Sample records for surfacing bridge construction

  1. Railway bridge monitoring during construction and sliding (United States)

    Inaudi, Daniele; Casanova, Nicoletta; Kronenberg, Pascal; Vurpillot, Samuel


    The Moesa railway bridge is a composite steel concrete bridge on three spans of 30 m each. The 50 cm thick concrete deck is supported on the lower flanges of two continuous, 2.7 m high I-beams. The bridge has been constructed alongside an old metallic bridge. After demolishing this one, the new bridge has been slid for 5 m by 4 hydraulic jacks and positioned on the refurbished piles of the old bridge. About 30 fiber optic, low-coherence sensors were imbedded in the concrete deck to monitor its deformations during concrete setting and shrinkage, as well as during the bridge sliding phase. In the days following concrete pour it was possible to follow its thermal expansion due to the exothermic setting reaction and the following thermal and during shrinkage. The deformations induced by the additional load produced by the successive concreting phases were also observed. During the bridge push, which extended over six hours, the embedded and surface mounted sensors allowed the monitoring of the curvature variations in the horizontal plane due to the slightly uneven progression of the jacks. Excessive curvature and the resulting cracking of concrete could be ruled out by these measurements. It was also possible to observe the bridge elongation under the heating action of the sun.

  2. Magnetic and transport properties of FeβV1-β atom bridge constructed between an STM tip and a solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Kasai, Hideaki; Kishi, Tomoya; Dino, W.A.; Komori, Fumio; Okiji, Ayao


    We have investigated the magnetic and transport properties of an atom bridge made from magnetic materials, which is an atom-scale wire constructed between a scanning tunneling microscopy tip and a solid surface, with the aid of ab initio calculations. In the case of Fe β V 1-β alloy atom bridges, we have found that the value of the mean magnetic moment is similar to that of the corresponding alloy bulk, and the quantized conductance contribution from both the majority and minority spin electrons changes as β changes. These properties are different from the case of Fe 1-α Ni α alloy atom bridge

  3. Faster bridge construction using precast substructures : brief. (United States)


    Bridge replacement often requires road closures and detours that frustrate road users. It remains a key goal of Wisconsin DOT to reduce construction-related road use interruptions. This will be a challenge with bridges: Bridge inspections in 2007 ide...

  4. Magnetic and transport properties of Fe{sub {beta}}V{sub 1-{beta}} atom bridge constructed between an STM tip and a solid surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Kasai, Hideaki E-mail:; Kishi, Tomoya; Dino, W.A.; Komori, Fumio; Okiji, Ayao


    We have investigated the magnetic and transport properties of an atom bridge made from magnetic materials, which is an atom-scale wire constructed between a scanning tunneling microscopy tip and a solid surface, with the aid of ab initio calculations. In the case of Fe{sub {beta}}V{sub 1-{beta}} alloy atom bridges, we have found that the value of the mean magnetic moment is similar to that of the corresponding alloy bulk, and the quantized conductance contribution from both the majority and minority spin electrons changes as {beta} changes. These properties are different from the case of Fe{sub 1-{alpha}}Ni{sub {alpha}} alloy atom bridge.

  5. Construction Technology of Long Span Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen


    A large variety of construction methods are used during construction of major bridges, and in many cases the final structural system must be chosen with due respect to the construction process. Today the preferred construction methods are: the free-cantilever method, the launching method...

  6. Implementation guidance for accelerated bridge construction in South Dakota (United States)


    A study was conducted to investigate implementation of accelerated bridge construction (ABC) in South Dakota. Accelerated bridge construction is defined as construction practices that employ innovative techniques to reduce on-site construction time a...

  7. Implementation of sustainability in bridge design, construction and maintenance. (United States)


    The focus of this research is to develop a framework for more sustainable design and construction : processes for new bridges, and sustainable maintenance practices for existing bridges. The framework : includes a green rating system for bridges. The...

  8. Construction control of cable-stayed bridges


    Lozano Galant, José Antonio


    Premi extraordinari doctorat curs 2012-2013, àmbit d’Enginyeria Civil This work presents a study of the simulation of cable-stayed bridges built on temporary supports focused on their response during construction and in service. To simulate the behavior during construction, a set of four different algorithms has been developed to deal with initial design (Backward Algorithm), updating the tensioning process when deviations on site are measured (Forward Algorithm), optimization processes (D...

  9. Precast concrete elements for accelerated bridge construction : laboratory testing, field testing, evaluation of a precast concrete bridge, Madison County bridge. (United States)


    The importance of rapid construction technologies has been recognized by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the Iowa : DOT Office of Bridges and Structures. Recognizing this a two-lane single-span precast box girder bridge was constructed ...

  10. Development of bridge girder movement criteria for accelerated bridge construction. (United States)


    End diaphragms connect multiple girders to form a bridge superstructure system for effective resistance to earthquake loads. Concrete : girder bridges that include end diaphragms consistently proved to perform well during previous earthquake events. ...

  11. Lean Construction Applications for Bridge Inspection (United States)


    Lean philosophy was used to analyze the efficiency of bridge inspection. Emphasis was put on identifying activities that add value to the final output, an owner approved bridge inspection report. 26 bridge inspections were shadowed. Time spent on bri...

  12. Study on Construction Technology of Municipal Road and Bridge Concrete (United States)

    Tang, Fuyong


    With the continuous development of social economy and the accelerating process of urbanization, municipal road and bridge projects have also shown a trend of rapid development. Municipal road and bridge work can fully reflect the economic and cultural development level of cities and is also an important symbol of urban development. As a basic material of construction, concrete is widely used in engineering construction. This article will analyze the municipal road and bridge concrete construction technology, put forward corresponding measures.

  13. A novel abutment construction technique for rapid bridge construction : controlled low strength Materials (CLSM) with full-height concrete panels. (United States)


    One of the major obstacles facing rapid bridge construction for typical span type bridges is the time required to construct bridge abutments and foundations. This can be remedied by using the controlled low strength materials (CLSM) bridge abutment. ...

  14. Laboratory and field testing of an accelerated bridge construction demonstration bridge : US Highway 6 bridge over Keg Creek. (United States)


    The US Highway 6 Bridge over Keg Creek outside of Council Bluffs, Iowa is a demonstration bridge site chosen to put into practice : newly-developed Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) concepts. One of these new concepts is the use of prefabricated ...

  15. Laboratory Testing of Precast Bridge Beck Panel Transverse Connections for Use in Accelerated Bridge Construction


    Porter, Scott D.


    Precast concrete bridge deck panels have been used for decades to accelerate bridge construction. Cracking of the transverse connection between panels is a common problem that can damage deck overlays and cause connection leaking leading to corrosion of lower bridge elements. To better understand the behavior of bridge deck transverse female-to-female connections, shear and moment lab testing were performed at Utah State University for the Utah Department of Transportation. Two existing UDOT ...

  16. Strength monitoring of bridge constructions and features of its application. Part 2. Continuous monitoring of bridge construction status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovchinnikov Igor Georgievich


    Full Text Available The article describes a system of continuous monitoring of bridge constructions — a system of observation over the operating conditions and behavior of the bridge structure, which is aimed at ensuring the preservation of its functional application properties within the specified limits, realized on the continuous, long-term basis with the use of instrumentation and ensures on-line presentation of information on the status of structure. To illustrate, one may consider the existing systems of continuous monitoring for a number of bridge constructions in the United States, Japan, Europe, South Korea, Greece and Russia. The article suggests to examine the systems of continuous monitoring of «Commodore John Barry» truss bridge, «Akashi-Kaikyo» suspension bridge, «Siggenthal» reinforced-concrete arch bridge, «Nimhe» suspension bridge, «Jindo»cable-stayed bridge, «Yandzhon» suspension bridge, «Banghwa» bridge, «Seohae» bridge and «Rio-Antirrio» bridge. In addition one may consider monitoring of the longitudinal launching of the bridge superstructures over the Volga River near the village Pristannoye in Saratov region. Finally, it was drawn the conclusion that monitoring of bridge constructions from the standpoint of their consumers is aimed at solving such important problems as preservation of bridge structures, increase in service life of bridge structures through timely detection of faults and their elimination, as well as preservation of bridge structure carrying capacity by controlling their behavior during the operation and improving the efficiency of expenditure of monetary resources for repair activities by correct determination of time and type of the necessary repair.

  17. Rapid replacement/construction of bridges. (United States)


    Bridges are a key element of the transportation system because they control system capacity and are normally built at : the highest cost to the system. Once a bridge reaches its useful design service life, it needs to be replaced or : reconstructed i...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Klyuchnyk


    Full Text Available In this paper the possibilities of protection of bridge structures from corrosion by thermal spraying of aluminum or zinc, which provides the long-term protection (approximately 50 years, are presented.

  19. Design and construction of Chiburiko Bridge (stress ribbon bridge). Chiburiko bashi (tsurishoban kyo) no sekkei to seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamisakoda, K; Tokuyama, S; Sano, K; Onuma, K [Kashima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Chiburiko Bridge lies across Chiburiko which is a lake for agricultural water, and is used by people, carts and cars for administration. It is a stressed-ribbon bridge with the road surface made with concrete covered bands of cables stretched between abutments, and is the first highway bridge in Japan. A report is made on the plan and construction of the bridge. Integration of the precast slab with the cast-in-place concrete as well as mutual integration of the precast slabs are validated by the use of a reproduced model of a part of the bridge. Floor slabs are suspended by cables, and can be constructed with no form nor support by integrating cast-in-place concrete with the precast slabs on mutually joined precast slabs. It has been said that the stressed-ribbon bridge has a structure suitable for long span bridges because it has a simple structure. Studies, however, seems to be necessary on the impact caused by running of vehicles and on the wind resisting stability. 3 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Construction of Daiichi Tamagawa bridge; Daiichi Tamagawa kyoryo no seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, O.; Tsuyoshi, T. [East Japan Railway Company, Tokyo (Japan); Ota, T.; Sato, S. [Tekken Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes the construction of Daiichi Tamagawa Bridge for JR Tazawako Line, which was reconstructed with the Akita Shinkansen Project apart from the existing line. This bridge is a three-span continuous PC cable stayed bridge. To avoid operation accidents due to snow and ice, independent two-column type with a height of 11 m without beam was employed for the main tower. For the construction of upper part, overhang election construction method was adopted, which can be applied all the year round. The main girder has a single box cross section, and a width of 5.5 m and a beam height of 2.3 m. This was also constructed by the overhang construction method. To reduce the construction period, the main tower was constructed by the precast block construction method. The whole bridge was divided into six blocks by considering the hoist performance of cranes. Reinforcement against bearing pressure and cleavage due to the cable tensile force was conducted by adopting saddle structure for the main tower. Oblique members were jointed with the main girder using lateral beams projected from lateral side of girder. Totally seven PC cables were used for each oblique member. Measurements and management during the overhang construction were also described. The construction was over without problems in August, 1996. This bridge is under test operation using test run vehicles. 2 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Rapid bridge construction technology : precast elements for substructures. (United States)


    The goal of this research was to propose an alternate system of precast bridge substructures which can : substitute for conventional cast in place systems in Wisconsin to achieve accelerated construction. : Three types of abutment modules (hollow wal...

  2. Construction of the Chamagawa bridge; Chamagawabashi no seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawado, A.; Okawa, M. [Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshii, M.; Oda, I.


    The Chamagawa Bridge is a reinforced concrete fixed-arch bridge which is located at the northern end of Awaji Island, 1.5 km away from the Honshu-Shikoku linking large-scale Akashi Strait Bridge. This paper describes the design and construction of the bridge. Overhang construction method using cable stayed members was adopted. Against the tensile stress generated in the arch-ring under construction, reaction force was burdened with cable stayed columns, anchor blocks and ground anchors by regulating stress using cable stayed members and by resisting using PC steel rods arranging in the arch-ring. For the construction of arch-ring, a space was made for fabricating a specific large-scale movable working vehicle by the grounding support. Then, overhang construction was started. For the construction of overhang, construction of cable stayed members, regulation of stress, and tension of ground anchors were conducted with the construction of each block. The construction of linking block in the center was conducted by hanging support method after the specific large-scale movable working vehicle was taken to pieces. After the connection of arch-ring, tensile forces of cable stayed members and ground anchors were released. The bridge was completed in the down road in 1997. 1 ref., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Determination of brace forces caused by construction loads and wind loads during bridge construction. (United States)


    The first objective of this study was to develop procedures for determining bracing forces during bridge construction. : Numerical finite element models and analysis techniques were developed for evaluating brace forces induced by construction loads ...

  4. Construction of precast high performance concrete segmental bridges.


    Ruiz Ripoll, Lidia


    The construction of both medium and long span precast concrete segmental bridges is widely spread throughout Spain. Usually, the segments have multiple-keyed epoxy joints, and are assembled by internal prestressing. Yet, there is a more recent type of bridge with dry joints and external prestressing. In these last ones, shear is transferred through physical support between keys and friction between faces of the compressed joint. This shear force is evaluated using friction coefficients from t...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Zaeri


    Full Text Available Success in the performance of construction projects can be substantially enhanced if plans are formulated more realistically, ahead of time. Planning includes identifying project activities, required resources, interdependencies, and also recognizing the uncertainties in the duration of activities. Inherent features of construction projects, such as high repetition, complexity and uniqueness on the one hand, and advances in technology and methodologies on the other, create more difficulties in planning construction delivery. This is true for bridge operations. This study presents an innovative incremental beam launching method with twin truss gantry. This construction method has significant advantages in terms of cost and speed of performance, but increases the level of planning and management required for the bridge operation. Further, because of the newness of the method, no specific Work Breakdown Structure nor conceptual framework has been developed as yet. The aim of the current study is to explore the use of a simulation-based tool (EZStrobe to facilitate the planning and management of a bridge construction operation (case study. The process followed in the development of a conceptual framework for the case study project is described. An Activity Cycle Diagram is produced alongside the conceptual framework and process models, with the intent of illustrating the key steps in the simulation modelling method. The developed models could assist in scheduling and controlling inherent construction features such as uncertainties, complexities, and repetitions in bridge construction projects, consequently improving their delivery.

  6. Towards Sustainable Construction: Life Cycle Assessment of Railway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli

    Since last few decades, the increased pressure from the environmental issues of natural resource depletion, global warming and air pollution have posed a great challenge worldwide. Among all the industrial fields, bridge infrastructures and their belonged construction sector contribute to a wide...

  7. Determination of brace forces caused by construction loads and wind loads during bridge construction : [summary]. (United States)


    Bridges are constructed in stages as pilings, : columns, girders, decks, and other components : are added. At each stage, the structure must be : stable. Girders, which add significant weight to : the developing structure, rest on elastomeric : beari...

  8. Implementation of sustainable and green design and construction practices for bridges. (United States)


    The focus of this research is to develop a framework for more sustainable design and construction : processes for new bridges, and sustainable maintenance practices for existing bridges. The framework : includes a green rating system for bridges. The...

  9. Precast concrete elements for accelerated bridge construction : laboratory testing of precast substructure components, Boone County bridge. (United States)


    Vol. 1-1: In July 2006, construction began on an accelerated bridge project in Boone County, Iowa that was composed of precast substructure : elements and an innovative, precast deck panel system. The superstructure system consisted of full-depth dec...

  10. Design and Construction of Operation Bridge for Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kwangsub; Choi, Jinbok; Lee, Jongmin; Oh, Jinho


    The operation bridge contains a lower working deck mounted on a saddle that travels on rails. Upright members are mounted on the saddle to support the upper structure and two hoist monorails. The saddle contains an anti-derail system that is composed of seismic lugs and guide rollers. The operation bridge travels along the rails to transport the fuel assembly, irradiated object, and reactor components in the pools by using tools. Hoists are installed at the top girder. The hoist is suspended from the monorail by means of a motor driven trolley that runs along the monorail. Movements of hoist and trolley are controlled by using the control pendant switch. Processes of design and construction of the operation bridge for the research reactor are introduced. The operation bridge is designed under consideration of functions of handling equipment in the pool and operational limits for safety. Structural analysis is carried out to evaluate the structural integrity in the seismic events. Tests and inspections are also performed during fabrication and installation to confirm the function and safety of the operation bridge

  11. Construction Simulation Analysis of 60m-span Concrete Filled Steel Tube arch bridge (United States)

    Shi, Jing Xian; Ding, Qing Hua


    The construction process of the CFST arch bridge is complicated. The construction process not only affects the structural stress in the installation, but also determines the form a bridge and internal force of the bridge. In this paper, a 60m span concrete filled steel tube tied arch bridge is taken as the background, and a three-dimensional finite element simulation model is established by using the MIDAS/Civil bridge structure analysis software. The elevation of the main arch ring, the beam stress, the forces in hanger rods and the modal frequency of the main arch during the construction stage are calculated, and the construction process is simulated and analyzed. Effectively and reasonably guide the construction and ensure that the line and force conditions of the completed bridge meet the design requirements and provides a reliable technical guarantee for the safe construction of the bridge.

  12. Accelerated bridge construction utilizing precast pier caps on state highway 69 over Turkey Creek, Huerfano County, CO. (United States)


    The purpose of this report is to document Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) techniques on IBRD : (Innovative Bridge Research and Development) project 102470 for the construction of Bridge N-16-Q : on State Highway 69 over Turkey Creek. The constr...

  13. Symmetric and asymmetric capillary bridges between a rough surface and a parallel surface. (United States)

    Wang, Yongxin; Michielsen, Stephen; Lee, Hoon Joo


    Although the formation of a capillary bridge between two parallel surfaces has been extensively studied, the majority of research has described only symmetric capillary bridges between two smooth surfaces. In this work, an instrument was built to form a capillary bridge by squeezing a liquid drop on one surface with another surface. An analytical solution that describes the shape of symmetric capillary bridges joining two smooth surfaces has been extended to bridges that are asymmetric about the midplane and to rough surfaces. The solution, given by elliptical integrals of the first and second kind, is consistent with a constant Laplace pressure over the entire surface and has been verified for water, Kaydol, and dodecane drops forming symmetric and asymmetric bridges between parallel smooth surfaces. This solution has been applied to asymmetric capillary bridges between a smooth surface and a rough fabric surface as well as symmetric bridges between two rough surfaces. These solutions have been experimentally verified, and good agreement has been found between predicted and experimental profiles for small drops where the effect of gravity is negligible. Finally, a protocol for determining the profile from the volume and height of the capillary bridge has been developed and experimentally verified.

  14. Design and construction of superstructure in prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridge. ; Aomori Bay Bridge. PC shachokyo jobuko no sekkei to seko. ; Aomori Bay Bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, T.; Fujimori, S.; Oba, M.; Tsuyoshi, T. (East Japan Railway Co., Tokyo (Japan))


    Aomori Bay Bridge is a 1,219m long elevated bridge, a part of No.2 Bay Highway of 1,993m in total length crossing over Aomori railway station which was planned in ordecr to integrate the port facilities of Aomori Harbor and expedite cargo traffic smoothly. Of this Bay Bridge, its main bridge portion crossing over Aomori railway station and the sea area was planned as a continuous prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridge of 498m in total length and consisting of three portions including the central portion in which the main span between the central bridge piers was 240m. It is scheduled to open in the summer of 1992. With regard to the design of this bridge, special care for the view of the bridge has been taken covering from the structure style to the accessories. For this bridge, a large scale underground continuous wall solid base with a box-shaped section consisting of 6 chambers was adopted for the base of a main tower. It has the cantilever suspension structure of the wide girder with the inverted Y-shaped pylons. For its stav cable, was adopted a large capacity stay cable with standard tensile strength of 1,942 fabricated on the site and for its covering tube, a FRP tube was adopted. In this article, the construction of the main girder and stay cables, and the construction control during their installation by projection are reported. 7 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Design and construction of the Daini-Chikumagawa bridge; Dai ni Chikumagawa kyoryo no sekkei to seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, N.; Takasusuki, K.; Hirasawa, T.; Kanamori, M.


    The Daini-Chikumagawa bridge, having spans of 134m {times} 2 which is the largest in Japan as the concrete railroad, is a prestressed concrete (PC) oblique cable-stayed bridge building on the Hokuriku Shinkansen express line which is constructing towards Nagano Olympic (Feb.1998). Regarding adoption of the oblique cable-stayed bridge for the railroad bridge, there are very few examples on a global scale and in Japan besides this bridge there is only one example (Omoto bridge (Iwate pref.), span = 85m). One H type tower (H = 65m from the surface of bridge) is erected at the center of the Chikuma river and then main girders are built at the front and rear of this tower. These main girders, being separated into 5m {times} 24 blocks per one side excepting surroundings of the tower, are fabricated as a three room box type PC block (total width 12.8m; height 3.0m) each on the river beach near the spot. These blocks are jointed from the tower side by the overhanging work using the constructing vehicles and are fixed with oblique materials (cables; two face hanging system) at intervals of 10m. 4 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Construction simulation analysis of 120m continuous rigid frame bridge based on Midas Civil (United States)

    Shi, Jing-xian; Ran, Zhi-hong


    In this paper, a three-dimensional finite element model of a continuous rigid frame bridge with a main span of 120m is established by the simulation and analysis of Midas Civil software. The deflection and stress of the main beam in each construction stage of continuous beam bridge are simulated and analyzed, which provides a reliable technical guarantee for the safe construction of the bridge.

  17. Behavior of a Liquid Bridge between Nonparallel Hydrophobic Surfaces. (United States)

    Ataei, Mohammadmehdi; Chen, Huanchen; Amirfazli, Alidad


    When a liquid bridge is formed between two nonparallel identical surfaces, it can move along the surfaces. Literature indicates that the direction of bridge movement is governed by the wettability of surfaces. When the surfaces are hydrophilic, the motion of the bridge is always toward the cusp (intersection of the plane of the two bounding surfaces). On the other hand, the movement is hitherto thought to be always pointing away from the cusp when the surfaces are hydrophobic. In this study, through experiments, numerical simulations, and analytical reasoning, we demonstrate that for hydrophobic surfaces, wettability is not the only factor determining the direction of the motion. A new geometrical parameter, i.e., confinement (cf), was defined as the ratio of the distance of the farthest contact point of the bridge to the cusp, and that of the closest contact point to the cusp. The direction of the motion depends on the amount of confinement (cf). When the distance between the surfaces is large (resulting in a small cf), the bridge tends to move toward the cusp through a pinning/depinning mechanism of contact lines. When the distance between the surfaces is small (large cf), the bridge tends to move away from the cusp. For a specific system, a maximum cf value (cf max ) exists. A sliding behavior (i.e., simultaneous advancing on the wider side and receding on the narrower side) can also be seen when a liquid bridge is compressed such that the cf exceeds the cf max . Contact angle hysteresis (CAH) is identified as an underpinning phenomenon that together with cf fundamentally explains the movement of a trapped liquid between two hydrophobic surfaces. If there is no CAH, however, i.e., the case of ideal hydrophobic surfaces, the cf will be a constant; we show that the bridge slides toward the cusp when it is stretched, while it slides away from the cusp when it is compressed (note sliding motion is different from motion due to pinning/depinning mechanism of contact

  18. Application of grey system theory to construction control for prestressed concrete continuous bridge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Lu, Zhean; Wang, Juanjuan


    Text in Chinese. - This paper discussed the application of the grey system theory for the construction control of bridges on the background of the construction of Fuhe Bridge in Huangpi county, Hubei province. The GM( 1,1) model was the most representative and widely applied grey prognosticate model

  19. [Experiences with a subcutaneous, fully resorbable bridge in construction a double loop ileo- and colostomy]. (United States)

    Wedell, J; Banzhaf, G; Meier zu Eissen, P; Schlageter, M


    Our experience with the subcutaneous absorbable bridge for constructing a temporary loop ileostomy and loop colostomy is described. The use of this subcutaneous absorbable bridge in 15 patients - 6 with loop ileostomy and 9 with loop colostomy - was almost without complications. The absorbable bridge is a progress for maturation of the stoma and for immediate postoperative as prospective fitting of a watertight appliance. The actual trend substituting the temporary loop colostomy by the loop ileostomy may be advanced by the unlimited use of the subcutaneous absorbable bridge for constructing a temporary loop ileostomy.

  20. Precast concrete elements for accelerated bridge construction : laboratory testing, field testing, and evaluation of a precast concrete bridge, Black Hawk County. (United States)


    The importance of rapid construction technologies has been recognized by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the Iowa : DOT Office of Bridges and Structures. Black Hawk County (BHC) has developed a precast modified beam-in-slab bridge (PMBI...

  1. Comparison of several innovative bridge cable surface modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleissl, Kenneth; Georgakis, Christos T.

    Over the last two decades, several bridge cable manufacturers have introduced surface modifications on the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sheathing that is installed for the protection of inner cable strands or wires. The modifications are based on research undertaken predominantly in Europe...

  2. 75 FR 62181 - Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge Rehabilitation (United States)


    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Ann Shemaka, Office of Bridge Technology, HIBT-30, (202) 366-1575, or Mr. Thomas Everett, Office of Bridge Technology, HIBT-30, (202) 366-4675, Federal Highway Administration, 1200 New... is categorized by the following material types, which are identified in the NBI: steel, concrete, pre...

  3. 77 FR 53251 - Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge Rehabilitation (United States)


    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Ann Shemaka, Office of Bridge Technology, (202) 366-1575, or via email at [email protected] or Mr. Thomas Everett, Office of Bridge Technology, (202) 366-4675, or via email at thomas... the NBI: steel, concrete, pre-stressed concrete, and other. The category ``other'' includes wood...

  4. 76 FR 55160 - Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge Rehabilitation (United States)


    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Ann Shemaka, Office of Bridge Technology, HIBT-30, (202) 366-1575, or Mr. Thomas Everett, Office of Bridge Technology, HIBT-30, (202) 366-4675, Federal Highway Administration, 1200 New... is categorized by the following material types, which are identified in the NBI: steel, concrete, pre...

  5. Construction of the Usui bridge. Chodai PC shachokyo no kensetsu (Joshin'etsu jidoshado Usuikyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, S.; Ogata, T. (Japan Highway Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    The Usui Bridge is a long bridge located at the Usui mountain pass on the Joshinetsu Expressway, completed in March 1993. This paper reports from its planning to the design, construction work, and construction management. The bridge is a first two-span continuous prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridge (with a length of 222 m) with one central cable plane ever constructed as a highway bridge in Japan. Its bridge construction features are represented by the main girder consisted of three-chamber type box girder, and the main tower of reversed Y-letter concrete structure. For the fan-shaped stay cable (9-step double cable), a large capacity cable of non-grouting type fabricated at a factory (with a tensile strength of 1500 tf class) was used to simplify the installation work at the site. The one-plane structure utilizing the center belt as a stay cable fixing portion was adopted because of its economic performance superior to a two-plane structure, easiness in consolidating construction works, and assurance of more open space for car traffic. After the completion, the bridge construction has been awarded with the Tanaka Prize of Japan Society of Civil Engineers and the PC Technology Association prize. 26 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Monolithic Concrete vs Precast Concrete for the Construction of Bridge by Th Cantilever Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morlova Dumitru Daniel


    Full Text Available In the article "Monolithic Concrete vs Precast Concrete for the Construction of Bridges by the Cantilever Method", there are approached a number of issues that come out in the design and execution of prestressed concrete bridge structures using the cantilever method.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ju


    Full Text Available Bridge areas present difficulties for orthophotos generation and to avoid “collapsed” bridges in the orthoimage, operator assistance is required to create the precise DBM (Digital Bridge Model, which is, subsequently, used for the orthoimage generation. In this paper, a new approach of DBM generation, based on fusing LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging data and aerial imagery, is proposed. The no precise exterior orientation of the aerial image is required for the DBM generation. First, a coarse DBM is produced from LiDAR data. Then, a robust co-registration between LiDAR intensity and aerial image using the orientation constraint is performed. The from-coarse-to-fine hybrid co-registration approach includes LPFFT (Log-Polar Fast Fourier Transform, Harris Corners, PDF (Probability Density Function feature descriptor mean-shift matching, and RANSAC (RANdom Sample Consensus as main components. After that, bridge ROI (Region Of Interest from LiDAR data domain is projected to the aerial image domain as the ROI in the aerial image. Hough transform linear features are extracted in the aerial image ROI. For the straight bridge, the 1st order polynomial function is used; whereas, for the curved bridge, 2nd order polynomial function is used to fit those endpoints of Hough linear features. The last step is the transformation of the smooth bridge boundaries from aerial image back to LiDAR data domain and merge them with the coarse DBM. Based on our experiments, this new approach is capable of providing precise DBM which can be further merged with DTM (Digital Terrain Model derived from LiDAR data to obtain the precise DSM (Digital Surface Model. Such a precise DSM can be used to improve the orthophoto product quality.

  8. 3D laser scanning for quality control and assurance in bridge deck construction. (United States)


    The inspection of installations of rebar and other embedded components in bridge deck construction is a tedious : task for eld inspectors, requiring considerable eld time for measurement and verication against code requirement. The verica...

  9. Latex-modified fiber-reinforced concrete bridge deck overlay : construction/interim report. (United States)


    Latex-modified concrete (LMC) is Portland cement concrete (PCC) with an admixture of latex. LMC is considered to be nearly impermeable to chlorides and is extensively used to construct bridge deck overlays. Unfortunately, some of these overlays have ...

  10. Evaluation of a highway bridge constructed using high strength lightweight concrete bridge girders. (United States)


    The use of high performance concretes to provide longer bridge spans has been limited due to the capacity of existing infrastructure to handle the load of the girders during transportation. The use of High Strength Lightweight Concrete (HSLW) can pro...

  11. Research on Swivel Construction Technology of 22,400 Tons in Zoucheng Thirty Meter Bridge (United States)

    Han, Jun; Benlin, Xiao


    In recent years, with the rapid development of highways and railways in our country, there have been many new bridges that need to cross the existing routes. If the conventional construction methods are used, the existing traffic will be affected and the traffic will be built above the busy traffic lines, so there is a big security risk, the construction methods must be improved and innovated. In this paper, it intends to research and develop some key technologies of swivel construction. According to the construction features to use finite element method of swivel cable-stayed bridge to analyse the cable-stayed bridge . The swivel construction process is carried out to solve the technical problems and difficulties in the construction.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Hladka


    Full Text Available Purpose. The work is aimed to solve the following tasks: 1 to investigate the possibilities of Autodesk Revit to create parametric objects; 2 to create an information model of the bridge pier with the possibility of changing the model size without changing geometry of the object; 3 to trace the complexity and feasibility of using parametric models when designing the elements of bridges. Methodology. The studies were carried out using spatial modeling in the Autodesk Revit system. The ratio of the parameters of the object was set, the relationship between individual geometric elements was determined and the changes that were made to the model with the change of the specified parameters were checked. Findings. Support model of two types has been created: for railway bridges and for road bridges. Both types of models change the dimensions and the number of constituent elements in accordance with the entered parameters. The performed work confirms the possibility of creating information parametric models of complex form and the expediency of using them in the design of bridges and not only. Originality. Creation of information models is a modern and relevant topic. But both in the literature and in Internet resources, parametrization is considered on the example of simple objects. The model proposed in the article consists of several dependent geometric bodies; therefore, it opens the topic of objects parameterization more fully and in detail, in comparison with the existing sources. As for the creation of parametric models of the bridge elements - such information is not found in the literature, that is, it is proposed for the first time. Practical value. Parametrization of spatial models allows significantly to accelerate and simplify the process of designing any objects due to the use of typical parametric models in many projects. Especially it concerns the design of bridges, since the standard elements for them, such as support or span are not


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Hulytska


    Full Text Available The article is dealt with а variant of usage of database technologies in the transport communication sphere, particularly for introduction of integrated methodology of evaluation of technical-and-operational condition of bridge structures on highways of general use.

  14. Problems of lamella flanges in steel bridge construction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křístek, V.; Škaloud, Miroslav; Urushadze, Shota; Kunrt, J.


    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2016), s. 11-15 ISSN 2217-8139 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01035S Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : bridges * lamella flanges * repeated loading * breathing * limit states Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  15. Implied Volatility Surface: Construction Methodologies and Characteristics


    Cristian Homescu


    The implied volatility surface (IVS) is a fundamental building block in computational finance. We provide a survey of methodologies for constructing such surfaces. We also discuss various topics which can influence the successful construction of IVS in practice: arbitrage-free conditions in both strike and time, how to perform extrapolation outside the core region, choice of calibrating functional and selection of numerical optimization algorithms, volatility surface dynamics and asymptotics.

  16. Construction and Design of Post-Tensioned Pearl-Chain Bridges using SL-Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov


    a filling layer of lower stiffness above the arches to level the road surface. The present Ph.D. thesis is part of a larger development project about Pearl‐Chain Bridges funded by Innovationsfonden. The project also included another Ph.D. study about the developed materials used in Pearl‐Chain Bridges...

  17. Sex Difference in Bottlenose Dolphin Sightings during a Long-term Bridge Construction Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Weaver


    Full Text Available Almost nothing is known about the effect of long-term bridge construction on free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus. The species’ natural history predicts that there should be sex differences in reaction to construction because bottlenose dolphins show sex differences in most of their behaviors. A 5-year bridge construction project over a narrow but important dolphin corridor at John’s Pass tidal inlet, St. Petersburg FL, brought chronic environmental changes. The purpose of this 8-year study was to determine if bridge construction was associated with changes in dolphin sightings. The sex difference hypothesis was tested with a comparison of sighting probabilities before, during and after bridge construction. Sighting probabilities were generated for 68 adults seen n = 6504 times during N = 951 small-boat surveys of the 6.5-mile estuarine study area, documented with photo identification June 2005-December 2012. The sex difference hypothesis was supported with a significant interaction between construction and gender. Female sightings showed a significant linear decline across construction. Male sightings did not change across construction. The main conclusion is that adult males and females may react differently to habitat changes associated with anthropogenic activities. Sex differences in environmental monitoring and vigilance associated with maternal behavior may have played a role. This is the first report on John’s Pass dolphins that evaluates changes in their behavior during a major construction project across a narrow but important dolphin corridor.

  18. Construction of a composite cable stayed bridge. Karnali river bridge in Nepal. Gosei shachokyo no kensetsu. Karnali kawa kyoryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, M.; Nakamura, K.; Shimodoi, H.; Amako, M.; Miyoshi, S.; Haruta, M.; Okada, S.; Kuroki, S. (Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    The present report reports the construction of Karnali River Bridge in Nepal by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. The present bridge is a composite cable stayed bridge, two-spanned with a main span length of 325m and side span length of 175m. Having an about 125m-high single tower, it is 11.3m in breadth and 3m in main truss height. The main truss is supported by both faces of 30 cables per face, i.e., 60 cables. (Each of both main and side spans has 15 cables per face.) The design and construction are described with the following their itemization: design (bending moment properties in the erected system, composite structure of main truss and stress analysis at the time of erection). Wind resisting measures (measures for the wind resistant stability at the time of erection of both tower and main truss cantilever). Fabrication and transportation of steel structural members. Fabrication of precast floor plates (concrete mixing, and fabrication and curing of floor plates). Construction of tower foundation (tremie concrete and air concrete). Erection of upper structures (erection of tower, both main and side spans, and accuracy management). 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. 77 FR 1407 - Regulated Navigation Area; Memorial Bridge Construction, Piscataqua River, Portsmouth, NH (United States)


    ... like to know that they reached the Facility, please enclose a stamped, self-addressed postcard or..., and wake from passing vessels could pose significant risk of injury or death to construction workers... speed and wake of all vessels operating in the vicinity of the bridge construction zone. This will be...

  20. Construction work of superstructure of twin harp bridge. Twin harp kyo jobuko no seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, H.; Sato, Y.; Kanazawa, Y. (Sumitomo Construction Kajima Corp. Dopy Construction Co. Ltd. Nihon Koatsu Concrete Co. Ltd. Joint Venture, Tokyo (Japan)); Sema, M. (Sumitomo Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    Construction plan outline of PC cable stayed bridge with main tower having one pillar structure is introduced and this is the first type of bridge in Japan with three continuous span design. Construction was commenced on 7 July, 1989 and was completed on 8 August, 1991 at south east of Ashahikawa, Hokkaido. Construction outline is consisted of Principal specifications, general layout of structure, construction order and overall stage of the construction work. Main tower is described by its outline, jump system, installation of diagonal member anchorage device, formwork and concrete structure, and cross beam construction has included four parts which are outline, capital part, projected part construction, lateral span and closure part, and central control span and closure part. Outline, cable guard and erection work, cable work, work Procedure of cable taut construction using total taut method, tension adjustment of cable and grouting, for diagonal member are explained. The construction control items specific to cable stayed bridge are diagonal member tension control( control of applied tension, change of tension with time and test taut ) and camber control. Practical vibration test was carried out on March, 1991. 8 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghoon Kim


    Full Text Available The Labor Working Status Monitoring (LWSM Model that incorporates the WRITE and the industry benchmark data was developed through the five steps to enhance labor producitivty in bridge construction operations. The first step of the development process was to conduct a literature review, followed by the second step which was to develop the WRITE. During the development, the authors identified the necessary hardware and software for the WRITE and outlined a schematic to show the connection of major hardware components. The third step was to develop the LWSM Model for monitoring the on-site construction labor working status by comparing data from the WRITE with the industry benchmark data. A survey methodology was used to acquire industry benchmark data from bridge construction experts. The fourth step was to demonstrate the implementation of the LWSM Model at a bridge construction site. During this phase, labor working status data collected using the WRITE was compared with the benchmark data to form the basis for the project managers and engineers to make efficiency improvement decisions. Finally, research findings and recommendations for future research were outlined. The success of this research made several contributions to the advancement of bridge construction. First, it advances the application of wireless technology in construction management. Second, it provides an advanced technology for project managers and engineers to share labor working status information among project participants. Finally, using the developed technology, project managers and engineers can quickly identify labor efficiency problems and take action to address these problems.

  2. Caisson disease during the construction of the Eads and Brooklyn Bridges: A review. (United States)

    Butler, W P


    The Eads Bridge (St. Louis) and the Brooklyn Bridge (New York City) were testing grounds for caisson construction. These caissons were enormous compressed air boxes used to build riverine piers and abutments anchoring the bridges. Caisson meant faster and cheaper construction, but there was a hidden cost---caisson disease (decompression sickness). Within caissons, workers labored at pressures as high as 55 psig and caisson disease was common. This discourse is a brief history of the caisson, a brief discussion of the illness as viewed in the mid 1800's, and an abbreviated history of the Eads and Brooklyn Bridges. It also provides a detailed description and evaluation of the observations, countermeasures, and recommendations of Dr. Alphonse Jaminet, the Eads Bridge physician, and Dr. Andrew Smith, the Brooklyn Bridge physician, who published reports of their experience in 1871 and 1873, respectively. These and other primary sources permit a detailed examination of early caisson disease and Jaminet's and Smith's thinking also serve as good examples from which to study and learn.

  3. Zwitterionic materials for antifouling membrane surface construction. (United States)

    He, Mingrui; Gao, Kang; Zhou, Linjie; Jiao, Zhiwei; Wu, Mengyuan; Cao, Jialin; You, Xinda; Cai, Ziyi; Su, Yanlei; Jiang, Zhongyi


    Membrane separation processes are often perplexed by severe and ubiquitous membrane fouling. Zwitterionic materials, keeping electric neutrality with equivalent positive and negative charged groups, are well known for their superior antifouling properties and have been broadly utilized to construct antifouling surfaces for medical devices, biosensors and marine coatings applications. In recent years, zwitterionic materials have been more and more frequently utilized for constructing antifouling membrane surfaces. In this review, the antifouling mechanisms of zwitterionic materials as well as their biomimetic prototypes in cell membranes will be discussed, followed by the survey of common approaches to incorporate zwitterionic materials onto membrane surfaces including surface grafting, surface segregation, biomimetic adhesion, surface coating and so on. The potential applications of these antifouling membranes are also embedded. Finally, we will present a brief perspective on the future development of zwitterionic materials modified antifouling membranes. Membrane fouling is a severe problem hampering the application of membrane separation technology. The properties of membrane surfaces play a critical role in membrane fouling and antifouling behavior/performance. Antifouling membrane surface construction has evolved as a hot research issue for the development of membrane processes. Zwitterionic modification of membrane surfaces has been recognized as an effective strategy to resist membrane fouling. This review summarizes the antifouling mechanisms of zwitterionic materials inspired by cell membranes as well as the popular approaches to incorporate them onto membrane surfaces. It can help form a comprehensive knowledge about the principles and methods of modifying membrane surfaces with zwitterionic materials. Finally, we propose the possible future research directions of zwitterionic materials modified antifouling membranes. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc

  4. 30 CFR 75.1708-1 - Surface structures; fireproof construction. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface structures; fireproof construction. 75... Surface structures; fireproof construction. Structures of fireproof construction is interpreted to mean structures with fireproof exterior surfaces. ...

  5. Research on construction technology for orthotropic steel deck pavement of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge (United States)

    Xue, Y. C.; Qian, Z. D.; Zhang, M.


    In order to ensure the good service quality of orthotropic steel deck pavement of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge in Tianjin, and to reduce the occurrence of pavement diseases like lateral and longitudinal cracks, the key working procedures such as steel deck cleaning, anticorrosive coating, bonding layer spraying, seam cutting, epoxy asphalt concrete’s mixing, transportation, paving and compaction were studied. The study was based on the main features of epoxy asphalt concrete which is the pavement materials of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge, and combined with the basic characteristics and construction conditions of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge. Furthermore, some processing measures like controlling time and temperature, continuous paving with two pavers, lateral feeding, and improving the compaction method were proposed. The project example shows that the processing measures can effectively solve the technical difficulties in the construction of orthotropic steel deck pavement of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge, can greatly improve the construction speed and quality, and can provide reference for the same kinds of orthotropic steel deck pavement construction.

  6. Learning Based on the Project Entitled "Design and Construction of a Wooden Bridge" (United States)

    Barris, Cristina; Torres, Lluís; Simon, Enric


    This article presents the results of a case involving the application of project-based learning carried out with students in the Mechanical Engineering degree program at the University of Girona. The project, entitled "Design and construction of a wooden bridge", was conducted at the Polytechnic School in the third-year Structures…

  7. Two-course bonded concrete bridge deck construction : condition and performance after six years. (United States)


    This report presents the findings from a six-year study of two-course bonded concrete bridge decks constructed in Virginia. Each of three special portland cement concretes was applied as an overlay, or wearing course, on two experimental spans. The o...

  8. Myocardial Bridge (United States)

    ... Center > Myocardial Bridge Menu Topics Topics FAQs Myocardial Bridge En español Your heart is made of muscle, ... surface of the heart. What is a myocardial bridge? A myocardial bridge is a band of heart ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Savchinskiy


    Full Text Available On the basis of analysis of existing diagnostic methods and regeneration ways of reinforced-concrete constructions of bridges the recommendations on introduction of new modern technologies of renewal of reinforced-concrete constructions of bridges in providing their operating reliability and longevity are offered.



    B. V. Savchinskiy


    On the basis of analysis of existing diagnostic methods and regeneration ways of reinforced-concrete constructions of bridges the recommendations on introduction of new modern technologies of renewal of reinforced-concrete constructions of bridges in providing their operating reliability and longevity are offered.

  11. Advanced construction management for lunar base construction - Surface operations planner (United States)

    Kehoe, Robert P.


    The study proposes a conceptual solution and lays the framework for developing a new, sophisticated and intelligent tool for a lunar base construction crew to use. This concept integrates expert systems for critical decision making, virtual reality for training, logistics and laydown optimization, automated productivity measurements, and an advanced scheduling tool to form a unique new planning tool. The concept features extensive use of computers and expert systems software to support the actual work, while allowing the crew to control the project from the lunar surface. Consideration is given to a logistics data base, laydown area management, flexible critical progress scheduler, video simulation of assembly tasks, and assembly information and tracking documentation.

  12. Bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zant, W.


    We estimate to what extent bridges in Mozambique lead to transport cost reductions and attribute these reductions to key determinants, in particular road distance, road quality and crossing borders. For identification we exploit the introduction of a road bridge over the Zambezi river, in August

  13. The impact of thermal bridges on the energy demand of buildings with double brick wall constructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodosiou, T.G. [Department of Engineering and Management of Energy Resources, University of Western Macedonia, GR-50100 Kozani (Greece); Papadopoulos, A.M. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)


    The implementation of the European Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) is a milestone towards the improvement of energy efficiency in the building sector. However, even in cases where impressive measures can be implemented in the densely built urban environment, the less glamorous measure of building's envelope thermal insulation remains a prerequisite towards the improvement of the building's energy efficiency. Despite the insulation requirements specified by national regulations, thermal bridges in the building's envelope remain a weak spot in the constructions. Moreover, in many countries construction practices tend to implement only partially the insulation measures foreseen by regulations. As a result, thermal losses are in practice greater than those predicted during the design stage. This paper presents a study on representative wall thermal insulation configurations used in Greek buildings, in order to investigate the impact of the thermal bridges on the energy consumption. The double wall construction, used widely in Greece and not only there, is rather susceptible to the occurrence of thermal bridges, in contrast to a typical thermal insulating facade, like the one applied in Central Europe. The analysis of the thermal bridges' impact will in that sense also highlight the potential for energy renovation measures in older buildings. (author)

  14. Determining the Environmental Benefits of Ultra High Performance Concrete as a Bridge Construction Material (United States)

    Lande Larsen, Ingrid; Granseth Aasbakken, Ida; O'Born, Reyn; Vertes, Katalin; Terje Thorstensen, Rein


    Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a material that is attracting attention in the construction industry due to the high mechanical strength and durability, leading to structures having low maintenance requirements. The production of UHPC, however, has generally higher environmental impact than normal strength concrete due to the increased demand of cement required in the concrete mix. What is still not sufficiently investigated, is if the longer lifetime, slimmer construction and lower maintenance requirements lead to a net environmental benefit compared to standard concrete bridge design. This study utilizes life cycle assessment (LCA) to determine the lifetime impacts of two comparable highway crossing footbridges spanning 40 meters, designed respectively with UHPC and normal strength concrete. The results of the study show that UHPC is an effective material for reducing lifetime emissions from construction and maintenance of long lasting infrastructure, as the UHPC design outperforms the normal strength concrete bridge in most impact categories.

  15. Surface reconstitution of glucose oxidase onto a norbornylogous bridge self-assembled monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingquan; Paddon-Row, Michael N.; Gooding, J. Justin


    An electrode construct was fabricated in which a self-assembled monolayer containing a novel norbornylogous bridge was covalently attached to flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), the redox active centre of several oxidase enzymes. The electrochemistry of the construct was investigated before and after the reconstitution of glucose oxidase around the surface bound FAD. Rapid rates of electron transfer were observed both before and after the reconstitution of biocatalytically active enzyme. However, no biocatalytic activity was observed under anaerobic conditions suggesting the a lack of enzyme turnover through direct electron transfer. It is proposed that a decrease in the electronic coupling between the redox active FAD and the electrode following reconstitution of the glucose oxidase - a probable consequence of the FAD being immersed in a protein environment - was responsible for the inability of the enzyme to be turned over under anaerobic conditions

  16. Nonlinear Stability Analysis of a Composite Girder Cable-Stayed Bridge with Three Pylons during Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Deng


    Full Text Available Based on the nonlinear stability analysis method, the 3D nonlinear finite element model of a composite girder cable-stayed bridge with three pylons is established to research the effect of factors including geometric nonlinearity, material nonlinearity, static wind load, and unbalanced construction load on the structural stability during construction. Besides, the structural nonlinear stability in different construction schemes and the determination of temporary pier position are also studied. The nonlinear stability safety factors are calculated to demonstrate the rationality and safety of construction schemes. The results show that the nonlinear stability safety factors of this bridge during construction meet the design requirement and the minimum value occurs in the maximum double cantilever stage. Besides, the nonlinear stability of the structure in the side of edge-pylon meets the design requirement in the two construction schemes. Furthermore, the temporary pier can improve the structure stability, effectively, and the actual position is reasonable. In addition, the local buckling of steel girder occurs earlier than overall instability under load in some cable tension stages. Finally, static wind load and the unbalanced construction load should be considered in the stability analysis for the adverse impact.

  17. Biomolecular surface construction by PDE transform. (United States)

    Zheng, Qiong; Yang, Siyang; Wei, Guo-Wei


    This work proposes a new framework for the surface generation based on the partial differential equation (PDE) transform. The PDE transform has recently been introduced as a general approach for the mode decomposition of images, signals, and data. It relies on the use of arbitrarily high-order PDEs to achieve the time-frequency localization, control the spectral distribution, and regulate the spatial resolution. The present work provides a new variational derivation of high-order PDE transforms. The fast Fourier transform is utilized to accomplish the PDE transform so as to avoid stringent stability constraints in solving high-order PDEs. As a consequence, the time integration of high-order PDEs can be done efficiently with the fast Fourier transform. The present approach is validated with a variety of test examples in two-dimensional and three-dimensional settings. We explore the impact of the PDE transform parameters, such as the PDE order and propagation time, on the quality of resulting surfaces. Additionally, we utilize a set of 10 proteins to compare the computational efficiency of the present surface generation method and a standard approach in Cartesian meshes. Moreover, we analyze the present method by examining some benchmark indicators of biomolecular surface, that is, surface area, surface-enclosed volume, solvation free energy, and surface electrostatic potential. A test set of 13 protein molecules is used in the present investigation. The electrostatic analysis is carried out via the Poisson-Boltzmann equation model. To further demonstrate the utility of the present PDE transform-based surface method, we solve the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations with a PDE transform surface of a protein. Second-order convergence is observed for the electrostatic potential and concentrations. Finally, to test the capability and efficiency of the present PDE transform-based surface generation method, we apply it to the construction of an excessively large biomolecule, a

  18. IceBridge Riegl Laser Altimeter L2 Geolocated Surface Elevation Triplets (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge Riegl Laser Altimeter L2 Geolocated Surface Elevation Triplets (ILUTP2) data set contains surface range values for Antarctica and Greenland derived...

  19. Application of the multi-dimensional surface water modeling system at Bridge 339, Copper River Highway, Alaska (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.


    The Copper River Basin, the sixth largest watershed in Alaska, drains an area of 24,200 square miles. This large, glacier-fed river flows across a wide alluvial fan before it enters the Gulf of Alaska. Bridges along the Copper River Highway, which traverses the alluvial fan, have been impacted by channel migration. Due to a major channel change in 2001, Bridge 339 at Mile 36 of the highway has undergone excessive scour, resulting in damage to its abutments and approaches. During the snow- and ice-melt runoff season, which typically extends from mid-May to September, the design discharge for the bridge often is exceeded. The approach channel shifts continuously, and during our study it has shifted back and forth from the left bank to a course along the right bank nearly parallel to the road.Maintenance at Bridge 339 has been costly and will continue to be so if no action is taken. Possible solutions to the scour and erosion problem include (1) constructing a guide bank to redirect flow, (2) dredging approximately 1,000 feet of channel above the bridge to align flow perpendicular to the bridge, and (3) extending the bridge. The USGS Multi-Dimensional Surface Water Modeling System (MD_SWMS) was used to assess these possible solutions. The major limitation of modeling these scenarios was the inability to predict ongoing channel migration. We used a hybrid dataset of surveyed and synthetic bathymetry in the approach channel, which provided the best approximation of this dynamic system. Under existing conditions and at the highest measured discharge and stage of 32,500 ft3/s and 51.08 ft, respectively, the velocities and shear stresses simulated by MD_SWMS indicate scour and erosion will continue. Construction of a 250-foot-long guide bank would not improve conditions because it is not long enough. Dredging a channel upstream of Bridge 339 would help align the flow perpendicular to Bridge 339, but because of the mobility of the channel bed, the dredged channel would

  20. On switching response surface models, with applications to the structural health monitoring of bridges (United States)

    Worden, K.; Cross, E. J.


    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is the engineering discipline of diagnosing damage and estimating safe remaining life for structures and systems. Often, SHM is accomplished by detecting changes in measured quantities from the structure of interest; if there are no competing explanations for the changes, one infers that they are the result of damage. If the structure of interest is subject to changes in its environmental or operational conditions, one must understand the effects of these changes in order that one does not falsely claim that damage has occurred when changes in measured quantities are observed. This problem - the problem of confounding influences - is particularly pressing for civil infrastructure where the given structure is usually openly exposed to the weather and may be subject to strongly varying operational conditions. One approach to understanding confounding influences is to construct a data-based response surface model that can represent measurement variations as a function of environmental and operational variables. The models can then be used to remove environmental and operational variations so that change detection algorithms signal the occurrence of damage alone. The current paper is concerned with such response surface models in the case of SHM of bridges. In particular, classes of response surface models that can switch discontinuously between regimes are discussed. Recently, it has been shown that Gaussian Process (GP) models are an effective means of developing response surface or surrogate models. However, the GP approach runs into difficulties if changes in the latent variables cause the structure of interest to abruptly switch between regimes. A good example here, which is well known in the SHM literature, is given by the Z24 Bridge in Switzerland which completely changed its dynamical behaviour when it cooled below zero degrees Celsius as the asphalt of the deck stiffened. The solution proposed here is to adopt the recently

  1. Cable-stayed bridge No. 1 Hikihara bridge'' ( Karauko bridge'') for Kinki construction bureau, ministry of construction. Kensetsusho kinki chiho kensetsukyoku (Hikihara 1 gobashi (Karauko ohashi))no shiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This paper summarizes the design, fabrication and erection of a back-anchor integrated single span cable suspension bridge (178 m long and 9.7 m wide) constructed over an ordinary road crossing a reservoir. This type of structure was adopted because the locational condition does not allow a bridge pier to be erected in the center of the pond, and the topography in the construction starting side has steep slopes and many places having fragile ground beds. This bridge employed precast floor plates using the Compo-Slab (manufactured by Ishikawajima Building Material Company). Main points which require attentions are listed in designing and fabricating the main towers (48 m high), main girders, and cables, as well as fabricating the precast cast floor plates (a panel has a length of 9.7 m, maximum width of 2 m, and maximum weight of 10 tons). The main towers were erected using 160-tf truck cranes, and the main girders were erected by the overhang method using 20-tf gate-type travel cranes. 3 refs., 14 figs.

  2. To the rationalization of the constructive solutions of the bridge supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova Olena


    Full Text Available Reduction of material consumption and labor intensity of building structures is a topical task for both theory and practice of building production. Today there are many ways to achieve proper economic effect while reconstruction or erection of building and structures. One of them is to rationalize well-known constructive solutions using as criteria the value of density of potential energy of deformation of structures. In this connection, the new constructive solution for short massive supports with outer reinforcement made of expanded metal sheet and frames (reinforcing rings which are used in construction of road and railway bridges and high-rise buildings is proposed in this paper. The theoretical approach for the definition of its rational parameters is given. Numerical analysis of the highlighted method is also carried out. As a result of study the increase in the bearing capacity in concrete pillars made in rational mesh clips with and without frames was obtained.

  3. IceBridge NSERC L1B Geolocated Meteorologic and Surface Temperature Data (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge National Suborbital Education & Research Center (NSERC) L1B Geolocated Meteorologic and Surface Temperature (IAMET1B) data set is a collection of...

  4. IceBridge NSERC L1B Geolocated Meteorologic and Surface Temperature Data, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge National Suborbital Education & Research Center (NSERC) L1B Geolocated Meteorologic and Surface Temperature (IAMET1B) data set is a collection of...

  5. Horizontal gust response of `Tatara Bridge` under construction; `Tatara ohashi` kasetsuji no taifu anteisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, K.; Iwasaki, T.; Tokushige, M.; Toriumi, R. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Wind tunnel tests of a long-span cable-stayed bridge under construction were conducted with two types of turbulent boundary layer simulations. The level of agreement between the wind tunnel measurements and a wind buffeting analysis varied with the type of turbulent boundary layer. An investigation of this behavior found that the aerodynamic admittance used in the buffeting analysis was different from the measured aerodynamic admittance. Past research showed that buffeting analysis based on strip theory, which assumes a spanwise correlation between the fluctuating wind velocity and the fluctuating aerodynamic loads, does not always hold. (author)

  6. Reliability-based failure cause assessment of collapsed bridge during construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyun-Ho; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Choi, Il-Yoon; Cho, Hyo-Nam; Mahadevan, Sankaran


    Until now, in many forensic reports, the failure cause assessments are usually carried out by a deterministic approach so far. However, it may be possible for the forensic investigation to lead to unreasonable results far from the real collapse scenario, because the deterministic approach does not systematically take into account any information on the uncertainties involved in the failures of structures. Reliability-based failure cause assessment (reliability-based forensic engineering) methodology is developed which can incorporate the uncertainties involved in structural failures and structures, and to apply them to the collapsed bridge in order to identify the most critical failure scenario and find the cause that triggered the bridge collapse. Moreover, to save the time and cost of evaluation, an algorithm of automated event tree analysis (ETA) is proposed and possible to automatically calculate the failure probabilities of the failure events and the occurrence probabilities of failure scenarios. Also, for reliability analysis, uncertainties are estimated more reasonably by using the Bayesian approach based on the experimental laboratory testing data in the forensic report. For the applicability, the proposed approach is applied to the Hang-ju Grand Bridge, which collapsed during construction, and compared with deterministic approach

  7. Design and construction of Chichibu-park bridge. Chichibu Koenkyo (kasho) no sekkei to seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasuike, H.; Azami, Y. (Saitama Prefectural Government Office, Saitama (Japan) New Structural Engineering, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Yamamoto, T.


    The design and construction of the Chichibu-Park Bridge in Japan were outlined which is the symmetric 2-span continuous PC cable stayed road bridge with one main tower (530 m in total length, 392 m in main bridge length, 19 m in width) built over the Arakawa River. The double-suspended four-box main girder with wind noses was adopted because of its excellent torsional rigidity of area and wind proof stability, and the rigid-frame main girder was rigidly connected to the middle main tower. The main tower with an H-type hollow section was adopted considering its workability, and was assembled with its divided 18 blocks. Each side of the main girder was suspended at 30 points spaced at 6.0 m, and the tower ends of the diagonal cables were fixed to the partition inside the main tower taking a landscape into account. The thick stranded wires composed of fine PC steel stranded wires and covered with polyethylene were adopted as diagonal cables, and structural beams were used for both ends of the diagonal cables. Damping wires were also adopted to damp the diagonal cables. 9 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Fiber optic corrosion sensing for bridges and roadway surfaces (United States)

    Fuhr, Peter L.; Ambrose, Timothy P.; Huston, Dryver R.; McPadden, Adam P.


    In this paper we report the development of a fiber optic corrosion sensing system that complements and/or surpasses the capabilities of conventional corrosion sensing techniques. The sensing system is based on evanescent wave phenomena and in the configured sensor allows for the detection of general corrosion on and within materials. Based on the authors' experience installing may kilometers of fiberoptic sensors into large civil structures such as multistory buildings, hydroelectric dams, and railway/roadway bridges, we are (currently) embedding these sensors into bridge test members -- limited structures that are being subjected to accelerated corrosion testing conditions. Three Vermont Agency of Transportation bridges, one in a low salt use region, one in a medium salt use region, and the third in a high salt use region, are being selected and will be instrumented with these embedded fiber optic corrosion sensors. Monitoring of chloride penetration and rebar corrosion status will be measured during the course of a longitudinal study. The specific sensing mechanism and design for robustness (to allow survival of the embedding process during repaving of the bridges) are discussed and laboratory and initial field results are presented.

  9. The profile of a capillary liquid bridge between solid surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Honschoten, J.W.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    Scanning force microscopy, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) is complicated by the capillary force of a water meniscus formed in air between the probe tip and the sample. This small liquid bridge between the hydrophilic sample and the sharp AFM tip can be formed by capillary condensation from

  10. Role to Be Played by Independent Geotechnical Supervision in the Foundation for Bridge Construction (United States)

    Sobala, Dariusz; Rybak, Jarosław


    Some remarks concerning the necessity of employing an independent and over all ethical geotechnical survey were presented in the paper. Starting from the design phase, through the whole construction process, the importance of geotechnical engineer is stated in legal acts. Numerous testing technologies serve for the calibration of geotechnical technologies and allow for confirming the quality and capacity of piles. Special emphasis was payed to the involvement of scientifical and research institutions which can not only serve services but also can postprocess and methodize collected data. Such databases enable for new codes, methods and recommendations. Selection of deep foundations for bridge-type structures is most often dependent on complex geotechnical conditions, concentrated loads and constraints for pier displacements. Besides the last ones, prior to more common introduction of the design-construct system, could be a convenient justification for design engineer, who imposed deep foundation because he did not want or was not able to estimate the effect of pier settlement on civil engineering structure. The paper provides some notes about the need to engage a geotechnical supervising service of high competency and ethical quality during engineering and construction stages of foundations for bridge-type structures where legal requirements are of special consideration. Successive stages of projects are reviewed and research methods used for current calibration of geotechnical technologies and verification of geotechnical work quality are analysed. Special attention is given to potential involvement of independent R&D institutions which, apart from rendering specific services, also collect and systemize the research results thus enabling, in the long term, to revise engineering standards, instructions and guidelines.

  11. Skin and surface lead contamination, hygiene programs, and work practices of bridge surface preparation and painting contractors. (United States)

    Virji, M Abbas; Woskie, Susan R; Pepper, Lewis D


    A 2005 regulatory review of the lead in construction standard by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) noted that alternative pathways of exposure can be as significant as inhalation exposure and that noncompliance with the standard pertaining to hygiene facilities and practices was the second most commonly violated section of the standard. Noncompliance with provisions of the standard and unhealthy work and hygiene practices likely increase the likelihood of take-home lead via contaminated clothing, automobiles, and skin, thus contributing to elevated blood lead levels (BLL) among construction workers and their family members. We performed a cross-sectional study of bridge painters working for small contractors in Massachusetts to investigate causes of persistent elevated BLLs and to assess lead exposures. Thirteen work sites were evaluated for a 2-week period during which surface and skin wipe samples were collected and qualitative information was obtained on personal hygiene practices, decontamination and hand wash facilities, and respiratory protection programs. Results showed lead contamination on workers' skin, respirators, personal automobiles, and the decontamination unit, indicating a significant potential for take-home lead exposure. Overall, the geometric mean (GM) skin lead levels ranged from 373 microg on workers' faces at end of shift to 814 microg on hands at break time. The overall GM lead level inside respirators was 143 microg before work and 286 microg after work. Lead contamination was also present inside workers' personal vehicles as well as on surfaces inside the clean side of the decontamination unit. Review of the respiratory protection programs, work site decontamination and hand wash facilities, and personal hygiene practices indicated that these factors had significant impact on skin and surface contamination levels and identified significant opportunities for improving work site facilities and personal practices

  12. Modeling capillary bridge dynamics and crack healing between surfaces of nanoscale roughness (United States)

    Soylemez, Emrecan; de Boer, Maarten P.


    Capillary bridge formation between adjacent surfaces in humid environments is a ubiquitous phenomenon. It strongly influences tribological performance with respect to adhesion, friction and wear. Only a few studies, however, assess effects due to capillary dynamics. Here we focus on how capillary bridge evolution influences crack healing rates. Experimental results indicated a logarithmic decrease in average crack healing velocity as the energy release rate increases. Our objective is to model that trend. We assume that capillary dynamics involve two mechanisms: capillary bridge growth and subsequently nucleation followed by growth. We show that by incorporating interface roughness details and the presence of an adsorbed water layer, the behavior of capillary force dynamics can be understood quantitatively. We identify three important regimes that control the healing process, namely bridge growth, combined bridge growth and nucleation, and finally bridge nucleation. To fully capture the results, however, the theoretical model for nucleation time required an empirical modification. Our model enables significant insight into capillary bridge dynamics, with a goal of attaining a predictive capability for this important microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) reliability failure mechanism.

  13. Design and construction of the Natorigawa Bridge; Natorigawa kyoryo no sekkei/seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, Y.; Oba, M.; Omurata, Y. [JR East Japan Railway Co., Tokyo (Japan); Miyauchi, M.; Iwasaki, I. [Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    The Natorigawa Bridge is reconstructed. Out of the reconstruction work, a report is made mainly on the design of the superstructure work of the PC panel-stayed bridge and the details of the work. In selecting bridge type, PC simple through beam bridge, steel trussed bridge, PC cable-stayed bridge, and PC panel-stayed bridge are compared, and a 2-span continuous PC panel-stayed bridge is adopted. Its appearance resembles that of the cable-stayed bridge, but the structure resembles a girder bridge. The appropriate span length is the intermediate range between those of the girder bridge and the cable-stayed bridge. Its trafficability is excellent with little deformation by the running of trains because the main beam, diagonal panel, and the main tower are connected rigidly to provide high rigidity of the entire bridge. PRC structure is employed in consideration of the restriction to beam height and economical efficiency. Analyses by a FEM model using two dimensional plane elements and by a few plane frame models as well as comparison of sectional force are performed for this bridge, and a proper plane model is selected. Substructure work, superstructure work and measurement work are described. 3 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Assessment of exposure pathways connected with construction and operation of concrete bridge reinforced with very low level radioactive steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panik, M.; Necas, V.


    Large amount of low level radioactive material arises during decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Material mostly comprises metal scrap and concrete ruble. Paper deals with recycling and reuse of metal scrap and its utilization as part of reinforcement of concrete bridges under the conditional release concept. Radiation exposure originating in very low level reinforcement steel consists of several exposure pathways. Short-term radiation impact is represented mostly by external exposure pathway and it is relevant to the construction workers and users of the bridge. Long-term radiation impacts on inhabitants living near finished bridge and it is divided into inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides-internal exposure pathways. Radiation impact caused by utilization of very low level radioactive waste was calculated using simulation software VISIPLAN 3D ALARA and GOLDSIM. Results of calculations provide fair summary of possibilities of utilization of conditionally released steel as reinforcement of concrete bridges. (Authors)

  15. Design and construction of Ogawa bridge; Ogawa bashi no sekkei to seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, T.; Chigira, F. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Sakao, H.


    Ogawa bridge 230m long by 15.5m wide has been planned on the national road No.401 at Katashina-mura in Gunma Prefecture. Structure mode is two spans continuous PC cable-stayed obliquely system, and a main tower is H type (height: 56m from the road surface) and is located at the center of the bridge alone. This place corresponding to the entrance of Oze famous national park, the main tower is designed so as to have bulge, imaging Mizubasho (lysichiton camtschatcense), from the middle part of the pier to the lower part of the main tower. Arrangement of the cables is designed as two faces of hung fun type and one side face is composed of 13 steel strands (dia. 15.2mm wire x 27 (partly 19); covered with PE tube) in front and rear respectively. A main girder is the box type PC block 2.3m height by 4m or 3m long, and 3m long one is for fastening with a cable. Centering on the main tower, the girder blocks are successively connected in front and rare alternatively and are fastened with cables in part. This overhanging connection work is carried out by two special movable conveyers `Wagens`. 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Surface Patterning and Nanowire Biosensor Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars


    surface. A central limitation to this biosensor principle is the screening of analyte charge by mobile ions in electrolytes with physiological ionic strength. To overcome this problem, we propose to use as capture agents proteins which undergo large conformational changes. Using structure based protein...... charge prediction, we show how ligand induced changes in conformation of two model proteins, both being ligand binding domains from glutamate receptors, can lead to changes in electrostatic potential predicted to be sufficient for NW sensing. Finally we, demonstrate how InAs nanowires can....... In part I - “Surface Patterning” - glass and gold surfaces serve as spatially encoded immobilization supports for patterning of recombinant proteins and organic monolayers. First, we combine micro-contact printing with a reactive SNAP-tag protein to establish a general platform for templated protein...

  17. Thick-to-Thin Filament Surface Distance Modulates Cross-Bridge Kinetics in Drosophila Flight Muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, Bertrand C.W.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Maughan, David W.; Palmer, Bradley M.; Miller, Mark S. (IIT); (Vermont); (BU)


    The demembranated (skinned) muscle fiber preparation is widely used to investigate muscle contraction because the intracellular ionic conditions can be precisely controlled. However, plasma membrane removal results in a loss of osmotic regulation, causing abnormal hydration of the myofilament lattice and its proteins. We investigated the structural and functional consequences of varied myofilament lattice spacing and protein hydration on cross-bridge rates of force development and detachment in Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle, using x-ray diffraction to compare the lattice spacing of dissected, osmotically compressed skinned fibers to native muscle fibers in living flies. Osmolytes of different sizes and exclusion properties (Dextran T-500 and T-10) were used to differentially alter lattice spacing and protein hydration. At in vivo lattice spacing, cross-bridge attachment time (t{sub on}) increased with higher osmotic pressures, consistent with a reduced cross-bridge detachment rate as myofilament protein hydration decreased. In contrast, in the swollen lattice, t{sub on} decreased with higher osmotic pressures. These divergent responses were reconciled using a structural model that predicts t{sub on} varies inversely with thick-to-thin filament surface distance, suggesting that cross-bridge rates of force development and detachment are modulated more by myofilament lattice geometry than protein hydration. Generalizing these findings, our results suggest that cross-bridge cycling rates slow as thick-to-thin filament surface distance decreases with sarcomere lengthening, and likewise, cross-bridge cycling rates increase during sarcomere shortening. Together, these structural changes may provide a mechanism for altering cross-bridge performance throughout a contraction-relaxation cycle.

  18. Constructing C1 Continuous Surface on Irregular Quad Meshes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jun; GUO Qiang


    A new method is proposed for surface construction on irregular quad meshes as extensions to uniform B-spline surfaces. Given a number of control points, which form a regular or irregular quad mesh, a weight function is constructed for each control point. The weight function is defined on a local domain and is C1 continuous. Then the whole surface is constructed by the weighted combination of all the control points. The property of the new method is that the surface is defined by piecewise C1 bi-cubic rational parametric polynomial with each quad face. It is an extension to uniform B-spline surfaces in the sense that its definition is an analogy of the B-spline surface, and it produces a uniform bi-cubic B-spline surface if the control mesh is a regular quad mesh. Examples produced by the new method are also included.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Membrane Materials used in Multilayer Surfacing Systems for Orthotropic Steel Deck Bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzimiris, G.


    In the Netherlands asphaltic surfacings on orthotropic steel deck bridges (OSDB) mostly consist of two structural layers. The upper layer consists of what is known as very open porous asphalt (ZOAB) for noise reduction. For the lower layer Guss Asphalt (GA) is used. Earlier investigations have shown

  20. Evaluation of external exposure during building and operation of concrete bridges constructions that reuse the conditionally released steels - 59120

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panik, Michal; Necas, Vladimir


    This paper presents ongoing results of the project presented at ICEM'10 [1] related to the topics of reusing the conditionally released materials from decommissioning. The subject of the reuse of conditionally released materials in this case is modeling of bridge constructions which reuse the conditionally released steel in the form of reinforcement bars for the concrete bridges. A general approach for the project was presented at ICEM'10. The activities of the project continue in evaluating the individual effective doses from the external exposure based on reused conditionally released steels separately for public and for professionals (the internal exposure will be evaluated in next stages of the project). Evaluated scenarios are related to critical groups of professionals constructing the bridges (worker's scenarios). The computer code VISIPLAN 3D ALARA 4.0 planning tool was used for the calculation of the individual effective dose for professionals. Various limits of the annual individual effective dose are used for the evaluation of calculation results. The aim of the ongoing modeling is to develop a set of data of maximal radioactivity concentration for individual radionuclides in the conditionally released steel used in the bridges model constructions in order not to exceed the limits for the individual effective dose. (authors)

  1. Reliability Evaluation of Bridges Based on Nonprobabilistic Response Surface Limit Method


    Chen, Xuyong; Chen, Qian; Bian, Xiaoya; Fan, Jianping


    Due to many uncertainties in nonprobabilistic reliability assessment of bridges, the limit state function is generally unknown. The traditional nonprobabilistic response surface method is a lengthy and oscillating iteration process and leads to difficultly solving the nonprobabilistic reliability index. This article proposes a nonprobabilistic response surface limit method based on the interval model. The intention of this method is to solve the upper and lower limits of the nonprobabilistic ...

  2. Food-Bridging: A New Network Construction to Unveil the Principles of Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Simas


    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we propose, analyze, and discuss a possible new principle behind traditional cuisine: the Food-bridging hypothesis and its comparison with the food-pairing hypothesis using the same dataset and graphical models employed in the food-pairing study by Ahn et al. (2011. The Food-bridging hypothesis assumes that if two ingredients do not share a strong molecular or empirical affinity, they may become affine through a chain of pairwise affinities. That is, in a graphical model as employed by Ahn et al., a chain represents a path that joints the two ingredients, the shortest path represents the strongest pairwise chain of affinities between the two ingredients. Food-pairing and Food-bridging are different hypotheses that may describe possible mechanisms behind the recipes of traditional cuisines. Food-pairing intensifies flavor by mixing ingredients in a recipe with similar chemical compounds, and food-bridging smoothes contrast between ingredients. Both food-pairing and food-bridging are observed in traditional cuisines, as shown in this work. We observed four classes of cuisines according to food-pairing and food-bridging: (1 East Asian cuisines, at one extreme, tend to avoid food-pairing as well as food-bridging; and (4 Latin American cuisines, at the other extreme, follow both principles. For the two middle classes: (2 Southeastern Asian cuisines, avoid food-pairing and follow food-bridging; and (3 Western cuisines, follow food-pairing and avoid food-bridging.

  3. Reliability Evaluation of Bridges Based on Nonprobabilistic Response Surface Limit Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyong Chen


    Full Text Available Due to many uncertainties in nonprobabilistic reliability assessment of bridges, the limit state function is generally unknown. The traditional nonprobabilistic response surface method is a lengthy and oscillating iteration process and leads to difficultly solving the nonprobabilistic reliability index. This article proposes a nonprobabilistic response surface limit method based on the interval model. The intention of this method is to solve the upper and lower limits of the nonprobabilistic reliability index and to narrow the range of the nonprobabilistic reliability index. If the range of the reliability index reduces to an acceptable accuracy, the solution will be considered convergent, and the nonprobabilistic reliability index will be obtained. The case study indicates that using the proposed method can avoid oscillating iteration process, make iteration process stable and convergent, reduce iteration steps significantly, and improve computational efficiency and precision significantly compared with the traditional nonprobabilistic response surface method. Finally, the nonprobabilistic reliability evaluation process of bridge will be built through evaluating the reliability of one PC continuous rigid frame bridge with three spans using the proposed method, which appears to be more simple and reliable when lack of samples and parameters in the bridge nonprobabilistic reliability evaluation is present.

  4. Assessment of noise environment during construction of a major bridge and associated approach road. (United States)

    Roy, T K; Mukhopadhyay, A R; Ghosh, S K; Majumder, G


    In this paper a methodology to quantify the noise environment, during a major bridge construction and upgrading approach road connectivity, has been provided. Noise levels were monitored at eleven sites. These eleven sites have been classified into three categories - commercial, residential and silence zones. The study was carried out to measure the ambient noise levels in all the eleven sites falling in the above three categories during both day and night times considering both "working" and "non-working" days. It was found that the mean noise level during night time was more, compared to that during day time for commercial, residential as well as silence zones. The likely causes of more noise during night time have been explored. Appropriate remedial measures have been suggested to reduce the noise levels. In addition, the noise levels in the above three zones have been compared, wherever feasible statistically, with the respective zonal standards. Significance has been found in all the cases. The underlying causes and remedies have been provided.

  5. Risk management analysis for construction of Kutai Kartanegara bridge-East Kalimantan-Indonesia (United States)

    Azis, Subandiyah


    Many sources of risk that may impede the achievement of the project objectives through either cost or quality and time, especially for bridges that have collapsed before, so when the implementation of possible hazard / high hazard so when should the possible hazard/high hazard be implemented The purpose of this research is to identify, to analyze risks by classifying the risks using the method of Risk Breakdown Structure (RBS) and managing the dominant risk of execution of the installation work to determine the handling of the steel frame in order to maximize the positive and minimize the incidence of adverse events. The results of this study indicate there are 15 sources of risks are identified, and there are 6 risk indicates the dominant risks. Mitigation performed on the dominant risks unacceptable i.e. Project factor that shows the delays in the arrival of materials due to locations, schedule of the arrival of materials should be tailored to the needs of the field and the amount of material that comes with the required field should also be evaluated. The result is expected to be a guideline for identifying risks and mitigation measures for further research. Subsequent researchers to pay attention on the security factor that implementation time does not affect the productivity of work in construction projects.

  6. Effects of surface design on aerodynamic forces of iced bridge cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koss, Holger


    In recent years the relevance of ice accretion for wind-induced vibration of structural bridge cables has been recognised and became a subject of research in bridge engineering. Full-scale monitoring and observation indicate that light precipitation at moderate low temperatures between zero and -...... influences the accretion of ice to an extent that the aerodynamic forces differ significantly amongst the designs. The experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel facility capable amongst others to simulate in-cloud icing conditions........ The determination of these force coefficients require a proper simulation of the ice layer occurring under the specific climatic conditions, favouring real ice accretion over simplified artificial reproduction. The work presented in this paper was performed to study whether the design of bridge cable surface...

  7. 78 FR 12260 - Regulated Navigation Area-Weymouth Fore River, Fore River Bridge Construction, Weymouth and... (United States)


    ... bridge will reach the end of its useable life span in 2018 and the Massachusetts Department of... temporary existing bridge spans. D. Regulatory Analyses We developed this proposed rule after considering... unforeseen, that could pose an imminent hazard to persons and vessels operating in the area. This rule is...

  8. Construction of cable-stayed prestressed concrete bridge, having Japan`s first independent single slanted tower; Nippon hatsu no keisha shuto wo motsu PC shachokyo no seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanada, Y.; Naito, H. [Penta-Ocean Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Takeuchi, H.; Mikami, T.


    In the Hachinoe Harbor, Aomori prefecture, a man-made island (Hachinoe Port Island) is being constructed by reclamation. When proceeding this undertaking plan, a construction of the Hachinoe Harbor Port Island connection bridge, which connects the man-made island with the existing harbor district, was made an urgent necessity. This connecting bridge is a bridge with a total length of 256.56m, and is constituted of two span continuous PC slanted bridge and three span continuous PC box girder bridge. This slanted bridge has become an asymmetrical structure due to several conditions coming from a plan, and moreover it has the first structural shape as a road bridge in Japan, of which main tower is 15{degree} slanted independent single tower type, there are more problems for the work execution compared with other normal slanted bridges. In addition, because it is situated in an extremely cruel environment like in the cold region and in the marine environment, a sufficient consideration is required for its design and work execution in order to insure a durability. In this report, an outline of work execution content about PC slanted bridge part currently under a construction zealously aiming at a completion in the end of the fiscal year 1994 is introduced. 2 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Drop deposition on surfaces with contact-angle hysteresis: Liquid-bridge stability and breakup


    Akbari, Amir; Hill, Reghan J.


    We study the stability and breakup of liquid bridges with a free contact line on a surface with contact-angle hysteresis under zero-gravity conditions. Theoretical predictions of the stability limits are validated by experimental measurements. Experiments are conducted in a water-methanol-silicon oil system where the gravity force is offset by buoyancy. We highlight cases where stability is lost during the transition from a pinned-pinned to pinned-free interface when the receding contact angl...

  10. Best Practices for Construction and Repair of Bridge Approaches and Departures (United States)


    Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) has experienced frequent distresses in bridge approach/departure asphalt pavements in its highway system. Commonly observed distresses include alligator cracking and rutting, which reduce roadway smoothness...

  11. A construct-network approach to bridging diagnostic and physiological domains: application to assessment of externalizing psychopathology. (United States)

    Patrick, Christopher J; Venables, Noah C; Yancey, James R; Hicks, Brian M; Nelson, Lindsay D; Kramer, Mark D


    A crucial challenge in efforts to link psychological disorders to neural systems, with the aim of developing biologically informed conceptions of such disorders, is the problem of method variance (Campbell & Fiske, 1959). Since even measures of the same construct in differing domains correlate only moderately, it is unsurprising that large sample studies of diagnostic biomarkers yield only modest associations. To address this challenge, a construct-network approach is proposed in which psychometric operationalizations of key neurobehavioral constructs serve as anchors for identifying neural indicators of psychopathology-relevant dispositions, and as vehicles for bridging between domains of clinical problems and neurophysiology. An empirical illustration is provided for the construct of inhibition-disinhibition, which is of central relevance to problems entailing deficient impulse control. Findings demonstrate that: (1) a well-designed psychometric index of trait disinhibition effectively predicts externalizing problems of multiple types, (2) this psychometric measure of disinhibition shows reliable brain response correlates, and (3) psychometric and brain-response indicators can be combined to form a joint psychoneurometric factor that predicts effectively across clinical and physiological domains. As a methodology for bridging between clinical problems and neural systems, the construct-network approach provides a concrete means by which existing conceptions of psychological disorders can accommodate and be reshaped by neurobiological insights. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Application of Composite Structures in Bridge Engineering. Problems of Construction Process and Strength Analysis (United States)

    Flaga, Kazimierz; Furtak, Kazimierz


    Steel-concrete composite structures have been used in bridge engineering from decades. This is due to rational utilisation of the strength properties of the two materials. At the same time, the reinforced concrete (or prestressed) deck slab is more favourable than the orthotropic steel plate used in steel bridges (higher mass, better vibration damping, longer life). The most commonly found in practice are composite girder bridges, particularly in highway bridges of small and medium spans, but the spans may reach over 200 m. In larger spans steel truss girders are applied. Bridge composite structures are also employed in cable-stayed bridge decks of the main girder spans of the order of 600, 800 m. The aim of the article is to present the cionstruction process and strength analysis problems concerning of this type of structures. Much attention is paid to the design and calculation of the shear connectors characteristic for the discussed objects. The authors focused mainly on the issues of single composite structures. The effect of assembly states on the stresses and strains in composite members are highlighted. A separate part of problems is devoted to the influence of rheological factors, i.e. concrete shrinkage and creep, as well as thermal factors on the stresses and strains and redistribution of internal forces.

  13. Study of technology of pile foundation construction of no.5 main pier of Shoujiang bridge in Wenchuan County (United States)

    Huang, Xianbin; Liu, Chenyang; Chen, Chunyang; Wangren, Yahong; Xu, Jialin; Xian, Jin


    The group of pile foundation of no.5 pier in Shoujiang Bridge needs to overcome the big load of large span continuous steel structure. The length of single pile foundation is 77m and the diameter of single pile foundation is 250cm. It not only faces the flood in the upstream of Shoujiang river, the construction obstacles during summer rain period, but also the reservoir clearance activity of Zipingpu reservoir and the high water level in winter and other water level fluctuation that have huge impact on platform of pile foundation construction. This article introduces the preparation in aspect of personnel, material, equipment and so on of pile foundation construction, and also conduct intensive research on leveling the field, assaying pile location, the embedment of the steel casing, installing the drill, mixing mud, drilling, final hole inspection and clearance, steel cage construction, perfusing concrete under water.

  14. Liquid-bridge stability and breakup on surfaces with contact-angle hysteresis. (United States)

    Akbari, Amir; Hill, Reghan J


    We study the stability and breakup of liquid bridges with a free contact line on surfaces with contact-angle hysteresis (CAH) under zero-gravity conditions. Non-ideal surfaces exhibit CAH because of surface imperfections, by which the constraints on three-phase contact lines are influenced. Given that interfacial instabilities are constraint-sensitive, understanding how CAH affects the stability and breakup of liquid bridges is crucial for predicting the drop size in contact-drop dispensing. Unlike ideal surfaces on which contact lines are always free irrespective of surface wettability, contact lines may undergo transitions from pinned to free and vice versa during drop deposition on non-ideal surfaces. Here, we experimentally and theoretically examine how stability and breakup are affected by CAH, highlighting cases where stability is lost during a transition from a pinned-pinned (more constrained) to pinned-free (less constrained) interface-rather than a critical state. This provides a practical means of expediting or delaying stability loss. We also demonstrate how the dynamic contact angle can control the contact-line radius following stability loss.

  15. Construction, specification, and mathematical description of aspheric surfaces. (United States)

    Smith, G; Atchison, D A


    Rotationally symmetrical aspheric surfaces of spectacle lenses are constructed as either "zonal aspherics" or "continuous aspherics." Zonal aspherics consist of annular zones surrounding a central zone with each zone being nominally spherical with progressively lower surface power the farther the zone is from the surface vertex. Aspheric surfaces are often specified by the radial drop in surface power from the center to the edge of the lens (e.g., Welsh Four-drop), but for assessment purposes the surface shape must be specified more precisely. The formulas for the description of continuous aspherics can be manipulated into different forms. Mathematical descriptions are given or developed which will enable theoretical assessment of the performances of all lenses with rotationally symmetrical aspheric surfaces.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kulyabko


    Full Text Available In the article the issues of increasing the possibilities of computer modeling of the dynamic interaction of bridge constructions and their infrastructure with moving transport and flows are considered.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Kurgansky


    Full Text Available The effective algorithm is proposed for implementing Boolean operations over triangulated surfaces, namely, disjunction, conjunction and Boolean difference, and its software implementation. The idea consists in as follow. The first step is to determine pairs of intersecting triangles: localizing the intersection of the two surfaces using the bounding volume of the parallelepipeds and the future of their intersection. The second step is constructing an intersection line for each pair of triangles: a pair of intersecting triangles is selected, and the segment along which they intersect is constructed. Further, thanks to the entered data structure, "adjacent" triangles are selected, among which are selected those that form the intersecting pair. The process described above continues as long as such triangles can be detected. After that the triangles involved in the intersection are retriangulated. For each triangle, all the edges are known on which it intersects with triangles from another surface. These edges are structural edges in the triangulation problem with constraints for a given triangle. The third step is to combine all surfaces into one surface. Further, subsurfaces are constructed along the loops of intersection limited by the found loops. Since the intersection line of the surfaces was constructed in sequence, it is possible to specify the direction of each edge. Any edge from the intersection line is selected. The triangle is added to the subsurface under construction, which includes this edge and its orientation is the same as the direction of the edge. The edge which was selected previously is deleted from intersection line, but two new edges are added is the remaining edges of added triangle. The third step is to combine all surfaces into one surface. Further, subsurfaces are constructed along the cycles of intersection limited by the found cycles. Since the intersection line of the surfaces was constructed in sequence, it is

  18. 75 FR 22228 - Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction Zone, NY and VT (United States)


    ... the comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review a... the public interest because the bridge will be a public convenience and because the RNA will provide... area will be marked with four white and orange-striped ``NO WAKE'' buoys to define the start and end of...

  19. Review of Constructed Subsurface Flow vs. Surface Flow Wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The purpose of this document is to use existing documentation to review the effectiveness of subsurface flow and surface flow constructed wetlands in treating wastewater and to demonstrate the viability of treating effluent from Savannah River Site outfalls H-02 and H-04 with a subsurface flow constructed wetland to lower copper, lead and zinc concentrations to within National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit limits. Constructed treatment wetlands are engineered systems that have been designed and constructed to use the natural functions of wetlands for wastewater treatment. Constructed wetlands have significantly lower total lifetime costs and often lower capital costs than conventional treatment systems. The two main types of constructed wetlands are surface flow and subsurface flow. In surface flow constructed wetlands, water flows above ground. Subsurface flow constructed wetlands are designed to keep the water level below the top of the rock or gravel media, thus minimizing human and ecological exposure. Subsurface flow wetlands demonstrate higher rates of contaminant removal per unit of land than surface flow (free water surface) wetlands, therefore subsurface flow wetlands can be smaller while achieving the same level of contaminant removal. Wetlands remove metals using a variety of processes including filtration of solids, sorption onto organic matter, oxidation and hydrolysis, formation of carbonates, formation of insoluble sulfides, binding to iron and manganese oxides, reduction to immobile forms by bacterial activity, and uptake by plants and bacteria. Metal removal rates in both subsurface flow and surface flow wetlands can be high, but can vary greatly depending upon the influent concentrations and the mass loading rate. Removal rates of greater than 90 per cent for copper, lead and zinc have been demonstrated in operating surface flow and subsurface flow wetlands. The constituents that exceed NPDES limits at outfalls H-02 a nd H

  20. Habitats and Surface Construction Technology and Development Roadmap (United States)

    Cohen, Marc; Kennedy, Kriss J.


    The vision of the technology and development teams at NASA Ames and Johnson Research Centers is to provide the capability for automated delivery and emplacement of habitats and surface facilities. The benefits of the program are as follows: Composites and Inflatables: 30-50% (goal) lighter than Al Hard Structures; Capability for Increased Habitable Volume, Launch Efficiency; Long Term Growth Potential; and Supports initiation of commercial and industrial expansion. Key Habitats and Surface Construction (H&SC) technology issues are: Habitat Shell Structural Materials; Seals and Mechanisms; Construction and Assembly: Automated Pro-Deploy Construction Systems; ISRU Soil/Construction Equipment: Lightweight and Lower Power Needs; Radiation Protection (Health and Human Performance Tech.); Life Support System (Regenerative Life Support System Tech.); Human Physiology of Long Duration Space Flight (Health and Human Performance Tech.); and Human Psychology of Long Duration Space Flight (Health and Human Performance Tech.) What is being done regarding these issues?: Use of composite materials for X-38 CRV, RLV, etc.; TransHAB inflatable habitat design/development; Japanese corporations working on ISRU-derived construction processes. What needs to be done for the 2004 Go Decision?: Characterize Mars Environmental Conditions: Civil Engineering, Material Durability, etc.; Determine Credibility of Inflatable Structures for Human Habitation; and Determine Seal Technology for Mechanisms and Hatches, Life Cycle, and Durability. An overview encompassing all of the issues above is presented.

  1. New And Existing Bridge Constructions - Increase of Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints by High Frequency Mechanical Impact Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummenhofer Thomas


    Full Text Available Numerous studies at KIT prove that high frequency mechanical impact (HFMI treatment is an efficient method for increasing the fatigue strength of welded steel structures. Within different research projects it was found that HFMI-methods can be used successfully for new and existing structures in order to extend the fatigue life. This paper gives an overview of the current status of existing steel bridges in Germany regarding aspects like bridge age distributions and traffic loads. Based on that overview welded joints susceptible to fatigue failure are identified. Using component-like small scale specimens, HFMI-methods were investigated within the objective of implementing an effective application for new and existing structures. Applying the fatigue test data observed, existing design proposals are evaluated and design recommendations for HFMI-treated joints are given. As a result of the research work, a transfer into practice has been realized and different applications are illustrated using the example of bridge constructions made of steel.

  2. The induction of dentin bridge-like structures by constructs of subcultured dental pulp-derived cells and porous HA/TCP in porcine teeth. (United States)

    Ando, Yusuke; Honda, Masaki J; Ohshima, Hayato; Tonomura, Akiko; Ohara, Takayuki; Itaya, Toshimitsu; Kagami, Hideaki; Ueda, Minoru


    The purpose of this study was to investigate dentin-bridge formation in teeth following the transplantation of dental pulp-derived cells seeded on hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) scaffolds. The dental pulp tissues were removed from the extracted first molar teeth of miniature pigs and single cell populations were subcultured. Second-passage cells that had alkaline phosphatase activity were combined with scaffolds. Cell-scaffold constructs were placed in contact with the exposed pulp tissue. The dimensions of the exposed pulp site were approximately 1-2.5 mm in diameter and 2-3 mm in depth from the tooth surface. After placing the constructs, the tooth was restored with composite resin. Six weeks after transplantation, hard tissue formation was observed on the pulp tissue in histology. Dentinal tubule-like structures were observed in most of the hard tissue generated, and columnar cells, which showed positive immunoreactions with dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and heat shock protein (HSP)-25, were aligned beneath the hard tissues. When only scaffolds were placed on the pulp tissues, particles of hard tissue were formed, however dentinal tubule-like structures and odontoblasts were not observed despite the formation of hard tissue. In conclusion, the implantation of dental pulp constructs into pulp exposed stimulates the formation of calcified dentin-like structures.

  3. Construction and modernization of underground and surface mines. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burshtein, N M


    Development of the Sredazugol' association in Soviet Central Asia from 1976 to 1985 is discussed. From 1976 to 1980 investment in the association amounted to 151 million rubles, 87.5 million of which fell on construction. Major development projects of the 1976-1980 period are reviewed: construction of new mining levels in underground coal mines, development of a number of operating surface mines, modernization of earthmoving and mining equipment, development of mine haulage by locomotives and railroad cars, improving occupational safety in coal mining, increasing slope stability in surface mining, especially in the area of the Atchinsk landslide in the Angren mine. From 1981 to 1985 investment in the Sredazugol' association should amount to 202 million rubles, of which 126 million rubles will be spent on construction. Investment will be 35% higher than in the 1976-1980 period and investment in mine construction 43% higher. The largest development project will be modernization of the Angren surface mine and increasing its targeted coal output from 5.2 Mt/y to 10.3 Mt/y by 1990. Modernization and reconstruction of the Angren mine will be carried out in 2 stages. Coal output of the mine will increase by 1.2 Mt/y in the current 5 year plan (by 1985), and by 3.9 Mt/y in the next 5 year period. Reconstruction and development of the Angren mine will cost approximately 254 million rubles. Mining and earthmoving equipment which will be used in the Angren mine is reviewed: EhRGV-630 bucket wheel excavators, EhSh-10/70 and EhSh-13/50 walking draglines, etc.

  4. The construction of drape surfaces with constrained first derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Fossati


    Full Text Available The need to construct optimal drape surfaces arises in airborne geophysical surveys where it is necessary to fly a safe distance above the ground and within the performance of the aircraft used, but as close as possible to the surface. The problem is formulated as an LP with constraints at every point of a grid covering the area concerned, yielding a huge problem. The lifting algorithm is suggested. This is a surprisingly simple algorithm which starts with the drape surface at ground level and lifts it one point at a time. Only points which are too low relative to one or more of their neighbours are considered and they are lifted just enough to bring them into kilter with their neighbours. It is shown that the lifting algorithm is both exact and has great speed advantages. Some numerical results confirming exactness and speed are presented. An enhanced method with better complexity is proposed and tested numerically.

  5. A new method of constructing scalar-flat Kaehler surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongsu; Pontecorvo, M.


    Building on the work of Donaldson-Friedman we present a geometric way of constructing anti-self-dual hermitian metrics on compact complex surfaces which is based on the relative complex deformations of singular 3-folds with divisors. Some of the consequences are that under a mild condition, fully described by LeBrun-Singer, any blow up of a scalar-flat Kaehler surface admits scalar-flat Kaehler metrics; this is used to prove that such extremal Kaehler metrics exists on an open dense subset of the moduli space of non-minimal ruled surfaces of genus g ≥ 2. Related results have been obtained by LeBrun-Singer. (author). 25 refs

  6. Extensional flow of low-viscosity fluids in capillary bridges formed by pulsed surface acoustic wave jetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, P K; McDonnell, A G; Prabhakar, R; Yeo, L Y; Friend, J, E-mail: [MicroNanophysics Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800 (Australia); Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication, Melbourne, VIC 3800 (Australia)


    Forming capillary bridges of low-viscosity ({approx}<10 mPa s) fluids is difficult, making the study of their capillary-thinning behavior and the measurement of the fluid's extensional viscosity difficult as well. Current techniques require some time to form a liquid bridge from the stretching of a droplet. Rapidly stretching a liquid bridge using these methods can cause its breakup if the viscosity is too low. Stretching more slowly allows the bridge to thin and break up before a suitable bridge geometry can be established to provide reliable and accurate rheological data. Using a pulsed surface acoustic wave to eject a jet from a sessile droplet, a capillary bridge may be formed in about 7.5 ms, about seven times quicker than current methods. With this approach, capillary bridges may be formed from Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids having much lower viscosities-water, 0.04% by weight solution of high-molecular-weight (7 MDa) polystyrene in dioctyl phthalate and 0.25% fibrinogen solution in demineralized water, for example. Details of the relatively simple system used to achieve these results are provided, as are experimental results indicating deviations from a Newtonian response by the low-viscosity non-Newtonian fluids used in our study.

  7. Extensional flow of low-viscosity fluids in capillary bridges formed by pulsed surface acoustic wave jetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, P K; McDonnell, A G; Prabhakar, R; Yeo, L Y; Friend, J


    Forming capillary bridges of low-viscosity (∼<10 mPa s) fluids is difficult, making the study of their capillary-thinning behavior and the measurement of the fluid's extensional viscosity difficult as well. Current techniques require some time to form a liquid bridge from the stretching of a droplet. Rapidly stretching a liquid bridge using these methods can cause its breakup if the viscosity is too low. Stretching more slowly allows the bridge to thin and break up before a suitable bridge geometry can be established to provide reliable and accurate rheological data. Using a pulsed surface acoustic wave to eject a jet from a sessile droplet, a capillary bridge may be formed in about 7.5 ms, about seven times quicker than current methods. With this approach, capillary bridges may be formed from Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids having much lower viscosities-water, 0.04% by weight solution of high-molecular-weight (7 MDa) polystyrene in dioctyl phthalate and 0.25% fibrinogen solution in demineralized water, for example. Details of the relatively simple system used to achieve these results are provided, as are experimental results indicating deviations from a Newtonian response by the low-viscosity non-Newtonian fluids used in our study.

  8. 3D Additive Construction with Regolith for Surface Systems (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.


    Planetary surface exploration on Asteroids, the Moon, Mars and Martian Moons will require the stabilization of loose, fine, dusty regolith to avoid the effects of vertical lander rocket plume impingement, to keep abrasive and harmful dust from getting lofted and for dust free operations. In addition, the same regolith stabilization process can be used for 3 Dimensional ( 3D) printing, additive construction techniques by repeating the 2D stabilization in many vertical layers. This will allow in-situ construction with regolith so that materials will not have to be transported from Earth. Recent work in the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Surface Systems Office (NE-S) Swamp Works and at the University of Southern California (USC) under two NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) awards have shown promising results with regolith (crushed basalt rock) materials for in-situ heat shields, bricks, landing/launch pads, berms, roads, and other structures that could be fabricated using regolith that is sintered or mixed with a polymer binder. The technical goals and objectives of this project are to prove the feasibility of 3D printing additive construction using planetary regolith simulants and to show that they have structural integrity and practical applications in space exploration.

  9. Construction of mechanically durable superhydrophobic surfaces by thermal spray deposition and further surface modification (United States)

    Chen, Xiuyong; Gong, Yongfeng; Suo, Xinkun; Huang, Jing; Liu, Yi; Li, Hua


    Here we report a simple and cost-effective technical route for constructing superhydrophobic surfaces with excellent abrasion resistance on various substrates. Rough surface structures were fabricated by thermal spray deposition of a variety of inorganic materials, and further surface modification was made by applying a thin layer of polytetrafluoroethylene. Results show that the Al, Cu, or NiCrBSi coatings with the surface roughness of up to 13.8 μm offer rough surface profile to complement the topographical morphology in micro-/nano-scaled sizes, and the hydrophobic molecules facilitate the hydrophobicity. The contact angles of water droplets of ∼155° with a sliding angle of up to 3.5° on the samples have been achieved. The newly constructed superhydrophobic coatings tolerate strong abrasion, giving clear insight into their long-term functional applications.

  10. Developing improved opportunities for the recycling and reuse of materials in road, bridge, and construction projects. (United States)


    The use of recycled and reused materials in transportation construction reduces consumption of non-renewable : resources. The objective of this research was to develop opportunities for improving the recycling and reuse of : materials in road and bri...

  11. Under niche construction: an operational bridge between ecology, evolution, and ecosystem science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, B.; De Meester, L.; Jones, C.G.; Ibelings, B.W.; Bouma, T.J.; Nuutinen, V.; van de Koppel, J.; Odling-Smee, J.


    All living organisms modify their biotic and abiotic environment. Niche construction theory posits that organism-mediated modifications to the environment can change selection pressures and influence the evolutionary trajectories of natural populations. While there is broad support for this

  12. Characterization of water-quality and bed-sediment conditions in Currituck Sound, North Carolina, prior to the Mid-Currituck Bridge construction, 2011–15 (United States)

    Wagner, Chad R.; Fitzgerald, Sharon; Antolino, Dominick J.


    The North Carolina Turnpike Authority, a division of the North Carolina Department of Transportation, is planning to make transportation improvements in the Currituck Sound area by constructing a two-lane bridge from U.S. Highway 158 just south of Coinjock, North Carolina, to State Highway 12 on the Outer Banks just south of Corolla, North Carolina. The results of the Final Environmental Impact Study associated with the bridge and existing roadway improvements indicated potential water-quality and habitat impacts to Currituck Sound related to stormwater runoff, altered light levels, introduction of piles as hard substrate, and localized turbidity and siltation during construction.

  13. Aqueous electrolyte surfaces in strong electric fields: molecular insight into nanoscale jets and bridges (United States)

    Jirsák, Jan; Moučka, Filip; Škvor, Jiří; Nezbeda, Ivo


    Exposing aqueous surfaces to a strong electric field gives rise to interesting phenomena, such as formation of a floating water bridge or an eruption of a jet in electrospinning. In an effort to account for the phenomena at the molecular level, we performed molecular dynamics simulations using several protocols on both pure water and aqueous solutions of sodium chloride subjected to an electrostatic field. All simulations consistently point to the same mechanisms which govern the rearrangement of the originally planar surface. The results show that the phenomena are primarily governed by an orientational reordering of the water molecules driven by the applied field. It is demonstrated that, for pure water, a sufficiently strong field yields a columnar structure parallel to the field with an anisotropic arrangement of the water molecules with their dipole moments aligned along the applied field not only in the surface layer but over the entire cross section of the column. Nonetheless, the number of hydrogen bonds per molecule does not seem to be affected by the field regardless of its strength and molecule's orientation. In the electrolyte solutions, the ionic charge is able to overcome the effect of the external field tending to arrange the water molecules radially in the first coordination shell of an ion. The ion-water interaction interferes thus with the water-electric field interaction, and the competition between these two forces (i.e., strength of the field versus concentration) provides the key mechanism determining the stability of the observed structures.

  14. 77 FR 14276 - Regulated Navigation Area; Little Bay Bridge Construction, Little Bay, Portsmouth, NH (United States)


    ... mail and would like to know that they reached the Facility, please enclose a stamped, self-addressed... construction work through July 31, 2013. Heavy-lift operations are sensitive to water movement, and wake from... minimize such unexpected or uncontrolled movement of water, the RNA will limit vessel speed and wake of all...

  15. 78 FR 59237 - Regulated Navigation Area-Weymouth Fore River, Fore River Bridge Construction, Weymouth and... (United States)


    ... regulatory action because this RNA will only be enforced when construction operations require such. Thus... establishing a temporary regulated navigation area (RNA) on the navigable waters of Weymouth Fore River in the...: Table of Acronyms COTP Captain of the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register RNA...

  16. Report on Microgravity Experiments of Dynamic Surface Deformation Effects on Marangoni Instability in High-Prandtl-Number Liquid Bridges (United States)

    Yano, Taishi; Nishino, Koichi; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Ueno, Ichiro; Komiya, Atsuki; Kamotani, Yasuhiro; Imaishi, Nobuyuki


    This paper reports an overview and some important results of microgravity experiments called Dynamic Surf, which have been conducted on board the International Space Station from 2013 to 2016. The present project mainly focuses on the relations between the Marangoni instability in a high-Prandtl-number (Pr= 67 and 112) liquid bridge and the dynamic free surface deformation (DSD) as well as the interfacial heat transfer. The dynamic free surface deformations of large-scale liquid bridges (say, for diameters greater than 10 mm) are measured with good accuracy by an optical imaging technique. It is found that there are two causes of the dynamic free surface deformation in the present study: the first is the time-dependent flow behavior inside the liquid bridge due to the Marangoni instability, and the second is the external disturbance due to the residual acceleration of gravity, i.e., g-jitter. The axial distributions of DSD along the free surface are measured for several conditions. The critical parameters for the onset of oscillatory Marangoni convection are also measured for various aspect ratios (i.e., relative height to the diameter) of the liquid bridge and various thermal boundary conditions. The characteristics of DSD and the onset conditions of instability are discussed in this paper.

  17. Surface-geophysical techniques used to detect existing and infilled scour holes near bridge piers (United States)

    Placzek, Gary; Haeni, F.P.


    Surface-geophysical techniques were used with a position-recording system to study riverbed scour near bridge piers. From May 1989 to May 1993. Fathometers, fixed- and swept-frequency con- tinuous seismic-reflection profiling (CSP) systems, and a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system were used with a laser-positioning system to measure the depth and extent of existing and infilled scour holes near bridge piers. Equipment was purchased commercially and modified when necessary to interface the components and (or) to improve their performance. Three 200-kHz black-and-white chart- recording Fathometers produced profiles of the riverbed that included existing scour holes and exposed pier footings. The Fathometers were used in conjunction with other geophysical techniques to help interpret the geophysical data. A 20-kHz color Fathometer delineated scour-hole geometry and, in some cases, the thickness of fill material in the hole. The signal provided subbottom information as deep as 10 ft in fine-grained materials and resolved layers of fill material as thin as 1 foot thick. Fixed-frequency and swept-frequency CSP systems were evaluated. The fixed-frequency system used a 3.5-, 7.0-, or 14-kHz signal. The 3.5-kHz signal pene- trated up to 50 ft of fine-grained material and resolved layers as thin as 2.5-ft thick. The 14-kHz signal penetrated up to 20 ft of fine-grained material and resolved layers as thin as 1-ft thick. The swept-frequency systems used a signal that swept from 2- to 16-kHz. With this system, up to 50 ft of penetration was achieved, and fill material as thin as 1 ft was resolved. Scour-hole geometry, exposed pier footings, and fill thickness in scour holes were detected with both CSP systems. The GPR system used an 80-, 100-, or 300-megahertz signal. The technique produced records in water up to 15 ft deep that had a specific conductance less than 200x11ms/cm. The 100-MHz signal penetrated up to 40 ft of resistive granular material and resolved layers as

  18. How to bridge the intention-behavior gap in food parenting: Automatic constructs and underlying techniques. (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Vink, Jacqueline M; Kremers, Stef P J; Ruiter, Emilie L M; Fisher, Jennifer O


    Although parents often report positive intentions to promote and create a healthy food environment for their children (e.g., setting limits to snacks offered), they also experience difficulties in translating these intentions into actual behaviors. In this position paper, we argue that automatic processes explain an important part of the gap between parents' intentions and their actual food parenting behaviors. We provide a conceptual framework in which we hypothesize that automatic effects on food parenting occur through two key interrelated constructs: habits (key outcome construct) and volitional regulation behaviors (key mediating construct). Moreover, we discuss potentially important impulse-focused techniques that may directly change habits (e.g., nudging; inhibitory control training) or indirectly through volitional regulation behaviors (e.g., implementation intentions; mental contrasting). We make use of the literature on the role of intention-behavior discordance in general health behaviors and discuss implications for food parenting practices. Our framework provides a dual process view towards food parenting and may help to explain when and why parents are likely to engage in (un)healthy food parenting behaviors. In addition, this framework may hopefully stimulate research on (combinations of old and) new techniques to promote good food parenting behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Construction of force-free fields which have toroidal surfaces about a given surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouligand, G.


    A study of two-fields (B vector, rotB vector) of conservative flux which admits a family of toroidal surfaces of parameter phi on a domain limited by a given surface S, suggests their construction by a Cauchy-Arzela method of step by step. Taking into account the Newcomb condition this method is consistent with force-free magnetic fields and with helical equilibria with scalar pressure. The method supposes that B vector is of class C 1 . This construction makes use of the remarkable property of the field B vector to be the surface gradient of a generating multivalued function Q on a closed surface. Consequently, the initial surface will be given with its normal metric coefficient K; that is to say, B vector admits a family F of homotopic surfaces on a infinitesimal domain about S, an element of F. From this, the periodic part of Q is a solution of a Beltrami equation for the flux conservation of which numerical resolution is envisaged. The study of these fields is made in a biorthogonal system of coordinates. The coeffficients of the two fundamental metric forms of magnetic surfaces vary with phi and are interrelated by a sixth order differential system of equations which gives their variation [fr

  20. X-ray diffraction analysis of rust layer on a weathering steel bridge with surface treatment using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Masato; Hara, Shuichi; Kamimura, Takayuki; Miyuki, Hideaki; Sato, Masugu


    We have examined the structure of rust layer formed on a weathering steel bridge, to which the surface treatment, employing the effect of Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 sophisticatedly designed to form the protective goethite (α-FeOOH) rust layer which contains a certain amount of Cr, Cr-goethite, was applied in 1996, using X-ray diffraction at SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. It was shown that the formation of α-FeOOH was promoted and/or crystal growth of γ-FeOOH was suppressed by the surface treatment. The increase in the protective ability index (PAI) of the rust layer indicates that the protective goethite was predominantly formed under the effect of the surface treatment. In conclusion, it can be said that the surface treatment worked well to promote the formation of the protective goethite rust layer on the weathering steel bridge during the 10-year exposure. (author)

  1. Evaluation of Radiation Exposure during Construction and Operation of Concrete Bridge Reinforced with Very Low Level Radioactive Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panik, M.; Necas, V.


    A lot of nuclear power plants are approaching the end of their lifetime and they will be phased out. Decommissioning of these nuclear power plants involve complete dismantling of technologies and demolition of buildings. During this process it is produced plenty of waste material of different categories. Significant portion of decommissioning materials comprise radionuclides what is caused by contamination and activation processes mostly from the operational period of nuclear power plant. Attention in this paper is paid to waste steel from the decommissioning of nuclear power plants with the specific activity just slightly exceeding legislation limits for the unconditional release into the environment. From the traditional point of view this material should be treated, conditioned and disposed on the radioactive waste repository. Second possibility is to release this material conditionally and reuse it in chosen industrial application. Very low level radioactive steel scrap should be melted and melting products should be processed into products that can be applied in industry. First option requires considerable financial investment, human resources and repository capacity. Second option saves some financial funds and it enables to reuse and save potentially valuable material for the future. Paper comprises evaluation of external and internal exposure during construction and operation of concrete bridges that utilize very low level radioactive steel as part of their reinforcement. Two models of representative concrete bridges were created. External gamma exposure and exposure from inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides were calculated using suitable computational tools. VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool was chosen for the calculation of external gamma exposure. Software GOLDSIM enables to calculate transport of radionuclides initially contained in conditionally released reinforcement steel through subsoil and sequential exposure of people caused by inhalation of

  2. Design and construction of a cable-stayed composite girder bridge with precast RC-slabs; Purekyasuto shohan gosei keta shachokoyo no sekkei to seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Technology; Shimura, T.; Tachibana, Y.; Echigo, S. [Kawada Industries Inc., Tokyo (Japan)


    A report on design and execution of cable-stayed composite girder bridge with precast RC-slabs constructed first in Japan though in small scale was described. This bridge adopted steel slabs relatively low in slab height for main slab and with two boxes slab section, and was designed at an aim of being more economic and shorter in its working term in comparison with steel girder slab type, on a base of the design in a region allowable with the existing design standards. This bridge is mainly in accordance with the regulation on continuous bridge in the prescription of road bridge, and is designed for normal RC-girder selecting between girder supports to direction normal to bridge axis as usual without using specially strong concrete to the girder. And, in order to fill with the regulation on allowable tensile stress on considering effects of creep and drying shrinkage, a method adding prestress to the slabs was adopted. Furthermore, a loop-like overlap joint for cable joint for the precast girders, expansion concrete for joint portion to compose the girder with the steel slab and so forth were adopted. 12 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Discussion on construction project of lining arch reinforcing stone arch bridge%内衬拱加固石拱桥施工方案探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    分析了石拱桥的常见病害及其原因,总结了石拱桥的加固技术,结合一个工程实例,对内衬拱加固石拱桥的有效施工方案进行了详细阐述,并证明了该加固方案的有效性。%This paper analysed the common diseases and its reasons of stone arch bridge, summed up the reinforcement technology of stone arch bridge, combining with an engineering example, elaborated in detail the effective construction scheme of lining arch reinforcing stone arch bridge, and proved the effectiveness of this reinforcement scheme.

  4. Interfacially enhancement of PBO/epoxy composites by grafting MWCNTs onto PBO surface through melamine as molecular bridge (United States)

    Lv, Junwei; Wang, Bin; Ma, Qi; Wang, Wenjing; Xiang, Dong; Li, Mengyao; Zeng, Lan; Li, Hui; Li, Yuntao; Zhao, Chunxia


    Melamine and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were grafted onto Poly-p-phenylene benzobisoxazole (PBO) fiber surface effectively via layer-by-layer method. Both of them have been chemically bonded as fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed. Grafting melamine overcame the inertness of PBO surface. Ammoniation was processed on PBO surface through grafting melamine so that the MWCNTs could be grafted onto PBO surface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated that melamine used as molecular bridge could increase MWCNTs’ quantity on PBO surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed the variation of chemical composition of PBO surface. Test of interfacial shear strength (IFSS) and tensile strength indicated the great mechanical properties of modified PBO fibers when combining with epoxy resin. Furthermore, whole reaction was processed under a simple condition. Results in this research also promised a potential method to modify PBO surface.

  5. Comparison of the aerodynamics of bridge cables with helical fillets and a pattern-indented surface in normal flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleissl, Kenneth; Georgakis, Christos


    Over the last two decades, several bridge cable manufacturers have introduced surface modi-fications on the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sheathing that is often installed for the protection of inner strands. The main goal of this is rain rivulet impedance, leading to the suppression of rain......-wind induced vibrations (RWIVs). The modifications are based on re-search undertaken predominantly in Europe and Japan, with two different systems prevailing; HDPE tubing fitted with helical surface fillets and HDPE tubing with pattern-indented sur-faces. In the US and Europe, helical fillets dominate, whilst...

  6. Field performance of timber bridges. 7, Connell Lake stress-laminated deck bridge (United States)

    L. E. Hislop; M. A. Ritter

    The Connell Lake bridge was constructed in early 1991 on the Tongass National Forest, Alaska, as a demonstration bridge under the Timber Bridge Initiative. The bridge is a stress-laminated deck structure with an approximate 36-ft length and 18-ft width and is the first known stress-laminated timber bridge constructed in Alaska. Performance of the bridge was monitored...

  7. A Bumpy Road and a Bridge too Far? An Analysis of the Realistic Bridging and Horizontal Construction Capabilities of the Canadian Military Engineers in the Force 2013 Structure (United States)


    simultaneously lacking a long-term vision due to the rapid turnover of its strategic leader, the CDS, which combined with post Cold War global uncertainty...For example, the wheeled Cougar vehicle was an armoured vehicle, crew trainer replacement for the costly main battle tank. Despite their on equipment/stores assist in analyzing the Force 2013 heavy equipment, armoured engineer vehicle and bridging resources.39 These second

  8. Aqueous Electrolyte Surfaces in Strong Electric Fields: Molecular Insight into Nanoscale Jets and Bridges.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirsák, J.; Moučka, F.; Škvor, J.; Nezbeda, Ivo


    Roč. 113, č. 8 (2015), s. 848-853 ISSN 0026-8976 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : molecular dynamics * floating water bridge * electrospinning Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.837, year: 2015

  9. Transport properties of magnetic atom bridges controlled by a scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, H.; Kishi, T.; Kasai, H.; Komori, F.; Okiji, A.


    We have investigated the transport and magnetic properties of the atom bridge made from magnetic materials, which is the atom-scale wire constructed between a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip and a solid surface, by the use of ab initio calculations. In the case of the twisted ladder structure atom bridge made of Fe, we have found that the magnetic state of the bridge changes from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic, as we compress the bridge in length. We report the spin dependent quantized conductance of the bridge. And we discuss the origin of a change in transport properties as we compress the bridge in length

  10. Evaluation of aerodynamic stability and a trial study of construction-accuracy control by daytime measurement of Meiko West Bridge; Meiko Nishi Ohashi no taifusei kento to chukan keisoku kekka wo mochiita kasetsu seido kanri no shiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, C.; Shimodoi, H.; Isoe, A.; Sakai, Y.; Ochiai, M.; Watabe, T.; Ebihara, R. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)


    The new Meiko West Bridge was constructed very closely to the phase I line bridge which have been already in a service from 1985, and the distance of this world unique parallel cable-stayed bridges is 50m. The length, span and pylon height of these bridges are identical. By conducting wind tunnel experiments considering the aerodynamic interference of the close parallel bridges, the aerodynamic stability of the bridge had been confirmed during construction as well as complete state. After the construction was completed, the important wind characteristics of the parallel cable-stayed bridges were obtained from the site observation. Regarding cable vibrations, a common problem with cable-stayed bridges, a suitable vibration suppression method was applied based on the site observation. In general, the construction-accuracy control is performed by doing measurement at night However, to study the possibility of the accuracy-control by daytime measurement the measurement was conducted not only at night but also in the daytime. (author)

  11. Cable Supported Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    Cable supported bridges in the form of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges are distinguished by their ability to overcome large spans.The book concentrates on the synthesis of cable supported bridges, covering both design and construction aspects. The analytical part covers simple methods...... to quantify the different structural configurations and allows a preliminary optimization of the main structure.Included are the most recent advances in structural design, corrosion protection of cables, aerodynamic safety, and erection procedures....

  12. AC/CRC adjacent lane surfacing : construction report. (United States)


    Asphaltic Concrete (AC) and Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) are common roadway materials used in Oregon. In a recent construction project -- Poverty Flats/Mecham Section -- the Oregon State Highway Division (OSHD) designed, as part of the project, a "...

  13. Construction and Operation of Railway Bridges and Ferries in the Lower Volga Streamflow (End of 19th – First Half of 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The article deals with the history of operation of Russia’s first railway ferry and the process of bridge construction across the lower Volga streamflows at Ryazan-Ural (now Volga railway line in Saratov, Stalingrad (Volgograd and Astrakhan. River railway ferries “Saratovskaya pereprava” and “Saratovsky ledokol” were built in 1894 in England and water crafts “Vtoraya pereprava” (1909 and “Stalin” (1926 were floated out in Volga in Nizhny Novgorod, from the Sormov plant. As a rule, the organization of transportations by means of steam locomotives and waggons through Volga during the first half of the 20th century preceded the construction of capital metal railway bridges, such as Astrakhan (1909 and Saratov (1935, and also a combined railway-automobile bridge through the Volga (Stalingrad Hydro-Electric Power Station (1961. The article is devoted not only to the technical features of ferries, bridges, but their efficient use in peace time and war time. So, the carrying capacity of the Saratov railway ferry increased in more than three times from 1907 to 1916. The Ryazan-Ural railway ferries were actively used by new Bolshevist regime. After the railroad construction on the left bank of Volga in autumn and winter of 1941, railway ferries “Stalin” and “Saratovskaya pereprava” were used for the carriage of military trains and population evacuation from the western bank of Volga. The author describes one of the most heroic and tragic facts in the history of Stalingrad battle using the example of the special operation railway ferry flooding and its consequent reconstruction.

  14. Design and construction of PC cable-stayed bridge reducing the weight of dead load (Minamitabaru No. 1 Bridge). Shuko danmen no keiryoka wo hakatta PC shachokyo (kasho Minamitabaru 1 go kyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, H. (Building Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)); Ikari, K.; Ono, Y. (Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan)); Hirano, A.


    The Minamitabaru No.1 bridge is a PC cable-stayed bridge with a 170m center span. The cross section dead load weight of the main beam in the center span is reduced to decrease the unbalance moment during construction and the negative reaction force after the completion. As a result, the average volume of concrete in the center span becomes 0.55m[sup 3]/m[sup 2] which is less by about 20% in comparison with a PC cable-stayed bridge of the similar scale. Separated 2 chamber box girder cross section is adopted for the shape of the main beam cross section to reduce the dead load weight of the cross section, and to improve the rigidity of the cross section and wind resisting stability, etc. In addition, a cross beam is provided in the diagonal member anchorage position to integrate the two box beams. A wind tunnel test is performed using a 1/30 scale model to confirm the wind resisting stability. The diagonal member is structured with several PC steel members. At the same time, a stretching work carriage is developed and used which can establish 3 dimensional position and direction by a hydraulic jack. 7 figs.

  15. Investigation of aerodynamic stability by wind response observation during cantilever construction of the Ikara Ohashi bridge; Ikara Ohashi haridashi sekoji no kaze kansoku ni yoru taifu anteisei no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K.; Mukai, H.; Takeda, T. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to ensure aerodynamic stability during cantilever construction of the Ikara Ohashi Bridge, wind response observation was carried out and discussions were given on the result. The Ikara Ohashi Bridge is a 5-span continuous PC cable-stayed bridge with the central span being a concrete bridge having a length of 260 m, which is the longest in Japan. The bridge was constructed using a method that main girders are extended from the central tower to the right and left sides while the girders are stayed by bracing cables. The bridge construction site is in an area which is often subjected to typhoons and gusts like seasonal winds in winter, hence a discussion on aerodynamic stability of the bridge especially during extension work was viewed as an important matter. In addition, the construction used two small-capacity cables spaced and bundled as the bracing material, which required verification on their aerodynamic stability. In order to identify vibration characteristics of the main girders and the central tower, wind response observation has been performed as soon as the construction was begun. As a result, the vibration characteristics of the main girders and the central tower were identified, and it was verified that vibration shape and dominant frequency can be evaluated properly by an intrinsic value analysis that uses a multi-material point frame model. Furthermore, effects of different vibration absorbing measures were compared, and the effective methods were adopted as the result. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  16. The effect of bridge exercise accompanied by the abdominal drawing-in maneuver on an unstable support surface on the lumbar stability of normal adults. (United States)

    Gong, Wontae


    [Purpose] The present study sought to investigate the influence on static and dynamic lumbar stability of bridge exercise accompanied by an abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) performed on an uneven support surface. [Subjects] A total of 30 participants were divided into an experimental group (15 participants) and a control group (15 participants). [Methods] The experimental group performed bridge exercise on an unstable surface, whereas the control group performed bridge exercise on a stable surface. The respective bridge exercises were performed for 30 minutes, 3 times per week, for 6 weeks. The static lumbar stability (SLS) and dynamic lumbar stability (DLS) of both the experimental group and the control group were measured using a pressure biofeedback unit. [Results] In the comparison of the initial and final results of the experimental and control groups, only the SLS and DLS of the experimental group were found to be statistically significant. [Conclusion] The results of the present study show that when using bridge exercise to improve SLS and DLS, performing the bridge exercise accompanied by ADIM on an uneven surface is more effective than performing the exercise on a stable surface.

  17. Strength monitoring of bridge constructions and features of its application. Part 1. International and domestic experience of monitoring application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovchinnikov Igor Georgievich


    Full Text Available The development trend of building systems can be characterized in the following words: sophistication of design and simplification of operation. And the main task of the engineering structure operation is to ensure stability of the functioning structures with respect to the external aggressive impacts. The article considers the strength monitoring of bridge structures proposed by Ovchinnikov I.G. in 1994. The strength monitoring is an element of the engineering structure operation system. Algorithm of structure monitoring is based on the following main tasks — establishing nature of the external impacts on the structure and evaluating capacity of structure to resist these impacts in the concrete environment of operation. The article considers the different approaches to solving problem of transport structure operation around the world. It is proposed to include the following subsystems in the system of structure operation: 1 a subsystem of the strength monitoring of structures; 2 a subsystem of the scientific research and development organization; 3 a subsystem of work automation on the structure status management; 4 a subsystem of personnel training for work in the system of structure operation, including monitoring, research, automation of works, emergency response and quality management; 5 a subsystem of actions in the case of emergencies; 6 a subsystem of the quality management of structure operation and 7 a subsystem of ecological structure monitoring. It is noted that at the stage of structure operation the active monitoring includes the solution of the following main tasks: 1 evaluation of the stress — strain state of construction components and the whole structure, as well as the kinetics of its change taking into account the existing defects and damages of local and distributed type; 2 analysis and evaluation of degree of conformity for the ultimate load-carrying capacity of structure to the external impacts during the moment under

  18. Integrated surface management for pipeline construction: The Mid-America Pipeline Company Four Corners Project (United States)

    Maria L. Sonett


    Integrated surface management techniques for pipeline construction through arid and semi-arid rangeland ecosystems are presented in a case history of a 412-mile pipeline construction project in New Mexico. Planning, implementation and monitoring for restoration of surface hydrology, soil stabilization, soil cover, and plant species succession are discussed. Planning...

  19. 3D Additive Construction with Regolith for Surface Systems (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Planetary surface exploration on Asteroids, the Moon, Mars and Martian Moons will require the stabilization of loose, fine, dusty regolith to avoid the effects of...

  20. Durable and Washable Antibacterial Copper Nanoparticles Bridged by Surface Grafting Polymer Brushes on Cotton and Polymeric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chufeng Sun


    Full Text Available To increase the durability of antibacterial coating on cotton and polymeric substrates, surface initiated grafting polymer brushes are introduced onto the substrates surface to bridge copper nanoparticles coatings and substrate. The morphologies of the composites consisting of the copper nanoparticles and polymer brushes were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was found that copper nanoparticles were uniformly and firmly distributed on the surfaces of the substrates by the polymer brushes; meanwhile, the reinforced concrete-like structures were formed in the composite materials. The substrates coated by the copper nanoparticles showed the efficient antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and Escherichia coli (E. coli even after washing by 30 cycles. The copper nanoparticles were tethered on the substrates by the strong chemical bonds, which led to the excellent washable fitness and durability. The change of the phase structure of the copper was analyzed to investigate the release mechanism of copper ions.

  1. Construction of ion accelerator for ion-surface interaction research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Kenziro; Ohtsuka, Hidewo; Yamada, Rayji; Abe, Tetsuya; Sone, Kazuho


    A Cockcroft-Walton type ion accelerator for ion-surface interaction research was installed at Plasma Engineering Laboratory, Division of Thermonuclear Fusion Research, JAERI, in March 1977. Its maximum accelerating voltage is 400 kV. The accelerator has some outstanding features compared with the conventional type. Described are setup of the accelerator specification of the major components, safety system and performance. (auth.)

  2. Horizontal gust response of 'Tatara Bridge' under construction. 'Tatara ohashi' kasetsuji no taifu anteisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, K.; Iwasaki, T.; Tokushige, M.; Toriumi, R. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    Wind tunnel tests of a long-span cable-stayed bridge under construction were conducted with two types of turbulent boundary layer simulations. The level of agreement between the wind tunnel measurements and a wind buffeting analysis varied with the type of turbulent boundary layer. An investigation of this behavior found that the aerodynamic admittance used in the buffeting analysis was different from the measured aerodynamic admittance. Past research showed that buffeting analysis based on strip theory, which assumes a spanwise correlation between the fluctuating wind velocity and the fluctuating aerodynamic loads, does not always hold. (author)

  3. Foundation works for construction of Danube Bridge II Vidin (Bulgaria)-Calafat (Romania); Puente internacional sobre el rio Danubio entre las localidades de Vidin (Bulgaria) y Calafat (Rumania)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Martin, J.


    The Foundations works of the bridge over the the Danube River II has involved a new technical challenge due to the cathartics of depth and diameter of the piles, and the logistical and human, due to the hard environmental conditions for the execution. This work, awarded to FCC. Construction company in its two contracts. Access to the bridge and Main Bridge has required on the differenced sites, the use of a wide range of foundation systems, since driven precast piles to in in situ pile with permanent casing, installed by vibrating systems and excavated with benoto grabs systems. The enormous responsibility of this phase is evident in the intense camping of characterization tests with static load tests, dynamic and Osterberg cells, as well as control the campaign with Cross-hole tests in 100% of the piles in situ executed, that has allowed no only ensure the highest level of quality on the foundation elements, but also to take the most of the mechanical characteristics of soils provided. The complexity of the execution of more than 24,000 ml pile executed along the more than 2 years duration of the work reach the maximum expression in the more than 6,900 ml of in situ pile made from marine resources, with a maximum depths up to 80 m with 2 m diameter pile. The article intends to give an overview of the site and the execution, associating the different foundation methods used, and the problems that were detected. (Author)

  4. [Construction of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG particles surface display system]. (United States)

    Su, Runyu; Nie, Boyao; Yuan, Shengling; Tao, Haoxia; Liu, Chunjie; Yang, Bailiang; Wang, Yanchun


    To describe a novel particles surface display system which is consisted of gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM) particles and anchor proteins for bacteria-like particles vaccines, we treated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG bacteria with 10% heated-TCA for preparing GEM particles, and then identified the harvested GEM particles by electron microscopy, RT-PCR and SDS-PAGE. Meanwhile, Escherichia coli was induced to express hybrid proteins PA3-EGFP and P60-EGFP, and GEM particles were incubated with them. Then binding of anchor proteins were determined by Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and spectrofluorometry. GEM particles preserved original size and shape, and proteins and DNA contents of GEM particles were released substantially. The two anchor proteins both had efficiently immobilized on the surface of GEM. GEM particles that were bounded by anchor proteins were brushy. The fluorescence of GEM particles anchoring PA3 was slightly brighter than P60, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). GEM particles prepared from L. rhamnosus GG have a good binding efficiency with anchor proteins PA3-EGFP and P60-EGFP. Therefore, this novel foreign protein surface display system could be used for bacteria-like particle vaccines.

  5. Study on the structure of bridge surface of the micro Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Qinghua; Luo Huan; Bao Shiwei; Zhou Yifan; Chen Sihai


    Micro Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filters are widely applied in the area of Pushbroom Hyperspectral imaging, DWDM optical communication system and self-adaptive optics. With small volume, lower consumption and cost, the Micro Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filter can realize superior response speed, large spectral range, high definition and high reliability. By deposition metal membrane on silicon chip by MEMS technology, the micro Fabry-Perot cavity has been achieved, which is actuated by electrostatic force and can realize the function of an optical filter. In this paper, the micro-bridge structure of the micro Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filter has been studied. Finite element analysis software COMSOL Multiphysics has been adopted to design the structure of the micro-bridge of the micro filter. In order to simulate the working mechanism of the micro Fabry-Perot cavity and study the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the micro tunable filter,the static and dynamic characteriastics are analyzed, such as stress, displacement, transient response, etc. The corresponding parameters of the structure are considered as well by optimizition the filter's sustain structure.

  6. Vertical vibration control system for PC cable-stayed bridge during cantilever construction; Shuketa jogedo seishin sochi ni yoru haridashi sekoji no PC shachokyo no seishin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshio, M.; Nakano, R.; Niihara, Y.; Yano, K.; Takeda, T. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    A PC cable-stayed bridge under extension construction having long span length may have long-cycle vibration generated because of wind. The vibration puts workers working on main girders into a state of seasick causing the workability to drop. Therefore, with an objective to reduce vibration occurring on the main girders during construction, discussions were given on application of an active type vertical vibration absorbing device. The vibration absorbing device is an active system that a weight is driven vertically by a hydraulic actuator. The device was developed with a target that damping ratio when a maximum extension is 120 m becomes three times that when no vibration is absorbed for a 5-span continuous PC cable-stayed bridge with a length of 675 m, a central span of 260 m, and a width of 11 m. A cage housing the weight is connected with the actuator at its top by using pins, and the weight is supported being suspended from the top of the actuator. Vibration is absorbed by utilizing reactive force generated when the weight is driven vertically by the hydraulic actuator. The hydraulic actuator contains a gas spring that supports the dead weight of the weight. Experiments have verified the effectiveness of the vertical vibration absorbing device. 4 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Strength and durability of near-surface mounted CFRP bars for shear strengthening reinforced concrete bridge girders : final report appendices. (United States)


    During the interstate expansion of the 1950s, many conventionally reinforced concrete deck girder bridges were built throughout the country. These aging bridges commonly exhibit diagonal cracking and rate inadequately for shear, thus they are candida...

  8. Strength and durability of near-surface mounted CFRP bars for shear strengthening reinforced concrete bridge girders : appendices. (United States)


    During the interstate expansion of the 1950s, many conventionally reinforced concrete deck girder bridges were built throughout the country. These aging bridges commonly exhibit diagonal cracking and rate inadequately for shear, thus they are candida...

  9. Strength and durability of near-surface mounted CFRP bars for shear strengthening reinforced concrete bridge girders. (United States)


    During the interstate expansion of the 1950s, many conventionally reinforced concrete deck girder bridges were built throughout the country. These aging bridges commonly exhibit diagonal cracking and rate inadequately for shear, thus they are candida...

  10. Strength and durability of near-surface mounted CFRP bars for shear strengthening reinforced concrete bridge girders : final report. (United States)


    During the interstate expansion of the 1950s, many conventionally reinforced concrete deck girder bridges were built throughout the country. These aging bridges commonly exhibit diagonal cracking and rate inadequately for shear, thus they are candida...

  11. Bridge deck surface temperature monitoring by infrared thermography and inner structure identification using PPT and PCT analysis methods (United States)

    Dumoulin, Jean


    One of the objectives of ISTIMES project was to evaluate the potentialities offered by the integration of different electromagnetic techniques able to perform non-invasive diagnostics for surveillance and monitoring of transport infrastructures. Among the EM methods investigated, we focused our research and development efforts on uncooled infrared camera techniques due to their promising potential level of dissemination linked to their relative low cost on the market. On the other hand, works were also carried out to identify well adapted implementation protocols and key limits of Pulse Phase Thermography (PPT) and Principal Component Thermography (PCT) processing methods to analyse thermal image sequence and retrieve information about the inner structure. So the first part of this research works addresses infrared thermography measurement when it is used in quantitative mode (not in laboratory conditions) and not in qualitative mode (vision applied to survey). In such context, it requires to process in real time thermal radiative corrections on raw data acquired to take into account influences of natural environment evolution with time, thanks to additional measurements. But, camera sensor has to be enough smart to apply in real time calibration law and radiometric corrections in a varying atmosphere. So, a complete measurement system was studied and developed [1] with low cost infrared cameras available on the market. In the system developed, infrared camera is coupled with other sensors to feed simplified radiative models running, in real time, on GPU available on small PC. The whole measurement system was implemented on the "Musmeci" bridge located in Potenza (Italy). No traffic interruption was required during the mounting of our measurement system. The infrared camera was fixed on top of a mast at 6 m elevation from the surface of the bridge deck. A small weather station was added on the same mast at 1 m under the camera. A GPS antenna was also fixed at the

  12. Low dielectric and low surface free energy flexible linear aliphatic alkoxy core bridged bisphenol cyanate ester based POSS nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukaruppan eAlagar


    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to develop a new type of flexible linear aliphatic alkoxy core bridged bisphenol cyanate ester (AECE based POSS nanocomposites for low k applications. The POSS-AECE nanocomposites were developed by incorporating varying weight percentages (0, 5 and 10 wt % of octakis (dimethylsiloxypropylglycidylether silsesquioxane (OG-POSS into cyanate esters. Data from thermal and dielectric studies imply that the POSS reinforced nanocomposite exhibits higher thermal stability and low dielectric value of k=2.4 (10 wt% POSS-AECE4 compared than those of neat AECE. From the contact angle measurement, it is inferred that, the increase in the percentage incorporation of POSS in to AECE, the values of water contact angle was enhanced. Further, the value of surface free energy was lower when compared to that of neat AECE. The molecular level dispersion of POSS into AECE was ascertained from SEM and TEM analyses.

  13. Surface Temperature Prediction of a Bridge for Tactical Decision Aide Modelling (United States)


    Roadway And Piling Surface Temperature Predictions (No Radiosity Incident on Lower Surface) Compared to Temperature Estimates...Heat gained from water = Heat lost by long wave radiosity radiation. Algebraically, with the conduction term expressed in the same manner as for...5 10 15 20 LOCAL TIME (hrs.) Figure 8. Effect of No Radiosity Incident on Lower Surface. 37 U 8a M OT U% 60-- 0- o.. 20- 0- 1 T I I 5 10 15 20 LOCAL

  14. Phosphorus retention in surface-flow constructed wetlands targeting agricultural drainage water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantas Mendes, Lipe Renato; Tonderski, Karin; Iversen, Bo Vangsø


    Surface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs) are potential cost-efficient solutions to mitigate phosphorus (P) loads from agricultural areas to surface waters. Hydraulic and phosphorus loading rates (HLR and PLR) are critical parameters that regulate P retention in these systems. The present study aim...

  15. Covered Bridge Security Manual (United States)

    Brett Phares; Terry Wipf; Ryan Sievers; Travis Hosteng


    The design, construction, and use of covered timber bridges is all but a lost art in these days of pre-stressed concrete, high-performance steel, and the significant growth both in the volume and size of vehicles. Furthermore, many of the existing covered timber bridges are preserved only because of their status on the National Registry of Historic Places or the...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Yang


    Full Text Available Pipe-roof Pre-construction Method (PPM is regarded as a safer method to construct underground space, especially suitable for the construction sites with dense surface buildings, underground pipelines and complicated geological conditions. Xinleyizhi Station of Shenyang Metro constructed by PPM. In order to ensure safety in construction, the whole construction process was closely monitored. In this paper, monitoring results of surface settlement in PPM is analyzed. According to the monitoring results, the most serious settlement occurred in pipes jacking, which was the first and the most crucial step in PPM. The settlement reasons in each step are discussed, and controlling methods of surface settlement in each step are elaborated. Through close monitoring and timely control, the construction of Xinleyizhi Station completed smoothly. Because of the obvious advantages of PPM, the method will be used more widely in construction of shallow buried excavation under complicated surrounding and geological conditions.

  17. Constructing a mixed π-conjugated bridge to effectively enhance the nonlinear optical response in the Möbius cyclacene-based systems. (United States)

    Chen, Liwei; Yu, Guangtao; Chen, Wei; Tu, Chunyun; Zhao, Xingang; Huang, Xuri


    Using density functional theory computations, employing the concept of a mixed π-conjugated bridge can effectively improve the first hyperpolarizability (β0) of Möbius cyclacene (MC)-based systems with a D-π-A framework. This mixed π-conjugated bridge is constructed by applying a -(CH=CH)x-NH2 or -(CH=CH)x-NO2 chain to modify [8]MC, which can lead to a considerable β0 value (e.g. [8]MC-(CH=CH)12-NO2 (9.87 × 10(5) au) with only a certain chain length), much larger than the sole [8]MC (261 au) and the corresponding NH2/NO2-modified polyethylene chain with the same π-conjugated length. It is revealed that the substituent sites and the chain length can play a crucial role in improving β0 values of these MC-chain systems, where the β0 value can monotonically increase with increasing -(CH=CH)x- length, and the substituent electron-withdrawing -(CH=CH)x-NO2 chain is superior to the parallel electron-donating -(CH=CH)x-NH2. These appealing findings can provide valuable insights into the design of novel NLO materials based on MC.

  18. Walking on a moving surface: energy-optimal walking motions on a shaky bridge and a shaking treadmill can reduce energy costs below normal. (United States)

    Joshi, Varun; Srinivasan, Manoj


    Understanding how humans walk on a surface that can move might provide insights into, for instance, whether walking humans prioritize energy use or stability. Here, motivated by the famous human-driven oscillations observed in the London Millennium Bridge, we introduce a minimal mathematical model of a biped, walking on a platform (bridge or treadmill) capable of lateral movement. This biped model consists of a point-mass upper body with legs that can exert force and perform mechanical work on the upper body. Using numerical optimization, we obtain energy-optimal walking motions for this biped, deriving the periodic body and platform motions that minimize a simple metabolic energy cost. When the platform has an externally imposed sinusoidal displacement of appropriate frequency and amplitude, we predict that body motion entrained to platform motion consumes less energy than walking on a fixed surface. When the platform has finite inertia, a mass- spring-damper with similar parameters to the Millennium Bridge, we show that the optimal biped walking motion sustains a large lateral platform oscillation when sufficiently many people walk on the bridge. Here, the biped model reduces walking metabolic cost by storing and recovering energy from the platform, demonstrating energy benefits for two features observed for walking on the Millennium Bridge: crowd synchrony and large lateral oscillations.

  19. Influences of high-flow events on a stream channel altered by construction of a highway bridge: A case study (United States)

    Hedrick, Lara B.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Anderson, James T.


    Impacts of highway construction on streams in the central Appalachians are a growing concern as new roads are created to promote tourism and economic development in the area. Alterations to the streambed of a first-order stream, Sauerkraut Run, Hardy County, WV, during construction of a highway overpass included placement and removal of a temporary culvert, straightening and regrading of a section of stream channel, and armourment of a bank with a reinforced gravel berm. We surveyed longitudinal profiles and cross sections in a reference reach and the altered reach of Sauerkraut Run from 2003 through 2007 to measure physical changes in the streambed. During the four-year period, three high-flow events changed the streambed downstream of construction including channel widening and aggradation and then degradation of the streambed. Upstream of construction, at a reinforced gravel berm, bank erosion was documented. The reference section remained relatively unchanged. Knowledge gained by documenting channel changes in response to natural and anthropogenic variables can be useful for managers and engineers involved in highway construction projects.

  20. Field performance of timber bridges. 5, Little Salmon Creek stress-laminated deck bridge (United States)

    M. A. Ritter; J. A. Kainz; G. J. Porter

    The Little Salmon Creek bridge was constructed in November 1988 on the Allegheny National Forest in Pennsylvania. The bridge is a simple span, single-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure that is approximately 26-ft long and 16-ft wide. The bridge is unique in that it is the first known stress-laminated timber bridge to be constructed of hardwood lumber. The...

  1. Field performance of timber bridges. 6, Hoffman Run stress-laminated deck bridge (United States)

    M. A. Ritter; P. D. Hilbrich Lee; G. J. Porter

    The Hoffman Run bridge, located just outside Dahoga, Pennsylvania, was constructed in October 1990. The bridge is a simple-span, single-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure that is approximately 26 ft long and 16 ft wide. It is the second stress-laminated timber bridge to be constructed of hardwood lumber in Pennsylvania. The performance of the bridge was...

  2. Role of equipotential and equidensity surfaces for constructing models of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutuzov, S.A.; Osipkov, L.P.


    The role played by the specification of the equipotential surfaces and equidensity surfaces in the general problem of constructing models of galaxies is examined. If the equipotential surfaces are specified, Poisson's equation makes it possible to find the spatial density from the circular velocity. The problem of determining the potential and the spatial density from the equatorial density is considered. If equidensity surfaces are specified, then the kernel of the integral equation that relates the density to the circular velocity can be determined. The corresponding expressions for known models are obtained

  3. Technology of surface wastewater purification, including high-rise construction areas (United States)

    Tsyba, Anna; Skolubovich, Yury


    Despite on the improvements in the quality of high-rise construction areas and industrial wastewater treatment, the pollution of water bodies continues to increase. This is due to the organized and unorganized surface untreated sewage entry into the reservoirs. The qualitative analysis of some cities' surface sewage composition is carried out in the work. Based on the published literature review, the characteristic contamination present in surface wastewater was identified. The paper proposes a new technology for the treatment of surface sewage and presents the results of preliminary studies.

  4. A review of construction techniques available for surface and underground radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, D.G.; Davies, I.L.; MacKenzie, R.D.


    In terms of engineering requirements the construction of surface or indeed underground radioactive waste repositories is not unduly difficult. The civil engineering techniques likely to be required have generally been carried out previously, albeit not in the context of radioactive waste repositories in this country. The emphasis will have to be very much on the quality of construction. This paper emphasises the need for quality construction and describes the techniques likely to be used in the construction of repositories. Reference is made to the materials likely to be used in the construction of repositories and also to the need for being able to convince the designers, regulating authorities and the general public that the materials used will indeed last for the required time. Brief reference is made at the end of the paper to the civil engineering parameters requiring consideration in the location of repository siting. (author)

  5. Automated discovery and construction of surface phase diagrams using machine learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulissi, Zachary W.; Singh, Aayush R.; Tsai, Charlie


    Surface phase diagrams are necessary for understanding surface chemistry in electrochemical catalysis, where a range of adsorbates and coverages exist at varying applied potentials. These diagrams are typically constructed using intuition, which risks missing complex coverages and configurations at potentials of interest. More accurate cluster expansion methods are often difficult to implement quickly for new surfaces. We adopt a machine learning approach to rectify both issues. Using a Gaussian process regression model, the free energy of all possible adsorbate coverages for surfaces is predicted for a finite number of adsorption sites. Our result demonstrates a rational, simple, and systematic approach for generating accurate free-energy diagrams with reduced computational resources. Finally, the Pourbaix diagram for the IrO_2(110) surface (with nine coverages from fully hydrogenated to fully oxygenated surfaces) is reconstructed using just 20 electronic structure relaxations, compared to approximately 90 using typical search methods. Similar efficiency is demonstrated for the MoS_2 surface.

  6. Railroad Bridges (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Bridges-Rail in the United States According to The National Bridge Inspection Standards published in the Code of Federal Regulations (23 CFR 650.3), a bridge isA...

  7. The Importance of Thermal Heat Bridges in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Tokar


    Full Text Available Based on the heat transfer characteristics of a construction, the expected temperatures along interior surfaces must be evaluated in order to predict (and avoid areas of potential moisture condensation. Beyond preventing damage to building materials caused by mould growth, adequate surface temperatures are also a relevant factor in the thermal comfort of an interior environment. An agreable climate in a room can be obtained, when relative humidity is between 40 and 60%. As the air in a room is warmer, the more vapor can absorb (and vice versa, influencing the thermal comfort index. Heat losses are influenced largely by thermal bridges of construction. The importance of the thermal heat bridges is strongly increasing today. In new developments the thermal optimization of junctions in today common low energy constructions receives very special standing. The subject of avoiding thermal bridges in passive houses became predominant.

  8. Durability of Materials in Pearl-Chain Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller

    . The construction of the Pearl-Chain arch is simple. The arch is assembled on its side, next to the road that the bridge will span, by placing a number of plane prefabricated Super-Light Decks that consist of lightweight aggregate concrete and conventional concrete, in the desired arch shape. Mortar joints are cast...... is stabilized by casting a fill material between the spandrel walls of the arch. Finally, the road surface is cast on top of the fill material. New bridges are designed for a service lifetime of at least 100 years. Hence, the specifications of the materials used in Pearl-Chain Bridges are high. This PhD study...... and pervious concrete were also investigated. The most suitable fill material for Pearl-Chain Bridges depends on the particular bridge design; the results obtained and presented in the present PhD study provide guidance on how to decide which fill material is most suitable regarding strength, permeability...

  9. Exploiting Surface Albedos Products to Bridge the Gap Between Remote Sensing Information and Climate Models (United States)

    Pinty, Bernard; Andredakis, Ioannis; Clerici, Marco; Kaminski, Thomas; Taberner, Malcolm; Stephen, Plummer


    We present results from the application of an inversion method conducted using MODIS derived broadband visible and near-infrared surface albedo products. This contribution is an extension of earlier efforts to optimally retrieve land surface fluxes and associated two- stream model parameters based on the Joint Research Centre Two-stream Inversion Package (JRC-TIP). The discussion focuses on products (based on the mean and one-sigma values of the Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs)) obtained during the summer and winter and highlight specific issues related to snowy conditions. This paper discusses the retrieved model parameters including the effective Leaf Area Index (LAI), the background brightness and the scattering efficiency of the vegetation elements. The spatial and seasonal changes exhibited by these parameters agree with common knowledge and underscore the richness of the high quality surface albedo data sets. At the same time, the opportunity to generate global maps of new products, such as the background albedo, underscores the advantages of using state of the art algorithmic approaches capable of fully exploiting accurate satellite remote sensing datasets. The detailed analyses of the retrieval uncertainties highlight the central role and contribution of the LAI, the main process parameter to interpret radiation transfer observations over vegetated surfaces. The posterior covariance matrix of the uncertainties is further exploited to quantify the knowledge gain from the ingestion of MODIS surface albedo products. The estimation of the radiation fluxes that are absorbed, transmitted and scattered by the vegetation layer and its background is achieved on the basis of the retrieved PDFs of the model parameters. The propagation of uncertainties from the observations to the model parameters is achieved via the Hessian of the cost function and yields a covariance matrix of posterior parameter uncertainties. This matrix is propagated to the radiation

  10. The effect of the OSHA lead exposure in construction standard on blood lead levels among iron workers employed in bridge rehabilitation. (United States)

    Levin, S M; Goldberg, M; Doucette, J T


    Over 50,000 workers are at risk of occupational exposure to lead in the course of renovating the nation's deteriorating infrastructure. In mid-1993, to control exposure to lead in the construction setting OSHA promulgated a Lead in Construction Standard. In this study, we assessed the effect of the mandated changes in exposure conditions which followed the introduction of this new standard. We analyzed changes in baseline and maximum blood lead concentrations and in maximum increments in blood lead levels before and after introduction of the standard among iron workers employed in the renovation of a large, lead-painted, steel bridge in New York City. Results indicated that baseline and maximum blood lead levels fell significantly after the implementation of the provisions of the standard, as did maximum increments in blood lead concentrations. Seventy-six percent of the workers maintained blood lead concentrations below 20 micrograms/dl after the OSHA standard, as compared with 66% prior to its implementation. Increments of 20 micrograms/dl or more occurred considerably more frequently before introduction of the standard (13% before vs. 4% after; p = 0.01). Evidence of decreased exposure to lead was observed among iron workers who were present both before and after the introduction of the OSHA standard, as well as among iron workers newly hired after the OSHA provisions were put in place. These findings document the effectiveness of the OSHA construction lead standard in controlling exposure to lead in this complex and variable environment. The data indicate the utility of blood lead determinations in assessing the outcome of industrial hygiene interventions to reduce exposures to lead in the construction setting.

  11. Development of a precast bridge deck overhang system for the rock creek bridge. (United States)


    Precast, prestressed panels are commonly used at interior beams for bridges in Texas. The use of these : panels provides ease of construction, sufficient capacity, and good economy for the construction of : bridges in Texas. Current practice for the ...

  12. Engineered surface barriers for waste disposal sites: lysimeter facility design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Ruben, M.S.; Kirkham, R.R.


    A facility to evaluate performance of engineered surface carriers for confinement of buried wastes has been designed, constructed, and operations initiated. The Field Lysimeter Test Facility is located at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The facility consists of 18 one-dimensional drainage and weighing lysimeters used to evaluate 7 replicated barrier treatments. Distinct layers of natural earth materials were used to construct layered soil and rock barriers in each lysimeter. These barrier designs are capable in principal of significantly reducing or precluding infiltration of meteoric water through barriers into underlying contaminated zones. This paper summarizes salient facility design and construction features used in testing of the Hanford Site's engineered surface barriers

  13. Dynamic assessment of bridge deck performance considering realistic bridge-traffic interaction (United States)


    Concrete bridge decks are directly exposed to daily traffic loads and may experience some surface cracking caused by excessive stress or fatigue accumulation, which requires repair or replacement. Among typical bridges in North America, bridge decks ...

  14. Reliability Modeling of Double Beam Bridge Crane (United States)

    Han, Zhu; Tong, Yifei; Luan, Jiahui; Xiangdong, Li


    This paper briefly described the structure of double beam bridge crane and the basic parameters of double beam bridge crane are defined. According to the structure and system division of double beam bridge crane, the reliability architecture of double beam bridge crane system is proposed, and the reliability mathematical model is constructed.

  15. The stories of two bridges in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jørgen


    Public participation in bridge building was promoted by un habitat in the village of Mankrong. The neighbouring village did not participate in the construction of their bridge. The first flooding washed the second bridge down while the "participative bridge" stood up....

  16. High-order fractional partial differential equation transform for molecular surface construction. (United States)

    Hu, Langhua; Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei


    Fractional derivative or fractional calculus plays a significant role in theoretical modeling of scientific and engineering problems. However, only relatively low order fractional derivatives are used at present. In general, it is not obvious what role a high fractional derivative can play and how to make use of arbitrarily high-order fractional derivatives. This work introduces arbitrarily high-order fractional partial differential equations (PDEs) to describe fractional hyperdiffusions. The fractional PDEs are constructed via fractional variational principle. A fast fractional Fourier transform (FFFT) is proposed to numerically integrate the high-order fractional PDEs so as to avoid stringent stability constraints in solving high-order evolution PDEs. The proposed high-order fractional PDEs are applied to the surface generation of proteins. We first validate the proposed method with a variety of test examples in two and three-dimensional settings. The impact of high-order fractional derivatives to surface analysis is examined. We also construct fractional PDE transform based on arbitrarily high-order fractional PDEs. We demonstrate that the use of arbitrarily high-order derivatives gives rise to time-frequency localization, the control of the spectral distribution, and the regulation of the spatial resolution in the fractional PDE transform. Consequently, the fractional PDE transform enables the mode decomposition of images, signals, and surfaces. The effect of the propagation time on the quality of resulting molecular surfaces is also studied. Computational efficiency of the present surface generation method is compared with the MSMS approach in Cartesian representation. We further validate the present method by examining some benchmark indicators of macromolecular surfaces, i.e., surface area, surface enclosed volume, surface electrostatic potential and solvation free energy. Extensive numerical experiments and comparison with an established surface model

  17. Comparative researches concerning cleaning chosen construction materials surface layer using UV and IR laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napadlek, W.; Marczak, J.; Kubicki, J.; Szudrowicz, M.


    The paper presents comparative research studies of cleaning out of deposits and pollution disposals on different constructional materials like; steel, cast iron, aluminium, copper by using UV and IR laser radiation of wavelength λ =1.064 μm; λ = 0.532 μm; λ = 0.355 μm and λ = 0.266 μm and also impulse laser TEA CO 2 at radiation λ = 10.6 μm were used for the experiments. Achieved experimental results gave us basic information on parameters and conditions and application of each used radiation wavelength. Each kind of pollution and base material should be individually treated, selecting the length of wave and radiation energy density. Laser microtreatment allows for broad cleaning application of the surface of constructional materials as well as may be used in future during manufacturing processes as: preparation of surface for PVD technology, galvanotechnics, cleaning of the surface of machine parts etc. (author)

  18. Experimental investigation of the stability of the floating water bridge (United States)

    Montazeri Namin, Reza; Azizpour Lindi, Shiva; Amjadi, Ahmad; Jafari, Nima; Irajizad, Peyman


    When a high voltage is applied between two beakers filled with deionized water, a floating bridge of water is formed in between exceeding the length of 2 cm when the beakers are pulled apart. Currently two theories regarding the stability of the floating water bridge exist, one suggesting that the tension caused by electric field in the dielectric medium is holding the bridge and the other suggesting surface tension to be responsible for the vertical equilibrium. We construct experiments in which the electric field and the geometry of the bridge are measured and compared with predictions of theories of the floating water bridge stability. We use a numerical simulation for estimation of the electric field. Our results indicate that the two forces of dielectric and surface tensions hold the bridge against gravity simultaneously and, having the same order of magnitude, neither of the two forces are negligible. In bridges with larger diameters, the effect of dielectric tension is slightly more in the vertical equilibrium than surface tension. Results show that the stability can be explained by macroscopic forces, regardless of the microscopic changes in the water structure.

  19. Constructal tree-shaped two-phase flow for cooling a surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamfirescu, C.; Bejan, A. [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science


    This paper documents the strong relation that exists between the changing architecture of a complex flow system and the maximization of global performance under constraints. The system is a surface with uniform heating per unit area, which is cooled by a network with evaporating two-phase flow. Illustrations are based on the design of the cooling network for a skating rink. The flow structure is optimized as a sequence of building blocks, which starts with the smallest (elemental volume of fixed size), and continues with assemblies of stepwise larger sizes (first construct, second construct, etc.). The optimized flow network is tree shaped. Three features of the elemental volume are optimized: the cross-sectional shape, the elemental tube diameter, and the shape of the elemental area viewed from above. The tree that emerges at larger scales is optimized for minimal amount of header material and fixed pressure drop. The optimal number of constituents in each new (larger) construct decreases as the size and complexity of the construct increase. Constructs of various levels of complexity compete: the paper shows how to select the optimal flow structure subject to fixed size (cooled surface), pressure drop and amount of header material. (author)

  20. A probabilistic bridge safety evaluation against floods. (United States)

    Liao, Kuo-Wei; Muto, Yasunori; Chen, Wei-Lun; Wu, Bang-Ho


    To further capture the influences of uncertain factors on river bridge safety evaluation, a probabilistic approach is adopted. Because this is a systematic and nonlinear problem, MPP-based reliability analyses are not suitable. A sampling approach such as a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) or importance sampling is often adopted. To enhance the efficiency of the sampling approach, this study utilizes Bayesian least squares support vector machines to construct a response surface followed by an MCS, providing a more precise safety index. Although there are several factors impacting the flood-resistant reliability of a bridge, previous experiences and studies show that the reliability of the bridge itself plays a key role. Thus, the goal of this study is to analyze the system reliability of a selected bridge that includes five limit states. The random variables considered here include the water surface elevation, water velocity, local scour depth, soil property and wind load. Because the first three variables are deeply affected by river hydraulics, a probabilistic HEC-RAS-based simulation is performed to capture the uncertainties in those random variables. The accuracy and variation of our solutions are confirmed by a direct MCS to ensure the applicability of the proposed approach. The results of a numerical example indicate that the proposed approach can efficiently provide an accurate bridge safety evaluation and maintain satisfactory variation.

  1. Building a Straw Bridge (United States)

    Teaching Science, 2015


    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  2. Influence of microclimate on the sustainability and reliability of weathering steel bridge (United States)

    Kubzova, M.; Krivy, V.; Kreislova, K.


    Reliability and sustainability of bridge structures designed from weathering steel are influenced by the development of a sufficiently protective layer of corrosion products on its surface. The development of this protective layer is affected by several parameters such as air pollution around the bridge structure, the microclimate under the bridge, the location of surface within the bridge structure and the time of wetness. Design of structural details also significantly influences the development of the protective corrosion layer. The article deals with the results of the experimental tests carried out on the road bridge located in the city of Ostrava in the Czech Republic. The development of the protective corrosion layer on the surface of the bridge is significantly influenced by the intensive traffic under the bridge construction and the design solution of the bridge itself. Attention is focused mainly on the influence of chloride deposition on the protective function of the corrosion layer. Corrosion samples were placed on the bridge to evaluate the influence of the above-mentioned parameters. The deposition rate of chlorides spreading from the road to surfaces of the steel structure is also measured.

  3. Long-term behavior of integral abutment bridges : [technical summary]. (United States)


    Integral abutment bridges, a type of jointless bridge, are the construction option of choice when designing highway bridges in many parts of the country. Rather than providing an expansion joint to separate the substructure from the superstructure to...

  4. Seismic retrofit of spliced sleeve connections for precast bridge piers. (United States)


    Grouted Splice Sleeve (GSS) connectors are being considered for connecting bridge columns, footings, and pier caps in Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC). A repair technique for precast reinforced concrete bridge column-to-footing and column-to-pie...

  5. Recycled aggregate in road construction following the Spanish General Technical Specifications for Roads and Bridge Works (PG-3: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Morales, M.


    Full Text Available This research characterizes four samples of recycled aggregate for their potential use in road construction projects in consonance with the Spanish General Technical Specifications for Roads and Bridge Works (PG-3. Although some fractions were of sufficient quality for the construction of embankments, backfills, and quarry-run fills, they were ultimately found to be unsuitable for the construction of underground drainage, granular structural layers, soil stabilization and concrete pavements. They were negatively evaluated because of their particle size distribution and sulfate content. Nevertheless, the quality of this recycled aggregate could be substantially improved by manually removing the gypsum before the crushing process at the plant or by selecting the material with greater care at the beginning of the process. Finally, we suggest that Construction and Demolition (C&D waste plant managers should modify the manufacturing process to obtain a suitable particle size distribution in accordance with PG-3 requirements and the projected use of the aggregate.

    En esta investigación se han caracterizado cuatro muestras de árido reciclado para su potencial uso en obras de carreteras en España siguiendo el Pliego de Prescripciones Técnicas Generales para Obras de Carreteras y Puentes (PG-3. Aunque algunas fracciones presentaron suficiente calidad para la construcción de terraplenes, rellenos localizados y rellenos todo en uno, resultaron inadecuadas para la construcción de drenes subterráneos, zahorras, suelos estabilizados y pavimentos de hormigón. Obtuvieron una evaluación negativa en cuanto a distribución granulométrica y contenido en sulfatos. No obstante, la calidad de este árido reciclado podría mejorar sustancialmente eliminando manualmente el yeso antes de la trituración en planta o seleccionando el material con un mayor cuidado al inicio del proceso. Finalmente, recomendamos que los empresarios de las plantas de residuos

  6. Deviating colostomy construction versus stent placement as bridge to surgery for malignant left-sided colonic obstruction. (United States)

    Amelung, Femke J; Ter Borg, Frank; Consten, Esther C J; Siersema, Peter D; Draaisma, Werner A


    Acute colonic decompression using a deviating colostomy (DC) or a self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) has been shown to lead to fewer complications and permanent stomas compared to acute resection in elderly patients with malignant left-sided colonic obstruction (LSCO). However, no consensus exists on which decompression method is superior, especially in patients treated with curative intend. This retrospective study therefore aimed to compare both decompression methods in potentially curable LSCO patients. All LSCO patients treated with curative intent between 2004 and 2013 in two teaching hospitals were retrospectively identified. In one institution, a DC was the standard of care, whereas in the other all patients were treated with SEMS. In total, 88 eligible LSCO patients with limited disease and curative treatment options were included; 51 patients had a SEMS placed and 37 patients a DC constructed. All patients eventually underwent a subsequent elective resection. In sum, 235 patients were excluded due to benign or inoperable disease. No significant differences were found for hospital stay, morbidity, disease-free and overall survival and mortality. Major complications were seen in 13/51 (25.5 %) patients in the SEMS group and were mostly due to stent dysfunction (n = 7). Also, one stent-related perforation occurred. Major complications occurred in 4/37 (10.8 %) patients in the DC group, including abdominal sepsis (n = 3) and wound dehiscence (n = 1). Long-term complication rate was significantly higher in the DC group (29.7 vs. 9.8 %, p = 0.01), mainly due to a high incisional hernia rate. Fewer patients had a temporary colostomy following elective resection after SEMS placement (62.2 vs. 17.6 %, p colostomy rate was not significantly different. SEMS and DC are both effective decompression methods for curable LSCO patients with comparable short- and long-term oncological outcomes; however, more surgical procedures are performed after DC due to an

  7. Start-up of a free water surface constructed wetland for treating olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michailides Michail


    Full Text Available An olive mill's existing evaporation pond was separated into five cells and transformed into a free water surface constructed wetland. The constructed wetland was used as a post-treatment stage for olive mill wastewater (OMW. Wastewater was previously treated by an aerobic trickling filter. The influent concentrations in the constructed wetland were 27400 mg.L-1, 4800 mg.L-1, 105 mg.L-1 and 770 mg.L-1 for COD, phenols, ortho-phosphate and TKN, respectively. Despite the rather high influent concentrations, the performance of the constructed wetland was very good since after the 60-day start-up operation period it achieved removal rates of about 94%, 95%, 95% and 98% for COD, phenols, ortho-phosphate and TKN, respectively. The major pollutant removal processes can be attributed to both biological processes occurring in the wetland and photo-oxidation. Laboratory-scale experiments with OMW from fifth cell of the wetland revealed that the net contribution of photo-oxidation after 112 hours of simulated solar radiation at 765 W/m2 (i.e. about 38 days of sunlight irradiation was 18% and 31% removal for COD and phenols, respectively. In the constructed wetland, the total removal reached 81% and 86% for COD and phenols, respectively, for the same time period (38 days.

  8. Construction and performance test of apparatus for permeation experiments with controlled surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Yuji; Nomura, Mamoru; Watanabe, Kuniaki; Livshits, Alexander I.; Busnyuk, Andrei O.; Nakamura, Yukio; Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi


    A new apparatus was constructed to examine gas-, atom- and plasma-driven permeation of hydrogen isotopes through group VA metal membranes with precisely controlled surface states. Absorption and desorption experiments are also possible. The new apparatus consists of two vacuum chambers, an upstream chamber and a downstream chamber, separated by a specimen membrane. Both chambers are evacuated by turbo-molecular pumps and sputter-ion pumps. The upstream chamber is equipped with Ta filaments serving as atomizers in atom-driven permeation experiments and cathodes in plasma-driven permeation experiments. The specimen membrane is formed into a tubular shape and electrically isolated from the chamber. Hence, ohmic heating of the membrane is possible, and this feature of the membrane is suitable for surface cleaning by high-temperature heating an impurity doping for the control of surface chemical composition through surface segregation. Both chambers were evacuated to 1 x 10 -7 Pa after baking. The main component of residual gas was H 2 , and the partial pressures of impurity gases other than H 2 were ca. 1 x 10 -8 Pa. Gas- and atom-driven permeation experiments were successfully carried out with hydrogen gas for Nb membrane activated by heating in vacuum at 1173 K. Superpermeation was observed in the atom-driven permeation experiments. Absorption experiments with a clean surface were also carried out. The surface was, however, cleaned only partially, because the temperature distribution was not uniform during high-temperature heating. Nevertheless, surface cleanliness was retained during absorption experiments under the present vacuum conditions. A new membrane assembly that will enable a uniform temperature distribution is now under construction. (author)

  9. Soil-structure interaction studies for understanding the behavior of integral abutment bridges. (United States)


    Integral Abutment Bridges (IAB) are bridges without any joints within the bridge deck or between the : superstructure and the abutments. An IAB provides many advantages during construction and maintenance of : a bridge. Soil-structure interactions at...

  10. Integral Abutment and Jointless Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian-Claudiu Comisu


    Full Text Available Integral bridges, or integral abutment and jointless bridges, as they are more commonly known in the USA, are constructed without any movement joints between spans or between spans and abutments. Typically these bridges have stub-type abutments supported on piles and continuous bridge deck from one embankment to the other. Foundations are usually designed to be small and flexible to facilitate horizontal movement or rocking of the support. Integrally bridges are simple or multiple span ones that have their superstructure cast integrally with their substructure. The jointless bridges cost less to construct and require less maintenance then equivalent bridges with expansion joints. Integral bridges present a challenge for load distribution calculations because the bridge deck, piers, abutments, embankments and soil must all be considered as single compliant system. This paper presents some of the important features of integral abutment and jointless bridge design and some guidelines to achieve improved design. The goal of this paper is to enhance the awareness among the engineering community to use integral abutment and jointless bridges in Romania.

  11. Structural Impact of Construction Loads (United States)


    Numerous bridge construction accidents have occurred across the country because of construction loadings, which are an underemphasized : topic in many DOT specifications and design manuals. Bridge girders are least stable when they are subjected to c...

  12. Bridging Anticoagulation (United States)

    ... clinical centers in the United States, Canada, and Brazil. A more detailed description of the study is ... Your Personal Message Send Message Share on Social Media Bridging Anticoagulation The BRIDGE Study Investigators Circulation. 2012; ...

  13. Construction of an interatomic potential for zinc oxide surfaces by high-dimensional neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artrith, Nongnuch; Morawietz, Tobias; Behler, Joerg [Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Chemie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)


    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a technologically important material with many applications, e.g. in heterogeneous catalysis. For theoretical studies of the structural properties of ZnO surfaces, defects, and crystal structures it is necessary to simulate large systems over long time-scales with sufficient accuracy. Often, the required system size is not accessible by computationally rather demanding density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. Recently, artificial Neural Networks (NN) trained to first principles data have shown to provide accurate potential-energy surfaces (PESs) for condensed systems. We present the construction and analysis of a NN PES for ZnO. The structural and energetic properties of bulk ZnO and ZnO surfaces are investigated using this potential and compared to DFT calculations.

  14. Constructing irregular surfaces to enclose macromolecular complexes for mesoscale modeling using the discrete surface charge optimization (DISCO) algorithm. (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Beard, Daniel A; Schlick, Tamar


    Salt-mediated electrostatics interactions play an essential role in biomolecular structures and dynamics. Because macromolecular systems modeled at atomic resolution contain thousands of solute atoms, the electrostatic computations constitute an expensive part of the force and energy calculations. Implicit solvent models are one way to simplify the model and associated calculations, but they are generally used in combination with standard atomic models for the solute. To approximate electrostatics interactions in models on the polymer level (e.g., supercoiled DNA) that are simulated over long times (e.g., milliseconds) using Brownian dynamics, Beard and Schlick have developed the DiSCO (Discrete Surface Charge Optimization) algorithm. DiSCO represents a macromolecular complex by a few hundred discrete charges on a surface enclosing the system modeled by the Debye-Hückel (screened Coulombic) approximation to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, and treats the salt solution as continuum solvation. DiSCO can represent the nucleosome core particle (>12,000 atoms), for example, by 353 discrete surface charges distributed on the surfaces of a large disk for the nucleosome core particle and a slender cylinder for the histone tail; the charges are optimized with respect to the Poisson-Boltzmann solution for the electric field, yielding a approximately 5.5% residual. Because regular surfaces enclosing macromolecules are not sufficiently general and may be suboptimal for certain systems, we develop a general method to construct irregular models tailored to the geometry of macromolecules. We also compare charge optimization based on both the electric field and electrostatic potential refinement. Results indicate that irregular surfaces can lead to a more accurate approximation (lower residuals), and the refinement in terms of the electric field is more robust. We also show that surface smoothing for irregular models is important, that the charge optimization (by the TNPACK


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kazakevych


    Full Text Available The major concepts of the elaboration and realization of the bridge construction monitoring systemic approach are presented in this paper. The main peculiarity of the bridge monitoring modern aspect is pointed out here, namely, the transition from the demands of providing the reliability to the demands of providing the whole complex of the structure consumer qualities. The criteria of diagnostics of the bridge exploitation reliability as the fundamental aim of monitoring are formulated here.

  16. Construction of extracellular microenvironment to improve surface endothelialization of NiTi alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Peng, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Department of Macromolecular Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhao, Yongchun; Yan, Ying; Hu, Yan; Yang, Weihu [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Cai, Kaiyong, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)


    To mimic extracellular microenvironment of endothelial cell, a bioactive multilayered structure of gelatin/chitosan pair, embedding with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), was constructed onto NiTi alloy substrate surface via a layer-by-layer assembly technique. The successful fabrication of the multilayered structure was demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurement, attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The growth behaviors of endothelial cells on various NiTi alloy substrates were investigated in vitro. Cytoskeleton observation, MTT assay, and wound healing assay proved that the VEGF-embedded multilayer structure positively stimulated adhesion, proliferation and motogenic responses of endothelial cells. More importantly, the present system promoted the nitric oxide production of endothelial cells. The approach affords an alternative to construct extracellular microenvironment for improving surface endothelialization of a cardiovascular implant. - Highlights: • Biofunctional multilayer films mimicking extracellular microenvironment were successfully fabricated. • Multilayered structure stimulated the biological responses of endothelial cells. • The approach affords an efficient approach for surface endothelialization of stent implant.

  17. Constructing Potential Energy Surfaces for Polyatomic Systems: Recent Progress and New Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Espinosa-Garcia


    Full Text Available Different methods of constructing potential energy surfaces in polyatomic systems are reviewed, with the emphasis put on fitting, interpolation, and analytical (defined by functional forms approaches, based on quantum chemistry electronic structure calculations. The different approaches are reviewed first, followed by a comparison using the benchmark H + CH4 and the H + NH3 gas-phase hydrogen abstraction reactions. Different kinetics and dynamics properties are analyzed for these reactions and compared with the available experimental data, which permits one to estimate the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Finally, we analyze different problems with increasing difficulty in the potential energy construction: spin-orbit coupling, molecular size, and more complicated reactions with several maxima and minima, which test the soundness and general applicability of each method. We conclude that, although the field of small systems, typically atom-diatom, is mature, there still remains much work to be done in the field of polyatomic systems.

  18. Polymer-based surface plasmon resonance biochip: construction and experimental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleumar da Silva Moreira

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Surface plasmon resonance biosensors are high sensitive analytical instruments that normally employ glass materials at the optical substrate layer. However, the use of polymer-based substrates is increasing in the last years due to favorable features, like: disposability, ease to construction and low-cost design. Review Recently, a polymer-based SPR biochip was proposed by using monochromatic and polychromatic input sources. Its construction and experimental considerations are detailed here. Experimental considerations and results, aspects from performance characteristics (resonance parameters, sensitivity and full width at half maximum – FWHM – calculations are presented for hydrophilic and hydrophobic solutions. It is included also a brief description of the state of the art of polymer-based SPR biosensors.

  19. Analysis of the state of the art of precast concrete bridge substructure systems. (United States)


    Precasting of bridge substructure components holds potential for accelerating the construction of bridges,reducing : impacts to the traveling public on routes adjacent to construction sites, improving bridge durability and hence service : life, and r...

  20. Statistical Analysis of Nitrogen in the Soil of Constructed Wetland with Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubaszek Anita


    Full Text Available The removal of nitrogen compounds in constructed wetlands depends on various physical, chemical and biomechanical factors as well as on conditions of the environment. The paper presents the results of a statistical analysis of the depositing of nitrogen at HSSF (horizontal subsurface flow construcred wetland. The results of the substrate showed that the highest contents of nitrogen existed in the surface soil layer up to 20 cm of the depth. Nitrogen accumulation decreased in the deposit with depth, and in the direction of the wastewater flow.

  1. Construction of diabatic energy surfaces for LiFH with artificial neural networks (United States)

    Guan, Yafu; Fu, Bina; Zhang, Dong H.


    A new set of diabatic potential energy surfaces (PESs) for LiFH is constructed with artificial neural networks (NNs). The adiabatic PESs of the ground state and the first excited state are directly fitted with NNs. Meanwhile, the adiabatic-to-diabatic transformation (ADT) angles (mixing angles) are obtained by simultaneously fitting energy difference and interstate coupling gradients. No prior assumptions of the functional form of ADT angles are used before fitting, and the ab initio data including energy difference and interstate coupling gradients are well reproduced. Converged dynamical results show remarkable differences between adiabatic and diabatic PESs, which suggests the significance of non-adiabatic processes.

  2. Development of LRFD procedures for bridge pile foundations in Iowa - volume III : recommended resistance factors with consideration of construction control and setup. (United States)


    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) mandated utilizing the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) approach for all new bridges initiated in the United States after October 1, 2007. As a result, there has been a progressive move among state De...

  3. Evaluation of Sulfur 'Concrete' for Use as a Construction Material on the Lunar Surface (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.


    Combining molten sulfur with any number of aggregate materials forms, when solid, a mixture having attributes similar, if not better, to conventional water-based concrete. As a result the use of sulfur "concrete" on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive environments. Consequently, discovery of troilite (FeS) on the lunar surface prompted numerous scenarios about its reduction to elemental sulfur for use, in combination with lunar regolith, as a potential construction material; not requiring water, a precious resource, for its manufacture is an obvious advantage. However, little is known about the viability of sulfur concrete in an environment typified by extreme temperatures and essentially no atmosphere. The experimental work presented here evaluates the response of pure sulfur and sulfur concrete subjected to laboratory conditions that approach those expected on the lunar surface, the results suggesting a narrow window of application.

  4. New conceptual design of portable bamboo bridge for emergency purposes (United States)

    Musthaffa, A. A.; Nor, N. M.; Yusof, M. A.; Yuhazri, M. Y.


    Portable bridges serve as routes for troops during the military operations and the disaster relief operation. Nowadays, bamboo has been regarded as one of the alternative construction materials for building and bridge structures. This paper presents the conceptual design of the portable bridge. Several types of portable bridges and bamboo bridges are reviewed in the current work. The characteristics, capability and method of construction of each bridge are discussed. Finally, the conceptual of the portable bamboo bridge for emergency purposes is presented. The idea of producing portable bridge is proposed in the current work as it is crucial for providing route for communities affected by natural disasters.

  5. Hydrological regime shift in a constructed catchment: Effect of vegetation encroachment on surface runoff (United States)

    Hinz, C.; Caviedes-Voullieme, D.; Andezhath Mohanan, A.; Brueck, Y.; Zaplata, M.


    The Hühnerwasser catchment (Chicken Creek) was constructed to provide discharge for a small stream in the post-mining landscape of Lusatia, Germany. It has an area of 6 ha and quaternary sands with a thickness of 2-4 m were dumped on to a clay liner to prevent deep drainage. After completion of the construction the catchment was left to develop on its own without intervention and has been monitored since 2005. The upper part of the catchment discharges water and sediment into the lower part forming an alluvial fan. Below the alluvial fan is a pond receiving all surface and subsurface water from the upper catchment. After the formation of the drainage network vegetation started growing and surface runoff decreased until the water balance was dominated by evapotranspiration. This regime shift and the rate at which it happened depends on the vegetation encroachment into the rills and the interrill areas. Based on the hypothesis that vegetation will increase surface roughness and infiltration behavior, aerial photos were used to map rills and vegetation within and outside the rills for the last 10 years to obtain a time series of change. Observational evidence clearly shows that vegetation encroaches from the bottom, from the interrill areas as well as from the top. The rills themselves did not change their topology, however, the width of the erosion rills and gully increased at the bottom. For a subcatchment area a high resolution a physical based numerical model of overland flow was developed to explicitly assess the importance of increasing roughness and infiltration capacity for surface runoff. For the purpose of analyzing the effect of rainfall variability a rainfall generator was developed to carry out large sets of simulations. The simulations provide a means to assess how the roughness/infiltration feedback affects the rate of regime shift for a set of parameters that are consistent with the observed hydrological behavior of the drainage network.

  6. Field performance of timber bridges. 4, Graves Crossing stress-laminated deck bridge (United States)

    J. P. Wacker; M. A. Ritter

    The Graves Crossing bridge was constructed October 1991 in Antrim County, Michigan, as part of the demonstration timber bridge program sponsored by the USDA Forest Service. The bridge is a two-span continuous, stress-laminated deck superstructure and it is 36-ft long and 26-ft wide. The bridge is one of the first stress-laminated deck bridges to be built of sawn lumber...

  7. Adaptive Robust Online Constructive Fuzzy Control of a Complex Surface Vehicle System. (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Er, Meng Joo; Sun, Jing-Chao; Liu, Yan-Cheng


    In this paper, a novel adaptive robust online constructive fuzzy control (AR-OCFC) scheme, employing an online constructive fuzzy approximator (OCFA), to deal with tracking surface vehicles with uncertainties and unknown disturbances is proposed. Significant contributions of this paper are as follows: 1) unlike previous self-organizing fuzzy neural networks, the OCFA employs decoupled distance measure to dynamically allocate discriminable and sparse fuzzy sets in each dimension and is able to parsimoniously self-construct high interpretable T-S fuzzy rules; 2) an OCFA-based dominant adaptive controller (DAC) is designed by employing the improved projection-based adaptive laws derived from the Lyapunov synthesis which can guarantee reasonable fuzzy partitions; 3) closed-loop system stability and robustness are ensured by stable cancelation and decoupled adaptive compensation, respectively, thereby contributing to an auxiliary robust controller (ARC); and 4) global asymptotic closed-loop system can be guaranteed by AR-OCFC consisting of DAC and ARC and all signals are bounded. Simulation studies and comprehensive comparisons with state-of-the-arts fixed- and dynamic-structure adaptive control schemes demonstrate superior performance of the AR-OCFC in terms of tracking and approximation accuracy.

  8. Optimizing the construction of devices to control inaccesible surfaces - case study (United States)

    Niţu, E. L.; Costea, A.; Iordache, M. D.; Rizea, A. D.; Babă, Al


    The modern concept for the evolution of manufacturing systems requires multi-criteria optimization of technological processes and equipments, prioritizing associated criteria according to their importance. Technological preparation of the manufacturing can be developed, depending on the volume of production, to the limit of favourable economical effects related to the recovery of the costs for the design and execution of the technological equipment. Devices, as subsystems of the technological system, in the general context of modernization and diversification of machines, tools, semi-finished products and drives, are made in a multitude of constructive variants, which in many cases do not allow their identification, study and improvement. This paper presents a case study in which the multi-criteria analysis of some structures, based on a general optimization method, of novelty character, is used in order to determine the optimal construction variant of a control device. The rational construction of the control device confirms that the optimization method and the proposed calculation methods are correct and determine a different system configuration, new features and functions, and a specific method of working to control inaccessible surfaces.

  9. Proper construction of ab initio global potential surfaces with accurate long-range interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel


    An efficient procedure based on the reproducing kernel Hilbert space interpolation method is presented for constructing intermolecular potential energy surfaces (PES) using not only calculated ab initio data but also a priori information on long-range interactions. Explicitly, use of the reciprocal power reproducing kernel on the semiinfinite interval [0,∞) yields a set of exact linear relations between dispersion (multipolar) coefficients and PES data points at finite internuclear separations. Consequently, given a combined set of ab initio data and the values of dispersion (multipolar) coefficients, the potential interpolation problem subject to long-range interaction constraints can be solved to render globally smooth, asymptotically accurate ab initio potential energy surfaces. Very good results have been obtained for the one-dimensional He-He potential curve and the two-dimensional Ne-CO PES. The construction of the Ne-CO PES was facilitated by invoking a new reproducing kernel for the angular coordinate based on the optimally stable and shape-preserving Bernstein basis functions. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  10. [Artificial Cysteine Bridges on the Surface of Green Fluorescent Protein Affect Hydration of Its Transition and Intermediate States]. (United States)

    Melnik, T N; Nagibina, G S; Surin, A K; Glukhova, K A; Melnik, B S


    Studying the effect of cysteine bridges on different energy levels of multistage folding proteins will enable a better understanding of the process of folding and functioning of globular proteins. In particular, it will create prospects for directed change in the stability and rate of protein folding. In this work, using the method of differential scanning microcalorimetry, we have studied the effect of three cysteine bridges introduced in different structural elements of the green fluorescent protein on the denaturation enthalpies, activation energies, and heat-capacity increments when this protein passes from native to intermediate and transition states. The studies have allowed us to confirm that, with this protein denaturation, the process hardly damages the structure initially, but then changes occur in the protein structure in the region of 4-6 beta sheets. The cysteine bridge introduced in this region decreases the hydration of the second transition state and increases the hydration of the second intermediate state during the thermal denaturation of the green fluorescent protein.

  11. Nondestructive testing for bridge diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Toshiyuki; Mikami, Shuichi; Yamazaki, Tomoyuki


    There are many motivations for bridge diagnosis using Nondestructive testing (NDT) to monitor its integrity. The measured frequency and damping on real bridge are compared in one figure as a function of span length and general aspects are explained. These date were measured in every construction of bridges and applied to design new bridges. Ultrasonic testing is also well used for concrete and steel members mainly to detect internal damages or delaminations. Detail analysis on reflected waves gives us more accurate information about the defect. Experimental results are shown as examples in this paper.

  12. Steel-soil composite bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Pettersson, Lars; Karoumi, Raid


    viability, while their environmental performance is overlooked. Today’s designers are urged to seek new design options to reduce the environmental burdens. Sweden owns more than 24574 bridges and most of them are short spans. Among them, the slab frame bridge (CFB) is a common solution. Soil steel composite...... bridge (SSCB), alternatively, is a functionally equivalent solution to CFB and shows advantages in low cost and easy construction. This paper compares the environmental performance between these two bridge types based on life cycle assessment (LCA). The analysis and result shows that, the SSCB...

  13. Longer Lasting Bridge Deck Overlays (United States)


    The objective of this report is to determine the most effective method for bridge deck overlay construction and repair by assessing current practices; examining new products and technologies; and reviewing NCHRP (National Cooperative Highway Research...

  14. A new geometrical construction using rounded surfaces proposed for the transverse flux machine for direct drive wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argeseanu, Alin; Nica, Florin Valentin Traian; Ritchie, Ewen


    This paper proposes a new construction for transverse flux machines (TFM) using a rounded surfaces core geometry. The new concept has been developed for TFM with U core geometry. In this case a new analytic design procedure was proposed. The analytic design of the new TFM construction is further ...... proposed concept is more attractive for the direct-drive wind turbine application....

  15. Myocardial Bridging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan


    Full Text Available Abstract Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results.

  16. Building Bridges One Line at a Time (United States)

    Grigsby, Cathy Murray


    In this article, first-grade students were taught the different kinds of lines that were part of the construction of various bridges--the curved lines of the arches of stone bridges, straight lines connecting the cables of a suspension bridge, vertical lines, horizontal lines, and so on. They gained practice in drawing structures and in fine brush…

  17. Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education. (United States)

    Bergman, Esther M; Sieben, Judith M; Smailbegovic, Ida; de Bruin, Anique B H; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M


    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially those of the musculoskeletal system, move and function in a living human being. A recent development in teaching methods for surface anatomy is body painting, which several studies suggest increases both student motivation and knowledge acquisition. This article focuses on a teaching approach and is a translational contribution to existing literature. In line with best evidence medical education, the aim of this article is twofold: to briefly inform teachers about constructivist learning theory and elaborate on the principles of constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning; and to provide teachers with an example of how to implement these learning principles to change the approach to teaching surface anatomy. Student evaluations of this new approach demonstrate that the application of these learning principles leads to higher student satisfaction. However, research suggests that even better results could be achieved by further adjustments in the application of contextual and self-directed learning principles. Successful implementation and guidance of peer physical examination is crucial for the described approach, but research shows that other options, like using life models, seem to work equally well. Future research on surface anatomy should focus on increasing the students' ability to apply anatomical knowledge and defining the setting in which certain teaching methods and approaches have a positive effect. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  18. Purification of fuel and nitrate contaminated ground water using a free water surface constructed wetland plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machate, T.; Heuermann, E.; Schramm, K.W.; Kettrup, A.


    Contaminated ground water from a former coke plant site was purified in a free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland plant during a 3-mo short-term experiment. The pilot plant (total surface area 27 m{sup 2}) was filled with a 1 m thick lava-gravel substrate planted with cattail (Typha spp.) and bulrush (Scirpus lacustrls). Major contaminants were low to moderate concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, BTEX, nitrate, and nitrite. The wetland was dosed at hydraulic loading rates of q{sub A} = 4.8 and 9.6 cm d{sup {minus}1} with a hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 13.7 and 6.8 d. The surface removal rates of PAH were between 98.8 and 1914 mg m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1}. Efficiency was always {gt}99%. Extraction of lava gravel showed that approx. 0.4% of the applied PAH were retained on the substratum. The ratio of {Sigma}2,3-ring PAH and {Sigma}4,5,6-ring PAH showed a shift from 1:0.11 in water to 1:2.5 in lava. The removal of BTEX was {gt}99%, but might be in part due to volatilization. The efficiency in the removal of nitrate was 91% and of nitrite was 97%. Purification performance was not influenced by hydraulic loading rates or after die-back of the macrophytes.

  19. Computer-Aided Panoramic Images Enriched by Shadow Construction on a Prism and Pyramid Polyhedral Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Dzwierzynska


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop an efficient and practical method of a direct mapping of a panoramic projection on an unfolded prism and pyramid polyhedral projection surface with the aid of a computer. Due to the fact that straight lines very often appear in any architectural form we formulate algorithms which utilize data about lines and draw panoramas as plots of functions in Mathcad software. The ability to draw panoramic images of lines enables drawing a wireframe image of an architectural object. The application of the multicenter projection, as well as the idea of shadow construction in the panoramic representation, aims at achieving a panoramic image close to human perception. The algorithms are universal as the application of changeable base elements of panoramic projection—horizon height, station point location, number of polyhedral walls—enables drawing panoramic images from various viewing positions. However, for more efficient and easier drawing, the algorithms should be implemented in some graphical package. The representation presented in the paper and the method of its direct mapping on a flat unfolded projection surface can find application in the presentation of architectural spaces in advertising and art when drawings are displayed on polyhedral surfaces and can be observed from multiple viewing positions.

  20. Effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhi [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Bone and Joint Surgery, The affiliated hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou 646000 (China); Qing, Quan [Sichuan College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Mianyang 621000 (China); Regenerative Medicine Research Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chen, Xi; Liu, Cheng-Jun; Luo, Jing-Cong [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Hu, Jin-Lian [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Qin, Ting-Wu, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)


    Highlights: • The shapes of tenocytes varied when seeded on different surface of scaffolds. • Tenocytes were flat on smooth surface and spindle on micro-grooved surface. • Tenocytes were ellipse or spindle on porous surface. • Tenocytes got varying adhesion shape and elongation index on varying surfaces. • The tenocyte survival on porous surface was superior to the other two groups. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs. Tenocytes were obtained from tail tendons of rats. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate three types of scaffolds with varying surface morphological characteristics, i.e., smooth, micro-grooved, and porous surfaces, respectively. The tenocytes were seeded on the surfaces of the scaffolds to form tenocyte-scaffold constructs. The constructs were cryopreserved in a vitreous cryoprotectant (CPA) with a multi-step protocol. The cell adhesion to scaffolds was observed with electronic scanning microscopy (SEM). The elongation index of the living tenocytes and ratio of live/dead cell number were examined based on a live/dead dual fluorescent staining technique, and the survival rate of tenocytes was studied with flow cytometry (FC). The results showed the shapes of tenocytes varied between the different groups: flat or polygonal (on smooth surface), spindle (on micro-grooved surface), and spindle or ellipse (on porous surface). After thawing, the porous surface got the most living tenocytes and a higher survival rate, suggesting its potential application for vitreous cryopreservation of engineered tendon constructs.

  1. Mesh construction and evaluation of the stress intensity factor for the semi-elliptical surface cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Wook; Lee, Gyu Mahn; Jeong, Kyeong Hoon; Kim, Tae Wan; Park, Keun Bae


    As actual cracks found in practical structures are mostly three-dimensional surface cracks, such cracks give rise to the important problem when the structural integrity is evaluated in a viewpoint of fracture mechanics. The case of a semi-elliptical surface crack is more complicated than that of the embedded elliptical crack since the crack front intersects the free surface. Therefore, the exact expression of stress field according to the boundary condition can be the prior process for the structural integrity evaluation . The commercial code, I-DEAS does not provide the family of strain singular element for the cracked-body analysis. This means that the user cannot make use of the pre-processing function of I-DEAS effectively. But I-DEAS has the capability to hold input data in common with computational fracture mechanics program like ABAQUS. Hence, user can construct the optimized analysis method for the generation of input data of program like ABAQUS using the I-DEAS. In the present study, a procedure for the generation of input data for the optimized 3-dimensional computational fracture mechanics is developed as a series of effort to establish the structural integriyt evaluation procedure of SMART reactor vessel assembly. Input data for the finite element analysis are made using the commercial code, I-DEAS program, The stress analysis is performed using the ABAQUS. To demonstrate the validation of the developed procedure in the present sutdy, semi-elliptic surface crack in a half space subjected to uniform tension are solved, and the effects of crack configuration ratio are discussed in detail. The numerical results are presented and compared to those presented by Raju and Newman. Also, we have established the structural integrity evaluation procedure through the 3-D crack modeling

  2. Performance of free water surface flow constructed wetland with floating aquatic macrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Soler


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of constructed wetlands with aquatic macrophytes in decreasing the concentration of pollutants from urban effluents. A pilot-scale system with two coverages of floating plants and two hydraulic residence times, working with continuous flow laminar was built. The lower concentration of chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand, were obtained with the lower coverage and higher hydraulic residence times. With little influence of the variables on the concentration of total nitrogen and total suspended solids, being the significant response for total phosphorus with the lowest plant coverage. There was a highly significant removal of total coliforms, regardless of coverage and in favor of higher hydraulic residence times. The use of free water surface wetlands is auspicious for sanitary control, showing low incidence on total nitrogen and total phosphorus.

  3. Use of multiple water surface flow constructed wetlands for non-point source water pollution control. (United States)

    Li, Dan; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Yan; Chu, Zhaosheng; He, Yan; Huang, Minsheng


    Multiple free water surface flow constructed wetlands (multi-FWS CWs) are a variety of conventional water treatment plants for the interception of pollutants. This review encapsulated the characteristics and applications in the field of ecological non-point source water pollution control technology. The roles of in-series design and operation parameters (hydraulic residence time, hydraulic load rate, water depth and aspect ratio, composition of influent, and plant species) for performance intensification were also analyzed, which were crucial to achieve sustainable and effective contaminants removal, especially the retention of nutrient. The mechanism study of design and operation parameters for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus was also highlighted. Conducive perspectives for further research on optimizing its design/operation parameters and advanced technologies of ecological restoration were illustrated to possibly interpret the functions of multi-FWS CWs.

  4. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students' Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis (United States)

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John


    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of…

  5. Bacterial community dynamics in surface flow constructed wetlands for the treatment of swine waste. (United States)

    Ibekwe, A M; Ma, J; Murinda, Shelton; Reddy, G B


    Constructed wetlands are generally used for the removal of waste from contaminated water. In the swine production system, wastes are traditionally flushed into an anaerobic lagoon which is then sprayed on agricultural fields. However, continuous spraying of lagoon wastewater on fields can lead to high N and P accumulations in soil or lead to runoff which may contaminate surface or ground water with pathogens and nutrients. In this study, continuous marsh constructed wetland was used for the removal of contaminants from swine waste. Using pyrosequencing, we assessed bacterial composition within the wetland using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) which showed that bacterial composition from manure influent and lagoon water were significantly different (P=0.001) from the storage pond to the final effluent. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that different bacterial populations were significantly impacted by ammonium--NH4 (P=0.035), phosphate--PO4(3-) (P=0.010), chemical oxygen demand--COD (P=0.0165), total solids--TS (P=0.030), and dissolved solids--DS (P=0.030) removal, with 54% of the removal rate explained by NH4+PO4(3-) according to a partial CCA. Our results showed that different bacterial groups were responsible for the composition of different wetland nutrients and decomposition process. This may be the major reason why most wetlands are very efficient in waste decomposition. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering of Bacteria in Micro wells Constructed from Silver Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culha, M.; Yazici, M.M.; Kahraman, M.; Sahin, F.; Sesin Kocagoz, S.


    Whole bacterial cell characterization is critically important for fast bacterial identification. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is proven to be powerful technique to serve such a goal. In this study, the characterization of whole bacterial cells in the micro wells constructed from colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with convective-assembly method is reported.- The proper size of the micro wells for the model bacteria, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus cohnii, is determined to be 1.2μm from their electron microscopy images. A minimum dilution factor of 20 is necessary for the bacterial samples collected from growth media to diminish the bacterial aggregation to place the bacterial cells into the micro wells. The constructed micro well structures are tested for their bacterial SERS performance and compared to the SERS spectra obtained from the samples prepared with a simple mixing of bacteria and AgNPs for the same bacteria. The results indicate that micro well structures not only improve the spectral quality but also increase the reproducibility of the SERS spectra.

  7. Project and construction of a spectrometer for alpha particles using surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terini, R.A.


    The project, construction, tests and some applications of a system for alpha and beta spectrometry, using surface barrier detector are described. The device includes a solid state detector ORTEC-Series F coupled to a system for amplifying the charges produced by passage of an ionizing particle through the detector. The amplifying system is composed by a charge sensitive pre-amplifier, which employs an operational amplifier CA 3140, and a low noise linear amplifier, which is based on the operational amplifiers CA 3140 and LM 301. The pre-amplifier stage input impedance is on the order of TΩ and produces output pulses which heights are proportional to total charge produced by passage of particle through the detector sensitive volume. The main advantage to use charge sensitive system lies in obtention of independent pulse heights of the distributed capacity of connecting cable between the detector and the pre-amplifier. The total system amplification ca reach a maximum of 50.000 in the linear region. Pulses are analysed in a multichannel system ORTEC, model 6240. The amplifier system is easily constructed and low cost using components available in the national market, and it can be employed with ionization chambers, proportional counters, scitillation counters and semiconductor detectors. The results of spectrometer application for alpha spectrometry of AM 241 source were compared to systems made with imported stages. (Author) [pt

  8. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering of Bacteria in Microwells Constructed from Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çulha


    Full Text Available Whole bacterial cell characterization is critically important for fast bacterial identification. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS is proven to be powerful technique to serve such a goal. In this study, the characterization of whole bacterial cells in the microwells constructed from colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs with “convective-assembly” method is reported. The proper size of the microwells for the model bacteria, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus cohnii, is determined to be 1.2 μm from their electron microscopy images. A minimum dilution factor of 20 is necessary for the bacterial samples collected from growth media to diminish the bacterial aggregation to place the bacterial cells into the microwells. The constructed microwell structures are tested for their bacterial SERS performance and compared to the SERS spectra obtained from the samples prepared with a simple mixing of bacteria and AgNPs for the same bacteria. The results indicate that microwell structures not only improve the spectral quality but also increase the reproducibility of the SERS spectra.

  9. Design and Season Influence Nitrogen Dynamics in Two Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands Treating Nursery Irrigation Runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. White


    Full Text Available Constructed wetlands (CWs are used to remediate runoff from a variety of agricultural, industrial, and urban sources. CW remediation performance is often evaluated at the laboratory scale over durations less than one year. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of CW design (cell depth and residence time on nitrogen (N speciation and fate across season and years in two free water surface wetlands receiving runoff from irrigated plant production areas at an ornamental plant nursery. Water quality (mg·L−1 of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, dissolved oxygen and oxidation reduction potential was monitored at five sites within each of two CWs each month over four years. Nitrate-N was the dominant form of ionic N present in both CWs. Within CW1, a deep cell to shallow cell design, nitrate comprised 86% of ionic N in effluent. Within CW2, designed with three sequential deep cells, nitrate comprised only 66% of total N and ammonium comprised 27% of total N in CW2 effluent. Differences in ionic N removal efficacies and shifts in N speciation in CW1 and CW2 were controlled by constructed wetland design (depth and hydraulic retention time, the concentration of nutrients entering the CW, and plant species richness.

  10. Impact of highway construction on land surface energy balance and local climate derived from LANDSAT satellite data. (United States)

    Nedbal, Václav; Brom, Jakub


    Extensive construction of highways has a major impact on the landscape and its structure. They can also influence local climate and heat fluxes in the surrounding area. After the removal of vegetation due to highway construction, the amount of solar radiation energy used for plant evapotranspiration (latent heat flux) decreases, bringing about an increase in landscape surface temperature, changing the local climate and increasing surface run-off. In this study, we evaluated the impact of the D8 highway construction (Central Bohemia, Czech Republic) on the distribution of solar radiation energy into the various heat fluxes (latent, sensible and ground heat flux) and related surface functional parameters (surface temperature and surface wetness). The aim was to describe the severity of the impact and the distance from the actual highway in which it can be observed. LANDSAT multispectral satellite images and field meteorological measurements were used to calculate surface functional parameters and heat balance before and during the highway construction. Construction of a four-lane highway can influence the heat balance of the landscape surface as far as 90m in the perpendicular direction from the highway axis, i.e. up to 75m perpendicular from its edge. During a summer day, the decrease in evapotranspired water can reach up to 43.7m 3 per highway kilometre. This means a reduced cooling effect, expressed as the decrease in latent heat flux, by an average of 29.7MWh per day per highway kilometre and its surroundings. The loss of the cooling ability of the land surface by evaporation can lead to a rise in surface temperature by as much as 7°C. Thus, the results indicate the impact of extensive line constructions on the local climate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Composite Action in Prestressed NU I-Girder Bridge Deck Systems Constructed with Bond Breakers to Facilitate Deck Removal : Technical Summary (United States)


    Results are reported from tests of small-scale push-off and large-scale composite NU I-girder specimens conducted to establish an interface connection detail that (1) Facilitates in-situ removal of the bridge deck without damaging prestressed girders...

  12. Construction and Analysis of Long-Term Surface Temperature Dataset in Fujian Province (United States)

    Li, W. E.; Wang, X. Q.; Su, H.


    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key parameter of land surface physical processes on global and regional scales, linking the heat fluxes and interactions between the ground and atmosphere. Based on MODIS 8-day LST products (MOD11A2) from the split-window algorithms, we constructed and obtained the monthly and annual LST dataset of Fujian Province from 2000 to 2015. Then, we analyzed the monthly and yearly time series LST data and further investigated the LST distribution and its evolution features. The average LST of Fujian Province reached the highest in July, while the lowest in January. The monthly and annual LST time series present a significantly periodic features (annual and interannual) from 2000 to 2015. The spatial distribution showed that the LST in North and West was lower than South and East in Fujian Province. With the rapid development and urbanization of the coastal area in Fujian Province, the LST in coastal urban region was significantly higher than that in mountainous rural region. The LST distributions might affected by the climate, topography and land cover types. The spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of LST could provide good references for the agricultural layout and environment monitoring in Fujian Province.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. E. Li


    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is a key parameter of land surface physical processes on global and regional scales, linking the heat fluxes and interactions between the ground and atmosphere. Based on MODIS 8-day LST products (MOD11A2 from the split-window algorithms, we constructed and obtained the monthly and annual LST dataset of Fujian Province from 2000 to 2015. Then, we analyzed the monthly and yearly time series LST data and further investigated the LST distribution and its evolution features. The average LST of Fujian Province reached the highest in July, while the lowest in January. The monthly and annual LST time series present a significantly periodic features (annual and interannual from 2000 to 2015. The spatial distribution showed that the LST in North and West was lower than South and East in Fujian Province. With the rapid development and urbanization of the coastal area in Fujian Province, the LST in coastal urban region was significantly higher than that in mountainous rural region. The LST distributions might affected by the climate, topography and land cover types. The spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of LST could provide good references for the agricultural layout and environment monitoring in Fujian Province.

  14. Efficiency of a Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow Constructed Wetland Treatment System in an Arid Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Albalawneh


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and treatment efficiency of the Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow Constructed Wetland treatment system (HSF-CW in an arid climate. Seventeen sub-surface, horizontal-flow HSF-CW units have been operated for approximately three years to improve the quality of partially-treated municipal wastewater. The studied design parameters included two sizes of volcanic tuff media (i.e., fine or coarse, two different bed dimensions (i.e., long and short, and three plantation types (i.e., reed, kenaf, or no vegetation as a control. The effluent Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solid (TSS, and phosphorus from all of the treatments were significantly lower as compared to the influent and demonstrated a removal efficiency of 55%, 51%, 67%, and 55%, respectively. There were significant increases in Electrical Conductivity (EC, sulfate, and calcium in the effluent of most HSF-CWs due to evaporative concentration and mineral dissolution from the media. The study suggests that unplanted beds with either fine or coarse media are the most suitable combinations among all of the studied designs based on their treatment efficiency and less water loss in arid conditions.

  15. Bridge Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way....

  16. Multi-Hazard Assessment of Scour Damaged Bridges with UAS-Based Measurements (United States)

    Özcan, O.; Ozcan, O.


    Flood and stream induced scour occurring in bridge piers constructed on rivers is one of the mostly observed failure reasons in bridges. Scour induced failure risk in bridges and determination of the alterations in bridge safety under seismic effects has the ultimate importance. Thus, for the determination of bridge safety under the scour effects, the scour amount under bridge piers should be designated realistically and should be tracked and updated continuously. Hereby, the scour induced failures in bridge foundation systems will be prevented and bridge substructure design will be conducted safely. In this study, in order to measure the amount of scour in bridge load bearing system (pile foundations and pile abutments) and to attain very high definition 3 dimensional models of river flood plain for the flood analysis, unmanned aircraft system (UAS) based measurement methods were implemented. UAS based measurement systems provide new and practical approach and bring high precision and reliable solutions considering recent measurement systems. For this purpose, the reinforced concrete (RC) bridge that is located on Antalya Boğaçayı River, Turkey and that failed in 2003 due to flood-induced scour was selected as the case study. The amount of scour occurred in bridge piers and piles was determined realistically and the behavior of bridge piers under scour effects was investigated. Future flood effects and the resultant amount of scour was determined with HEC-RAS software by using digital surface models that were obtained at regular intervals using UAS for the riverbed. In the light of the attained scour measurements and expected scour after a probable flood event, the behavior of scour damaged RC bridge was investigated by pushover and time history analyses under lateral and vertical seismic loadings. In the analyses, the load and displacement capacity of bridge was observed to diminish significantly under expected scour. Thus, the deterioration in multi hazard

  17. Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gülkan, Polat; Mahmoud, Khaled


      The book includes peer-reviewed contributions selected from presentations given at the Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014, held from August 11 – 13 in Istanbul, Turkey. It reports on the current challenges in bridge engineering faced by professionals around the globe, giving a special emphasis to recently developed techniques, innovations and opportunities. The book covers key topics in the field, including modeling and analysis methods; construction and erection techniques; design for extreme events and condition assessment and structural health monitoring. There is a balanced presentation of theory, research and practice. This book, which provides the readers with a comprehensive and timely reference guide on current practices in bridge engineering, is intended for professionals, academic researchers and students alike.

  18. Mean flow produced by small-amplitude vibrations of a liquid bridge with its free surface covered with an insoluble surfactant (United States)

    Carrión, Luis M.; Herrada, Miguel A.; Montanero, José M.; Vega, José M.


    As is well known, confined fluid systems subject to forced vibrations produce mean flows, called in this context streaming flows. These mean flows promote an overall mass transport in the fluid that has consequences in the transport of passive scalars and surfactants, when these are present in a fluid interface. Such transport causes surfactant concentration inhomogeneities that are to be counterbalanced by Marangoni elasticity. Therefore, the interaction of streaming flows and Marangoni convection is expected to produce new flow structures that are different from those resulting when only one of these effects is present. The present paper focuses on this interaction using the liquid bridge geometry as a paradigmatic system for the analysis. Such analysis is based on an appropriate post-processing of the results obtained via direct numerical simulation of the system for moderately small viscosity, a condition consistent with typical experiments of vibrated millimetric liquid bridges. It is seen that the flow patterns show a nonmonotone behavior as the Marangoni number is increased. In addition, the strength of the mean flow at the free surface exhibits two well-defined regimes as the forcing amplitude increases. These regimes show fairly universal power-law behaviors.

  19. Dynamic assessment of bridge deck performance considering realistic bridge-traffic interaction : research brief (United States)


    This study is to develop simulation methodology to conduct the dynamic assessment of bridge deck performance subjected to traffic. Concrete bridge decks are exposed to daily traffic loads and may experience some surface cracking caused by excessive s...

  20. Field performance of timber bridges. 15, Pueblo County, Colorado, stress-laminated deck bridge (United States)

    L. E. Hislop

    The Pueblo County 204B bridge was constructed in March 1990 in Pueblo, Colorado, as a demonstration bridge under the USDA Forest Service Timber Bridge Initiative. The stress-laminated deck superstructure is approximately 10 m long, 9 m wide, and 406 mm deep, with a skew of 10 degrees. Performance monitoring was conducted for 3 years, beginning at...

  1. Light-weight aluminium bridges and bridge decks. An overview of recent applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Kluyver, D. de


    The last decades have shown a large increase in the application of aluminium alloys for light-weight bridges. For bridge construction, aluminium alloys have some specific advantages, but also some points of attention. This paper deals with some recent projects of aluminium bridges, and for these

  2. Performance of surface and subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating eutrophic waters. (United States)

    Hernández-Crespo, C; Gargallo, S; Benedito-Durá, V; Nácher-Rodríguez, Beatriz; Rodrigo-Alacreu, M A; Martín, M


    Three medium size constructed wetlands (CWs) with a total surface of 90ha are working since 2009 in the Albufera de Valencia Natural Park (Spain). Two of them are fed with eutrophic waters from l'Albufera Lake. Their objectives are both reduce the phytoplankton biomass and increase the biodiversity; consequently, improved water quality is returned to the lake. A "science based governance" of these CWs is ongoing inside the LIFE+12 Albufera Project to demonstrate the environmental benefits of these features. In this paper, results and relationships among hydraulic operation, physicochemical variables and plankton in two different CWs typologies, five free water surface CW (FWSCW) and one horizontal subsurface flow CW (HSSFCW), were analysed showing that CWs were capable of improving the water quality and biodiversity but showing clear differences depending on the CW type. The CWs worked under different hydraulic load rates (HLR) from <0.12 to 54.75myr -1 . Inflow water quality was typical from eutrophic waters with mean values of chlorophyll a (Chl a) about 22-90μgChlal -1 and mean total phosphorus (TP) between 0.122 and 0.337mgl -1 . The main conclusion is that HSSFCW was much more efficient than FWSCW in the removal of organic matter, suspended solids and nutrients. The biological role of several shallow lagoons located at the end of the CWs has also been evaluated, showing that they contribute to increase the zooplankton biomass, a key factor to control the phytoplankton blooms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Construction of Polarized Carbon-Nickel Catalytic Surfaces for Potent, Durable, and Economic Hydrogen Evolution Reactions. (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Weng, Qunhong; Popov, Zakhar I; Yang, Yijun; Antipina, Liubov Yu; Sorokin, Pavel B; Wang, Xi; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri


    Electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline solution is hindered by its sluggish kinetics toward water dissociation. Nickel-based catalysts, as low-cost and effective candidates, show great potentials to replace platinum (Pt)-based materials in the alkaline media. The main challenge regarding this type of catalysts is their relatively poor durability. In this work, we conceive and construct a charge-polarized carbon layer derived from carbon quantum dots (CQDs) on Ni 3 N nanostructure (Ni 3 N@CQDs) surfaces, which simultaneously exhibit durable and enhanced catalytic activity. The Ni 3 N@CQDs shows an overpotential of 69 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm -2 in a 1 M KOH aqueous solution, lower than that of Pt electrode (116 mV) at the same conditions. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations reveal that Ni 3 N and interfacial oxygen polarize charge distributions between originally equal C-C bonds in CQDs. The partially negatively charged C sites become effective catalytic centers for the key water dissociation step via the formation of new C-H bond (Volmer step) and thus boost the HER activity. Furthermore, the coated carbon is also found to protect interior Ni 3 N from oxidization/hydroxylation and therefore guarantees its durability. This work provides a practical design of robust and durable HER electrocatalysts based on nonprecious metals.

  4. Observation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removals and Accumulations in Surface Flow Constructed Wetland (SFCW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suntud Sirianuntapiboon


    Full Text Available The tropical emergent plant species; Cyperus involucratus, Canna siamensis, Heliconia sp., Hymenocallis littoralis, Typha augustifolia and Thalia dealbata were used to observe nutrients (total phosphorus: TP and total nitrogen: TN removal efficiencies of surface flow constructed wetland (SFCW. The system was operated at different hydraulic retention time (HRT of 1, 3 and 5 days and the average atmospheric temperature of 29.1 ± 4.9oC. The seafood industrial wastewater was employed as the influent. The high biomass production plant species; Cyperus involucratus, Typha augustifolia and Thalia dealbata could generate the high oxidative environment. Amount of N and P accumulations in plant tissue were increased with the increase of plant biomass production. The system did not show any significantly different on N and P accumulations among the tested-emergent plant species. But the amount of accumulated-N and P were increased with the increase of HRT. N accumulations in plant tissue, effluent, sediment and media of the system with the tested-emergent plant species under HRT of 1-5 days were in the range of 2.17-43.80%, 7.91-27.75%, 19.62-36.86% and 14.39-31.88%, respectively. Also, P accumulations were 0.79-17.01%, 20.35-28.37%, 40.96-56.27% and 9.09-20.47%, respectively.

  5. Construction of boundary-surface-based Chinese female astronaut computational phantom and proton dose estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wenjuan; Xie Tianwu; Liu Qian; Jia Xianghong; Xu Feng


    With the rapid development of China's space industry, the importance of radiation protection is increasingly prominent. To provide relevant dose data, we first developed the Visible Chinese Human adult Female (VCH-F) phantom, and performed further modifications to generate the VCH-F Astronaut (VCH-FA) phantom, incorporating statistical body characteristics data from the first batch of Chinese female astronauts as well as reference organ mass data from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP; both within 1% relative error). Based on cryosection images, the original phantom was constructed via Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) boundary surfaces to strengthen the deformability for fitting the body parameters of Chinese female astronauts. The VCH-FA phantom was voxelized at a resolution of 2 x 2 x 4 mm 3 for radioactive particle transport simulations from isotropic protons with energies of 5000 - 10 000 MeV in Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. To investigate discrepancies caused by anatomical variations and other factors, the obtained doses were compared with corresponding values from other phantoms and sex-averaged doses. Dose differences were observed among phantom calculation results, especially for effective dose with low-energy protons. Local skin thickness shifts the breast dose curve toward high energy, but has little impact on inner organs. Under a shielding layer, organ dose reduction is greater for skin than for other organs. The calculated skin dose per day closely approximates measurement data obtained in low-Earth orbit (LEO). (author)

  6. Construction of the Geological Model around KURT area based on the surface investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Kim, Kyung Su; Choi, Jong Won


    To characterize the geological features in the study area for high-level radioactive waste disposal research, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been performing several geological investigations such as geophysical surveys and borehole drillings since 1997. Especially, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) constructed to understand the deep geological environments in 2006. Recently, the deep boreholes, which have 500 m depth inside the left research module of the KURT and 1,000 m depth outside the KURT, were drilled to confirm and validate the results from a geological model. The objective of this research was to investigate hydrogeological conditions using a 3-D geological model around the KURT. The geological analysis from the surface and borehole investigations determined four important geological elements including subsurface weathered zone, low-angled fractures zone, fracture zones and bedrock for the geological model. In addition, the geometries of these elements were also calculated for the three-dimensional model. The results from 3-D geological model in this study will be beneficial to understand hydrogeological environment in the study area as an important part of high-level radioactive waste disposal technology.

  7. An Expert System for Concrete Bridge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, J. de; Branco, F. A.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle


    The importance of bridge repair versus new bridge construction has risen in recent decades due to high deterioration rates that have been observed in these structures. Budgets both for building new bridges and keeping the existing ones are always limited. To help rational decision-making, bridge...... management systems are presently being implemented by bridge authorities in several countries. The prototype of an expert system for concrete bridge management is presented in this paper, with its functionality relying on two modules. The inspection module relies on a periodic acquisition of field...... information complemented by a knowledge-based interactive system, BRIDGE-1. To optimize management strategies at the headquarters, the BRIDGE-2 module was implemented, including three submodules: inspection strategy, maintenance and repair....

  8. National Bridge Inventory (NBI) Bridges (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NBI is a collection of information (database) describing the more than 600,000 of the Nation's bridges located on public roads, including Interstate Highways,...

  9. Collaborative Research: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Biomaterial Surface Interactions - Bridging Understanding of APP Sources to Rational Modification of Biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, David Barry [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The overriding objective of this work is to bridge the gap between understanding of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) sources and predictive chemical modifications of biomolecules. A key aspect of this problem is to understand what oxidizing species are created in water adjacent to APP jets that would ultimately affect aqueous biomolecules. We report the production of highly oxidative species in solutions exposed to a self-pulsed corona discharge in air. We examine how the properties of the target solution (pH, conductivity) and the discharge power affect the discharge stability and the production of H2O2. Indigo carmine, a common organic dye, is used as an indicator of oxidative strength and in particular, hydroxyl radical (OH•) production. The observed rate of indigo oxidation in contact with the discharge far exceeds that predicted from reactions based on concentrations of species measured in the bulk solution. The generation of H2O2 and the oxidation of indigo carmine indicate a high concentration of highly oxidizing species such as OH• at the plasma-liquid interface. These results indicate that reactions at the air plasma-liquid interface play a dominant role in species oxidation during direct non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NE-APP) treatment.

  10. Field performance of timber bridges. 9, Big Erick`s stress-laminated deck bridge (United States)

    J. A. Kainz; J. P. Wacker; M. Nelson

    The Big Erickas bridge was constructed during September 1992 in Baraga County, Michigan. The bridge is 72 ft long, 16 ft wide, and consists of three simple spans: two stress-laminated deck approach spans and a stress-laminated box center span. The bridge is unique in that it is one of the first known stress-laminated timber bridge applications to use Eastern Hemlock...

  11. NHDOT : process for municipally-managed state bridge aid program projects (United States)


    The document sets for the requirements for a municipality which to manage the design and construction of a bridge rehabilitation or replacement project and receive Bridge Aid under the applicable provisions of RSA 234. Bridge Aid provided to a Munici...

  12. On-farm irrigation reservoirs for surface water storage in eastern Arkansas: Trends in construction in response to aquifer depletion (United States)

    Yaeger, M. A.; Reba, M. L.; Massey, J. H.; Adviento-Borbe, A.


    On-farm surface water storage reservoirs have been constructed to address declines in the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial aquifer, the primary source of irrigation for most of the row crops grown in eastern Arkansas. These reservoirs and their associated infrastructure represent significant investments in financial and natural resources, and may cause producers to incur costs associated with foregone crop production and long-term maintenance. Thus, an analysis of reservoir construction trends in the Grand Prairie Critical Groundwater Area (GPCGA) and Cache River Critical Groundwater Area (CRCGA) was conducted to assist future water management decisions. Between 1996 and 2015, on average, 16 and 4 reservoirs were constructed per year, corresponding to cumulative new reservoir surface areas of 161 and 60 ha yr-1, for the GPCGA and the CRCGA, respectively. In terms of reservoir locations relative to aquifer status, after 1996, 84.5% of 309 total reservoirs constructed in the GPCGA and 91.0% of 78 in the CRCGA were located in areas with remaining saturated aquifer thicknesses of 50% or less. The majority of new reservoirs (74% in the GPCGA and 63% in the CRCGA) were constructed on previously productive cropland. The next most common land use, representing 11% and 15% of new reservoirs constructed in the GPCGA and CRCGA, respectively, was the combination of a field edge and a ditch, stream, or other low-lying area. Less than 10% of post-1996 reservoirs were constructed on predominately low-lying land, and the use of such lands decreased in both critical groundwater areas during the past 20 years. These disparities in reservoir construction rates, locations, and prior land uses is likely due to groundwater declines being first observed in the GPCGA as well as the existence of two large-scale river diversion projects under construction in the GPCGA that feature on-farm storage as a means to offset groundwater use.

  13. On-surface construction of low-dimensional nanostructures with terminal alkynes: Linking strategies and controlling methodologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Liu; Qi-Wei Chen; Kai Wu


    Bottom-up approach to constructing low-dimensional nanostructures on surfaces with terminal alkynes has drawn great interest because of its potential applications in fabricating advanced functional nanomaterials.The diversity of the achieved products manifests rich chemistry of terminal alkynes and hence careful linking strategies and proper controlling methodologies are required for selective preparations of high-quality target nanoarchitectures.This review summarizes various on-surface linking strategies for terminal alkynes,including non-bonding interactions as well as organometallic and covalent bonds,and presents examples to show effective control of surface assemblies and reactions of terminal alkynes by variations of the precursor structures,substrates and activation modes.Systematic studies of the on-surface linkage of terminal alkynes may help efficient and predictable preparations of surface nanomaterials and further understanding of surface chemistry.

  14. Experimental design to measure the anchoring energy on substrate surface by using the alternating-current bridge (United States)

    Hao, Hui-Ming; Liu, Yao-Yao; Zhang, Ping; Cai, Ming-Lei; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Ji-Liang; Ye, Wen-Jiang


    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374087 and 11504080), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant Nos. A2014202123 and A2017202004), the Research Project of the Education Department of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. QN2014130), the Key Subject Construction Project of Hebei Provincial University, and the Undergraduate Innovation and Entrepreneurship Training Program, China (Grant No. 201610080016).

  15. A Polish approach to FRP bridges (United States)

    Siwowski, Tomasz; Rajchel, Mateusz


    The paper presents initial results of a new approach to FRP composite bridge construction that is presently being developed and tested in Poland. The concept combines lightweight concrete with FRP composites to create a durable highly optimised structure. The paper describes the bridge system itself and presents the research results on its development. The basic design is presented together with research results on its development: FEM analysis and a range of static test results of full-scale bridge beam experiments. The paper finishes with some test results of a full scale bridge that was constructed near Rzeszow in December 2015.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Amplification of beam structures is usually performed in several classical ways, in particular: increase in cross-section due to build-up; changing the static scheme of work due to the installation of laggings, beam knees, racks, etc. However, the arrangement of additional reinforcement structures leads to a decrease in inter-floor space, an increase in the load on the supports and foundations and changes in structural and planning decisions of the interior space of the building. An alternative to these methods of reinforcement of beam structures is external reinforcement namely high-tension cloths, plates or strips that are bonded with special adhesives to the surfaces of structures. However, domestic scientific-technical and normative literature actually leaves such methods of amplification out of its attention. That is why a number of experimental studies were carried out to determine efficiency of reinforcing structures under MAPEI technology with the use of carbon fiber and in order to find alternative to domestic technologies. In alternative studies the authors used fiberglass, steel strips and steel angles bonded with special adhesives of domestic production. The efficiency criterion of technologies being tested was adopted bending load capacity of amplified beam structures made of reinforced concrete. The results of experimental studies found that reinforcement technology MAPEI by applying carbon fiber increases carrying capacity of beams to 417.6% compared with non-enhanced beams. At the same time, amplification of beams with steel angles increased their bearing capacity by 343.9%, with steel plates - by 294.8%, and with fiberglass - by 319.4%. The obtained results indicate high efficiency of the investigated methods of strengthening for beam structures and build up the direction of further research of organizational and technological solutions for the implementation of external additional reinforcement of beam constructions.

  17. Construction of boundary-surface-based Chinese female astronaut computational phantom and proton dose estimation (United States)

    Sun, Wenjuan; JIA, Xianghong; XIE, Tianwu; XU, Feng; LIU, Qian


    With the rapid development of China's space industry, the importance of radiation protection is increasingly prominent. To provide relevant dose data, we first developed the Visible Chinese Human adult Female (VCH-F) phantom, and performed further modifications to generate the VCH-F Astronaut (VCH-FA) phantom, incorporating statistical body characteristics data from the first batch of Chinese female astronauts as well as reference organ mass data from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP; both within 1% relative error). Based on cryosection images, the original phantom was constructed via Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) boundary surfaces to strengthen the deformability for fitting the body parameters of Chinese female astronauts. The VCH-FA phantom was voxelized at a resolution of 2 × 2 × 4 mm3for radioactive particle transport simulations from isotropic protons with energies of 5000–10 000 MeV in Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. To investigate discrepancies caused by anatomical variations and other factors, the obtained doses were compared with corresponding values from other phantoms and sex-averaged doses. Dose differences were observed among phantom calculation results, especially for effective dose with low-energy protons. Local skin thickness shifts the breast dose curve toward high energy, but has little impact on inner organs. Under a shielding layer, organ dose reduction is greater for skin than for other organs. The calculated skin dose per day closely approximates measurement data obtained in low-Earth orbit (LEO). PMID:23135158

  18. Assessing the Impacts of Chinese Sustainable Ground Transportation on the Dynamics of Urban Growth: A Case Study of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zheng


    Full Text Available Although China has promoted the construction of Chinese Sustainable Ground Transportation (CSGT to guide sustainable development, it may create substantial challenges, such as rapid urban growth and land limitations. This research assessed the effects of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge on impervious surface growth in Cixi County, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. Changes in impervious surfaces were mapped based on Landsat images from 1995, 2002, and 2009 using a combination of multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA and landscape metrics. The results indicated that the area and density of impervious surfaces increased significantly during construction of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge (2002–2009. Additionally, the bridge and connected road networks promoted urban development along major roads, resulting in compact growth patterns of impervious surfaces in urbanized regions. Moreover, the Hangzhou Bay Bridge promoted the expansion and densification of impervious surfaces in Hangzhou Bay District, which surrounds the bridge. The bridge also accelerated socioeconomic growth in the area, promoting rapid urban growth in Cixi County between 2002 and 2009. Overall, the Hangzhou Bay Bridge is an important driver of urban growth in Cixi County, and policy suggestions for sustainable urban growth should be adopted in the future.

  19. Cost and Ecological Feasibility of using UHPC in Highway Bridges (United States)


    There is a growing interest in expanding the use of Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) from bridge deck joints for accelerated bridge construction to complex architectural and advanced structural applications. The high costs currently associated ...

  20. Aptamer Recognition Induced Target-Bridged Strategy for Proteins Detection Based on Magnetic Chitosan and Silver/Chitosan Nanoparticles Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy. (United States)

    He, Jincan; Li, Gongke; Hu, Yuling


    Poor selectivity and biocompability remain problems in applying surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for direct detection of proteins due to similar spectra of most proteins and overlapping Raman bands in complex mixtures. To solve these problems, an aptamer recognition induced target-bridged strategy based on magnetic chitosan (MCS) and silver/chitosan nanoparticles (Ag@CS NPs) using SERS was developed for detection of protein benefiting from specific affinity of aptamers and biocompatibility of chitosan (CS). In this process, one aptamer (or antibody) modified MCS worked as capture probes through the affinity binding site of protein. The other aptamer modified Raman report molecules encapsulated Ag@CS NPs were used as SERS sensing probes based on the other binding site of protein. The sandwich complexes of aptamer (antibody)/protein/aptamer were separated easily with a magnet from biological samples, and the concentration of protein was indirectly reflected by the intensity variation of SERS signal of Raman report molecules. To explore the universality of the strategy, three different kinds of proteins including thrombin, platelet derived growth factor BB (PDGF BB) and immunoglobulin E (lgE) were investigated. The major advantages of this aptamer recognition induced target-bridged strategy are convenient operation with a magnet, stable signal expressing resulting from preventing loss of report molecules with the help of CS shell, and the avoidance of slow diffusion-limited kinetics problems occurring on a solid substrate. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed strategy, the method was applied to detection of PDGF BB in clinical samples. The limit of detection (LOD) of PDGF BB was estimated to be 3.2 pg/mL. The results obtained from human serum of healthy persons and cancer patients using the proposed strategy showed good agreement with that of the ELISA method but with wider linear range, more convenient operation, and lower cost. The proposed

  1. Field performance of timber bridges. 10, Sanborn Brook stress-laminated deck bridge (United States)

    P. D. Hilbrich Lee; J. P. Wacker; M. A. Ritter

    The Sanborn Brook bridge was constructed in August 1991, 10 miles northeast of Concord, New Hampshire, as part of the demonstration timber bridge program of the USDA Forest Service. The bridge is a simple-span, double-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure constructed from Southern Pine lumber and is approximately 25 ft long and 28 ft wide with a skew of 14 degrees...

  2. Field performance of timber bridges. 8, Lynches Woods Park stress-laminated deck bridge (United States)

    J. P. Wacker; M. A. Ritter; D. Conger

    The Lynches Woods Park bridge was constructed during the summer of 1990 in Newberry, South Carolina. It is a single-span, single-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure that measures approximately 30 ft long, 16 ft wide, and 14 in. deep. The bridge is unique in that is one of the first known stress-laminated deck bridges to be constructed of Southern Pine lumber...

  3. The herpes virus Fc receptor gE-gI mediates antibody bipolar bridging to clear viral antigens from the cell surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaise Ndjamen


    Full Text Available The Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1 glycoprotein gE-gI is a transmembrane Fc receptor found on the surface of infected cells and virions that binds human immunoglobulin G (hIgG. gE-gI can also participate in antibody bipolar bridging (ABB, a process by which the antigen-binding fragments (Fabs of the IgG bind a viral antigen while the Fc binds to gE-gI. IgG Fc binds gE-gI at basic, but not acidic, pH, suggesting that IgG bound at extracellular pH by cell surface gE-gI would dissociate and be degraded in acidic endosomes/lysosomes if endocytosed. The fate of viral antigens associated with gE-gI-bound IgG had been unknown: they could remain at the cell surface or be endocytosed with IgG. Here, we developed an in vitro model system for ABB and investigated the trafficking of ABB complexes using 4-D confocal fluorescence imaging of ABB complexes with transferrin or epidermal growth factor, well-characterized intracellular trafficking markers. Our data showed that cells expressing gE-gI and the viral antigen HSV-1 gD endocytosed anti-gD IgG and gD in a gE-gI-dependent process, resulting in lysosomal localization. These results suggest that gE-gI can mediate clearance of infected cell surfaces of anti-viral host IgG and viral antigens to evade IgG-mediated responses, representing a general mechanism for viral Fc receptors in immune evasion and viral pathogenesis.

  4. Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Arch Bridges in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jielian Zheng


    Full Text Available In the past 20 years, great progress has been achieved in China in the construction of concrete-filled steel tube (CFST arch bridges and concrete arch bridges with a CFST skeleton. The span of these bridges has been increasing rapidly, which is rare in the history of bridge development. The large-scale construction of expressways and high-speed railways demands the development of long-span arch bridges, and advances in design and construction techniques have made it possible to construct such bridges. In the present study, the current status, development, and major innovative technologies of CFST arch bridges and concrete arch bridges with a CFST skeleton in China are elaborated. This paper covers the key construction technologies of CFST arch bridges, such as the design, manufacture, and installation of steel tube arch trusses, the preparation and pouring of in-tube concrete, and the construction of the world’s longest CFST arch bridge—the First Hejiang Yangtze River Bridge. The main construction technologies of reinforced concrete arch bridges are also presented, which include cable-stayed fastening-hanging cantilever assembly, adjusting the load by means of stay cables, surrounding the concrete for arch rib pouring, and so forth. In addition, the construction of two CFST skeleton concrete arch bridges—the Guangxi Yongning Yong River Bridge and the Yunnan–Guangxi Railway Nanpan River Bridge—is discussed. CFST arch bridges in China have already gained a world-leading position; with the continuous innovation of key technologies, China will become the new leader in promoting the development of arch bridges. Keywords: Concrete-filled steel tube (CFST arch bridge, Steel-reinforced concrete arch bridge, Cable-stayed fastening-hanging cantilever assembly, Vacuum-assisted pouring in-tube concrete, Adjusting load by stay cables

  5. 23 CFR 650.805 - Bridges not requiring a USCG permit. (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bridges not requiring a USCG permit. 650.805 Section 650... OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Navigational Clearances for Bridges § 650.805 Bridges not... permit is not required for bridge construction. This determination shall be made at an early stage of...

  6. Bridged graphite oxide materials (United States)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)


    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  7. Field performance of timber bridges. 11, Spearfish Creek stress-laminated box-beam bridge (United States)

    J. P. Wacker; M. A. Ritter; K. Stanfill-McMillan

    The Spearfish Creek bridge was constructed in 1992 in Spearfish, South Dakota. It is a single-span, stress-laminated, box-beam superstructure. Performance of the bridge is being monitored for 5 years, beginning at installation. This report summarizes results for the first 3-1/2 years of monitoring and includes information on the design, construction, and field...

  8. Design of Usui bridge (PC cable stayed bridge). Usuihashi (PC shachokyo) no sekkei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kido, M.; Iizuka, Y. (Japan Highway Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Tanaka, S.; Otsuka, K. (P.S. Concrete Co. Ltd. Kajima Corp. Joint Venture, Tokyo (Japan)); Kitakuni, S. (Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    Structure and design of single suspension PC cable bridge, which is first kind of high way bridge in Japan and aiming to start for general use by March, 1993, are reported. As a construction outline, main construction quantity and general layout of the whole bridge together with the selective detail and characteristics of the diagonal member, tower, main girder and tower support member, are cited. Design conditions( load, materials, allowable stress and others ), basic plan of the design, and structure analysis( surface stress framed structure analysis, stereoscopic framework analysis and FEM analysis of local stress ) are explained. Design of structure member like main girder is based on diagonal member tension, wave shearing force, level of diagonal strain stress, bending stress when diagonal member anchors the deformed main tower caused by living load during earth quake, principal stress of main tower junction and local stress etc. Main tower support member design is based on the results of corbel shearing force at varied cross section and main stress, and diagonal member design is decided by allowable stress. Diagonal member anchorage traverse beam design depends on bending moment of traverse beam and shearing force. 3 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman-de Bres, E.M.; Sieben, J.M.; Smailbegovic, I.; Bruin, A. de; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der


    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially

  10. Molecular and electronic structure of osmium complexes confined to Au(111) surfaces using a self-assembled molecular bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llave, Ezequiel de la; Herrera, Santiago E.; Adam, Catherine; Méndez De Leo, Lucila P.; Calvo, Ernesto J.; Williams, Federico J., E-mail: [INQUIMAE-CONICET, Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química-Física, Facultad Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, Buenos Aires C1428EHA (Argentina)


    The molecular and electronic structure of Os(II) complexes covalently bonded to self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au(111) surfaces was studied by means of polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopies, scanning tunneling microscopy, scanning tunneling spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations. Attachment of the Os complex to the SAM proceeds via an amide covalent bond with the SAM alkyl chain 40° tilted with respect to the surface normal and a total thickness of 26 Å. The highest occupied molecular orbital of the Os complex is mainly based on the Os(II) center located 2.2 eV below the Fermi edge and the LUMO molecular orbital is mainly based on the bipyridine ligands located 1.5 eV above the Fermi edge.

  11. Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials (United States)

    Werkheiser, Niki J.; Fiske, Michael R.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.; Khoshnevis, Berokh


    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in situ materials will become increasingly critical. As human presence on these bodies expands, so must the breadth of the structures required to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for natural radiation and surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. Planetary surface structure manufacturing and assembly technologies that incorporate in situ resources provide options for autonomous, affordable, pre-positioned environments with radiation shielding features and protection from micrometeorites, exhaust plume debris, and other hazards. The ability to use in-situ materials to construct these structures will provide a benefit in the reduction of up-mass that would otherwise make long-term Moon or Mars structures cost prohibitive. The ability to fabricate structures in situ brings with it the ability to repair these structures, which allows for the self-sufficiency and sustainability necessary for long-duration habitation. Previously, under the auspices of the MSFC In-Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) project and more recently, under the jointly-managed MSFC/KSC Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project, the MSFC Surface Structures Group has been developing materials and construction technologies to support future planetary habitats with in-situ resources. One such additive construction technology is known as Contour Crafting. This paper presents the results to date of these efforts, including development of novel nozzle concepts for advanced layer deposition using this process. Conceived initially for rapid development of cementitious structures on Earth, it also lends itself exceptionally well to the automated fabrication of planetary surface structures using minimally processed regolith as aggregate, and binders developed from in situ materials as well. This process has been used successfully in the fabrication of

  12. Numerical analysis of the construction of Odelouca Dam using a Subloading Surface Soil Model


    Brito, A.; Maranha, J. R.; Caldeira, L.


    Odelouca dam is an embankment dam, with 76 m height, recently constructed in the south of Portugal. It is zoned with a core consisting of colluvial and residual schist soil, and with soil-rockfill mixtures making up the shells (weathered schist with a significant fraction of coarse sized particles). This paper presents a numerical analysis of Odelouca dam construction. In this analysis the explicit finite difference program FLAC is used. An unconventional elastoplastic soil model, a Subloadin...

  13. Geothermal heating systems for bridges from REHAU. Stop with ice and snow; Geothermisches Brueckenheizungssystem von REHAU. Schluss mit Eis und Schnee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschalk, Daniel [REHAU AG und Co., Erlangen (Germany)


    The road surfaces on bridges freeze faster than road surfaces of free sections in the winter. This clearly increases the risk of accident and forces winter services to an increased employment. Under this aspect, the polymer specialist Rehau AG and Co. (Rehau, Federal Republic of Germany) developed a piping system for the geothermal heating of bridges. This heating system has to adapt the lane conditions on bridges to the lane conditions of the adjacent roads. The energy demand for the operation of the bridge heating is to be kept as low as possible. In particular, a PE-Xa pipe with an aluminium layer and an outside protective layer consisting of PE-HD (polyethylene high density) was used. The mechanical characteristic values such as the elongation of break and tensile strength as well as the oxidation induction time of this construction lie within the standard range. First practical applications of this geothermal heated bridge are promising.

  14. Construction of Three-Dimensional Road Surface and Application on Interaction between Vehicle and Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yongjie


    Full Text Available The quantitative description is given to three-dimensional micro and macro self-similar characteristics of road surface from the perspective of fractal geometry using FBM stochastic midpoint displacement and diamond-square algorithm in conjunction with fractal characteristics and statistical characteristics of standard pavement determined by estimation method of box-counting dimension. The comparative analysis between reconstructed three-dimensional road surface spectrum and theoretical road surface spectrum and correlation coefficient demonstrate the high reconstruction accuracy of fractal reconstructed road spectrum. Furthermore, the bump zone is taken as an example to reconstruct a more arbitrary 3D road model through isomorphism of special road surface with stochastic road surface model. Measurement is taken to assume the tire footprint on road surface to be a rectangle, where the pressure distribution is expressed with mean stiffness, while the contact points in the contact area are replaced with a number of springs. Two-DOF vehicle is used as an example to analyze the difference between three-dimensional multipoint-and-plane contact and traditional point contact model. Three-dimensional road surface spectrum provides a more accurate description of the impact effect of tire on road surface, thereby laying a theoretical basis for studies on the dynamical process of interaction of vehicle-road surface and the road friendliness.

  15. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience......, Brian O’Neill, Andra Siibak, Sascha Trültzsch-Wijnen, Nicoletta Vittadini, Igor Vobič and Frauke Zeller. Stakeholder feedback from: Michelle Arlotta (DeAgostini), Andreea M. Costache (Association of Consumers of Audiovisual Media in Catalonia/TAC), Francesco Diasio (AMARC Europe), Marius Dragomir (Open...

  16. Mathematical bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Andreescu, Titu; Tetiva, Marian


    Building bridges between classical results and contemporary nonstandard problems, Mathematical Bridges embraces important topics in analysis and algebra from a problem-solving perspective. Blending old and new techniques, tactics and strategies used in solving challenging mathematical problems, readers will discover numerous genuine mathematical gems throughout that will heighten their appreciation of the inherent beauty of mathematics. Most of the problems are original to the authors and are intertwined in a well-motivated exposition driven by representative examples. The book is structured to assist the reader in formulating and proving conjectures, as well as devising solutions to important mathematical problems by making connections between various concepts and ideas from different areas of mathematics. Instructors and educators teaching problem-solving courses or organizing mathematics clubs, as well as motivated mathematics students from high school juniors to college seniors, will find Mathematical Bri...

  17. Bridging the Gap: From Model Surfaces to Nanoparticle Analogs for Selective Oxidation and Steam Reforming of Methanol and Selective Hydrogenation Catalysis (United States)

    Boucher, Matthew B.

    Most industrial catalysts are very complex, comprising of non-uniform materials with varying structures, impurities, and interaction between the active metal and supporting substrate. A large portion of the ongoing research in heterogeneous catalysis focuses on understanding structure-function relationships in catalytic materials. In parallel, there is a large area of surface science research focused on studying model catalytic systems for which structural parameters can be tuned and measured with high precision. It is commonly argued, however, that these systems are oversimplified, and that observations made in model systems do not translate to robust catalysts operating in practical environments; this discontinuity is often referred to as a "gap." The focus of this thesis is to explore the mutual benefits of surface science and catalysis, or "bridge the gap," by studying two catalytic systems in both ultra-high vacuum (UHV) and near ambient-environments. The first reaction is the catalytic steam reforming of methanol (SRM) to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The SRM reaction is a promising route for on-demand hydrogen production. For this catalytic system, the central hypothesis in this thesis is that a balance between redox capability and weak binding of reaction intermediates is necessary for high SRM activity and selectivity to carbon dioxide. As such, a new catalyst for the SRM reaction is developed which incorporates very small amounts of gold (liquid-phase, stirred-tank batch reactor under a hydrogen head pressure of approximately 7 bar. Palladium alloyed into the surface of otherwise inactive copper nanoparticles shows a marked improvement in selectivity when compared to monometallic palladium catalysts with the same metal loading. This effect is attributed hydrogen spillover onto the copper surface. In summary, the development of new, highly active and selective catalysts for the methanol steam reforming reaction and for the partial hydrogenation of alkynes

  18. Use of chemical explosives for emergency solar flare shelter construction and other excavations on the Martian surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, R.D.; Blacic, J.D.; Pettitt, D.R.


    The necessity to shelter people on the Martian surface from solar flare particles at short notice and the need for long-term habitats with thick cosmic ray shielding suggests that explosives could be used effectively for excavation of such structures. Modern insensitive high explosives are safe, efficient, and reliable for rock breakage and excavation. Extensive Earth-bound experience leads us to propose several strategies for explosively-constructed shelters based on tunneling, cratering, and rock casting techniques

  19. Design and construction of a system for determination of Radon-222 by a surface-barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonifacio M, J.; Iturbe, J.L.


    In the present work the design and construction of a system for the determination of 222 Rn is described, which utilizes silicon surface-barrier detectors. The 222 Rn gas was obtained a source of 226 Ra electrodeposited on stainless-steel discs. The well separated energies with this system makes possible the measurement and identification of alpha particles of 222 Rn, and its daughters 210 Po, 218 Po and 214 Po. (Author) 3 figs, 19 refs

  20. Land use patterns and landscape structures on the islands in Jeonnam Province’s Shinan County occasioned by the construction of mainland bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Eun Kim


    Full Text Available Land use in a specific region reflects the prevailing socioeconomic circumstances and cultures within that region. To this end, the current study analyzes the landscape structure of Shinan County using landscape indices based on land use to compare various socio-economic factors of the culture found on the islands of Shinan County. In addition, a cluster analysis was conducted to learn about the characteristics of islands exhibiting the same landscape structure. This analysis revealed that the landscape of the second largest island in Shinan County, Jido, was more fragmented than that of the biggest island Aphae. The cluster analysis led to the creation of three groups of islands exhibiting similar landscape structures. Group 1 is composed of the islands which are connected by a mainland bridge (called ‘yeonyukgyo’ in Korean. Group 2 and 3 also include the upper islands (those islands located in the northern area and lower islands (those islands located in the southern area in Shinan County. The presence of more advanced transportation systems and structures occasioned by their proximity to the island of Jido which was connected at an early date to the mainland ensured that the upper islands have historically been more frequently visited.

  1. Ammonia, phosphate, phenol, and copper(II) removal from aqueous solution by subsurface and surface flow constructed wetland. (United States)

    Mojiri, Amin; Ahmad, Zakiah; Tajuddin, Ramlah Mohd; Arshad, Mohd Fadzil; Gholami, Ali


    Water pollution is a global problem. During current study, ammonia, phosphate, phenol, and copper(II) were removed from aqueous solution by subsurface and surface flow constructed wetland. In current investigation, distilled water was polluted with four contaminants including ammonia, phosphate, copper (Cu), and phenol. Response surface methodology and central composite design were applied to optimize pollutant removal during treatment by subsurface flow constructed wetland (SSFCW). Contact time (12 to 80 h) and initial pollutant concentration (20 to 85 mg/L) were selected as independent factors; some upper and lower ranges were also monitored for accuracy. In SSFCW, water hyacinth transplanted in two substrate layers, namely zeolite and cockle shell. SSFCW removed 87.7, 81.4, 74.7, and 54.9% of ammonia, phosphate, Cu, and phenol, respectively, at optimum contact time (64.5 h) and initial pollutant concentration (69.2 mg/L). Aqueous solution was moved to a surface flow constructed wetland (SFCW) after treating via SSFCW at optimum conditions. In SFCW, Typha was transplanted to a fixed powdered substrate layer, including bentonite, zeolite, and cockle shell. SFCW could develop performance of this combined system and could improve elimination efficacy of the four contaminants to 99.99%. So this combined CW showed a good performance in removing pollutants. Graphical abstract Wetlands arrangement for treating aqueous solution in current study.

  2. Chapter 10:Hardwoods for timber bridges (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Ed T. Cesa


    This chapter describes the joint efforts of the Forest Service and the FHWA to administer national programs including research, demonstration bridges, and technology transfer components. Summary information on a number of Forest Service-WIT demonstration bridges constructed with hardwoods is also provided.

  3. Bridges Over Troubled Waters: Theoretical Linguistics And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper tries to construct a bridge between the concerns of theoretical linguistics and those of multilingualism and code-switching (CS) research. It argues that the primary special point of interaction between these fields lies in the question of potential equivalence between elements or categories, bridging across ...

  4. Construction of hydrophobic wood surfaces by room temperature deposition of rutile (TiO2) nanostructures (United States)

    Rongbo Zheng; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Qingyu Li; Hongyan Wang


    A convenient room temperature approach was developed for growing rutile TiO2 hierarchical structures on the wood surface by direct hydrolysis and crystallization of TiCl3 in saturated NaCl aqueous solution.The morphology and the crystal structure of TiO2 coated on the wood surface were characterized...

  5. The construction, fouling and enzymatic cleaning of a textile dye surface. (United States)

    Onaizi, Sagheer A; He, Lizhong; Middelberg, Anton P J


    The enzymatic cleaning of a rubisco protein stain bound onto Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) biosensor chips having a dye-bound upper layer is investigated. This novel method allowed, for the first time, a detailed kinetic study of rubisco cleanability (defined as fraction of adsorbed protein removed from a surface) from dyed surfaces (mimicking fabrics) at different enzyme concentrations. Analysis of kinetic data using an established mathematical model able to decouple enzyme transfer and reaction processes [Onaizi, He, Middelberg, Chem. Eng. Sci. 64 (2008) 3868] revealed a striking effect of dyeing on enzymatic cleaning performance. Specifically, the absolute rate constants for enzyme transfer to and from a dye-bound rubisco stain were significantly higher than reported previously for un-dyed surfaces. These increased transfer rates resulted in higher surface cleanability. Higher enzyme mobility (i.e., higher enzyme adsorption and desorption rates) at the liquid-dye interface was observed, consistent with previous suggestions that enzyme surface mobility is likely correlated with overall enzyme cleaning performance. Our results show that reaction engineering models of enzymatic action at surfaces may provide insight able to guide the design of better stain-resistant surfaces, and may also guide efforts to improve cleaning formulations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Suspended particle and pathogen peak discharge buffering by a surface-flow constructed wetland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulling, B.T.M.; van den Boomen, R.M.; van der Geest, H.G.; Kappelhof, J.W.N.M.; Admiraal, W.


    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been shown to improve the water quality of treated wastewater. The capacity of CWs to reduce nutrients, pathogens and organic matter and restore oxygen regime under normal operating conditions cannot be extrapolated to periods of incidental peak discharges. The

  7. Carbon sequestration in surface flow constructed wetland after 12 years of swine wastewater treatment (United States)

    Constructed wetlands used for the treatment of swine wastewater may potentially sequester significant amounts of carbon. In past studies, we evaluated the treatment efficiency of wastewater in marsh-pond-marsh design wetland system. The functionality of this system was highly dependent on soil carbo...

  8. Application of Classical Land Surveying Measurement Methods for Determining the Vertical Displacement of Railway Bridges (United States)

    Gawronek, Pelagia; Makuch, Maria


    The classical measurements of stability of railway bridge, in the context of determining the vertical displacements of the object, consisted on precise leveling of girders and trigonometric leveling of controlled points (fixed into girders' surface). The construction elements, which were measured in two ways, in real terms belonged to the same vertical planes. Altitude measurements of construction were carried out during periodic structural stability tests and during static load tests of bridge by train. The specificity of displacement measurements, the type of measured object and the rail land surveying measurement conditions were determinants to define methodology of altitude measurement. The article presents compatibility of vertical displacements of steel railway bridge, which were developed in two measurement methods. In conclusion, the authors proposed the optimum concept of determining the vertical displacements of girders by using precise and trigonometric leveling (in terms of accuracy, safety and economy of measurement).

  9. Application of Classical Land Surveying Measurement Methods for Determining the Vertical Displacement of Railway Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawronek Pelagia


    Full Text Available The classical measurements of stability of railway bridge, in the context of determining the vertical displacements of the object, consisted on precise leveling of girders and trigonometric leveling of controlled points (fixed into girders' surface. The construction elements, which were measured in two ways, in real terms belonged to the same vertical planes. Altitude measurements of construction were carried out during periodic structural stability tests and during static load tests of bridge by train. The specificity of displacement measurements, the type of measured object and the rail land surveying measurement conditions were determinants to define methodology of altitude measurement. The article presents compatibility of vertical displacements of steel railway bridge, which were developed in two measurement methods. In conclusion, the authors proposed the optimum concept of determining the vertical displacements of girders by using precise and trigonometric leveling (in terms of accuracy, safety and economy of measurement.

  10. Cyanide-bridged Fe(III)-Mn(III) bimetallic complexes with dimeric and chain structures constructed from a newly made mer-Fe tricyanide: structures and magnetic properties. (United States)

    Kim, Jae Il; Kwak, Hyun Young; Yoon, Jung Hee; Ryu, Dae Won; Yoo, In Young; Yang, Namgeun; Cho, Beong Ki; Park, Je-Geun; Lee, Hyosug; Hong, Chang Seop


    Four cyanide-linked Fe(III)-Mn(III) complexes were prepared by reacting Mn Schiff bases with a new molecular precursor (PPh(4))[Fe(qcq)(CN)(3)] [1; qcq = 8-(2-quinolinecarboxamido)quinoline anion]. They include a dimeric molecule, [Fe(qcq)(CN)(3)][Mn(3-MeOsalen)(H(2)O)] x 2 H(2)O [2 x 2 H(2)O; 3-MeOsalen = N,N'-ethylenebis(3-methoxysalicylideneiminato) dianion], and three 1D zigzag chains, [Fe(qcq)(CN)(3)][Mn(5-Clsalen)] x 3 H(2)O [3 x 2 MeOH; 5-Clsalen = N,N'-ethylenebis(5-chlorosalicylideneiminato) dianion], [Fe(qcq)(CN)(3)][Mn(5-Brsalen)] x 2 MeOH [4 x 2 MeOH; 5-Brsalen = N,N'-ethylenebis(5-bromosalicylideneiminato) dianion], and Fe(qcq)(CN)(3)][Mn(salen)].MeCN x H(2)O [5 x MeCN; salen = N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylideneiminato) dianion]. The complexes consist of extensive hydrogen bonding and pi-pi stacking interactions, generating multidimensional structures. Magnetic studies demonstrate that antiferromagnetic couplings are operative between Fe(III) and Mn(III) centers bridged by cyanide ligands. On the basis of an infinite chain model, magnetic coupling parameters of 2-5 range from -9.3 to -14.1 cm(-1). A long-range order is observed at 2.3 K for 3 and 2.2 K for 4, while compound 5 shows spin glass behavior possibly coupled with magnetic ordering.

  11. Comparison of the surface roughness of gypsum models constructed using various impression materials and gypsum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chih Chang


    Conclusion: The surface roughness of stone models was mainly determined by the type of alginate impression material, and was less affected by the type of silicone rubber impression material or gypsum product, or the storage time before repouring.

  12. Role of equipotential and equidensity surfaces for constructing models of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutuzov, S.A.; Osipkov, L.P.


    Adopting a form of equipotential surfaces one can find a spatial density of a galaxy on the basis of a circular velocity (using the Poisson equation). The problem of finding the spatial model of a system from the equatorial density is analysed. By adopting equidensity surfaces it is possible to determine a kernel of the integral equation connecting a density with a circular velocity. Some examples are given

  13. The future of rapid bridge deck replacement. (United States)


    Replacing aging, deteriorated infrastructure often requires road closures and traffic detours which impose : inconvenience and delay on commerce and members of the motoring public. Accelerated bridge construction : techniques often use precast member...

  14. Key Royale bridge five year evaluation. (United States)


    This report describes the design, construction, instrumentation, and five-year evaluation of the Key Royale Bridge substructure. The primary focus was the evaluation of the implementation of highly reactive supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) ...

  15. Surface facilities for geological deep repositories - Measures against dangers during construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) discusses the measures that are to be taken to address the dangers encountered during the construction and operation of deep geological repositories for nuclear wastes. Firstly, the operation of such repositories during the emplacement of nuclear wastes is discussed and examples of possible repositories for fuel rods and highly-radioactive waste are presented. Various emission-protection issues and safety measures to be taken during construction of such repositories are looked at as is the protection of ground water. Safety considerations during the operational phase are discussed, including inclusion methods used for the wastes and radiation protection. The handling of radioactive wastes, the recognition of dangers and measures to be taken to counteract them are discussed. Various possible accidents are looked at

  16. Thermal bridges. Causes and impacts, information on reduction and avoidance; Waermebruecken. Ursachen und Auswirkungen, Hinweise zur Verringerung und Vermeidung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feist, Wolfgang; Born, Rolf


    Thermal bridges increase the heat demand, affect the thermal comfort, facilitate mould cultures and cause structural damage. Many thermal bridges can be avoided by proper building construction details. At least the impact of thermal bridges can be avoided.

  17. Constructing a multidimensional free energy surface like a spider weaving a web. (United States)

    Chen, Changjun


    Complete free energy surface in the collective variable space provides important information of the reaction mechanisms of the molecules. But, sufficient sampling in the collective variable space is not easy. The space expands quickly with the number of the collective variables. To solve the problem, many methods utilize artificial biasing potentials to flatten out the original free energy surface of the molecule in the simulation. Their performances are sensitive to the definitions of the biasing potentials. Fast-growing biasing potential accelerates the sampling speed but decreases the accuracy of the free energy result. Slow-growing biasing potential gives an optimized result but needs more simulation time. In this article, we propose an alternative method. It adds the biasing potential to a representative point of the molecule in the collective variable space to improve the conformational sampling. And the free energy surface is calculated from the free energy gradient in the constrained simulation, not given by the negative of the biasing potential as previous methods. So the presented method does not require the biasing potential to remove all the barriers and basins on the free energy surface exactly. Practical applications show that the method in this work is able to produce the accurate free energy surfaces for different molecules in a short time period. The free energy errors are small in the cases of various biasing potentials. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Suitability of macrophytes for nutrient removal from surface flow constructed wetlands receiving secondary treated sewage effluent in Queensland, Australia. (United States)

    Greenway, M


    From a botanical perspective the major difference between waste stabilisation ponds and wetlands is the dominance of algae or floating plants in the former and emergent plants in the latter. Algae, floating and submerged plants remove nutrients directly from the water column whereas emergent species remove nutrients from the sediment. Water depth is a crucial factor in determining which plant types will become established. Surface flow constructed wetlands offer the greatest potential to grow a wide variety of different types of macrophytes. In assessing the suitability of plant species for nutrient removal, consideration must be given not only to nutrient uptake for growth but also storage of nutrients as plant biomass. A survey of macrophytes in 15 surface flow constructed wetlands treating secondary effluent was conducted in Queensland; 63 native species and 14 introduced species were found. Emergent species have been able to tolerate deeper water than in their natural environment and permanent waterlogging. All species grew well in the higher nutrient enriched wastewater. Submerged, floating leaved-attached and free floating species had the highest tissue nutrient content, followed by aquatic creepers. All these species remove nutrients from the water column. Emergent species had lower nutrient content but a greater biomass and were therefore able to store more nutrients per unit area of wetland. In order to maximise the efficiency of constructed wetlands for nutrient removal, a range of species should be used. Native species should be selected in preference to introduced/exotic species.

  19. Engineering out motion: introduction of a de novo disulfide bond and a salt bridge designed to close a dynamic cleft on the surface of cytochrome b5. (United States)

    Storch, E M; Daggett, V; Atkins, W M


    A previous molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) at 25 degrees C displayed localized dynamics on the surface of the protein giving rise to the periodic formation of a cleft that provides access to the heme through a protected hydrophobic channel [Storch and Daggett (1995) Biochemistry 34, 9682]. Here we describe the production and testing of mutants designed to prevent the cleft from opening using a combination of experimental and theoretical techniques. Two mutants have been designed to close the surface cleft: S18D to introduce a salt bridge and S18C:R47C to incorporate a disulfide bond. The putative cleft forms between two separate cores of the protein: one is structural in nature and can be monitored through the fluorescence of Trp 22, and the other binds the heme prosthetic group and can be tracked via heme absorbance. An increase in motion localized to the cleft region was observed for each protein, except for the disulfide-containing variant, in MD simulations at 50 degrees C compared to simulations at 25 degrees C. For the disulfide-containing variant, the cleft remained closed. Both urea and temperature denaturation curves were nearly identical for wild-type and mutant proteins when heme absorbance was monitored. In contrast, fluorescence studies revealed oxidized S18C:R47C to be considerably more stable based on the midpoints of the denaturation transitions, Tm and U1/2. Moreover, the fluorescence changes for each protein were complete at approximately 50 degrees C and a urea concentration of approximately 3.9 M, significantly below the temperature and urea concentration (62 degrees C, 5 M urea) required to observe heme release. In addition, solvent accessibility based on acrylamide quenching of Trp 22 was lower in the S18C:R47C mutant, particularly at 50 degrees C, before heme release [presented in the accompanying paper (58)]. The results suggest that a constraining disulfide bond can be designed to inhibit dynamic cleft formation

  20. Bridge and steel structures. History and vision on bridge erection; Kyoryo kokozobutsu. Kasetsu gijutsu no shorai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukai, S.; Hayashi, T. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes the progress of bridge erection technology. It introduces the results of cable erection, rotated/extruded erection, and cantilever erection. The cable erection is a multi point suspension erection using cables. For the rotated/extruded erection, the monolithic construction is conducted on a working yard set in a right angle to the construction position, and the horizontal beams of the bridge piers (corbel girders) are constructed by the rotated method using a slewing base incorporated around the bridge piers at one side. For the construction of stiffening girders of Innoshima-ohashi Bridge of Honshu-Shikoku Joint Bridge in 1978, trussed face bar blocks were extruded from the main tower in order using a travel crane. For the suspension bridges and cable stayed bridges, main towers were erected using various types of cranes. The erection of Tamashima-ohashi Bridge with a weight of 500 ton using an offshore floating crane is introduced as a large block method. Analysis methods and measurement techniques at the site are used in order to analyze the shape in each step under the erection and to ensure the accurate final complete shape. Reduction of the construction cost, improvement of erection technology, and technology development for large-scale projects are subjects in the future. 22 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Evaluating the life cycle environmental impact of short span bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Pettersson, Lars; Karoumi, Raid


    impact of the construction sector. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systematic method for assessing the environmental impact of products and systems, but its application in bridges is scarce. In Swede, most of the bridges are short spans and the type of concrete slab-frame bridge (CFB) accounts...... for a large share. Soil steel composite bridge (SSCB) is a functional equivalent solution for CFB. In order to mitigate the environmental burdens of short span bridges, this paper performed a comparative LCA study between these two types of bridge. The results indicate that the initial material consumption...

  2. Experimental investigation of different fill materials in arch bridges with particular focus on Pearl-Chain Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hertz, Kristian Dahl


    Pearl-Chain Bridge technology is a recently developed prefabricated arch solution for road and railway bridges allowing faster, more environmentally friendly, and cheaper bridge construction. This study compared the strength and durability properties of three different types of fill material...

  3. Bayesian optimization for constructing potential energy surfaces of polyatomic molecules with the smallest number of ab initio calculations (United States)

    Vargas-Hernandez, Rodrigo A.; v Krems, Roman


    We examine the application of kernel methods of machine learning for constructing potential energy surfaces (PES) of polyatomic molecules. In particular, we illustrate the application of Bayesian optimization with Gaussian processes as an efficient method for sampling the configuration space of polyatomic molecules. Bayesian optimization relies on two key components: a prior over an objective function and a mechanism for sampling the configuration space. We use Gaussian processes to model the objective function and various acquisition functions commonly used in computer science to quantify the accuracy of sampling. The PES is obtained through an iterative process of adding ab initio points at the locations maximizing the acquisition function and re-trainig the Gaussian process with new points added. We sample different PESs with one or many acquisition functions and show how the acquisition functions affect the construction of the PESs.

  4. Surface water sanitation and biomass production in a large constructed wetland in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Vereijken, P.H.; Visser, de W.; Verhagen, A.; Korevaar, H.; Querner, E.P.; Blaeij, de A.T.; Werf, van der A.K.


    In Western-Europe, agricultural practices have contributed to environmental problems such as eutrophication of surface and ground water, flooding, drought and desiccation of surrounding natural habitats. Solutions that reduce the impact of these problems are urgently needed. Common reed (Phragmites

  5. Structure and Construction Assessment of the Surface Layer of Hardfaced Coating after Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Dziedzic


    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the surface layer of Fe-Mn-C-B-Si-Ni-Cr alloy coating after friction with C45 steel. The coatings were obtained by arc welding (GMA. Flux-cored wires were used as a welding material. The flux-cored wires had a diameter of 2,4 mm. The tribological assessment was performed with the Amsler tribotester under dry friction conditions at unit pressures 10 MPa. The use of XPS spectroscopy allowed deep profile analysis of the surface layer. Based on the obtained results developed model of the surface layer for friction couple, hardfaced coating obtained from Fe-Mn-C-B-Si-Ni-Cr alloy – C45 steel. It was observed that the operational surface layer (OSL of hardfaced coatings contained oxides (B2O3, SiO2, NiO, Cr2O3, FeO, Fe3O4, Fe2O3, carbides (Fe3C, Cr7C3 and borides (FeB, Fe2B.

  6. Constructing superhydrophobic WO3@TiO2 nanoflake surface beyond amorphous alloy against electrochemical corrosion on iron steel (United States)

    Yu, S. Q.; Ling, Y. H.; Wang, R. G.; Zhang, J.; Qin, F.; Zhang, Z. J.


    To eliminate harmful localized corrosion, a new approach by constructing superhydrophobic WO3@TiO2 hierarchical nanoflake surface beyond FeW amorphous alloy formed on stainless steel was proposed. Facile dealloying and liquid deposition was employed at low temperature to form a nanostructured layer composing inner WO3 nanoflakes coated with TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) layer. After further deposition of PFDS on nanoflakes, the contact angle reached 162° while the corrosion potential showed a negative shift of 230 mV under illumination, resulting in high corrosion resistance in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. The tradeoff between superhydrophobic surface and photo-electro response was investigated. It was found that this surface feature makes 316 SS be immune to localized corrosion and a pronounced photo-induced process of electron storage/release as well as the stability of the functional layer were detected with or without illumination, and the mechanism behind this may be related to the increase of surface potential due to water repellence and the delayed cathodic protection of semiconducting coating derived mainly from the valence state changes of WO3. This study demonstrates a simple and low-cost electrochemical approach for protection of steel and novel means to produce superhydrophobic surface and cathodic protection with controllable electron storage/release on engineering scale.

  7. Bridge resource program. (United States)


    The mission of Rutgers Universitys Center for Advanced Infrastructure and Transportation (CAIT) Bridge Resource Program (BRP) is to provide bridge engineering support to the New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT)s Bridge Engineering an...

  8. Field performance of timber bridges. 16, North Siwell Road stress-laminated bridge (United States)

    J. A. Kainz

    The North Siwell Road bridge was constructed during December 1994 in Hinds County, Mississippi. The bridge is a single-span, stress-laminated T-beam structure that measures 9.1 m (30 ft) long and 8.7 m (28.5 ft) wide. Performance of the bridge was monitored for 24 months, beginning at the time of installation. Monitoring involved gathering and evaluating data relative...

  9. Field performance of timber bridges. 17, Ciphers stress-laminated deck bridge (United States)

    James P. Wacker; James A. Kainz; Michael A. Ritter

    In September 1989, the Ciphers bridge was constructed within the Beltrami Island State Forest in Roseau County, Minnesota. The bridge superstructure is a two-span continuous stress-laminated deck that is approximately 12.19 m long, 5.49 m wide, and 305 mm deep (40 ft long, 18 ft wide, and 12 in. deep). The bridge is one of the first to utilize red pine sawn lumber for...

  10. Field performance of timber bridges. 12, Christian Hollow stress-laminated box-beam bridge (United States)

    J. P. Wacker; S. C. Catherman; R. G. Winnett

    In January 1992, the Christian Hollow bridge was constructed in Steuben County, New York. The bridge is a single-span, stress-laminated box-beam superstructure that is 9.1 m long, 9.8 m wide, and 502 mm deep (30 ft long, 32 ft wide, and 19-3/4 in. deep). The performance of the bridge was continuously monitored for 28 months, beginning shortly after installation....

  11. Materials-of-Construction Radiation Sensitivity for a Fission Surface Power Convertor (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.; Geng, Steven M.; Niedra, Janis M.; Sayir, Ali; Shin, Eugene E.; Sutter, James K.; Thieme, Lanny G.


    A fission reactor combined with a free-piston Stirling convertor is one of many credible approaches for producing electrical power in space applications. This study assumes dual-opposed free-piston Stirling engines/linear alternators that will operate nominally at 825 K hot-end and 425 K cold-end temperatures. The baseline design options, temperature profiles, and materials of construction discussed here are based on historical designs as well as modern convertors operating at lower power levels. This notional design indicates convertors primarily made of metallic components that experience minimal change in mechanical properties for fast neutron fluences less than 10(sup 20) neutrons per square centimeter. However, these radiation effects can impact the magnetic and electrical properties of metals at much lower fluences than are crucial for mechanical property integrity. Moreover, a variety of polymeric materials are also used in common free-piston Stirling designs for bonding, seals, lubrication, insulation and others. Polymers can be affected adversely by radiation doses as low as 10(sup 5) - 10(sup 10) rad. Additionally, the absorbing dose rate, radiation hardness, and the resulting effect (either hardening or softening) varies depending on the nature of the particular polymer. The classes of polymers currently used in convertor fabrication are discussed along possible substitution options. Thus, the materials of construction of prototypic Stirling convertor engines have been considered and the component materials susceptible to damage at the lowest neutron fluences have been identified.

  12. Protein thermal stability enhancement by designing salt bridges: a combined computational and experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Wen Lee

    Full Text Available Protein thermal stability is an important factor considered in medical and industrial applications. Many structural characteristics related to protein thermal stability have been elucidated, and increasing salt bridges is considered as one of the most efficient strategies to increase protein thermal stability. However, the accurate simulation of salt bridges remains difficult. In this study, a novel method for salt-bridge design was proposed based on the statistical analysis of 10,556 surface salt bridges on 6,493 X-ray protein structures. These salt bridges were first categorized based on pairing residues, secondary structure locations, and Cα-Cα distances. Pairing preferences generalized from statistical analysis were used to construct a salt-bridge pair index and utilized in a weighted electrostatic attraction model to find the effective pairings for designing salt bridges. The model was also coupled with B-factor, weighted contact number, relative solvent accessibility, and conservation prescreening to determine the residues appropriate for the thermal adaptive design of salt bridges. According to our method, eight putative salt-bridges were designed on a mesophilic β-glucosidase and 24 variants were constructed to verify the predictions. Six putative salt-bridges leaded to the increase of the enzyme thermal stability. A significant increase in melting temperature of 8.8, 4.8, 3.7, 1.3, 1.2, and 0.7°C of the putative salt-bridges N437K-D49, E96R-D28, E96K-D28, S440K-E70, T231K-D388, and Q277E-D282 was detected, respectively. Reversing the polarity of T231K-D388 to T231D-D388K resulted in a further increase in melting temperatures by 3.6°C, which may be caused by the transformation of an intra-subunit electrostatic interaction into an inter-subunit one depending on the local environment. The combination of the thermostable variants (N437K, E96R, T231D and D388K generated a melting temperature increase of 15.7°C. Thus, this study

  13. Master Sintering Surface: A practical approach to its construction and utilization for Spark Plasma Sintering prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouchly V.


    Full Text Available The sintering is a complex thermally activated process, thus any prediction of sintering behaviour is very welcome not only for industrial purposes. Presented paper shows the possibility of densification prediction based on concept of Master Sintering Surface (MSS for pressure assisted Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS. User friendly software for evaluation of the MSS is presented. The concept was used for densification prediction of alumina ceramics sintered by SPS.

  14. Constructing Functional Ionic Membrane Surface by Electrochemically Mediated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Ran


    Full Text Available The sodium polyacrylate (PAANa contained polyethersulfone membrane that was fabricated by preparation of PES-NH2 via nonsolvent phase separation method, the introduction of bromine groups as active sites by grafting α-Bromoisobutyryl bromide, and surface-initiated electrochemically atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-eATRP of sodium acrylate (AANa on the surface of PES membrane. The polymerization could be controlled by reaction condition, such as monomer concentration, electric potential, polymerization time, and modifier concentration. The membrane surface was uniform when the monomer concentration was 0.9 mol/L, the electric potential was −0.12 V, the polymerization time was 8 h, and the modifier concentration was 2 wt.%. The membrane showed excellent hydrophilicity and blood compatibility. The water contact angle decreased from 84° to 68° and activated partial thromboplastin increased from 51 s to 84 s after modification of the membranes.

  15. Sub Surface Geoelectrical Imaging for Potential Geohazard in Infrastructure Construction in Sidoarjo, East Java (United States)

    Sumintadireja, Prihadi; Irawan, Diky


    Mud volcano remnants are identified in Surabaya and adjacent areas. The people in East Java based on historical report are custom and able to adjust with the natural phenomena within their areas. Sidoarjo mud volcano phenomena which coincident with drilling activity in 29 May 2006 is making people and government anxious for development a new infrastructure such as high rise building, toll road etc. An understanding of a geological hazard which can be single, sequential or combined events in their origin is the main key importance in subsurface imaging. Geological hazard can be identified by geophysical, geological, geotechnical method. The prompt selection of geophysical method to reveal subsurface condition is very important factor instead of survey design and field data acquisition. Revealing subsurface condition is very important information for site investigation consists of geological, geophysical and geotechnical data, whereas data analysis will help civil engineer design and calculate the construction safety.

  16. A system to test the ground surface conditions of construction sites--for safe and efficient work without physical strain. (United States)

    Koningsveld, Ernst; van der Grinten, Maarten; van der Molen, Henk; Krause, Frank


    Ground surface conditions on construction sites have an important influence on the health and safety of workers and their productivity. The development of an expert-based "working conditions evaluation" system is described, intended to assist site managers in recognising unsatisfactory ground conditions and remedying these. The system was evaluated in the period 2002-2003. The evaluation shows that companies recognize poor soil/ground conditions as problematic, but are not aware of the specific physical workload hazards. The developed methods allow assessment of the ground surface quality and selection of appropriate measures for improvement. However, barriers exist at present to wide implementation of the system across the industry. Most significant of these is that responsibility for a site's condition is not clearly located within contracting arrangements, nor is it a topic of serious negotiation.

  17. Electroactive chain-like compounds constructed from trimetallic clusters and 4,4'-bipyridine spacers: one-pot synthesis, characterization and surface binding. (United States)

    Abe, Masaaki; Inatomi, Atsushi; Hisaeda, Yoshio


    This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of a novel series of chain-like compounds where oxo-centered triruthenium cluster moieties are bridged by 4,4'-bipyridine (4,4'-bpy) spacers. A reaction of solvent-coordinated triruthenium "monomer" precursor [Ru(3)O(CH(3)CO(2))(6)(CO)(CH(3)OH)(2)] with a 0.1 equimolar amount of 4,4'-bpy in CH(3)OH gave mixture of chain-like compounds containing "dimers" to "tetramers" which were cleanly separated by column chromatography and characterized by spectroscopic and electrochemical methods. Cyclic voltammetry revealed that all chain-like compounds exhibit reversible and stepwise redox processes in solution with very weak intramolecular coupling between the triruthenium components across the 4,4'-bpy bridge. Photo-induced dissociation of CO from the compounds and electrode surface binding were also investigated.

  18. Facile Synthesis of Smart Nanocontainers as Key Components for Construction of Self-Healing Coating with Superhydrophobic Surfaces. (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Wang, MingDong; Wang, Cheng; Feng, Jing; Li, JianSheng; Wang, LianJun; Fu, JiaJun


    SiO2-imidazoline nanocomposites (SiO2-IMI) owning high loading capacity of corrosion inhibitor, 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (HMID), and a special acid/alkali dual-stimuli-accelerated release property have been synthesized via a one-step modified Stöber method. SiO2-IMI were uniformly distributed into the hydrophobic SiO2 sol to construct "host"-"guest" feedback active coating with a superhydrophobic surface (SiO2-IMI@SHSC) on aluminium alloy, AA2024, by dip-coating technique. SiO2-IMI as "guest" components have good compatibility with "host" sol-gel coating, and more importantly, once localized corrosion occurs on the surface of AA2024, SiO2-IMI can simultaneously respond to the increase in environmental pH around corrosive micro-cathodic regions and decrease in pH near micro-anodic regions, promptly releasing HMID to form a compact molecular film on the damaged surface, inhibiting corrosion spread and executing a self-healing function. The scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) was applied to illustrate the suppression process of cathodic/anodic corrosion activities. Furthermore, benefiting from the superhydrophobic surface, SiO2-IMI@SHSC remained its protective ability after immersion in 0.5 M NaCl solution for 35 days, which is far superior to the conventional sol-gel coating with the same coating thickness. The facile fabrication method of SiO2-IMI simplifies the construction procedure of SiO2-IMI@SHSC, which have great potential to replace non-environmental chromate conversion coatings for practical use.

  19. Facile Synthesis of Smart Nanocontainers as Key Components for Construction of Self-Healing Coating with Superhydrophobic Surfaces (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Wang, MingDong; Wang, Cheng; Feng, Jing; Li, JianSheng; Wang, LianJun; Fu, JiaJun


    SiO2-imidazoline nanocomposites (SiO2-IMI) owning high loading capacity of corrosion inhibitor, 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (HMID), and a special acid/alkali dual-stimuli-accelerated release property have been synthesized via a one-step modified Stöber method. SiO2-IMI were uniformly distributed into the hydrophobic SiO2 sol to construct "host"-"guest" feedback active coating with a superhydrophobic surface (SiO2-IMI@SHSC) on aluminium alloy, AA2024, by dip-coating technique. SiO2-IMI as "guest" components have good compatibility with "host" sol-gel coating, and more importantly, once localized corrosion occurs on the surface of AA2024, SiO2-IMI can simultaneously respond to the increase in environmental pH around corrosive micro-cathodic regions and decrease in pH near micro-anodic regions, promptly releasing HMID to form a compact molecular film on the damaged surface, inhibiting corrosion spread and executing a self-healing function. The scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) was applied to illustrate the suppression process of cathodic/anodic corrosion activities. Furthermore, benefiting from the superhydrophobic surface, SiO2-IMI@SHSC remained its protective ability after immersion in 0.5 M NaCl solution for 35 days, which is far superior to the conventional sol-gel coating with the same coating thickness. The facile fabrication method of SiO2-IMI simplifies the construction procedure of SiO2-IMI@SHSC, which have great potential to replace non-environmental chromate conversion coatings for practical use.

  20. Highly efficient construction of oriented sandwich structures for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hongyun; Xu Weiqing; Xu Shuping; Zhou Ji; Lombardi, John R


    The purpose of this study is to solve the problem of low achievement in fabricating sandwich surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. We demonstrated a highly efficient sandwich structure by the oriented assembly of metal nanoparticles (NPs) on a periodic hexagonal array of metal nanoprisms with 1,4-benzenedithiol (1,4-BDT) as linkers. The metal nanoprism array was prepared by vacuum deposition of metal on a close-packed polystyrene nanosphere pre-patterned substrate. The metal nanoprism array presents different surface properties from the pits left from the removal of polystyrene nanospheres, which causes linkers to selectively adsorb on the metal nanoprism array and sequentially leads to the oriented immobilization of the second-layer metal NPs, avoiding mismatched orientation. These sandwich SERS substrates were characterized by extinction spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy and their enhancement activity was evaluated under different excitation wavelengths. The sandwich structure greatly increases the achievement of ‘hot spots’ to almost 100% of all the metal nanoprisms and enables a large amplification of SERS signals by a factor of ten. This method has the advantages of simplicity, high efficiency, high throughput, controllability and high reproducibility. It has significance in both the study of SERS substrates and the development of plasmonic devices. (paper)

  1. Surface Thermal Insulation and Pipe Cooling of Spillways during Concrete Construction Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhenhong


    Full Text Available Given that spillways adopt a hydraulic thin concrete plate structure, this structure is difficult to protect from cracks. The mechanism of the cracks in spillways shows that temperature stress is the major reason for cracks. Therefore, an effective way of preventing cracks is a timely and reasonable temperature-control program. Studies show that one effective prevention method is surface thermal insulation combined with internal pipe cooling. The major factors influencing temperature control effects are the time of performing thermal insulation and the ways of internal pipe cooling. To solve this problem, a spillway is taken as an example and a three-dimensional finite element program and pipe cooling calculation method are adopted to conduct simulation calculation and analysis on the temperature fields and stress fields of concretes subject to different temperature-control programs. The temperature-control effects are then compared. Optimization results show that timely and reasonable surface thermal insulation and water-flowing mode can ensure good temperature-control and anticrack effects. The method has reference value for similar projects.

  2. Lightweight Bulldozer Attachment for Construction and Excavation on the Lunar Surface (United States)

    Mueller, Robert; Wilkinson, R. Allen; Gallo, Christopher A.; Nick, Andrew J.; Schuler, Jason M.; King, Robert H.


    A lightweight bulldozer blade prototype has been designed and built to be used as an excavation implement in conjunction with the NASA Chariot lunar mobility platform prototype. The combined system was then used in a variety of field tests in order to characterize structural loads, excavation performance and learn about the operational behavior of lunar excavation in geotechnical lunar simulants. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the feasibility of lunar excavation for site preparation at a planned NASA lunar outpost. Once the feasibility has been determined then the technology will become available as a candidate element in the NASA Lunar Surface Systems Architecture. In addition to NASA experimental testing of the LANCE blade, NASA engineers completed analytical work on the expected draft forces using classical soil mechanics methods. The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) team utilized finite element analysis (FEA) to study the interaction between the cutting edge of the LANCE blade and the surface of soil. FEA was also used to examine various load cases and their effect on the lightweight structure of the LANCE blade. Overall it has been determined that a lunar bulldozer blade is a viable technology for lunar outpost site preparation, but further work is required to characterize the behavior in 1/6th G and actual lunar regolith in a vacuum lunar environment.

  3. In Vitro Laser Treatment Platform Construction with Dental Implant Thread Surface on Bacterial Adhesion for Peri-Implantitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Nan Kuo


    Full Text Available This study constructs a standard in vitro laser treatment platform with dental implant thread surface on bacterial adhesion for peri-implantitis at different tooth positions. The standard clinical adult tooth jaw model was scanned to construct the digital model with 6 mm bone loss depth on behalf of serious peri-implantitis at the incisor, first premolar, and first molar. A cylindrical suite connected to the implant and each tooth root in the jaw model was designed as one experimental unit set to allow the suite to be replaced for individual bacterial adhesion. The digital peri-implantitis and suite models were exported to fulfill the physical model using ABS material in a 3D printer. A 3 mm diameter specimen implant on bacterial adhesion against Escherichia coli was performed for gram-negative bacteria. An Er:YAG laser, working with a chisel type glass tip, was moved from the buccal across the implant thread to the lingual for about 30 seconds per sample to verify the in vitro laser treatment platform. The result showed that the sterilization rate can reach 99.3% and the jaw model was not damaged after laser irradiation testing. This study concluded that using integrated image processing, reverse engineering, CAD system, and a 3D printer to construct a peri-implantitis model replacing the implant on bacterial adhesion and acceptable sterilization rate proved the feasibility of the proposed laser treatment platform.

  4. Low Hysteresis Carbon Nanotube Transistors Constructed via a General Dry-Laminating Encapsulation Method on Diverse Surfaces. (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Wang, Zhongwu; Xu, Zeyang; Wu, Kunjie; Yu, Xiaoqin; Chen, Xiaosong; Meng, Yancheng; Li, Hongwei; Qiu, Song; Jin, Hehua; Li, Liqiang; Li, Qingwen


    Electrical hysteresis in carbon nanotube thin-film transistor (CNTTFT) due to surface adsorption of H 2 O/O 2 is a severe obstacle for practical applications. The conventional encapsulation methods based on vacuum-deposited inorganic materials or wet-coated organic materials have some limitations. In this work, we develop a general and highly efficient dry-laminating encapsulation method to reduce the hysteresis of CNTTFTs, which may simultaneously realize the construction and encapsulation of CNTTFT. Furthermore, by virtue of dry procedure and wide compatibility of PMMA, this method is suitable for the construction of CNTTFT on diverse surface including both inorganic and organic dielectric materials. Significantly, the dry-encapsulated CNTTFT exhibits very low or even negligible hysteresis with good repeatability and air stability, which is greatly superior to the nonencapsulated and wet-encapsulated CNTTFT with spin-coated PMMA. The dry-laminating encapsulation strategy, a kind of technological innovation, resolves a significant problem of CNTTFT and therefore will be promising in facile transferring and packaging the CNT films for high-performance optoelectronic devices.

  5. Phytoremediation of domestic wastewaters in free water surface constructed wetlands using Azolla pinnata. (United States)

    Akinbile, Christopher O; Ogunrinde, Temitope A; Che Bt Man, Hasfalina; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul


    Two constructed wetlands, one with Azolla pinnata plant (CW1) and the other without (CW2) for treating domestic wastewaters were developed. Fifteen water parameters which include: Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Total Phosphorus (TP), Total Nitrogen (TN), Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3N), Turbidity, pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), and heavy metals such as Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) were analyzed using standard laboratory procedures. The experiments were conducted in two (dry and wet) seasons simultaneously. Results showed considerable reductions in all parameters and metals including Zn in CW1 compared with CW2 in the two seasons considered while Pb and Mn were not detected throughout the study. Zn concentration levels reduced significantly in both seasons just as removal efficiencies of 70.03% and 64.51% were recorded for CW1 while 35.17% and 33.45% were recorded for CW2 in both seasons. There were no significant differences in the removal efficiencies of Fe in both seasons as 99.55%, 59.09%, 88.89%, and 53.56% were recorded in CW1 and CW2 respectively. Azolla pinnata has proved effective in domestic wastewater phytoremediation studies.

  6. Bioinspired polydopamine particles-assisted construction of superhydrophobic surfaces for oil/water separation. (United States)

    Shang, Bin; Wang, Yanbing; Peng, Bo; Deng, Ziwei


    Frequent oil spillages and industrial discharge of oils/organic solvents have induced severe environmental pollution and ecological damage, and a great cost in energy and finance has been consumed to solve the problems raised. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a surface hydrophobic modification that can be applied to materials with desired properties of high separation efficiency, excellent selectivity and stable performance in extreme conditions during the oil/water separation. Herein, with combined bioinspirations from mussel adhesive protein (polydopamine) and superhydrophobic lotus leaf (hierarchical structures), we develop a general way to superhydrophobically modify various commercial materials, aiming for the selective removal of oils/organic solvents from water. In this procedure, immersing commercial materials (e.g. melamine sponge, stainless steel mesh, nylon netting and cotton cloth) into water/ethanol/ammonia mixtures at a low concentration of dopamine (DA, 2mg/mL) allows a polydopamine (PDA) coating with a tunable roughness appearing on the substrate in one step. This is because DA can self-polymerize and form PDA particles with a catalyst of ammonia, attaching to any surfaces due to abundant catechol and amine groups in PDA, and ultimately, resulting in hierarchical structures. The subsequent decoration with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecanethiol features the surface superhydrophobic and superoleophilic. This approach is straightforward and economic, and carried out under a mild, environmental-benign circumstance, with nonspecific substrate demands. In addition, the as-prepared superhydrophobic materials exhibit excellent separation performances including high absorption/separation capacity, excellent selectivity, and extraordinary recyclability for collecting various oils/organic solvents from water. These superhydrophobic materials have also verified to be highly chemical resistant, environment stable and mechanically durable. Therefore, this

  7. Construction and operational experiences of engineered barrier test facility for near surface disposal of LILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Beak; Park, Se Moon; Kim, Chang Lak


    Engineered barrier test facility is specially designed to demonstrate the performance of engineered barrier system for the near-surface disposal facility under the domestic environmental conditions. Comprehensive measurement systems are installed within each test cell. Long-and short-term monitoring of the multi-layered cover system can be implemented according to different rainfall scenarios with artificial rainfall system. Monitoring data on the water content, temperature, matric potential, lateral drainage and percolation of cover-layer system can be systematically managed by automatic data acquisition system. The periodic measurement data are collected and will be analyzed by a dedicated database management system, and provide a basis for performance verification of the disposal cover design

  8. Ecological aspects in construction of West Siberian oil field surface facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scvortzov, I.D.; Crushin, P.N.


    The exploitation of arctic regions, where permanently frozen grounds are widespread, leads to problems concerning the climate and the geo-cryological environment. One of the most urgent tasks is to minimize effects on the environment, otherwise irreversible, catastrophic processes, the deterioration of permafrost into swamps, fouling subsoil waters and rivers, ground surface pollution with petroleum products, and destruction of fish and birds, may occur. The measures aimed at providing the environmental ecological equilibrium during the exploitation of the northern oil deposits of West Siberia are described in this paper. These measures are worked out during the design stage. Then appropriate engineering decisions and product procedures are chosen, where much prominence is given to reliability of the oil and gas field facilities. The paper includes information about developing measures for the preventive systematic maintenance of the oil pipelines, maintenance schedule, prediction of accidents and certain procedures for their rectification

  9. Long-term behavior of integral abutment bridges. (United States)


    Integral abutment (IA) construction has become the preferred method over conventional construction for use with typical : highway bridges. However, the use of these structures is limited due to state mandated length and skew limitations. To : expand ...

  10. Floating liquid bridge charge dynamics (United States)

    Teschke, Omar; Soares, David Mendez; Gomes, Whyllerson Evaristo; Valente Filho, Juracyr Ferraz


    The interaction of liquid with electric fields is investigated in a configuration where up to 13 kV are applied between electrodes resulting in a 106 V/m electric field in the capillaries and where there is the formation of a free-standing fluid bridge in the interelectrode gap. The Mott-Gurney equation was fitted to the measured ionization current vs applied voltage curve which indicates that the ionization rate at the high-voltage anode electrode dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) interface and space charging in the interelectrode gap determine the floating liquid bridge current for a given cathode-to-anode voltage. Space charge effects were measured in the cathode becker and also at the liquid bridge since the ionized charges at the anode migrate to the bridge outer surface and decrease the interfacial tension from 43 mJ/m2 to 29 mJ/m2. Two distinct structural regions then form the bridge, a charged plastic (bulk modulus ˜100 MPa) conducting outer layer with a surface conductivity of ˜10-9 Ω-1, which shapes and supports the floating fluid structure, and an inner liquid cylinder, where DMSO molecules flow.

  11. Molecular bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkelaar, R.P.; Söde, H.; Mocking, T.F.; Kumar, Avijit; Poelsema, Bene; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.


    The adsorption of Cu-phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules on Au-modified Ge(001) surfaces has been studied with low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. The Au-modified Ge(001) surface consists of well-ordered arrays of perfectly straight nanowires, which are separated by 1.6 nm wide and about 0.6

  12. Shear evaluation of tapered bridge girder panels with steel corrugated webs near the supports of continuous bridges


    Zevallos, E.; Hassanein, M.F.; Real Saladrigas, Esther; Mirambell Arrizabalaga, Enrique


    Because of public construction budgets were cut over the last few years, new bridge girders with corrugated webs to reduce the construction costs have become more widely studied and used. In spite that tapered bridge girders with corrugated webs (BGCWs) are used in modern bridges, their shear strength and behaviour rarely exists in literature. Based on available literature, the web of the linearly tapered BGCWs may be divided into three typologies with different structural response to shear f...

  13. Field performance of timber bridges. 13, Mohawk Canal stress-laminated bridge (United States)

    P. D. Hilbrich Lee; X. Lauderdale

    The Mohawk Canal bridge was constructed in August 1994, just outside Roll, Arizona. It is a simple-span, double-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure, approximately 6.4 m (21 ft) long and 10.4 m (34 ft) wide and constructed with Combination 16F-V3 Douglas Fir glued-laminated timber beam laminations. The performance of the bridge was monitored continuously for 2...

  14. Microwave-assisted RAFT polymerization of well-constructed magnetic surface molecularly imprinted polymers for specific recognition of benzimidazole residues (United States)

    Chen, Fangfang; Wang, Jiayu; Chen, Huiru; Lu, Ruicong; Xie, Xiaoyu


    Magnetic nanoparticles have been widely used as support core for fast separation, which could be directly separated from complicated matrices using an external magnet in few minutes. Surface imprinting based on magnetic core has shown favorable adsorption and separation performance, including good adsorption capacity, fast adsorption kinetics and special selectivity adsorption. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) is an ideal choice for producing well-defined complex architecture with mild reaction conditions. We herein describe the preparation of well-constructed magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) for the recognition of benzimidazole (BMZ) residues via the microwave-assisted RAFT polymerization. The merits of RAFT polymerization assisting with microwave heating allowed successful and more efficient preparation of well-constructed imprinted coats. Moreover, the polymerization time dramatically shortened and was just 1/24th of the time taken by conventional heating. The results indicated that a uniform nanoscale imprinted layer was formed on the Fe3O4 core successfully, and enough saturation magnetization of MMIPs (16.53 emu g-1) was got for magnetic separation. The desirable adsorption capacity (30.18 μmol g-1) and high selectivity toward template molecule with a selectivity coefficient (k) of 13.85 of MMIPs were exhibited by the adsorption isothermal assay and competitive binding assay, respectively. A solid phase extraction enrichment approach was successfully established for the determination of four BMZ residues from apple samples using MMIPs coupled to HPLC. Overall, this study provides a versatile approach for highly efficient fabrication of well-constructed MMIPs for enrichment and determination of target molecules from complicated samples.

  15. Construction and expression of hepatitis B surface antigen escape variants within the "a" determinant by site directed mutagenesis. (United States)

    Golsaz Shirazi, Forough; Amiri, Mohammad Mehdi; Mohammadi, Hamed; Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Roohi, Azam; Khoshnoodi, Jalal; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Kardar, Gholam Ali; Shokri, Fazel


    The antibody response to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) controls hepatitis B virus infection. The "a" determinant of HBsAg is the most important target for protective antibody response, diagnosis and immunoprophylaxis. Mutations in this area may induce immune escape mutants and affect the performance of HBsAg assays. To construct clinically relevant recombinant mutant forms of HBsAg and assessment of their reactivity with anti-HBs monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Wild type (wt) and mutant (mt) HBsAg genes were constructed by site directed mutagenesis and SEOing PCR. The amplified genes were inserted into pCMV6-neo plasmid and transfected in CHO cell line. The expression of wt- and mtHBsAg was assessed by commercial ELISA assays and stable cells were established and cloned by limiting dilution. The recombinant mutants were further characterized using a panel of anti-HBs monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and the pattern of their reactivity was assessed by ELISA. Ten HBsAg mutants having single mutation within the "a" determinant including P120E, T123N, Q129H, M133L, K141E, P142S, D144A, G145R, N146S and C147S together with a wt form were successfully constructed and expressed in CHO cells. Reactivity of anti-HBs MAbs with mtHBsAgs displayed different patterns. The effect of mutations on antibody binding differed depending on the amino acid involved and its location within the ''a'' determinant. Mutation at amino acids 123 and 145 resulted in either complete loss or significant reduction of binding to all anti-HBs MAbs. Our panel of mtHBsAgs is a valuable tool for assessment of the antibody response to HBV escape mutants and may have substantial implications in HBV immunological diagnostics.

  16. Spatiotemporal and species variations in prokaryotic communities associated with sediments from surface-flow constructed wetlands for treating swine wastewater. (United States)

    Jia, Fen; Lai, Cui; Chen, Liang; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Danlian; Liu, Feng; Li, Xi; Luo, Pei; Wu, Jinshui; Qin, Lei; Zhang, Chen; Cheng, Min; Xu, Piao


    Microorganisms are the main mechanisms of pollutants removals in constructed wetlands (CWs) used for wastewater treatment. However, the different biological processes and variations of prokaryotic community in CWs remain poorly understood. In this study, we applied a high-throughput sequencing technique to investigate the prokaryotic communities associated with sediments from pilot-scale surface-flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) treating swine wastewater (SW) of varying strengths. Our results revealed that highly diverse prokaryotic communities were present in the SFCWs, with Proteobacteria (16.44-44.44%), Acidobacteria (3.25-24.40%), and Chloroflexi (5.77-14.43%) being the major phyla, and Nitrospira (4.14-12.02%), the most dominant genus. The prokaryotic communities in the sediments varied greatly with location and season, which markedly altered the microenvironmental conditions. Principal co-ordinates analysis indicated that SW strength significantly influenced the community structure in sediments of the SFCWs, and canonical correspondence analysis illustrated that the shifts in prokaryotic communities were strongly related to NO 3 - -N and TN in winter; and in summer with NH 4 + N, NO 3 - -N, NO 2 - -N, TN, TP, SOM, and pH. In conclusion, the use of high-throughput sequencing greatly enhanced our understanding of prokaryotic communities with different functional groups in SFCWs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Performance assessment and microbial diversity of two pilot scale multi-stage sub-surface flow constructed wetland systems. (United States)

    Babatunde, A O; Miranda-CasoLuengo, Raul; Imtiaz, Mehreen; Zhao, Y Q; Meijer, Wim G


    This study assessed the performance and diversity of microbial communities in multi-stage sub-surface flow constructed wetland systems (CWs). Our aim was to assess the impact of configuration on treatment performance and microbial diversity in the systems. Results indicate that at loading rates up to 100gBOD5/(m(2)·day), similar treatment performances can be achieved using either a 3 or 4 stage configuration. In the case of phosphorus (P), the impact of configuration was less obvious and a minimum of 80% P removal can be expected for loadings up to 10gP/(m(2)·day) based on the performance results obtained within the first 16months of operation. Microbial analysis showed an increased bacterial diversity in stage four compared to the first stage. These results indicate that the design and configuration of multi-stage constructed wetland systems may have an impact on the treatment performance and the composition of the microbial community in the systems, and such knowledge can be used to improve their design and performance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Thermal Bridge Effects in Walls Separating Rowhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen


    In this report the thermal bridge effects at internal wall/roof junctions in rowhouses are evaluated. The analysis is performed using a numerical calculation programme, and different solutions are evaluated with respect to extra heat loss and internal surface temperatures.......In this report the thermal bridge effects at internal wall/roof junctions in rowhouses are evaluated. The analysis is performed using a numerical calculation programme, and different solutions are evaluated with respect to extra heat loss and internal surface temperatures....

  19. Planning of Tatara Bridge. Chodai shachokyo-Tataraohashi-no keikaku gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okukawa, A. (Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Tokyo (Japan))


    The outline of the Tatara Bridge is given to introduce the features of the entire structural system and fundamental problems concerning the construction of the huge cable stayed bridge. The central span of the bridge is 890m. The topography and geological features of the bridging point are reviewed, and social conditions such as being in a national park, safety for sailing, etc. are taken into consideration for various technological studies on the construction of the huge bridge. Bridge piers are provided in the side spans and appropriate counter weight is loaded to design a more economical bridge which is more suitable for the topography as compared with a suspension bridge. The cable stayed bridge requires no anchorage which is necessary for a suspension bridge with very little topological alteration, and an excellent result is obtained both in cost and term of construction as compared with a suspension bridge. The rigidity of the cable stayed bridge is high, and the stability of the resistance to wind of the structure is also very satisfactory. As a result, it is concluded that the bridge can be designed and constructed using currently available technologies, and a cable stayed bridge is selected in August, 1990 as the type for the Tatara Bridge. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. External corners as heat bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berber, J.


    The maximum additional heat loss in vertical external corners depending on wall thickness is determined. In order to amire at a low k-value, a much smaller wall thickness is required in externally insulated walls than in monolithic constructions; the greater loss of heat bridge with external insulation stands in contrast to a higher loss in thick, monolithic walls. In relation to total losses, the additional losses through external corners are practically negligible.

  1. Unusual downhole and surface free-field records near the Carquinez Strait bridges during the 24 August 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa, California earthquake (United States)

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Ghahari, S. Farid; Taciroglu, Ertugrul


    This paper reports the results of Part A of a study of the recorded strong-motion accelerations at the well-instrumented network of the two side-by-side parallel bridges over the Carquinez Strait during the 24 August 2014 (Mw6.0 ) South Napa, Calif. earthquake that occurred at 03:20:44 PDT with epicentral coordinates 38.22N, 122.31W. (, last accessed on October 17, 2014). Both bridges and two boreholes were instrumented by the California Strong motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) of California Geological Survey (CGS) (Shakal et al., 2014). A comprehensive comparison of several ground motion prediction equations as they relate to recorded ground motions of the earthquake is provided by Baltay and Boatright (2015).

  2. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik


    The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... groups, the sociology of work needs to develop a better understanding of the way in which linguistic diversity influences the formation of social capital, i.e. resources such as the trust and reciprocity inherent in social relations in such workplaces. Drawing on theories about intergroup contact...... and intercultural communication, this article analyses interviews with 31 employees from two highly ethnically diverse Danish workplaces. The article shows how linguistic barriers such as different levels of majority language competence and their consequent misunderstandings breed mistrust and hostility, whilst...

  3. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students’ Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis (United States)

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John


    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of two question prompts. We asked four versions of the question with different combinations of the two plant species and order of prompts in an introductory cell biology course. We found that there was not a significant difference in the content of student responses to versions of the question stem with different species or order of prompts, using both computerized lexical analysis and expert scoring. We conducted 20 face-to-face interviews with students to further probe the effects of question wording on student responses. During the interviews, we found that students thought that the plant species was neither relevant nor confusing when answering the question. Students identified the prompts as both relevant and confusing. However, this confusion was not specific to a single version. PMID:25999312

  4. Yeast surface displaying glucose oxidase as whole-cell biocatalyst: construction, characterization, and its electrochemical glucose sensing application. (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Lang, Qiaolin; Li, Liang; Liang, Bo; Tang, Xiangjiang; Kong, Lingrang; Mascini, Marco; Liu, Aihua


    The display of glucose oxidase (GOx) on yeast cell surface using a-agglutinin as an anchor motif was successfully developed. Both the immunochemical analysis and enzymatic assay showed that active GOx was efficiently expressed and translocated on the cell surface. Compared with conventional GOx, the yeast cell surface that displayed GOx (GOx-yeast) demonstrated excellent enzyme properties, such as good stability within a wide pH range (pH 3.5-11.5), good thermostability (retaining over 94.8% enzyme activity at 52 °C and 84.2% enzyme activity at 56 °C), and high d-glucose specificity. In addition, direct electrochemistry was achieved at a GOx-yeast/multiwalled-carbon-nanotube modified electrode, suggesting that the host cell of yeast did not have any adverse effect on the electrocatalytic property of the recombinant GOx. Thus, a novel electrochemical glucose biosensor based on this GOx-yeast was developed. The as-prepared biosensor was linear with the concentration of d-glucose within the range of 0.1-14 mM and a low detection limit of 0.05 mM (signal-to-noise ratio of S/N = 3). Moreover, the as-prepared biosensor is stable, specific, reproducible, simple, and cost-effective, which can be applicable for real sample detection. The proposed strategy to construct robust GOx-yeast may be applied to explore other oxidase-displaying-system-based whole-cell biocatalysts, which can find broad potential application in biosensors, bioenergy, and industrial catalysis.

  5. Aesthetic coatings for concrete bridge components (United States)

    Kriha, Brent R.

    This thesis evaluated the durability and aesthetic performance of coating systems for utilization in concrete bridge applications. The principle objectives of this thesis were: 1) Identify aesthetic coating systems appropriate for concrete bridge applications; 2) Evaluate the performance of the selected systems through a laboratory testing regimen; 3) Develop guidelines for coating selection, surface preparation, and application. A series of site visits to various bridges throughout the State of Wisconsin provided insight into the performance of common coating systems and allowed problematic structural details to be identified. To aid in the selection of appropriate coating systems, questionnaires were distributed to coating manufacturers, bridge contractors, and various DOT offices to identify high performing coating systems and best practices for surface preparation and application. These efforts supplemented a literature review investigating recent publications related to formulation, selection, surface preparation, application, and performance evaluation of coating materials.

  6. Steel framing strategies for highly skewed bridges to reduce/eliminate distortion near skewed supports : [summary]. (United States)


    In the past, bridges were aligned normal to crossing roads or obstacles in order to simplify bridge construction. However, the continuing expansion of the interstate system has challenged engineers to provide more horizontal clearance, reduce right-o...

  7. Forces in wingwalls from thermal expansion of skewed semi-integral bridges. (United States)


    Jointless bridges, such as semi-integral and integral bridges, have become more popular in recent years because of their simplicity in the construction and the elimination of high costs related to joint maintenance. Prior research has shown that skew...

  8. Integral abutment bridges under thermal loading : numerical simulations and parametric study. (United States)


    Integral abutment bridges (IABs) have become of interest due to their decreased construction and maintenance costs in : comparison to conventional jointed bridges. Most prior IAB research was related to substructure behavior, and, as a result, most :...

  9. Data collection and evaluation of continuity detail for John James Audubon Bridge No. 61390613004101. (United States)


    This report summarizes findings from monitoring data that was collected over a two-year period from Bridge No. : 61390613004101 in the John James Audubon Project, which was formerly designated as Bridge #2 prior to : construction completion. The brid...

  10. Continuity diaphragm for skewed continuous span precast prestressed concrete girder bridges. (United States)


    Continuity diaphragms used on skewed bents in prestressed girder bridges cause difficulties in detailing and : construction. Details for bridges with large diaphragm skew angles (>30) have not been a problem for LA DOTD. : However, as the skew angl...

  11. Storm event-scale nutrient attenuation in constructed wetlands experiencing a Mediterranean climate: A comparison of a surface flow and hybrid surface-subsurface flow system. (United States)

    Adyel, Tanveer M; Oldham, Carolyn E; Hipsey, Matthew R


    Among different Water Sensitive Urban Design options, constructed wetlands (CWs) are used to protect and restore downstream water quality by attenuating nutrients generated by stormwater runoff. This research compared the nutrient attenuation ability during a diverse population of storm events of two CWs: (a) a hybrid CW with multiple alternating surface flow (SF) and laterite-based subsurface flow (SSF) compartments, and (b) a single stage SF CW. Within-storm variability, nutrient concentrations were assessed at 2 to 3-h intervals at both the main inlet and outlet of each CW. Dissolved oxygen concentrations of the surface waters were also monitored at 10-min intervals using high frequency in situ sensors. Nutrient loads into the CWs were observed to be higher when a high rainfall event occurred, particularly after longer antecedent dry conditions. Longer hydraulic retention times promoted higher attenuation at both sites. However, the relative extent of nutrient attenuation differed between the CW types; the mean total nitrogen (TN) attenuation in the hybrid and SF CW was 45 and 48%, respectively. The hybrid CW attenuated 67% total phosphorus (TP) loads on average, while the SF CW acted as a net TP source. Periodic storm events transitioned the lentic CW into a lotic CW and caused riparian zone saturation; it was therefore hypothesized that such saturation of organic matter rich-riparian zones led to release of TP in the system. The hybrid CW attenuated the released TP in the downstream laterite-based SSF compartments. Diel oxygen metabolism calculated before and after the storm events was found to be strongly correlated with water temperature, solar exposure and antecedent dry condition during the pre-storm conditions. Furthermore, the SF CW showed a significant relationship between overall nutrient load attenuation and the change in oxygen metabolism during the storm perturbation, suggesting oxygen variation could be a useful proxy indicator of CW function

  12. Bridge element deterioration rates. (United States)


    This report describes the development of bridge element deterioration rates using the NYSDOT : bridge inspection database using Markov chains and Weibull-based approaches. It is observed : that Weibull-based approach is more reliable for developing b...

  13. Bridge vehicle impact assessment. (United States)


    Bridges in New York State have been experiencing close to 200 bridge hits a year. These : accidents are attributed to numerous factors including: improperly stored equipment on trucks; : violation of vehicle posting signs; illegal commercial vehicles...

  14. Bridge Scour Technology Transfer (United States)


    Scour and flooding are the leading causes of bridge failures in the United States and therefore should be monitored. New applications of tools and technologies are being developed, tested, and implemented to reduce bridge scour risk. The National Coo...

  15. LTBP bridge performance primer. (United States)


    "The performance of bridges is critical to the overall performance of the highway transportation system in the United States. However, many critical aspects of bridge performance are not well understood. The reasons for this include the extreme diver...

  16. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....

  17. Novel Graphene-Gold Hybrid Nanostructures Constructed via Sulfur Modified Graphene: Preparation and Characterization by Surface and Electrochemical Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shervedani, Reza Karimi; Amini, Akbar


    Graphical abstract: Graphene nanosheet-gold nanoparticles (GNs-AuNPs) hybrid has been fabricated from sulfur-modified graphene nanosheets (S-GNs) impregnated with HAuCl4 as Au precursor. Application of the GNs-AuNPs hybrid in electrochemical biosensing was demonstrated by immobilization of glucose oxidase as a model on the surface of GCE-ATP-GNs-AuNPs, and then, using it for sensing of glucose. - Highlights: • A new hybrid of GNs-AuNPs is synthesized by using sulfur-modified graphene. • Stability of the hybrid is exceptionally improved in comparison with previous works. • Aminothiophenol mediated fabrication and stabilization of GNs-AuNPs on GCE electrode. • High electrocatalytic activity was observed for O 2 reduction by hybrid. • Activity of the hybrid was originated from synergistic effect and surface roughness. - Abstract: A novel and uniform graphene nanosheet-gold nanoparticles (GNs-AuNPs) hybrid has been fabricated from sulfur-modified graphene nanosheets (S-GNs) impregnated with HAuCl 4 as Au precursor. Physicochemical and morphological characteristics of the GNs-AuNPs hybrids were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), surface Raman spectroscopy (SRS), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results of the XRD and HRTEM demonstrated well dispersed Au nanoparticles on GNs with an average particle size of less than 10 nm and a narrow size distribution of 6 to 8 nm. A film of GNs-AuNPs hybrid was constructed on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) through layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of 4-aminothiphenol (ATP) on GCE, and then, transferring the hybrid to the sulfur function of ATP to form GCE-ATP-GNs-AuNPs modified surface. Application of the GNs-AuNPs hybrid in electrochemical biosensing was demonstrated by immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) as a model on the surface of GCE-ATP-GNs-AuNPs, and then, using it for sensing of glucose. The biosensor exhibited a wide linear response

  18. A novel aerated surface flow constructed wetland using exhaust gas from biological wastewater treatment: Performance and mechanisms. (United States)

    Zhang, Xinwen; Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Jian; Fan, Jinlin; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Zeng, Chujun; Wu, Yiwen; Wang, Siyuan


    In this study, a novel aerated surface flow constructed wetland (SFCW) using exhaust gas from biological wastewater treatment was investigated. Compared with un-aerated SFCW, the introduction of exhaust gas into SFCW significantly improved NH 4 + -N, TN and COD removal efficiencies by 68.30 ± 2.06%, 24.92 ± 1.13% and 73.92 ± 2.36%, respectively. The pollutants removal mechanism was related to the microbial abundance and the highest microbial abundance was observed in the SFCW with exhaust gas because of the introduction of exhaust gas from sequencing batch reactor (SBR), and thereby optimizing nitrogen transformation processes. Moreover, SFCW would significantly mitigate the risk of exhaust gas pollution. SFCW removed 20.00 ± 1.23%, 34.78 ± 1.39%, and 59.50 ± 2.33% of H 2 S, NH 3 and N 2 O in the exhaust gas, respectively. And 31.32 ± 2.23% and 32.02 ± 2.86% of bacterial and fungal aerosols in exhaust gas were also removed through passing SFCW, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Constructing high-accuracy intermolecular potential energy surface with multi-dimension Morse/Long-Range model (United States)

    Zhai, Yu; Li, Hui; Le Roy, Robert J.


    Spectroscopically accurate Potential Energy Surfaces (PESs) are fundamental for explaining and making predictions of the infrared and microwave spectra of van der Waals (vdW) complexes, and the model used for the potential energy function is critically important for providing accurate, robust and portable analytical PESs. The Morse/Long-Range (MLR) model has proved to be one of the most general, flexible and accurate one-dimensional (1D) model potentials, as it has physically meaningful parameters, is flexible, smooth and differentiable everywhere, to all orders and extrapolates sensibly at both long and short ranges. The Multi-Dimensional Morse/Long-Range (mdMLR) potential energy model described herein is based on that 1D MLR model, and has proved to be effective and accurate in the potentiology of various types of vdW complexes. In this paper, we review the current status of development of the mdMLR model and its application to vdW complexes. The future of the mdMLR model is also discussed. This review can serve as a tutorial for the construction of an mdMLR PES.

  20. Polymeric salt bridges for conducting electric current in microfluidic devices (United States)

    Shepodd, Timothy J [Livermore, CA; Tichenor, Mark S [San Diego, CA; Artau, Alexander [Humacao, PR


    A "cast-in-place" monolithic microporous polymer salt bridge for conducting electrical current in microfluidic devices, and methods for manufacture thereof is disclosed. Polymeric salt bridges are formed in place in capillaries or microchannels. Formulations are prepared with monomer, suitable cross-linkers, solvent, and a thermal or radiation responsive initiator. The formulation is placed in a desired location and then suitable radiation such as UV light is used to polymerize the salt bridge within a desired structural location. Embodiments are provided wherein the polymeric salt bridges have sufficient porosity to allow ionic migration without bulk flow of solvents therethrough. The salt bridges form barriers that seal against fluid pressures in excess of 5000 pounds per square inch. The salt bridges can be formulated for carriage of suitable amperage at a desired voltage, and thus microfluidic devices using such salt bridges can be specifically constructed to meet selected analytical requirements.

  1. CFD evaluation of erosion rate around a bridge near a sand dune (United States)

    He, Wei; Huang, Ning; Dun, Hongchao; Wang, Wenbo


    This study performs a series of simulations through solving the Navier-Stokes equations and the RNG k-ε turbulence model to investigate the wind erosion rates around a bridge in a desert area with sand dunes. The digital elevation model of sand dunes and the bridge model are obtained respectively from hypsographic map and construction drawings. Through combining them into the CFD software of Fluent the simulation zone was formed. The data of wind speed obtained from field observation is fitted into a logarithm format, which was imported into Fluent model as a inlet wind speed condition. Then, the effect of Dun-Go railway on wind-blown sand movement of the neighbouring environment is simulated. The results exhibit that affected by both the sand dune and bridge, the flow field is in a complex condition. It is also shown that the bridge in upstream of the sand dune will not increase the sand transport rate intensively, but change both wind velocity gradient and turbulence kinetic energy over surface of sand dune. On the other hand, when the bridge is built downstream the sand dune, simulation results show that sand deposition rate would be decreased in reference region downstream the pier.

  2. Automatic Bridge Control System


    M. Niraimathi; S.Sivakumar; R.Vigneshwaran; R.Vinothkumar; P.Babu


    Bridge vibration control is an important issue whose purpose is to extend the structural service life of bridges. Normally, the bridge is modeled as an elastic beam or plate subject to a moving vehicle. However, the moving truck on a bridge is a complicated problem that must still be researched. In this paper, wepropose a new method, to overcome the huge load in the bridge a load cell is used at the entry which will monitor the load continuously at both ends. To escape from the heavy water fl...

  3. Gauge bridges in classical field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobs, S.


    In this thesis Poisson structures of two classical gauge field theories (Maxwell-Klein-Gordon- and Maxwell-Dirac-system) are constructed using the parametrix construction of Green's functions. Parametrices for the Maxwell-Klein-Gordon- and Maxwell-Dirac-system are constructed in Minkowski space and this construction is later generalized to curved space times for the Maxwell-Klein-Gordon-system. With these Green's functions Poisson brackets will be defined as Peierls brackets. Finally non-local, gauge invariant observables, the so-called ''gauge bridges''are constructed. Gauge bridges are the matrix elements of holonomy operators. It is shown, that these emerge from Poisson brackets of local, gauge invariant observables. (orig.)

  4. Construction machine control guidance implementation strategy. (United States)


    Machine Controlled Guidance (MCG) technology may be used in roadway and bridge construction to improve construction efficiencies, potentially resulting in reduced project costs and accelerated schedules. The technology utilizes a Global Positioning S...

  5. Dynamic Response of a Floating Bridge Structure


    Viuff, Thomas; Leira, Bernt Johan; Øiseth, Ole; Xiang, Xu


    A theoretical overview of the stochastic dynamic analysis of a floating bridge structure is presented. Emphasis is on the wave-induced response and the waves on the sea surface are idealized as a zero mean stationary Gaussian process. The first-order wave load processes are derived using linear potential theory and the structural idealization is based on the Finite Element Method. A frequency response calculation is presented for a simplified floating bridge structure example emphasising the ...

  6. Monitoring system of arch bridge for safety network management (United States)

    Joo, Bong Chul; Yoo, Young Jun; Lee, Chin Hyung; Park, Ki Tae; Hwang, Yoon Koog


    Korea has constructed the safety management network monitoring test systems for the civil infrastructure since 2006 which includes airport structure, irrigation structure, railroad structure, road structure, and underground structure. Bridges among the road structure include the various superstructure types which are Steel box girder bridge, suspension bridge, PSC-box-girder bridge, and arch bridge. This paper shows the process of constructing the real-time monitoring system for the arch bridge and the measured result by the system. The arch type among various superstructure types has not only the structural efficiency but the visual beauty, because the arch type superstructure makes full use of the feature of curve. The main measuring points of arch bridges composited by curved members make a difference to compare with the system of girder bridges composited by straight members. This paper also shows the method to construct the monitoring system that considers the characteristic of the arch bridge. The system now includes strain gauges and thermometers, and it will include various sensor types such as CCTV, accelerometers and so on additionally. For the long term and accuracy monitoring, the latest optical sensors and equipments are applied to the system.

  7. Model-independent nonlinear control algorithm with application to a liquid bridge experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V.; Haaning, A.; Muehlner, K.A.; Van Hook, S.J.; Swinney, H.L.


    We present a control method for high-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems that can target remote unstable states without a priori knowledge of the underlying dynamical equations. The algorithm constructs a high-dimensional look-up table based on the system's responses to a sequence of random perturbations. The method is demonstrated by stabilizing unstable flow of a liquid bridge surface-tension-driven convection experiment that models the float zone refining process. Control of the dynamics is achieved by heating or cooling two thermoelectric Peltier devices placed in the vicinity of the liquid bridge surface. The algorithm routines along with several example programs written in the MATLAB language can be found at copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  8. Construction of joint confidence regions for the optimal true class fractions of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) surfaces and manifolds. (United States)

    Bantis, Leonidas E; Nakas, Christos T; Reiser, Benjamin; Myall, Daniel; Dalrymple-Alford, John C


    The three-class approach is used for progressive disorders when clinicians and researchers want to diagnose or classify subjects as members of one of three ordered categories based on a continuous diagnostic marker. The decision thresholds or optimal cut-off points required for this classification are often chosen to maximize the generalized Youden index (Nakas et al., Stat Med 2013; 32: 995-1003). The effectiveness of these chosen cut-off points can be evaluated by estimating their corresponding true class fractions and their associated confidence regions. Recently, in the two-class case, parametric and non-parametric methods were investigated for the construction of confidence regions for the pair of the Youden-index-based optimal sensitivity and specificity fractions that can take into account the correlation introduced between sensitivity and specificity when the optimal cut-off point is estimated from the data (Bantis et al., Biomet 2014; 70: 212-223). A parametric approach based on the Box-Cox transformation to normality often works well while for markers having more complex distributions a non-parametric procedure using logspline density estimation can be used instead. The true class fractions that correspond to the optimal cut-off points estimated by the generalized Youden index are correlated similarly to the two-class case. In this article, we generalize these methods to the three- and to the general k-class case which involves the classification of subjects into three or more ordered categories, where ROC surface or ROC manifold methodology, respectively, is typically employed for the evaluation of the discriminatory capacity of a diagnostic marker. We obtain three- and multi-dimensional joint confidence regions for the optimal true class fractions. We illustrate this with an application to the Trail Making Test Part A that has been used to characterize cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  9. Integral abutment bridge for Louisiana's soft and stiff soils. (United States)


    Integral abutment bridges (IABs) have been designed and constructed in a few US states in the past few : decades. The initial purpose of building such bridges was to eliminate the expansion joints and resolve the : joint-induced problems. Although IA...

  10. Wind Tunnel Testing of Active Control System for Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henriette I.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    This paper describes preparation of wind tunnel testing of the principle of using flaps to control the motion of suspension bridges. The experiment will take place at the Instituto Superior Technico Lisbon, Portugal. The bridge section model is constructed of foam with an aluminium frame. The flaps...... are regulated by servo motors. Neural networks are used to position the flaps in the optimal positions....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Trach


    Full Text Available A brief review on the application of wooden bridges is presented as well as wooden structures of modern pedestrian and road bridges built in recent years in the Western Europe are described. Based upon the review, the conclusions concerning the construction of similar structures in Ukraine are made.

  12. Drill pipe bridge plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winslow, D.W.; Brisco, D.P.


    This patent describes a method of stopping flow of fluid up through a pipe bore of a pipe string in a well. It comprises: lowering a bridge plug apparatus on a work string into the pipe string to a position where the pipe bore is to be closed; communicating the pipe bore below a packer of the bridge plug apparatus through the bridge plug apparatus with a low pressure zone above the packer to permit the fluid to flow up through the bridge plug apparatus; engaging the bridge plug apparatus with an internal upset of the pipe string; while the fluid is flowing up through the bridge plug apparatus, pulling upward on the work string and the bridge plug apparatus and thereby sealing the packer against the pipe bore; isolating the pipe bore below the packer from the low pressure zone above the packer and thereby stopping flow of the fluid up through the pipe bore; disconnecting the work string from the bridge plug apparatus; and maintaining the bridge plug apparatus in engagement with the internal upset and sealed against the pipe bore due to an upward pressure differential applied to the bridge plug apparatus by the fluid contained therebelow

  13. Structural condition assessment of the bridge in Ostrava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čech Jindřich


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the comparison of results of dynamic test and numerical modelling of a road bridge across the Dr. Kudela street in the street Rudná in Ostrava. The bridge is a reinforced concrete structure, made of post-tensioned KA-beams. On the bridge were verified material properties. Calculation model to validate the static and dynamic behavior of structures was created. On the bridge were measured dynamic properties (frequency, mode shapes and attenuation during excitation construction by hydraulic vibration exciter. Article will focus on comparing the results of the calculation of dynamic structures and properties measured on real structure upon excitation.

  14. Phase I development of an aesthetic, precast concrete bridge rail. (United States)


    Precast concrete bridge rail systems offer several advantages over traditional cast-in-place rail designs, including reduced construction : time and costs, installation in a wide range of environmental conditions, easier maintenance and repair, impro...

  15. Synthesis of concrete bridge piles prestressed with CFRP systems. (United States)


    The Texas Department of Transportation frequently constructs prestressed concrete piles for use in bridge : foundations. Such prestressed concrete piles are typically built with steel strands that are highly susceptible to : environmental degradation...

  16. Integral abutment bridges under thermal loading : field monitoring and analysis. (United States)


    Integral abutment bridges (IABs) have gained popularity throughout the United States due to their low construction and maintenance costs. Previous research on IABs has been heavily focused on substructure performance, leaving a need for better unders...

  17. Smart FRP Composite Sandwich Bridge Decks in Cold Regions (United States)


    In this study, new and integrated Smart honeycomb Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (S-FRP) : sandwich materials for various transportation construction applications, with particular emphasis : on highway bridge decks in cold regions, were developed and teste...

  18. Development of precast bridge deck overhang system : technical report. (United States)


    The implementation of full-depth, precast overhang panel systems has the potential to improve constructability, : productivity, and make bridges more economical. Initial testing and analyses reported in the 0-6100-2 report resulted in : a design that...

  19. Shrinkage and durability study of bridge deck concrete. (United States)


    The Mississippi Department of Transportation is incorporating changes to material : specifications and construction procedures for bridge decks in an effort to reduce shrinkage : cracking. These changes are currently being implemented into a limited ...

  20. Development and performance evaluation of fiber reinforced polymer bridge. (United States)


    Fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) have become more popular construction materials in the last decade due to the reduction of : material costs. The installation and performance evaluation of the first FRP-wrapped balsa wood bridge in Louisiana is descri...

  1. Bridge over troubled water?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Nannestad, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard


    The problem of integrating non-Western immigrants into Western welfare states is the focus of this paper. To address this issue, we suggest a social capital approach in which we apply the conceptual pair of bridging social capital (BR), which connects an individual to the broader social structure...... relationship between the levels of bridging and bonding capital, suggesting that bonding social capital in the immigrant group does not seem to impede the establishment of the bridging social capital needed for integration....

  2. Sustainable Bridge Infrastructure Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safi, Mohammed; Du, Guangli; Simonsson, Peter


    The lack of a flexible but systematic approach for integrating lifecycle aspects into bridge investment decisions is a major obstacle hindering the procurement of sustainable bridge infrastructures. This paper addresses this obstacle by introducing a holistic approach that agencies could use...... to procure the most “sustainable” (lifecycle-efficient) bridge through a fair design-build (D-B) tendering process, considering all the main aspects: life-cycle cost (LCC), service life-span, aesthetic demands and environmental impacts (LCA)....

  3. Laser-Sintered Constructs with Bio-inspired Porosity and Surface Micro/Nano-Roughness Enhance Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Matrix Mineralization In Vitro. (United States)

    Cheng, Alice; Cohen, David J; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi


    Direct metal laser sintering can produce porous Ti-6Al-4V orthopedic and dental implants. The process requires reduced resources and time and can provide greater structural control than machine manufacturing. Implants in bone are colonized by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can differentiate into osteoblasts and contribute to osseointegration. This study examined osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization of human MSCs cultured on laser-sintered Ti-6Al-4V constructs with varying porosity and at different time scales. 2D solid disks and low, medium and high porosity (LP, MP, and HP) 3D constructs based on a human trabecular bone template were laser sintered from Ti-6Al-4V powder and further processed to have micro- and nanoscale roughness. hMSCs exhibited greater osteoblastic differentiation and local factor production on all 3D porous constructs compared to 2D surfaces, which was sustained for 9 days without use of exogenous factors. hMSCs cultured for 8 weeks on MP constructs in osteogenic medium (OM), OM supplemented with BMP2 or collagen-coated MP constructs in OM exhibited bone-like extracellular matrix mineralization. Use of bio-inspired porosity for the 3D architecture of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V enhanced osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs beyond surface roughness alone. This study suggests that a 3D architecture may enhance the osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants in vivo.

  4. Adsorption and combing of DNA on HOPG surfaces of bulk crystals and nanosheets: application to the bridging of DNA between HOPG/Si heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, F; Martin, P; Fujita, H; Kawakatsu, H


    Controlled and reproducible combing of λ-phage DNA molecules can be realized in predetermined orientations on highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) surfaces. Observations by atomic force microscopy (AFM) show that DNA adsorption onto HOPG surfaces leads to different hierarchical organizations such as balls, networks, films, and fractal structures. HOPG nanosheets (3.5-100 nm thick) were created by simply rubbing a HOPG crystal onto a silicon oxide surface, and then patterned with a focused ion beam (FIB) to fabricate HOPG/Si heterostructures (arrays of silicon micropillars and microtracks decorated on their top surface with HOPG nanosheets). The surface reactivity of HOPG nanosheets toward DNA is found to be the same as of HOPG bulk crystals. Finally, combing is used to attach and suspend bundles of approximately 20-50 DNA molecules between HOPG/Si heterostructures

  5. The hepatic bridge. (United States)

    Sugarbaker, Paul H


    The hepatic bridge forms a tunnel of liver parenchyma that may obscure peritoneal metastases associated with the round ligament. Visualization and then resection of nodules associated with this structure is necessary. The incidence of a hepatic bridge and the extent that it covered the round ligament was determined in consecutive patients. Extent of coverage of the round ligament by the hepatic bridge was determined: Class 1 indicates up to one-third of the round ligament obscured, Class 2 up to two-thirds and Class 3 more than two-thirds. In 102 patients in whom the round ligament of the liver could be completely visualized, 50 had a hepatic bridge. Class 1 was 22 (44%) of the bridges, Class 2 was 16 (32%) and Class 3 was 12 (24%). A hepatic bridge was more frequently present in 28 of 45 male patients (62%) vs. 22 of 57 female patients (38%). Approximately one-half of our patients having cytoreductive surgery for peritoneal metastases were observed to have a hepatic bridge. Up to 56% of these patients have Class 2 or 3 hepatic bridge and may require division of the hepatic bridge to completely visualize the contents of the tunnel created by this structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  6. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures.......Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures....

  7. Timber in Bridge Structures


    Detkin, Viktoria


    The purpose of this final year project was to study the properties of timber as a structural material and the suitability of wood in load bearing members for bridge structures. For a case study, an existing timber bridge was selected. Due to its condition the bridge should be replaced. The design of a new bridge with steel beams holding a glulam deck was made. During the case study the replacement of steel beams by glulam timber ones was discussed. Some calculations were made in order to ...

  8. Live-load performance evaluation of historic covered timber bridges in the United States (United States)

    Junwon Seo; Travis K. Hosteng; Brent M. Phares; James P. Wacker


    The National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation Program (NHCBP), sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), was established to preserve the covered timber bridge structures that were constructed in the early 1800s. Today, many of the approximately 880 covered timber bridges still in existence in the United States are closed to vehicular traffic;...

  9. The collapse of Tacoma Narrows Bridge: a piece to the puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Jens Honore; Christensen, D. S.; Malthe, M. G.

    On Nov. 7th 1940 the newly constructed Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapsed due to excessive torsional oscillations caused by the formation and shedding of large coherent vortices. The subsequent wind tunnel tests conducted on both section- and full bridge models concluded that the bridge should have ...

  10. Failure and fatigue life assessment of steel railway bridges with brittle material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.


    Some existing steel bridges have been constructed from steels with a toughness that does not fulfil the requirements in modern standards. In such a case, standards for bridges do not provide an alternative assessment route. Yet such bridges may still be fit for purpose. This paper presents an

  11. Effects of Adhesive Connection on Composite Action between FRP Bridge Deck and Steel Girder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, X.; Luo, Chengwei; Qiang, X.; Kolstein, M.H.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.


    The FRP-steel girder composite bridge system is increasingly used in new constructions of bridges as well as rehabilitation of old bridges. However, the understanding of composite action between FRP decks and steel girders is limited and needs to be systematically investigated. In this paper,

  12. An engineering design study of the transfer bridge for the SSC SDC detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Western, J.L.; Tulk, G.W.; Dittert, L.I.


    The transfer bridge is a major structural installation component for the large detector proposed by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC). The transfer bridge is the structural device that allows for installation of the Muon Forward Toroid (MFT) and calorimeter components into the Muon Barrel Toroid (MBT). This paper summarizes the design and construction of the SDC transfer bridge

  13. Long term monitoring of carbon composite strands in the Penobscot-Narrows bridge. (United States)


    The Penobscot-Narrows Bridge was constructed between May 2003 and December 2006. The bridge is a cable-stayed design with twin pylons and a 2,120-foot span. This cable-stayed bridge features a cradle stay system that : allows for each cable strand in...

  14. Concept Development of an Aluminum Pedestrian Bridge


    Brekke, Christian Arne Raknes


    As part of new initiatives from Norwegian Public Road Administration (NPRA) and Nye Veier AS towards reduced cost of road construction and maintenance, alternative materials for bridges are being considered. For the construction phase, quick installation and utilization of prefabricated units are being requested. For the operational phase, solutions not requiring periodical maintenance are favorized. In total, these new requirements are well suited for the use of aluminum. Especially for pede...

  15. Use and selection of bridges as day roosts by Rafinesque's Big Eared Bats.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Frances, M.; Loeb, Susan, C.; Bunch, Mary, S.; Bowerman, William, W.


    ABSTRACT.—Rafinesque’s big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) use bridges as day roosts in parts of their range, but information on bridge use across their range is lacking. From May to Aug. 2002 we surveyed 1129 bridges (12.5%) within all 46 counties of South Carolina to determine use and selection of bridges as day roosts by big-eared bats and to document their distribution across the state. During summer 2003, we visited 235 bridges in previously occupied areas of the state to evaluate short-term fidelity to bridge roosts. We found colonies and solitary big-eared bats beneath 38 bridges in 2002 and 54 bridges in 2003. Construction type and size of bridges strongly influenced use in both years; bats selected large, concrete girder bridges and avoided flat-bottomed slab bridges. The majority of occupied bridges (94.7%) were in the Upper and Lower Coastal Plains, but a few bridges (5.3%) were located in the Piedmont. Rafinesque’s big-eared bats were absent beneath bridges in the Blue Ridge Mountains. We established new records of occurrence for 10 counties. In the Coastal Plains, big-eared bats exhibited a high degree of short-term fidelity to roosts in highway bridges. For bridges that were occupied at least once, mean frequency of use was 65.9%. Probability of finding bats under a bridge ranged from 0.46 to 0.73 depending on whether the bridge was occupied in the previous year. Thus, bridges should be inspected three to five times in a given year to determine whether they are being used. Regional bridge roost surveys may be a good method for determining the distribution of C. rafinesquii, particularly in the Coastal Plains, and protection of suitable bridges may be a viable conservation strategy where natural roost sites are limited.

  16. Bridge health monitoring metrics : updating the bridge deficiency algorithm. (United States)


    As part of its bridge management system, the Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) must decide how best to spend its bridge replacement funds. In making these decisions, ALDOT managers currently use a deficiency algorithm to rank bridges that ...

  17. Long-term bridge performance high priority bridge performance issues. (United States)


    Bridge performance is a multifaceted issue involving performance of materials and protective systems, : performance of individual components of the bridge, and performance of the structural system as a whole. The : Long-Term Bridge Performance (LTBP)...

  18. Quality of bitumens in asphalt hot-mixes with emphasis on the durability of constructed premix surfacings.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Assen, EJ


    Full Text Available time. Asphalt technologists' ultimate quest is for performance-related specifications that will ensure the procurement of quality bitumens which could produce asphalts with desirable performance during construction, and which will resist physical...

  19. U.S. Geological Survey - Virginia Department of Transportation: Bridge scour pilot study (United States)

    Austin, Samuel H.


    BackgroundCost effective and safe highway bridge designs are required to ensure the long-term sustainability of Virginia’s road systems. The streamflows that, over time, scour streambed sediments from bridge piers inherently affect bridge safety and design costs. To ensure safety, bridge design must anticipate streambed scour at bridge piers over the lifespan of a bridge. Until recently Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) guidance provided only for scour estimates of granular, noncohesive, highly erosive material yielding overestimates of scour potential in instances when streambed materials offer some resistance to scour. This study seeks to estimate stream power and streambed scour for these more resistive sites, with bridge piers potentially established in cohesive soil or erodible rock. This new knowledge may provide significant construction cost savings while ensuring design and construction of safe highway bridges.

  20. Hybrid Bridge Structures Made of Frp Composite and Concrete (United States)

    Rajchel, Mateusz; Siwowski, Tomasz


    Despite many advantages over the conventional construction materials, the contemporary development of FRP composites in bridge engineering is limited due to high initial cost, low stiffness (in case of glass fibers) and sudden composite failure mode. In order to reduce the given limitations, mixed (hybrid) solutions connecting the FRP composites and conventional construction materials, including concrete, have been tested in many countries for 20 years. Shaping the hybrid structures based on the attributes of particular materials, aims to increase stiffness and reduce cost without losing the carrying capacity, lightness and easiness of bridges that includes such hybrid girders, and to avoid the sudden dangerous failure mode. In the following article, the authors described examples of hybrid road bridges made of FRP composite and concrete within the time of 20 years and presented the first Polish hybrid FRP-concrete road bridge. Also, the directions of further research, necessary to spread these innovative, advanced and sustainable bridge structures were indicated.

  1. National Bridge Inventory System (NBI) (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The NBI System is the collection of bridge inspection information and costs associated with bridge replacements of structurally deficient bridges on and off the NHS....

  2. Virtual Bridge Design Challenge (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.


    This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…

  3. Bridge the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi


    This article focuses on photo projects organised for teenage refugees by the Society for Humanistic Photography (Berlin, Germany). These projects, named Bridge the Gap I (2015), and Bridge the Gap II (2016), were carried out in Berlin and brought together teenagers with refugee and German...

  4. The floating water bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Elmar C; Woisetschlaeger, Jakob; Gatterer, Karl; Maier, Eugen; Pecnik, Rene; Holler, Gert; Eisenkoelbl, Helmut


    When high voltage is applied to distilled water filled in two glass beakers which are in contact, a stable water connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge. A detailed experimental analysis reveals static and dynamic structures as well as heat and mass transfer through this bridge

  5. Students design composite bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.W.B.; Galjaard, J.C.; Brekelmans, J.W.P.M.


    The paper gives an overview of recent research on steel-concrete composite bridge design by students of Delft University of Technology doing their master's thesis. Primary objective of this research was to find possibilities for application of steel-concrete composite bridges in the Netherlands,


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ye. Heizn


    Full Text Available Sylva Bridge at Kungur city is one of the oldest road bridges in Perm region, the West Urals, Russia. Its erection was begun in 1912 and was interrupted with the First World War and the further events in Russia. The bridge was opened only in 1931. For 75 years of bridge operation the most part of bridge constructions has been acquired plural damages, both mechanical and corrosion. After the bridge inspection in 2003 and according to the calculations of its capacity, the decision on reconstruction of the bridge was accepted. The purpose of rehabilitation was to replace the timber deck by steel orthotropic deck with asphalt pavement. A new deck was to be engaged in combined action with the existing metal structures with the help of socles with high-strength bolts. Due to this, the bridge carrying capacity was increased as required by the present standards. In 2006, after tests, the bridge was opened for traffic.

  7. Heating of roads. Heat consumption and heat output as a function of climate, construction, demands on surface conditions and principle of heat supply. Uppvaermning av vaegar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, R


    In this work analytical formulas for calculation of temperatures in a heated roadbed are given. The heat flux from a heated surface has been studied. The methods for snowclearence on different types of roads have been investigated. The construction work has been studied. The analytical formulas have been evaluated by comparison between calculated temperatures and temperatures measured in field and laboratory. The heat transfer coefficients in those formulas have been developed empirically by tests in laboratory and field. Surfaces with different types of traffic are divided into three classes according to the demands for snow removal. The construction work has been divided into cost elements. This has given a basis for calculating the economic effects of alternative designs. By this work has been developed a method useful on one hand for calculation of the optimum principle of regulation of the supply of heat and on the other hand for the design of the heat installations in the road.

  8. Investigation of Aerodynamic Interference between Twin Deck Bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitek, M. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division. Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC); Bojanowski, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division. Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC); Lottes, S. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division. Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC)


    Construction of a twin bridge can be a cost effective and minimally disruptive way to increase capacity when an existing bridge is not near the end of its service life. With ever growing vehicular traffic, when demand approaches the capacity of many existing roads and bridges. Remodeling a structure with an insufficient number of lanes can be a good solution in case of smaller and less busy bridges. Closing down or reducing traffic on crossings of greater importance for the construction period, however, can result in major delays and revenue loss for commerce and transportation as well as increasing the traffic load on alternate route bridges. Multiple-deck bridges may be the answer to this issue. A parallel deck can be built next to the existing one, without reducing the flow. Additionally, a new bridge can be designed as a twin or multi-deck structure. Several such structures have been built throughout the United States, among them: - The New NY Bridge Project - the Tappan Zee Hudson River Crossing, - SR-182 Columbia River Bridge, - The Thaddeus Kosciusko Bridge (I-87), - The Allegheny River Bridge, Pennsylvania, which carries I76, - Fred Hartman Bridge, TX, see Figure 1.2. With a growing number of double deck bridges, additional, more detailed, studies on the interaction of such bridge pairs in windy conditions appears appropriate. Aerodynamic interference effects should be examined to assure the aerodynamic stability of both bridges. There are many studies on aerodynamic response of single deck bridges, but the literature on double-deck structures is not extensive. The experimental results from wind tunnels are still limited in number, as a parametric study is required, they can be very time consuming. Literature review shows that some investigation of the effects of gap-width and angle of wind incidence has been done. Most of the CFD computational studies that have been done were limited to 2D simulations. Therefore, it is desirable to investigate twin decks

  9. Design of a Super High Frequency (SHF) Extremely High Frequency (EHF) Satellite Communications (SATCOM) Terminal (SEST) for New Construction Naval Surface Ships using the systems engineering process


    Harrell, Steven B.


    Alternative means of satisfying the high bandwidth and protected communications requirements for New Construction Naval Surface Ships in the midst of conflicting reduced radar cross section (RCS) requirements were investigated using the systems engineering process. Various antenna, ranging from parabolic dish antennas to Luneberg lens antennas to phased array antennas, and feed and amplifier combinations were considered to provide a dual-band Super High Frequency (SHF) and Extr...

  10. Reduction of Liquid Bridge Force for 3D Microstructure Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Murakami


    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed an increased demand for a method for precise measurement of the microstructures of mechanical microparts, microelectromechanical systems, micromolds, optical devices, microholes, etc. This paper presents a measurement system for three-dimensional (3D microstructures that use an optical fiber probe. This probe consists of a stylus shaft with a diameter of 2.5 µm and a glass ball with a diameter of 5 µm attached to the stylus tip. In this study, the measurement system, placed in a vacuum vessel, is constructed suitably to prevent adhesion of the stylus tip to the measured surface caused by the surface force resulting from the van der Waals force, electrostatic force, and liquid bridge force. First, these surface forces are analyzed with the aim of investigating the causes of adhesion. Subsequently, the effects of pressure inside the vacuum vessel on surface forces are evaluated. As a result, it is found that the surface force is 0.13 µN when the pressure inside the vacuum vessel is 350 Pa. This effect is equivalent to a 60% reduction in the surface force in the atmosphere.

  11. A Bridge Deflection Monitoring with GPS (United States)

    Figurski, M.; Gałuszkiewicz, M.; Wrona, M.


    This paper introduces results of investigation carried on by The Applied Geomatics Section in Military University of Technology. Research includes possibilities of monitoring dynamic behavior of a bridge using high rate GPS data. Whole event was executed with collaboration of The Road and Bridge Management and The Warsaw Geodesy Company. Interdisciplinary approach with this project allows authors to get reliable information about investigating constructions and their respond for true traffic loading detected by GPS receivers. Way of compute data and used software (TRACK) are also shown in this paper.

  12. Deflection control system for prestressed concrete bridges by CCD camera. CCD camera ni yoru prestressed concrete kyo no tawami kanri system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Y.; Nakayama, Y.; Arai, T. (Kawada Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    For the long-span prestressed concrete bridge (continuous box girder and cable stayed bridge), the design and construction control becomes increasingly complicated as construction proceeds because of its cyclic works. This paper describes the method and operation of an automatic levelling module using CCD camera and the experimental results by this system. For this automatic levelling system, the altitude can be automatically measured by measuring the center location of gravity of the target on the bridge surface using CCD camera. The present deflection control system developed compares the measured value by the automatic levelling system with the design value obtained by the design calculation system, and manages them. From the real-time continuous measurement for the long term, in which the CCD camera was set on the bridge surface, it was found that the stable measurement accuracy can be obtained. Successful application of this system demonstrates that the system is an effective and efficient construction aid. 11 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Chlorodiethylaluminum supported on silica: A dinuclear aluminum surface species with bridging μ2-Cl-ligand as a highly efficient co-catalyst for the Ni-catalyzed dimerization of ethene

    KAUST Repository

    Kermagoret, Anthony


    Silica-supported chloro alkyl aluminum co-catalysts (DEAC@support) were prepared via Surface Organometallic Chemistry by contacting diethylaluminum chloride (DEAC) and high specific surface silica materials, i.e. SBA-15, MCM-41, and Aerosil SiO2. Such systems efficiently activate NiCl 2(PBu3)2 for catalytic ethene dimerization, with turnover frequency (TOF) reaching up to 498,000 molC2H4/ (molNi h) for DEAC@MCM-41. A detailed analysis of the DEAC@SBA-15 co-catalyst structure by solid-state aluminum-27 NMR at high-field (17.6 T and 20.0 T) and ultrafast spinning rates allows to detect six sites, characterized by a distribution of quadrupolar interaction principal values CQ and isotropic chemical shifts δiso. Identification of the corresponding Al-grafted structures was possible by comparison of the experimental NMR signatures with these calculated by DFT on a wide range of models for the aluminum species (mono- versus di-nuclear, mono- versus bis-grafted with bridging Cl or ethyl). Most of the sites were identified as dinuclear species with retention of the structure of DEAC, namely with the presence of μ2-Cl-ligands between two aluminum, and this probably explains the high catalytic performance of this silica-supported co-catalysts. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrical Double-Layer and Ion Bridging Forces between Symmetric and Asymmetric Charged Surfaces in the Presence of Mono- and Divalent Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Feilberg, Karen Louise; Yan, Wei


    charged (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane, and the negatively charged (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane. The interactions between the three symmetric systems, as well as between the three asymmetric combinations of surfaces, were measured and compared to calculated electrical double-layer forces...

  15. The effect of circular bridge piers with different inclination angles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    comparing the data obtained from vertical bridge pier and well-known relationships, a relationship ... pier nose, horseshoe vortex, surface vortex wake vortex. ..... After passing several hours and discharging of ..... It is recommended to use this ... Energy. 109–119. [4] Bozkus Z and Yaldiz O 2004 Effects of inclination of bridge.

  16. Economic feasibility of surface flow constructed (SFCW) wetlands for reduction of water pollution from agricultural fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Kjaergaard, Charlotte


    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as study cases...

  17. Developments and Prospects of Long-Span High-Speed Railway Bridge Technologies in China


    Shunquan Qin; Zongyu Gao


    With the rapid developments of the high-speed railway in China, a great number of long-span bridges have been constructed in order to cross rivers and gorges. At present, the longest main span of a constructed high-speed railway bridge is only 630 m. The main span of Hutong Yangtze River Bridge and of Wufengshan Yangtze River Bridge, which are under construction, will be much longer, at 1092 m each. In order to overcome the technical issues that originate from the extremely large dead loading...

  18. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker


    if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience...... been an important driver for the development of new window solutions in Denmark, increasing the inner-surface temperature at the sealing of window panes. However, it will not stop complaints fromconsumers, as this temperature is calculated under standardized conditions. Increasing requirements...

  19. Free energy landscape of a minimalist salt bridge model. (United States)

    Li, Xubin; Lv, Chao; Corbett, Karen M; Zheng, Lianqing; Wu, Dongsheng; Yang, Wei


    Salt bridges are essential to protein stability and dynamics. Despite the importance, there has been scarce of detailed discussion on how salt bridge partners interact with each other in distinct solvent exposed environments. In this study, employing a recent generalized orthogonal space tempering (gOST) method, we enabled efficient molecular dynamics simulation of repetitive breaking and reforming of salt bridge structures within a minimalist salt-bridge model, the Asp-Arg dipeptide and thereby were able to map its detailed free energy landscape in aqueous solution. Free energy surface analysis shows that although individually-solvated states are more favorable, salt-bridge states still occupy a noticeable portion of the overall population. Notably, the competing forces, e.g. intercharge attractions that drive the formation of salt bridges and solvation forces that pull the charged groups away from each other, are energetically comparable. As the result, the salt bridge stability is highly tunable by local environments; for instance when local water molecules are perturbed to interact more strongly with each other, the population of the salt-bridge states is likely to increase. Our results reveal the critical role of local solvent structures in modulating salt-bridge partner interactions and imply the importance of water fluctuations on conformational dynamics that involves solvent accessible salt bridge formations. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  20. Bridge technology report

    CERN Document Server


    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. As LANs have proliferated, new technologies and system concepts have come to the fore. One of the key issues is how to interconnect networks. One means of interconnection is to use a 'bridge'. Other competing technologies are repeaters, routers, and gateways. Bridges permit traffic isolation, connect network segments together and operate at the MAC layer. Further, because they operate at the MAC layer, they can handle a variety of protocols such as TCP/IP, SNA, and X.25. This report focuses on the specific technology of bridging two netw

  1. Monitoring calculation of closure change of Extradosed Cable-stayed Bridge (United States)

    Shi, Jing Xian; Ran, Zhi Hong


    During the construction of extradosed cable-stayed bridge in Yunnan province, China, the construction unit has made certain changes in the construction process of the closure section due to environmental restrictions: remove the hanging basket after the closure, the sling shall not be provided in closure section, the function of the sling is realized by the hanging basket on the 16th beam. In case of this change, the bridge has been constructed to section 15th. In order to ensure the smooth and orderly progress of each stage in the closure phase, this article is arranged according to the construction plan, appropriate adjustment of related procedures, checking the bridge safety at all stages of construction, the stress and force of the main girder are compared to ensure the safety of the construction after closure changes. Adjust the height of the beam of the 16th and 17th to adapt the new construction plan, and the bridge closure smoothly.

  2. Environmental life cycle assessment of railway bridge materials using UHPFRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizjak Karmen Fifer


    Full Text Available The railway infrastructure is a very important component of the world’s total transportation network. Investment in its construction and maintenance is significant on a global scale. Previously published life cycle assessment (LCA studies performed on road and rail systems very seldom included infrastructures in detail, mainly choosing to focus on vehicle manufacturing and fuel consumption. This article presents results from an environmental study for railway steel bridge materials for the demonstration case of the Buna Bridge in Croatia. The goal of these analyses was to compare two different types of remediation works for railway bridges with different materials and construction types. In the first part, the environmental impact of the classical concrete bridge construction was calculated, whereas in the second one, an alternative new solution, namely, the strengthening of the old steel bridge with ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC deck, was studied. The results of the LCA show that the new solution with UHPFRC deck gives much better environmental performance. Up to now, results of LCA of railway open lines, railway bridges and tunnels have been published, but detailed analyses of the new solution with UHPFRC deck above the old bridge have not previously been performed.

  3. Environmental life cycle assessment of railway bridge materials using UHPFRC (United States)

    Bizjak, Karmen Fifer; Šajna, Aljoša; Slanc, Katja; Knez, Friderik


    The railway infrastructure is a very important component of the world's total transportation network. Investment in its construction and maintenance is significant on a global scale. Previously published life cycle assessment (LCA) studies performed on road and rail systems very seldom included infrastructures in detail, mainly choosing to focus on vehicle manufacturing and fuel consumption. This article presents results from an environmental study for railway steel bridge materials for the demonstration case of the Buna Bridge in Croatia. The goal of these analyses was to compare two different types of remediation works for railway bridges with different materials and construction types. In the first part, the environmental impact of the classical concrete bridge construction was calculated, whereas in the second one, an alternative new solution, namely, the strengthening of the old steel bridge with ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) deck, was studied. The results of the LCA show that the new solution with UHPFRC deck gives much better environmental performance. Up to now, results of LCA of railway open lines, railway bridges and tunnels have been published, but detailed analyses of the new solution with UHPFRC deck above the old bridge have not previously been performed.

  4. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Enevoldsen, I.

    The present paper worked out as a part of a research project on "Dynamic amplification factor of vehicle loadings on smaller bridges" establishes a two-dimensional spectral description of the road roughness surface based on measurements from a Danish road using so-called Profilograph used by Dani...

  5. Construction of wettability gradient surface on copper substrate by controlled hydrolysis of poly(methyl methacrylate–butyl acrylate) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yong, E-mail: [Guangzhou Panyu Polytechnic, Guangzhou 511483 (China); Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Zhuo-ru [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)


    We report a gradient wettability surface on copper slide prepared by a simple controlled ester group hydrolysis procedure of poly(methyl methacrylate–butyl acrylate) [P (MMA-BA)] films coated on the copper substrate. In the method, sodium hydroxide solutions are selected to prepare surface gradient wettability on P (MMA-BA) films. The P (MMA-BA) copolymers with different MMA contents are first synthesized by a conventional free atom radical solution polymerization method. The transfer of surface chemical composition from the ester group to acid salt is achieved by hydrolysis in NaOH solution. The effects of different concentrations of NaOH solution and reaction times on the physicochemical properties of the resulting surfaces are studied. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that the varying concentration along the substrate length is only attributed to the hydrolysis reaction of ester groups. The hydrolysis causes insignificant change on the morphology of the original film on the copper substrate. In addition, it is found that the MMA copolymer content has a significant influence on the concentration of ester groups on the outermost surface and thus important for forming the slope gradients.

  6. Protein-protein networks construction and their relevance measurement based on multi-epitope-ligand-kartographie and gene ontology data of T-cell surface proteins for polymyositis. (United States)

    Li, Fang-Zhen; Gao, Feng


    Polymyositis is an inflammatory myopathy characterized by muscle invasion of T-cells penetrating the basal lamina and displacing the plasma membrane of normal muscle fibers. In order to understand the different adhesive mechanisms at the T-cell surface, Schubert randomly selected 19 proteins expressed at the T-cell surface and studied them using MELK technique [4], among which 15 proteins are picked up for further study by us. Two types of functional similarity networks are constructed for these proteins. The first type is MELK similarity network, which is constructed based on their MELK data by using the McNemar's test [24]. The second type is GO similarity network, which is constructed based on their GO annotation data by using the RSS method to measuring functional similarity. Then the subset surprisology theory is employed to measure the degree of similarity between two networks. Our computing results show that these two types of networks are high related. This conclusion added new values on MELK technique and expanded its applications greatly.

  7. Bridge removal plan requirements. (United States)


    This report provides resources that detail specifications and guidelines related to bridge removal plans across the : United States. We have organized the information into three sections: : ! National Guidance : Includes language from AASHTO specific...

  8. Bridged Race Population Estimates (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  9. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism. (United States)

    Chu, Lily


    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  10. Timber bridge evaluation : a global nondestructive approach using impact generated FRFs (United States)

    Angus Morison; C.D. Van Karsen; H.A. Evensen; J.B. Ligon; J.R. Erickson; R.J. Ross; J.W. Forsman


    Bridges require periodic inspections to ensure the safety of those using the structure. A visual inspection has historically been the most common form of investigation for timber bridges. This poses many problems when inspecting bridge timbers since often the damage is internal, leaving no visible signs of decay on the surface. Localized nondestructive evaluation (NDE...

  11. Constructing polyatomic potential energy surfaces by interpolating diabatic Hamiltonian matrices with demonstration on green fluorescent protein chromophore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Woo; Rhee, Young Min, E-mail: [Center for Self-assembly and Complexity, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)


    Simulating molecular dynamics directly on quantum chemically obtained potential energy surfaces is generally time consuming. The cost becomes overwhelming especially when excited state dynamics is aimed with multiple electronic states. The interpolated potential has been suggested as a remedy for the cost issue in various simulation settings ranging from fast gas phase reactions of small molecules to relatively slow condensed phase dynamics with complex surrounding. Here, we present a scheme for interpolating multiple electronic surfaces of a relatively large molecule, with an intention of applying it to studying nonadiabatic behaviors. The scheme starts with adiabatic potential information and its diabatic transformation, both of which can be readily obtained, in principle, with quantum chemical calculations. The adiabatic energies and their derivatives on each interpolation center are combined with the derivative coupling vectors to generate the corresponding diabatic Hamiltonian and its derivatives, and they are subsequently adopted in producing a globally defined diabatic Hamiltonian function. As a demonstration, we employ the scheme to build an interpolated Hamiltonian of a relatively large chromophore, para-hydroxybenzylidene imidazolinone, in reference to its all-atom analytical surface model. We show that the interpolation is indeed reliable enough to reproduce important features of the reference surface model, such as its adiabatic energies and derivative couplings. In addition, nonadiabatic surface hopping simulations with interpolation yield population transfer dynamics that is well in accord with the result generated with the reference analytic surface. With these, we conclude by suggesting that the interpolation of diabatic Hamiltonians will be applicable for studying nonadiabatic behaviors of sizeable molecules.

  12. Construction of Hydrophobic Wood Surface and Mechanical Property of Wood Cell Wall on Nanoscale Modified by Dimethyldichlorosilane (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Wang, Siqun; Zhou, Dingguo; Zhang, Jie; Lan, Ping; Jia, Chong


    Dimethyldichlorosilane was used to improve the hydrophobicity of wood surface. The water contact angle of the treated wood surface increased from 85° to 143°, which indicated increased hydrophobicity. The nanomechanical properties of the wood cell wall were evaluated using a nanoindentation test to analyse the hydrophobic mechanism on the nano scale. The elastic modulus of the cell wall was significantly affected by the concentration but the influence of treatment time is insignificant. The hardness of the cell wall for treated samples was significantly affected by both treatment time and concentration. The interaction between treatment time and concentration was extremely significant for the elastic modulus of the wood cell wall.

  13. Constructing passive houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehler, S. [Oehler Faigle Archkom Solar Architektur, Bretten (Germany)


    Everybody can learn to build energy-efficient. It needs theoretical and practical experience. 1997 we built the first freestanding Passive House in Europe, the Passive House Oehler. There had been a lot of questions, starting with the insecurity, whether the calculation program of the Passive House Institute, the PHPP, is working properly in our case. Nobody knew at that time because nobody tried it out before. It took us a lot of time to find out and every detail of the construction hat to be invented to meet the very high demand of thermal quality. All the following houses needed less time and had fewer open questions, adding one piece of experience with every building. 2002 we realised the biggest Passive House, the office building Energon Ulm with 420 working spaces. In the meantime we have learned a lot like how to produce prefabricated timber elements for the facades, providing good insulation, air tightness and avoiding serious thermal bridges. We have proofed, that any kind of building type can be a Passive House. And with increasing experience the freedom of design and construction is growing. Even the economical efficiency increased. The Energon Ulm is providing a much better indoor climate than any other office building and was build 10 % cheaper than an average German office building. At present the Passive House Standard is the most efficient solution for the user to live in the desired comfort zone between 20 C and 25 C. This zone of individual feeling-well can be described with the term ''operative temperature''. This term is defined by factors like air temperature, radiation temperature of warm and cold surfaces, air speed and humidity. The result of all these factors has to be within 18 C to 25 C without accepting one of the factors getting extreme.

  14. Economical bridge solutions based on innovative composite dowels and integrated abutments ecobridge

    CERN Document Server

    Băncilă, Radu


    This book is an outcome of the research project “ECOBRIDGE – Demonstration of ECOnomical BRIDGE solutions based on innovative composite dowels and integrated abutments – RFCS – CT 2010-00024”, which has been co-funded by the Research Fund for Coal and Steel (R.F.C.S.) of the European Community. The main topics of the book are the following: design of integral bridges, innovative composite dowels for the shear transmission, construction of bridges, structural analysis of bridges and monitoring. The book joins the technical experience and the contributions of the involved research partners. The technical content of all the papers is present-day in the field of the design, construction and monitoring of innovative composite bridges. The efficient design and construction improve and consolidate the market position of steel construction and steel producing industry. In addition, the advanced forms of construction are contributing to savings in material and energy consumption for the structure during prod...

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands (SFCW) for Nutrient Reduction in Drainage Discharge from Agricultural Fields in Denmark. (United States)

    Gachango, F G; Pedersen, S M; Kjaergaard, C


    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies, this paper explores the feasibility of implementing surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) based on their cost effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands in order to establish the most cost-effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients reduction measures carried out. The analyses show that the cost effectiveness of the SFCW is higher in the drainage catchments with higher nutrient loads. The range of the cost effectiveness ratio on nitrogen reduction differs distinctively with that of catch crop measure. The study concludes that SFCW could be a better optimal nutrients reduction measure in drainage catchments characterized with higher nutrient loads.

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) for nutrient reduction in drainage discharge from agricultural fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Kjærgaard, Charlotte


    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies......, this paper explores the feasibility of implementing surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) based on their cost effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands in order to establish the most cost-effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients...... reduction measures carried out. The analyses show that the cost effectiveness of the SFCW is higher in the drainage catchments with higher nutrient loads. The range of the cost effectiveness ratio on nitrogen reduction differs distinctively with that of catch crop measure. The study concludes that SFCW...

  17. Cooperativity of complex salt bridges


    Gvritishvili, Anzor G.; Gribenko, Alexey V.; Makhatadze, George I.


    The energetic contribution of complex salt bridges, in which one charged residue (anchor residue) forms salt bridges with two or more residues simultaneously, has been suggested to have importance for protein stability. Detailed analysis of the net energetics of complex salt bridge formation using double- and triple-mutant cycle analysis revealed conflicting results. In two cases, it was shown that complex salt bridge formation is cooperative, i.e., the net strength of the complex salt bridge...

  18. Silver mirror reaction as an approach to construct a durable, robust superhydrophobic surface of bamboo timber with high conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Chunde; Li, Jingpeng [School of Engineering, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China); Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Zhejiang Province (China); Han, Shenjie; Wang, Jin; Yao, Qiufang [School of Engineering, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China); Sun, Qingfeng, E-mail: [School of Engineering, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China); Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Zhejiang Province (China)


    Highlights: • Ag NPs were deposited onto the surface of bamboo timber by silver mirror reaction. • The Ag NPs made the intrinsic insulating bamboo timber have a high conductivity. • The modified surfaces displayed superhydrophobicity even for corrosive solutions. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were successfully in situ deposited onto the surface of the bamboo timber through a simple silver mirror reaction. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the surface of the bamboo timber was densely covered with the uniform Ag NPs, which made the intrinsic insulating bamboo timber conductive. With further modification by fluoroalkylsilane (FAS), the Ag NPs-covered bamboo timber showed superhydrophobicity with the water contact angle (WCA) of 155°. Simultaneously, the modified bamboo timber displayed a durable and robust superhydrophobic property even under corrosive solutions including acidic, alkali and NaCl solutions with different molar concentrations. Especially in harsh conditions of boiling water or intense water stirring, the modified bamboo timber remained superhydrophobicity and high conductivity.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toriumi, Shin; Katsukawa, Yukio; Cheung, Mark C. M.


    Light bridges, the bright structure dividing umbrae in sunspot regions, show various activity events. In Paper I, we reported on an analysis of multi-wavelength observations of a light bridge in a developing active region (AR) and concluded that the activity events are caused by magnetic reconnection driven by magnetconvective evolution. The aim of this second paper is to investigate the detailed magnetic and velocity structures and the formation mechanism of light bridges. For this purpose, we analyze numerical simulation data from a radiative magnetohydrodynamics model of an emerging AR. We find that a weakly magnetized plasma upflow in the near-surface layers of the convection zone is entrained between the emerging magnetic bundles that appear as pores at the solar surface. This convective upflow continuously transports horizontal fields to the surface layer and creates a light bridge structure. Due to the magnetic shear between the horizontal fields of the bridge and the vertical fields of the ambient pores, an elongated cusp-shaped current layer is formed above the bridge, which may be favorable for magnetic reconnection. The striking correspondence between the observational results of Paper I and the numerical results of this paper provides a consistent physical picture of light bridges. The dynamic activity phenomena occur as a natural result of the bridge formation and its convective nature, which has much in common with those of umbral dots and penumbral filaments

  20. Bridge deck concrete volume change : final contract report. (United States)


    Concrete structures such as bridge decks, with large surface area relative to volume, shrink and crack, thus reducing service life performance and increasing operation costs. The project evaluated the early, first 24 hours, and long-term, 180 days, s...

  1. Unsupervised Performance Evaluation Strategy for Bridge Superstructure Based on Fuzzy Clustering and Field Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubo Jiao


    Full Text Available Performance evaluation of a bridge is critical for determining the optimal maintenance strategy. An unsupervised bridge superstructure state assessment method is proposed in this paper based on fuzzy clustering and bridge field measured data. Firstly, the evaluation index system of bridge is constructed. Secondly, a certain number of bridge health monitoring data are selected as clustering samples to obtain the fuzzy similarity matrix and fuzzy equivalent matrix. Finally, different thresholds are selected to form dynamic clustering maps and determine the best classification based on statistic analysis. The clustering result is regarded as a sample base, and the bridge state can be evaluated by calculating the fuzzy nearness between the unknown bridge state data and the sample base. Nanping Bridge in Jilin Province is selected as the engineering project to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Construction dust amelioration techniques. (United States)


    Dust produced on seasonal road construction sites in Alaska is both a traffic safety and environmental concern. Dust emanating from : unpaved road surfaces during construction severely reduces visibility and impacts stopping sight distance, and contr...

  3. Application of Artificial Intelligence for Bridge Deterioration Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chen


    Full Text Available The deterministic bridge deterioration model updating problem is well established in bridge management, while the traditional methods and approaches for this problem require manual intervention. An artificial-intelligence-based approach was presented to self-updated parameters of the bridge deterioration model in this paper. When new information and data are collected, a posterior distribution was constructed to describe the integrated result of historical information and the new gained information according to Bayesian theorem, which was used to update model parameters. This AI-based approach is applied to the case of updating parameters of bridge deterioration model, which is the data collected from bridges of 12 districts in Shanghai from 2004 to 2013, and the results showed that it is an accurate, effective, and satisfactory approach to deal with the problem of the parameter updating without manual intervention.

  4. Composite material pedestrian bridge for the Port of Bilbao (United States)

    Gorrochategui, I.; Manteca, C.; Yedra, A.; Miguel, R.; del Valle, F. J.


    Composite materials in comparison to traditional ones, steel and concrete, present advantages in civil works construction: lower weight, higher corrosion resistance (especially in the marine environment), and ease of installation. On the other hand, fabrication costs are generally higher. This is the reason why this technology is not widely used. This work illustrates the process followed for the design, fabrication and installation of a composite material pedestrian bridge in the Port of Bilbao (Northern Spain). In order to reduce the price of the bridge, the use of low cost materials was considered, therefore polyester resin was selected as the polymeric matrix, and glass fibres as reinforcement. Two material choices were studied. Currently in the market there is high availability of carbon nanoparticles: carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanofibres (CNF), so it was decided to add this kind of nanoparticles to the reference material with the objective of improving its mechanical properties. The main challenge was to transfer the CNT and CNF excellent properties to the polymeric matrix. This requires dispersing the nanoreinforcements as individual particles in the polymeric matrix to avoid agglomerates. For this reason, an advanced high shear forces dispersion technique (called "three roll mills") was studied and implemented. Also surface functionalization of the nanoreinforcements by chemical treatment was carried out. Herein, a comparison is performed between both materials studied, the explanation of the employment of the reference material (without nanoreinforcement) as the one used in the fabrication of the pedestrian bridge is justified and, finally, the main characteristics of the final design of the structural element are described.

  5. Composite material pedestrian bridge for the Port of Bilbao

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorrochategui, I; Manteca, C; Yedra, A; Miguel, R; Valle, F J del


    Composite materials in comparison to traditional ones, steel and concrete, present advantages in civil works construction: lower weight, higher corrosion resistance (especially in the marine environment), and ease of installation. On the other hand, fabrication costs are generally higher. This is the reason why this technology is not widely used. This work illustrates the process followed for the design, fabrication and installation of a composite material pedestrian bridge in the Port of Bilbao (Northern Spain). In order to reduce the price of the bridge, the use of low cost materials was considered, therefore polyester resin was selected as the polymeric matrix, and glass fibres as reinforcement. Two material choices were studied. Currently in the market there is high availability of carbon nanoparticles: carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanofibres (CNF), so it was decided to add this kind of nanoparticles to the reference material with the objective of improving its mechanical properties. The main challenge was to transfer the CNT and CNF excellent properties to the polymeric matrix. This requires dispersing the nanoreinforcements as individual particles in the polymeric matrix to avoid agglomerates. For this reason, an advanced high shear forces dispersion technique (called 'three roll mills') was studied and implemented. Also surface functionalization of the nanoreinforcements by chemical treatment was carried out. Herein, a comparison is performed between both materials studied, the explanation of the employment of the reference material (without nanoreinforcement) as the one used in the fabrication of the pedestrian bridge is justified and, finally, the main characteristics of the final design of the structural element are described.

  6. On The Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials (United States)

    Werkheiser, Niki; Fiske, Michael; Edmunson, Jennifer; Khoshnevis, Behrokh


    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in-situ materials will become increasingly critical. As man's presence on these bodies expands, so must the breadth of the structures required to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for natural radiation and surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. Planetary surface structure manufacturing and assembly technologies that incorporate in-situ resources provide options for autonomous, affordable, pre-positioned environments with radiation shielding features and protection from micrometeorites, exhaust plume debris, and other hazards. This is important because gamma and particle radiation constitute a serious but reducible threat to long-term survival of human beings, electronics, and other materials in space environments. Also, it is anticipated that surface structures will constitute the primary mass element of lunar or Martian launch requirements. The ability to use in-situ materials to construct these structures will provide a benefit in the reduction of up-mass that would otherwise make long-term Moon or Mars structures cost prohibitive. The ability to fabricate structures in situ brings with it the ability to repair these structures, which allows for self-sufficiency necessary for long-duration habitation. Previously, under the auspices of the MSFC In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) project and more recently, under the joint MSFC/KSC Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project, the MSFC Surface Structures Group has been developing materials and construction technologies to support future planetary habitats with in situ resources. One such technology, known as Contour Crafting (additive construction), is shown in Figure 1, along with a typical structure fabricated using this technology. This paper will present the results to date of these efforts, including development of novel nozzle concepts for advanced layer

  7. The Bridge of Mandolin County (United States)

    Lantz, Juliette M.; Feindt, Jenny E.; Lewellyn, Eric P. B.; Walczak, Mary M.


    The Bridge of Mandolin County is a case designed to teach the general chemistry principles of molar mass, ions and aqueous reactions, solubility rules, and inorganic nomenclature. Through the instructor-facilitated class discussion, students consider the options before the Mandolin Town Council regarding deicing the newly constructed bridge connecting Mandolin with a large nearby city. The students must decipher contradictory claims made on behalf of sodium chloride, the traditional deicer, and calcium magnesium acetate, a new environmentally friendly deicer, to arrive at the most cost-effective and environmentally appropriate deicing product. As they work through the analysis they raise questions that can be addressed in a laboratory setting. Four optional role-playing experiments are included, which can be used by the students to gather information helpful to resolution of the case. The case is intended to be used over two class periods, with a laboratory period in between, though suggestions for other models are provided. Laboratory procedures include an EDTA titration for Ca2+ and Mg2+, a gravimetric analysis, a qualitative examination of ions and solubility, an introduction to freezing point depression and measurement, and an experimental design activity. This case can also successfully be used without alteration in non-majors chemistry or environmental chemistry courses, or upper-level analytical or environmental chemistry courses.

  8. Design, construction and operation of a new filter approach for treatment of surface waters in Southeast Asia (United States)

    Frankel, R. J.


    A simple, inexpensive, and efficient method of water treatment for rural communities in Southeast Asia was developed using local materials as filter media. The filter utilizes coconut fiber and burnt rice husks in a two-stage filtering process designed as a gravityfed system without the need for backwashing, and eliminates in most cases the need of any chemicals. The first-stage filter with coconut fiber acts essentially as a substitute for the coagulation and sedimentation phases of conventional water-treatment plants. The second-stage filter, using burnt rice husks, is similar to slow sand filtration with the additional benefits of taste, color and odor removals through the absorption properties of the activated carbon in the medium. This paper reports on the design, construction costs, and operating results of several village size units in Thailand and in the Philippines.

  9. Potential of TCPInSAR in Monitoring Linear Infrastructure with a Small Dataset of SAR Images: Application of the Donghai Bridge, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang


    Full Text Available Reliably monitoring deformation associated with linear infrastructures, such as long-span bridges, is vitally important to assess their structural health. In this paper, we attempt to employ satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR to map the deformation of Donghai Bridge over a half of an annual cycle. The bridge, as the fourth longest cross-sea bridge in the world, located in the north of Hangzhou Bay, East China Sea where the featureless sea surface largely occupied the radar image raises challenges to accurately co-register the coherent points along the bridge. To tackle the issues due to co-registration and the limited number of synthetic aperture radar (SAR images, we adopt the termed temporarily-coherent point (TCP InSAR (TCPInSAR technique to process the radar images. TCPs that are not necessarily coherent during the whole observation period can be identified within every two SAR acquisitions during the co-registration procedure based on the statistics of azimuth and range offsets. In the process, co-registration is performed only using the offsets of these TCPs, leading to improved interferometric phases and the local Delaunay triangulation is used to construct point pairs to reduce the atmospheric artifacts along the bridge. With the TCPInSAR method the deformation rate along the bridge is estimated with no need of phase unwrapping. The achieved result reveals that the Donghai Bridge suffered a line-of-sight (LOS deformation rate up to −2.3 cm/year from January 2009 to July 2009 at the cable-stayed part, which is likely due to the thermal expansion of cables.

  10. Estimation of Curvature Changes for Steel-Concrete Composite Bridge Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors


    Kang, Donghoon; Chung, Wonseok


    This study is focused on the verification of the key idea of a newly developed steel-concrete composite bridge. The key idea of the proposed bridge is to reduce the design moment by applying vertical prestressing force to steel girders, so that a moment distribution of a continuous span bridge is formed in a simple span bridge. For the verification of the key technology, curvature changes of the bridge should be monitored sequentially at every construction stage. A pair of multiplexed FBG sen...

  11. Long Span Bridges in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen


    The first Scandinavian bridge with a span of more than 500 m was the Lillebælt Suspension Bridge opened to traffic in 1970.Art the end of the 20th century the longest span of any European bridge is found in the Storebælt East Bridge with a main span of 1624 m. Also the third longest span in Europe...... is found in Scandinavia - the 1210 m span of the Höga Kusten Bridge in Sweden.The Kvarnsund Bridge in Norway was at the completion in 1991 the longest cable-stayed bridge in the world, and the span of 530 m is still thge longest for cable-stayed bridges in concrete. The Øresund Bridge with its sapn of 490...

  12. Precast Pearl-Chain concrete arch bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup


    A Pearl-Chain Bridge is a closed-spandrel arch bridge consisting of a number of straight pre-fabricated so called Super-Light Deck elements put together in an arch shape by post-tensioning cables. Several Pearl-Chain arches can be positioned adjacent to each other by a crane to achieve a bridge...... of a desired width. On top of the arch is a filling material to level out the surface of the above road. The filling only transfers vertical loads to the arch. The geometry and material properties of Super-Light Decks are presented, and we refer to several fullscale tests of Pearl-Chain arches where...... the technology was used. We also study other important components and details in the Pearl-Chain Bridge concept and review the effects of different types of loads. A theoretical case study of a circular 30 m span Pearl-Chain Bridge is presented showing the influence of a number of parameters: The number of post...

  13. Influence of stationary vehicles on bridge aerodynamic and aeroelastic coefficients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Stanislav; Buljac, A.; Kozmar, H.; Kuznetsov, Sergeii; Macháček, Michael; Král, Radomil


    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 05016012. ISSN 1084-0702 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01035S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : wind-vehicle-bridge system * cable-supported bridge * bridge aerodynamics and aeroelasticity * stationary vehicles * wind tunnel tests Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering OBOR OECD: Construction engineering, Municipal and structural engineering Impact factor: 1.476, year: 2016

  14. Nonlinearity in oscillating bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Gazzola


    Full Text Available We first recall several historical oscillating bridges that, in some cases, led to collapses. Some of them are quite recent and show that, nowadays, oscillations in suspension bridges are not yet well understood. Next, we survey some attempts to model bridges with differential equations. Although these equations arise from quite different scientific communities, they display some common features. One of them, which we believe to be incorrect, is the acceptance of the linear Hooke law in elasticity. This law should be used only in presence of small deviations from equilibrium, a situation which does not occur in widely oscillating bridges. Then we discuss a couple of recent models whose solutions exhibit self-excited oscillations, the phenomenon visible in real bridges. This suggests a different point of view in modeling equations and gives a strong hint how to modify the existing models in order to obtain a reliable theory. The purpose of this paper is precisely to highlight the necessity of revisiting the classical models, to introduce reliable models, and to indicate the steps we believe necessary to reach this target.

  15. Critical traffic loading for the design of prestressed concrete bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.I.U.


    A study has been carried out to determine critical traffic loadings for the design of bridge superstructures. The prestressed concrete girder bridge already constructed in Lahore is selected for the analysis as an example. Standard traffic loadings according to AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials) and Pakistan Highway Standards are used for this purpose. These include (1) HL-93 Truck, (2) Lane and (3) Tandem Loadings in addition to (4) Military tank loading, (5) Class-A, (6) Class-B and (7) Class-AA loading, (8) NLC (National Logistic Cell) and (9) Volvo truck loadings. Bridge superstructure including transom beam is analyzed Using ASD and LRFD (Load and Resistance Factor Design) provisions of AASHTO specifications. For the analysis, two longer and shorter spans are selected. This includes the analysis of bridge deck; interior and exterior girder; a typical transom beam and a pier. Dead and live loading determination is carried out using both computer aided and manual calculations. Evaluation of traffic loadings is done for all the bridge components to find out the critical loading. HL-93 loading comes out to be the most critical loading and where this loading is not critical in case of bridge decks; a factor of 1.15 is introduced to make it equivalent with HL-93 -Ioading. SAP-2000 (Structural Engineering Services of Pakistan) and MS-Excel is employed for analysis of bridge superstructure subjected to this loading. Internal forces are obtained for the structural elements of the bridge for all traffic loadings mentioned. It is concluded that HL-93 loading can be used for the design of prestressed concrete girder bridge. Bridge design authorities like NHA (National Highway Authority) and different cities development authorities are using different standard traffic loadings. A number of suggestions are made from the results of the research work related to traffic loadings and method of design. These recommendations may be

  16. Construcción del segundo puente sobre la Laguna de la Restinga, Isla de Margarita, Venezuela: Conflictos socio-ambientales y primeros impactos ecosistémicos | Construction of the second bridge over La Restinga Lagoon, Margarita Island, Venezuela: socio-environmental conflicts and first ecosystem impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlin Guerra Castro


    Full Text Available In november 2013 the construction of the second bridge over La Restinga lagoon was initiated, a work that seeks to boost transportation to the Macanao Peninsula. Thereafter, a conflict was generated between governmental authorities that proposed this construction, and students and teachers from Universidad de Oriente who demanded the submission of the Environmental and Sociocultural Impact Assessment (ESIA required by the Venezuelan environmental legislation. On august 13th, 2014, the Governmental authorities publicly presented the ESIA, and indicated that the only negative impact would be the deforestation of 1241 m2 of mangroves. However, this study shows that the environmental impacts were greater than those indicated by authorities. To support this, satellite images were used to calculate the deforested area and to find out other changes in the components of the landscape. Sediment traps were also placed in the main channel to assess the contribution of exogenous material into the lagoon. It was estimated that the deforestation of mangroves comprised an area of 2399 m2, 892 m2 of the main channel were invaded by gravel-clay material and 639 m2 in the adjacent lagoons. Sedimentation was homogeneous during the study period, but occurred mainly in the construction area and on occasions was greater in other zones at the mouth of the lagoon. It is recommended a long-term sediment transport evaluation be performed, as well as the monitoring of the health and survival of mangroves and marine organisms susceptible to sedimentation, especially of filter feeders.

  17. Constructing dual-defense mechanisms on membrane surfaces by synergy of PFSA and SiO2 nanoparticles for persistent antifouling performance (United States)

    Zhou, Linjie; Gao, Kang; Jiao, Zhiwei; Wu, Mengyuan; He, Mingrui; Su, Yanlei; Jiang, Zhongyi


    Synthetic antifouling membrane surfaces with dual-defense mechanisms (fouling-resistant and fouling-release mechanism) were constructed through the synergy of perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) and SiO2 nanoparticles. During the nonsolvent induced phase separation (NIPS) process, the amphiphilic PFSA polymers spontaneously segregated to membrane surfaces and catalyzed the hydrolysis-polycondensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to generate hydrophilic SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). The resulting PVDF/PFSA/SiO2 hybrid membranes were characterized by contact angle measurements, FTIR, XPS, SEM, AFM, TGA, and TEM. The hydrophilic microdomains and low surface energy microdomains of amphiphilic PFSA polymers respectively endowed membrane surfaces with fouling-resistant mechanism and fouling-release mechanism, while the hydrophilic SiO2 NPs intensified the fouling-resistant mechanism. When the addition of TEOS reached 3 wt%, the hybrid membrane with optimal synergy of PFSA and SiO2 NPs displayed low flux decline (17.4% DRt) and high flux recovery (99.8% FRR) during the filtration of oil-in-water emulsion. Meanwhile, the long-time stability test verified that the hybrid membrane possessed persistent antifouling performance.

  18. Surface/Interface Carrier-Transport Modulation for Constructing Photon-Alternative Ultraviolet Detectors Based on Self-Bending-Assembled ZnO Nanowires. (United States)

    Guo, Zhen; Zhou, Lianqun; Tang, Yuguo; Li, Lin; Zhang, Zhiqi; Yang, Hongbo; Ma, Hanbin; Nathan, Arokia; Zhao, Dongxu


    Surface/interface charge-carrier generation, diffusion, and recombination/transport modulation are especially important in the construction of photodetectors with high efficiency in the field of nanoscience. In the paper, a kind of ultraviolet (UV) detector is designed based on ZnO nanostructures considering photon-trapping, surface plasmonic resonance (SPR), piezophototronic effects, interface carrier-trapping/transport control, and collection. Through carefully optimized surface/interface carrier-transport modulation, a designed device with detectivity as high as 1.69 × 10 16 /1.71 × 10 16 cm·Hz 1/2 /W irradiating with 380 nm photons under ultralow bias of 0.2 V is realized by alternating nanoparticle/nanowire active layers, respectively, and the designed UV photodetectors show fast and slow recovery processes of 0.27 and 4.52 ms, respectively, which well-satisfy practical needs. Further, it is observed that UV photodetection could be performed within an alternative response by varying correlated key parameters, through efficient surface/interface carrier-transport modulation, spectrally resolved photoresponse of the detector revealing controlled detection in the UV region based on the ZnO nanomaterial, photodetection allowed or limited by varying the active layers, irradiation distance from one of the electrodes, standing states, or electric field. The detailed carrier generation, diffusion, and recombination/transport processes are well illustrated to explain charge-carrier dynamics contributing to the photoresponse behavior.

  19. Abnormal arrangement of a collagen/apatite extracellular matrix orthogonal to osteoblast alignment is constructed by a nanoscale periodic surface structure. (United States)

    Matsugaki, Aira; Aramoto, Gento; Ninomiya, Takafumi; Sawada, Hiroshi; Hata, Satoshi; Nakano, Takayoshi


    Morphological and directional alteration of cells is essential for structurally appropriate construction of tissues and organs. In particular, osteoblast alignment is crucial for the realization of anisotropic bone tissue microstructure. In this article, the orientation of a collagen/apatite extracellular matrix (ECM) was established by controlling osteoblast alignment using a surface geometry with nanometer-sized periodicity induced by laser ablation. Laser irradiation induced self-organized periodic structures (laser-induced periodic surface structures; LIPSS) with a spatial period equal to the wavelength of the incident laser on the surface of biomedical alloys of Ti-6Al-4V and Co-Cr-Mo. Osteoblast orientation was successfully induced parallel to the grating structure. Notably, both the fibrous orientation of the secreted collagen matrix and the c-axis of the produced apatite crystals were orientated orthogonal to the cell direction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that bone tissue anisotropy is controllable, including the characteristic organization of a collagen/apatite composite orthogonal to the osteoblast orientation, by controlling the cell alignment using periodic surface geometry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Vidales-Contreras


    The performance of a surface flow wetland system used to treat activated sludge effluent and filter backwash water from a tertiary treatment facility was evaluated. Samples were collected before and after vegetation removal from the system which consists of two densely vegetated settling basins (0.35 ha, an artificial stream, and a 3-ha surface flow wetland. Bulrush (Scripus spp. and cattail (Typha domingensis were the dominant plant species. The average inflow of chlorinated secondary effluent during the first two months of the actual study was 1.9  m3 min-1 while the inflow for backwash water treatment ranged from 0.21 to 0.42 m3 min-1. The system was able to reduce TSS and BOD5 to tertiary effluent standards; however, monitoring of chloride concentrations revealed that wetland evapotranspiration is probably enriching pollutant concentrations in the wetland outflow. Coliphage removal from the filter backwash was 97 and 35% during 1999 and 2000, respectively. However, when secondary effluent entered the system, coliphage removal averaged 65%. After vegetation removal, pH and coliphage density increased significantly (p

  1. BIM and GIS for low-disturbance construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebastian, R.; Böhms, H.M.; Helm, P.W. van den


    Construction and maintenance activities of bridges often bring negative impacts to the urban environment in terms of disturbance, traffic jams and disruptions, noise, dust, and air pollution. Lack of coordination between the stakeholders in strategic, tactical and operational construction planning

  2. Investigation on the performance of bridge approach slab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman Amr


    Full Text Available In Egypt, where highway bridges are to be constructed on soft cohesive soils, the bridge abutments are usually founded on rigid piles, whereas the earth embankments for the bridge approaches are directly founded on the natural soft ground. Consequently, excessive differential settlement frequently occurs between the bridge deck and the bridge approaches resulting in a “bump” at both ends of the bridge deck. Such a bump not only creates a rough and uncomfortable ride but also represents a hazardous condition to traffic. One effective technique to cope with the bump problem is to use a reinforced concrete approach slab to provide a smooth grade transition between the bridge deck and the approach pavement. Investigating the geotechnical and structural performance of approach slabs and revealing the fundamental affecting factors have become mandatory. In this paper, a 2-D finite element model is employed to investigate the performance of approach slabs. Moreover, an extensive parametric study is carried out to appraise the relatively optimum geometries of approach slab, i.e. slab length, thickness, embedded depth and slope, that can yield permissible bumps. Different geo-mechanical conditions of the cohesive foundation soil and the fill material of the bridge embankment are examined.

  3. Modal analysis of cable-stayed UHPC bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tej Petr


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the dynamic analysis of cable-stayed UHPC bridge over the Vltava river near town Melnik in Czech Republic, Europe. Bridge serves for pedestrians and cyclists. This work aims to familiarize the reader with dynamic calculations carried out and the results obtained, describing the dynamic properties of proposed bridge. The construction of bridge is designed as a cable-stayed structure with prestressed bridge deck consisting of prefabricated UHPC panels and reversed “V” shaped steel pylon with height of approximately 40 meters. The deck is anchored using 24 steel hangers in one row in a steel pylon - 17 ropes in the main span and 7 cables on the other side. Range of the main span is 99.18 meters and the secondary span is 31.9 m. Deck width is 4.5 meters with 3.0 meters passing space. The bridge is designed for the possibility of passage of vehicles weighting up to 3.5 tonnes. Deck panels are made of UHPC with reinforcement. At the edge of the bridge on the side of the shorter span the bridge deck is firmly connected with abutment and on the other deck it is stored using a pair of sliding bearings.

  4. Assessment of Replacement Bridge using Proof Load Test (United States)

    Sundru, Saibabu


    This work begins with an overview of the condition assessment of old bridge and explained reasons for demolishing of the bridge. Briefly presented flexural analysis of two stage post-tensioned prestressed concrete girder, which will be replace the old (new bridge). Construction of I-girder and composite girder at first stage and second stage prestressing respectively is explained with figures. Assessment of the load-caring capacity of the one span of the replacement bridge with simple supports using proof load test is presented which is mandatory according to Indian standards. Weighted sand bags were used to load the bridge up to a predetermined service load with impact factor. Deflections of the I-girders of the bridge were measured at selected locations along and across the bridge span and compared with computed values. Linear response was observed during loading and unloading. Considering the load test results, theoretical estimation and criteria as stipulated in codes of practice, it can be inferred that prestressed concrete I-girder bridge span has adequate capacity to carry the loads and hence, deemed to have passed the test.

  5. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps...

  6. Experimental studies of Steel Corrugated Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarev Yuriy


    Full Text Available The purpose of this particular article is to assess existing calculations of steel corrugated constructions. Steel Corrugated Construction is a perspective type of constructions, which is exhibiting numerous advantages in comparison with one that currently applied in automobile and railroad networks (reinforced concrete water-throughput pipes, reinforced concrete frame bridges. The evaluation of experimental data on models of constructions of this particular type has been carried out in order to improve calculations of Steel Corrugated Constructions.

  7. 47 CFR 80.1007 - Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. 80.1007 Section 80.1007 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1007 Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. Use of the bridge-to-bridge...

  8. [Construction of RNA-containing virus-like nanoparticles expression vector with cysteine residues on surface and fluorescent decoration]. (United States)

    Cheng, Yang-Jian; Liang, Ji-Xuan; Li, Qing-Ge


    Site-directed mutagenesis was performed at the codon 15 of the MS2 bacteriophage coat protein gene,which had been cloned to the virus-like particles expression vector containing non-self RNA fragment. The produced expression vector,termed pARSC, was transformed to E. coli DH5alpha. The positive clones were selected and proliferated. The harvested cells were treated with sonication and the supernatant was then subjected to linear sucrose density gradients centrifugation (15% to 60%) at 32000 r/min for 4 h at 4 degrees C. The virus-like particles, VLP-Cy, were collected at 35% sucrose density. The particles were examined by transmission electron microscopy and the spherical viral particles of approximately 27 nm in diameter were found. The thiolated VLP-Cy was then chemically modified with fluorescein -5'-maleimide. The covalent fluorescent labeling was confirmed by absorption analysis, SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. This is the first report of preparation of RNA-containing natural fluorescent nanoparticles. The study highlight the versatility of MS2 bacteriophage capsids as building blocks for functional nanomaterials construction for a variety of application purposes.

  9. Cable-stayed PC bridge with inclined main tower. Hachinohe port island bridge; Keisha shuto to yusuru 2 keikan renzoku PC shachokyo. Hachinoheko port island renrakykyo (kasho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, A. [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)


    The design and construction of the inclined main bridge, which is being constructed at the mouth of the Hachinohe Harbor (in Japan), are outlined in this paper. This connecting bridge has an overall length of 265.56 m, and consists of the main bridge member of asymmetric 2 cable-stayed PC bridge and the 3 cable-stayed PC box member bridge. An asymmetric design was employed for the main bridge frame to ensure the access space for small ships passing between bridge girders, easy maintenance and service, improved economy, and excellent view. The main tower is a single-pillar reinforced concrete structure with an inclination of 15{degree} and 47 m in height. Forty-eight diagonal cables are arranged so that 12 cable trains are connected to the main tower on the right and left sides respectively, and the back-stay cable structure is used for each upper 3 cable trains to improve safety against the earthquake. The main beam is made by a prestressed concrete structure with inverse trapezoidal 3-chamber frame section. This structure is superior in increasing the safety against wind. Steel tube sheet-pile well is selected for the bridge pier base, and debris layer is selected as a support layer for the base. For the construction of the lower bridge section, sand conversion through predrilling of rubble-mound and debris layer was executed. The underwater non-separative concrete and embedded type frame are used around the bridge piers and its surrounding. For the construction of the upper bridge section, steel frames are used inside the main tower to ensure the construction precision. 7 figs.

  10. Bridge deterioration models to support Indiana's bridge management system. (United States)


    An effective bridge management system that is equipped with reliable deterioration models enables agency engineers to carry out : monitoring and long-term programming of bridge repair actions. At the project level, deterioration models help the agenc...

  11. Macrophyte decomposition in a surface-flow ammonia-dominated constructed wetland: Rates associated with environmental and biotic variables (United States)

    Thullen, J.S.; Nelson, S.M.; Cade, B.S.; Sartoris, J.J.


    Decomposition of senesced culm material of two bulrush species was studied in a surface-flow ammonia-dominated treatment wetland in southern California. Decomposition of the submerged culm material during summer months was relatively rapid (k = 0.037 day-1), but slowed under extended submergence (up to 245 days) and during fall and spring sampling periods (k = 0.009-0.014 day-1). Stepwise regression of seasonal data indicated that final water temperature and abundance of the culm-mining midge, Glyptotendipes, were significantly associated with culm decomposition. Glyptotendipes abundance, in turn, was correlated with water quality parameters such as conductivity and dissolved oxygen and ammonia concentrations. No differences were detected in decomposition rates between the bulrush species, Schoenoplectus californicus and Schoenoplectus acutus.

  12. Self-assembly of linear [Mn II 2 Mn III ] units with end-on azido bridges: the construction of a ferromagnetic chain using S T = 7 high-spin trimers

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Yuan


    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. The controlled organization of high-spin complexes into 1D coordination polymers is a challenge in molecular magnetism. In this work, we report a ferromagnetic Mn trimer Mn3(HL)2(CH3OH)6(Br)4·Br·(CH3OH)21 (H2L = 2-[(9H-fluoren-9-yl)amino]propane-1,3-diol) with the ground spin state of ST = 7 that can be assembled into a one-dimensional coordination chain [Mn3(HL)2(CH3OH)2(Br)4(N3)(H2O)·CH3OH]∞2 using azido bridging ligands. Interestingly, the ferromagnetic nature of 1 is well retained in 2. However, due to the negligible magnetic anisotropy in 1, both 1 and 2 do not show slow-relaxation of magnetization, which indicates that during the process of molecular assembly not only the intratrimer magnetic interaction but also the magnetic anisotropy of the trimer can be reserved.

  13. Additively manufactured 3D porous Ti-6Al-4V constructs mimic trabecular bone structure and regulate osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and local factor production in a porosity and surface roughness dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Alice; Boyan, Barbara D; Humayun, Aiza; Cohen, David J; Schwartz, Zvi


    Additive manufacturing by laser sintering is able to produce high resolution metal constructs for orthopedic and dental implants. In this study, we used a human trabecular bone template to design and manufacture Ti-6Al-4V constructs with varying porosity via laser sintering. Characterization of constructs revealed interconnected porosities ranging from 15–70% with compressive moduli of 2579–3693 MPa. These constructs with macro porosity were further surface-treated to create a desirable multi-scale micro-/nano-roughness, which has been shown to enhance the osseointegration process. Osteoblasts (MG63 cells) exhibited high viability when grown on the constructs. Proliferation (DNA) and alkaline phosphatase specific activity, an early differentiation marker, decreased as porosity increased, while osteocalcin, a late differentiation marker, as well as osteoprotegerin, vascular endothelial growth factor and bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4 increased with increasing porosity. Three-dimensional (3D) constructs with the highest porosity and surface modification supported the greatest osteoblast differentiation and local factor production. These results indicate that additively manufactured 3D porous constructs mimicking human trabecular bone and produced with additional surface treatment can be customized for increased osteoblast response. Increased factors for osteoblast maturation and differentiation on high porosity constructs suggest the enhanced performance of these surfaces for increasing osseointegration in vivo. (paper)

  14. Additively manufactured 3D porous Ti-6Al-4V constructs mimic trabecular bone structure and regulate osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and local factor production in a porosity and surface roughness dependent manner. (United States)

    Cheng, Alice; Humayun, Aiza; Cohen, David J; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi


    Additive manufacturing by laser sintering is able to produce high resolution metal constructs for orthopedic and dental implants. In this study, we used a human trabecular bone template to design and manufacture Ti-6Al-4V constructs with varying porosity via laser sintering. Characterization of constructs revealed interconnected porosities ranging from 15-70% with compressive moduli of 2579-3693 MPa. These constructs with macro porosity were further surface-treated to create a desirable multi-scale micro-/nano-roughness, which has been shown to enhance the osseointegration process. Osteoblasts (MG63 cells) exhibited high viability when grown on the constructs. Proliferation (DNA) and alkaline phosphatase specific activity, an early differentiation marker, decreased as porosity increased, while osteocalcin, a late differentiation marker, as well as osteoprotegerin, vascular endothelial growth factor and bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4 increased with increasing porosity. Three-dimensional (3D) constructs with the highest porosity and surface modification supported the greatest osteoblast differentiation and local factor production. These results indicate that additively manufactured 3D porous constructs mimicking human trabecular bone and produced with additional surface treatment can be customized for increased osteoblast response. Increased factors for osteoblast maturation and differentiation on high porosity constructs suggest the enhanced performance of these surfaces for increasing osseointegration in vivo.

  15. Erection of the stiffening girder of the Akashi Kaikyo bridge; Akashi Kaikyo Ohashi hokoketa (sono 2) koji no genchi seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuki, M.; Inoue, M.; Ueno, Y.; Matsumura, T.; Oe, S. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)


    The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge is 3,911m long with a center span of 1,991m, making it the longest suspension bridge in the world. Much careful attention has been given to the erection planning details in order to construct the bridge to withstand the harsh environmental conditions of that area. This report details the characteristics of the bridge stiffening girder and erection procedure, and the effects of the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake. (author)

  16. Construction of a surface air temperature series for Qingdao in China for the period 1899 to 2014 (United States)

    Li, Yan; Tinz, Birger; von Storch, Hans; Wang, Qingyuan; Zhou, Qingliang; Zhu, Yani


    We present a homogenized surface air temperature (SAT) time series at 2 m height for the city of Qingdao in China from 1899 to 2014. This series is derived from three data sources: newly digitized and homogenized observations of the German National Meteorological Service from 1899 to 1913, homogenized observation data of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) from 1961 to 2014 and a gridded dataset of Willmott and Matsuura (2012) in Delaware to fill the gap from 1914 to 1960. Based on this new series, long-term trends are described. The SAT in Qingdao has a significant warming trend of 0.11 ± 0.03 °C decade-1 during 1899-2014. The coldest period occurred during 1909-1918 and the warmest period occurred during 1999-2008. For the seasonal mean SAT, the most significant warming can be found in spring, followed by winter. The homogenized time series of Qingdao is provided and archived by the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) web page under overseas stations of the Deutsche Seewarte ( in ASCII format. Users can also freely obtain a short description of the data at" target="_blank"> And the data can be downloaded at

  17. Bound state potential energy surface construction: ab initio zero-point energies and vibrationally averaged rotational constants. (United States)

    Bettens, Ryan P A


    Collins' method of interpolating a potential energy surface (PES) from quantum chemical calculations for reactive systems (Jordan, M. J. T.; Thompson, K. C.; Collins, M. A. J. Chem. Phys. 1995, 102, 5647. Thompson, K. C.; Jordan, M. J. T.; Collins, M. A. J. Chem. Phys. 1998, 108, 8302. Bettens, R. P. A.; Collins, M. A. J. Chem. Phys. 1999, 111, 816) has been applied to a bound state problem. The interpolation method has been combined for the first time with quantum diffusion Monte Carlo calculations to obtain an accurate ground state zero-point energy, the vibrationally average rotational constants, and the vibrationally averaged internal coordinates. In particular, the system studied was fluoromethane using a composite method approximating the QCISD(T)/6-311++G(2df,2p) level of theory. The approach adopted in this work (a) is fully automated, (b) is fully ab initio, (c) includes all nine nuclear degrees of freedom, (d) requires no assumption of the functional form of the PES, (e) possesses the full symmetry of the system, (f) does not involve fitting any parameters of any kind, and (g) is generally applicable to any system amenable to quantum chemical calculations and Collins' interpolation method. The calculated zero-point energy agrees to within 0.2% of its current best estimate. A0 and B0 are within 0.9 and 0.3%, respectively, of experiment.


    The papr describes how, rather than building "bridges" across centuries, quality assurance (QA) personnel have the opportunity to build bridges across technical disciplines, between public and private organizations, and between different QA groups. As reviewers and auditors of a...

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