with momentum integral method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottoni Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    The momentum integral method is applied in the frame of safety analysis of pressure water reactors under hypothetical loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions to simulate numerically film condensation, rewetting and vaporization on the inner surface of pressure water reactor containment. From the conservation equations of mass and momentum of a liquid film arising from condensation of steam upon the inner of the containment during a LOCA in a pressure water reactor plant, an integro-differential equation is derived, referring to an arbitrary axisymmetric surface of revolution. This equation describes the velocity distribution of the liquid film along a meridian of a surface of revolution. From the integro-differential equation and ordinary differential equation of first order for the film velocity is derived and integrated numerically. From the velocity distribution the film thickness distribution is obtained. The solution of the enthalpy equation for the liquid film yields the temperature distribution on the inner surface of the containment. (authors)

  14. A novel method of freeform surface grinding with a soft wheel based on industrial robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Sheng-chun; Guo, Xiao-ling

    2011-08-01

    In order to meet the growing demand for high-quality images, optical elements of freeform surface are more and more applied to imaging system. However the fabrication of freeform surface optical elements is much more difficult than that of traditional spherical ones. Recent research on freeform surface manufacture often deals with precision machine tools which have limitations on dimensions and are always expensive. Little has been researched on industrial robots. In this paper, a new method of freeform surface grinding based on industrial robots was found. This method could be applied to both whole surface grinding as well as partial surface grinding. The diameter of lenses to be ground would not be restricted to the machine tool's size. In this method a high-speed-rotating soft wheel was used. The relation between removing amount and grinding time which could be called removing function was established and measured. The machining precision was achieved by means of controlling the grinding time instead of the machine tool or industrial robot itself. There are two main factors affecting the removing function: i).rotating speed of the soft wheel; ii).pressure between the wheel and the work piece. In this paper, two groups of experiments have been conducted. One is the removing function tested at constant rotating speed while under different pressure. The other is that tested under a certain pressure with variable speed. Tables and curves which can show the effect of speed and pressure on the removing efficiency have been obtained. Cause for inaccuracy between experiment data and calculated result according to the theory and the non-linearity in the curves was analyzed. Through these analyses the removing function could be concluded under certain condition including rotating speed and pressure. Finally several experiments were performed to verify the appropriateness of the removing function. It could also be concluded that this method was more efficient in comparison

  15. Standard test method for calibration of surface/stress measuring devices

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    Return to Contents page 1.1 This test method covers calibration or verification of calibration, or both, of surface-stress measuring devices used to measure stress in annealed and heat-strengthened or tempered glass using polariscopic or refractometry based principles. 1.2 This test method is nondestructive. 1.3 This test method uses transmitted light, and therefore, is applicable to light-transmitting glasses. 1.4 This test method is not applicable to chemically tempered glass. 1.5 Using the procedure described, surface stresses can be measured only on the “tin” side of float glass. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. The application of surface electrical and shallow geothermic methods in monitoring network design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkeson, R.H.; Cartwright, K.

    1983-01-01

    There are a variety of surface geophysical methods that are routinely used in geologic investigations. The three broad applications of these methods to evaluate the impact of waste disposal on shallow groundwater flow systems are: 1) evaluation of proposed waste disposal sites; 2) monitoring of site performance; and 3) investigation of contaminant migration at existing sites. Electrical and shallow geothermic are two surface geophysical methods that have application to waste disposal investigations. Of the electrical methods, electrical resistivity has the greatest application with a variety of techniques available. The distribution of temperature in shallow geologic materials (shallow geothermics) may define characteristics of shallow groundwater flow systems including zones of recharge and discharge and lithologic variation in the shallow geologic materials.-from Authors

  17. Method and apparatus for surface characterization and process control utilizing radiation from desorbed particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, L.C.; Kraus, J.S.; Tolk, N.H.; Traum, M.M.; Tully, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Emission of characteristic electromagnetic radiation in the infrared, visible, or UV from excited particles, typically ions, molecules, or neutral atoms, desorbed from solid surfaces by an incident beam of low-momentum probe radiation has been observed. Disclosed is a method for characterizing solid surfaces based on the observed effect, with low-momentum probe radiation consisting of electrons or photons. Further disclosed is a method for controlling manufacturing processes that is also based on the observed effect. The latter method can, for instance, be advantageously applied in integrated circuit-, integrated optics-, and magnetic bubble device manufacture. Specific examples of applications of the method are registering of masks, control of a direct-writing processing beam, end-point detection in etching, and control of a processing beam for laser- or electron-beam annealing or ion implantation

  18. Proposal of a method for evaluating tsunami risk using response-surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutani, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Information on probabilistic tsunami inundation hazards is needed to define and evaluate tsunami risk. Several methods for calculating these hazards have been proposed (e.g. Løvholt et al. (2012), Thio (2012), Fukutani et al. (2014), Goda et al. (2015)). However, these methods are inefficient, and their calculation cost is high, since they require multiple tsunami numerical simulations, therefore lacking versatility. In this study, we proposed a simpler method for tsunami risk evaluation using response-surface methodology. Kotani et al. (2016) proposed an evaluation method for the probabilistic distribution of tsunami wave-height using a response-surface methodology. We expanded their study and developed a probabilistic distribution of tsunami inundation depth. We set the depth (x1) and the slip (x2) of an earthquake fault as explanatory variables and tsunami inundation depth (y) as an object variable. Subsequently, tsunami risk could be evaluated by conducting a Monte Carlo simulation, assuming that the generation probability of an earthquake follows a Poisson distribution, the probability distribution of tsunami inundation depth follows the distribution derived from a response-surface, and the damage probability of a target follows a log normal distribution. We applied the proposed method to a wood building located on the coast of Tokyo Bay. We implemented a regression analysis based on the results of 25 tsunami numerical calculations and developed a response-surface, which was defined as y=ax1+bx2+c (a:0.2615, b:3.1763, c=-1.1802). We assumed proper probabilistic distribution for earthquake generation, inundation height, and vulnerability. Based on these probabilistic distributions, we conducted Monte Carlo simulations of 1,000,000 years. We clarified that the expected damage probability of the studied wood building is 22.5%, assuming that an earthquake occurs. The proposed method is therefore a useful and simple way to evaluate tsunami risk using a response-surface

  19. Exploring the Leishmania Hydrophilic Acylated Surface Protein B (HASPB) Export Pathway by Live Cell Imaging Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Lorna; Price, Helen; O'Toole, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania major is a human-infective protozoan parasite transmitted by the bite of the female phlebotomine sand fly. The L. major hydrophilic acylated surface protein B (HASPB) is only expressed in infective parasite stages suggesting a role in parasite virulence. HASPB is a "nonclassically" secreted protein that lacks a conventional signal peptide, reaching the cell surface by an alternative route to the classical ER-Golgi pathway. Instead HASPB trafficking to and exposure on the parasite plasma membrane requires dual N-terminal acylation. Here, we use live cell imaging methods to further explore this pathway allowing visualization of key events in real time at the individual cell level. These methods include live cell imaging using fluorescent reporters to determine the subcellular localization of wild type and acylation site mutation HASPB18-GFP fusion proteins, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to analyze the dynamics of HASPB in live cells, and live antibody staining to detect surface exposure of HASPB by confocal microscopy.

  20. Joining of rubber substrate with bronze surface by the method of molecular adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oravec, J.; Preto, J.; Hronkovic, J.; Melus, P.; Hirahara, H.; Sang, J.

    2017-01-01

    During the adhesion process using the adhesives there are many risks of defects caused by boundary stress, strength and to resolve these traditional adhesive problems a method called molecule adhesion technology, was used. This method can successfully adhere different materials and has the advantages such as material independence and strong adhesion strength without any adhesive agent. The impact of selected coupling agents on the green and final adhesion on the boundary bronze surface - natural rubber based coating blend was studied in the presented work. Wires of bronze (Cu/Sn 96:4) coated steel bead wire were submerged in solutions of coupling agents in ethanol for 30 s at various temperature and dried. The effect of the surface modification was evaluated by measuring of XPS, FT-IR, the morphology of the brass plate surfaces after the treatment was studied by the atomic force microscopy (AFM). (authors)

  1. Apparatus and method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for shaping of damage free surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr,; Jeffrey, W [Livermore, CA

    2009-03-31

    Fabrication apparatus and methods are disclosed for shaping and finishing difficult materials with no subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use an atmospheric pressure mixed gas plasma discharge as a sub-aperture polisher of, for example, fused silica and single crystal silicon, silicon carbide and other materials. In one example, workpiece material is removed at the atomic level through reaction with fluorine atoms. In this example, these reactive species are produced by a noble gas plasma from trace constituent fluorocarbons or other fluorine containing gases added to the host argon matrix. The products of the reaction are gas phase compounds that flow from the surface of the workpiece, exposing fresh material to the etchant without condensation and redeposition on the newly created surface. The discharge provides a stable and predictable distribution of reactive species permitting the generation of a predetermined surface by translating the plasma across the workpiece along a calculated path.

  2. A Versatile Star PEG Grafting Method for the Generation of Nonfouling and Nonthrombogenic Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Thalla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG grafting has a great potential to create nonfouling and nonthrombogenic surfaces, but present techniques lack versatility and stability. The present work aimed to develop a versatile PEG grafting method applicable to most biomaterial surfaces, by taking advantage of novel primary amine-rich plasma-polymerized coatings. Star-shaped PEG covalent binding was studied using static contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D. Fluorescence and QCM-D both confirmed strong reduction of protein adsorption when compared to plasma-polymerized coatings and pristine poly(ethyleneterephthalate (PET. Moreover, almost no platelet adhesion was observed after 15 min perfusion in whole blood. Altogether, our results suggest that primary amine-rich plasma-polymerized coatings offer a promising stable and versatile method for PEG grafting in order to create nonfouling and nonthrombogenic surfaces and micropatterns.

  3. Method for preparing microstructure arrays on the surface of thin film material

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Peng; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Lianbin

    2017-01-01

    Methods are provided for growing a thin film of a nanoscale material. Thin films of nanoscale materials are also provided. The films can be grown with microscale patterning. The method can include vacuum filtration of a solution containing the nanostructured material through a porous substrate. The porous substrate can have a pore size that is comparable to the size of the nanoscale material. By patterning the pores on the surface of the substrate, a film can be grown having the pattern on a surface of the thin film, including on the top surface opposite the substrate. The nanoscale material can be graphene, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, molybdenum disulfide, hexagonal boron nitride, tungsten diselenide, molybdenum trioxide, or clays such as montmorillonite or lapnotie. The porous substrate can be a porous organic or inorganic membrane, a silicon stencil membrane, or similar membrane having pore sizes on the order of microns.

  4. Method for preparing microstructure arrays on the surface of thin film material

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Peng

    2017-02-09

    Methods are provided for growing a thin film of a nanoscale material. Thin films of nanoscale materials are also provided. The films can be grown with microscale patterning. The method can include vacuum filtration of a solution containing the nanostructured material through a porous substrate. The porous substrate can have a pore size that is comparable to the size of the nanoscale material. By patterning the pores on the surface of the substrate, a film can be grown having the pattern on a surface of the thin film, including on the top surface opposite the substrate. The nanoscale material can be graphene, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, molybdenum disulfide, hexagonal boron nitride, tungsten diselenide, molybdenum trioxide, or clays such as montmorillonite or lapnotie. The porous substrate can be a porous organic or inorganic membrane, a silicon stencil membrane, or similar membrane having pore sizes on the order of microns.

  5. Laser methods for detecting explosive residues on surfaces of distant objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skvortsov, L A [Institute of Cryptography, Communications and Informatics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-01-31

    The basic methods of laser spectroscopy that are used for standoff detection and identification of explosive traces in the form of particles on the surfaces of objects tested under real or close-toreal conditions are briefly considered. The advantages and drawbacks of all methods are discussed and their characteristics are compared. Particular attention has been given to the prospects of development and practical implementation of the technologies discussed and justification of their most preferred applications. (review)

  6. A Study on a Multi-Objective Optimization Method Based on Neuro-Response Surface Method (NRSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jae-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The geometry of systems including the marine engineering problems needs to be optimized in the initial design stage. However, the performance analysis using commercial code is generally time-consuming. To solve this problem, many engineers perform the optimization process using the response surface method (RSM to predict the system performance, but RSM presents some prediction errors for nonlinear systems. The major objective of this research is to establish an optimal design framework. The framework is composed of three parts: definition of geometry, generation of response surface, and optimization process. To reduce the time for performance analysis and minimize the prediction errors, the response surface is generated using the artificial neural network (ANN which is considered as NRSM. The optimization process is done for the generated response surface by non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II. Through case study of a derrick structure, we have confirmed the proposed framework applicability. In the future, we will try to apply the constructed framework to multi-objective optimization problems.

  7. Assessment of disinfection of hospital surfaces using different monitoring methods1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Adriano Menis; de Andrade, Denise; Rigotti, Marcelo Alessandro; de Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo; Guerra, Odanir Garcia; dos Santos, Aires Garcia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to assess the efficiency of cleaning/disinfection of surfaces of an Intensive Care Unit. METHOD: descriptive-exploratory study with quantitative approach conducted over the course of four weeks. Visual inspection, bioluminescence adenosine triphosphate and microbiological indicators were used to indicate cleanliness/disinfection. Five surfaces (bed rails, bedside tables, infusion pumps, nurses' counter, and medical prescription table) were assessed before and after the use of rubbing alcohol at 70% (w/v), totaling 160 samples for each method. Non-parametric tests were used considering statistically significant differences at pdisinfection process, 87.5, 79.4 and 87.5% of the surfaces were considered clean using the visual inspection, bioluminescence adenosine triphosphate and microbiological analyses, respectively. A statistically significant decrease was observed in the disapproval rates after the cleaning process considering the three assessment methods; the visual inspection was the least reliable. CONCLUSION: the cleaning/disinfection method was efficient in reducing microbial load and organic matter of surfaces, however, these findings require further study to clarify aspects related to the efficiency of friction, its frequency, and whether or not there is association with other inputs to achieve improved results of the cleaning/disinfection process. PMID:26312634

  8. Method to conjugate polysaccharide antigens to surfaces for the detection of antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Lind, Peter; Riber, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    microbeads modified with N-alkyl hydroxylamine and N-alkyl-O-methyl hydroxylamine surface groups by incubation of antigen and beads for 16 h at 40 oC without the need for coupling agents. The efficiency of the new method was evaluated by flow cytometry in model samples and serum samples containing antibodies...

  9. [A method of temperature measurement for hot forging with surface oxide based on infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-cun; Qi, Yan-de; Fu, Xian-bin

    2012-05-01

    High temperature large forging is covered with a thick oxide during forging. It leads to a big measurement data error. In this paper, a method of measuring temperature based on infrared spectroscopy is presented. It can effectively eliminate the influence of surface oxide on the measurement of temperature. The method can measure the surface temperature and emissivity of the oxide directly using the infrared spectrum. The infrared spectrum is radiated from surface oxide of forging. Then it can derive the real temperature of hot forging covered with the oxide using the heat exchange equation. In order to greatly restrain interference spectroscopy through included in the received infrared radiation spectrum, three interference filter system was proposed, and a group of optimal gap parameter values using spectral simulation were obtained. The precision of temperature measurement was improved. The experimental results show that the method can accurately measure the surface temperature of high temperature forging covered with oxide. It meets the requirements of measurement accuracy, and the temperature measurement method is feasible according to the experiment result.

  10. The way we measure: comparison of methods to derive radial surface brightness profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S. P. C.; van der Kruit, P. C.; de Jong, R. S.

    The breaks and truncations in the luminosity profile of face-on spiral galaxies offer valuable insights in their formation history. The traditional method of deriving the surface photometry profile for face-on galaxies is to use elliptical averaging. In this paper, we explore the question whether

  11. Simple method to transfer graphene from metallic catalytic substrates to flexible surfaces without chemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, P J; Takahashi, H; Sakai, H; Thu, T V; Okada, H; Sandhu, A; Koide, S

    2013-01-01

    Graphene shows promise for applications in flexible electronics. Here, we describe our procedure to transfer graphene grown on copper substrates by chemical vapor deposition to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and SiO 2 /Si surfaces. The transfer of graphene was achieved by a simple, etching-free method onto flexible PDMS substrates.

  12. Universal Method for Creating Hierarchical Wrinkles on Thin-Film Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo-Bin; Cho, Kyeong Min; Lee, Won-Kyu; Odom, Teri W; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2018-01-10

    One of the most interesting topics in physical science and materials science is the creation of complex wrinkled structures on thin-film surfaces because of their several advantages of high surface area, localized strain, and stress tolerance. In this study, a significant step was taken toward solving limitations imposed by the fabrication of previous artificial wrinkles. A universal method for preparing hierarchical three-dimensional wrinkle structures of thin films on a multiple scale (e.g., nanometers to micrometers) by sequential wrinkling with different skin layers was developed. Notably, this method was not limited to specific materials, and it was applicable to fabricating hierarchical wrinkles on all of the thin-film surfaces tested thus far, including those of metals, two-dimensional and one-dimensional materials, and polymers. The hierarchical wrinkles with multiscale structures were prepared by sequential wrinkling, in which a sacrificial layer was used as the additional skin layer between sequences. For example, a hierarchical MoS 2 wrinkle exhibited highly enhanced catalytic behavior because of the superaerophobicity and effective surface area, which are related to topological effects. As the developed method can be adopted to a majority of thin films, it is thought to be a universal method for enhancing the physical properties of various materials.

  13. The use of artificial intelligence methods for visual analysis of properties of surface layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wójcicki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. The article presents a selected area of research on the possibility of automatic prediction of material properties based on the analysis of digital images. Original, holistic model of forecasting properties of surface layers based on a multi-step process that includes the selected methods of processing and analysis of images, inference with the use of a priori knowledge bases and multi-valued fuzzy logic, and simulation with the use of finite element methods is presented. Surface layers characteristics and core technologies of their production processes such as mechanical, thermal, thermo-mechanical, thermo-chemical, electrochemical, physical are discussed. Developed methods used in the model for the classification of images of the surface layers are shown. The objectives of the use of selected methods of processing and analysis of digital images, including techniques for improving the quality of images, segmentation, morphological transformation, pattern recognition and simulation of physical phenomena in the structures of materials are described.[b]Keywords[/b]: image analysis, surface layer, artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic

  14. Establishment of the method of surface shaded display for brain PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiangsong; Tang Anwu; He Zuoxiang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To establish the method of surface shaded display (SSD) for brain PET imaging. Methods: The original brain PET images volume data were transferred to the personal computer by the local area network, and scaled into 256 grayscale values between 0 and 255. An appropriate threshold could be selected with three differential methods: depended on the histogram or maximum percentage of the volume data and the opposite value percentage of the lesion. The list of vertices and triangles describing the contour surface was produced with a high resolution three dimensional (3D) surface construction algorithm. Results: The final software of SSD for brain PET imaging with interactive user interface can produce 3D brain PET images which can be rotated, scaled, and saved or outputted with several image formats. Conclusion: The method of SSD for brain PET imaging can directly and integrally reflect the surface of brain cortex, and be helpful to locate lesions and display the range of lesions, but can not reflect the severity of lesions, nor can display the structure under brain cortex

  15. Three-beam interferogram analysis method for surface flatness testing of glass plates and wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Zofia; Patorski, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    When testing transparent plates with high quality flat surfaces and a small angle between them the three-beam interference phenomenon is observed. Since the reference beam and the object beams reflected from both the front and back surface of a sample are detected, the recorded intensity distribution may be regarded as a sum of three fringe patterns. Images of that type cannot be succesfully analyzed with standard interferogram analysis methods. They contain, however, useful information on the tested plate surface flatness and its optical thickness variations. Several methods were elaborated to decode the plate parameters. Our technique represents a competitive solution which allows for retrieval of phase components of the three-beam interferogram. It requires recording two images: a three-beam interferogram and the two-beam one with the reference beam blocked. Mutually subtracting these images leads to the intensity distribution which, under some assumptions, provides access to the two component fringe sets which encode surfaces flatness. At various stages of processing we take advantage of nonlinear operations as well as single-frame interferogram analysis methods. Two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform (2D CWT) is used to separate a particular fringe family from the overall interferogram intensity distribution as well as to estimate the phase distribution from a pattern. We distinguish two processing paths depending on the relative density of fringe sets which is connected with geometry of a sample and optical setup. The proposed method is tested on simulated data.

  16. Analysis of method of polarization surveying of water surface oil pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, B. S.

    1979-01-01

    A method of polarization surveying of oil films on the water surface is analyzed. Model calculations of contrasted oil and water obtained with different orientations of the analyzer are discussed. The model depends on the spectral range, water transparency and oil film, and the selection of observational direction.

  17. Device and method for enhanced collection and assay of chemicals with high surface area ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addleman, Raymond S.; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Cinson, Anthony D.; Bays, John T.; Wallace, Krys

    2016-02-16

    A method and device for enhanced capture of target analytes is disclosed. This invention relates to collection of chemicals for separations and analysis. More specifically, this invention relates to a solid phase microextraction (SPME) device having better capability for chemical collection and analysis. This includes better physical stability, capacity for chemical collection, flexible surface chemistry and high affinity for target analyte.

  18. A method for screening for the risk of chronic effects of surface water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldán, Přemysl; Badurová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The article describes a method for screening for the risk of chronic surface water pollution which was developed at the T. G. Masaryk Water Research Institute. The approach, which is based on exotoxicological analyses, can be classed as a rapid method of assessment. The degree of risk of chronic effects surface water pollution is determined from an evaluation of two major parameters-toxicity and genotoxicity. As the method utilizes relative simple procedures for sample collection, pretreatment of the sample, chemical analyses, bioassays and results assessment, this approach is suitable for widespread practical use. Extensive utilization of this approach for assessing river basins in the Czech Republic has proved its suitability for a more sophisticated detection of the biological impact of surface water pollution. This is documented in the article where the method is used in a study of the Bílina River, and in the overview of the results of the risk assessment of chronic effects of surface water pollution in selected sections of three international river basins in the Czech Republic.

  19. Effect of processing method on surface and weathering characteristics of wood-flour/HDPE composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Laurent M. Matuana; Craig M. Clemons

    2004-01-01

    Wood-plastic lumber is promoted as a low maintenance high-durability product. When exposed to accelerated weathering, however, wood-plastic composites may experience a color change and/or loss in mechanical properties. Different methods of manufacturing wood-plastic composites lead to different surface characteristics, which can influence weathering, In this study, 50...

  20. Generation of triangulated random surfaces by the Monte Carlo method in the grand canonical ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmushko, V.V.; Migdal, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    A model of triangulated random surfaces which is the discrete analog of the Polyakov string is considered. An algorithm is proposed which enables one to study the model by the Monte Carlo method in the grand canonical ensemble. Preliminary results on the determination of the critical index γ are presented

  1. Influence of drying method on the surface energy of cellulose nanofibrils determined by inverse gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucheng Peng; Douglas J. Gardner; Yousoo Han; Zhiyong Cai; Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2013-01-01

    Research and development of the renewable nanomaterial cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) has received considerable attention. The effect of drying on the surface energy of CNFs was investigated. Samples of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were each subjected to four separate drying methods: air-drying, freeze-drying, spray-drying, and...

  2. Application of stereological methods to estimate post-mortem brain surface area using 3T MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furlong, Carolyn; García-Fiñana, Marta; Puddephat, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Cavalieri and Vertical Sections methods of design based stereology were applied in combination with 3 tesla (i.e. 3T) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to estimate cortical and subcortical volume, area of the pial surface, area of the grey-white matter boundary, and thickness of the cerebral...

  3. Four chemical methods of porcelain conditioning and their influence over bond strength and surface integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, João Paulo Fragomeni; Oliveira, Andrea Becker; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu; Marquezan, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess four different chemical surface conditioning methods for ceramic material before bracket bonding, and their impact on shear bond strength and surface integrity at debonding. METHODS: Four experimental groups (n = 13) were set up according to the ceramic conditioning method: G1 = 37% phosphoric acid etching followed by silane application; G2 = 37% liquid phosphoric acid etching, no rinsing, followed by silane application; G3 = 10% hydrofluoric acid etching alone; and G4 = 10% hydrofluoric acid etching followed by silane application. After surface conditioning, metal brackets were bonded to porcelain by means of the Transbond XP system (3M Unitek). Samples were submitted to shear bond strength tests in a universal testing machine and the surfaces were later assessed with a microscope under 8 X magnification. ANOVA/Tukey tests were performed to establish the difference between groups (α= 5%). RESULTS: The highest shear bond strength values were found in groups G3 and G4 (22.01 ± 2.15 MPa and 22.83 ± 3.32 Mpa, respectively), followed by G1 (16.42 ± 3.61 MPa) and G2 (9.29 ± 1.95 MPa). As regards surface evaluation after bracket debonding, the use of liquid phosphoric acid followed by silane application (G2) produced the least damage to porcelain. When hydrofluoric acid and silane were applied, the risk of ceramic fracture increased. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptable levels of bond strength for clinical use were reached by all methods tested; however, liquid phosphoric acid etching followed by silane application (G2) resulted in the least damage to the ceramic surface. PMID:26352845

  4. Ultrasound surface probe as a screening method for evaluating the patients with blunt abdominal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nasr-Esfahani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blunt abdominal trauma is one of the causes of mortality in emergency department. Free fluid in the abdomen due to intra-abdominal blunt trauma can be determined by the surface probe of ultrasound. Since the importance of this free fluid in hemodynamic stable patients with blunt trauma is associated with the unknown outcome for surgeons, this study was performed to evaluate the role of ultrasound surface probe as a screening method in evaluating the patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Materials and Methods: A descriptive-analytical study was done on 45 patients with blunt abdominal trauma and hemodynamic stability. The patients were evaluated twice during the three-hours, including repeated ultrasound surface probe and clinical examinations. Computerized tomography was also performed. The patients were divided based on the amount of the free fluid in the abdomen during the evaluations into two groups: Fixed or increased, and decreased free fluid. The results of the different evaluated methods were compared using the sensitivity and specificity. Results: From 17 patients with CT abnormalities, free fluid increased in 14 patients (82.4%. Free fluid was decreased in three patients who were discharged well from the surgery service without any complication. Surface probe in prognosis detection had a sensitivity of 82.4% and specificity of 92.9%. The percentage of false positive and negative ultrasound compared with CT scan was 7.1% and 17.6%. Also, positive and negative predictive value of the ultrasound with surface probe was 87.5% and 89.7% respectively. Conclusion: The use of the ultrasound with surface probe in the diagnosis of free fluid in blunt abdominal trauma in hemodynamic stable patients can be considered as a useful screening method.

  5. Comparison of two split-window methods for retrieving land surface temperature from MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shaohua; Qin, Qiming; Yang, Yonghui; Xiong, Yujiu; Qiu, Guoyu

    2009-08-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key parameter in environment and earth science study, especially for monitoring drought. The objective of this work is a comparison of two split-window methods: Mao method and Sobrino method, for retrieving LST using MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data in North China Plain. The results show that the max, min and mean errors of Mao method are 1.33K, 1.54K and 0.13K lower than the standard LST product respectively; while those of Sobrino method are 0.73K, 1.46K and 1.50K higher than the standard respectively. Validation of the two methods using LST product based on weather stations shows a good agreement between the standard and Sobrino method, with RMSE of 1.17K, whereas RMSE of Mao method is 1.85K. Finally, the study introduces the Sobmao method, which is based on Sobrino method but simplifies the estimation of atmospheric water vapour content using Mao method. The Sobmao method has almost the same accuracy with Sobrino method. With high accuracy and simplification of water vapour content estimation, the Sobmao method is recommendable in LST inversion for good application in Ningxia region, the northwest China, with mean error of 0.33K and the RMSE value of 0.91K.

  6. Reliability Evaluation of Bridges Based on Nonprobabilistic Response Surface Limit Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyong Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to many uncertainties in nonprobabilistic reliability assessment of bridges, the limit state function is generally unknown. The traditional nonprobabilistic response surface method is a lengthy and oscillating iteration process and leads to difficultly solving the nonprobabilistic reliability index. This article proposes a nonprobabilistic response surface limit method based on the interval model. The intention of this method is to solve the upper and lower limits of the nonprobabilistic reliability index and to narrow the range of the nonprobabilistic reliability index. If the range of the reliability index reduces to an acceptable accuracy, the solution will be considered convergent, and the nonprobabilistic reliability index will be obtained. The case study indicates that using the proposed method can avoid oscillating iteration process, make iteration process stable and convergent, reduce iteration steps significantly, and improve computational efficiency and precision significantly compared with the traditional nonprobabilistic response surface method. Finally, the nonprobabilistic reliability evaluation process of bridge will be built through evaluating the reliability of one PC continuous rigid frame bridge with three spans using the proposed method, which appears to be more simple and reliable when lack of samples and parameters in the bridge nonprobabilistic reliability evaluation is present.

  7. Surface Sampling Collection and Culture Methods for Escherichia coli in Household Environments with High Fecal Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exum, Natalie G; Kosek, Margaret N; Davis, Meghan F; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2017-08-22

    Empiric quantification of environmental fecal contamination is an important step toward understanding the impact that water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions have on reducing enteric infections. There is a need to standardize the methods used for surface sampling in field studies that examine fecal contamination in low-income settings. The dry cloth method presented in this manuscript improves upon the more commonly used swabbing technique that has been shown in the literature to have a low sampling efficiency. The recovery efficiency of a dry electrostatic cloth sampling method was evaluated using Escherichia coli and then applied to household surfaces in Iquitos, Peru, where there is high fecal contamination and enteric infection. Side-by-side measurements were taken from various floor locations within a household at the same time over a three-month period to compare for consistency of quantification of E. coli bacteria. The dry cloth sampling method in the laboratory setting showed 105% (95% Confidence Interval: 98%, 113%) E. coli recovery efficiency off of the cloths. The field application demonstrated strong agreement of side-by-side results (Pearson correlation coefficient for dirt surfaces was 0.83 ( p samples (Pearson (0.53, p method can be utilized in households with high bacterial loads using either continuous (quantitative) or categorical (semi-quantitative) data. The standardization of this low-cost, dry electrostatic cloth sampling method can be used to measure differences between households in intervention and non-intervention arms of randomized trials.

  8. A Method for a Multi-Platform Approach to Generate Gridded Surface Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, A.; Livneh, B.; Small, E. E.; Abolafia-Rosenzweig, R.

    2017-12-01

    Evapotranspiration is an integral component of the surface water balance. While there are many estimates of evapotranspiration, there are fewer estimates that partition evapotranspiration into evaporation and transpiration components. This study aims to generate a CONUS-scale, observationally-based soil evaporation dataset by using the time difference of surface soil moisture by Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite with adjustments for transpiration and a bottom flux out of the surface layer. In concert with SMAP, the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite, North American Land Data Assimilation Systems (NLDAS) and the Hydrus-1D model are used to fully analyze the surface water balance. A biome specific estimate of the total terrestrial ET is calculated through a variation of the Penman-Monteith equation with NLDAS forcing and NLDAS Noah Model output for meteorological variables. A root density restriction and SMAP-based soil moisture restriction are applied to obtain terrestrial transpiration estimates. By forcing Hydrus-1D with NLDAS meteorology and our terrestrial transpiration estimates, an estimate of the flux between the soil surface and root zone layers (qbot) will dictate the proportion of water that is available for soil evaporation. After constraining transpiration and the bottom flux from the surface layer, we estimate soil evaporation as the residual of the surface water balance. Application of this method at Fluxnet sites shows soil evaporation estimates of approximately 0­3 mm/day and less than ET estimates. Expanding this methodology to produce a gridded product for CONUS, and eventually a global-scale product, will enable a better understanding of water balance processes and contribute a dataset to validate land-surface model's surface flux processes.

  9. Thermographic method for evaluation of thermal influence of exterior surface colour of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanpeng; Li, Deying; Jin, Rendong; Liu, Li; Bai, Jiabin; Feng, Jianming

    2008-12-01

    Architecture colour is an important part in urban designing. It directly affects the expressing and the thermal effect of exterior surface of buildings. It has proved that four factors affect the sign visibility, graphics, colour, lighting condition and age of the observers, and colour is the main aspect. The best method is to prevent the exterior space heating up in the first place, by reflecting heat away room the exterior surface.The colour of paint to coat building's exterior wall can have a huge impact on energy efficiency. While the suitable colour is essential to increasing the energy efficiency of paint colour during the warm summer months, those products also help paint colour efficiency and reduce heat loss from buildings during winter months making the interior more comfortable all year long. The article is based on analyzing the importance of architecture color design and existing urban colour design. The effect of external surface colour on the thermal behaviour of a building has been studied experimentally by Infrared Thermographic method in University of Science and technology Beijing insummer.The experimental results showed that different colour has quietly different thermal effect on the exterior surface of buildings. The thermal effect of carmine and fawn has nearly the same values. The main factor which is color express, give some suggest ting about urban color design. The investigation reveals that the use of suitable surface colour can dramatically reduce maximum the temperatures of the exterior wall. Keywords: architectural colour, thermal, thermographic

  10. Calculation of Pressure Distribution at Rotary Body Surface with the Vortex Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Dergachev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vortex element method allows to simulate unsteady hydrodynamic processes in incompressible environment, taking into account the evolution of the vortex sheet, including taking into account the deformation or moving of the body or part of construction.For the calculation of the hydrodynamic characteristics of the method based on vortex element software package was developed MVE3D. Vortex element (VE in program is symmetrical Vorton-cut. For satisfying the boundary conditions at the surface used closed frame of vortons.With this software system modeled incompressible flow around a cylindrical body protection elongation L / D = 13 with a front spherical blunt with the angle of attack of 10 °. We analyzed the distribution of the pressure coefficient on the body surface of the top and bottom forming.The calculate results were compared with known Results of experiment.Considered design schemes with different number of Vorton framework. Also varied radius of VE. Calculation make possible to establish the degree of sampling surface needed to produce close to experiment results. It has been shown that an adequate reproducing the pressure distribution in the transition region spherical cylindrical surface, on the windward side requires a high degree of sampling.Based on these results Can be possible need to improve on the design scheme of body's surface, allowing more accurate to describe the flow vorticity in areas with abrupt changes of geometry streamlined body.

  11. A new method for the assessment of the surface topography of NiTi rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, F; Barbosa, I; Scelza, P; Russano, D; Neff, J; Montagnana, M; Zaccaro Scelza, M

    2017-09-01

    To describe a new method for the assessment of nanoscale alterations in the surface topography of nickel-titanium endodontic instruments using a high-resolution optical method and to verify the accuracy of the technique. Noncontact three-dimensional optical profilometry was used to evaluate defects on a size 25, .08 taper reciprocating instrument (WaveOne ® ), which was subjected to a cyclic fatigue test in a simulated root canal in a clear resin block. For the investigation, an original procedure was established for the analysis of similar areas located 3 mm from the tip of the instrument before and after canal preparation to enable the repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements with precision. All observations and analysis were taken in areas measuring 210 × 210 μm provided by the software of the equipment. The three-dimensional high-resolution image analysis showed clear alterations in the surface topography of the examined cutting blade and flute of the instrument, before and after use, with the presence of surface irregularities such as deformations, debris, grooves, cracks, steps and microcavities. Optical profilometry provided accurate qualitative nanoscale evaluation of similar surfaces before and after the fatigue test. The stability and repeatability of the technique enables a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of wear on the surface of endodontic instruments. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Method of evaluating the surface color of concrete; Concrete hyomenshoku hyoka shuho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Y; Kotani, K; Imadate, F; Ito, N; Watanabe, K [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-20

    As a part of the evaluation of landscape of civil engineering structures, a method was studied for quantitative evaluation of surface color and color hue of the exposed concrete. The surface colors of concrete structures constructed at more than one sites were measured using a colorimeter and were statistically processed. The colorimeter can measure colors by irradiating the standard light onto the surface of the object and dividing the reflection light into ingredients, lightness L and color phase a and b in the CIELAB equal color space. The L/a/b measuring data were plotted which were obtained from 2010 measuring surfaces of 49 structures at 7 construction sites. As for the surface color of concrete, it was found that ingredient L measured by the colorimeter reacts on variations of color very sensitively and agrees well with the trend of evaluation by eyes. Namely, human being senses the difference of concrete color mainly from the difference in lightness and senses the difference as the color hue. Further, using the neural network, an evaluation method was established which was the same as the human sense. 1 ref., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Sampling methods for recovery of human enteric viruses from environmental surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnage, Nicole L; Gibson, Kristen E

    2017-10-01

    Acute gastroenteritis causes the second highest infectious disease burden worldwide. Human enteric viruses have been identified as leading causative agents of acute gastroenteritis as well as foodborne illnesses in the U.S. and are generally transmitted by fecal-oral contamination. There is growing evidence of transmission occurring via contaminated fomite including food contact surfaces. Additionally, human enteric viruses have been shown to remain infectious on fomites over prolonged periods of time. To better understand viral persistence, there is a need for more studies to investigate this phenomenon. Therefore, optimization of surface sampling methods is essential to aid in understanding environmental contamination to ensure proper preventative measures are being applied. In general, surface sampling studies are limited and highly variable among recovery efficiencies and research parameters used (e.g., virus type/density, surface type, elution buffers, tools). This review aims to discuss the various factors impacting surface sampling of viruses from fomites and to explore how researchers could move towards a more sensitive and standard sampling method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of different polishing methods on the surface roughness of microhybrid, microfill, and nanofill composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Mariana D; Godas, André Gustavo de L; Fernandes, Juliana C; Suzuki, Thaís Y U; Guedes, Ana Paula A; Briso, André L F; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina; Dos Santos, Paulo H

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different polishing methods on the surface roughness of resin-based composites subjected to a thermocycling procedure. A total of 192 specimens were divided into 24 groups, according to composite materials (Filtek Z250, Point 4, Renamel Nanofill, Filtek Supreme Plus, Renamel Microfill, and Premise) and finishing and polishing systems (Sof-Lex Pop On, Super Snap, Flexidisc, and Flexidisc+Enamelize). The specimens were subjected to thermocycling (5000 cycles). Filtek Supreme Plus showed the lowest surface roughness values before thermocycling. After thermocycling, Filtek Supreme Plus continued to have the lowest surface roughness, with a statistically-significant difference for the other materials. After thermocycling, there was no statistically-significant difference among all the polishing techniques studied. The thermocycling was concluded as being able to change composite resins' surface roughness, whereas different finishing and polishing methods did not result in surface roughness changes after thermocycling. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Dynamic modeling method of the bolted joint with uneven distribution of joint surface pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shichao; Gao, Hongli; Liu, Qi; Liu, Bokai

    2018-03-01

    The dynamic characteristics of the bolted joints have a significant influence on the dynamic characteristics of the machine tool. Therefore, establishing a reasonable bolted joint dynamics model is helpful to improve the accuracy of machine tool dynamics model. Because the pressure distribution on the joint surface is uneven under the concentrated force of bolts, a dynamic modeling method based on the uneven pressure distribution of the joint surface is presented in this paper to improve the dynamic modeling accuracy of the machine tool. The analytic formulas between the normal, tangential stiffness per unit area and the surface pressure on the joint surface can be deduced based on the Hertz contact theory, and the pressure distribution on the joint surface can be obtained by the finite element software. Futhermore, the normal and tangential stiffness distribution on the joint surface can be obtained by the analytic formula and the pressure distribution on the joint surface, and assigning it into the finite element model of the joint. Qualitatively compared the theoretical mode shapes and the experimental mode shapes, as well as quantitatively compared the theoretical modal frequencies and the experimental modal frequencies. The comparison results show that the relative error between the first four-order theoretical modal frequencies and the first four-order experimental modal frequencies is 0.2% to 4.2%. Besides, the first four-order theoretical mode shapes and the first four-order experimental mode shapes are similar and one-to-one correspondence. Therefore, the validity of the theoretical model is verified. The dynamic modeling method proposed in this paper can provide a theoretical basis for the accurate dynamic modeling of the bolted joint in machine tools.

  16. Novel method for the measurement of liquid film thickness during fuel spray impingement on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, S; Beyrau, F; Hardalupas, Y; Taylor, A M K P

    2016-02-08

    This paper describes the development and application of a novel optical technique for the measurement of liquid film thickness formed on surfaces during the impingement of automotive fuel sprays. The technique makes use of the change of the light scattering characteristics of a metal surface with known roughness, when liquid is deposited. Important advantages of the technique over previously established methods are the ability to measure the time-dependent spatial distribution of the liquid film without a need to add a fluorescent tracer to the liquid, while the measurement principle is not influenced by changes of the pressure and temperature of the liquid or the surrounding gas phase. Also, there is no need for non-fluorescing surrogate fuels. However, an in situ calibration of the dependence of signal intensity on liquid film thickness is required. The developed method can be applied to measure the time-dependent and two-dimensional distribution of the liquid fuel film thickness on the piston or the liner of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. The applicability of this technique was evaluated with impinging sprays of several linear alkanes and alcohols with different thermo-physical properties. The surface temperature of the impingement plate was controlled to simulate the range of piston surface temperatures inside a GDI engine. Two sets of liquid film thickness measurements were obtained. During the first set, the surface temperature of the plate was kept constant, while the spray of different fuels interacted with the surface. In the second set, the plate temperature was adjusted to match the boiling temperature of each fuel. In this way, the influence of the surface temperature on the liquid film created by the spray of different fuels and their evaporation characteristics could be demonstrated.

  17. Effect of sealer coating and storage methods on the surface roughness of soft liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta Kutlu, Ilknur; Yanikoğlu, Nuran Dinckal; Kul, Esra; Duymuş, Zeynep Yesïl; Sağsöz, Nurdan Polat

    2016-03-01

    A soft lining is applied under a removable prosthesis for various reasons. The porosity of the lining material may increase colonization by microorganisms and cause tissue inflammation. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of sealer coating on the surface roughness of soft lining materials under 4 different conditions. A total of 125 specimens were prepared. One high-temperature silicone-based soft lining material and 2 room-temperature-polymerized soft lining materials (1 silicone-based and 1 methacrylate-based) were used. Twenty-five specimens of each room-temperature soft lining material were coated with 2 layers of surface sealer. Additionally, 5 specimens of each material were stored in either distilled water, Coca-Cola, denture cleanser, saliva, or air. The surface roughness was measured at baseline and after 1, 7, 14, and 28 days. Surface roughness values were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance, and the Bonferroni multiple comparison test was performed using time-dependent groups and storage methods. In the time-dependent groups, methacrylate-based sealer-coated soft liners exhibited a significant increase in roughness (1.74-2.09 μm, P.05). Therefore, the sealer coating was not effective in reducing surface roughness. Among the time-dependent storage methods, the denture cleanser exhibited an almost significant increase in roughness (1.83-1.99 μm, P=.054). Coca-Cola and artificial saliva did not show a significant difference (P>.05). However, a significant decrease in roughness was found with distilled water (P=.02) and air (P<.001). Statistically significant differences in surface roughness were found among the different types of soft liners. The sealer coating had no significant effect, and denture cleanser slightly increased the surface roughness. Contrary to expectations, the roughness did not increase in all groups over time. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

  18. Manufacturing method for hard x-ray focusing mirrors with ellipsoidal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Koyama, Takahisa; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establishing the manufacturing method for hard x-ray nano-focusing mirrors with ellipsoidal surface. Ellipsoidal mirror optics, which can produce point focus with a mirror, has a noticeable feature of a high focusing efficiency, although an ultra-precise surface figure with an accuracy of a few nanometers is required for nano-focusing mirrors. Here, we examined the effectiveness of the manufacturing process for ellipsoidal mirrors, which is consisted of a precision grinding process, a removal process of surface roughness, and a computer-controlled shape correction. The precision processing machine for both a removal of surface roughness and a shape correction was developed. This validated the utility of removing surface roughness with a spatial wavelength of 40 μm, which is the tool mark of the grinding process. The developed process achieved the improvement of surface roughness from 1.6 nm to 0.1 nm (RMS), and the figure correction with a high accuracy of < 10 nm and a spatial resolution of < 2 mm. (author)

  19. The Detection of Vertical Cracks in Asphalt Using Seismic Surface Wave Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodice, M; Muggleton, J; Rustighi, E

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of the location and of the extension of cracking in road surfaces is important for determining the potential level of deterioration in the road overall and the infrastructure buried beneath it. Damage in a pavement structure is usually initiated in the tarmac layers, making the Rayleigh wave ideally suited for the detection of shallow surface defects. This paper presents an investigation of two surface wave methods to detect and locate top-down cracks in asphalt layers. The aim of the study is to compare the results from the well- established Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) and the more recent Multiple Impact of Surface Waves (MISW) in the presence of a discontinuity and to suggest the best surface wave technique for evaluating the presence and the extension of vertical cracks in roads. The study is conducted through numerical simulations alongside experimental investigations and it considers the cases for which the cracking is internal and external to the deployment of sensors. MISW is found to enhance the visibility of the reflected waves in the frequency wavenumber ( f-k ) spectrum, helping with the detection of the discontinuity. In some cases, by looking at the f-k spectrum obtained with MISW it is possible to extract information regarding the location and the depth of the cracking. (paper)

  20. Surface and Adsorption Properties of Activated Carbon Fabric Prepared from Cellulosic Polymer: Mixed Activation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhati, Surendra; Mahur, J. S.; Choubey, O. N. [Barkatullah Univ., Bhopal (India); Dixit, Mahur Savita [Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopla (India)

    2013-02-15

    In this study, activated carbon fabric was prepared from a cellulose-based polymer (viscose rayon) via a combination of physical and chemical activation (mixed activation) processes by means of CO{sub 2} as a gasifying agent and surface and adsorption properties were evaluated. Experiments were performed to investigate the consequence of activation temperature (750, 800, 850 and 925 .deg. C), activation time (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes) and CO{sub 2} flow rate (100, 200, 300 and 400 mL/min) on the surface and adsorption properties of ACF. The nitrogen adsorption isotherm at 77 K was measured and used for the determination of surface area, total pore volume, micropore volume, mesopore volume and pore size distribution using BET, t-plot, DR, BJH and DFT methods, respectively. It was observed that BET surface area and TPV increase with rising activation temperature and time due to the formation of new pores and the alteration of micropores into mesopores. It was also found that activation temperature dominantly affects the surface properties of ACF. The adsorption of iodine and CCl{sub 4} onto ACF was investigated and both were found to correlate with surface area.

  1. Effective Wettability of Heterogenous Fracture Surfaces Using the Lattice-Boltzmann Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Santos, J.; Prodanovic, M.; Landry, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Fracture walls in the subsurface are often structured by minerals of different composition (potentially further altered in contact with fluids during hydrocarbon extraction or CO2 sequestration), this yields in a heterogeneous wettability of the surface in contact with the fluids. The focus of our work is to study how surfaces presenting different mineralogy and roughness affect multiphase flow in fractures. Using the Shan-Chen model of the lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) we define fluid interaction and surface attraction parameters to simulate a system of a wetting and a non-wetting fluid. In this work, we use synthetically created fractures presenting different arrangements of wetting and non-wetting patches, and with or without roughness; representative of different mineralogy, similar workflow can be applied to fractures extracted from X-ray microtomography images of fractures porous media. The results from the LBM simulations provide an insight on how the distribution of mineralogy and surface roughness are related with the observed macroscopic contact angle. We present a comparison between the published analytical models, and our results based on surface areas, spatial distribution and local fracture aperture. The understanding of the variables that affect the contact angle is useful for the comprehension of multiphase processes in naturally fractured reservoirs like primary oil production, enhanced oil recovery and CO2 sequestration. The macroscopic contact angle analytical equations for heterogeneous surfaces with variable roughness are no longer valid in highly heterogeneous systems; we quantify the difference thus offering an alternative to analytical models.

  2. Surface and Adsorption Properties of Activated Carbon Fabric Prepared from Cellulosic Polymer: Mixed Activation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhati, Surendra; Mahur, J. S.; Choubey, O. N.; Dixit, Mahur Savita

    2013-01-01

    In this study, activated carbon fabric was prepared from a cellulose-based polymer (viscose rayon) via a combination of physical and chemical activation (mixed activation) processes by means of CO 2 as a gasifying agent and surface and adsorption properties were evaluated. Experiments were performed to investigate the consequence of activation temperature (750, 800, 850 and 925 .deg. C), activation time (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes) and CO 2 flow rate (100, 200, 300 and 400 mL/min) on the surface and adsorption properties of ACF. The nitrogen adsorption isotherm at 77 K was measured and used for the determination of surface area, total pore volume, micropore volume, mesopore volume and pore size distribution using BET, t-plot, DR, BJH and DFT methods, respectively. It was observed that BET surface area and TPV increase with rising activation temperature and time due to the formation of new pores and the alteration of micropores into mesopores. It was also found that activation temperature dominantly affects the surface properties of ACF. The adsorption of iodine and CCl 4 onto ACF was investigated and both were found to correlate with surface area

  3. The Finite-Surface Method for incompressible flow: a step beyond staggered grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokpunna, Arpiruk; Misaka, Takashi; Obayashi, Shigeru

    2017-11-01

    We present a newly developed higher-order finite surface method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations (NSE). This method defines the velocities as a surface-averaged value on the surfaces of the pressure cells. Consequently, the mass conservation on the pressure cells becomes an exact equation. The only things left to approximate is the momentum equation and the pressure at the new time step. At certain conditions, the exact mass conservation enables the explicit n-th order accurate NSE solver to be used with the pressure treatment that is two or four order less accurate without loosing the apparent convergence rate. This feature was not possible with finite volume of finite difference methods. We use Fourier analysis with a model spectrum to determine the condition and found that the range covers standard boundary layer flows. The formal convergence and the performance of the proposed scheme is compared with a sixth-order finite volume method. Finally, the accuracy and performance of the method is evaluated in turbulent channel flows. This work is partially funded by a research colloaboration from IFS, Tohoku university and ASEAN+3 funding scheme from CMUIC, Chiang Mai University.

  4. Oxygen termination of homoepitaxial diamond surface by ozone and chemical methods: An experimental and theoretical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Javier; Araujo, Daniel; Piñero, José Carlos; Sánchez-Coronilla, Antonio; Blanco, Eduardo; Villar, Pilar; Alcántara, Rodrigo; Montserrat, Josep; Florentin, Matthieu; Eon, David; Pernot, Julien

    2018-03-01

    Phenomena related with the diamond surface of both power electronic and biosensor devices govern their global behaviour. In particular H- or O-terminations lead to wide variations in their characteristics. To study the origins of such aspects in greater depth, different methods to achieve oxygen terminated diamond were investigated following a multi-technique approach. DFT calculations were then performed to understand the different configurations between the C and O atoms. Three methods for O-terminating the diamond surface were performed: two physical methods with ozone at different pressures, and an acid chemical treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, HRTEM, and EELS were used to characterize the oxygenated surface. Periodic-DFT calculations were undertaken to understand the effect of the different ways in which the oxygen atoms are bonded to carbon atoms on the diamond surface. XPS results showed the presence of hydroxyl or ether groups, composed of simple Csbnd O bonds, and the acid treatment resulted in the highest amount of O on the diamond surface. In turn, ellipsometry showed that the different treatments led to the surface having different optical properties, such as a greater refraction index and extinction coefficient in the case of the sample subjected to acid treatment. TEM analysis showed that applying temperature treatment improved the distribution of the oxygen atoms at the interface and that this generates a thinner amount of oxygen at each position and higher interfacial coverage. Finally, DFT calculations showed both an increase in the number of preferential electron transport pathways when π bonds and ether groups appear in the system, and also the presence of states in the middle of the band gap when there are π bonds, Cdbnd C or Cdbnd O.

  5. Recycling inflow method for simulations of spatially evolving turbulent boundary layers over rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang I. A.; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The technique by Lund et al. to generate turbulent inflow for simulations of developing boundary layers over smooth flat plates is extended to the case of surfaces with roughness elements. In the Lund et al. method, turbulent velocities on a sampling plane are rescaled and recycled back to the inlet as inflow boundary condition. To rescale mean and fluctuating velocities, appropriate length scales need be identified and for smooth surfaces, the viscous scale lν = ν/uτ (where ν is the kinematic viscosity and uτ is the friction velocity) is employed for the inner layer. Different from smooth surfaces, in rough wall boundary layers the length scale of the inner layer, i.e. the roughness sub-layer scale ld, must be determined by the geometric details of the surface roughness elements and the flow around them. In the proposed approach, it is determined by diagnosing dispersive stresses that quantify the spatial inhomogeneity caused by the roughness elements in the flow. The scale ld is used for rescaling in the inner layer, and the boundary layer thickness δ is used in the outer region. Both parts are then combined for recycling using a blending function. Unlike the blending function proposed by Lund et al. which transitions from the inner layer to the outer layer at approximately 0.2δ, here the location of blending is shifted upwards to enable simulations of very rough surfaces in which the roughness length may exceed the height of 0.2δ assumed in the traditional method. The extended rescaling-recycling method is tested in large eddy simulation of flow over surfaces with various types of roughness element shapes.

  6. A variable pressure method for characterizing nanoparticle surface charge using pore sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Robert; Anderson, Will; Eldridge, James; Glossop, Ben; Willmott, Geoff

    2012-04-03

    A novel method using resistive pulse sensors for electrokinetic surface charge measurements of nanoparticles is presented. This method involves recording the particle blockade rate while the pressure applied across a pore sensor is varied. This applied pressure acts in a direction which opposes transport due to the combination of electro-osmosis, electrophoresis, and inherent pressure. The blockade rate reaches a minimum when the velocity of nanoparticles in the vicinity of the pore approaches zero, and the forces on typical nanoparticles are in equilibrium. The pressure applied at this minimum rate can be used to calculate the zeta potential of the nanoparticles. The efficacy of this variable pressure method was demonstrated for a range of carboxylated 200 nm polystyrene nanoparticles with different surface charge densities. Results were of the same order as phase analysis light scattering (PALS) measurements. Unlike PALS results, the sequence of increasing zeta potential for different particle types agreed with conductometric titration.

  7. An iterative method for obtaining the optimum lightning location on a spherical surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Gao; Qiming, MA

    1991-01-01

    A brief introduction to the basic principles of an eigen method used to obtain the optimum source location of lightning is presented. The location of the optimum source is obtained by using multiple direction finders (DF's) on a spherical surface. An improvement of this method, which takes the distance of source-DF's as a constant, is presented. It is pointed out that using a weight factor of signal strength is not the most ideal method because of the inexact inverse signal strength-distance relation and the inaccurate signal amplitude. An iterative calculation method is presented using the distance from the source to the DF as a weight factor. This improved method has higher accuracy and needs only a little more calculation time. Some computer simulations for a 4DF system are presented to show the improvement of location through use of the iterative method.

  8. A simple method for estimating the size of nuclei on fractal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang

    2017-10-01

    Determining the size of nuclei on complex surfaces remains a big challenge in aspects of biological, material and chemical engineering. Here the author reported a simple method to estimate the size of the nuclei in contact with complex (fractal) surfaces. The established approach was based on the assumptions of contact area proportionality for determining nucleation density and the scaling congruence between nuclei and surfaces for identifying contact regimes. It showed three different regimes governing the equations for estimating the nucleation site density. Nuclei in the size large enough could eliminate the effect of fractal structure. Nuclei in the size small enough could lead to the independence of nucleation site density on fractal parameters. Only when nuclei match the fractal scales, the nucleation site density is associated with the fractal parameters and the size of the nuclei in a coupling pattern. The method was validated by the experimental data reported in the literature. The method may provide an effective way to estimate the size of nuclei on fractal surfaces, through which a number of promising applications in relative fields can be envisioned.

  9. Free surface simulation of a two-layer fluid by boundary element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weoncheol Koo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A two-layer fluid with free surface is simulated in the time domain by a two-dimensional potential-based Numerical Wave Tank (NWT. The developed NWT is based on the boundary element method and a leap-frog time integration scheme. A whole domain scheme including interaction terms between two layers is applied to solve the boundary integral equation. The time histories of surface elevations on both fluid layers in the respective wave modes are verified with analytic results. The amplitude ratios of upper to lower elevation for various density ratios and water depths are also compared.

  10. A plateau–valley separation method for textured surfaces with a deterministic pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Kühle, Anders; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    The effective characterization of textured surfaces presenting a deterministic pattern of lubricant reservoirs is an issue with which many researchers are nowadays struggling. Existing standards are not suitable for the characterization of such surfaces, providing at times values without physical...... meaning. A new method based on the separation between the plateau and valley regions is hereby presented allowing independent functional analyses of the detected features. The determination of a proper threshold between plateaus and valleys is the first step of a procedure resulting in an efficient...

  11. A statistical method to get surface level air-temperature from satellite observations of precipitable water

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Shikauchi, A; Sugimori, Y.; Kubota, M.

    -T a and precipitable water. The rms errors of the SSMI-T a , in this case are found to be reduced to 1.0°C. 1. Introduction Satellite derived surface-level meteorological parameters are considered to be a better alternative to sparse ship... Vol. 49, pp. 551 to 558. 1993 A Statistical Method to Get Surface Level Air-Temperature from Satellite Observations of Precipitable Water PANKAJAKSHAN THADATHIL*, AKIRA SHIKAUCHI, YASUHIRO SUGIMORI and MASAHISA KUBOTA School of Marine Science...

  12. Study of ion-bombardment-induced surface topography of silver by stereophotogrammetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayazov, I.M.; Sokolov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    The ion-bombardment-induced surface topography of polycrystalline silver was studied using the stereophotogrammetric method. The samples were irradiated with 30keV argon ions at fairly high fluences (> 10 17 ions/cm 2 ). The influence of the inclination angle of the sample in the SEM on the cone shape of a SEM-picture is discussed. To analyse the irradiated surfaces covered with cones, the SEM-stereotechnique is proposed. The measurements of the sample section perpendicular to the incidence plane are also carried out. (author)

  13. Surface exposure dating of non-terrestrial bodies using optically stimulated luminescence: A new method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Jain, Mayank; Murray, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method for in situ surface exposure dating of non-terrestrial geomorphological features using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL); our approach is based on the progressive emptying of trapped charge with exposure to light at depth into a mineral surface. A complete model of t...... charge population. The potential dating applications for (a) include dust accumulation, volcanic rocks and impact-related sediments, and for (b) fault scarps, rock-falls, landslides and ice-scoured bedrock. Using assumptions based on terrestrial observations we expect that this approach...

  14. Band Structure and Fermi Surface of Cu2Sb by the LMTO Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jan, J. P.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1977-01-01

    The linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) method of bandstructure calculation has been applied to the simple tetragonal compound Cu2Sb. The d bands of Cu lie substantially below the Fermi level, and the Fermi surface is a recognizable distortion of the free-electron model. The Fermi surface has sheets......-orbit splitting, and of another closed sheet. Earlier de Haas-van Alphen results are explained semiquantitatively by the model, which also accounts for open orbits seen in high-field magnetoresistance experiments....

  15. Analysis shear wave velocity structure obtained from surface wave methods in Bornova, Izmir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamuk, Eren, E-mail: eren.pamuk@deu.edu.tr; Akgün, Mustafa, E-mail: mustafa.akgun@deu.edu.tr [Department of Geophysical Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey); Özdağ, Özkan Cevdet, E-mail: cevdet.ozdag@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University Rectorate, Izmir (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Properties of the soil from the bedrock is necessary to describe accurately and reliably for the reduction of earthquake damage. Because seismic waves change their amplitude and frequency content owing to acoustic impedance difference between soil and bedrock. Firstly, shear wave velocity and depth information of layers on bedrock is needed to detect this changing. Shear wave velocity can be obtained using inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods (MASW- the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, ReMi-Refraction Microtremor, SPAC-Spatial Autocorrelation). While research depth is limeted in active source study, a passive source methods are utilized for deep depth which is not reached using active source methods. ReMi method is used to determine layer thickness and velocity up to 100 m using seismic refraction measurement systems.The research carried out up to desired depth depending on radius using SPAC which is utilized easily in conditions that district using of seismic studies in the city. Vs profiles which are required to calculate deformations in under static and dynamic loads can be obtained with high resolution using combining rayleigh wave dispersion curve obtained from active and passive source methods. In the this study, Surface waves data were collected using the measurements of MASW, ReMi and SPAC at the İzmir Bornova region. Dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods were combined in wide frequency band and Vs-depth profiles were obtained using inversion. Reliability of the resulting soil profiles were provided by comparison with theoretical transfer function obtained from soil paremeters and observed soil transfer function from Nakamura technique and by examination of fitting between these functions. Vs values are changed between 200-830 m/s and engineering bedrock (Vs>760 m/s) depth is approximately 150 m.

  16. An Optimal Estimation Method to Obtain Surface Layer Turbulent Fluxes from Profile Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D.

    2015-12-01

    In the absence of direct turbulence measurements, the turbulence characteristics of the atmospheric surface layer are often derived from measurements of the surface layer mean properties based on Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST). This approach requires two levels of the ensemble mean wind, temperature, and water vapor, from which the fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and water vapor can be obtained. When only one measurement level is available, the roughness heights and the assumed properties of the corresponding variables at the respective roughness heights are used. In practice, the temporal mean with large number of samples are used in place of the ensemble mean. However, in many situations the samples of data are taken from multiple levels. It is thus desirable to derive the boundary layer flux properties using all measurements. In this study, we used an optimal estimation approach to derive surface layer properties based on all available measurements. This approach assumes that the samples are taken from a population whose ensemble mean profile follows the MOST. An optimized estimate is obtained when the results yield a minimum cost function defined as a weighted summation of all error variance at each sample altitude. The weights are based one sample data variance and the altitude of the measurements. This method was applied to measurements in the marine atmospheric surface layer from a small boat using radiosonde on a tethered balloon where temperature and relative humidity profiles in the lowest 50 m were made repeatedly in about 30 minutes. We will present the resultant fluxes and the derived MOST mean profiles using different sets of measurements. The advantage of this method over the 'traditional' methods will be illustrated. Some limitations of this optimization method will also be discussed. Its application to quantify the effects of marine surface layer environment on radar and communication signal propagation will be shown as well.

  17. Numerical simulation of binary collisions using a modified surface tension model with particle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhongguo; Xi Guang; Chen Xi

    2009-01-01

    The binary collision of liquid droplets is of both practical importance and fundamental value in computational fluid mechanics. We present a modified surface tension model within the moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, and carry out two-dimensional simulations to investigate the mechanisms of coalescence and separation of the droplets during binary collision. The modified surface tension model improves accuracy and convergence. A mechanism map is established for various possible deformation pathways encountered during binary collision, as the impact speed is varied; a new pathway is reported when the collision speed is critical. In addition, eccentric collisions are simulated and the effect of the rotation of coalesced particle is explored. The results qualitatively agree with experiments and the numerical protocol may find applications in studying free surface flows and interface deformation

  18. A Steel Ball Surface Quality Inspection Method Based on a Circumferential Eddy Current Array Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huayu; Xie, Fengqin; Cao, Maoyong; Zhong, Mingming

    2017-07-01

    To efficiently inspect surface defects on steel ball bearings, a new method based on a circumferential eddy current array (CECA) sensor was proposed here. The best probe configuration, in terms of the coil quality factor (Q-factor), magnetic field intensity, and induced eddy current density on the surface of a sample steel ball, was determined using 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-coil probes, for analysis and comparison. The optimal lift-off from the measured steel ball, the number of probe coils, and the frequency of excitation current suitable for steel ball inspection were obtained. Using the resulting CECA sensor to inspect 46,126 steel balls showed a miss rate of ~0.02%. The sensor was inspected for surface defects as small as 0.05 mm in width and 0.1 mm in depth.

  19. Lunar surface remanent magnetic fields detected by the electron reflection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R. P.; Anderson, K. A.; Bush, R.; Mcguire, R. E.; Mccoy, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    We present maps of the lunar surface remanent magnetic fields detected by the electron reflection method. These maps provide substantial coverage of the latitude band from 30 N southward to 30 S with a resolution of about 40 km and a sensitivity of about 0.2 gamma at the lunar surface. Regions of remanent magnetization are observed ranging in size from the resolution limit of 1.25 deg to above approximately 60 deg. The largest contiguous region fills the Big Backside Basin where it is intersected by the spacecraft orbital tracks. Preliminary analyses of the maps show that the source regions of lunar limb compressions correspond to regions of strong surface magnetism, and that there does not appear to be sharply discontinuous magnetization at the edges of maria. We also analyze the electron reflection observations to obtain information on the direction and distribution of magnetization in the Van de Graaff anomaly region.

  20. System and method for non-destructive evaluation of surface characteristics of a magnetic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiles, David C.; Sipahi, Levent B.

    1994-05-17

    A system and a related method for non-destructive evaluation of the surface characteristics of a magnetic material. The sample is excited by an alternating magnetic field. The field frequency, amplitude and offset are controlled according to a predetermined protocol. The Barkhausen response of the sample is detected for the various fields and offsets and is analyzed. The system produces information relating to the frequency content, the amplitude content, the average or RMS energy content, as well as count rate information, for each of the Barkhausen responses at each of the excitation levels applied during the protocol. That information provides a contiguous body of data, heretofore unavailable, which can be analyzed to deduce information about the surface characteristics of the material at various depths below the surface.

  1. A Steel Ball Surface Quality Inspection Method Based on a Circumferential Eddy Current Array Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayu Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To efficiently inspect surface defects on steel ball bearings, a new method based on a circumferential eddy current array (CECA sensor was proposed here. The best probe configuration, in terms of the coil quality factor (Q-factor, magnetic field intensity, and induced eddy current density on the surface of a sample steel ball, was determined using 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-coil probes, for analysis and comparison. The optimal lift-off from the measured steel ball, the number of probe coils, and the frequency of excitation current suitable for steel ball inspection were obtained. Using the resulting CECA sensor to inspect 46,126 steel balls showed a miss rate of ~0.02%. The sensor was inspected for surface defects as small as 0.05 mm in width and 0.1 mm in depth.

  2. Near-surface thermal characterization of plasma facing components using the 3-omega method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechaumphai, Edward; Barton, Joseph L.; Tesmer, Joseph R.; Moon, Jaeyun; Wang, Yongqiang; Tynan, George R.; Doerner, Russell P.; Chen, Renkun

    2014-01-01

    Near-surface regime plays an important role in thermal management of plasma facing components in fusion reactors. Here, we applied a technique referred to as the ‘3ω’ method to measure the thermal conductivity of near-surface regimes damaged by ion irradiation. By modulating the frequency of the heating current in a micro-fabricated heater strip, the technique enables the probing of near-surface thermal properties. The technique was applied to measure the thermal conductivity of a thin ion-irradiated layer on a tungsten substrate, which was found to decrease by nearly 60% relative to pristine tungsten for a Cu ion dosage of 0.2 dpa

  3. Surface characterization of retinal tissues for the enhancement of vitreoretinal surgical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin-Rodriguez, Celimar

    Diabetic retinopathy is the most common ophthalmic complication of diabetes and the leading cause of blindness among adults, ages 30 to 70. Surgery to remove scar tissue in the eye is the only corrective treatment once the retina is affected. Visual recovery is often hampered by retinal trauma during surgery and by low patient compliance. Our work in this project aimed to improve vitreoretinal surgical methods from information gathered by sensitive surface analysis of pre-retinal tissues found at the vitreoretinal interface. Atomic force microscopy characterization of human retinal tissues revealed that surgically excised inner limiting membrane (ILM) has a heterogeneous surface and is mainly composed of globular and fibrous structures. ILM tissues also show low adhesion for clean unmodified surfaces as opposed to those with functional groups attractive to those on the ILM surface, due to their charge. Based on these observations, layer-by-layer films with embedded gold nanoparticles with a positive outer charge were designed. These modifications increased the adhesion between surgical instruments and ILM by increasing the roughness and tuning the film surface charge. These films proved to be stable under physiological conditions. Finally, the effect of vital dyes on the topographical characteristics of ILMs was characterized and new imaging modes to further reveal ILM topography were utilized. Roughness and adhesion force data suggest that second generation dyes have no effect on the surface nanostructure of ILMs, but increase adhesion at the tip sample interface. This project clearly illustrates that physicochemical information from tissues can be used to rationally re-design surgical procedures, in this case for tissue removal purposes. This rational design method can be applied to other soft tissue excision procedures as is the case of cataract surgery or laparoscopic removal of endometrial tissue.

  4. A fast button surface defects detection method based on convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lizhe; Cao, Danhua; Wu, Songlin; Wu, Yubin; Wei, Taoran

    2018-01-01

    Considering the complexity of the button surface texture and the variety of buttons and defects, we propose a fast visual method for button surface defect detection, based on convolutional neural network (CNN). CNN has the ability to extract the essential features by training, avoiding designing complex feature operators adapted to different kinds of buttons, textures and defects. Firstly, we obtain the normalized button region and then use HOG-SVM method to identify the front and back side of the button. Finally, a convolutional neural network is developed to recognize the defects. Aiming at detecting the subtle defects, we propose a network structure with multiple feature channels input. To deal with the defects of different scales, we take a strategy of multi-scale image block detection. The experimental results show that our method is valid for a variety of buttons and able to recognize all kinds of defects that have occurred, including dent, crack, stain, hole, wrong paint and uneven. The detection rate exceeds 96%, which is much better than traditional methods based on SVM and methods based on template match. Our method can reach the speed of 5 fps on DSP based smart camera with 600 MHz frequency.

  5. Hybrid of Natural Element Method (NEM with Genetic Algorithm (GA to find critical slip surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Shahrokhabadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in geotechnical engineering is the slope stability analysis for determination of the factor of safety and the probable slip surface. Finite Element Method (FEM is well suited for numerical study of advanced geotechnical problems. However, mesh requirements of FEM creates some difficulties for solution processing in certain problems. Recently, motivated by these limitations, several new Meshfree methods such as Natural Element Method (NEM have been used to analyze engineering problems. This paper presents advantages of using NEM in 2D slope stability analysis and Genetic Algorithm (GA optimization to determine the probable slip surface and the related factor of safety. The stress field is produced under plane strain condition using natural element formulation to simulate material behavior analysis utilized in conjunction with a conventional limit equilibrium method. In order to justify the preciseness and convergence of the proposed method, two kinds of examples, homogenous and non-homogenous, are conducted and results are compared with FEM and conventional limit equilibrium methods. The results show the robustness of the NEM in slope stability analysis.

  6. Ground Radiometric Method as a Tool for Determining the Surface Boundary of a Buried Bauxitic Karst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kareem Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty two ground radiometric measurements along nine traverses within a rectangular network area were taken across a bauxitic karst within the Ubaid Formation (Lower Jurassic in the Western Desert of Iraq. A 4-Channel Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GAD-6 with sodium iodide NaI (Tl crystal (GSP-4S was used in the field to measure the total radioactivity of the surface soil. Soil samples collected from the surface at each measurement point and core samples collected from a test well penetrating the karst were analyzed by Gamma ray spectrometer. The main objective of this study was to detect the hidden bauxitic karst and determine its surface boundary. The radioactivity on the surface of the karst was ranging between 60 and 80 count per second (c/s, while the background radioactivity of the Ubaid Formation, which hosts the karst, was ranging between 100 and150 c/s. Chemical weathering, especially dissolution and leaching moved uranium (238U and thorium(232Th from the overburden downward. Accordingly, these elements have been adsorbed on the surface of clay minerals and bauxite buried at a depth of about 5m causing enrichment with radioactivity. The leached overburden lack radioelements, so its radioactivity was less than background radioactivity level. The gamma ray spectroanalysis showed that the radioactivity of 238U and 232Th in the overburden was 0.5 and 3 Bq/Kg, whereas, in the bauxite and flint clay bed, it was 240 and 160 Bq/Kg respectively. Based on the radioactivity anomaly contrast on the surface, an isorad map was plotted and the karst diameter which represents low anomaly was determined to be ranging from 150 to 200m. The current study demonstrates that the ground radiometric method is quite useful for detecting the bauxitic karst and inferring its surface boundaries.

  7. Fusion and display of 3D spect and MR images registered by a surface fitting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oghabian, M.A.; Kaboli, P.

    2002-01-01

    Since 3D medical images such as SPECT and MRI are taken under different positioning and imaging parameters, interpretation of them, as reconstructed originally, dose not provide an easy and accurate understanding of similarities and differences between them. The problem becomes more crucial where a clinician would like to map accurately region of interest from one study to the other, by which some surgical or therapeutical planning may be based. the research presented here is an investigation into the problems of the registration and display of brain images obtained by different imaging modalities. Following the introduction of an efficient method some clinical useful application of the registration and superimposition were also defined. The various widely used registration algorithms were first studied and their advantages and disadvantages of each method were evaluated. In this approach, an edge-based algorithm (called surface fitting), which are based on a least-square-distance matching, were suggested for registering of brain images. This algorithm minimizes the sum of square-distances between the two surfaces obtained from two modalities. The minimization is performed to find a set of six geometrical transformation parameters (3 shifts and 3 rotations) which indicate how one surface should be transformed in order to match with the other surface

  8. An extended validation of the last generation of particle finite element method for free surface flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Juan M.; González, Leo M.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a new generation of the particle method known as Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM), which combines convective particle movement and a fixed mesh resolution, is applied to free surface flows. This interesting variant, previously described in the literature as PFEM-2, is able to use larger time steps when compared to other similar numerical tools which implies shorter computational times while maintaining the accuracy of the computation. PFEM-2 has already been extended to free surface problems, being the main topic of this paper a deep validation of this methodology for a wider range of flows. To accomplish this task, different improved versions of discontinuous and continuous enriched basis functions for the pressure field have been developed to capture the free surface dynamics without artificial diffusion or undesired numerical effects when different density ratios are involved. A collection of problems has been carefully selected such that a wide variety of Froude numbers, density ratios and dominant dissipative cases are reported with the intention of presenting a general methodology, not restricted to a particular range of parameters, and capable of using large time-steps. The results of the different free-surface problems solved, which include: Rayleigh-Taylor instability, sloshing problems, viscous standing waves and the dam break problem, are compared to well validated numerical alternatives or experimental measurements obtaining accurate approximations for such complex flows.

  9. Development of Surface Modification Methods for Religaheart® Cardiac Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major R.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The work is a review of the methods of the surface modification performed by the authors dedicated for for cardiac support system. It presents the evolution of designing the surface dedicated to direct contact with blood. Initially thin and ultrathin coatings were developed. They were designed as a blood-polymer barrier. The pneumatic heart assist devices are made of a medical grade polyurethane. A major milestone was to create advanced ceramic thin films expressing the flexible effects deposited by physical techniques. Coatings have evolved. Another milestone was the surface reproducing the microenvironment to capture progenitor cells from the bloodstream. Thin coatings were prepared, using methods of ion been, controlled residual stresses were introduced. Wrinkles appeared without cracking. This enabled taking control over the process of cell differentiation. Alternatively, the tissue inspired structure resulted of the coating in the form of extracellular matrix. The outer surface was modified with synthetic materials. This enabled the effective proteins docking to induce cell growth, recreating the luminal side of the blood vessel. Coagulation processes have been slowed down. In addition, it was found pro-angiogenic effect.

  10. Processing surface sizing starch using oxidation, enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrasonic treatment methods--Preparation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Tobias; Kiessler, Birgit; Radosta, Sylvia; Arndt, Tiemo

    2016-03-15

    The surface application of starch is a well-established method for increasing paper strength. In surface sizing, a solution of degraded starch is applied to the paper. Two procedures have proved valuable for starch degradation in the paper mill: enzymatic and thermo-oxidative degradation. The objective of this study was to determine achievable efficiencies of cavitation in preparing degraded starch for surface application on paper. It was found that ultrasonic-assisted starch degradation can provide a starch solution that is suitable for surface sizing. The molecular composition of starch solutions prepared by ultrasonic treatment differed from that of starch solutions degraded by enzymes or by thermo-oxidation. Compared to commercial degradation processes, this resulted in intensified film formation and in greater penetration during surface sizing and ultimately in a higher starch content of the paper. Paper sized with ultrasonically treated starch solutions show the same strength properties compared to commercially sized paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of fine films nature on the surface of copper band by photoelectron spectroscopy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznichenko, K.N.; Fedorov, V.N.; Shevakin, Yu.F.

    1983-01-01

    The composition of surface films formed on the copper band of industrial production under atmospheric conditions, its changes in thickness and determination of chemical state of the above films are studied. It has been found by the methods of X-ray photoelectronic and Auger-spectroscopy that defect formations on the surface of the copper band of industrial production represent copper oxides in the form of fine films, their change in colour from blue to dark blue probably is determined by different thickness of these defects. The said films on copper have practically identical chemical composition characterized by the presence of unequally valent copper, oxygen in various states (adsorbed and in the form of oxides), carbon and iron. By means of chemical shifts of the line Cu 2psub(3/2) and Ol s the presence in the external part of the film of CuO copper oxide is established and nearer to the interface surface film-metal-of Cu 2 O cuprous oxide which indicates a two-layer surface film structure. The presence of adsorbed carbon and iron in the film composition is a result of surface contamination

  12. Modelling the Influence of Ground Surface Relief on Electric Sounding Curves Using the Integral Equations Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balgaisha Mukanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of electrical sounding of a medium with ground surface relief is modelled using the integral equations method. This numerical method is based on the triangulation of the computational domain, which is adapted to the shape of the relief and the measuring line. The numerical algorithm is tested by comparing the results with the known solution for horizontally layered media with two layers. Calculations are also performed to verify the fulfilment of the “reciprocity principle” for the 4-electrode installations in our numerical model. Simulations are then performed for a two-layered medium with a surface relief. The quantitative influences of the relief, the resistivity ratios of the contacting media, and the depth of the second layer on the apparent resistivity curves are established.

  13. Development of reconstitution method for surveillance specimens using surface activated joining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Terumi; Kaihara, Shoichiro; Yoshida, Kazuo; Sato, Akira [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Onizawa, Kunio; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Masahide

    1996-03-01

    Evaluation of embrittlement of reactor vessel steel due to irradiation requires surveillance tests. However, many surveillance specimens are necessary for nuclear plants life extension. Therefore, a specimen reconstitution technique has become important to provide the many specimens for continued surveillance. A surface activated joining (SAJ) method has been developed to join various materials together at low temperatures with little deformation, and is useful to bond irradiated specimens. To assess the validity of this method, Charpy impact tests were carried out, and the characteristics caused by heating during joining were measured. The test results showed the Charpy impact values were almost the same as base materials, and surface activated joining reduced heat affected zone to less than 2 mm. (author).

  14. A method of surface area measurement of fuel materials by fission gas release at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaimal, K.N.G.; Naik, M.C.; Paul, A.R.; Venkateswarlu, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    The present report deals with the development of a method for surface area measurement of nuclear fuel as well as fissile doped materials by fission gas release study at low temperature. The method is based on the evaluation of knock-out release rate of fission 133 Xe from irradiated fuel after sufficient cooling to decay the short lived activity. The report also describes the fabrication of an ampoule breaker unit for such study. Knock-out release rate of 133 Xe has been studied from UO 2 powders having varying surface area 'S' ranging from 270 cm 2 /gm to 4100 cm 2 /gm at two fissioning rates 10 12 f/cm 3 . sec. and 3.2x10 10 f/cm.sec. A relation between K and A has been established and discussed in this report. (author). 6 refs

  15. NEW METHOD FOR ACTIVE SURFACES QUALITY INSPECTION FOR HIGH DIMENSIONS BEARINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAUN Barbu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a stage of an ample research on high quality control for different type of large dimension bearings, with application in wind turbines for electrical energy production. There is presented a new and efficient method for bearing’s active surfaces quality control, in terms of roughness, to ensure a good and safety functioning and a long life of these. The research involved the use of a powerful digital microscope for surface analysis followed by an assisted by PC algorithm for results obtaining in terms of roughness values. It has been observed that the proposed analyzing method could in the future to be successfully applied for a very large range of bearings, different dimensions and applications.

  16. Open charcoal chamber method for mass measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapalov, Andrey; Kovler, Konstantin; Miklyaev, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Radon exhalation rate from the soil surface can serve as an important criterion in the evaluation of radon hazard of the land. Recently published international standard ISO 11665-7 (2012) is based on the accumulation of radon gas in a closed container. At the same time since 1998 in Russia, as a part of engineering and environmental studies for the construction, radon flux measurements are made using an open charcoal chamber for a sampling duration of 3–5 h. This method has a well-defined metrological justification and was tested in both favorable and unfavorable conditions. The article describes the characteristics of the method, as well as the means of sampling and measurement of the activity of radon absorbed. The results of the metrological study suggest that regardless of the sampling conditions (weather, the mechanism and rate of radon transport in the soil, soil properties and conditions), uncertainty of method does not exceed 20%, while the combined standard uncertainty of radon exhalation rate measured from the soil surface does not exceed 30%. The results of the daily measurements of radon exhalation rate from the soil surface at the experimental site during one year are reported. - Highlights: • Radon exhalation rate from the soil surface area of 32 cm"2 can be measured at level of 10 mBq/(m"2s) at the uncertainty ≤30%. • The method has a metrological justification. • No need to consider climate conditions, soil properties and conditions, mechanism and rate of radon transport in the soil.

  17. Evaluation of different methods to recover methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from hospital environmental surfaces.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dolan, A

    2011-11-01

    The environment is implicated as a source of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and there is a need for evidence-based approaches to environmental sampling to assess cleanliness and improve infection prevention and control. We assessed, in vitro, different approaches to sampling the environment for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In a laboratory-based investigation, the recovery of MRSA from two common hospital environments using six different sampling methods was evaluated, with a wild-type strain of MRSA. A 100 cm(2) section of mattress and a laboratory bench surface were contaminated with known inocula of MRSA. Bacteria were recovered by sampling at 30 min after inoculation, using either saline-moistened cotton swabs, neutralising buffer swabs, eSwabs or macrofoam swabs, which were all enriched in tryptone soya broth, or by sampling with direct contact plates or chromogenic \\'sweep\\' plates. The sensitivity (i.e. the minimum number of bacteria inoculated on to a surface which subsequently produced a positive result) of each method was determined for each surface. The most sensitive methods were eSwabs and macrofoam swabs, requiring 6.1 × 10(-1) and 3.9 × 10(-1) MRSA\\/cm(2), respectively, to produce a positive result from the bench surface. The least sensitive swabbing method was saline-moistened cotton swabs, requiring 1.1 × 10(3) MRSA\\/cm(2) of mattress. The recovery of bacteria from environmental samples varies with the swabs and methodology used and negative culture results do not exclude a pathogen-free environment. Greater standardisation is required to facilitate the assessment of cleanliness of healthcare environments.

  18. Spectral analysis of surface waves method to assess shear wave velocity within centrifuge models

    OpenAIRE

    MURILLO, Carol Andrea; THOREL, Luc; CAICEDO, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    The method of the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is tested out on reduced scale centrifuge models, with a specific device, called the mini Falling Weight, developed for this purpose. Tests are performed on layered materials made of a mixture of sand and clay. The shear wave velocity VS determined within the models using the SASW is compared with the laboratory measurements carried out using the bender element test. The results show that the SASW technique applied to centrifuge test...

  19. Powers of detection : technology companies vie to capture leak survey business for natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2005-09-01

    ITT Industries Inc., Physical Sciences Inc., and LaSen Inc. are 3 American companies leading the way to find more efficient methods for identifying leaks from natural gas pipelines. Edmonton-based Synodon Inc. has recently joined the leaders with its newly developed and more sensitive equipment that it hopes to have on the market by the summer of 2006. Leak detection technology was first developed in 1993 in response to concerns about the reliability of aging pipeline infrastructure. In addition to safety concerns, there are concerns over global warming. Methane is a potential greenhouse gas and the United states Environmental Protection Agency estimates that 300 billion cubic feet escape into the atmosphere every year from pipeline leaks. The 2002 Pipeline Safety Improvement Bill in the United States stipulates that leak inspections must be conducted up to 4 times per year in densely populated areas. Violators face fines as high as $1 million. In response to the pipeline safety bill, Synodon raised private equity financing to commercialize an airborne leak detection technology stemming from Canada's space program. In the United States, leak detection technologies that appear likely to take 5 to 20 years for commercialization have been been financed by the Department of Energy and the Office of Pipeline Safety. This paper summarized 5 leak detection prototypes, including ITT's Airborne Natural Gas Emission LiDAR (ANGEL) system which targets high-pressure, long-distance pipelines in North America, LaSen's Airborne LiDAR Pipeline Inspection System (ALPIS) based on DIAL Technology, and a hand-held remote methane leak detector developed jointly by Physical Sciences Inc. of Massachusetts and Houston-based Heath Consultants Inc. Synodon claims that hand-held detectors are too slow and that LiDAR systems still aren't reliable for detection of leaks much below 500 scf/h. Synodon's realSens technology may be more difficult to develop, but it detects

  20. NEW CONCEPTS AND TEST METHODS OF CURVE PROFILE AREA DENSITY IN SURFACE: ESTIMATION OF AREAL DENSITY ON CURVED SPATIAL SURFACE

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Shen

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of curve profile, curve intercept, curve intercept density, curve profile area density, intersection density in containing intersection (or intersection density relied on intersection reference), curve profile intersection density in surface (or curve intercept intersection density relied on intersection of containing curve), and curve profile area density in surface (AS) were defined. AS expressed the amount of curve profile area of Y phase in the unit containing surface area, S...

  1. Robust design optimization method for centrifugal impellers under surface roughness uncertainties due to blade fouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yaping; Zhang, Chuhua

    2016-03-01

    Blade fouling has been proved to be a great threat to compressor performance in operating stage. The current researches on fouling-induced performance degradations of centrifugal compressors are based mainly on simplified roughness models without taking into account the realistic factors such as spatial non-uniformity and randomness of the fouling-induced surface roughness. Moreover, little attention has been paid to the robust design optimization of centrifugal compressor impellers with considerations of blade fouling. In this paper, a multi-objective robust design optimization method is developed for centrifugal impellers under surface roughness uncertainties due to blade fouling. A three-dimensional surface roughness map is proposed to describe the nonuniformity and randomness of realistic fouling accumulations on blades. To lower computational cost in robust design optimization, the support vector regression (SVR) metamodel is combined with the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method to conduct the uncertainty analysis of fouled impeller performance. The analyzed results show that the critical fouled region associated with impeller performance degradations lies at the leading edge of blade tip. The SVR metamodel has been proved to be an efficient and accurate means in the detection of impeller performance variations caused by roughness uncertainties. After design optimization, the robust optimal design is found to be more efficient and less sensitive to fouling uncertainties while maintaining good impeller performance in the clean condition. This research proposes a systematic design optimization method for centrifugal compressors with considerations of blade fouling, providing a practical guidance to the design of advanced centrifugal compressors.

  2. Surface functionalization of SBA-15 by the solvent-free method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yimeng; Zheng Yingwu; Zhu Jianhua

    2004-01-01

    A solvent-free technique was employed for fast modification of mesoporous materials. Copper, chromium and iron oxide species could be highly dispersed in SBA-15 by manually grinding the corresponding precursor salts and the host, followed by calcinations for the first time. This method is more effective to spontaneously disperse oxide species onto SBA-15 than impregnation, probably forming monolayer or submonolayer dispersion of salts or oxides. Besides, Cr(VI) species dominate in the mixing sample while Cr(III) species dominate in the impregnation one. In the temperature programmed surface reaction of nitrosamines, the sample prepared by solvent-free method showed a higher catalytic activity than the impregnation one

  3. Efficiency of cleaning and disinfection of surfaces: correlation between assessment methods

    OpenAIRE

    Frota, Oleci Pereira; Ferreira, Adriano Menis; Guerra, Odanir Garcia; Rigotti, Marcelo Alessandro; Andrade, Denise de; Borges, Najla Moreira Amaral; Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo de

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to assess the correlation among the ATP-bioluminescence assay, visual inspection and microbiological culture in monitoring the efficiency of cleaning and disinfection (C&D) of high-touch clinical surfaces (HTCS) in a walk-in emergency care unit. Method: a prospective and comparative study was carried out from March to June 2015, in which five HTCS were sampled before and after C&D by means of the three methods. The HTCS were considered dirty when dust, waste, humidity an...

  4. An efficient search method for finding the critical slip surface using the compositional Monte Carlo technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goshtasbi, K.; Ahmadi, M; Naeimi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Locating the critical slip surface and the associated minimum factor of safety are two complementary parts in a slope stability analysis. A large number of computer programs exist to solve slope stability problems. Most of these programs, however, have used inefficient and unreliable search procedures to locate the global minimum factor of safety. This paper presents an efficient and reliable method to determine the global minimum factor of safety coupled with a modified version of the Monte Carlo technique. Examples arc presented to illustrate the reliability of the proposed method

  5. Plasma flow to a surface using the iterative Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    The iterative Monte Carlo (IMC) method is applied to a number of one-dimensional plasma flow problems, which encompass a wide range of conditions typical of those present in the boundary of magnetic fusion devices. The kinetic IMC method of solving plasma flow to a surface consists of launching and following particles within a grid of 'bins' into which weights are left according to the time a particle spends within a bin. The density and potential distributions within the plasma are iterated until the final solution is arrived at. The IMC results are compared with analytical treatments of these problems and, in general, good agreement is obtained. (author)

  6. A calculation method for finite depth free-surface green function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingyi Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An improved boundary element method is presented for numerical analysis of hydrodynamic behavior of marine structures. A new algorithm for numerical solution of the finite depth free-surface Green function in three dimensions is developed based on multiple series representations. The whole range of the key parameter R/h is divided into four regions, within which different representation is used to achieve fast convergence. The well-known epsilon algorithm is also adopted to accelerate the convergence. The critical convergence criteria for each representation are investigated and provided. The proposed method is validated by several well-documented benchmark problems.

  7. Geometric methods for estimating representative sidewalk widths applied to Vienna's streetscape surfaces database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezina, Tadej; Graser, Anita; Leth, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Space, and in particular public space for movement and leisure, is a valuable and scarce resource, especially in today's growing urban centres. The distribution and absolute amount of urban space—especially the provision of sufficient pedestrian areas, such as sidewalks—is considered crucial for shaping living and mobility options as well as transport choices. Ubiquitous urban data collection and today's IT capabilities offer new possibilities for providing a relation-preserving overview and for keeping track of infrastructure changes. This paper presents three novel methods for estimating representative sidewalk widths and applies them to the official Viennese streetscape surface database. The first two methods use individual pedestrian area polygons and their geometrical representations of minimum circumscribing and maximum inscribing circles to derive a representative width of these individual surfaces. The third method utilizes aggregated pedestrian areas within the buffered street axis and results in a representative width for the corresponding road axis segment. Results are displayed as city-wide means in a 500 by 500 m grid and spatial autocorrelation based on Moran's I is studied. We also compare the results between methods as well as to previous research, existing databases and guideline requirements on sidewalk widths. Finally, we discuss possible applications of these methods for monitoring and regression analysis and suggest future methodological improvements for increased accuracy.

  8. Wavelet-based unsupervised learning method for electrocardiogram suppression in surface electromyograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niegowski, Maciej; Zivanovic, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    We present a novel approach aimed at removing electrocardiogram (ECG) perturbation from single-channel surface electromyogram (EMG) recordings by means of unsupervised learning of wavelet-based intensity images. The general idea is to combine the suitability of certain wavelet decomposition bases which provide sparse electrocardiogram time-frequency representations, with the capacity of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for extracting patterns from images. In order to overcome convergence problems which often arise in NMF-related applications, we design a novel robust initialization strategy which ensures proper signal decomposition in a wide range of ECG contamination levels. Moreover, the method can be readily used because no a priori knowledge or parameter adjustment is needed. The proposed method was evaluated on real surface EMG signals against two state-of-the-art unsupervised learning algorithms and a singular spectrum analysis based method. The results, expressed in terms of high-to-low energy ratio, normalized median frequency, spectral power difference and normalized average rectified value, suggest that the proposed method enables better ECG-EMG separation quality than the reference methods. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Standard test method for damage to contacting solid surfaces under fretting conditions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the studying or ranking the susceptibility of candidate materials to fretting corrosion or fretting wear for the purposes of material selection for applications where fretting corrosion or fretting wear can limit serviceability. 1.2 This test method uses a tribological bench test apparatus with a mechanism or device that will produce the necessary relative motion between a contacting hemispherical rider and a flat counterface. The rider is pressed against the flat counterface with a loading mass. The test method is intended for use in room temperature air, but future editions could include fretting in the presence of lubricants or other environments. 1.3 The purpose of this test method is to rub two solid surfaces together under controlled fretting conditions and to quantify the damage to both surfaces in units of volume loss for the test method. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5...

  10. On application of ion-photon emission method in spectral analysis of surface of different materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazhin, A.I.; Buravlev, Yu.M.; Ryzhov, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    Possibilities of application of ion-photom emission (IPE) method for determining element composition of the aluminium bronzes surface and profiles of distribution of hydrogen and helium implanted in metals (Mon Wn Cun Aln OKh18N10T steel) by ion bombardment have been studied. As ion source duoplasmatron which permits to obtain ions of inert (helium, argon) and active (hydrogenn oxygen) gases with current density 0.1-1 mA/cm 2 in the beam and energy from 5 to 25 keV has been applied. The photomultiplier PEM-79 has been used as a detector of optical radiation arising in the course of ion bombardment of the sample. For spectra recording the two-coordinate recorder has been used. Calibration charts which permit to determine the concentration of the investigated elements with 3-5% accuracy are obtained. The method sensitivity depends on excitation energy of transition observed in the spectrum. By known volumetric element concentration in the sample one can determine its concentration on a sUrface without resorting to a calibration chart in the coUrse of target sputtering. It has been found that the target impurity sputtering coefficient becomes nonselective to their relatiVe content. At wide incidence angles of ion beam. In contrast to other excitation methods (arc, spark) the IPE method possesses locality which constitutes 1 μm at a quite simple method of ion beam focussing (single lens)

  11. Efficiency of cleaning and disinfection of surfaces: correlation between assessment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleci Pereira Frota

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to assess the correlation among the ATP-bioluminescence assay, visual inspection and microbiological culture in monitoring the efficiency of cleaning and disinfection (C&D of high-touch clinical surfaces (HTCS in a walk-in emergency care unit. Method: a prospective and comparative study was carried out from March to June 2015, in which five HTCS were sampled before and after C&D by means of the three methods. The HTCS were considered dirty when dust, waste, humidity and stains were detected in visual inspection; when ≥2.5 colony forming units per cm2 were found in culture; when ≥5 relative light units per cm2 were found at the ATP-bioluminescence assay. Results: 720 analyses were performed, 240 per method. The overall rates of clean surfaces per visual inspection, culture and ATP-bioluminescence assay were 8.3%, 20.8% and 44.2% before C&D, and 92.5%, 50% and 84.2% after C&D, respectively (p<0.001. There were only occasional statistically significant relationships between methods. Conclusion: the methods did not present a good correlation, neither quantitative nor qualitatively.

  12. Site Classification using Multichannel Channel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) method on Soft and Hard Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, M. A. M.; Kumar, N. S.; Yusoh, R.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Aziman, M.

    2018-04-01

    Site classification utilizing average shear wave velocity (Vs(30) up to 30 meters depth is a typical parameter. Numerous geophysical methods have been proposed for estimation of shear wave velocity by utilizing assortment of testing configuration, processing method, and inversion algorithm. Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) method is been rehearsed by numerous specialist and professional to geotechnical engineering for local site characterization and classification. This study aims to determine the site classification on soft and hard ground using MASW method. The subsurface classification was made utilizing National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NERHP) and international Building Code (IBC) classification. Two sites are chosen to acquire the shear wave velocity which is in the state of Pulau Pinang for soft soil and Perlis for hard rock. Results recommend that MASW technique can be utilized to spatially calculate the distribution of shear wave velocity (Vs(30)) in soil and rock to characterize areas.

  13. Determination of γ-rays emitting radionuclides in surface water: application of a quantitative biosensing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolterbeek, H. Th.; Van der Meer, A. J. G. M.

    1995-01-01

    A quantitative biosensing method has been developed for the determination of γ-rays emitting radionuclides in surface water. The method is based on the concept that at equilibrium the specific radioactivity in the biosensor is equal to the specific radioactivity in water. The method consists of the measurement of both the radionuclide and the related stable isotope (element) in the biosensor and the determination of the element in water. This three-way analysis eliminates problems such as unpredictable biosensor behaviour, effects of water elemental composition or further abiotic parameters on accumulation levels: what remains is the generally high enrichment (bioaccumulation factor BCF) of elements and radionuclides in the biosensor material. Using water plants, the method is shown to be three to five orders of magnitude more sensitive than the direct analysis of water. (author)

  14. Determination of {gamma}-rays emitting radionuclides in surface water: application of a quantitative biosensing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolterbeek, H Th; Van der Meer, A. J. G. M. [Delft University of Technology, Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    A quantitative biosensing method has been developed for the determination of {gamma}-rays emitting radionuclides in surface water. The method is based on the concept that at equilibrium the specific radioactivity in the biosensor is equal to the specific radioactivity in water. The method consists of the measurement of both the radionuclide and the related stable isotope (element) in the biosensor and the determination of the element in water. This three-way analysis eliminates problems such as unpredictable biosensor behaviour, effects of water elemental composition or further abiotic parameters on accumulation levels: what remains is the generally high enrichment (bioaccumulation factor BCF) of elements and radionuclides in the biosensor material. Using water plants, the method is shown to be three to five orders of magnitude more sensitive than the direct analysis of water. (author)

  15. Fast centroid algorithm for determining the surface plasmon resonance angle using the fixed-boundary method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Shuyue; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Yuling

    2011-01-01

    To simplify the algorithm for determining the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) angle for special applications and development trends, a fast method for determining an SPR angle, called the fixed-boundary centroid algorithm, has been proposed. Two experiments were conducted to compare three centroid algorithms from the aspects of the operation time, sensitivity to shot noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), resolution, and measurement range. Although the measurement range of this method was narrower, the other performance indices were all better than the other two centroid methods. This method has outstanding performance, high speed, good conformity, low error and a high SNR and resolution. It thus has the potential to be widely adopted

  16. Optimization of Coolant Technique Conditions for Machining A319 Aluminium Alloy Using Response Surface Method (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal Ariffin, S.; Razlan, A.; Ali, M. Mohd; Efendee, A. M.; Rahman, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    Background/Objectives: The paper discusses about the optimum cutting parameters with coolant techniques condition (1.0 mm nozzle orifice, wet and dry) to optimize surface roughness, temperature and tool wear in the machining process based on the selected setting parameters. The selected cutting parameters for this study were the cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and coolant techniques condition. Methods/Statistical Analysis Experiments were conducted and investigated based on Design of Experiment (DOE) with Response Surface Method. The research of the aggressive machining process on aluminum alloy (A319) for automotive applications is an effort to understand the machining concept, which widely used in a variety of manufacturing industries especially in the automotive industry. Findings: The results show that the dominant failure mode is the surface roughness, temperature and tool wear when using 1.0 mm nozzle orifice, increases during machining and also can be alternative minimize built up edge of the A319. The exploration for surface roughness, productivity and the optimization of cutting speed in the technical and commercial aspects of the manufacturing processes of A319 are discussed in automotive components industries for further work Applications/Improvements: The research result also beneficial in minimizing the costs incurred and improving productivity of manufacturing firms. According to the mathematical model and equations, generated by CCD based RSM, experiments were performed and cutting coolant condition technique using size nozzle can reduces tool wear, surface roughness and temperature was obtained. Results have been analyzed and optimization has been carried out for selecting cutting parameters, shows that the effectiveness and efficiency of the system can be identified and helps to solve potential problems.

  17. Chemical surface modification of calcium carbonate particles with stearic acid using different treating methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Zhi [Materials Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology, Athlone (Ireland); Daly, Michael [Mergon International, Castlepollard, Westmeath (Ireland); Clémence, Lopez [Polytech Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Geever, Luke M.; Major, Ian; Higginbotham, Clement L. [Materials Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology, Athlone (Ireland); Devine, Declan M., E-mail: ddevine@ait.ie [Materials Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology, Athlone (Ireland)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • The effects of stearic acid treatment for CaCO{sub 3} are highly influenced by the treatment method of application. • A new stearic acid treatment method, namely, combination treatment for CaCO{sub 3} was developed. • The combination treatment was compared with two of the existing methods dry and wet method. • The negative effects of void coalescence was minimised by the utilization of the combination method. - Abstract: Calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) is often treated with stearic acid (SA) to decrease its polarity. However, the method of application of the SA treatments has a strong influence on CaCO{sub 3} thermoplastic composite’s interfacial structure and distribution. Several of papers describe the promising effects of SA surface treatment, but few compare the treatment process and its effect on the properties of the final thermoplastic composite. In the current study, we assessed a new SA treatment method, namely, complex treatment for polymer composite fabrication with HDPE. Subsequently, a comparative study was performed between the “complex” process and the other existing methods. The composites were assessed using different experiments included scanning electron microscopy (SEM), void content, density, wettability, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and tensile tests. It was observed that the “complex” surface treatment yielded composites with a significantly lower voids content and higher density compared to other surface treatments. This indicates that after the “complex” treatment process, the CaCO{sub 3} particles and HDPE matrix are more tightly packed than other methods. DSC and wettability results suggest that the “wet” and “complex” treated CaCO{sub 3} composites had a significantly higher heat of fusion and moisture resistance compared to the “dry” treated CaCO{sub 3} composites. Furthermore, “wet” and “complex” treated CaCO{sub 3} composites have a significantly higher tensile

  18. Aspects et mesure de la qualité de vie : évolution et renouvellement des tableaux de bord métropolitains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre J. Hamel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available La mesure de la qualité de vie à l’intérieur des espaces urbains préoccupe les administrations publiques depuis nombre d’années. Cet article passe en revue les modèles de mesure de la qualité de vie développés par les métropoles canadiennes. Il s’interroge sur l’évolution de ces modèles de mesure et sur leur capacité à rendre compte des différentes problématiques désormais associées à la notion de qualité de vie comme le développement social, l’environnement, la société du risque, les ambiances urbaines ou la compétitivité urbaine.For a number of years now, government bodies at all levels have been concerned with measuring quality of life within urban areas. This paper reviews the models used by Canada’s metropolises to measure quality of life. It examines how the models have evolved and their capacity to consider various issues which have become associated with the notion of quality of life, such as social development, environment, risk society, urban surroundings, or urban competitiveness.

  19. EVOLUTION DU CONCEPT DE LA QUALITE DE VIE AU MAROC : CAS DE LA POLYARTHRITE RHUMATOÏDE ET DE LA SPONDYLOARTHRITE ANKYLOSANTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan RKAIN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available La polyarthrite rhumatoïde et la spondylarthrite ankylosante sont à la tête des rhumatismes inflammatoires chroniques (RIC. La souffrance engendrée par la douleur chronique rhumatismale, le retentissement sur le vécu journalier des patients et leur entourage, altèrent incontestablement la qualité de vie des patients. Ce travail reprend de manière succincte les études ayant abordé cet aspect chez les patients marocains souffrant de PR et de SPA. Ces travaux font l’unanimité sur la perturbation de la qualité de vie des patients marocains souffrant de ces RIC en affectant considérablement les domaines physique, psychique et social. Les études longitudinales, réalisées en particulier dans la PR, attestent de l’intérêt de la prise en charge adéquate de ces RIC pour améliorer la qualité de vie du patient marocain.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL COMPARISON OF THE AEROSOL METHOD OF DISINFECTION OF AIR AND SURFACES CONTAMINATED BY M. TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kuzin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study: to analyze efficiency of an aerosol method of M. tuberculosis deactivation in the air and on surfaces versus the conventional methods of the disinfectants' application.Subjects and Methods. The article describes the evaluation of efficiency of the aerosol method of M. tuberculosis, H37Rv strain, deactivation on surfaces (tested objects made of linoleum and in the air using the disinfectant of Green Dez based on chlorine dioxide versus deactivation through wiping and irrigation.The efficiency of disinfectant was tested by the device of 099С А4224 manufactured by Glas-Col, USA, using the air sampler of PU-1B, Russia.The Mobile Hygienic Center (MNC, Russia, was used for application of the disinfectant, wiping and irrigation was done using the disperser of Avtomaks AO-2, Russia.The bacterial aerosol was generated in the Glass-Col chamber with the concentration 5 ± 2.5 × 102 CFU/cm3, by spraying the suspension of M. tuberculosis, H37Rv strain. After that, the disinfectant spray was supplied to the chamber, where linoleum objects were placed horizontally on a variety of surfaces. In order to evaluate efficiency of surface treatment by wiping, the test objects were wiped with a tissue, soaked with the solution of Green Dez, based on consumption of 100-150 ml/m2. In 15, 30 and 60 minutes, the samples of inactivated M. tuberculosis aerosol were collected using an aspirator, chambers with test objects were closed and placed in the vent hood. To monitor efficiency of disinfection of the test object surfaces, the rinse blanks were done by wiping the surface with a sterile gauze wad, soaked with 0.5% of sodium thiosulfate solution.The samples of deactivated aerosol and rinse blanks from the surfaces of test objects were put into Petri dishes with Middlebrook 7H11 medium. The cultures were incubated in the thermostat at the temperature of 37 ± 1° C for 10-21 days, and the number of colonies was counted.Sterile water was used

  1. Evaluation of Alternative Peel Ply Surface Preparation Methods of SC-15 Epoxy / Fiberglass Composite Surfaces for Secondary Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    prepared composite surfaces. Examination of the surface compositions will show differences in makeup and identify any transfer of contaminants...by carefully brushing the specimen with a lint-free cloth followed by a high-pressure nitrogen gas stream. 3.2 X-ray Photospectroscopy (XPS

  2. Optimizing pressurized liquid extraction of microbial lipids using the response surface method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescut, J; Severac, E; Molina-Jouve, C; Uribelarrea, J-L

    2011-01-21

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the determination of optimum extraction parameters to reach maximum lipid extraction yield with yeast. Total lipids were extracted from oleaginous yeast (Rhodotorula glutinis) using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The effects of extraction parameters on lipid extraction yield were studied by employing a second-order central composite design. The optimal condition was obtained as three cycles of 15 min at 100°C with a ratio of 144 g of hydromatrix per 100 g of dry cell weight. Different analysis methods were used to compare the optimized PLE method with two conventional methods (Soxhlet and modification of Bligh and Dyer methods) under efficiency, selectivity and reproducibility criteria thanks to gravimetric analysis, GC with flame ionization detector, High Performance Liquid Chromatography linked to Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (HPLC-ELSD) and thin-layer chromatographic analysis. For each sample, the lipid extraction yield with optimized PLE was higher than those obtained with referenced methods (Soxhlet and Bligh and Dyer methods with, respectively, a recovery of 78% and 85% compared to PLE method). Moreover, the use of PLE led to major advantages such as an analysis time reduction by a factor of 10 and solvent quantity reduction by 70%, compared with traditional extraction methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The comparison of laser surface designing and pigment printing methods for the product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozguney, Arif Taner

    2007-07-01

    Developing new designs by using the computer and transferring the designs that are obtained to textile surfaces will not only increase and facilitate the production in a more practical manner, but also help you create identical designs. This means serial manufacturing of the products at standard quality and increasing their added values. Moreover, creating textile designs using the laser will also contribute to the value of the product as far as the consumer is concerned because it will not cause any wearing off and deformation in the texture of the fabric unlike the other methods. In the system that has been designed, the laser beam at selected wavelength and intensity was directed onto a selected textile surface and a computer-controlled laser beam source was used to change the colour substances on the textile surface. Pigment printing is also used for designing in textile and apparel sector. In this method, designs are transferred to the fabric manually by using dyestuff. In this study, the denim fabric used for the surfacing trial was 100% cotton, with a weft count per centimeter of 20 and a warp count per centimeter of 27, with fabric weight of 458 g/m 2. The first step was to prepare 40 pieces of denim samples, half of which were prepared manually pigment printing and the other half by using the laser beam. After this, some test applications were done. The tensile strength, tensile extension and some fastness values of designed pieces with two methods were compared according to the international standards.

  4. [A Method to Reconstruct Surface Reflectance Spectrum from Multispectral Image Based on Canopy Radiation Transfer Model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-guang; Ma, Ling-ling; Li, Chuan-rong; Zhu, Xiao-hua; Tang, Ling-li

    2015-07-01

    Due to the lack of enough spectral bands for multi-spectral sensor, it is difficult to reconstruct surface retlectance spectrum from finite spectral information acquired by multi-spectral instrument. Here, taking into full account of the heterogeneity of pixel from remote sensing image, a method is proposed to simulate hyperspectral data from multispectral data based on canopy radiation transfer model. This method first assumes the mixed pixels contain two types of land cover, i.e., vegetation and soil. The sensitive parameters of Soil-Leaf-Canopy (SLC) model and a soil ratio factor were retrieved from multi-spectral data based on Look-Up Table (LUT) technology. Then, by combined with a soil ratio factor, all the parameters were input into the SLC model to simulate the surface reflectance spectrum from 400 to 2 400 nm. Taking Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image as reference image, the surface reflectance spectrum was simulated. The simulated reflectance spectrum revealed different feature information of different surface types. To test the performance of this method, the simulated reflectance spectrum was convolved with the Landsat ETM + spectral response curves and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) spectral response curves to obtain the simulated Landsat ETM+ and MODIS image. Finally, the simulated Landsat ETM+ and MODIS images were compared with the observed Landsat ETM+ and MODIS images. The results generally showed high correction coefficients (Landsat: 0.90-0.99, MODIS: 0.74-0.85) between most simulated bands and observed bands and indicated that the simulated reflectance spectrum was well simulated and reliable.

  5. Effects of various debonding and adhesive clearance methods on enamel surface: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiao-Chuan; Chen, Li; Huang, Xiao-Feng

    2017-02-27

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate orthodontic debonding methods by comparing the surface roughness and enamel morphology of teeth after applying two different debonding methods and three different polishing techniques. Forty eight human maxillary premolars, extracted for orthodontic reasons, were randomly divided into three groups. Brackets were bonded to teeth with RMGIC (Fuji Ortho LC, GC, Tokyo, Japan) (two groups, n = 18 each) after acid etching (30s), light cured for 40 s, exposed to thermocycling, then underwent 2 different bracket debonding methods: debonding pliers (Shinye, Hangzhou, China) or enamel chisel (Jinzhong, Shanghai, China); the third group (n = 12) comprised of untreated controls, with normal enamel surface roughness. In each debonded group, three cleanup techniques (n = 6 each) were tested, including (I) diamond bur (TC11EF, MANI, Tochigi, Japan) and One-Gloss (Midi, Shofu, Kyoto, Japan), (II) a Super-Snap disk (Shofu, Kyoto, Japan), and (III) One-Gloss polisher. The debonding methods were compared using the modified adhesive remnant index (ARI, 1-5). Cleanup efficiencies were assessed by recording operating times. Enamel surfaces were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface roughness tester, respectively. Two surface roughness variables were evaluated: Ra (average roughness) and Rz (10-point height of irregularities). The ARI scores of debonded teeth were similar with debonding pliers and enamel chisel (Chi-square = 2.19, P > 0.05). There were significant differences between mean operating time in each group (F = 52.615, P One-Gloss took the shortest operating time (37.92 ± 3.82 s), followed by the Super-Snap disk (56.67 ± 7.52 s), and the One-Gloss polisher (63.50 ± 6.99 s). SEM appearance provided by the One-Gloss polisher was the closest to the intact enamel surface, and surface roughness (Ra: 0.082 ± 0.046 μm; Rz: 0.499

  6. Immobilization of Fab' fragments onto substrate surfaces: A survey of methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivianu-Gaita, Victor; Thompson, Michael

    2015-08-15

    Antibody immobilization onto surfaces has widespread applications in many different fields. It is desirable to bind antibodies such that their fragment-antigen-binding (Fab) units are oriented away from the surface in order to maximize analyte binding. The immobilization of only Fab' fragments yields benefits over the more traditional whole antibody immobilization technique. Bound Fab' fragments display higher surface densities, yielding a higher binding capacity for the analyte. The nucleophilic sulfide of the Fab' fragments allows for specific orientations to be achieved. For biosensors, this indicates a higher sensitivity and lower detection limit for a target analyte. The last thirty years have shown tremendous progress in the immobilization of Fab' fragments onto gold, Si-based, polysaccharide-based, plastic-based, magnetic, and inorganic surfaces. This review will show the current scope of Fab' immobilization techniques available and illustrate methods employed to minimize non-specific adsorption of undesirables. Furthermore, a variety of examples will be given to show the versatility of immobilized Fab' fragments in different applications and future directions of the field will be addressed, especially regarding biosensors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of surface functional groups on mechanochemically activated carbon cloth by Boehm method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Anđelka B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve sorption properties of activated carbon cloth that can be used for wastewater purification, mechanochemical activation was performed in both inert and air atmosphere. Boehm method was used to follow the changes in the number and types of surface groups induced by mechanical milling. The number of the base groups of 0,2493 mmol/g is significantly smaller than the total amount of acidic functional groups, 2,5093 mmol/g. Among the acidic groups present on the surface, the most represented are phenolic groups (2.3846 mmol/g , ie . > 95 % , the carboxylic groups are present far less (0.1173 mmol /g, ie. 4.5 %, while the presence of the lactone group on the surface of ACC is negligible (0.0074 mmol/g ie. under 0.3 %. Mechanochemical activation lead to an increase in the number of acidic and basic groups on the surface of the ACC. The milling in inert atmosphere has dominant effect with respect to the changes in the total number of basic functional groups (compared to milling in an air atmosphere: the number of basic groups of the ACC was 0.8153 mmol/g milled under argon, 0.7933 mmol/g in the air; the number of acidic groups is 2.9807 mmol/g for a sample milled under argon and 3.5313 mmol/g for one milled in the air.

  8. An empirical method for estimating surface area of aggregates in hot mix asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Panda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bitumen requirement in hot mix asphalt (HMA is directly dependent on the surface area of the aggregates in the mix, which in turn has effect on the asphalt film thickness and the flow characteristics. The surface area of aggregate blend in HMA is calculated using the specific surface area factors assigned to percentage passing through some specific standard sieve sizes and the imaging techniques. The first process is less capital intensive, but purely manual and labour intensive and prone to human errors. Imaging techniques though eliminating the human errors, still have limited use due to capital intensiveness and requirement of well-established laboratories with qualified technicians. Most of the developing countries like India are shortage of well-equipped laboratories and qualified technicians. To overcome these difficulties, the present mathematical model has been developed to estimate the surface area of aggregate blend of HMA from physical properties of aggregates evaluated using simple laboratory equipment. This model has been validated compared with the existing established methods of calculations and can be used as one of the tools in different developing and under developed countries for proper design of HMA.

  9. Unevenness of Sliding Surface of Overhead Rigid Conductor Lines and Method for Reducing Unevenness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboshi, Mitsuo; Shimizu, Masashi

    Rigid conductor lines are used in many subways, because the use of such conductor lines reduces the risk of accidents and because less space is required for their installation. However, as the unevenness of the sliding surface of the rigid conductor lines significantly influences the fluctuations in the contact force between pantographs and contact lines, it is necessary to decrease the unevenness at the construction as well as the maintenance stages. In order to investigate the installation accuracy of overhead rigid conductor lines, we have developed a device that accurately and continuously measures the unevenness of the sliding surface. By using this measuring device, we have confirmed that the unevenness of the sliding surface depends on various factors such as the sag between the support points, the deformation of the aluminum base or the conductive rail in the case of a long wavelength, the slight sagging unevenness between the bolts of the long ear, the undulating wear etc. This paper describes the actual unevenness conditions and the technical methods for decreasing the unevenness of the sliding surface of overhead rigid conductor lines.

  10. Methods for the calculation of derived working limits for surface contamination by low-toxicity radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.A.B.; Wrixon, A.D.

    1979-01-01

    Surface contamination is often measured as an indication of the general spread of radioactive contamination in a particular place. Derived working limits, (DWLs) for surface contamination provide figures against which to assess the significance of measurements. Derived working limits for surface contamination were first established for use in the nuclear energy industry. They were designed to cope with a wide range of unspecified radionuclides and were therefore based on the assumption that the contamination was due to the presence of the most hazardous radionuclides, e.g. 90 Sr, 210 Pb, 226 Ra and 239 Pu. While this assumption may still be appropriate when the radionuclide mixture is unknown, there are now many specialized uses of particular low-toxicity radionuclides in universities, hospitals and general industry. If it is known that only a particular radionuclide is present, the general DWL can be replaced by a more specific value. The methods for calculating DWLs for some of the more commonly employed low-toxicity radionuclides are described. The exposure pathways considered are (a) external radiation of the skin and inhalation of airborne material from contaminated surfaces in active areas; (b) external irradiation of the skin and ingestion from contaminated skin. Some consideration is given to the effect of the revised dose equivalent limits in the most recent recommendations of ICRP. (author)

  11. Novel method for the simultaneous estimation of density and surface tension of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirunavukkarasu, G.; Srinivasan, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    The conventional Hare's apparatus generally used for the determination of density of liquids has been modified by replacing its vertical arms (glass tubes) with capillary tubes of 30 cm length and 0.072 cm diameter. When the columns of liquids are drawn through the capillary tubes with reduced pressure at the top of the liquid columns and kept at equilibrium with the atmospheric pressure acting on the liquid surface outside the capillary tubes, the downward pressure due to gravity of the liquid columns has to be coupled with the pressure arising due to the effect of surface tension of the liquids. A fresh expression for the density and surface tension of liquids has been arrived at while equating the pressure balancing system for the two individual liquid columns of the modified Hare's apparatus. The experimental results showed that the proposed method is precise and accurate in the simultaneous estimation of density and surface tension of liquids, with an error of less than 5%

  12. Development of a new method for high temperature in-core characterisation of solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamawaki, M.; Suzuki, A.; Yokota, T.; Nan Luo, G.; Yamaguchi, K.; Hayashi, K.

    2000-01-01

    In order to develop a new method for establishing in situ characterizations and monitoring of solid surfaces under irradiation and in controlled atmospheres, the high temperature Kelvin probe has been applied and tested to measure work function changes under such conditions. In the case of Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 2 ZrO 3 , two steps of distinct change of work function were observed when the specimen was exposed to hydrogen gas and also when it was retrieved. These changes were attributed to the oxygen vacancies formation/annihilation and the adsorption/desorption of gas (H 2 ). While the work function measured on a gold specimen under proton beam irradiation showed a steep drop in the work function during the initial irradiation, it gradually recovered after the end of irradiation. The second irradiation gave rise to a smaller value of the work function decrease of gold. These results support a possibility of adopting the high temperature Kelvin probe for the purpose of monitoring/characterising solid surface under irradiation in nuclear reactors and other facilities so as to detect the formation of defects in the surface and near-surface region of solid specimens. (authors)

  13. Study on the relevance of some of the description methods for plateau-honed surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousfi, M; Mezghani, S; Demirci, I; El Mansori, M

    2014-01-01

    Much work has been undertaken in recent years into the determination of a complete parametric description of plateau-honed surfaces with the intention of making a link between the process conditions, the surface topography and the required functional performances. Different advanced techniques (plateau/valleys decomposition using the normalized Abbott–Firestone curve or morphological operators, multiscale decomposition using continuous wavelets transform, etc) were proposed and applied in different studies. This paper re-examines the current state of developments and addresses a discussion on the relevance of the different proposed parameters and characterization methods for plateau-honed surfaces by considering the control loop manufacturing-characterization-function. The relevance of appropriate characterization is demonstrated through two experimental studies. They consider the effect of the most plateau honing process variables (the abrasive grit size and abrasive indentation velocity in finish-honing and the plateau-honing stage duration and pressure) on cylinder liner surface textures and hydrodynamic friction of the ring-pack system. (paper)

  14. Surface roughness and hardness of a composite resin: influence of finishing and polishing and immersion methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Botta Martins de Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the finishing and polishing effect on the surface roughness and hardness of the Filtek Supreme XT, in fluoride solutions. Specimens were prepared (n = 140 with half of the samples finished and polished with Super-Snap® disks. The experimental groups were divided according to the presence or absence of finishing and polishing and immersion solutions (artificial saliva, sodium fluoride solution at 0.05% - manipulated, Fluordent Reach, Oral B, Fluorgard. The specimens remained immersed in artificial saliva for 24 hours and were then subjected to initial analysis (baseline of surface roughness and Vickers microhardness. Next, they were immersed in different fluoride solutions for 1 min/day, for 60 days. Afterwards, a new surface roughness and microhardness reading was conducted. The data were submitted to a two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (5% significance level. For the comparison of mean roughness and hardness at baseline and after 60 days, the paired Student t test was used. The results showed that the surface roughness and microhardness of the Filtek Supreme XT were influenced by the finishing and polishing procedure, independently of the immersion methods.

  15. Computational methods for investigation of surface curvature effects on airfoil boundary layer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Shen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents computational algorithms for the design, analysis, and optimization of airfoil aerodynamic performance. The prescribed surface curvature distribution blade design (CIRCLE method is applied to a symmetrical airfoil NACA0012 and a non-symmetrical airfoil E387 to remove their surface curvature and slope-of-curvature discontinuities. Computational fluid dynamics analysis is used to investigate the effects of curvature distribution on aerodynamic performance of the original and modified airfoils. An inviscid–viscid interaction scheme is introduced to predict the positions of laminar separation bubbles. The results are compared with experimental data obtained from tests on the original airfoil geometry. The computed aerodynamic advantages of the modified airfoils are analyzed in different operating conditions. The leading edge singularity of NACA0012 is removed and it is shown that the surface curvature discontinuity affects aerodynamic performance near the stalling angle of attack. The discontinuous slope-of-curvature distribution of E387 results in a larger laminar separation bubble at lower angles of attack and lower Reynolds numbers. It also affects the inherent performance of the airfoil at higher Reynolds numbers. It is shown that at relatively high angles of attack, a continuous slope-of-curvature distribution reduces the skin friction by suppressing both laminar and turbulent separation, and by delaying laminar-turbulent transition. It is concluded that the surface curvature distribution has significant effects on the boundary layer behavior and consequently an improved curvature distribution will lead to higher aerodynamic efficiency.

  16. Effect of different polishing methods on surface roughness of provisional prosthetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupinambá, Ívian Verena Maia; Giampá, Priscila Couy Corrêa; Rocha, Isadora Almeida Rios; Lima, Emilena Maria Castor Xisto

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the surface roughness of bis-acrylic and acrylic resins submitted to different methods of polishing. Fifty samples of each provisional restorative material (Structur 2, Protemp 4, Duralay, and Dencrilay) were fabricated (10 mm × 2 mm) and divided into five groups ( n = 10): (1) positive control group - polyester strip; (2) negative control - unpolished; (3) abrasive tips (Exa-Technique-Edenta); (4) goat hair brush and diamond polishing paste; and (5) silicone tips (Enhance). Each material was mixed and polymerized according to manufacturer's instructions. The parameter evaluated was the arithmetic mean of the surface roughness (Ra) determined using the rugosimeter SJ 301 (Mitutoyo, Japan). The data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance ( post hoc Tukey's test) ( P < 0.05). The lowest surface roughness values (0,22-0,90 μm) were observed in the Group 4 - goat hair brush and diamond paste, while the highest values (1,17-1,44 μm) were found in the Group 5 - silicone tips (enhance), with statistically significant differences between them, except for Dencrilay acrylic resin. There was statistically significant difference between bis-acrylic and acrylic resins in the Groups 1, 2, and 4. Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the most effective polishing system was the goat hair brush with diamond paste for both bis-acrylic and acrylic resins. The bis-acrylic resins exhibited significantly smoother surfaces than the acrylic resins.

  17. Surface defect detection in tiling Industries using digital image processing methods: analysis and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad H; Asemani, Davud

    2014-05-01

    Ceramic and tile industries should indispensably include a grading stage to quantify the quality of products. Actually, human control systems are often used for grading purposes. An automatic grading system is essential to enhance the quality control and marketing of the products. Since there generally exist six different types of defects originating from various stages of tile manufacturing lines with distinct textures and morphologies, many image processing techniques have been proposed for defect detection. In this paper, a survey has been made on the pattern recognition and image processing algorithms which have been used to detect surface defects. Each method appears to be limited for detecting some subgroup of defects. The detection techniques may be divided into three main groups: statistical pattern recognition, feature vector extraction and texture/image classification. The methods such as wavelet transform, filtering, morphology and contourlet transform are more effective for pre-processing tasks. Others including statistical methods, neural networks and model-based algorithms can be applied to extract the surface defects. Although, statistical methods are often appropriate for identification of large defects such as Spots, but techniques such as wavelet processing provide an acceptable response for detection of small defects such as Pinhole. A thorough survey is made in this paper on the existing algorithms in each subgroup. Also, the evaluation parameters are discussed including supervised and unsupervised parameters. Using various performance parameters, different defect detection algorithms are compared and evaluated. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A nanosilver-based spectrophotometric method for determination of malachite green in surface water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraei, R; Farmany, A; Mortazavi, S S; Noorizadeh, H

    2013-07-01

    A new spectrophotometric method is reported for the determination of nanomolar level of malachite green in surface water samples. The method is based on the catalytic effect of silver nanoparticles on the oxidation of malachite green by hexacyanoferrate (III) in acetate-acetic acid medium. The absorbance is measured at 610 nm with the fixed-time method. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range was 8.0 × 10(-9)-2.0 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) malachite green with a correlation coefficient of 0.996. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) was 2.0 × 10(-9) mol L(-1). Relative standard deviation for ten replicate determinations of 1.0 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) malachite green was 1.86%. The method is featured with good accuracy and reproducibility for malachite green determination in surface water samples without any pre-concentration and separation step.

  19. Experimental verification on limit load estimation method for pipes with an arbitrary shaped circumferential surface flaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yinsheng; Hasegawa, Kunio; Miura, Naoki; Hoshino, Katsuaki

    2010-01-01

    When a flaw is detected in stainless steel pipes during in-service inspection, the limit load criterion given in the codes such as JSME Rules on Fitness-for-Service for Nuclear Power Plants or ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI can be applied to evaluate the integrity of the pipe. However, in these codes, the limit load criterion is only provided for pipes containing a flaw with uniform depth, although many flaws with complicated shape such as stress corrosion cracking have been actually detected in pipes. In order to evaluate the integrity of the flawed pipes for general case, a limit load estimation method has been proposed by authors considering a circumferential surface flaw with arbitrary shape. The plastic collapse bending moment and corresponding stress are obtained by dividing the surface flaw into several segmented sub-flaws. In this paper, the proposed method was verified by comparing with experimental results. Four-point bending experiments were carried out for full scale stainless steel pipes with a symmetrical or non-symmetrical circumferential flaw. Estimated failure bending moments by the proposed method were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results, and the proposed method was confirmed to be effective for evaluating bending failure of pipes with flaw. (author)

  20. Prediction of allosteric sites on protein surfaces with an elastic-network-model-based thermodynamic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ji Guo; Qi, Li Sheng; Li, Chun Hua; Zhu, Yan Ying; Du, Hui Jing; Hou, Yan Xue; Hao, Rui; Wang, Ji Hua

    2014-08-01

    Allostery is a rapid and efficient way in many biological processes to regulate protein functions, where binding of an effector at the allosteric site alters the activity and function at a distant active site. Allosteric regulation of protein biological functions provides a promising strategy for novel drug design. However, how to effectively identify the allosteric sites remains one of the major challenges for allosteric drug design. In the present work, a thermodynamic method based on the elastic network model was proposed to predict the allosteric sites on the protein surface. In our method, the thermodynamic coupling between the allosteric and active sites was considered, and then the allosteric sites were identified as those where the binding of an effector molecule induces a large change in the binding free energy of the protein with its ligand. Using the proposed method, two proteins, i.e., the 70 kD heat shock protein (Hsp70) and GluA2 alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor, were studied and the allosteric sites on the protein surface were successfully identified. The predicted results are consistent with the available experimental data, which indicates that our method is a simple yet effective approach for the identification of allosteric sites on proteins.

  1. A Novel Yeast Surface Display Method for Large-Scale Screen Inhibitors of Sortase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin; Li, Huijun; Tang, Tianle

    2017-01-24

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer substrates of sortase A are too expensive to be used to roughly screen high-throughput sortase A inhibitors. This makes therapeutic strategies difficult to realize in a clinical therapeutic use. Instead, we design here an LPETG-EGFP (leucine, proline, glutamic, threonine and glycine-enhanced green fluorescence) protein displayed on a yeast surface as a substrate by adaptively reducing the cost. We do this by optimizing the induction conditions of sortase A expression in Escherichia coli DE3(BL21) and catalyzing LPETG proteins, which are displayed on surface of Pichia pastoris . Different expression conditions of sortase A include: induction temperature (22 °C, 28 °C, 37 °C and 40 °C), induction time (4 h, 5 h, 6 h and 7 h) and induction concentration of isopropyl β-d-thiogalactoside IPTG (0.25 mmol/L, 0.5 mmol/L, 1 mmol/L, and 2 mmol/L). The fluorescence change of the LPETG-EGFP protein on the surface of P. pastoris over time was detected by flow cytometry and fluorescence spectrophotometry, and then the sensitivities of the two methods were compared. Using berberine chloride as an inhibitor, the activity of sortase A was investigated with the substrates of LPETG-EGFP protein, and compared to Dabcyl-QALPETGEE-Edans. A high yield of sortase A was achieved by inducing 1.0 mmol/L IPTG at 28 °C for 6 h. The intensity of green fluorescence of substrates displayed on the yeast surface was increased over time, while the stability was decreased slightly. Both fluorescence spectrophotometery and flow cytometry were fit for detection because of their high sensitivity. We utilized two different substrates of sortase A to investigate sortase A activity, which resulted in the increase of fluorescence intensity with respect to the increased time of growth. However, the method with Dabcyl-QALPETGEE-Edans as its substrate was more robust. Thus, the method described in this paper is a simple and cheap method which is very suitable for

  2. A Novel Yeast Surface Display Method for Large-Scale Screen Inhibitors of Sortase A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence resonance energy transfer substrates of sortase A are too expensive to be used to roughly screen high-throughput sortase A inhibitors. This makes therapeutic strategies difficult to realize in a clinical therapeutic use. Instead, we design here an LPETG-EGFP (leucine, proline, glutamic, threonine and glycine-enhanced green fluorescence protein displayed on a yeast surface as a substrate by adaptively reducing the cost. We do this by optimizing the induction conditions of sortase A expression in Escherichia coli DE3(BL21 and catalyzing LPETG proteins, which are displayed on surface of Pichia pastoris. Different expression conditions of sortase A include: induction temperature (22 °C, 28 °C, 37 °C and 40 °C, induction time (4 h, 5 h, 6 h and 7 h and induction concentration of isopropyl β-d-thiogalactoside IPTG (0.25 mmol/L, 0.5 mmol/L, 1 mmol/L, and 2 mmol/L. The fluorescence change of the LPETG-EGFP protein on the surface of P. pastoris over time was detected by flow cytometry and fluorescence spectrophotometry, and then the sensitivities of the two methods were compared. Using berberine chloride as an inhibitor, the activity of sortase A was investigated with the substrates of LPETG-EGFP protein, and compared to Dabcyl-QALPETGEE-Edans. A high yield of sortase A was achieved by inducing 1.0 mmol/L IPTG at 28 °C for 6 h. The intensity of green fluorescence of substrates displayed on the yeast surface was increased over time, while the stability was decreased slightly. Both fluorescence spectrophotometery and flow cytometry were fit for detection because of their high sensitivity. We utilized two different substrates of sortase A to investigate sortase A activity, which resulted in the increase of fluorescence intensity with respect to the increased time of growth. However, the method with Dabcyl-QALPETGEE-Edans as its substrate was more robust. Thus, the method described in this paper is a simple and cheap method which is very

  3. Analysis and applications of a frequency selective surface via a random distribution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Shao-Yi; Huang Jing-Jian; Yuan Nai-Chang; Liu Li-Guo

    2014-01-01

    A novel frequency selective surface (FSS) for reducing radar cross section (RCS) is proposed in this paper. This FSS is based on the random distribution method, so it can be called random surface. In this paper, the stacked patches serving as periodic elements are employed for RCS reduction. Previous work has demonstrated the efficiency by utilizing the microstrip patches, especially for the reflectarray. First, the relevant theory of the method is described. Then a sample of a three-layer variable-sized stacked patch random surface with a dimension of 260 mm×260 mm is simulated, fabricated, and measured in order to demonstrate the validity of the proposed design. For the normal incidence, the 8-dB RCS reduction can be achieved both by the simulation and the measurement in 8 GHz–13 GHz. The oblique incidence of 30° is also investigated, in which the 7-dB RCS reduction can be obtained in a frequency range of 8 GHz–14 GHz. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  4. Optimum Design of a Helicopter Rotor for Low Vibration Using Aeroelastic Analysis and Response Surface Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, R.

    2002-11-01

    An aeroelastic analysis based on finite elements in space and time is used to model the helicopter rotor in forward flight. The rotor blade is represented as an elastic cantilever beam undergoing flap and lag bending, elastic torsion and axial deformations. The objective of the improved design is to reduce vibratory loads at the rotor hub that are the main source of helicopter vibration. Constraints are imposed on aeroelastic stability, and move limits are imposed on the blade elastic stiffness design variables. Using the aeroelastic analysis, response surface approximations are constructed for the objective function (vibratory hub loads). It is found that second order polynomial response surfaces constructed using the central composite design of the theory of design of experiments adequately represents the aeroelastic model in the vicinity of the baseline design. Optimization results show a reduction in the objective function of about 30 per cent. A key accomplishment of this paper is the decoupling of the analysis problem and the optimization problems using response surface methods, which should encourage the use of optimization methods by the helicopter industry.

  5. Morphological Analysis of Dentin Surface after Conditioning with Two Different methods: Chemical and Mechanical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael, Caroline Freitas; Quinelato, Valquíria; Morsch, Carolina Schaffer; DeDeus, Gustavo; Reis, Claudia Mendonca

    2016-01-01

    Alternative pretreatment strategies of dentin and adhesionare constantly being developed and studied with the goal of improving the adhesion of resin restorative materials with this tissue. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the ability of airborne-particle abrasion (APA) with aluminum oxide on dentin to remove the smear layer and the effects produced on the dentin microstructure. The phosphoric acid (PA) was used for a comparison. For that, 20 human third molars were randomly allocated into two experimental groups, according to the dentin pretreatment method used: G1 (N = 10) - PA, G2 (N = 10) -APA. For dentin surface analyses, an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) was employed to observe dentin surfaces before and after the procedures. Before pretreatment, the specimens of both groups were smear covered. After pretreatment, the G1 images revealed dentin tubule orifices opened, enlarged and some erosive effects. (G2) exposed tubule orifices without enlargement, but crack-like alterations were observed on the surfaces. In this way, APA with aluminum oxide was able to remove the smear layer. The influences of the dentin roughness on adhesion and the consequences on dentin integrity and hardness need further investigations. A good conditioning of the dentin before cementation is necessary in order to obtain a satisfactory rehabilitation in adhesive dentistry. So, it is necessary to know all methods to do it.

  6. Two Surface-Tension Formulations For The Level Set Interface-Tracking Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepel, S.V.; Smith, B.L.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes a comparative study of two surface-tension models for the Level Set interface tracking method. In both models, the surface tension is represented as a body force, concentrated near the interface, but the technical implementation of the two options is different. The first is based on a traditional Level Set approach, in which the surface tension is distributed over a narrow band around the interface using a smoothed Delta function. In the second model, which is based on the integral form of the fluid-flow equations, the force is imposed only in those computational cells through which the interface passes. Both models have been incorporated into the Finite-Element/Finite-Volume Level Set method, previously implemented into the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code CFX-4. A critical evaluation of the two models, undertaken in the context of four standard Level Set benchmark problems, shows that the first model, based on the smoothed Delta function approach, is the more general, and more robust, of the two. (author)

  7. Un regard oblique : « L’œil du sorcier » dans Une vie de boy de Ferdinand Oyono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Vaucher

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ce texte remet en question la lecture réaliste qui a généralement été faite d’Une vie de boy (1957, premier roman de la trilogie de Ferdinand Oyono. Partant d’une étude du regard, il vise à montrer que celui-ci détermine autant un contenu qu’il met l’accent sur une forme, une esthétique littéraire. En effet, dans le récit, si le regard renvoie à un instrument de pouvoir (celui qui oppose les colons et les colonisés et constitue un enjeu de subversion, il se traduit aussi par une écriture allusive, alliant la distance, l’ironie et l’insolite. Par son caractère indiciel, voire figural, cette « écriture du regard » dont témoigne le journal intime de Toundi en fait une sorte de « récit-forme », où l’espace du texte et le hors-texte (le social se convoquent mutuellement.

  8. Asteroseismic modelling of solar-type stars: internal systematics from input physics and surface correction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsamba, B.; Campante, T. L.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.; Cunha, M. S.; Rendle, B. M.; Reese, D. R.; Verma, K.

    2018-04-01

    Asteroseismic forward modelling techniques are being used to determine fundamental properties (e.g. mass, radius, and age) of solar-type stars. The need to take into account all possible sources of error is of paramount importance towards a robust determination of stellar properties. We present a study of 34 solar-type stars for which high signal-to-noise asteroseismic data is available from multi-year Kepler photometry. We explore the internal systematics on the stellar properties, that is, associated with the uncertainty in the input physics used to construct the stellar models. In particular, we explore the systematics arising from: (i) the inclusion of the diffusion of helium and heavy elements; and (ii) the uncertainty in solar metallicity mixture. We also assess the systematics arising from (iii) different surface correction methods used in optimisation/fitting procedures. The systematics arising from comparing results of models with and without diffusion are found to be 0.5%, 0.8%, 2.1%, and 16% in mean density, radius, mass, and age, respectively. The internal systematics in age are significantly larger than the statistical uncertainties. We find the internal systematics resulting from the uncertainty in solar metallicity mixture to be 0.7% in mean density, 0.5% in radius, 1.4% in mass, and 6.7% in age. The surface correction method by Sonoi et al. and Ball & Gizon's two-term correction produce the lowest internal systematics among the different correction methods, namely, ˜1%, ˜1%, ˜2%, and ˜8% in mean density, radius, mass, and age, respectively. Stellar masses obtained using the surface correction methods by Kjeldsen et al. and Ball & Gizon's one-term correction are systematically higher than those obtained using frequency ratios.

  9. Surface modification of austenitic steel by various glow-discharge nitriding methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Borowski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen intensive research on modifying glow-discharge nitriding processes. One of the most commonly used glow-discharge methods includes cathodic potential nitriding (conventional method, and active screen plasma nitriding. Each of these methods has a number of advantages. One very important, common feature of these techniques is full control of the microstructure, chemical and phase composition, thickness and the surface topography of the layers formed. Another advantage includes the possibility of nitriding such materials as: austenitic steels or nickel alloys, i.e. metallic materials which do not diffuse nitrogen as effectively as ferritic or martensitic steels. However, these methods have some disadvantages as well. In the case of conventional plasma nitriding, engineers have to deal with the edge effect, which makes it difficult to use this method for complexly shaped components. In turn, in the case of active screen plasma nitriding, the problem disappears. A uniform, smooth layer forms, but is thinner, softer and is not as resistant to friction compared to layers formed using the conventional method. Research is also underway to combine these methods, i.e. use an active screen in conventional plasma nitriding at cathodic potential. However, there is a lack of comprehensive data presenting a comparison between these three nitriding processes and the impact of pulsating current on the formation of the microstructure and functional properties of austenitic steel surfaces. The article presents a characterisation of nitrided layers produced on austenitic X2CrNiMo17-12-2 (AISI 316L stainless steel in the course of glow-discharge nitriding at cathodic potential, at plasma potential and at cathodic potential incorporating an active screen. All processes were carried out at 440 °C under DC glow-discharge conditions and in 100 kHz frequency pulsating current. The layers were examined in terms of their microstructure, phase and

  10. An augmented space recursive method for the first principles study of concentration profiles at CuNi alloy surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, I.; Mookerjee, A.

    1995-07-01

    We present here a first principle method for the calculation of effective cluster interactions for semi-infinite solid alloys required for the study of surface segregation and surface ordering on disordered surfaces. Our method is based on the augmented space recursion coupled with the orbital peeling method of Burke in the framework of the TB-LMTO. Our study of surface segregation in CuNi alloys demonstrates strong copper segregation and a monotonic concentration profile throughout the concentration range. (author). 35 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Analysis of 210Pb and 210Po concentrations in surface air by an α spectrometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.; Hoetzl, H.; Chatterjee, B.

    1981-01-01

    A method is presented for determining the concentrations of airborne 210 Pb and 210 Po. The method employs α spectrometry to measure the count rate of 210 Po present on an electrostatic filter sample at two post-sampling times. The individual air concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb can be calculated from equations given. Sensitivity of the procedure is about 0.2 fCi 210 Po per m 3 of air. The method was applied to the study of long-term variations and frequency distributions of 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in surface air at a nonpolluted location about 10 km outside of Munich, F.R.G., from 1976 through 1979. During this period the average concentration levels were found to be 14.2 fCi 210 Pb per m 3 of air and 0.77 fCi 210 Po per m 3 of air, respectively. (author)

  12. A method for the dynamic and thermal stress analysis of space shuttle surface insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojalvo, I. U.; Levy, A.; Austin, F.

    1975-01-01

    The thermal protection system of the space shuttle consists of thousands of separate insulation tiles bonded to the orbiter's surface through a soft strain-isolation layer. The individual tiles are relatively thick and possess nonuniform properties. Therefore, each is idealized by finite-element assemblages containing up to 2500 degrees of freedom. Since the tiles affixed to a given structural panel will, in general, interact with one another, application of the standard direct-stiffness method would require equation systems involving excessive numbers of unknowns. This paper presents a method which overcomes this problem through an efficient iterative procedure which requires treatment of only a single tile at any given time. Results of associated static, dynamic, and thermal stress analyses and sufficient conditions for convergence of the iterative solution method are given.

  13. Method for imparting improved surface properties to carbon fibers and composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, S.; Kamata, H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention provides a means for solving the problem of poor affinity between the surface of carbon fibers and a synthetic resin in a resin-based composite material reinforced with the carbon fibers. The method comprises subjecting the surface of the carbon fibers in advance to exposure to low temperature plasma in a low pressure atomosphere of an inorganic gas generated by applying an electric voltage between electrodes. It was unexpectedly discovered that the discharge voltage between the electrodes is very critical and satisfactory results can be obtained when the peak-to-peak value of the discharge voltage between electrodes is 4000 volts or higher. The composition of the atmospheric inorganic gas is also important and the gas is preferably oxygen gas or a gaseous mixture containing at least 10% by volume of oxygen

  14. Hydrodynamics of free surface flows modelling with the finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Hervouet, Jean-Michel

    2007-01-01

    A definitive guide for accurate state-of-the-art modelling of free surface flows Understanding the dynamics of free surface flows is the starting point of many environmental studies, impact studies, and waterworks design. Typical applications, once the flows are known, are water quality, dam impact and safety, pollutant control, and sediment transport. These studies used to be done in the past with scale models, but these are now being replaced by numerical simulation performed by software suites called "hydro-informatic systems". The Telemac system is the leading software package worldwide, and has been developed by Electricité de France and Jean-Michel Hervouet, who is the head and main developer of the Telemac project. Written by a leading authority on Computational Fluid Dynamics, the book aims to provide environmentalists, hydrologists, and engineers using hydro-informatic systems such as Telemac and the finite element method, with the knowledge of the basic principles, capabilities, different hypothese...

  15. Increased Wear Resistance of Surfaces of Rotation Bearings Methods Strengthening-Smoothing Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Tkachuk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Trends of modern engineering put forward higher requirements for quality bearings. This is especially true on production of bearings for special purposes with high speeds of rotation and resource. Much more opportunities in the technology management quality surface layers appear in the application of smoothing-strengthening methods, based on superficial plastic deformation. Working models of cutting lathes, grinders and tool smoothing sequence revealed the formation of operational parameters in the technological cycle of roller rings. The model of the dynamics of elastic deformation of the work piece tool helps identify actions radial force in the contact “surface – indenter.” Using mathematical modelling resolved a number of issues relevant process.

  16. Standard Test Method for Hydrophobic Surface Films by the Atomizer Test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1965-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the detection of the presence of hydrophobic (nonwetting) films on surfaces and the presence of hydrophobic organic materials in processing ambients. When properly conducted, the test will enable detection of fractional molecular layers of hydrophobic organic contaminants. On very rough or porous surfaces the sensitivity of the test may be significantly decreased. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. Analysis of Static and Dynamic Properties of Micromirror with the Application of Response Surface Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Martowicz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an application of response surface method to aid the analysis of variation of static and dynamic properties of micromirror. The multiphysics approach was taken into account to elaborate finite element model of electrostatically actuated microdevice and coupled analyses were carried out to yield the results. Used procedure of metamodel fitting is described and its quality is discussed. Elaborated approximations were used to perform the sensitivity analysis as well as to study the propagation of variation introduced by uncertain and control parameters. The input parameters deal with geometry, material properties and control voltage. As studied output characteristics there were chosen the resultant static vertical displacement of reflecting surfaces and the resonance frequency related to the first normal mode of vibration.

  18. Standard Test Method for Hydrophobic Surface Films by the Water-Break Test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the detection of the presence of hydrophobic (nonwetting) films on surfaces and the presence of hydrophobic organic materials in processing ambients. When properly conducted, the test will enable detection of molecular layers of hydrophobic organic contaminants. On very rough or porous surfaces, the sensitivity of the test may be significantly decreased. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. A Method for Dimensional and Surface Optical Measurements Uncertainty Assessment on Micro Structured Surfaces Manufactured by Jet-ECM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Tosello, Guido; Islam, Aminul

    2015-01-01

    Surface texture and step height measurements of electrochemically machined cavities have been compared among optical and tactile instruments. A procedure is introduced for correcting possible divergences among the instruments and, ultimately, for evaluating the measurement uncertainty according t...

  20. A demonstration of adjoint methods for multi-dimensional remote sensing of the atmosphere and surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William G. K.; Hasekamp, Otto P.

    2018-01-01

    In previous work, we derived the adjoint method as a computationally efficient path to three-dimensional (3D) retrievals of clouds and aerosols. In this paper we will demonstrate the use of adjoint methods for retrieving two-dimensional (2D) fields of cloud extinction. The demonstration uses a new 2D radiative transfer solver (FSDOM). This radiation code was augmented with adjoint methods to allow efficient derivative calculations needed to retrieve cloud and surface properties from multi-angle reflectance measurements. The code was then used in three synthetic retrieval studies. Our retrieval algorithm adjusts the cloud extinction field and surface albedo to minimize the measurement misfit function with a gradient-based, quasi-Newton approach. At each step we compute the value of the misfit function and its gradient with two calls to the solver FSDOM. First we solve the forward radiative transfer equation to compute the residual misfit with measurements, and second we solve the adjoint radiative transfer equation to compute the gradient of the misfit function with respect to all unknowns. The synthetic retrieval studies verify that adjoint methods are scalable to retrieval problems with many measurements and unknowns. We can retrieve the vertically-integrated optical depth of moderately thick clouds as a function of the horizontal coordinate. It is also possible to retrieve the vertical profile of clouds that are separated by clear regions. The vertical profile retrievals improve for smaller cloud fractions. This leads to the conclusion that cloud edges actually increase the amount of information that is available for retrieving the vertical profile of clouds. However, to exploit this information one must retrieve the horizontally heterogeneous cloud properties with a 2D (or 3D) model. This prototype shows that adjoint methods can efficiently compute the gradient of the misfit function. This work paves the way for the application of similar methods to 3D remote