WorldWideScience

Sample records for surfaces typically possess

  1. Hail damage to typical aircraft surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayduk, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Severe structural damage can occur when aircraft collide with hailstones. Consequently, methods of predicting hail damage to airplane surfaces are needed by the aircraft designer. This paper describes an analytical method of predicting the dent depth and final deformed shape for simple structural components impacted by hailstones. The solution was accomplished by adapting the DEPROSS computer program to the problem of normal impact of hail on flat metallic sheets and spherical metallic caps. Experimental data and analytical predictions are presented for hail damage to typical aircraft surfaces along with a description of the hail gun and hail simulation technique used in the experimental study.

  2. Experimental observation of robust surface states on photonic crystals possessing single and double Weyl points

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wen-Jie; Chan, C T

    2015-01-01

    We designed and fabricated a time-reversal invariant Weyl photonic crystal that possesses single Weyl nodes with topological charge of 1 and double Weyl nodes with a higher topological charge of 2. Using numerical simulations and microwave experiment, nontrivial band gaps with nonzero Chern numbers for a fixed kz was demonstrated. The robustness of the surface state between the Weyl photonic crystal and PEC against kz-conserving scattering was experimentally observed.

  3. Photonic crystals possessing multiple Weyl points and the experimental observation of robust surface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Jie; Xiao, Meng; Chan, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    Weyl points, as monopoles of Berry curvature in momentum space, have captured much attention recently in various branches of physics. Realizing topological materials that exhibit such nodal points is challenging and indeed, Weyl points have been found experimentally in transition metal arsenide and phosphide and gyroid photonic crystal whose structure is complex. If realizing even the simplest type of single Weyl nodes with a topological charge of 1 is difficult, then making a real crystal carrying higher topological charges may seem more challenging. Here we design, and fabricate using planar fabrication technology, a photonic crystal possessing single Weyl points (including type-II nodes) and multiple Weyl points with topological charges of 2 and 3. We characterize this photonic crystal and find nontrivial 2D bulk band gaps for a fixed kz and the associated surface modes. The robustness of these surface states against kz-preserving scattering is experimentally observed for the first time. PMID:27703140

  4. Photonic crystals possessing multiple Weyl points and the experimental observation of robust surface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Jie; Xiao, Meng; Chan, C. T.

    2016-10-01

    Weyl points, as monopoles of Berry curvature in momentum space, have captured much attention recently in various branches of physics. Realizing topological materials that exhibit such nodal points is challenging and indeed, Weyl points have been found experimentally in transition metal arsenide and phosphide and gyroid photonic crystal whose structure is complex. If realizing even the simplest type of single Weyl nodes with a topological charge of 1 is difficult, then making a real crystal carrying higher topological charges may seem more challenging. Here we design, and fabricate using planar fabrication technology, a photonic crystal possessing single Weyl points (including type-II nodes) and multiple Weyl points with topological charges of 2 and 3. We characterize this photonic crystal and find nontrivial 2D bulk band gaps for a fixed kz and the associated surface modes. The robustness of these surface states against kz-preserving scattering is experimentally observed for the first time.

  5. Upwelling filaments are cold, typically narrow features in surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    strong offshore flows and often terminate in eddy-like structures ... model initiated with observed velocity profiles. Mc-. Creary et al. ... These are a forced equatorward flow at the surface ...... 1991 — Dynamical simulations of filament formation and evolution in ... MOOERS, C. N. K. and A. R. ROBINSON 1984 — Turbulent jets.

  6. Footwear and Foam Surface Alter Gait Initiation of Typical Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Fraga Vieira

    Full Text Available Gait initiation is the task commonly used to investigate the anticipatory postural adjustments necessary to begin a new gait cycle from the standing position. In this study, we analyzed whether and how foot-floor interface characteristics influence the gait initiation process. For this purpose, 25 undergraduate students were evaluated while performing a gait initiation task in three experimental conditions: barefoot on a hard surface (barefoot condition, barefoot on a soft surface (foam condition, and shod on a hard surface (shod condition. Two force plates were used to acquire ground reaction forces and moments for each foot separately. A statistical parametric mapping (SPM analysis was performed in COP time series. We compared the anterior-posterior (AP and medial-lateral (ML resultant center of pressure (COP paths and average velocities, the force peaks under the right and left foot, and the COP integral x force impulse for three different phases: the anticipatory postural adjustment (APA phase (Phase 1, the swing-foot unloading phase (Phase 2, and the support-foot unloading phase (Phase 3. In Phase 1, significantly smaller ML COP paths and velocities were found for the shod condition compared to the barefoot and foam conditions. Significantly smaller ML COP paths were also found in Phase 2 for the shod condition compared to the barefoot and foam conditions. In Phase 3, increased AP COP velocities were found for the shod condition compared to the barefoot and foam conditions. SPM analysis revealed significant differences for vector COP time series in the shod condition compared to the barefoot and foam conditions. The foam condition limited the impulse-generating capacity of COP shift and produced smaller ML force peaks, resulting in limitations to body-weight transfer from the swing to the support foot. The results suggest that footwear and a soft surface affect COP and impose certain features of gait initiation, especially in the ML

  7. Footwear and Foam Surface Alter Gait Initiation of Typical Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Marcus Fraga; Sacco, Isabel de Camargo Neves; Nora, Fernanda Grazielle da Silva Azevedo; Rosenbaum, Dieter; Lobo da Costa, Paula Hentschel

    2015-01-01

    Gait initiation is the task commonly used to investigate the anticipatory postural adjustments necessary to begin a new gait cycle from the standing position. In this study, we analyzed whether and how foot-floor interface characteristics influence the gait initiation process. For this purpose, 25 undergraduate students were evaluated while performing a gait initiation task in three experimental conditions: barefoot on a hard surface (barefoot condition), barefoot on a soft surface (foam condition), and shod on a hard surface (shod condition). Two force plates were used to acquire ground reaction forces and moments for each foot separately. A statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis was performed in COP time series. We compared the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) resultant center of pressure (COP) paths and average velocities, the force peaks under the right and left foot, and the COP integral x force impulse for three different phases: the anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) phase (Phase 1), the swing-foot unloading phase (Phase 2), and the support-foot unloading phase (Phase 3). In Phase 1, significantly smaller ML COP paths and velocities were found for the shod condition compared to the barefoot and foam conditions. Significantly smaller ML COP paths were also found in Phase 2 for the shod condition compared to the barefoot and foam conditions. In Phase 3, increased AP COP velocities were found for the shod condition compared to the barefoot and foam conditions. SPM analysis revealed significant differences for vector COP time series in the shod condition compared to the barefoot and foam conditions. The foam condition limited the impulse-generating capacity of COP shift and produced smaller ML force peaks, resulting in limitations to body-weight transfer from the swing to the support foot. The results suggest that footwear and a soft surface affect COP and impose certain features of gait initiation, especially in the ML direction of

  8. Vibrio cholerae strains possess multiple strategies for abiotic and biotic surface colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ryan S; McDougald, Diane; Cusumano, Danielle; Sodhi, Nidhi; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Azam, Farooq; Bartlett, Douglas H

    2007-07-01

    Despite its notoriety as a human pathogen, Vibrio cholerae is an aquatic microbe suited to live in freshwater, estuarine, and marine environments where biofilm formation may provide a selective advantage. Here we report characterization of biofilms formed on abiotic and biotic surfaces by two non-O1/O139 V. cholerae strains, TP and SIO, and by the O1 V. cholerae strain N16961 in addition to the isolation of 44 transposon mutants of SIO and TP impaired in biofilm formation. During the course of characterizing the mutants, 30 loci which have not previously been associated with V. cholerae biofilms were identified. These loci code for proteins which perform a wide variety of functions, including amino acid metabolism, ion transport, and gene regulation. Also, when the plankton colonization abilities of strains N16961, SIO, and TP were examined, each strain showed increased colonization of dead plankton compared with colonization of live plankton (the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum and the copepod Tigriopus californicus). Surprisingly, most of the biofilm mutants were not impaired in plankton colonization. Only mutants impaired in motility or chemotaxis showed reduced colonization. These results indicate the presence of both conserved and variable genes which influence the surface colonization properties of different V. cholerae subspecies.

  9. Non-Smooth Morphologies of Typical Plant Leaf Surfaces and Their Anti-Adhesion Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu-quan Ren; Shu-jie Wang; Xi-mei Tian; Zhi-wu Han; Lin-na Yan; Zhao-mei Qiu

    2007-01-01

    The micromorphologies of surfaces of several typical plant leaves were investigated by scanning electron microscopy(SEM).Different non-smooth surface characteristics were described and classified.The hydrophobicity and anti-adhesion of non-smooth leaf surfaces were quantitatively measured.Results show that the morphology of epidermal cells and the morphology and distribution density of epicuticular wax directly affect the hydrophobicity and anti-adhesion.The surface with uniformly distributed convex units shows the best anti-adhesion,and the surface with regularly arranged trellis units displays better anti-adhesion.In contrast,the surface with randomly distributed hair units performs relatively bad anti-adhesion.The hydrophobic models of papilla-ciliary and fold-setal non-smooth surfaces were set up to determine the impacts of geometric parameters on the hydrophobicity.This study may provide an insight into surface machine molding and apparent morphology design for biomimetics engineering.

  10. Effect of climatic change on surface environments in the typical region of Horqin Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The town of Agura,a typical region in Horqin Sandy Land,was selected as the study area in this paper.Using 12 remote sensing images and climatic data from the past 20 years,the effects of climate change on surface environments were analyzed.The impact indices of climatic factors,along with their corresponding ranks,were used to characterize the responses of different types of surface environments to climate change.Results show that in the past 20 years,the surface environments of the study area have been deteriorating.Furthermore,there is a positive relationship between the changes in surface environments and those in climatic factors.Various climatic factors influence surface environments in different ways and at different levels.The most sensitive factor is relative humidity,followed by precipitation and evaporation.Overall,moisture is the key factor that affects the changes in surface environments of arid and semi-arid areas.

  11. [The design and implementation of the web typical surface object spectral information system in arid areas based on .NET and SuperMap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Tashpolat, Tiyip; Zhang, Fei; Ji, Hong-jiang

    2011-07-01

    The characteristic of object spectrum is not only the base of the quantification analysis of remote sensing, but also the main content of the basic research of remote sensing. The typical surface object spectral database in arid areas oasis is of great significance for applied research on remote sensing in soil salinization. In the present paper, the authors took the Ugan-Kuqa River Delta Oasis as an example, unified .NET and the SuperMap platform with SQL Server database stored data, used the B/S pattern and the C# language to design and develop the typical surface object spectral information system, and established the typical surface object spectral database according to the characteristics of arid areas oasis. The system implemented the classified storage and the management of typical surface object spectral information and the related attribute data of the study areas; this system also implemented visualized two-way query between the maps and attribute data, the drawings of the surface object spectral response curves and the processing of the derivative spectral data and its drawings. In addition, the system initially possessed a simple spectral data mining and analysis capabilities, and this advantage provided an efficient, reliable and convenient data management and application platform for the Ugan-Kuqa River Delta Oasis's follow-up study in soil salinization. Finally, It's easy to maintain, convinient for secondary development and practically operating in good condition.

  12. Evolution of Surface Oxide Film of Typical Aluminum Alloy During Medium-Temperature Brazing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程方杰; 赵海微; 王颖; 肖兵; 姚俊峰

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the surface oxide film along the depth direction of typical aluminum alloy under medium-temperature brazing was investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For the alloy with Mg content below 2.0wt%, whether under cold rolling condition or during medium-temperature brazing process, the en-richment of Mg element on the surface was not detected and the oxide film was pure Al2O3. However, the oxide film grew obviously during medium-temperature brazing process, and the thickness was about 80 nm. For the alloy with Mg content above 2.0wt%, under cold rolling condition, the original surface oxide film was pure Al2O3. However, the Mg element was significantly enriched on the outermost surface during medium-temperature brazing process, and MgO-based oxide film mixed with small amount of MgAl2O4 was formed with a thickness of about 130 nm. The alloy-ing elements of Mn and Si were not enriched on the surface neither under cold rolling condition nor during medium-temperature brazing process for all the selected aluminum alloy, and the surface oxide film was similar to that of pure aluminum, which was almost entire Al2O3.

  13. Nominalization of Possessive Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugaleva, Anelja

    1977-01-01

    Nominalization of possessive sentences in Russian is discussed. It is maintained that all lexical surface items originate as terms in a situation model, and that their actualization as different parts of speech is language-specific. Language data are used to support a locative interpretation of the semantic model. (CHK)

  14. Creation of coating surfaces possessing superhydrophobic and superoleophobic characteristics with fluoroalkyl end-capped vinyltrimethoxysilane oligomeric nanocomposites having biphenylene segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yuki; Takashima, Hiroki; Takishita, Katsuhisa; Sawada, Hideo

    2011-10-15

    Fluoroalkyl end-capped vinyltrimethoxysilane oligomeric nanocomposites having biphenylene units [R(F)-(VM-SiO(2))(n)-R(F)/Ar-SiO(2)] were prepared by the sol-gel reaction of the corresponding oligomer [R(F)-(VM)(n)-R(F)] with 4,4'-bis(triethoxysilyl)-1,1'-biphenyl [Ar-Si(OEt)(3)] under alkaline conditions. R(F)-(VM-SiO(2))(n)-R(F)/Ar-SiO(2) nanocomposites were applied to the surface modification of PMMA to exhibit not only a good oleophobicity imparted by fluorine but also a fluorescent emission ability on the surface. Methanol sol solutions of R(F)-(VM-SiO(2))(n)-R(F)/Ar-SiO(2) nanocomposites were effective for the surface modification of glass through the dipping technique to exhibit good oleophobicity with superhydrophobicity on the modified glass surface. On the other hand, 1,2-dichloroethane sol solutions enabled R(F)-(VM-SiO(2))(n)-R(F)/Ar-SiO(2) nanocomposites to exhibit both superhydrophobic and superoleophobic characteristics on the modified surface through dipping the glass in these sol solutions.

  15. Schizophrenia or possession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmak, M Kemal

    2014-06-01

    Schizophrenia is typically a life-long condition characterized by acute symptom exacerbations and widely varying degrees of functional disability. Some of its symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations, produce great subjective psychological pain. The most common delusion types are as follows: "My feelings and movements are controlled by others in a certain way" and "They put thoughts in my head that are not mine." Hallucinatory experiences are generally voices talking to the patient or among themselves. Hallucinations are a cardinal positive symptom of schizophrenia which deserves careful study in the hope it will give information about the pathophysiology of the disorder. We thought that many so-called hallucinations in schizophrenia are really illusions related to a real environmental stimulus. One approach to this hallucination problem is to consider the possibility of a demonic world. Demons are unseen creatures that are believed to exist in all major religions and have the power to possess humans and control their body. Demonic possession can manifest with a range of bizarre behaviors which could be interpreted as a number of different psychotic disorders with delusions and hallucinations. The hallucination in schizophrenia may therefore be an illusion-a false interpretation of a real sensory image formed by demons. A local faith healer in our region helps the patients with schizophrenia. His method of treatment seems to be successful because his patients become symptom free after 3 months. Therefore, it would be useful for medical professions to work together with faith healers to define better treatment pathways for schizophrenia.

  16. Mixed-Mode Fracture Behavior and Related Surface Topography Feature of a Typical Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, L.; Xie, L. Z.; Xie, H. P.; Ai, T.; He, B.

    2016-08-01

    The geo-mechanical properties of reservoirs, especially the morphology of the rock surface and the fracture properties of rocks, are of great importance in the modeling and simulation of hydraulic processes. To better understand these fundamental issues, five groups of mixed-mode fracture tests were conducted on sandstone using edge-cracked semi-circular bend specimens. Accordingly, the fracture loads, growth paths and fracture surfaces for different initial mixities of the mixed-mode loadings from pure mode I to pure mode II were then determined. A surface topography measurement for each rough fracture surface was conducted using a laser profilometer, and the fractal properties of these surfaces were then investigated. The fracture path evolution mechanism was also investigated via optical microscopy. Moreover, the mixed-mode fracture strength envelope and the crack propagation trajectories of sandstone were theoretically modeled using three widely accepted fracture criteria (i.e., the MTS, MSED and MERR criterions). The published test results in Hasanpour and Choupani (World Acad Sci Eng Tech 41:764-769, 2008) for limestone were also theoretically investigated to further examine the effectiveness of the above fracture criteria. However, none of these criteria could accurately predict the fracture envelopes of both sandstone and limestone. To better estimate the fracture strength of mixed-mode fractures, an empirical maximum tensile stress (EMTS) criterion was proposed and found to achieve good agreement with the test results. Finally, a uniformly pressurized fracture model was simulated for low pressurization rates using this criterion.

  17. Pulsatory characteristics of wind velocity in sand flow over typical underlying surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pulsatory characteristics of wind velocity in sand flow over Gobi and mobile sand surface have been investigated experimentally in the wind tunnel. The primary goal of this paper is to reveal the relation- ship between pulsatory characteristics of instantaneous wind speed in sand flow and the motion state of sand grains. For a given underlying surface, pulsation of wind velocities in sand flow on different heights has a good correlation. As the space distance among different heights increases, fluctuation of instantaneous wind speed presents a decreasing trend and its amplitude is closely related to the mo- tion state of sand grains and their transport. Pulsatory intensity increases with the indicated wind speed, but its relative value does not depend on it, only agrees with height.

  18. Typical Surface Seasonal Circulation in the Indian Ocean Derived from Argos Floats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shao-Jun; ZHANG Yu-Hong; ZHUANG Wei; LI Jia-Xun; DU Yan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the surface circulation in the Indian Ocean using Argos float data over the period 1979--2011. The Argos observations manifest some new phenomena. The climatological annual mean circulation shows that the surface current becomes much stronger after turning around in shore in the western Indian Ocean. In the tropical Indian Ocean, the Great Whirl (GW) to the east of Somalia develops quickly in spring (April-May) as the monsoon reverses to move northward, becoming strongest in summer (June-September) and disappearing in autumn (October-November). The west end of the Agulhas retroflection can reach 18°E, and it exhibits a seasonal variation. At approximately 90°E, the Agulhas Return Current combines with the eastward South Atlantic Current and finally joins the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

  19. Electrochemical behavior of a typical redox mediator on a modified electrode surface: Experiment and computer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilán Arriazu, E. M.; Paz Zanini, Verónica I.; Gulotta, Florencia A.; Araujo, Virginia M.; Pinto, O. A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the study of a redox species electrosorption on a modified electrode by experimental measurements and computer simulation. The propose model is based on the fact that charges are transferred to the electrode when an electroactive species is adsorbed on its surface. The electrode surface is modified by the irreversible adsorption of a non-electroactive species, which blocks a percentage of the adsorption sites. Hence, the electroactive species can only be adsorbed on the surface vacancies, and, when this phenomenon occurs, interact laterally with the non-electroactive one. Lattice-gas models and Monte Carlo simulations in the Gran Canonical Ensemble are used. The analysis conducted is based on the study of adsorption isotherms and voltammograms, for several values of energies and adsorption degrees of the non-electroactive species. In the case of experimental measurements, an artificial clay (Laponite®) represents the non-electroactive species while the redox probe Fe(CN)64- is the electroactive one. The results obtained by the proposed model are compared with experimental voltammograms.

  20. Perineal surface electromyography does not typically demonstrate expected relaxation during normal voiding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Anna C; Nager, Charles W; Litman, Heather J; Fitzgerald, Mary P; Kraus, Stephen; Norton, Peggy; Sirls, Larry; Rickey, Leslie; Wilson, Tracey; Dandreo, Kimberly J; Shepherd, Jonathan; Zimmern, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    To describe perineal surface patch electromyography (EMG) activity during urodynamics (UDS) and compare activity between filling and voiding phases and to assess for a relationship between preoperative EMG activity and postoperative voiding symptoms. 655 women underwent standardized preoperative UDS that included perineal surface EMG prior to undergoing surgery for stress urinary incontinence. Pressure-flow studies were evaluated for abdominal straining and interrupted flow. Quantitative EMG values were extracted from 10 predetermined time-points and compared between fill and void. Qualitative EMG activity was assessed for the percent of time EMG was active during fill and void and for the average amplitude of EMG during fill compared to void. Postoperative voiding dysfunction was defined as surgical revision or catheterization more than 6 weeks after surgery. Fisher's exact test with a 5% two-sided significance level was used to assess differences in EMG activity and postoperative voiding dysfunction. 321 UDS had interpretable EMG studies, of which 131 (41%) had EMG values at all 10 predetermined and annotated time-points. Quantitative and qualitative EMG signals during flow were usually greater than during fill. The prevalence of postoperative voiding dysfunction in subjects with higher preoperative EMG activity during void was not significantly different. Results were similar in the 42 subjects who had neither abdominal straining during void nor interrupted flow. Perineal surface patch EMG did not measure expected pelvic floor and urethral sphincter relaxation during voiding. Preoperative EMG did not predict patients at risk for postoperative voiding dysfunction. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Material Surface Damage under High Pulse Loads Typical for ELM Bursts and Disruptions in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landman, I.S.; Pestchanyi, S.E.; Bazylev, B.N [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology; Safronov, V.M. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Research (TRINITI) (Russian Federation); Garkusha, I.E. [Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology (KIPT) (Ukraine). Inst. of Plasma Physics

    2004-08-01

    The divertor armour material for the tokamak ITER will probably be carbon manufactured as fibre composites (CFC) and tungsten as either brush-like structures or thin plates. Disruptive pulse loads where the heat deposition Q may reach 10{sup 2} MJ/m{sup 2} on a time scale {tau} of 3 ms, or operation in the ELMy H-mode at repetitive loads with Q {approx} 3MJ/m{sup 2} and {tau}{approx}0.3 ms; deteriorate armour performance. This work surveys recent numerical and experimental investigations of erosion mechanisms at these off-normal regimes carried out at FZK, TRINITI, and IPP-Kharkov. The modelling uses the anisotropic thermomechanics code PEGASUS-3D for the simulation of CFC brittle destruction, the surface melt motion code MEMOS-1.5D for tungsten targets, and the radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code FOREV-2D for calculating the plasma impact and simulating the heat loads for the ITER regime. Experiments aimed at validating these codes are being carried out at the plasma gun facilities MK-200UG, QSPA-T, and QSPA-Kh50 which produce powerful streams of hydrogen plasma with Q=10-30MJ/m{sup 2} and {tau} = 0.03-0.5 ms. Essential results are, for CFC targets, the experiments at high heat loads and the development of a local overheating model incorporated in PEGASUS-3D, and for the tungsten targets the analysis of evaporation- and melt motion erosion on the base of MEMOS-1.5D calculations for repetitive ELMs.

  2. Material Surface Damage under High Pulse Loads Typical for ELM Bursts and Disruptions in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, I. S.; Pestchanyi, S. E.; Safronov, V. M.; Bazylev, B. N.; Garkusha, I. E.

    The divertor armour material for the tokamak ITER will probably be carbon manufactured as fibre composites (CFC) and tungsten as either brush-like structures or thin plates. Disruptive pulse loads where the heat deposition Q may reach 102 MJ/m 2 on a time scale Ïä of 3 ms, or operation in the ELMy H-mode at repetitive loads with Q âe 1/4 3 MJ/m2 and Ïä âe 1/4 0.3 ms, deteriorate armour performance. This work surveys recent numerical and experimental investigations of erosion mechanisms at these off-normal regimes carried out at FZK, TRINITI, and IPP-Kharkov. The modelling uses the anisotropic thermomechanics code PEGASUS-3D for the simulation of CFC brittle destruction, the surface melt motion code MEMOS-1.5D for tungsten targets, and the radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code FOREV-2D for calculating the plasma impact and simulating the heat loads for the ITER regime. Experiments aimed at validating these codes are being carried out at the plasma gun facilities MK-200UG, QSPA-T, and QSPA-Kh50 which produce powerful streams of hydrogen plasma with Q = 10–30 MJ/m2 and Ïä = 0.03–0.5 ms. Essential results are, for CFC targets, the experiments at high heat loads and the development of a local overheating model incorporated in PEGASUS-3D, and for the tungsten targets the analysis of evaporation- and melt motion erosion on the base of MEMOS-1.5D calculations for repetitive ELMs.

  3. Strategies of Clausal Possession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langacker, Ronald W.

    2003-01-01

    Across languages, clauses expressing possession, location, and existence exhibit many similarities. To capture their evident affinity, it is often claimed that possessives derive--synclironically or diaclironically--from expressions of location/existence. This localist account obscures a basic contrast between two broad classes of possessive…

  4. Total nitrogen concentrations in surface water of typical agro- and forest ecosystems in China, 2004-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Xu

    Full Text Available We assessed the total nitrogen (N concentrations of 28 still surface water (lake and pond, and 42 flowing surface water (river, monitoring sites under 29 typical terrestrial ecosystems of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN using monitoring data collected between 2004 and 2009. The results showed that the median total N concentrations of still surface water were significantly higher in the agro- (1.5 mg · L(-1 and oasis agro- ecosystems (1.8 mg · L(-1 than in the forest ecosystems (1.0 mg · L(-1. This was also the case for flowing surface water, with total N concentrations of 2.4 mg · L(-1, 1.8 mg · L(-1 and 0.5 mg · L(-1 for the agro-, oasis agro- and forest ecosystems, respectively. In addition, more than 50% of the samples in agro- and oasis agro- ecosystems were seriously polluted (>1.0 mg · L(-1 by N. Spatial analysis showed that the total N concentrations in northern and northwestern regions were higher than those in the southern region for both still and flowing surface waters under agro- and oasis agro- ecosystems, with more than 50% of samples exceeding 1.0 mg · L(-1 (the Class III limit of the Chinese National Quality Standards for Surface Waters in surface water in the northern region. Nitrogen pollution in agro- ecosystems is mainly due to fertilizer applications, while the combination of fertilizer and irrigation exacerbates nitrogen pollution in oasis agro- ecosystems.

  5. Total Nitrogen Concentrations in Surface Water of Typical Agro- and Forest Ecosystems in China, 2004-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Xinyu; Xie, Juan; Yuan, Guofu; Tang, Xinzhai; Sun, Xiaomin; Yu, Guirui

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the total nitrogen (N) concentrations of 28 still surface water (lake and pond), and 42 flowing surface water (river), monitoring sites under 29 typical terrestrial ecosystems of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN) using monitoring data collected between 2004 and 2009. The results showed that the median total N concentrations of still surface water were significantly higher in the agro- (1.5 mg·L−1) and oasis agro- ecosystems (1.8 mg·L−1) than in the forest ecosystems (1.0 mg·L−1). This was also the case for flowing surface water, with total N concentrations of 2.4 mg·L−1, 1.8 mg·L−1 and 0.5 mg·L−1 for the agro-, oasis agro- and forest ecosystems, respectively. In addition, more than 50% of the samples in agro- and oasis agro- ecosystems were seriously polluted (>1.0 mg·L−1) by N. Spatial analysis showed that the total N concentrations in northern and northwestern regions were higher than those in the southern region for both still and flowing surface waters under agro- and oasis agro- ecosystems, with more than 50% of samples exceeding 1.0 mg·L−1 (the Class III limit of the Chinese National Quality Standards for Surface Waters) in surface water in the northern region. Nitrogen pollution in agro- ecosystems is mainly due to fertilizer applications, while the combination of fertilizer and irrigation exacerbates nitrogen pollution in oasis agro- ecosystems. PMID:24667701

  6. Available content, surface runoff and leaching of phosphorus forms in a typic hapludalf treated with organic and mineral nutrient sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cledimar Rogério Lourenzi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of animal manure to soil can increase phosphorus availability to plants and enhance transfer of the nutrient solution drained from the soil surface or leached into the soil profile. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of successive applications of organic and mineral nutrient sources on the available content, surface runoff and leaching of P forms in a Typic Hapludalf in no-tillage systems. Experiment 1 was set up in 2004 in the experimental area of UFSM, in Santa Maria (RS, Brazil. The treatments consisted of: control (without nutrient application and application of pig slurry (PS, pig deep-litter (PL, cattle slurry (CS, and mineral fertilizers (NPK. The rates were determined to meet the N crop requirements of no-tillage black oat and maize, grown in the 2010/2011 growing season. The soil solution was collected after each event (rain + runoff or leaching and the soluble, particulate and total P contents were measured. In November 2008, soil was collected in 2 cm intervals to a depth of 20 cm, in 5 cm intervals to a depth of 40 cm, and in 10 cm intervals to a depth of 70 cm. The soil was dried and ground, and P determined after extraction by anion exchange resin (AER. In experiment 2, samples collected from the Typic Hapludalf near experiment 1 were incubated for 20, 35, 58, 73 and 123 days after applying the following treatments: soil, soil + PS, soil + PL, soil + CS and soil + NPK. Thereafter, the soil was sampled and P was analyzed by AER. The applications of nutrient sources over the years led to an increase in available P and its migration in the soil profile. This led to P transfer via surface runoff and leaching, with the largest transfer being observed in PS and PL treatments, in which most P was applied. The soil available P and P transfer via surface runoff were correlated with the amounts applied, regardless of the P source. However, P transfer by leaching was not correlated with the applied nutrient

  7. Entanglement typicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlsten, Oscar C. O.; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Serafini, Alessio

    2014-09-01

    We provide a summary of both seminal and recent results on typical entanglement. By ‘typical’ values of entanglement, we refer here to values of entanglement quantifiers that (given a reasonable measure on the manifold of states) appear with arbitrarily high probability for quantum systems of sufficiently high dimensionality. We shall focus on pure states and work within the Haar measure framework for discrete quantum variables, where we report on results concerning the average von Neumann and linear entropies as well as arguments implying the typicality of such values in the asymptotic limit. We then proceed to discuss the generation of typical quantum states with random circuitry. Different phases of entanglement, and the connection between typical entanglement and thermodynamics are discussed. We also cover approaches to measures on the non-compact set of Gaussian states of continuous variable quantum systems.

  8. Typical Protectionism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the middle of October,acting on a complaint from the United Steelworkers union,the Office of the U.S.Trade Representative initiated a Section 301 investigation into China's clean energy policies and practices.The move has aroused strong opposition from China.China's New Energy Association says the probe is neither well-founded nor responsible,and is typical trade protectionism.

  9. A comparison of the adsorption of saliva proteins and some typical proteins onto the surface of hydroxyapatite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawasaki, K; Kambara, M; Matsumura, H; Norde, W

    2003-01-01

    Adsorption of protein from saliva on hydroxyapatite was compared with adsorption of several typical proteins with different electric charges, i.e. lysozyme, human serum albumin, beta-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin. Adsorbed amounts of these proteins were determined and electrophoretic mobilities of

  10. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS.Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu*, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ...

  11. Gabriel's Other Possessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Melvin

    2012-01-01

    Gabriel's Horn is a solid of revolution commonly featured in calculus textbooks as a counter-intuitive example of a solid having finite volume but infinite surface area. Other examples of solids with surprising geometrical finitude relationships have also appeared in the literature. This article cites several intriguing examples (some of fractal…

  12. The influence of ionic strength on the adhesive bond stiffness of oral streptococci possessing different surface appendages as probed using AFM and QCM-D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsson, Adam L. J.; Arun, Narasimhan; Kanger, Johannes S.; Busscher, Henk J.; Ivanov, Ivan E.; Camesano, Terri A.; Chen, Yun; Johannsmann, Diethelm; van der Mei, Henny C.; Sharma, Prashant K.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion to surfaces poses threats to human-health, not always associated with adhering organisms, but often with their detachment causing contamination elsewhere. Bacterial adhesion mechanisms may not be valid for their detachment, known to proceed according to a visco-elastic mechanism.

  13. A mathematical model for the performance assessment of engineering barriers of a typical near surface radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Raphaela N.; Rotunno Filho, Otto C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Hidrologia e Estudos do Meio Ambiente]. E-mail: otto@hidro.ufrj.br; Ruperti Junior, Nerbe J.; Lavalle Filho, Paulo F. Heilbron [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: nruperti@cnen.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    This work proposes a mathematical model for the performance assessment of a typical radioactive waste disposal facility based on the consideration of a multiple barrier concept. The Generalized Integral Transform Technique is employed to solve the Advection-Dispersion mass transfer equation under the assumption of saturated one-dimensional flow, to obtain solute concentrations at given times and locations within the medium. A test-case is chosen in order to illustrate the performance assessment of several configurations of a multi barrier system adopted for the containment of sand contaminated with Ra-226 within a trench. (author)

  14. ErpC, a member of the complement regulator-acquiring family of surface proteins from Borrelia burgdorferi, possesses an architecture previously unseen in this protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caesar, Joseph J E; Johnson, Steven; Kraiczy, Peter; Lea, Susan M

    2013-06-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete responsible for Lyme disease, the most commonly occurring vector-borne disease in Europe and North America. The bacterium utilizes a set of proteins, termed complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins (CRASPs), to aid evasion of the human complement system by recruiting and presenting complement regulator factor H on its surface in a manner that mimics host cells. Presented here is the atomic resolution structure of a member of this protein family, ErpC. The structure provides new insights into the mechanism of recruitment of factor H and other factor H-related proteins by acting as a molecular mimic of host glycosaminoglycans. It also describes the architecture of other CRASP proteins belonging to the OspE/F-related paralogous protein family and suggests that they have evolved to bind specific complement proteins, aiding survival of the bacterium in different hosts.

  15. Activity of radon (222Rn) in the lower atmospheric surface layer of a typical rural site in south India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. Charan; Prasad, T. Rajendra; Ratnam, M. Venkat; Nagaraja, Kamsali

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of one year measurements of in situ radon (222Rn) and its progenies along with surface air temperature, relative humidity and pressure near to the Earth's surface has been carried out for the first time at the National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL, 13.5∘N and 79.2∘E) located in a rural site in Gadanki, south India. The dataset was analysed to understand the behaviour of radon in relation to the surface air temperature and relative humidity at a rural site. It was observed that over a period of the 24 hours in a day, the activity of radon and its progenies reaches a peak in the morning hours followed by a remarkable decrease in the afternoon hours. Relatively, a higher concentration of radon was observed at NARL during fair weather days, and this can be attributed to the presence of rocky hills and dense vegetation surrounding the site. The high negative correlation between surface air temperature and activity of radon (R = - 0.70, on an annual scale) suggests that dynamical removal of radon due to increased vertical mixing is one of the most important controlling processes of the radon accumulation in the atmospheric surface layer. The annual averaged activity of radon was found to be 12.01±0.66 Bq m-3 and 4.25±0.18 Bq m-3 for its progenies, in the study period.

  16. Activity of radon (222Rn) in the lower atmospheric surface layer of a typical rural site in south India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. Charan; Prasad, T. Rajendra; Ratnam, M. Venkat; Nagaraja, Kamsali

    2016-10-01

    Analysis of one year measurements of in situ radon (222Rn) and its progenies along with surface air temperature, relative humidity and pressure near to the Earth's surface has been carried out for the first time at the National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL, 13.5∘N and 79.2∘E) located in a rural site in Gadanki, south India. The dataset was analysed to understand the behaviour of radon in relation to the surface air temperature and relative humidity at a rural site. It was observed that over a period of the 24 hours in a day, the activity of radon and its progenies reaches a peak in the morning hours followed by a remarkable decrease in the afternoon hours. Relatively, a higher concentration of radon was observed at NARL during fair weather days, and this can be attributed to the presence of rocky hills and dense vegetation surrounding the site. The high negative correlation between surface air temperature and activity of radon ( R = - 0.70, on an annual scale) suggests that dynamical removal of radon due to increased vertical mixing is one of the most important controlling processes of the radon accumulation in the atmospheric surface layer. The annual averaged activity of radon was found to be 12.01±0.66 Bq m-3 and 4.25±0.18 Bq m-3 for its progenies, in the study period.

  17. Activity of radon ($^{222}$Rn) in the lower atmospheric surface layer of a typical rural site in south India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Charan Kumar; T Rajendra Prasad; M Venkat Ratnam; Nagaraja Kamsali

    2016-10-01

    Analysis of one year measurements of in situ radon ($^{222}$Rn) and its progenies along with surface air temperature, relative humidity and pressure near to the Earth’s surface has been carried out for the first time at the National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL, 13.5◦N and 79.2◦E) located in a rural site in Gadanki, south India. The dataset was analysed to understand the behaviour of radon inrelation to the surface air temperature and relative humidity at a rural site. It was observed that over a period of the 24 hours in a day, the activity of radon and its progenies reaches a peak in the morning hours followed by a remarkable decrease in the afternoon hours. Relatively, a higher concentration of radon was observed at NARL during fair weather days, and this can be attributed to the presence ofrocky hills and dense vegetation surrounding the site. The high negative correlation between surface air temperature and activity of radon (R = – 0.70, on an annual scale) suggests that dynamical removal of radon due to increased vertical mixing is one of the most important controlling processes of the radon accumulation in the atmospheric surface layer. The annual averaged activity of radon was found to be12.01±0.66 Bq m$^{−3}$ and 4.25±0.18 Bq m$^{−3}$ for its progenies, in the study period.

  18. Some Remarks on Portuguese Possessives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Wielgosz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The linguistic description of possessives is controversial. In traditional grammar they are defined as carriers of the meaning of possession or belonging; however, this paper intends to prove that in many cases such a meaning does not appear, and therefore, the possessive semantics of adjectives and pronouns known as possessives is a myth. Moreover, this article’s aim is to show the importance of context in the interpretation of the real meaning of a possessive. in order to confirm these hypotheses, and given the scarcity of works concerning Portuguese possessives, studies on English, Spanish and Polish ones carried out by various authors have been analyzed. What is more, some data from Reference Corpus of Contemporary Portuguese (CRPC have been examined. First of all, two different classifications of possessives are presented. Then, some cases of possessor deletion are shown, special attention being paid to the forms of expressing inalienable possession. After that, some structural characteristics of possessives are described, as well as their function as determiners. Finally, the paper shows the role that cultural and situational contexts play in the interpretation of the meaning of possessives.

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells attached to a surface display a typical proteome early as 20 minutes of incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzet, Marc; Claverol, Stéphane; Lomenech, Anne-Marie; Le Sénéchal, Caroline; Costaglioli, Patricia; Barthe, Christophe; Garbay, Bertrand; Bonneu, Marc; Vilain, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms are present in all environments and often result in negative effects due to properties of the biofilm lifestyle and especially antibiotics resistance. Biofilms are associated with chronic infections. Controlling bacterial attachment, the first step of biofilm formation, is crucial for fighting against biofilm and subsequently preventing the persistence of infection. Thus deciphering the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in attachment could allow discovering molecular targets from it would be possible to develop inhibitors against bacterial colonization and potentiate antibiotherapy. To identify the key components and pathways that aid the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in attachment we performed for the first time a proteomic analysis as early as after 20 minutes of incubation using glass wool fibers as a surface. We compared the protein contents of the attached and unattached bacteria. Using mass spectrometry, 3043 proteins were identified. Our results showed that, as of 20 minutes of incubation, using stringent quantification criteria 616 proteins presented a modification of their abundance in the attached cells compared to their unattached counterparts. The attached cells presented an overall reduced gene expression and characteristics of slow-growing cells. The over-accumulation of outer membrane proteins, periplasmic folding proteins and O-antigen chain length regulators was also observed, indicating a profound modification of the cell envelope. Consistently the sigma factor AlgU required for cell envelope homeostasis was highly over-accumulated in attached cells. In addition our data suggested a role of alarmone (p)ppGpp and polyphosphate during the early attachment phase. Furthermore, almost 150 proteins of unknown function were differentially accumulated in the attached cells. Our proteomic analysis revealed the existence of distinctive biological features in attached cells as early as 20 minutes of incubation. Analysis of

  20. [Adaptability analysis of FAO Penman-Monteith model over typical underlying surfaces in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhi-Jun; Han, Lin; Wang, Ge; Zhang, Tong-Shun

    2014-05-01

    It is very important for studying surface energy and water balance to improve the accuracy of evapotranspiration (ET) estimation. Based on eddy covariance measurements and microclimate observational data available, comparisons were done in accuracy of simulating ET with the FAO Penman-Monteith model from the marshland, rice paddy and soybean field in the Sanjiang Plain. The results showed that the values of ET simulated with the model over marshland was significantly higher than the measured one (averagely 81.8% higher) when the crop coefficients recommend by FAO were adopted, and its modeling efficiency was negative, which indicated that the ET from the marshland couldn' t be simulated by the model. While the seasonal variation of ET over rice paddy and soybean field could be simulated by the model and the accuracy in simulating ET from rice paddy was better than that from soybean field. Crop coefficients (Kc) of marshland, rice paddy and soybean field were all significantly positively related to leaf area index, and crop coefficient of soybean field was also significantly negatively related to vapor pressure deficit. With Kc modified through linear regression, the FAO Penman-Monteith model markedly improved the estimation accuracy for marshland, rice paddy and soybean field, with the mean bias error ranging from -0.1 to 0.3 mm x d(-1), root mean square error ranging from 0.50 to 0.67 mm x d(-1) and modeling efficiency ranging from 0.69 to 0.85. Still, the accuracy in simulating ET from rice paddy was superior to that from the other two underlying surfaces. The FAO Penman-Monteith model was suitable to simulate the ET from rice paddy whether the crop coefficient was modified or not. However, the crop coefficient must be modified if the model was used to simulate the ET from marshland and soybean field.

  1. Rhetoric, Possessive Individualism, and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, C. Mark

    1988-01-01

    Traces the influence of late-capitalist political ideology on the rhetoric which formed the process/product distinction; notes their sharing of an ideology of "possessive individualism." Reveals "social individualism" as an emerging ideology which may adjudicate the disparity between the ideals of process pedagogy and its…

  2. 50 CFR 20.33 - Possession limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession limit. 20.33 Section 20.33... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.33 Possession limit. No person shall possess more migratory game birds taken in the United States than the possession limit or the...

  3. Response surface modeling-based source contribution analysis and VOC emission control policy assessment in a typical ozone-polluted urban Shunde, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Yun; Jang, Carey; Wang, Shuxiao; Gao, Jian; Lin, Che-Jen; Li, Minhui; Zhu, Zhenghua; Wei, Hao; Yang, Wenwei

    2017-01-01

    To develop a sound ozone (O3) pollution control strategy, it is important to well understand and characterize the source contribution due to the complex chemical and physical formation processes of O3. Using the "Shunde" city as a pilot summer case study, we apply an innovative response surface modeling (RSM) methodology based on the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling simulations to identify the O3 regime and provide dynamic analysis of the precursor contributions to effectively assess the O3 impacts of volatile organic compound (VOC) control strategy. Our results show that Shunde is a typical VOC-limited urban O3 polluted city. The "Jiangmen" city, as the main upper wind area during July 2014, its VOCs and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions make up the largest contribution (9.06%). On the contrary, the contribution from local (Shunde) emission is lowest (6.35%) among the seven neighbor regions. The local VOCs industrial source emission has the largest contribution comparing to other precursor emission sectors in Shunde. The results of dynamic source contribution analysis further show that the local NOx control could slightly increase the ground O3 under low (10.00%) and medium (40.00%) reduction ratios, while it could start to turn positive to decrease ground O3 under the high NOx abatement ratio (75.00%). The real-time assessment of O3 impacts from VOCs control strategies in Pearl River Delta (PRD) shows that the joint regional VOCs emission control policy will effectively reduce the ground O3 concentration in Shunde. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. 50 CFR 648.145 - Possession limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession limit. 648.145 Section 648.145... Fishery § 648.145 Possession limit. (a) No person shall possess more than 25 black sea bass, in, or... that is not eligible for a black sea bass moratorium permit are subject to this possession limit....

  5. 50 CFR 648.125 - Possession limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession limit. 648.125 Section 648.125... § 648.125 Possession limit. (a) No person shall possess more than 10 scup in, or harvested from, the EEZ... moratorium permit are subject to this possession limit. The owner, operator, and crew of a charter or...

  6. Dinâmica da calagem superficial em um latossolo vermelho distrófico Dynamics of surface liming in a typic haplorthox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonez Fidalski

    2005-04-01

    progressivamente do primeiro ao terceiro ano a 0-0,60 m de profundidade. Os teores de Mg2+ mantiveram-se associados à correção da acidez do solo (pH e H + Al e à elevação dos valores de saturação por bases na profundidade de 0,10-0,20 m, na qual foi constatada a menor relação de Ca2+/Mg2+ (1,06. A máxima resposta da calagem superficial ocorreu no terceiro ano da aplicação da calagem superficial e na camada de 0-0,10 m identificada pelos modelos de regressão quadrática, momento em que se identificou o estabelecimento de uma frente de alcalinização na camada de 0,10-0,20 m por meio dos modelos de regressão linear. O método empregado de parcelas subsubdivididas no tempo permitiu a descrição da dinâmica da calagem no perfil do solo.Alterations in soil chemical properties after liming depend on the frequency of soil sampling and rainfall. This study evaluated such alterations in a Typic Haplorthox (Rhodic Ferralsol with a sandy-loam superficial layer. The experiment had a completely randomized block design, with four dolomitic lime rates (0, 2.4, 4.8, and 7.2 t ha-1 and three replicates. The experiment was carried out in Alto Parana in northwestern Parana state (southern Brazil. Lime was broadcast on the soil surface over Brachiaria decumbens grass residues in-between rows of a young orange plantation. The experimental plots consisted of an area of 310 m² with 15 orange plants each (3 rows and 5 plants per row. Soil samples were collected in-between the rows of 3 central orange plants at depths of 0-0.05; 0.05-0.10; 0.10-0.20; 0.20-0.40; and 0.40-0.60 meter at 4, 12, 18, 24, 31, and 37 months after liming. This sampling times corresponded to alternated rainy and dry seasons of the region. The analysis of variance was performed based on a complete randomized block design in a split-split-plot scheme with repeated measures over time (years, rainfall season and lime rates, which were used in the regression analyses through orthogonal polynomial models. Results

  7. Heavy metals pollution in water,suspended matter and surface sediment in typical mountainous urban river:A case study in Qingshui Stream in Chongqing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何太蓉; 李百战; 李贤良; 刘存东

    2009-01-01

    Based on a detailed environmental investigation of the whole Qingshui Stream catchments,samples of water and surface sediments were collected at 15 different places from the upper to the lower reaches of Qingshui Stream,and samples of suspended matter were obtained by filtrating the water samples. The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd,Cu and Zn) were measured in filtered water,suspended matter,and surface sediment by ICP-AES. The results show that the concentrations of the three heavy metals in filtered water are 0.18,6.6 and 17.67 μg/L,lower than that of the Fresh Water Quality Criteria (US EPA) and those of the plain urban rivers,but the contents of Cd,Cu and Zn are much higher than the mean values of rivers in the world and the background value in Jialing River basin. The heavy metals concentrations in the suspended matter from Qingshui Stream are 2.08,438.14 and 1 348.05 mg/kg,much higher than the corresponding background values of soils in Chongqing city. The heavy metals concentrations in the surface sediment from Qingshui Stream are 0.84,189.75 and 838.23 mg/kg,and the values of index of geoaccumulation Igeo of Cd,Cu and Zn show that their pollution degrees are moderate. The heavy metals exist in three transferable forms such as water,suspended matter and surface sediment in Qingshui Stream. The heavy metals concentrations in water are the lowest,and those in the suspended matter are the highest,so the ecological risk in suspended matter is the highest. The distribution tendencies of three metals in water,suspended matter and surface sediment in main riverbed are different.

  8. Do individuals with Williams syndrome possess absolute pitch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Castilla, Pastora; Sotillo, María; Campos, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Although absolute pitch (AP) is a rare skill in typical development, individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) are often referred to as possessing this musical ability. However, there is paucity of research on the topic. In this article, 2 studies were conducted to evaluate AP in WS. In Study 1, seven musically trained individuals with WS, 14 musically trained typically developing controls matched for chronological age, and 2 experienced musicians with AP completed a pitch-identification task. Although the task was a classical assessment of AP, it required participants to have musical knowledge, and the availability and accessibility of musically trained individuals with WS is very low. In Study 2, a paradigm suitable for evaluating AP in individuals without musical training was used, which made it possible to evaluate a larger group of participants with WS. A pitch memory test for isolated tones was presented to 27 individuals with WS, 54 typically developing peers matched for chronological age, and the 2 musicians with AP. Both individuals with WS and their controls obtained low results in the two studies. They showed an arbitrary pattern of response, and their performance was far from that of musicians with AP. Therefore, participants with WS did not appear to possess AP. Unlike what is usually claimed, results suggest that AP is not a remarkable ability in WS and that, as in the typically developing population, this musical ability is also rare in individuals with WS.

  9. Distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments of a typical restored mangrove-aquaculture wetland in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianxiang; Zhu, Xiaoshan; Wu, Hao; Ning, Cunxin; Lin, Guanghui

    2017-01-07

    The restoration of wetlands has attracted the attention in different countries. Restored coastal wetlands, especially urban wetlands, are sensitive to external pressures. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the efficiency of the restoration of coastal wetlands, which benefits their management and functional maintenance. In this study, a restored mangrove-aquaculture system in Waterlands Resort at Shenzhen was selected for analysis. The distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments were investigated. The results showed that restoration could effectively decrease the heavy metal concentrations in the sediment, while the restored mangrove posed a moderate ecological risk. Most of the heavy metal concentrations were higher during the dry season compared with the wet season. In addition, during the whole investigation, the sediment quality remained failed to achieve the marine sediment criteria required for aquaculture in China.

  10. POSSESSION, REVIEW FROM CULTURAL AND PSYCHIATRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Sri Diniari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Possession is a culture related syndrome, commonly found in Indonesia including Bali. We can see this event in religion and cultural ceremony and at other times at school, home, and in society. This syndrome consist of temporary loss of self identification and environment awareness; in several events a person acts as if he/she was controlled by other being, magic force, spirit or ‘other forces’. There are still several different opinions about trance-possession, whether it is related to certain culture or is a part of mental disorder. DSM-IV-TR and PPDGJ-III defined trance-possession as mental disorder (dissociative for involuntary possession, if it is not a common activity, and if it is not a part of religion or cultural event. (MEDICINA 2012;43:37-40.

  11. On topological spaces possessing uniformly distributed sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Bogachev, V I

    2007-01-01

    Two classes of topological spaces are introduced on which every probability Radon measure possesses a uniformly distributed sequence or a uniformly tight uniformly distributed sequence. It is shown that these classes are stable under multiplication by completely regular Souslin spaces

  12. Subself theory and reincarnation/possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2004-12-01

    A subself model of the mind is used to account for multiple personality, possession, the spirit controls of mediums, reincarnation, and the auditory hallucinations of schizophrenics, with suggestions for empirical research.

  13. Modeling typical performance measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weekers, Anke Martine

    2009-01-01

    In the educational, employment, and clinical context, attitude and personality inventories are used to measure typical performance traits. Statistical models are applied to obtain latent trait estimates. Often the same statistical models as the models used in maximum performance measurement are appl

  14. Exorcism and possession in psychotherapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J

    1982-03-01

    There has been an evolution in the layman's concept of mental disorder. Medieval belief in possession by demons and witches gave way to a 19th century medical model and more recently classical psychoanalytic formulations. Concurrently professional helping endeavor has moved increasingly from a more traditionally medical to psychotherapeutic process, and from a classical psychotherapeutic process wherein the therapist remained to a degree unresponsive and detached to a more modern emphasis on such qualities as empathy, sensitivity, reliability, and optimism as ingredients of successful psychotherapeutic practice. Freud's account of Haizmann's demonological neurosis usefully formulates the possession concept in psychological terms. However, recent developments in psychotherapeutic practice argue for a validity in the possession model of psychological distress. The possessing forces of object relations psychology are of course not the possessing demons and witches of medieval times but the possessing good and bad objects of early intrapsychic life set up through processes of introjection and incorporation in response to frustration in the early infant-mother relationship. Points of similarity in this comparison should not obscure features of contrast--ther is no place for histrionic manipulation nor for a moralistic attitude in the practice of psychotherapy. A case is described to illustrate these points.

  15. Typicals/Típicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vélez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Typicals is a series of 12 colour photographs digitally created from photojournalistic images from Colombia combined with "typical" craft textiles and text from guest writers. Typicals was first exhibited as photographs 50cm x 75cm in size, each with their own magnifying glass, at the Contemporary Art Space at Gorman House in Canberra, Australia, in 2000. It was then exhibited in "Feedback: Art Social Consciousness and Resistance" at Monash University Museum of Art in Melbourne, Australia, from March to May 2003. From May to June 2003 it was exhibited at the Museo de Arte de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Santa Fé Bogotá, Colombia. In its current manifestation the artwork has been adapted from the catalogue of the museum exhibitions. It is broken up into eight pieces corresponding to the contributions of the writers. The introduction by Sylvia Vélez is the PDF file accessible via a link below this abstract. The other seven PDF files are accessible via the 'Research Support Tool' section to the right of your screen. Please click on 'Supp. Files'. Please note that these files are around 4 megabytes each, so it may be difficult to access them from a dial-up connection.

  16. The Failed Image and the Possessed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This article asks if the recurrent queries regarding the value of images in visual anthropology could find new answers by exploring responses to visual media in neo-orthodox Islam. It proposes that the visual display of the photographic image shares a curious resemblance to the bodies of people...... possessed by invisible spirits called jinn. The image as a failed example or model of reality works like the possessed body as an amplifier of invisibility pointing towards that which cannot be seen, depicted visually, or represented in writing. This suggests a negative epistemology in which images obtain...

  17. 潜艇锥柱典型节点表面裂纹扩展数值模拟%Typical joints of submarine cone-cylinder structure surface crack propagation numerical simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张可成; 罗广恩; 李良碧

    2012-01-01

    Cone-cylinder parts is the hot spots of fatigue damage of submarine. In this paper, typical joints at the cone-cylinder parts of submarine are chosen as the research object. Basing on the theory of fracture mechanics, the typical welding joints of cone-cylinder hull structure is studied by ansys software developed in APDL language. The propagation process of the surface crack under alternating loads are simulated. Comparing with the experimental results, the result shows that this method can simulate the fatigue expansion of the surface crack excellently.%锥柱结合处是潜艇结构疲劳破坏的热点区域.本文以潜艇锥柱结合壳结构典型节点为研究对象,以断裂力学为理论基础,使用APDL语言对ANSYS软件进行2次开发,分析潜艇耐压壳结构典型节点表面裂纹在交变载荷作用下的扩展过程,并与试验结果进行对比,结果表明本方法可较好地模拟表面裂纹的疲劳扩展.

  18. POSSESSION VERSUS POSITION: STRATEGIC EVALUATION IN AFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M. O'Shaughnessy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In sports like Australian Rules football and soccer, teams must battle to achieve possession of the ball in sufficient space to make optimal use of it. Ultimately the teams need to score, and to do that the ball must be brought into the area in front of goal - the place where the defence usually concentrates on shutting down space and opportunity time. Coaches would like to quantify the trade-offs between contested play in good positions and uncontested play in less promising positions, in order to inform their decision-making about where to put their players, and when to gamble on sending the ball to a contest rather than simply maintain possession. To evaluate football strategies, Champion Data has collected the on-ground locations of all 350,000 possessions and stoppages in the past two seasons of AFL (2004, 2005. By following each chain of play through to the next score, we can now reliably estimate the scoreboard "equity" of possessing the ball at any location, and measure the effect of having sufficient time to dispose of it effectively. As expected, winning the ball under physical pressure (through a "hard ball get" is far more difficult to convert into a score than winning it via a mark. We also analyse some equity gradients to show how getting the ball 20 metres closer to goal is much more important in certain areas of the ground than in others. We conclude by looking at the choices faced by players in possession wanting to maximise their likelihood of success

  19. The Design and Implementation of the Web Typical Surface Object Spectral Information System in Arid Areas Based on. NET and SuperMap%基于.NET和SuperMap的干旱区Web典型地物光谱信息系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏军; 塔西甫拉提·特依拜; 张飞; 姬洪亮

    2011-01-01

    地物波谱特性是遥感定量分析的基础,也是遥感基础研究的重要内容.干旱区绿洲典型地物光谱数据库对于遥感技术在土壤盐渍化方面的应用研究具有重要的意义.该文以渭干河-库车河三角洲绿洲为例,将.NET和SuperMap平台相结合,用SQL Server数据库存储数据,采用B/S模式,使用C#语言设计并开发了地物光谱信息系统,并针对干旱区绿洲的特点建立了典型地物光谱数据库.该系统实现了对研究区典型地物光谱信息及其相关属性数据的分类存储和管理;地图与属性数据的可视化双向查询;地物光谱响应曲线的绘制;导数光谱数据处理及曲线绘制,初步具备了简单的光谱数据挖掘和分析能力,为该地区后续土壤盐渍化研究提供了一个高效、可靠、便捷的数据管理和应用平台.该系统容易维护,便于二次开发,实际运行状况良好.%The characteristic of object spectrum is not only the base of the quantification analysis of remote sensing, but also the main content of the basic research of remote sensing. The typical surface object spectral database in arid areas oasis is of great significance for applied research on remote sensing in soil salinization. In the present paper, the authors took the Ugan-Kuqa River Delta Oasis as an example, unified. NET and the SuperMap platform with SQL Server database stored data, used the B/S pattern and the C# language to design and develop the typical surface object spectral information system, and established the typical surface object spectral database according to the characteristics of arid areas oasis. The system implemented the classified storage and the management of typical surface object spectral information and the related attribute data of the study areas; this system also implemented visualized two-way query between the maps and attribute data, the drawings of the surface object spectral response curves and the processing of the

  20. A Typical Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Thomas; Achten, Peter; Plasmeijer, Rinus

    We present a typical synergy between dynamic types (dynamics) and generalised algebraic datatypes (GADTs). The former provides a clean approach to integrating dynamic typing in a statically typed language. It allows values to be wrapped together with their type in a uniform package, deferring type unification until run time using a pattern match annotated with the desired type. The latter allows for the explicit specification of constructor types, as to enforce their structural validity. In contrast to ADTs, GADTs are heterogeneous structures since each constructor type is implicitly universally quantified. Unfortunately, pattern matching only enforces structural validity and does not provide instantiation information on polymorphic types. Consequently, functions that manipulate such values, such as a type-safe update function, are cumbersome due to boilerplate type representation administration. In this paper we focus on improving such functions by providing a new GADT annotation via a natural synergy with dynamics. We formally define the semantics of the annotation and touch on novel other applications of this technique such as type dispatching and enforcing type equality invariants on GADT values.

  1. Partial differential equations possessing Frobenius integrable decompositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Wen-Xiu [Department of Mathematics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620-5700 (United States)]. E-mail: mawx@cas.usf.edu; Wu, Hongyou [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115-2888 (United States)]. E-mail: wu@math.niu.edu; He, Jingsong [Department of Mathematics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)]. E-mail: jshe@ustc.edu.cn

    2007-04-16

    Frobenius integrable decompositions are introduced for partial differential equations. A procedure is provided for determining a class of partial differential equations of polynomial type, which possess specified Frobenius integrable decompositions. Two concrete examples with logarithmic derivative Baecklund transformations are given, and the presented partial differential equations are transformed into Frobenius integrable ordinary differential equations with cubic nonlinearity. The resulting solutions are illustrated to describe the solution phenomena shared with the KdV and potential KdV equations.

  2. 典型干旱区荒漠戈壁陆面参数的观测研究%Observation and Study of Land Surface Parameters over Gobi in Typical Arid Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 曹晓彦; 卫国安; 黄荣辉

    2002-01-01

    According to the need of popular land surface process models, characteristics and rules of some key land surface process and soil parameters over Gobi in typical arid region of Northwest China are analyzed by using the data observed during the intensive observation period of the Dunhuang Land-Surface Process Field Experiment (DLSPFE) (May-June 2000). Using the relative reflection as weighting factor, the weighted mean of the surface albedo over Dunhuang Gobi in typical arid region is calculated and its values are 0.255 -+ 0.021. After canceling the interference of the buildings, the mean values of the roughness length averaged with logarithm is 0.0019-+ 0.00071 m. After removing the influence of the oasis, the soil wetness factor computed with data under condition of no precipitation is 0.0045. After removing the influence of the precipitation, the mean values of the soil heat capacity over Dunhuang Gobi in typical arid region is 1.12 ×l06 J m -3K-1, a bit smaller than the values observed in HEIFE. But the soil heat diffusivity and conductivity are about one of those observed in HEIFE. The soil water content over Dunhuang Gobi in typical synoptic condition is very little and does not exceed 1% basically.%根据目前流行的陆面过程模式的需要,利用2000年5-6月敦煌陆面过程野外观测实验加强期的观测资料,分析了西北典型干旱区荒漠戈壁的一些关键陆面过程和土壤参数的特征和规律.并且利用相对反射为权重加权平均,计算得到典型干旱区敦煌荒漠戈壁的平均反射率为0.255±0.021;剔除建筑物干扰后,利用对数平均法计算的粗糙度长度平均值为0.0019±0.0007l m;剔除绿洲影响后,用无降水影响的资料确定出土壤湿度影响因子为0.0045;剔除降水影响后,用观测资料计算的敦煌典型干旱区荒漠戈壁的热容量平均值为l 1 2×l06J m-3 K-1,比"黑河试验"在戈壁和在其它沙漠观测的有关值略小一些,但热扩散率和热传

  3. Predicative possession in Medieval Slavic Bible translations Predicative Possession in Early Biblical Slavic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia McAnallen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Late Proto-Slavic (LPS had an inventory of three constructions for expressing predicative possession. Using the earliest Slavic Bible translations from Old Church Slavic (OCS, and to a lesser degree Old Czech, a number of conclusions can be drawn about the status of predicative possession for LPS. The verb iměti ‘have’ was the most frequent and least syntactically and semantically restricted predicative possessive construction (PPC. Existential PPCs with a dative possessor appear primarily with kinship relations, abstract possessums, and in a number of other fixed construction types; existential PPCs with the possessor in an u + genitive prepositional phrase primarily appear with concrete and countable possessums. Both existential PPCs call for an animate, most often pronominal, possessor. The u + genitive was the rarest type of PPC in LPS, though it had undoubtedly grammaticalized as a PPC.

  4. 50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every migratory game bird wounded by hunting and reduced to possession by the hunter shall be immediately...

  5. Chemical characteristics and chemical weathering of surface runoff in typical granitic watersheds of subtropical China%亚热带典型花岗岩小流域径流化学特征与化学风化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄来明; 张甘霖; 杨金玲

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effect of biogeochemical cycling processes on surface runoff and the consumption of CO2 by chemical weathering of granite at small-watershed scale,the surface runoffs in two small watersheds(F-forest,FA-forest/farmland) with different land uses,which located in the typical granitic region of subtropical China,were monitored continuously for three years,and the major ions and dissolved Si were analyzed.The results showed that the dissolved Si,Na+ and HCO-3 were the predominant ions in the chemical composition of surface runoffs,and the total dissolved salts of FA watershed were higher than those of F watershed,showing the contribution of agricultural activities in FA watershed to the chemical runoffs.The ratios of Sidiss/Na+ and NO-3/SO2-4 in typical granitic watersheds(F,FA) of south Anhui Province were much higher than those in the Taihu Basin,which was rich in carbonate rocks and located in the same bioclimatic zone,indicating that the lithology and the chemical composition of acid deposition caused by human activities were the primary factors controlling the chemical runoffs.The contribution of precipitation to the chemical composition of surface runoffs in the granitic watersheds(F,FA) of south Anhui Province was 43% and 38% respectively,and the contribution of rock weathering was 57% and 50% respectively,while the contribution of the agricultural activities in the FA watershed was 12%.The consumption of CO2 by chemical weathering of granite in the small watersheds(F,FA) of south Anhui Province was(0.67—0.96)×105 mol · km-2 · a-1 and(0.64—1.05)×105 mol · km-2 · a-1 respectively,which were much lower than those of watersheds with carbonate rocks.%为了解小流域尺度下生物地球化学过程对径流水体的影响及花岗岩化学风化对CO2的吸收,对亚热带典型花岗岩区不同利用条件下的2个相邻小流域(F-森林、FA-森林/农田)的地表径流及其常量离子

  6. 20 CFR 404.1093 - Possession of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Possession of the United States. 404.1093... Income § 404.1093 Possession of the United States. In using the exclusions from gross income provided under section 931 of the Code (relating to income from sources within possessions of the United...

  7. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives... OF THE TREASURY EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.215 Possession of weapons and explosives. (a) Employees shall not possess firearms, explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons...

  8. 50 CFR 20.39 - Termination of possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.39 Termination of possession. Subject to all other requirements of this part, the possession of birds taken by any hunter shall be... consigned for transport by the Postal Service or a common carrier to some person other than the hunter. ...

  9. The typical behaviour of relays

    OpenAIRE

    Alamino, Roberto C.; Saad, David

    2007-01-01

    The typical behaviour of the relay-without-delay channel and its many-units generalisation, termed the relay array, under LDPC coding, is studied using methods of statistical mechanics. A demodulate-and-forward strategy is analytically solved using the replica symmetric ansatz which is exact in the studied system at the Nishimori's temperature. In particular, the typical level of improvement in communication performance by relaying messages is shown in the case of small and large number of re...

  10. Dissociative trance and spirit possession: Challenges for cultures in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Vishal; Ventriglio, Antonio; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-12-01

    The cross-cultural validity of dissociative possession and trance disorders is a matter of some debate, limiting research and meaningful interpretation of prevalence data. Intimate to these concerns is the status of spirit possession categories studied in the social sciences, particularly anthropology. These two categories are phenomenologically related and display similar epidemiological associations. In India, dissociative and conversion disorders are fairly common in clinical settings. There is no doubt that there are true cultural variations in possession and trance disorders. A new framework may enable clinicians to better understand possession states and spirit possession. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  11. Testing typicality in multiverse cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2015-05-01

    In extracting predictions from theories that describe a multiverse, we face the difficulty that we must assess probability distributions over possible observations prescribed not just by an underlying theory, but by a theory together with a conditionalization scheme that allows for (anthropic) selection effects. This means we usually need to compare distributions that are consistent with a broad range of possible observations with actual experimental data. One controversial means of making this comparison is by invoking the "principle of mediocrity": that is, the principle that we are typical of the reference class implicit in the conjunction of the theory and the conditionalization scheme. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the principle of mediocrity in a range of cosmological settings, employing "xerographic distributions" to impose a variety of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that for a fixed theory, the assumption that we are typical gives rise to higher likelihoods for our observations. If, however, one allows both the underlying theory and the assumption of typicality to vary, then the assumption of typicality does not always provide the highest likelihoods. Interpreted from a Bayesian perspective, these results support the claim that when one has the freedom to consider different combinations of theories and xerographic distributions (or different "frameworks"), one should favor the framework that has the highest posterior probability; and then from this framework one can infer, in particular, how typical we are. In this way, the invocation of the principle of mediocrity is more questionable than has been recently claimed.

  12. Disseminated typical bronchial carcinoid tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novković Dobrivoje

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bronchial carcinoids belong to a rare type of lung tumors. If they do not expose outstanding neuroendocrine activity, they develop without clearly visible symptoms. They are often detected during a routine examination. According to their clinical pathological features, they are divided into typical and atypical tumors. Typical bronchial carcinoids metastasize to distant organs very rarely. Localized forms are effectively treated by surgery. The methods of conservative treatment should be applied in other cases. Case report. We presented a 65-year-old patient with carcinoid lung tumor detected by a routine examination. Additional analysis (chest X-ray, computed tomography of the chest, ultrasound of the abdomen, skeletal scintigraphy, bronhoscopy, histopathological analysis of the bioptate of bronchial tumor, as well as bronchial brushing cytology and immunohistochemical staining performed with markers specific for neuroendocrine tumor proved a morphologically typical lung carcinoid with dissemination to the liver and skeletal system, which is very rarely found in typical carcinoids. Conclusion. The presented case with carcinoid used to be showed morphological and pathohistological characteristics of typical bronchial carcinoid. With its metastasis to the liver and skeletal system it demonstrated unusual clinical course that used to be considered as rare phenomenon. Due to its frequent asymptomatic course and varied manifestation, bronchial carcinoid could be considered as a diagnostic challenge requiring a multidisciplinary approach.

  13. 一次典型降雨在内江城区形成地面径流重金属污染负荷研究%Heavy Metal Pollution Load of Surface Runoff after a Typical Rainfall in Neijiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞; 王恩熙; 周贵尧; 黄安; 张洲; 陈盼; 谢贤健

    2012-01-01

    By use of the SCS rainfall model and the choice of COD, ammonia nitrogen as the conventional indices and Chromium, Manganese, Copper and Nickel as the heavy metal indices, an investigation is made of the heavy metal pollution load of the surface runoff in Neijiang after a typical rainfall under different types of land use. The results show: The concentration of Chemical Oxygen Demand(COD), Ammonia Nitrogen, Manganese, Chromium, Copper and Nickel is tested to be 37.20rag/L, 0.67 mg/L, 0.12rag/L, 0. 0ling/L, 0.03mg/L, 0.03mg/L,and the pollution load total is 2361.08kg, 35.20kg, 7.41kg, 1.47kg, 1.28kg, 7.44kg respectively under the five types of land use: industrial mining, business, transportation, housing and architecture, the COD and Ammonia Nitrogen pollution load contained in commercial land were the biggest of the five types of land use, reaching up to 66.56 %, 41.25 % ; the ratio of the heavy metal pollution load caused by land of traffic use is the highest with the ratio of Manganese, Chromium, Copper and Nickel being 66.13%, 7.75%, 39.84% and 45.30% respectively, indicating that the rainfall runoff is to impose short or medium/long term pollution on rivers, lakes and estuaries.%利用SCS降雨模型,选取COD、氨氮两个常规评价指标以及铬、锰、铜、镍四个重金属指标,研究一次典型降雨在内江城区不同土地利用类型下产生的地面径流重金属污染负荷.结果表明:一次典型降雨在内江城区工矿、商业、交通、住宅和建筑五种土地利用方式下产生的COD、氨氮、锰、铬、铜、镍污染负荷浓度分别为37.20mg/L、0.67mg/L、0.12mg/L、0.01mg/L、0.03mg/L、0.03mg/L;产生的污染负荷总量分别是2361.08kg、35.20kg、7.41kg、1.47kg、1.28kg、7.44kg;商业用地产生的COD、氨氮污染负荷比例最大,负荷比例分别为66.56%、41.25%;交通用地产生的重金属污染负荷比例最大,锰、铬

  14. Testing typicality in multiverse cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Azhar, Feraz

    2015-01-01

    In extracting predictions from theories that describe a multiverse, we face the difficulty that we must assess probability distributions over possible observations, prescribed not just by an underlying theory, but by a theory together with a conditionalization scheme that allows for (anthropic) selection effects. This means we usually need to compare distributions that are consistent with a broad range of possible observations, with actual experimental data. One controversial means of making this comparison is by invoking the 'principle of mediocrity': that is, the principle that we are typical of the reference class implicit in the conjunction of the theory and the conditionalization scheme. In this paper, I quantitatively assess the principle of mediocrity in a range of cosmological settings, employing 'xerographic distributions' to impose a variety of assumptions regarding typicality. I find that for a fixed theory, the assumption that we are typical gives rise to higher likelihoods for our observations. I...

  15. Typical errors of ESP users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.; Korneva, Anna A.

    2004-07-01

    The paper presents analysis of the errors made by ESP (English for specific purposes) users which have been considered as typical. They occur as a result of misuse of resources of English grammar and tend to resist. Their origin and places of occurrence have also been discussed.

  16. Typicality, graded membership, and vagueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, James A

    2007-05-01

    This paper addresses theoretical problems arising from the vagueness of language terms, and intuitions of the vagueness of the concepts to which they refer. It is argued that the central intuitions of prototype theory are sufficient to account for both typicality phenomena and psychological intuitions about degrees of membership in vaguely defined classes. The first section explains the importance of the relation between degrees of membership and typicality (or goodness of example) in conceptual categorization. The second and third section address arguments advanced by Osherson and Smith (1997), and Kamp and Partee (1995), that the two notions of degree of membership and typicality must relate to fundamentally different aspects of conceptual representations. A version of prototype theory-the Threshold Model-is proposed to counter these arguments and three possible solutions to the problems of logical selfcontradiction and tautology for vague categorizations are outlined. In the final section graded membership is related to the social construction of conceptual boundaries maintained through language use.

  17. Pre-Posed Possessive Constructions in Russian and Polish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Erik Richard

    2013-01-01

    In Contemporary Standard Russian (CSR) and Contemporary Standard Polish (CSP) nominal possession is conveyed by means of the adnominal genitive. In this construction the dependent follows the noun it modifies and is marked morphologically for possession in the genitive case. The head noun is marked morphologically for any one of the six…

  18. The Relationship between Social Capital and Weapon Possession on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Rachel H.; Bradley, Kristopher I.; Calvi, Jessica L.; Kennison, Shelia M.

    2012-01-01

    The present research focused on the problem of how college officials might be able to predict weapon possession on college campuses. We hypothesized that measures of social capital (i.e., trust and participation in society) may be useful in identifying individuals who are likely to possess weapons on campuses. Prior research has shown that those…

  19. The Meaning of Cherished Personal Possessions for the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Edmund; Newman, Evelyn S.

    1977-01-01

    In this exploratory study, 94 elderly persons, in seven senior service centers and one nursing home, were interviewed to identify and ascertain the meaning of cherished possessions in later years. Lack of cherished possessions was associated with low life satisfaction scores, a suggested indicator of poor adjustment to old age. (Author)

  20. 19 CFR 123.62 - Baggage in possession of traveler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Baggage in possession of traveler. 123.62 Section 123.62 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... traveler. For baggage arriving in the actual possession of a traveler, his declaration shall be accepted in...

  1. Ultra-thin films of polysilsesquioxanes possessing 3-methacryloxypropyl groups as gate insulator for organic field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahara, Yoshio; Kawa, Haruna [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Systems Engineering, Wakayama University, 930 Sakae-dani, Wakayama 640-8510 (Japan); Yoshiki, Jun [Division of Information and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto-cho, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan); Kumei, Maki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Oi, Fumio [Konishi Chemical IND. Co., LTD., 3-4-77 Kozaika, Wakayama 641-0007 (Japan); Yamakado, Hideo [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Systems Engineering, Wakayama University, 930 Sakae-dani, Wakayama 640-8510 (Japan); Fukuda, Hisashi [Division of Engineering for Composite Functions, Faculty of Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto-cho, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan); Kimura, Keiichi, E-mail: kkimura@center.wakayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Systems Engineering, Wakayama University, 930 Sakae-dani, Wakayama 640-8510 (Japan)

    2012-10-01

    Polysilsesquioxanes (PSQs) possessing 3-methacryloxypropyl groups as an organic moiety of the side chain were synthesized by sol-gel condensation copolymerization of the corresponding trialkoxysilanes. The ultra-thin PSQ film with a radical initiator and a cross-linking agent was prepared by a spin-coating method, and the film was cured integrally at low temperatures of less than 120 Degree-Sign C through two different kinds of polymeric reactions, which were radical polymerization of vinyl groups and sol-gel condensation polymerization of terminated silanol and alkoxy groups. The obtained PSQ film showed the almost perfect solubilization resistance to acetone, which is a good solvent of PSQ before polymerization. It became clear by atomic force microscopy observation that the surface of the PSQ film was very smooth at a nano-meter level. Furthermore, pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor (OFET) with the PSQ film as a gate insulator showed typical p-channel enhancement mode operation characteristics and therefore the ultra-thin PSQ film has the potential to be applicable for solution-processed OFET systems. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polysilsesquioxanes (PSQs) possessing 3-methacryloxypropyl groups were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ultra-thin PSQ film could be cured at low temperatures of less than 120 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PSQ film showed the almost perfect solubilization resistance to organic solvent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface of the PSQ film was very smooth at a nano-meter level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor with the PSQ film was fabricated.

  2. Possession as an institute of civil law in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltrinë Haliti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Social interest and main aim of this paper is to introduce a proper problematic of this institute, given that after the war in Kosovo, numerous usurpations have occurred. A vast number of related cases are pending to be solved which at first impression seem to be unimportant. However, having such cases unsolved which are deliberately categorized as proceedings of an urgent need by the legislator, frequently resulted with serious consequences as well as commission of major crimes. Today, the approach that obstruction of possession is a factual power over an item prevails, which provides a legal contribution pursuant to law and enjoys civil-legal protection. A crucial legal contribution of possession is its court protection in case of obstruction by unlawful self-judgment. Possession also enjoys independent protection of a right over an item. Given that possession itself is not a right whatsoever, herewith we may conclude that obstruction of possession constitutes infringement of no rights. However, should the obstruction to possession is committed violently, such possession constitutes the right’s infringement provided that every violent act is unlawful, and thus it is correctly protected by an interdict claim.

  3. Molecular Dynamics of Materials Possessing High Energy Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-26

    I -RI90 634 MOLECULAR DYNAMICS OF MATERIALS POSSESSING HIGH ENERGY 1/1 r CONTENTCU) COLUMBIA UNIV MENd YORK N J TURRO 26 JAN GO I RFOSR-TR-88-0168...Bolling Air Force Base, D.C. 2 61102F_ 2303 I B2 11 T,TL.E (Inciuoe Security Classification) Molecular Dynamics of Materials Possessing High Energy...York 10027 (212) 280-2175 TITLE: MOLECULAR DYNAMICS OF MATERIALS POSSESSING HIGH ENERGY CONTENT .. 0 0 88 2 ... "" ’% ,i u , . .. .. ....... ŝ" ;! ,i

  4. Must an inventor "possess" an invention to patent it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessner, Warren D; Chadwick, Robin A

    2014-09-18

    The requirements for patenting inventions relating to biotechnology have become increasingly strict and complicated in recent years. Despite early patent rulings that there is no need for an inventor to "reduce to practice" an invention, the courts are now ruling that an inventor must "possess" his or her invention before filing for patent. This review discusses what such "possession" may mean and describes decisions in which courts have found that an inventor has met or failed the possession test before filing for patent protection. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  5. Isolation and synthesis of polyoxygenated dibenzofurans possessing biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Brian E

    2015-06-01

    Reports from the past ten years describing the isolation and/or synthesis of bioactive dibenzofurans possessing three or more oxygen-containing substituents are reviewed. Dibenzofuranoquinones are included in the review.

  6. The concept possession hypothesis of self-consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanah, Stephane

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the hypothesis that concept possession is sufficient and necessary for self-consciousness. If this is true it provides a yardstick for gauging the validity of different research paradigms in which claims for self-consciousness in animals or human infants are made: a convincing demonstration of concept possession in a research subject, such as a display of inferential reasoning, may be taken as conclusive evidence of self-consciousness. Intuitively, there appears to be a correlation between intelligence in animals (which presupposes concept possession) and the existence of self-consciousness. I present three discussions to support the hypothesis: an analogy between perception and conception, where both are self-specifying; an argument that any web of concepts will always include the self-concept; and a fresh interpretation of Bermũdez (1998) showing how his theory of non-conceptual content provides strong support for the concept possession hypothesis.

  7. 50 CFR 648.52 - Possession and landing limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., or possess more than 50 bu (17.6 hL) of in-shell scallops shoreward of the VMS Demarcation Line. Such....2 hL) of in-shell scallops seaward of the VMS demarcation line on a properly declared IFQ scallop... vessel may possess up to 50 bu (17.6 hL) of in-shell scallops seaward of the VMS demarcation line on...

  8. Current trend in fabrication of complex morphologically tunable superhydrophobic nano scale surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhussein, Ali T.; Kannarpady, Ganesh K.; Wright, Andrew B.; Ghosh, Anindya; Biris, Alexandru S.

    2016-10-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are found in nature and possess several fascinating properties, including the ability to self-clean. A typical superhydrophobic surface has micro/nanostructure roughness and low surface energy, which combine to give it its unusual anti-wetting properties. Because of their unique capabilities, these surfaces have interested scientists in research and industry fields for years. In recent decades, researchers have developed a number of synthetic methods for producing novel superhydrophobic surfaces that mimic natural surfaces. These synthetic surfaces have been widely applied on different types of substrates for potential widespread, practical applications. This review article focuses on these advances in fabricating manmade superhydrophobic surfaces.

  9. On Measurement of Typical Insulator Dielectric on the Satellite by Monitoring the Surface Potential Decaying%采用表面电位衰减法测试星用典型绝缘介质电导率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松; 孙永卫; 武占成; 刘业楠; 唐小金

    2016-01-01

    卫星上某些绝缘介质受空间等离子体作用,容易发生充放电情况.该过程中,介质电导率是影响充放电特征的关键参数.采用表面电位衰减法,可以得到接近实际工况的介质本征电导率.因此,采用表面电位衰减法,首先分析表面电位衰减法对测试结果的影响因素,然后研究3 keV电子束辐照后不同厚度试样表面电位衰减过程,获得电路板材料(Fr-4)和聚酰亚胺(PI)的本征电导率为10-16 S/m量级,总结出试样厚度和电子能量对表面电位衰减测试电导率的作用规律.%By surface potential decay monitoring, the influencing factors in this technique are analyzed.Then,the surface potential decaying process after 3 keV electron irradiation is studied by measurement in a vacuum chamber,and the conductivity of two kinds of dielectric namely printed circuit board (Fr-4)and polyimide (PI)are derived to be in the level of 2×1016 S/m.The impacts of sample thickness and irradiating electron energy on the measured results are summarized.

  10. The possessions at Loudun: tracking the discourse of dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Craig E

    2017-09-01

    Embedded in the history of dissociation is the best known case of possession in European history, the 17(th) century possessions at Loudun, France (1632-1638). The exorcisms and the trial drew crowds from all over Europe, the outcome prefiguring the direction in which the Western science of mind would be carried. The published debate about the possessed and obsessed Ursuline nuns of Loudun spans four centuries. One can track how theorizing about dissociation changed over time, with psychological contributions by Jean Martin Charcot, Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Pierre Janet, Michel Foucault and Michel de Certeau. Freud's psychoanalytic notion of demonological neurosis emphasized defensive strategies and a diabolic parody of adulthood. Jung's concepts of demonism and possession highlighted dissociated complexes that assimilate the ego and unseat the self, rendering a life 'provisional'. Dissociation as possession provides a through-line in Jung's Collected Works, from his 1902 dissertation to one of the last essays he wrote, in 1961. Within the context of psychotherapy, therapists and patients work towards psychological containment, consciously reorienting themselves to the presence of unconscious factors, personifying, embodying and thereby incorporating images of dissociated Otherness into the experience of selfhood. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  11. Effects of Perfluoroalkyl Substances on the Microbial Community Structure in Surface Sediments of Typical River, China%全氟化合物对表层沉积物中细菌群落结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雅君; 王铁宇; 彭霞薇; 王佩

    2015-01-01

    In order to reveal the relationship between Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) contamination and the bacterial community composition, surface sediment samples were collected along the Xiaoqing River in Shandong Province in April and July 2014 (XQ1-XQ10), where many PFASs manufacturers were located. PFASs were quantified by HPLC/ MS-MS, related environmental factors affecting the microbial community structure were measured, and the microbial community structure in surface sediments was measured by the second-generation sequencing technology Illumina MiSeq. The results not only revealed the degree of PFASs pollution in the sediments of Xiaoqing River, but also illustrated the relationship between PFASs pollution and the microbial community structure. Among the twelve kinds of PFASs detected in this study, PFOA was the predominant compound, and the highest PFOA concentrations were detected in the sample of XQ5 (April: 456. 2 ng.g - 1; July: 748. 7 ng.g - 1 ) located at the downstream of Xiaoqing River with many fluoropolymer producing facilities. PFOA contamination was the main factor affecting the microbial community structure in April, accordingly community richness and evenness were significantly negatively correlated with PFOA levels. The abundance of Thiobacillus increased with the increasing PFOA concentration in the sediment PFOA. This suggested that Thiobacillus was sensitive to PFOA pollution and might be the potential indicator to reveal the degree of PFOA pollution in sediment. When the concentrations of PFOA were below 100 ng.g - 1 , no significant effects on the microbial community structure were observed.%选择集中分布氟化工相关企业的山东省小清河水系,自上游至莱州湾入海口采集10个表层沉积物样点( XQ1~XQ10),采用高效液相色谱/质谱联用(HPLC/ MS-MS)监测全氟化合物(perfluoroalkyl substances, PFASs),分析影响细菌群落结构的基础环境因子,提取细菌 DNA 并运用第二代 Illumina MiSeq 测

  12. Provable data possession for securing the data from untrusted server

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Karthikeyan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The model described for the use of Provable data Possession which allow the client to access the stored data at an Untrusted server that the server possesses the original data without retrieving it. This model executes the probabilistic proof of possession by random set of blocks which is derived from the server that dramatically reduces the cost of I/O. Sometimes the Client maintenance the constant amount of data which is used to verify the proof. The response protocol can transmit a small amount of data, which can minimize network communication. The two provably –Securer PDP Schemes presents more efficient schemes than previous solution .Even when compared with schemes that achieve weaker guarantees. It is the widely distributed storage systems. Using the experiment we can implement and verify the practicality of PDP and we can revel that the performance of the PDP that is bounded by disk I/O and that cannot be determined by computation.

  13. Emotional regulation, attachment to possessions and hoarding symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Philip J; Moulding, Richard; Taylor, Jasmine K; Nedeljkovic, Maja

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to test which particular facets of emotion regulation (ER) are most linked to symptoms of hoarding disorder, and whether beliefs about emotional attachment to possessions (EA) mediate this relationship. A non-clinical sample of 150 participants (108 females) completed questionnaires of emotional tolerance (distress tolerance, anxiety sensitivity, negative urgency - impulsivity when experiencing negative emotions), depressed mood, hoarding, and beliefs about emotional attachment to possessions. While all emotional tolerance measures related to hoarding, when considered together and controlling for depression and age, anxiety sensitivity and urgency were the significant predictors. Anxiety sensitivity was fully mediated, and urgency partially mediated, via beliefs regarding emotional attachment to possessions. These findings provide further support for (1) the importance of anxiety sensitivity and negative urgency for hoarding symptoms, and (2) the view that individuals with HD symptoms may rely on items for emotion regulation, leading to stronger beliefs that items are integral to emotional wellbeing.

  14. The Relationship Between Underage Alcohol Possession and Future Criminal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Barnum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between underage alcohol possession and criminal behavior through a cohort, age, and period analysis. Utilizing the Age–Period Cohort Characteristic (APCC models method and national arrest data, while controlling for age and period effects, this study examined single-year age cohorts and determines that strict enforcement of PULA (Possession Under Legal Age laws decreases the likelihood of strongly correlated vandalism and assaults as young adults. The analysis indicates an increase in assaults and vandalism as cohort size increases, but little effect from single parent, resource deprivation.

  15. 不同地表水体中四种典型肠道病原细菌的分布特性研究%Distribution of four kinds of typical enteric pathogens in different surface waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱宁; 闫志刚; 刘丽; 刘永军

    2011-01-01

    The cell densities ofEscherichia coli,Salmonella typhrmurium,Shigella dysenteriae andVibrio cholerae in clean waters, slightly polluted waters and seriously polluted waters located in urban area of Xi'an were detected continuously for four months by using real-time quantitative PCR(QPCR) method. The results showed that theVibrio cholerae was not existed in any kinds of surface waters, evennot found in municipal wastewater. However,E. coli is the one that can be most frequentlyfound outin all kinds of waters. When the water was polluted slightly, it could be detected continually. In seriously polluted waters, thecell densities of E. coli is 104~105 copies·(100 mL)−1, the cell densities ofSalmonella typhrmurium andShigella lfexneri are 101~102 copies·(100 mL)−1, and can be detected continually. In clean waters and slightly polluted waters, the cell densities of three enteric pathogens above are 10 copies·(100 mL)−1, and can not be detected continually. These results indicated that theE. coli is the main pathogenic bacteria in the seriously polluted waters, although the cell densities ofSalmonella typhrmurium andShigella lfexneri are far lower than that ofE. coli, it still can be considered as one of the marks of water pathogenic pollution.%利用实时荧光定量PCR方法,对西安市区洁净水体、轻度污染水体以及重度污染水体中的大肠杆菌、沙门氏菌、志贺氏痢疾杆菌以及霍乱弧菌进行4个月的连续检测,结果表明:霍乱弧菌在各种地表水体,甚至城市污水中均未检出,而埃希氏大肠菌从各种水体检出的频度最高,且在水体受到轻微污染后即持续检出。在污染严重的水体中,埃希氏大肠菌检出的强度在104~105 copies·(100 mL)−1,沙门氏菌和志贺氏痢疾杆菌检出强度分布在101~102 copies·(100 mL)−1,且能够持续检出;在轻度污染水体和清洁水体中,3种病原细菌的强度都在10 copies·(100 mL)−1左右,并

  16. 32 CFR 552.128 - Requirements for possession and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Control of Firearms, Ammunition and Other Dangerous Weapons on Fort Gordon § 552.128 Requirements for possession and use. All... installation, or after obtaining the weapon, except: (1) Firearms legally brought onto the installation for...

  17. The Feminist Thoughts Embodied in the Epics of Possession

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳玲

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,features of the feminist thoughts embodied in Possession analyzed and readers are led to a mythological world centered onthree female characters in three epics in order to state the feminist thoughys in the epics.Byatt's feminist thoughts are highlighted here.

  18. Dynamics of the spirit possession phenomenon in Eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Liisa Swantz

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on the spirit possession phenomenon is related in this study to the more general question of the role of religious institutions as part in the development process of a people living in a limited geographical area of a wider national society. It is assumed that religion, like culture in general, has its specific institutional forms as result of the historical development of a society, but at the same time religion is a force shaping that history. People's cultural resources influence their social and economic development and form a potential creative element in it'. Some of the questions to be asked are: "How are specific religious practices related to the dynamics of change in the societies in question? What is the social and religious context in which the spirit possession phenomenon occurs in them? What social and economic relations get their expression in them? To what extent is spirit possession in this case a means of exerting values and creatively overcoming a crisis or conflict which the changing social and economic relations impose on the people? The established spirit possession cults are here seen as the institutional forms of religious experience. At the same time it becomes evident that there is institutionalization in process as well as deinstitutionalization of spirit possession where it occurs outside established institutional forms. Institution is taken as a socially shared form of behaviour the significance of which is commonly recognized by those who share it. By the term spirit possession cult is meant a ritual form of spirit possession of a group which is loosely organized and without strict membership. The context of the study is four ethnic groups in Eastern Tanzania, near the coast of the Indian Ocean. The general theme of the project is The Role of Culture in the Restructuring of Tanzanian Rural Areas. The restructuring refers to a villagisation programme carried out in the whole country. People are being

  19. The Regulation of the Possession of Weapons at Gatherings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter du Toit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dangerous Weapons Act 15 of 2013 provides for certain prohibitions and restrictions in respect of the possession of a dangerous weapon and it repeals the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 as well as the different Dangerous Weapons Acts in operation in the erstwhile TBVC States. The Act also amends the Regulation of Gatherings Act 205 of 1993 to prohibit the possession of any dangerous weapon at a gathering or demonstration. The Dangerous Weapons Act provides for a uniform system of law governing the use of dangerous weapons for the whole of South Africa and it furthermore no longer places the onus on the individual charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon to show that he or she did not have any intention of using the firearm for an unlawful purpose. The Act also defines the meaning of a dangerous weapon. According to our court’s interpretation of the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 a dangerous weapon was regarded as an object used or intended to be used as a weapon even if it had not been designed for use as a weapon. The Act, however, requires the object to be capable of causing death or inflicting serious bodily harm if it were used for an unlawful purpose. The possession of a dangerous weapon, in circumstances which may raise a reasonable suspicion that the person intends to use it for an unlawful purpose, attracts criminal liability. The Act also provides a useful set of guidelines to assist courts to determine if a person charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon had indeed intended to use the weapon for an unlawful purpose. It seems, however, that the Act prohibits the possession of a dangerous weapon at gatherings, even if the person carrying the weapon does not intend to use it for an unlawful purpose. The state will, however, have to prove that the accused had the necessary control over the object and the intention to exercise such control, as well as that the object is capable of

  20. Possession and Immoveable Property: The History of Two Connected Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Carranza-Álvarez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Possession and property are two different sides of the same coin. The two institutions have the same axis: the benefit, mainly economic, of a good. In countries like Colombia and Peru, important reforms have been introduced whose main effect has been the following one: the approach to these two institutions. In this article we will speak of these two institutions, today more than ever, connected.

  1. Language Learning of Children with Typical Development Using a Deductive Metalinguistic Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In the current study, the author aimed to determine whether 4- to 6-year-old typically developing children possess requisite problem-solving and language abilities to produce, generalize, and retain a novel verb inflection when taught using an explicit, deductive teaching procedure. Method: Study participants included a cross-sectional…

  2. CHRISTIAN SYMBOLISM IN FYODOR DOSTOEVSKY'S NOVEL "THE POSSESSED" ("DEMONS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Leonidovich Sharakov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article raises a question of Christian symbolism in Fyodor Dostoevsky’s novel The Possessed (Demons. The introductory part identifies the purpose of a symbol in Christian poetics through the parallel with ancient symbolism. The author makes a conclusion that the functional role of a symbol in the ancient world and Christian tradition is different. Therefore, the ancient symbol involves a number of interrelated categories, such as fate, intuition or conjecture, inspiration, and predictions. Christian symbolism is based on the idea of redemption and moral innocence. Methodologically, the article is based on a cultural and historical approach, as well as on the comparative academic tradition. The overview of Dostoyevsky’s pre-materials for The Possessed (Demons enables us to suggest the use of Christian symbolism in this novel. Hence, the objective of the study is to investigate a composition of images and symbols in this piece of writing, with a special focus on the image of a chronicler since the storyline of the novel is developed through his perception. We make a supposition that there are several levels of Gospel perception in the artistic vision or consciousness of the chronicler, that form the basis of the symbolical composition of the novel. The article sequentially examines the examples of Christian symbolism, including the connection of ideas, characters and storylines of the novel with the Gospel. Then it gives evidence and reasons for the thesis that the Gospel gives the characters of the novel the grounds for shaping their destiny.

  3. Typicality, physiological activity and concept identification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das-Smaal, E.A.; Swart, de J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The extent to which instances are good or poor examples of their categories (typicality) was varied in a concept identification (CI) task. Typicality was first established for the kind of artificial material traditionally used in CI tasks (experiment 1). This material was employed in a CI task

  4. Three Aspects of Typicality in Multiverse Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-01-01

    Extracting predictions from cosmological theories that describe a multiverse, for what we are likely to observe in our domain, is crucial to establishing the validity of these theories. One way to extract such predictions is from theory-generated probability distributions that allow for selection effects---generally expressed in terms of assumptions about anthropic conditionalization and how typical we are. In this paper, I urge three lessons about typicality in multiverse settings. (i) Because it is difficult to characterize our observational situation in the multiverse, we cannot assume that we are typical (as in the 'principle of mediocrity'): nor can we ignore the issue of typicality, for it has a measurable impact on predictions for our observations. (ii) There are spectra of assumptions about both conditionalization and typicality, which lead to coincident predictions for our observations, leading to problems of confirmation in multiverse cosmology. And moreover, (iii) when one has the freedom to consid...

  5. Adducin family proteins possess different nuclear export potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Mei; Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Lin, Wan-Yi; Chen, Hong-Chen

    2017-05-10

    The adducin (ADD) family proteins, namely ADD1, ADD2, and ADD3, are actin-binding proteins that play important roles in the stabilization of membrane cytoskeleton and cell-cell junctions. All the ADD proteins contain a highly conserved bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) at the carboxyl termini, but only ADD1 can localize to the nucleus. The reason for this discrepancy is not clear. To avoid the potential effect of cell-cell junctions on the distribution of ADD proteins, HA epitope-tagged ADD proteins and mutants were transiently expressed in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and their distribution in the cytoplasm and nucleus was examined by immunofluorescence staining. Several nuclear proteins were identified to interact with ADD1 by mass spectrometry, which were further verified by co-immunoprecipitation. In this study, we found that ADD1 was detectable both in the cytoplasm and nucleus, whereas ADD2 and ADD3 were detected only in the cytoplasm. However, ADD2 and ADD3 were partially (~40%) sequestered in the nucleus by leptomycin B, a CRM1/exportin1 inhibitor. Upon the removal of leptomycin B, ADD2 and ADD3 re-distributed to the cytoplasm. These results indicate that ADD2 and ADD3 possess functional NLS and are quickly transported to the cytoplasm upon entering the nucleus. Indeed, we found that ADD2 and ADD3 possess much higher potential to counteract the activity of the NLS derived from Simian virus 40 large T-antigen than ADD1. All the ADD proteins appear to contain multiple nuclear export signals mainly in their head and neck domains. However, except for the leucine-rich motif ((377)FEALMRMLDWLGYRT(391)) in the neck domain of ADD1, no other classic nuclear export signal was identified in the ADD proteins. In addition, the nuclear retention of ADD1 facilitates its interaction with RNA polymerase II and zinc-finger protein 331. Our results suggest that ADD2 and ADD3 possess functional NLS and shuttle between the cytoplasm and nucleus. The discrepancy in the

  6. Why all stars should possess circumstellar temperature inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Jack D.

    1992-01-01

    The paper shows that the circumstellar temperature inversions possessed by all stars are the consequence of the 'velocity filtration' process described by Scudder (1992), according to which a stellar envelope is hotter than its underlying layers. The filtration scenario relies on the theoretically predicted and experimentally determined non-Maxwellian velocity distributions of ions and/or electrons in other sampled astrophysical plasmas and the transition region. The most immediate consequence is that the temperature and quasi-neutral plasma density become anticorrelated with increasing radius in a thin transition region, leaving the temperature profile inverted in excess of 10 exp 6 K up into a corona, without depositing a wave of magnetic field energy into the gas above the base of the transition region.

  7. Aromatic Polyurea Possessing High Electrical Energy Density and Low Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Yash; Lin, Minren; Wu, Shan; Zhang, Q. M.

    2016-10-01

    We report the development of a dielectric polymer, poly (ether methyl ether urea) (PEMEU), which possesses a dielectric constant of 4 and is thermally stable up to 150°C. The experimental results show that the ether units are effective in softening the rigid polymer and making it thermally processable, while the high dipole moment of urea units and glass structure of the polymer leads to a low dielectric loss and low conduction loss. As a result, PEMEU high quality thin films can be fabricated which exhibit exceptionally high breakdown field of >1.5 GV/m, and a low conduction loss at fields up to the breakdown. Consequently, the PEMEU films exhibit a high charge-discharge efficiency of 90% and a high discharged energy density of 36 J/cm3.

  8. RNautophagy/DNautophagy possesses selectivity for RNA/DNA substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, Katsunori; Fujiwara, Yuuki; Kikuchi, Hisae; Aizawa, Shu; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Wada, Keiji; Kabuta, Tomohiro

    2015-07-27

    Lysosomes can degrade various biological macromolecules, including nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. Recently, we identified novel nucleic acid-degradation systems termed RNautophagy/DNautophagy (abbreviated as RDA), in which RNA and DNA are directly taken up by lysosomes in an ATP-dependent manner and degraded. We also found that a lysosomal membrane protein, LAMP2C, the cytoplasmic region of which binds to RNA and DNA, functions, at least in part, as an RNA/DNA receptor in the process of RDA. However, it has been unclear whether RDA possesses selectivity for RNA/DNA substrates and the RNA/DNA sequences that are recognized by LAMP2C have not been determined. In the present study, we found that the cytosolic region of LAMP2C binds to poly-G/dG, but not to poly-A/dA, poly-C/dC, poly-dT or poly-U. Consistent with this binding activity, poly-G/dG was transported into isolated lysosomes via RDA, while poly-A/dA, poly-C/dC, poly-dT and poly-U were not. GGGGGG or d(GGGG) sequences are essential for the interaction between poly-G/dG and LAMP2C. In addition to poly-G/dG, G/dG-rich sequences, such as a repeated GGGGCC sequence, interacted with the cytosolic region of LAMP2C. Our findings indicate that RDA does possess selectivity for RNA/DNA substrates and that at least some consecutive G/dG sequence(s) can mediate RDA. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Some typical solid propellant rocket motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, B.T.C.

    2013-01-01

    Typical Solid Propellant Rocket Motors (shortly referred to as Solid Rocket Motors; SRM's) are described with the purpose to form a database, which allows for comparative analysis and applications in practical SRM engineering.

  10. Some typical solid propellant rocket motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, B.T.C.

    2013-01-01

    Typical Solid Propellant Rocket Motors (shortly referred to as Solid Rocket Motors; SRM's) are described with the purpose to form a database, which allows for comparative analysis and applications in practical SRM engineering.

  11. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2014-02-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typicality translate to errors in the assessment of predictive power. We conjecture that this dependence on typicality is an integral feature of anthropic reasoning in broader cosmological contexts, and argue in favour of the explicit inclusion of measures of typicality in schemes invoking anthropic reasoning, with a view to extracting predictions from multiverse scenarios.

  12. What is typical is good: the influence of face typicality on perceived trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality's influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness judgments. Here, we argue that face typicality is an important factor for social perception because it affects trustworthiness judgments, which approximate the basic evaluation of faces. This effect has been overlooked because trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments have a high level of shared variance for most face samples. We show that for a continuum of faces that vary on a typicality-attractiveness dimension, trustworthiness judgments peak around the typical face. In contrast, perceived attractiveness increases monotonically past the typical face, as faces become more like the most attractive face. These findings suggest that face typicality is an important determinant of face evaluation.

  13. How typical are 'typical' tremor characteristics? : Sensitivity and specificity of five tremor phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; Elting, J. W.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; van Laar, T.; Leenders, K. L.; Maurits, N. M.; Tijssen, M. Aj.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Distinguishing between different tremor disorders can be challenging. Some tremor disorders are thought to have typical tremor characteristics: the current study aims to provide sensitivity and specificity for five 'typical' tremor phenomena. Methods: Retrospectively, we examined 210 t

  14. Ubc2, an Ortholog of the Yeast Ste50p Adaptor, Possesses a Basidiomycete-Specific Carboxy terminal Extension Essential for Pathogenicity Independent of Pheromone Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteins involved in the MAP kinase pathway controlling mating, morphogenesis and pathogenicity have been identified previously in the fungus Ustilago maydis. One of these, the Ubc2 adaptor protein, possesses a basidiomycete-specific structure. In addition to containing SAM and RA domains typical of...

  15. Panic attacks and possession by djinns: lessons from ethnopsychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Del Puente, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    This clinical case report shows how important it is for a psychiatrist to have a knowledge of the cultural and religious context of the patient, in order to understand fully his or her complaints. Culture and religion, in fact, are not neutral, but convey symbols, meanings, and myths that should be properly explored to shed light on the patient's inner world. Patient D was a 19-year-old Muslim Italo-Tunisian girl, who consulted a psychiatrist for anxiety and panic attacks, and reported being possessed by djinns (ie, "evil creatures", as described in the Qur'an). A culturally informed interview was carried out, together with administration of psychometric scales, including the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised and Psychological Measure of Islamic Religiousness. Based on her scores and the results of this multidimensional assessment, patient D was treated with transcultural psychotherapy and fluoxetine. After a year of follow-up, she reported no further episodes of panic disorder. For proper assessment and treatment, a combined anthropological, sociological, and psychopathological approach was necessary.

  16. Dynamic Data Possession Checking for Secure Cloud Storage Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhe Jiao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Using cloud storage service, data owners can access their data anywhere at any time and enjoy the on-demand high quality applications and services, without the burden of local data storage and maintenance. Meanwhile, the risk of losing data stored with any untrustworthy service provider is the key barrier to widely adopt cloud storage service. To verify the integrity of data stored in cloud and relieve the security concerns of customers, a privacy-preserving data possession checking (DPC scheme is presented. This scheme uses Merkle Hash Tree to support fully dynamic data operations. To achieve robustness, forward error-correcting codes can be combined with the proposed DPC scheme, which can recover the data when a small amount of file has been corrupted. The scheme allows unlimited times verification without the need for the verifier to compare against the original data, which reduces the communication and computation complexity dramatically and preserves the privacy of the data. Extensive security analysis and simulation show that the proposed scheme is highly provably secure.

  17. What is typical is good: The influence of face typicality on perceived trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, C.; Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Todorov, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality's influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  18. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Azhar, Feraz

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typi...

  19. Narrative versus Style: Effect of Genre Typical Events versus Genre Typical Filmic Realizations on Film Viewers' Genre Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genretypical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization cues are similar to stylistic surface cues of a film sequence. It was predicted that genre recognition of short film fragments is cued more by filmic realization cues than by event cues. The results...

  20. Medication possession ratio predicts antiretroviral regimens persistence in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L Salinas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In developing nations, the use of operational parameters (OPs in the prediction of clinical care represents a missed opportunity to enhance the care process. We modeled the impact of multiple measurements of antiretroviral treatment (ART adherence on antiretroviral treatment outcomes in Peru. DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study including ART naïve, non-pregnant, adults initiating therapy at Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima-Peru (2006-2010. Three OPs were defined: 1 Medication possession ratio (MPR: days with antiretrovirals dispensed/days on first-line therapy; 2 Laboratory monitory constancy (LMC: proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 viral load or CD4 reported; 3 Clinic visit constancy (CVC: proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 clinic visit. Three multi-variable Cox proportional hazard (PH models (one per OP were fit for (1 time of first-line ART persistence and (2 time to second-line virologic failure. All models were adjusted for socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory variables. RESULTS: 856 patients were included in first-line persistence analyses, median age was 35.6 years [29.4-42.9] and most were male (624; 73%. In multivariable PH models, MPR (per 10% increase HR=0.66; 95%CI=0.61-0.71 and LMC (per 10% increase 0.83; 0.71-0.96 were associated with prolonged time on first-line therapies. Among 79 individuals included in time to second-line virologic failure analyses, MPR was the only OP independently associated with prolonged time to second-line virologic failure (per 10% increase 0.88; 0.77-0.99. CONCLUSIONS: The capture and utilization of program level parameters such as MPR can provide valuable insight into patient-level treatment outcomes.

  1. Typical horticultural products between tradition and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenza Chessa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent EU and National policies for agriculture and rural development are mainly focused to foster the production of high quality products as a result of the increasing demand of food safety, typical foods and traditional processing methods. Another word very often used to describe foods in these days is “typicality” which pools together the concepts of “food connected with a specific place”, “historical memory and tradition” and “culture”. The importance for the EU and the National administrations of the above mentioned kind of food is demonstrated, among other things, by the high number of the PDO, PGI and TSG certificated products in Italy. In this period of global markets and economical crisis farmers are realizing how “typical products” can be an opportunity to maintain their market share and to improve the economy of local areas. At the same time, new tools and strategy are needed to reach these goals. A lack of knowledge has being recognized also on how new technologies and results coming from recent research can help in exploiting traditional product and in maintaining the biodiversity. Taking into account the great variety and richness of typical products, landscapes and biodiversity, this report will describe and analyze the relationships among typicality, innovation and research in horticulture. At the beginning “typicality” and “innovation” will be defined also through some statistical features, which ranks Italy at the first place in terms of number of typical labelled products, then will be highlighted how typical products of high quality and connected with the tradition and culture of specific production areas are in a strict relationship with the value of agro-biodiversity. Several different examples will be used to explain different successful methods and/or strategies used to exploit and foster typical Italian vegetables, fruits and flowers. Finally, as a conclusion, since it is thought that

  2. Why a mosquito leg possesses superior load-bearing capacity on water: Experimentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang-Qing; Liu, Jian-Lin; Wu, Cheng-Wei

    2016-04-01

    Mosquitoes possess the striking ability to walk on water because each of their legs has a huge water supporting force (WSF) that is 23 times their body weight. Aiming at a full understanding of the origins of this extremely large force, in this study, we concentrate on two aspects of it: the intrinsic properties of the leg surface and the active control of the initial stepping angle of the whole leg. Using a measurement system that we developed ourselves, the WSFs for the original leg samples are compared with those whose surface wax and microstructures have been removed and with those of a different stiffness. The results show that leg flexibility plays a dominant role over surface wax and microstructures on the leg surface in creating the supporting force. Moreover, we discuss the dependence relationship between the maximum WSF and the initial stepping angle, which indicates that the mosquito can regulate this angle to increase or decrease the WSF during landing or takeoff. These findings are helpful for uncovering the locomotion mechanism of aquatic insects and for providing inspiration for the design of microfluids, miniature boats, biomimetic robots, and microsensors.

  3. Modelling Typical Online Language Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the methods and results of a four-year-long research project focusing on the language learning activity of individual learners using online tasks conducted at the University of Guanajuato (Mexico) in 2009-2013. An activity-theoretical model (Blin, 2010; Engeström, 1987) of the typical language learning activity was used to…

  4. Possession of first aid basic knowledge by specific population groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Argyriou

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The term 'first aid' refers to the preliminary care that is given to patients or injured individuals. The main objective of first aid is to offer effective assistance to victims until a more qualified professional becomes available to provide for further care. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether specific populations possess the basic knowledge and skills that are necessary to offer this initial phase of treatment. Material-Method: The studied population consisted of 1387 individuals, of which 57.9% (N = 803 were male. Data was collected through the creation and administration of a questionnaire composed of 28 questions. The data analysis was performed using the statistical program SPSS (version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL. Results: Almost half of the sample, 764 individuals (55.1% never attended a 'first aid' seminar, while 623 (44.9% did. The latter group could be further divided in accordance to the duration of the seminars that they partook in. 405 (29.2% attended for 12 to 24 hours, 88 (6.3% for 2-3 weeks, 50 (3.6% for one month, and 81 (5.8% for more than a month. Health professionals were 3.1 times more likely to have attended a seminar than the other respondents (N: 1.144, OR: 3.138, 95% CI: 1.508-6.528, p: 0.002. 67.6% of the studied sample would react correctly in a situation where an unconscious child would be carried out from sea, while 63.7% would do the Heimlich maneuver on a person who felt breathlessness while choking during a meal. Nine hundred and six people (65.3% would give an unconscious diabetic something sweet to eat. People who had graduated from an institute were 1.4 times more likely to properly deal with a diabetic who was in a critical condition (OR: 1.401, 95% CI: 1.060-1.853, p: 0.018 Conclusions: First aid training is a vital asset for all population groups. It is therefore all the more important to make such education programs accessible to the wider population. Furthermore the

  5. Quantum typicality in spin network states of quantum geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Anzà, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we extend the so-called typicality approach, originally formulated in statistical mechanics contexts, to SU(2) invariant spin network states. Our results do not depend on the physical interpretation of the spin-network, however they are mainly motivated by the fact that spin-network states can describe states of quantum geometry, providing a gauge-invariant basis for the kinematical Hilbert space of several background independent approaches to quantum gravity. The first result is, by itself, the existence of a regime in which we show the emergence of a typical state. We interpret this as the prove that, in that regime there are certain (local) properties of quantum geometry which are "universal". Such set of properties is heralded by the typical state, of which we give the explicit form. This is our second result. In the end, we study some interesting properties of the typical state, proving that the area-law for the entropy of a surface must be satisfied at the local level, up to logarithmic c...

  6. Are symptoms of spirit possessed patients covered by the DSM-IV or DSM-5 criteria for possession trance disorder? A mixed-method explorative study in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijl, M.; Kleyn, W.; de Jong, J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and aims As in many cultures, spirit possession is a common idiom of distress in Uganda. The DSM-IV contains experimental research criteria for dissociative and possession trance disorder (DTD and PTD), which are under review for the DSM-5. In the current proposed categories of the DSM-

  7. Typically the Best? Perceived Typicality and Aesthetic Appraisal of Product Appearances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijlevens, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, it is investigated how the current knowledge that people possess about a certain product category influences perception and aesthetic appraisal of product appearances within this product category. Through the reoccurring exposure to product appearances in everyday life people f

  8. 27 CFR 478.40 - Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.40 Section 478.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. (a) Prohibition. No person shall manufacture, transfer, or possess a semiautomatic assault weapon. (b) Exceptions. The provisions of paragraph (a) of...

  9. 27 CFR 478.36 - Transfer or possession of machine guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... machine guns. 478.36 Section 478.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.36 Transfer or possession of machine guns. No person shall transfer or possess a machine gun except: (a) A transfer to or by, or possession by or under the...

  10. The History of Predicative Possession in Slavic: Internal Development vs. Language Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnallen, Julia

    2011-01-01

    The languages of the world encode possession in a variety of ways. In Slavic languages, possession on the level of the clause, or predicative possession, is represented by two main encoding strategies. Most Slavic languages, including those in the West and South Slavic sub-groupings, use a "have" verb comparable to English have and German "haben."…

  11. Herpes zoster - typical and atypical presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Roy Rafael; Peleg, Roni

    2017-08-01

    Varicella- zoster virus infection is an intriguing medical entity that involves many medical specialties including infectious diseases, immunology, dermatology, and neurology. It can affect patients from early childhood to old age. Its treatment requires expertise in pain management and psychological support. While varicella is caused by acute viremia, herpes zoster occurs after the dormant viral infection, involving the cranial nerve or sensory root ganglia, is re-activated and spreads orthodromically from the ganglion, via the sensory nerve root, to the innervated target tissue (skin, cornea, auditory canal, etc.). Typically, a single dermatome is involved, although two or three adjacent dermatomes may be affected. The lesions usually do not cross the midline. Herpes zoster can also present with unique or atypical clinical manifestations, such as glioma, zoster sine herpete and bilateral herpes zoster, which can be a challenging diagnosis even for experienced physicians. We discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of Herpes Zoster, typical and atypical presentations.

  12. Linguistic recycling in typical and atypical interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    I present evidence that linguistic "recycling" - i.e., the redeployment of linguistic material from prior utterances during conversation - is a striking and prevalent feature not only of interaction between typical speakers, but also, and notably, of interaction involving the communication impaired. In the latter case, recycling may sometimes be used as a compensatory communicative resource when linguistic ability is compromised. Despite its prevalence, however, recycling has largely been ignored by clinical linguists. In addition to providing illustrations of linguistic recycling across a range of communication disorders, I also examine how it is subserved by phenomena such as priming, short-term memory and alignment. I subsequently argue for a shift in perspective that puts recycling at the heart of our perception of how typical and atypical interaction works, and suggest a number of potential benefits for clinical linguistics, ranging from the way we understand and analyse communication disorders to how we assess and treat them.

  13. Poly-γ-glutamate-based Materials for Multiple Infection Prophylaxis Possessing Versatile Coating Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Ashiuchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly-γ-glutamate (PGA possesses a nylon-like backbone and polyacrylate-like carboxyl groups, and shows an extraordinary solubility in water. In this study, the effective synthesis and structural analysis of some water-insoluble PGA ion-complexes (PGAICs using cationic surfactants, hexadecylpyridinium (HDP, dodecylpyridinium, benzalkonium and benzetonium, were examined. We demonstrated their spontaneous coating performance to the surfaces of different materials (i.e., plastics, metals, and ceramics as potent anti-staphylococcal and anti-Candida agents. The tests against Staphylococcus aureus revealed that, regardless of a variety of materials, PGAICs maintained surface antimicrobial activity, even after the water-soaking treatment, whereas those against Candida albicans indicated that, among PGAICs, PGA/HDP complex is most useful as an anti-fungal agent because of its coating stability. Moreover, the log reduction values against Influenza A and B viruses of PGA/HDP-coated surfaces were estimated to be 5.4 and 3.2, respectively, suggesting that it can be dramatically suppressed the infection of influenza. This is to our knowledge the first observation of PGA-based antiviral coatings.

  14. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty.

  15. Nature inspired structured surfaces for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, H K; Hasan, J; Truong, V K; Crawford, R J; Ivanova, E P

    2011-01-01

    Nature has created an array of superhydrophobic surfaces that possess water-repellent, self-cleaning and anti-icing properties. These surfaces have a number of potential applications in the biomedical industry, as they have the potential to control protein adsorption and cell adhesion. Natural superhydrophobic surfaces are typically composed of materials with a low intrinsic surface free-energy (e.g the cuticular waxes of lotus leaves and insect wings) with a hierarchical structural configuration. This hierarchical surface topography acts to decrease the contact area of water droplets in contact with the surface, thereby increasing the extent of the air/water interface, resulting in water contact angles greater than 150º. In order to employ these surfaces in biotechnological applications, fabrication techniques must be developed so that these multi-scale surface roughness characteristics can be reproduced. Additionally, these fabrication techniques must also be able to be applied to the material required for the intended application. An overview of some of the superhydrophobic surfaces that exist in nature is presented, together with an explanation of the theories of their wettability. Also included is a description of some of the biomedical applications of superhydrophobic surfaces and fabrication techniques that can be used to mimic superhydrophobic surfaces found in nature.

  16. What Is Typical Is Good : The Influence of Face Typicality on Perceived Trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality’s influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  17. What Is Typical Is Good : The Influence of Face Typicality on Perceived Trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328554197; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality’s influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  18. Flux measurement and modeling in a typical mediterranean vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Serena; Bellucco, Veronica; Pyles, David R.; Falk, Matthias; Sirca, Costantino; Duce, Pierpaolo; Snyder, Richard L.; Tha Paw U, Kyaw; Spano, Donatella

    2014-05-01

    Vineyard ecosystems are typical in the Mediterranean area, since wine is one of the most important economic sectors. Nevertheless, only a few studies have been conducted to investigate the interactions between this kind of vegetation and the atmosphere. These information are important both to understand the behaviour of such ecosystems in different environmental conditions, and are crucial to parameterize crop and flux simulation models. Combining direct measurements and modelling can obtain reliable estimates of surface fluxes and crop evapotranspiration. This study would contribute both to (1) directly measure energy fluxes and evapotranspiration in a typical Mediterranean vineyard, located in the South of Sardinia (Italy), through the application of the Eddy Covariance micrometeorological technique and to (2) evaluate the land surface model ACASA (Advanced-Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm) in simulating energy fluxes and evapotranspiration over vineyard. Independent datasets of direct measurements were used to calibrate and validate model results during the growing period. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate model performance and accuracy in predicting surface fluxes. Results will be showed as well as the model capability to be used for future studies to predict energy fluxes and crop water requirements under actual and future climate.

  19. Study on Land Surface Characteristics and Its Relationship with Land Surface Thermal Environment of Typical City in Arid Region%干旱区典型城市下垫面特征及其与地表热环境的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    买买提江·买提尼亚孜; 阿里木江·卡斯木

    2015-01-01

    Landsat TM images of August 11th, 2011 were used to acquire the abundance of impervious surface Area (ISA) and vegetation fraction (FV) information of Urumqi city’s build-up area based on Linear Spectral. Unmixing Model, and land surface temperature (LST) was retrieved using Mono-Window Algorithm of that area as well, then spatial distribution characteristics of these factors were analyzed based on hierarchical method. On basis of this, the correlation relationship between abundance of ISA, FV and LST was analyzed respectively. The results show that: (1)Linear Spectral Unmixing Model is proved to be a method with low cost and high precision in extracting ISA when using medium resolution remote sensing image in this case (RMS is 0.003, much smaller than the threshold value 0.02), and it has advantages of distinguishing urban construction land and bare soil which have similar spectral characteristics; (2) Abundance of ISA is positively correlated with LST with R square of 0.69, and FV is negatively correlated with LST with R square of 0.74; (3) Bare soil has significant influence on the formation of heat island and the surface thermal environment of cities in arid region because of extremely high LST, so reducing and changing bare soil of cities in arid region is very helpful to mitigate urban heat island effect and improve the thermal environment of the whole city.%基于2011年8月11日Landsat TM遥感影像,利用混合光谱线性分解模型提取乌鲁木齐市建成区下垫面不透水面丰度和植被覆盖度信息,利用单窗算法定量反演建成区地表温度,并通过分级方法分析两个要素的空间分布特征;在此基础上,利用回归模型对乌鲁木齐市建成区不透水面丰度、植被覆盖度与地表热环境之间的关系进行相关性分析。结果表明:(1)利用混合光谱线性分解方法,基于中等分辨率TM影像提取干旱区城市乌鲁木齐建成区不透水面,成本低,精度高

  20. Typical Women Figures in Hemingway's Fictional World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春会; 范璐

    2008-01-01

    Ernest Hemingway is widely regarded as a giant figure in American literature, but meantime he is often criticized for his prejudice against women. However, whether Ernest Hemingway is a misogynist writer or not, I believe is largely depended on readers' comprehension of his works. This paper launched an interesting study on typical women characters in Hemingway's fictional world. The study also reveals that fact that far from being a misogynist writer, Hemingway shows great concern to women as a group. Not only did he own strong insight on women but also expressed his sympathy towards women.

  1. Youth spare time: Typical patterns of behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanović Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have tried to identify typical patterns of young people's behavior in their spare time and to use these patterns in order to group our subjects regarding their interests and preferences. Main-component analysis showed that it was possible to find different patterns of secondary school students' behavior in spare time as well as that the identified models could be the criteria for grouping them. Five patterns have been identified describing youth orientations towards their free time: academic orientation, orientation towards sports, orientation towards entertainment, orientation towards spending time going out and orientation towards music and computers.

  2. A Psychoanalytic Approach to Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊

    2015-01-01

    Typical American is the representative work of Gish Jen, a famous Chinese American woman writer. This novel is based on the three youth, Ralph, Theresa, and Helen who came to America to study and then became American citizens. This thesis tries to analyze the special psychological state of them from the perspective of psychoanalysis according to Freud 's psychoanalytic theo-ry. Through the writing of this thesis, the author regards that their specific psychoanalytic state is a group features. To learn these special features can help us have a good understanding of people coming from different cultural backgrounds.

  3. On Typicality in Nonequilibrium Steady States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Denis J.; Williams, Stephen R.; Searles, Debra J.; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2016-08-01

    From the statistical mechanical viewpoint, relaxation of macroscopic systems and response theory rest on a notion of typicality, according to which the behavior of single macroscopic objects is given by appropriate ensembles: ensemble averages of observable quantities represent the measurements performed on single objects, because " almost all" objects share the same fate. In the case of non-dissipative dynamics and relaxation toward equilibrium states, " almost all" is referred to invariant probability distributions that are absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure. In other words, the collection of initial micro-states (single systems) that do not follow the ensemble is supposed to constitute a set of vanishing, phase space volume. This approach is problematic in the case of dissipative dynamics and relaxation to nonequilibrium steady states, because the relevant invariant distributions attribute probability 1 to sets of zero volume, while evolution commonly begins in equilibrium states, i.e., in sets of full phase space volume. We consider the relaxation of classical, thermostatted particle systems to nonequilibrium steady states. We show that the dynamical condition known as Ω T-mixing is necessary and sufficient for relaxation of ensemble averages to steady state values. Moreover, we find that the condition known as weak T-mixing applied to smooth observables is sufficient for ensemble relaxation to be independent of the initial ensemble. Lastly, we show that weak T-mixing provides a notion of typicality for dissipative dynamics that is based on the (non-invariant) Lebesgue measure, and that we call physical ergodicity.

  4. [Typical forms of schizophrenia in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, E; Konzewoi, V

    1978-01-01

    Aside from typical forms of late schizophrenia which generally conform to the definition given by M. Bleuler, there also are psychoses appearing in old age which differ significantly from the atypical symptoms and consequently present certain diagnostic difficulties. This report contains descriptions of late manifestations in schizophrenic psychoses, which develop with a continuous or assault-like course with a prevalence of parnoial disorders. Paranoid delusions, in such cases, are characterized by aging traits (concrete and short-term delusions, exaggeration of the degree of superficial persecution and prejudice, and a limited number of people involved in the delusions). The development of such forms of late schizophrenia takes a slowly progressing course. The results of these studies, especially the psychopathological symptomatology, the genetic-constitutional background and the development and outcome of these psychoses are analyzed in detail. The data permit to consider such forms of psychose as atypical variants of late schizophrenia.

  5. Typical object velocity influences motion extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, Alexis D J; Stewart, Andrew J; Poliakoff, Ellen

    2009-02-01

    Previous work indicates that extrapolation of object motion during occlusion is affected by the velocity of the immediately preceding trial. Here we ask whether longer-term velocity representations can also influence motion extrapolation. Red, blue or green targets disappeared behind an occluder. Participants pressed a button when they thought the target had reached the other side. Red targets were slower (10-20 deg/s), blue targets moved at medium velocities (14-26 deg/s) and green targets were faster (20-30 deg/s). We compared responses on a subset of red and green trials which always travelled at 20 deg/s. Although trial velocities were identical, participants responded as if the green targets moved faster (M = 22.64 deg/s) then the red targets (M = 19.72 deg/s). This indicates that motion extrapolation is affected by longer-term information about the typical velocity of different categories of stimuli.

  6. Typical and Atypical Manifestations of Intrathoracic Sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Jin; Jung, Jung Im; Chung, Myung Hee; Song, Sun Wha; Kim, Hyo Lim; Baik, Jun Hyun; Han, Dae Hee [St. Vincent' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Jun [Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyo Young [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disorder of unknown cause that is characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas. The radiological findings associated with sarcoidosis have been well described. The findings include symmetric, bilateral hilar and paratracheal lymphadenopathy, with or without concomitant parenchymal abnormalities (multiple small nodules in a peribronchovascular distribution along with irregular thickening of the interstitium). However, in 25% to 30% of cases, the radiological findings are atypical and unfamiliar to most radiologists, which cause difficulty for making a correct diagnosis. Many atypical forms of intrathoracic sarcoidosis have been described sporadically. We have collected cases with unusual radiological findings associated with pulmonary sarcoidosis (unilateral or asymmetric lymphadenopathy, necrosis or cavitation, large opacity, ground glass opacity, an airway abnormality and pleural involvement) and describe the typical forms of the disorder as well. The understanding of a wide range of the radiological manifestations of sarcoidosis will be very helpful for making a proper diagnosis.

  7. Typicity in Potato: Characterization of Geographic Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Manzelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-year study was carried out in three regions of Italy and the crop performance and the chemical composition of tubers of three typical potato varieties evaluated. Carbon and nitrogen tuber content was determined by means of an elemental analyzer and the other mineral elements by means of a spectrometer. The same determinations were performed on soil samples taken from experimental areas. The Principal Component Analysis, applied to the results of mineral element tuber analysis, permitted the classification of all potato tuber samples according to their geographic origin. Only a partial discrimination was obtained in function of potato varieties. Some correlations between mineral content in the tubers and in the soil were also detected. Analytical and statistical methods proved to be useful in verifying the authenticity of guaranteed geographical food denominations.

  8. Manipulating decision making of typical agents

    CERN Document Server

    Yukalov, V I

    2014-01-01

    We investigate how the choice of decision makers can be varied under the presence of risk and uncertainty. Our analysis is based on the approach we have previously applied to individual decision makers, which we now generalize to the case of decision makers that are members of a society. The approach employs the mathematical techniques that are common in quantum theory, justifying our naming as Quantum Decision Theory. However, we do not assume that decision makers are quantum objects. The techniques of quantum theory are needed only for defining the prospect probabilities taking into account such hidden variables as behavioral biases and other subconscious feelings. The approach describes an agent's choice as a probabilistic event occurring with a probability that is the sum of a utility factor and of an attraction factor. The attraction factor embodies subjective and unconscious dimensions in the mind of the decision maker. We show that the typical aggregate amplitude of the attraction factor is $1/4$, and ...

  9. Iron absorption from typical Latin American diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, A; Amar, M; Cornbluth-Szarfarc, S C; Dillman, E; Fosil, M; Biachi, R G; Grebe, G; Hertrampf, E; Kremenchuzky, S; Layrisse, M

    1984-06-01

    The availability and daily absorption of iron was determined by the extrinsic label method in typical lower middle to lower class diets consumed in regions of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. Differences in iron absorption from meals up to 7-fold, could be attributed to the varying contents of absorption enhancers, eg, in meat, and of inhibitors in tea, vegetables, and wheat or maize bread. The total iron available in the diets from four countries did not meet the physiological requirements for normal subjects but deficient subjects fulfilled their requirements absorbing from 1.0 to 2.1 mg/day. In five diets heme iron (6 to 24% of the total) provided 34 to 73% of the iron absorbed. These data suggest that such absorption and utilization studies may be used to correlate the prevalence of iron deficiency in a population with certain diets and to guide fortification programs.

  10. A Case of Typical Carcinoid of the Larynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Sato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report herein a rare case of typical carcinoid occurring primarily in the epiglottis. The patient was a 70-year-old man. On initial examination, a polypoid lesion with irregular surface near the center right-hand side of the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis was observed, and a biopsy was performed. Pathological examination of the specimen suggested the possibility of adenocarcinoma. Surgical excision was performed by means of laryngomicrosurgery. A Weerda-type laryngoscope was used to open the larynx, supplemented by rigid nasal sinus surgery endoscopes, and the right-hand half of the epiglottis were excised was ensured using a CO2 laser. Postoperative pathological diagnosis was negative for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell cancer; typical carcinoid was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization criteria. Aspiration occurred postoperatively, swallowing training was therefore provided, and the patient was discharged from hospital 2 months after surgery when he was able to eat normally. As of 4 years after surgery, the patient remains under follow-up observation by means of PET-CT and neck, thoracic, and abdominal CT administered at appropriate intervals, but no findings indicating obvious recurrence or metastasis have been observed, and the patient displays good swallowing function.

  11. 江西南昌典型林分地表死可燃物含水率预测--方法优选与FWI适用性分析%Prediction on moisture contents of typical forest-land surface dead fuels in Nanchang city, Jinagxi province:method optimization and FWI applicability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金森; 刘万龙

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical mixed broadleaf-conifer forest is an important vegetation type in south China, where forest fires occurred frequently. Study on the moisture content of typical forest-land surface dead fuels in the region is of beneift to increase the accuracy of ifre danger forecast. By taking the dead forest land surface fuels in 5 typical stands in Chayuanshan Forest Farm, Nanchang city, Jiaxi province as the studied objects, through continuous observation on moisture of ifve dead fuels, the relations between the dead fuels and weather variables were investigated. Based on the weather factors, FWI factor and the results of both, the moisture content ranges of different dead fuels were distinguished, and three predictive models for ifve dead fuels were respectively established. The results show that the fuel moisture in the region in the study period ranged from 11.8%to 276.6%, one fourth of time they were less than 35%which is ready to burn and in the rest time the burn probability of the fuels had lower combustibility, which suggests low ifre hazard in the region. Even so, since the minimum moisture was below 10%, it still had the potential to burn largely. For the three types of models established, the FWI model had the largest error, higher than the vapor exchange models and the mixed model, where there was no signiifcant difference between the rest two models. Considering simple computation requirements, the vapor exchange models are the best choice for predicting fuel moisture in the region, for all different moisture ranges. The MAE were 2.25%~4.67%with a average of 3.73%, the MRE were from 11.14%to 23.73%with average of 18.63%. The FWI indexes were closely correlated with fuel moisture in the region, which indicates that they were suitable for the region and for creating a nationally unique prediction model. But systematically modiifcation should be conducted rather than the simple one done here for higher accuracy.%亚热带针阔混交林是我国南方重

  12. ONE TYPICAL EXTREMUM IN ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Goroshko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to attract attention of teachers, scientific personnel, engineers and students to one peculiarity of extremum seeking in different electrical problems. This feature lies in the fact that in many parts of electrical engineering extremum seeking comes to analysis one and the same mathematical structure (T-structure, but differences lie only in many symbols (designation.In one problems this structure appear in finale, the most simple form, but in others – T-structure is “veiled”, and as a rule  we need  elementary algebraic transformation to detect it.Taking into account high frequency of this structure appearing in electrical problems, in the first part of article the authors  carried out the investigation of extremum characteristics of T-structure and show the results in easy algorithms. To determine the typical T-structure there were taken five problems-examples for extremum seeking  from different parts of electrical engineering. The first and the second examples belong to the theory of electrical circuits.In the first example the problem of maximum active load power obtaining was considered, in the second we see the solution of problem for inductive coupled circuit adjustment in order to obtain the hump current. In the third example the band active filter, built on operating amplifier, is analyzed. According to these methods, taken in the first part of article, the frequency is determined, on which amplifier provides maximum  amplification factor. The forth example deals with analysis of efficiency of transformer. According to algorithm, the optimal efficiency of transformer’s load and also equation for its maximum was determined in this article. In the fifth example the mechanical characteristics of induction motor is analyzed. It is indicated how, on the basis of algorithms article, to obtain equations for critical slip and motor moment, and also the simple development of formula Klossa.The methods of

  13. [Typical problems in pediatric emergencies: Possible solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimberg, E; Heinzel, O; Hoffmann, F

    2015-06-01

    Pediatric emergencies are rare and challenging for health care providers, parents, and patients. The purpose of this article is to highlight typical difficulties in the treatment of pediatric patients and to discuss potential solutions. This article is based on a selective literature search using PubMed and the experience of the authors in the field of simulation and pediatric emergencies. Inexperience with pediatric emergencies, uncertainty in technical skills, in the usage of pediatric equipment and in medication dosage as well as parental presence foster the perception of stress and potentially compromise the success of patient care. Beside implementation of simplified technical skill devices (e.g., intraosseous vascular access system, supraglottic airway devices, and alternative approaches for drug administration), there have been many efforts in recent years to improve patient safety. Tools for estimating body weight and precalculated drug-dosing charts have been implemented as well as standardized courses for guidelines, technical skills, and team-related skills have been established. To improve patient safety, regular training and implementation of a sustainable safety culture are mandatory.

  14. Biological coupling anti-wear properties of three typical molluscan shells—Scapharca subcrenata, Rapana venosa and Acanthochiton rubrolineatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Molluscan shells are fascinating examples of highly ordered hierarchical structure and complex organic-inorganic biocomposite material. However, their anti-wear properties were rarely studied especially in the perspective of biological coupling. So in the current study three typical shells, Scapharca subcrenata, Rapana venosa and Acanthochiton rubrolineatus, were selected as coupling models to further study their anti-wear properties. Stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopic observations showed that all these three shells had specific surface morphologies and complicated section microstructures. Importantly, a special structure, pore canal tubules, was discovered in the shells of Scapharca subcrenata and Acanthochiton rubrolineatus, which probably contributed most to their anti-wear properties. X-ray diffraction and micro-Vikers hardness tester were further adopted to analyze the phase compositions and micro-hardness of the shells. The measured results demonstrated that aragonite was the most extensive phase present in the shell, and possesed a relatively high micro-hardness. In this paper, the shells were described in details in morphology, structure and material with emphasis on the relationship with anti-wear property. The study revealed that the selected seashells possess distinct anti-wear properties by complicated mechanisms involving the integrated functions of multiple biological coupling elements, and this would provide inspiration to the design of new bionic wear resistance components.

  15. Possession Obsession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    In one recent national survey of teenagers who had been in relationships, 29 percent reported experiencing sexual or physical abuse or receiving threats of physical violence from partners. About 10 percent of students in grades nine to 12 consistently say they've been physically hurt on purpose by a dating partner during the past year, according…

  16. Optimal Scheduling of Railway Track Possessions in Large-Scale Projects with Multiple Construction Works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Roberti, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the railway track possession scheduling problem (RTPSP), where a large-scale railway infrastructure project consisting of multiple construction works is to be planned. The RTPSP is to determine when to perform the construction works and in which track possessions while satisf...

  17. 50 CFR 600.1204 - Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins. 600.1204 Section 600.1204 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... PROVISIONS Shark Finning § 600.1204 Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins. (a)(1)...

  18. 50 CFR 92.6 - Use and possession of migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use and possession of migratory birds. 92... INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Provisions § 92.6 Use and possession of migratory birds. You may not sell, offer for sale, purchase, or...

  19. The Acquisition of Possessive HAVE-Clauses by Turkish and Moroccan Learners of Dutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Craats, Ineke; van Hout, Roeland; Corver, Norbert

    2002-01-01

    Describes how Turkish and Morrocan adults acquire Dutch possessive clauses in which the verb "have" expresses the possessive relationship. The acquisition process is explained within the framework of recent generative theory on which "have-clauses are assumed to be popular locative constructions. (Author/VWL)

  20. 32 CFR 552.122 - Personnel not authorized to possess or retain personal weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... personal weapons. 552.122 Section 552.122 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... authorized to possess or retain personal weapons. (a) Possession, retention or storage of personal weapons or... enforcement officer authorized to carry the weapon under state or federal law, while on Fort Lewis or a sub...

  1. 10 CFR 70.20a - General license to possess special nuclear material for transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license to possess special nuclear material for transport. 70.20a Section 70.20a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF... transport. (a) A general license is issued to any person to possess formula quantities of strategic...

  2. The expected value of possession in professional rugby league match-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Thomas; Kennedy, Nicholas; Coutts, Aaron J

    2016-01-01

    This study estimated the expected point value for starting possessions in different field locations during rugby league match-play and calculated the mean expected points for each subsequent play during the possession. It also examined the origin of tries scored according to the method of gaining possession. Play-by-play data were taken from all 768 regular-season National Rugby League (NRL) matches during 2010-2013. A probabilistic model estimated the expected point outcome based on the net difference in points scored by a team in possession in a given situation. An iterative method was used to approximate the value of each situation based on actual scoring outcomes. Possessions commencing close to the opposition's goal-line had the highest expected point equity, which decreased as the location of the possession moved towards the team's own goal-line. Possessions following an opposition error, penalty or goal-line dropout had the highest likelihood of a try being scored on the set subsequent to their occurrence. In contrast, possessions that follow an opposition completed set or a restart were least likely to result in a try. The expected point values framework from our model has applications for informing playing strategy and assessing individual and team performance in professional rugby league.

  3. Factors contributing to possession and use of walking aids among persons with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, M. van der; Heijmans, M.; Dekker, J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possession and use of walking aids among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or osteoarthritis (OA), and to identify factors contributing to possession and actual use of these aids. METHODS: A random sample of 640 patients with RA or OA was derived from a database

  4. 26 CFR 1.881-5 - Exception for certain possessions corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exception for certain possessions corporations... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Foreign Corporations § 1.881-5 Exception for certain possessions corporations. (a) Scope. Section 881(b) and this section provide special rules for the...

  5. Weapon Possession Among College Students: A Study From a Midwestern University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyunseok; Kang, Ji Hyon; Dierenfeldt, Rick; Lindsteadt, Greg

    2015-10-01

    Weapon possession on college campuses causes great concern, but there remains a lack of research examining the determinants of this phenomenon. Previous studies addressing weapon possession have primarily focused on either K-12 or the general adult population. Unlike previous studies, this study examined the weapon possession among college students using data collected from a mid-sized university in Missouri, and 451 students participated. Weapon possession and other theoretical factors were measured through the self-administered survey. Logistical regression analysis revealed that weapon socialization was the most significant factor in predicting student weapon carrying. Also, gender and age were significant factors in explaining campus-based weapon possession. This research has a limitation with generalizability because the data were collected from only a single university with convenient sampling. Future studies need to cover a wider range of college students from a variety of different universities with random sampling.

  6. Possessive Pronouns as Determiners in Japanese-to-English Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, F; Ikehara, S; Bond, Francis; Ogura, Kentaro; Ikehara, Satoru

    1996-01-01

    Possessive pronouns are used as determiners in English when no equivalent would be used in a Japanese sentence with the same meaning. This paper proposes a heuristic method of generating such possessive pronouns even when there is no equivalent in the Japanese. The method uses information about the use of possessive pronouns in English treated as a lexical property of nouns, in addition to contextual information about noun phrase referentiality and the subject and main verb of the sentence that the noun phrase appears in. The proposed method has been implemented in NTT Communication Science Laboratories' Japanese-to-English machine translation system ALT-J/E. In a test set of 6,200 sentences, the proposed method increased the number of noun phrases with appropriate possessive pronouns generated, by 263 to 609, at the cost of generating 83 noun phrases with inappropriate possessive pronouns.

  7. "Satan has afflicted me!" Jinn-possession and mental illness in the Qur'an.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, F; Campbell, R A

    2014-02-01

    Mental health stigma in Muslim communities may be partly due to a commonly held belief among some Muslims about the supernatural causes of mental illness (i.e. jinn-possession brought on by one's sinful life). A thematic analysis was carried out on four English translations and the Arabic text of the Qur'an to explore whether the connection between jinn-possession and insanity exists within the Muslim holy book. No connection between spirit-possession and madness or mental illness was found. Pagans taunted and labelled people as jinn-possessed only to ostracize and scapegoat. Linking the labelling of people as jinn-possession to a pagan practice may be used to educate Muslims, so they can reassess their community's stigma towards the mentally ill.

  8. Mycobacterium avium Possesses Extracellular DNA that Contributes to Biofilm Formation, Structural Integrity, and Tolerance to Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Sasha J; Babrak, Lmar M; Bermudez, Luiz E

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis is an opportunistic pathogen that is associated with biofilm-related infections of the respiratory tract and is difficult to treat. In recent years, extracellular DNA (eDNA) has been found to be a major component of bacterial biofilms, including many pathogens involved in biofilm-associated infections. To date, eDNA has not been described as a component of mycobacterial biofilms. In this study, we identified and characterized eDNA in a high biofilm-producing strain of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH). In addition, we surveyed for presence of eDNA in various MAH strains and other nontuberculous mycobacteria. Biofilms of MAH A5 (high biofilm-producing strain) and MAH 104 (reference strain) were established at 22°C and 37°C on abiotic surfaces. Acellular biofilm matrix and supernatant from MAH A5 7 day-old biofilms both possess abundant eDNA, however very little eDNA was found in MAH 104 biofilms. A survey of MAH clinical isolates and other clinically relevant nontuberculous mycobacterial species revealed many species and strains that also produce eDNA. RAPD analysis demonstrated that eDNA resembles genomic DNA. Treatment with DNase I reduced the biomass of MAH A5 biofilms when added upon biofilm formation or to an already established biofilm both on abiotic surfaces and on top of human pharyngeal epithelial cells. Furthermore, co-treatment of an established biofilm with DNase 1 and either moxifloxacin or clarithromycin significantly increased the susceptibility of the bacteria within the biofilm to these clinically used antimicrobials. Collectively, our results describe an additional matrix component of mycobacterial biofilms and a potential new target to help treat biofilm-associated nontuberculous mycobacterial infections.

  9. TYPICAL ABSENCES: RESULTS OF OWN INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical absences (TA are brief primary generalized epileptic seizures characterized by sudden onset and termination. According to their definition, absences consist of impairment of consciousness that is synchronously accompanied by electroencephalographic (EEG changes as generalized spike–slow wave discharges of 3 or more Hz. The authors conducted an investigation of 1261 patients with different forms of epilepsy with onset of seizures from the first days of life to the age of 18 years. The patients were followed up from 1990 to 2010. Absence seizures were detected in 231 patients, which accounts for 18.3 % of all the epileptic patients. TA were found in 102 patients, which constitutes 8.1 % of all cases of epilepsy with onset of seizures beyond the age of 18 years. The paper provides a detailed analysis of a group of patients with TA in terms of anamnestic, clinical, electroencephalographic, and neuroimaging features and the results of therapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. The age of onset of TA-associated epilepsy was from 9 months to 17 years (mean 9.4 ± 4.06 years. The disease occurred most frequently in young school-age children (41.2 %. Isolated TA as the only type of seizures were observed in the clinical picture of 28 (27.5 % patients. TA were concurrent with other types of seizures in other cases. The investigators have identified 4 types of seizures which TA (generalized convulsions, myoclonic seizures, febrile seizures, and eyelid myoclonia may be concurrent with. Neuroimaging stated there were no brain changes in 85.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. Moderate diffuse subatrophic changes were detected in other cases (14.7 %. Local cerebral structural abnormalities were absent. The use of antiepileptic therapy as both monotherapy and polytherapy using different combinations showed the high efficacy of AEDs. Complete remission was achieved in 84.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. An AED-induced reduction in the frequency of

  10. SCA1+ Cells from the Heart Possess a Molecular Circadian Clock and Display Circadian Oscillations in Cellular Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastiaan C. Du Pré

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell antigen 1-positive (SCA1+ cells (SPCs have been investigated in cell-based cardiac repair and pharmacological research, although improved cardiac function after injection has been variable and the mode of action remains unclear. Circadian (24-hr rhythms are biorhythms regulated by molecular clocks that play an important role in (pathophysiology. Here, we describe (1 the presence of a molecular circadian clock in SPCs and (2 circadian rhythmicity in SPC function. We isolated SPCs from human fetal heart and found that these cells possess a molecular clock based on typical oscillations in core clock components BMAL1 and CRY1. Functional analyses revealed that circadian rhythmicity also governs SPC proliferation, stress tolerance, and growth factor release, with large differences between peaks and troughs. We conclude that SPCs contain a circadian molecular clock that controls crucial cellular functions. Taking circadian rhythms into account may improve reproducibility and outcome of research and therapies using SPCs.

  11. Typical duration of good seeing sequences at Concordia

    CERN Document Server

    Fossat, Eric; Agabi, Karim; Bondoux, Erick; Challita, Zalpha; Jeanneaux, Francois; Mekarnia, Djamel

    2010-01-01

    Context: The winter seeing at Concordia is essentially bimodal, excellent or quite poor, with relative proportions that depend on altitude above the snow surface. This paper studies the temporal behavior of the good seeing sequences. Aims: An efficient exploitation of extremely good seeing with an adaptive optics system needs long integrations. It is then important to explore the temporal distribution of the fraction of time providing excellent seeing. Methods: Temporal windows of good seeing are created by a simple binary process. Good or bad. Their autocorrelations are corrected for those of the existing data sets, since these are not continuous, being often interrupted by technical problems in addition to the adverse weather gaps. At the end these corrected autocorrelations provide the typical duration of good seeing sequences. This study has to be a little detailed as its results depend on the season, summer or winter. Results: Using a threshold of 0.5 arcsec to define the "good seeing", three characteris...

  12. The typical mass ratio and typical final spin in supermassive black hole mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Gergely, László Á

    2012-01-01

    We prove that merging supermassive black holes (SMBHs) typically have neither equal masses, nor is their mass ratio too extreme. The majority of such mergers fall into the mass ratio range of 1:30 to 1:3, implying a spin flip during the inspiral. We also present a simple expression for the final spin $\\chi_{f}$ of the emerging SMBH, as function of the mass ratio, initial spin magnitudes, and orientation of the spins with respect to the orbital plane and each other. This formula approximates well more cumbersome expressions obtained from the fit with numerical simulations. By integrating over all equally likely orientations for precessing mergers we determine a lower approximant to the final spin distribution as function of the mass ratio alone. By folding this with the derived mass ratio dependent merger rate we derive a lower bound to the typical final spin value after mergers. We repeat the procedure deriving an upper bound for the typical spin in the case when the spins are aligned to the orbital angular m...

  13. Application of the"typical"in artistic creation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘臣臣

    2014-01-01

    Art in the creation of the"typical"is the typical art. Its meaning is often explained as: refers to artists through individual and nature created, some essence and law can reflect the reality of life, but also has the unique feature, which show some times people's aesthetic ideal, and showed the artists own unique aesthetic feeling of artistic image. Mainly refers to the character image, known as the "typical character" "typical character" or"typical character", but also refers to the environment or the event, called "a typical environment" or "typical events". Art was typical of image usually is the highly generalization is representative of the people or things in real life and the summary, the formation of artistic works in the image by retouching the, in fact typical art image is more vivid than reality, universal higher and the aesthetic value of richer.

  14. A case of possessive state with onset influenced by 'door-to-door' sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, S; Obata, S; Seno, E; Okada, T; Morita, N; Saito, T; Yoshikawa, M; Yamagami, A

    1996-12-01

    Recently in Japan, 'door-to-door sales' has become of concern because it has created numerous legal and social problems. In this paper, a 47 year old dissociative trance disorder case who presented with possession by God is discussed. Specific types of door-to-door sales is known to use superstition and folk beliefs as tools to lure customers. In this particular case, these religious factors seemed to have played an important role in the precipitation of the disorder and its presentation. In addition, the brain-washing environment observed in video lectures used in door-to-door sales seemed to play an important role in the development of the possessive state. We also performed social psychiatric analysis of the occurrence of the possessive state in a city area, which has been considered to develop within traditional culture. Phenomenological classification by one of the authors was useful for diagnosing underlying disorders in the possessive state.

  15. PRESERVATION AND CHANGE IN THE HISTORY OF PORTUGUESE: FROM POSSESSIVE TO EXISTENTIAL VERB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinah Callou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Brazilian Portuguese (BP, the verb haver ‘to exist/there to be’can be replaced by the possessive ter ‘to have’ in existential constructions and an intriguing aspect of this variation is that ter loses the definiteness restrictions on complements while haver triggers such restriction. The assumption is that this contrast is due to the fact that, although ter has been reanalyzed as existential, it keeps the selection properties of possessive sentences. The data analyzed (1528 existential clauses from spoken contemporary BP and 200 with haver/ter-possessive clauses in MP, from the 13th to the 16th century reveal a crucial aspect of the relevant changes in the history of Portuguese: the existential version of ter and haver inherits syntacticsemantic aspects of their possessive version, which shows that an item can emerge into a new context without changing its essential selection properties.

  16. Adsorption Properties of Typical Lung Cancer Breath Gases on Ni-SWCNTs through Density Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Wan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of useful information is contained in the human breath gases, which makes it an effective way to diagnose diseases by detecting the typical breath gases. This work investigated the adsorption of typical lung cancer breath gases: benzene, styrene, isoprene, and 1-hexene onto the surface of intrinsic and Ni-doped single wall carbon nanotubes through density functional theory. Calculation results show that the typical lung cancer breath gases adsorb on intrinsic single wall carbon nanotubes surface by weak physisorption. Besides, the density of states changes little before and after typical lung cancer breath gases adsorption. Compared with single wall carbon nanotubes adsorption, single Ni atom doping significantly improves its adsorption properties to typical lung cancer breath gases by decreasing adsorption distance and increasing adsorption energy and charge transfer. The density of states presents different degrees of variation during the typical lung cancer breath gases adsorption, resulting in the specific change of conductivity of gas sensing material. Based on the different adsorption properties of Ni-SWCNTs to typical lung cancer breath gases, it provides an effective way to build a portable noninvasive portable device used to evaluate and diagnose lung cancer at early stage in time.

  17. Feature interpretability and the positions of 2nd person possessives in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Karla Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interpretability and valuation of φ-features (Chomsky, 2001; Pesetsky and Torrego, 2007 have played a central role in the investigation of language universals. With regard to that, in standard Brazilian Portuguese (BP, as well as in other Romance languages, possessives have uninterpretable number features, which are valued via nominal agreement. However, dialects of BP, especially the one spoken in Minas Gerais, have shown that 2nd person possessives, in postnominal position, do not have number agreement with the noun. In order to account for these facts, I will argue that, in this grammar, number features on 2nd person possessives are reanalyzed as being: (i associated with the person (rather than the noun and (ii interpretable. From the first postulation, ‘seu’ is expected to be the possessive for 2nd person singular, and ‘seus’ for 2nd person plural. From the second postulation, no number concord is expected to be triggered on the possessive. In addition, based on Danon (2011 and Norris (2014, I will argue that cardinals divide BP DPs into two domains in that phrases located above NumP are marked with the plural morpheme, while phrases below it are unmarked. In this sense, because prenominal possessives precede cardinals (NumP, they must be marked with the plural morpheme for nominal agreement; whereas postnominal possessives, which follow NumP, must be unmarked. Free from the plural marking associated with nominal agreement, postnominal 2nd person possessives favor the reanalysis of the morpheme ‘-s’ as indicating the number associated with person features.

  18. O olhar dos psiquiatras brasileiros sobre os fenômenos de transe e possessão Brazilian psychiatrists’ approaches on trance and possession phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica A. Silva de Almeida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Os fenômenos de transe e possessão despertaram o interesse da comunidade psiquiátrica brasileira, gerando posturas diversificadas. OBJETIVOS: Descrever e analisar como os fenômenos de transe e possessão foram tratados pelos psiquiatras brasileiros: seu impacto na teoria, na pesquisa e na prática clínica entre 1900 e 1950. MÉTODO: Análise de artigos científicos e leigos, teses e livros sobre transes e possessões produzidos pelos psiquiatras brasileiros entre 1900 e 1950. RESULTADOS: Identificam-se duas correntes de pensamento entre os psiquiatras. A primeira, vinculada às Faculdades de Medicina do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, sob forte influência de autores franceses, deteve-se mais na periculosidade do espiritismo para a saúde mental. Defendia a adoção de medidas repressivas com o poder público. O segundo grupo de psiquiatras, ligado às Faculdades de Medicina da Bahia e Pernambuco, embora não desconsiderasse o caráter patológico ou "primitivo" dos fenômenos de transe e possessão, apresentou uma visão mais antropológica e culturalista. Considerando tais fenômenos como manifestações étnicas ou culturais, alguns defenderam o controle médico e a educação do povo para o abandono dessas práticas "primitivas". Outros não consideravam os fenômenos mediúnicos como desencadeadores da loucura, mas manifestações não-patológicas de um universo cultural, além de não vinculá-los ao atraso cultural da população. CONCLUSÕES: As religiões mediúnicas foram objeto de estudo por longo período, resultando hipóteses e práticas diferenciadas por parte da comunidade psiquiátrica brasileira, constituindo-se oportunidade privilegiada para o estudo do impacto dos fatores socioculturais na atividade psiquiátrica.BACKGROUND: Trance and possession experiences have raised interest among Brazilian psychiatrists resulting in a variety of approaches. OBJECTIVES: To describe and analyze how Brazilian psychiatrists

  19. Modelling object typicality in description logics - [Workshop on Description Logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors presents a semantic model of typicality of concept members in description logics that accords well with a binary, globalist cognitive model of class membership and typicality. The authors define a general preferential semantic framework...

  20. In-situ surface hardening of cast iron by surface layer metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Sebastian F., E-mail: s.fischer@gi.rwth-aachen.de [Foundry Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Intzestraße 5, 52072 Aachen (Germany); Muschna, Stefan, E-mail: smuschna@yahoo.de [Foundry Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Intzestraße 5, 52072 Aachen (Germany); Bührig-Polaczek, Andreas, E-mail: sekretariat@gi.rwth-aachen.de [Foundry Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Intzestraße 5, 52072 Aachen (Germany); Bünck, Matthias, E-mail: m.buenck@access-techcenter.de [Access e.V., Intzestraße 5, 52072 Aachen (Germany)

    2014-10-06

    Abrasive wear is a serious problem in many cast iron castings used in industry. To minimize failure and repair of these components, different strategies exist to improve their surface microhardness thus enhancing their wear resistance. However, most of these methods lead to very brittle and/or expensive castings. In the current work a new method for surface hardening is presented which utilizes surface layer metallurgy to generate in-situ a boron-enriched white cast iron surface layer with a high microhardness on a gray cast iron casting. To do this, sand molds are coated with a ferroboron suspension and cast with a cast iron melt. After solidification, a 100–900 µm thick layer of boron-enriched ledeburite is formed on the surface of the casting which produces an increase in the average microhardness from 284 HV{sub 0.1}±52 HV{sub 0.1} to 505 HV{sub 0.1}±87 HV{sub 0.1}. Analyses of the samples' core reveal a typical cast iron microstructure which leads to the conclusion that the coating mainly affects the castings' surface. By varying the grain size of the ferroboron powder in the coatings, it is shown that a powder size ≤100 µm is most suitable to create a boron-enriched ledeburite surface layer possessing high hardness values.

  1. Provable Data Possession Scheme based on Homomorphic Hash Function in Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud storage can satisfy the demand of accessing data at anytime, anyplace. In cloud storage, only when the users can verify that the cloud storage server possesses the data correctly, users shall feel relax to use cloud storage. Provable data possession(PDP makes it easy for a third party to verify whether the data is integrity in the cloud storage server. We analyze the existing PDP schemes, find that these schemes have some drawbacks, such as computationally expensive, only performing a limited number provable data possession. This paper proposes a provable data possession scheme based on homomorphic hash function according to the problems exist in the existing algorithms. The advantage of homomorphic hash function is that it provides provable data possession and data integrity protection. The scheme is a good way to ensure the integrity of remote data and reduce redundant storage space and bandwidth consumption on the premise that users do not retrieve data. The main cost of the scheme is in the server side, it is suitable for mobile devices in the cloud storage environments. We prove that the scheme is feasible by analyzing the security and performance of the scheme.

  2. Gun possession among American youth: a discovery-based approach to understand gun violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Kelly V; Rajan, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions' Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001-2011). Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association "fingerprint" to 1) visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2) evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1) physical activity and nutrition; 2) disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3) weapon carrying and physical safety; 4) alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5) drug use on school property and 6) overall drug use. Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described.

  3. Investigating the Impact of Possession-Way of a Smartphone on Action Recognition †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Zae Myung; Jeong, Young-Seob; Oh, Hyung Rai; Oh, Kyo-Joong; Lim, Chae-Gyun; Iraqi, Youssef; Choi, Ho-Jin

    2016-01-01

    For the past few decades, action recognition has been attracting many researchers due to its wide use in a variety of applications. Especially with the increasing number of smartphone users, many studies have been conducted using sensors within a smartphone. However, a lot of these studies assume that the users carry the device in specific ways such as by hand, in a pocket, in a bag, etc. This paper investigates the impact of providing an action recognition system with the information of the possession-way of a smartphone, and vice versa. The experimental dataset consists of five possession-ways (hand, backpack, upper-pocket, lower-pocket, and shoulder-bag) and two actions (walking and running) gathered by seven users separately. Various machine learning models including recurrent neural network architectures are employed to explore the relationship between the action recognition and the possession-way recognition. The experimental results show that the assumption of possession-ways of smartphones do affect the performance of action recognition, and vice versa. The results also reveal that a good performance is achieved when both actions and possession-ways are recognized simultaneously. PMID:27271623

  4. Investigating the Impact of Possession-Way of a Smartphone on Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zae Myung Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past few decades, action recognition has been attracting many researchers due to its wide use in a variety of applications. Especially with the increasing number of smartphone users, many studies have been conducted using sensors within a smartphone. However, a lot of these studies assume that the users carry the device in specific ways such as by hand, in a pocket, in a bag, etc. This paper investigates the impact of providing an action recognition system with the information of the possession-way of a smartphone, and vice versa. The experimental dataset consists of five possession-ways (hand, backpack, upper-pocket, lower-pocket, and shoulder-bag and two actions (walking and running gathered by seven users separately. Various machine learning models including recurrent neural network architectures are employed to explore the relationship between the action recognition and the possession-way recognition. The experimental results show that the assumption of possession-ways of smartphones do affect the performance of action recognition, and vice versa. The results also reveal that a good performance is achieved when both actions and possession-ways are recognized simultaneously.

  5. Parameterization of Evapotranspiration Estimation for Two Typical East Asian Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of evapotranspiration plays an important role in understanding the water cycle on the earth, especially the water budget in agricultural ecosystems. The parameterization approach of the Penman-Monteith-Katerji-Perrier (PM-KP model, accounting for the influence of meteorological variables and aerodynamic resistance on surface resistance, was proposed in the literature, but it has not been applied to Asian croplands, and its error and sensitivity have not been reported yet. In this study, the estimation of evapotranspiration on half-hourly scale was carried out for two typical East Asian cropland research sites, and evaluated by using eddy-covariance measurements corrected with the energy-balance-closure concept. Sensitivity coefficients as well as systematic bias and random errors of the PM-KP approach were used to evaluate the model performance. Different distributions of the calibration coefficients between different crops were reported for the first time, indicating that the calibration of this model was more stable for the rice field than for the potato field. The commonly-used parameterization approach suggested by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO was used as reference and was site-specifically optimized. The results suggest that the PM-KP approach would be a better alternative than the PM-FAO approach for estimating evapotranspiration for the flooded rice field, and an acceptable alternative for rain-fed croplands when the soil is well watered and the air is humid during the summer monsoon.

  6. Mechanical Response of Typical Cement Concrete Pavements under Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Fei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the mechanical response of cement concrete pavements under impact loading, four types of typical cement concrete pavement structures are investigated experimentally and numerically under an impact load. Full-scale three-dimensional pavement slots are tested under an impact load and are monitored for the mechanical characteristics including the deflection of the pavement surface layer, the strain distribution at the bottom of the slab, and the plastic damage and cracking under the dynamic impact load. Numerical analysis is performed by developing a three-dimensional finite element model and by utilizing a cement concrete damage model. The results show that the calculation results based on the cement concrete damage model are in reasonable agreement with the experimental results based on the three-dimensional test slot experiment. The peak values of stress and strain as monitored by the sensors are analyzed and compared with the numerical results, indicating that the errors of numerical results from the proposed model are mostly within 10%. The rationality of the finite element model is verified, and the model is expected to be a suitable reference for the analysis and design of cement concrete pavements.

  7. Demonic possessions and mental illness: discussion of selected cases in late medieval hagiographical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espí Forcén, Carlos; Espí Forcén, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    During the Middle Ages, demonic possession constituted an explanation for an erratic behavior in society. Exorcism was the treatment generally applied to demoniacs and seems to have caused some alleviation in the suffering of mentally distressed people. We have selected and analyzed some cases of demonic possession from thirteenth-century hagiographical literature. In the description of demoniacs we have been able to find traits of psychotic, mood, neurotic, personality disorders and epilepsy. The exorcisms analyzed in our article are the result of literary invention more than the description of a contemporary event. Nevertheless, the writers were witnesses of their time, transferred their knowledge about exorcism and possession in their narrative and presumably incorporated their actual experience with demoniacs.

  8. Possession as a clinical phenomenon: a critique of the medical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owe Wikström

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the individual's specific experience of his personality being possessed, either partially or completely, momentarily or for an extended period of time, by evil spirits. It must be seen as necessary to supplement the narrow medical model for interpreting states of possession. The clinically interested psychologist of religion, in particular, needs consider aspects of the phenomenology of religion and clinical psychology in order to gain a broader understanding of this phenomenon. To declare that possession experiences are "nothing but psychosis, mania, epilepsy or schizophrenia, are examples of this type of over-simplification. The structure of possession can above all be understood as an interaction between a cognitive, linguistic level, and an emotional, affective level. Only if one unites these two levels can one attain a deeper understanding of the individual's possession experience. It is, in other words, important to remember that to increase understanding of the structure of possession, we must relate the individual's (bio-chemically conditioned intensive feeling experience to the surrounding subculture's way of defining these intensive feelings. Religious language provides one way of dealing verbally with the unstructured and terrifying aspects of a developing psychosis. It is, for example, possible to describe the personal transformation as a dynamic relationship between the verbal representatives for evil or the Evil One in the world of mythological language, and the intrapsychic, anxiety-filled emotive state, regardless of whether this inner state is considered to be the result of neurosis, psycho-sis, or the consequence of intensive suggestion.

  9. Typical pure nonequilibrium steady states and irreversibility for quantum transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnai, Takaaki; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    It is known that each single typical pure state in an energy shell of a large isolated quantum system well represents a thermal equilibrium state of the system. We show that such typicality holds also for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS's). We consider a small quantum system coupled to multiple infinite reservoirs. In the long run, the total system reaches a unique NESS. We identify a large Hilbert space from which pure states of the system are to be sampled randomly and show that the typical pure states well describe the NESS. We also point out that the irreversible relaxation to the unique NESS is important to the typicality of the pure NESS's.

  10. Typical pure nonequilibrium steady states and irreversibility for quantum transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnai, Takaaki; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    It is known that each single typical pure state in an energy shell of a large isolated quantum system well represents a thermal equilibrium state of the system. We show that such typicality holds also for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS's). We consider a small quantum system coupled to multiple infinite reservoirs. In the long run, the total system reaches a unique NESS. We identify a large Hilbert space from which pure states of the system are to be sampled randomly and show that the typical pure states well describe the NESS. We also point out that the irreversible relaxation to the unique NESS is important to the typicality of the pure NESS's.

  11. 26 CFR 7.936-1 - Qualified possession source investment income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1976 § 7.936... Puerto Rican income tax under regulations issued by the Secretary of the Treasury of Puerto Rico, as in... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified possession source investment income...

  12. 19 CFR 122.79 - Shipments to U.S. possessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipments to U.S. possessions. 122.79 Section 122.79 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  13. How Risky Is Marijuana Possession? Considering the Role of Age, Race, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Holly; Reuter, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Arrest rates per capita for possession of marijuana have increased threefold over the last 20 years and now constitute the largest single arrest offense category. Despite the increase in arrest numbers, rates of use have remained stable during much of the same period. This article presents the first estimates of the arrest probabilities for…

  14. The Right to Receive and Possess Pornography; An Attorney Foresees the End of Legal Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Albert B.

    1970-01-01

    The Supreme Court decision Stanley v. Georgia is interpreted as an end to restrictions on possession or obtaining of allegedly pornographic materials. This does not end censorship problems in several areas, the most significant for librarians being in distribution of such materials to juveniles. (JS)

  15. 25 CFR 36.75 - What qualifications must homeliving staff possess?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... at least 32 post-secondary semester hours (or 48 quarter hours) in an applicable academic discipline... Supervisor Must be qualified based on size and complexity of the school, but at minimum possess a bachelor's... requirements of paragraph (a) of this section by the 2009-2010 school year; and (2) May, upon showing...

  16. The Impact of World Knowledge on the Processing of Mandarin Possessive Reflexive "Zijide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Zhiyi; Ni, Chuanbin

    2017-01-01

    It has long been considered that the Mandarin possessive reflexive "zijide" can be either locally bound or long distance bound, leading to ambiguity where it fails to exclusively refer back to either long distance binding NP or the local NP. In addition to syntactic factors such as the local versus long distance division, the present…

  17. How Risky Is Marijuana Possession? Considering the Role of Age, Race, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Holly; Reuter, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Arrest rates per capita for possession of marijuana have increased threefold over the last 20 years and now constitute the largest single arrest offense category. Despite the increase in arrest numbers, rates of use have remained stable during much of the same period. This article presents the first estimates of the arrest probabilities for…

  18. An extension of the Noether theorem: Accompanying equations possessing conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorodnitsyn, V. A.; Ibragimov, N. H.

    2014-02-01

    It is shown that the Noether theorem can be extended for some equations associated (accompanying) with Euler-Lagrange equation. Each symmetry of Lagrangian yields a class of accompanying equations possessing conservation law (first integral). The generalization is done for canonical Hamiltonian equations as well.

  19. Youth Caught in Violation of Tobacco Purchase, Use, and Possession Laws: Education versus Fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Adams, Monica; Hunt, Yvonne; Gadiraju, Praveena; Morello, Taylor; Schoeny, Michael; Dinwiddie, Crystal

    2007-01-01

    Each day, thousands of children are caught for violation of tobacco purchase, use, and possession (PUP) laws. Little is known about their impact on violators; we do not know how the youth who are caught perceive these consequences or the effects they have on their tobacco use. Moreover, many communities are beginning to use brief tobacco education…

  20. Do Fines for Violating Possession-Use-Purchase Laws Reduce Youth Tobacco Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Adams, Monica; Hunt, Yvonne; Gadiraju, Praveena; Schoeny, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The present brief report followed children exposed to consequences for violating Purchase, Use, and Possession (PUP) laws over time to assess changes in their smoking status. Youth in 24 towns were surveyed once a year for 3 years, and rates of tobacco use for those fined for PUP law violations were assessed. Of those who were given a ticket for a…

  1. 34 CFR 668.40 - Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... student successfully completes a drug rehabilitation program described in paragraph (d) of this section... successfully completes the program. (d) A drug rehabilitation program referred to in paragraph (c) of this... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs....

  2. Prepositions in Use: Prepositions of Standard, Prepositions of Possession and Prepositions of Accompaniment

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQbailat, Naji Masned; Al-Momani, Islam M.; Almahameed, Yazan Shaker

    2016-01-01

    The current research paper attempted at investigating the use of prepositions of standard, prepositions of possession and prepositions of accompaniment by some Jordanian learners of English. A total of 53 Jordanian English Majors participated in the study from the department of English language at Princess Alia University College. In collecting…

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESEARCH AND TEACHING: THE CHART OF POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS IN PORTUGUESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Lennertz Marcotulio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the relationship between research and teaching, concerning the rearrangements operated in the chart of possessive pronouns,  observing in which way sociolinguistic studies have been applied to the teaching of Portuguese through the didactic material prepared for High School and the courses of Portuguese as a Foreign Language.

  4. Required and Possessed University Graduates Employability Skills: Perceptions of the Nigerian Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebakin, Azeez B.; Ajadi, O. Timothy; Subair, S. 'Tayo

    2015-01-01

    University is a place where skilled labour is produced for societal and global consumption. This is premised on the fact that education provided at this level enhances human capital development, which widens employment opportunities. However, there seems to be a disparity between the skills required and those possessed by graduates from Nigerian…

  5. 7 CFR 800.174 - Issuance and possession of licenses and authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... possession of licenses and authorizations. (a) Scope of licenses and authorizations. Subject to the... more services specified in this paragraph. (1) Official samplers. Individuals employed by an agency or...) Licensed warehouse samplers. Elevator or warehouse employees may be licensed to sample grain and...

  6. The influence of situational variables on ball possession in the English Premier League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul Simon; Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Rey, Ezequiel; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to examine the influence of situational variables on ball possession in elite soccer and (2) to quantify the variables that discriminate between high or low percentage ball possession teams (HPBPT and LPBPT) across different playing positions. Match performance data were collected from English Premier League matches using a multiple-camera system. Data were examined using linear regression, a 2 × 5 factorial analysis of variance and discriminant analysis. Playing against weak opposition was associated with an increase (P variables (P variables that discriminated performance between HPBPT and LPBPT were different for various playing positions, although the number of successful passes was the most common discriminating variable. The results demonstrate that HPBPT and LPBPT developed different possession strategies during matches and that selected variables such as successful passes were identified to explain these data trends across various playing positions. Combinations of variables could be used to develop a probabilistic model for predicting time spent in possession by teams.

  7. Locus of marking typology in the possessive NP: A new approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study takes a semantic approach to Nichols’ influential locus of marking typology, as applied to the possessive noun phrase. In this approach, a careful distinction is made between two semantic types of dependency relations: those between inherently relational nouns and their argument

  8. Arcobacter spp. possess two very short flagellins of which FlaA is essential for motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, H.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Wösten, M.M.S.M.; van Asten, A.J.; Gaastra, W.

    2008-01-01

    Like Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp., Arcobacter spp. possess two flagellin genes (flaA and flaB) located adjacent to each other. The aim of this study was to characterize the flagellin proteins of Arcobacter spp., because these proteins are known virulence factors in the Epsilonproteobacteria,

  9. What does it mean to be possessed by a spirit or demon? Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-08

    Jul 8, 2015 ... that engage in possession include a wide range of spirit types and characters. They might ... Research shows that contaminants (such as poisons, germs and irritants) evoke a ... that they can either not escape from or have been exposed to – thus either .... that takes place on several planes at once. (p. 422).

  10. Love and Art Strike Back: A.S. Byatt’s Possession: A Romance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Tine Engel

    2004-01-01

    Possession can be seen as an enactment of the conflicts between a number of powerful - and quite classic - extremes (anatomy-romance, intellectual experience-sensuous experience, theory-art, reason-love, irony-pathos), which, in the aesthetic experience of the reader, it overcomes and transcends....

  11. Blending Canal Surfaces Based on PH Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Dong Xu; Fa-Lai Chen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for blending two canal surfaces is proposed. The blending surface is itself a generalized canal surface, the spine curve of which is a PH (Pythagorean-Hodograph) curve. The blending surface possesses an attractive property - its representation is rational. The method is extensible to blend general surfaces as long as the blending boundaries are well-defined.

  12. Distribution, Sources and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Sediments from Typical Coastal Areas of the Shandong Peninsula%山东半岛典型海岸带多环芳烃分布特征、来源解析及风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张道来; 刘娜; 朱志刚; 路晶芳; 林学辉; 侯国华; 印萍

    2016-01-01

    山东半岛海岸带面临着各类复杂的环境问题,尤其是受到了多环芳烃(PAHs)等持久性有机物的污染,本文研究了整个山东半岛典型海岸带62个站点表层沉积物中 PAHs 的含量及其分布特征,并对其来源和潜在风险进行解析与评价。研究表明,该地区表层沉积物中16种 PAHs 总含量为0.06~3191.40 ng/g (平均值262.08 ng/g),与国内外海岸带相比,山东半岛海岸带表层沉积物中 PAHs 整体污染状况处于较低水平,但个别站点的 PAHs 含量偏高。运用特征比值法、相关性分析及主成分分析法解析研究区 PAHs 主要来源为木柴、煤炭、油类的燃烧以及油类泄露的联合作用。采用效应区间低值法(ERL)和中值法(ERM)对PAHs 进行生态风险评价,结果表明莱州湾周边所有站点及威海、青岛周边个别站点苊、芴浓度位于 ERL 值与 ERM值之间,但多数站点对生态环境潜在负面效应很小。山东半岛典型海岸带中 PAHs 对生物的毒副作用尚在安全可控范围内,极少对生态环境产生负面效应。%Serious environmental problems occurred on the coast of the Shandong peninsula, particularly pollution from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).The distribution,sources and ecological risk assessment of 16 PAHs in 62 sites of surface sediments from the Shandong coast have been investigated.Results show that the total concentrations of 16 PAHs in surface sediments from the coastal zones range from 0.06 to 3191.40 ng/g with an average of 262.08 ng/g.Except for a few sites,the concentration of PAHs was relatively lower than that in other areas around the world.The PAHs of the study area originated from mixed petroleum leakage,oil combustion,incomplete combustion of carbon,wood and fossil fuels indicated by the selected ratios of PAHs,the two-tailed Pearson correlation analysis and principal components analysis.The ecological risk assessed

  13. Gun possession among American youth: a discovery-based approach to understand gun violence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly V Ruggles

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions' Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. RESULTS: Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001-2011. Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association "fingerprint" to 1 visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2 evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1 physical activity and nutrition; 2 disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3 weapon carrying and physical safety; 4 alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5 drug use on school property and 6 overall drug use. CONCLUSIONS: Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described.

  14. Persistence on prostaglandin ocular hypotensive therapy: an assessment using medication possession and days covered on therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Gail F

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior research has demonstrated that medication persistence (continued acquisition of therapy over time is far from optimal among patients with glaucoma. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate persistence with prostaglandin analogs among glaucoma patients in the first therapy year using a modification of a previously published technique. Methods This retrospective analysis of medical and pharmacy claims database included treatment-naive patients dispensed bimatoprost, latanoprost, or travoprost between 1/1/04-12/31/04. "Index agent" was defined as the first agent filled; "index date" was defined as the fill date. Follow-up continued for 358 days. Persistence measures for first therapy year were: (1 whether last fill had sufficient days supply to achieve medication possession at year's end, and (2 number of days for which the index agent was available (days covered. Associations between index agent and medication possession (logistic regression and days covered (linear regression were evaluated. Models were adjusted for gender, age, and previous ocular hypertension diagnosis. Results 7873 patients met inclusion criteria (bimatoprost, n = 1464; latanoprost, n = 4994; travoprost, n = 1415. Medication possession was 28% and days covered was 131 when using the unadjusted (pharmacy-reported days supply estimates and rose to 47-48% and days covered to 228-236 days when days supply was imputed. Compared to latanoprost, odds of achieving medication possession at first year's end were 26-34% lower for bimatoprost and 34-36% lower for travoprost (p ≤ 0.001 for all comparisons. Days covered in the first year were 21-29 days lower for bimatoprost and 33-42 days lower for travoprost (p ≤ 0.001 for all comparisons. Failure to refill the index agent within the initial 90 days was a strong predictor of poor persistence. Conclusions Persistence with ocular prostaglandin therapy remains a problem. Latanoprost users had greater

  15. Superior room-temperature ductility of typically brittle quasicrystals at small sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu; Kuczera, Pawel; Sologubenko, Alla; Sumigawa, Takashi; Kitamura, Takayuki; Steurer, Walter; Spolenak, Ralph

    2016-08-01

    The discovery of quasicrystals three decades ago unveiled a class of matter that exhibits long-range order but lacks translational periodicity. Owing to their unique structures, quasicrystals possess many unusual properties. However, a well-known bottleneck that impedes their widespread application is their intrinsic brittleness: plastic deformation has been found to only be possible at high temperatures or under hydrostatic pressures, and their deformation mechanism at low temperatures is still unclear. Here, we report that typically brittle quasicrystals can exhibit remarkable ductility of over 50% strains and high strengths of ~4.5 GPa at room temperature and sub-micrometer scales. In contrast to the generally accepted dominant deformation mechanism in quasicrystals--dislocation climb, our observation suggests that dislocation glide may govern plasticity under high-stress and low-temperature conditions. The ability to plastically deform quasicrystals at room temperature should lead to an improved understanding of their deformation mechanism and application in small-scale devices.

  16. The diversity and distribution of fungi on residential surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel I Adams

    Full Text Available The predominant hypothesis regarding the composition of microbial assemblages in indoor environments is that fungal assemblages are structured by outdoor air with a moderate contribution by surface growth, whereas indoor bacterial assemblages represent a mixture of bacteria entered from outdoor air, shed by building inhabitants, and grown on surfaces. To test the fungal aspect of this hypothesis, we sampled fungi from three surface types likely to support growth and therefore possible contributors of fungi to indoor air: drains in kitchens and bathrooms, sills beneath condensation-prone windows, and skin of human inhabitants. Sampling was done in replicated units of a university-housing complex without reported mold problems, and sequences were analyzed using both QIIME and the new UPARSE approach to OTU-binning, to the same result. Surfaces demonstrated a mycological profile similar to that of outdoor air from the same locality, and assemblages clustered by surface type. "Weedy" genera typical of indoor air, such as Cladosporium and Cryptococcus, were abundant on sills, as were a diverse set of fungi of likely outdoor origin. Drains supported more depauperate assemblages than the other surfaces and contained thermotolerant genera such as Exophiala, Candida, and Fusarium. Most surprising was the composition detected on residents' foreheads. In addition to harboring Malassezia, a known human commensal, skin also possessed a surprising richness of non-resident fungi, including plant pathogens such as ergot (Claviceps purperea. Overall, fungal richness across indoor surfaces was high, but based on known autecologies, most of these fungi were unlikely to be growing on surfaces. We conclude that while some endogenous fungal growth on typical household surfaces does occur, particularly on drains and skin, all residential surfaces appear - to varying degrees - to be passive collectors of airborne fungi of putative outdoor origin, a view of the origins

  17. 典型岩溶区域主要土壤类型分布特征与表层土壤保有量估算%Distribution characteristics and surface soil-retaining amount of main soil types in typical Karst region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂成龙; 张玉彪; 刘丛强; 李龙波; 陆晓辉

    2012-01-01

    Due to the great effects of geology and topography, the soils in Karst region of South-west China present a distinct spatial heterogeneity, and under the conditions of different geology and topography, the soil nutrient pools were over- or underestimated because of the lack of quan-titative parameters. Based on the field investigations in Wudang district of Guiyang City of Guizhou Province, the distribution characteristics of the soils in the district under different geo-logic and topographic conditions were summed up, the present soil maps were emended, and, by the spatial overlapping of soil maps, geological maps, and topographical maps and by multiplying the empirical coefficients of the soils under corresponding conditions, the surface soil ( ≤ 1 m ) retaining amount of the main soil types in the district was estimated. Within the Wudang district, no yellow soil was distributed on the slopes > 35°. The coverage rate and profile depth of lime-stone soil presented a decreasing trend with the increase of slope degree, but the variance of the limestone soil in limestone region was very high. In the district, the surface soil-remaining amount was about 656. 56 million ton, mainly distributed on the 0°-15° slopes, and yellow soil occupied over half.%在我国西南岩溶区域,土壤受地质和地形条件的影响程度较深,表现出强烈的非均一性;且在不同地质地形条件下,缺乏具体的量化参照系数,致使对土壤元素库容等方面的估算存在较大偏差.据此,本研究基于对贵阳市乌当区实地考察结果,归纳确立土壤在不同地质与地形下的分布特征,修正了现有的土壤图.利用地形图提取区域的坡度信息,再与土壤图和地质图进行叠加,乘以相应类型条件下土壤的经验系数,估算区域主要土壤类型表层(≤1m)土壤的保有量.结果表明,乌当区境内坡度>35°的碳酸盐岩地区无黄壤分布;石灰土的覆盖率和土壤剖面深度随坡度的

  18. Lead optimization of an acylhydrazone scaffold possessing antiviral activity against Lassa virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgeson, James R; Gharaibeh, Dima N; Moore, Amy L; Larson, Ryan A; Amberg, Sean M; Bolken, Tove' C; Hruby, Dennis E; Dai, Dongcheng

    2013-11-01

    Previously we reported the optimization of antiviral scaffolds containing benzimidazole and related heterocycles possessing activity against a variety of arenaviruses. These series of compounds were discovered through an HTS campaign of a 400,000 small molecule library using lentivirus-based pseudotypes incorporated with the Lassa virus envelope glycoprotein (LASV GP). This screening also uncovered an alternate series of very potent arenavirus inhibitors based upon an acylhydrazone scaffold. Subsequent SAR analysis of this chemical series involved various substitutions throughout the chemical framework along with assessment of the preferred stereochemistry. These studies led to an optimized analog (ST-161) possessing subnanomolar activity against LASV and submicromolar activity against a number of other viruses in the Arenaviridae family.

  19. Zwitterionic Cellulose Carbamate with Regioselective Substitution Pattern: A Coating Material Possessing Antimicrobial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elschner, Thomas; Lüdecke, Claudia; Kalden, Diana; Roth, Martin; Löffler, Bettina; Jandt, Klaus D; Heinze, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    A polyzwitterion is synthesized by regioselective functionalization of cellulose possessing a uniform charge distribution. The positively charged ammonium group is present at position 6, while the negative charge of carboxylate is located at positions 2 and 3 of the repeating unit. The molecular structure of the biopolymer derivative is proved by NMR spectroscopy. This cellulose-based zwitterion is applied to several support materials by spin-coating and characterized by means of atomic force microscope, contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The coatings possess antimicrobial activity depending on the support materials (glass, titanium, tissue culture poly(styrene)) as revealed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and live/dead staining.

  20. Three Approaches toward Historiography: The French Lieutenant’s Woman, Possession, and Waterland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba NoorBakhsh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Critics have widely explored John Fowles’ The French Lieutenant’s Woman, Graham Swift’s Waterland, and A. S. Byatt’s Possession. These novels are generally treated as outstanding historiographic metafictions since they self-consciously adopt the notion of history and simultaneously problematize historical understanding. For Hayden White, the historian is inevitably impositional and every narrativized history is relative. Following White, Linda Hutcheon defines postmodern historical fiction as the type of fiction that self-reflexively and paradoxically makes use of the notion of history and simultaneously denies its truthfulness. The present article attempts to analyze, compare, and contrast John Fowles’ The French Lieutenant’s Woman, Graham Swift’s Waterland and A. S. Byatt’s Possession: A Romance in light of the theories of White and Hutcheon to show that in spite of problematization of the possibility of recovering the past as it actually was, these novels treat the concept of history differently.

  1. [A nosology for supernatural phenomena and the construction of the 'possessed' brain in the nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Valeria Portugal; Ortega, Francisco

    2013-06-01

    At the end of the twentieth century, supernatural phenomena such as so called trances and possession by spirits received a scientific classification, which includes the numerous diagnoses of the dominant psychiatry. At the end of the nineteenth century we can observe a process of scientific categorization of phenomena considered to have originated in superstition or popular imagination. In this work we show how trances and spiritual possession were studied by Franz Anton Mesmer and his followers when developing the concept of magnetism; by James Braid during the creation of his theory of hypnosis; and by Jean Martin Charcot, which marked the entry of hysteria into nosological classification. Despite the differences between these schools, we identify the use of the brain and cerebral metaphors as the foundation of theories of the mind.

  2. The Impact of World Knowledge on the Processing of Mandarin Possessive Reflexive zijide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Zhiyi; Ni, Chuanbin

    2016-11-03

    It has long been considered that the Mandarin possessive reflexive zijide can be either locally bound or long distance bound, leading to ambiguity where it fails to exclusively refer back to either long distance binding NP or the local NP. In addition to syntactic factors such as the local versus long distance division, the present study examined the potential influence of general world knowledge on the interpretation of zijide. Three experiments, two offline sentence evaluation tasks and one online sentence reading task, found that zijide could be either facilitated or impeded by world knowledge carried in the NPs of the sentence. The results showed that in some cases, zijide was considered exclusively referring back to the long distance NP. These findings seemed to support the notion of subject orientation effect and demonstrated the influence of world knowledge on the processing of Mandarin possessive reflexive zijide.

  3. Consciousness and the structuring property of typical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Jonathan W. D.

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical base for consciousness, in particular an explanation of how consciousness is defined by the brain, has long been sought by science. We propose a partial theory of consciousness as relations defined by typical data. The theory is based on the idea that a brain state on its own is almost meaningless but in the context of the typical brain states, defined by the brain's structure, a particular brain state is highly structured by relations. The proposed theory can be applied and tested both theoretically and experimentally. Precisely how typical data determines relations is fully established using discrete mathematics.

  4. Tourette's syndrome: from demonic possession and psychoanalysis to the discovery of gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germiniani, Francisco M B; Miranda, Anna Paula P; Ferenczy, Peter; Munhoz, Renato P; Teive, Hélio A G

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we make a brief historical review of the hypothesis concerning the etiology of Tourette's syndrome (TS), focusing on varying trends over time: at first, its presumed relation to witchcraft and demonic possessions, followed by the psychoanalytical theory, which attributed TS to a masturbatory equivalent. Then, progressing to modern time, to the immunological theory and finally the advent of genetics and their role in the etiology of TS.

  5. Hexane soluble extract of Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. root possesses anti-leukaemic activity

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Musa; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem; Hussain, Masroor; Mehmood, Khalid; Khan, Rahmat Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. is a well known medicinal plant of Asia and Australia. Various compounds from different aerial parts of the plant have been reported possessing potent pharmacological, antiviral, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. We were interested to determine the effects of some root extracts from M. philippensis on human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell proliferation, cell cycle regulators and apoptosis in order to investigate its anti-leukemic pot...

  6. Criminal history and future offending of juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Ernest, Melanie; Kaszynski, Katie; Bessler, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Most child pornography is distributed online. It is estimated that 3% to 15% of child pornography consumers are juveniles. The present study analyzed a consecutive sample of 54 male juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography. Demographic characteristics, criminal history, and subsequent offending were assessed from criminal files and official reports. Juvenile possessors of child pornography were compared to three different groups of juveniles: Juvenile possessors of other ill...

  7. The Paradoxical Existence of Female Artists in Possession by A.S. Byatt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫琳

    2013-01-01

      In the juxtaposed storylines of the Victorian world and the modern literary circle in Possession,Byatt creates various images of female artists whose life echo each other's. This essay aims to explore the concept of enclosed space employed in the novel as self-preservation as well as self-imprisonment for these female artists struggling for recognition in a male-dominated culture.

  8. Arcobacter spp. possess two very short flagellins of which FlaA is essential for motility

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, H.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Wösten, M.M.S.M.; van Asten, A.J.; Gaastra, W

    2008-01-01

    Like Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp., Arcobacter spp. possess two flagellin genes (flaA and flaB) located adjacent to each other. The aim of this study was to characterize the flagellin proteins of Arcobacter spp., because these proteins are known virulence factors in the Epsilonproteobacteria, to which these three species belong. With the exception of Arcobacter nitrofigilis, Arcobacter flagellins are almost half the size of those in other Epsilonproteobacteria. Arcobacter flagellin prot...

  9. What does it mean to be possessed by a spirit or demon? Some phenomenological insights from neuro-anthropological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter F. Craffert

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The visible growth in possession and exorcism in Southern Africa can, amongst others, be attributed to the general impression in Christianity that, since Jesus was a successful exorcist, his followers should follow his example. Historical Jesus research generally endorses a view of Jesus as exorcist, which probably also contributes to this idea, yet there is no or very little reflection about either exorcism or possession as cultural practices. This article offers a critical reflection on possession based on insights from cross-cultural and neuro-scientific research. The first insight is that possession is not a single thing, but a collective term for what is a wide range of phenomena. At least two distinct meanings are identified: possession as a label for illness or misfortune, and possession as an indication of forms of human dissociative phenomena. In the latter instance, an impression of possession as a mode of being a Self, together with insights about the inherent potential for dissociative phenomena, provides the background to the view of possession as a cultural technique with a variety of functions. A second insight is that the term possession refers to complex neuro-cultural processes that can be described by means of both cultural and neurological mechanisms. A third insight is that in most ethnographic examples possession is the response or solution to other underlying problems. Against this background the role of exorcism should be reconsidered as clear-cut and worthy of emulation.

  10. Chemicals possessing a neurotrophin-like activity on dopaminergic neurons in primary culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Schmidt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurotrophic factors have been shown to possess strong neuroprotective and neurorestaurative properties in Parkinson's disease patients. However the issues to control their delivery into the interest areas of the brain and their surgical administration linked to their unability to cross the blood brain barrier are many drawbacks responsible of undesirable side effects limiting their clinical use. A strategy implying the use of neurotrophic small molecules could provide an interesting alternative avoiding neurotrophin administration and side effects. In an attempt to develop drugs mimicking neurotrophic factors, we have designed and synthesized low molecular weight molecules that exhibit neuroprotective and neuritogenic potential for dopaminergic neurons. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cell-based screening of an in-house quinoline-derived compound collection led to the characterization of compounds exhibiting both activities in the nanomolar range on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in spontaneous or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+-induced neurodegeneration. This study provides evidence that rescued neurons possess a functional dopamine transporter and underlines the involvement of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathway in these processes. CONCLUSION: Cell-based screening led to the discovery of a potent neurotrophic compound possessing expected physico-chemical properties for blood brain barrier penetration as a serious candidate for therapeutic use in Parkinson disease.

  11. [Serotypes of urease producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and their relation to possession of tdh and trh genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, N; Ueda, Y; Mori, H; Miyagi, K; Noda, K; Hirose, H; Oosumi, Y; Ishibashi, M; Yoh, M; Yamamoto, K

    1994-09-01

    We analysed 467 isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus for possession of tdh/trh gene in comparison with urease production and serotypes. Strains possessing tdh+/trh-, tdh+/trh+, tdh-/trh-, and tdh-/trh- show positive urease production 2.1, 100, 65.7, 100%, respectively. Serotypes of O1:K69, O3:K6, O3:K72, O6:K18, O6:K46 and O1:KUT were frequently positive (100% except 91.7% of the latest one) in urease production. All isolates of O3:K6 prossessed trh, whereas all isolates of certain serotypes including O1:K69 and O3:K72 possessed both trh and trh and tdh genes. Among these, most of O1:K69 and O3:K72 were urease producer. From these results, we speculate that urease production is closely related to the presence of the trh gene or/and lesser production of TDH. We also found the new combination of serovar, O3:K25, O4:K37 and O13:K72 in Kanagawa phenomenon-positive strains.

  12. Evaluating propensity score balance measures in typical pharmacoepidemiological settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Mohammed S.; Groenwold, Rolf H. H.; Pestman, Wiebe R.; Belitser, S.; Hoes, Arno W.; Roes, Kit C. B.; De Boer, Anthonius; Klungel, Olaf H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several propensity score (PS) balance measures have been compared in simulated data with normally distributed covariates. Comparisons in data with binary or mixed covariate distributions and rare outcomes, typical of pharmacoepidemiologic data sets, are scarce. Objectives: To compare bal

  13. Gearbox Typical Failure Modes, Detection, and Mitigation Methods (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation was given at the AWEA Operations & Maintenance and Safety Seminar and focused on what the typical gearbox failure modes are, how to detect them using detection techniques, and strategies that help mitigate these failures.

  14. Three Typical Dermatological Cases Treated by Dr. Li Yueping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Shaoqiong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Dr. Li Yueping has been engaged in dermatological clinic for more than 40 years, accumulating rich experience in treating dermatological diseases. The following is three typical cases she gave successful treatment.

  15. Tomographic maps of typical radio signals and their superpositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man'ko, [No Value; Usoltsev, AS

    2002-01-01

    Following the procedure of noncommutative tomography of analytic signals, some typical radio signals are analyzed. Tomograms of rectangular pulses, delta-pulses, and Gaussian signals are presented. Properties of the noncommutative tomography method are discussed.

  16. Scorpion toxins from Buthus martensii Karsch all possess a predicted alpha-tight-turn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahin, Richard; Chen, Ziyi; Wang, Danhui; Reddy, Giridher; Mao, Long

    2003-01-01

    We have purified a new toxin (BmK 17[4]) from Asian scorpion (Buthus martensii Karsch) venom that possesses a distinctive structural motif in its N-terminal (positions 8-12) that is similarly found in two other previously described alpha-like toxins. BmK 17[4] prolongs action potentials (APs) in frog nerve and was purified using gel filtration, ion exchange, fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). BmK 17[4] significantly prolonged frog APs but it did not alter APs from an insect ventral nerve cord at similar doses. When applied to voltage-clamped frog muscle single fibers, BmK 17[4] prolonged fast inactivation. Because the polypeptide prolongs APs when both K+ and Ca2+ channels were blocked, BMK 17[4] acts to selectively alter Na+ channel inactivation. The N-terminal sequence of BmK 17[4] was found to be VRDAYIAKPENCVYXC --. The molar mass of BmK 17[4] was determined by LC/MS/MS to be 7097 Daltons. The N- terminal motif (KPENC), which introduces a reverse turn in residues 8-12, does not appear in previously characterized BmK alpha-toxins and may be characteristic of alpha-like toxins. Sequence similarity database searches were used to test whether the N-terminal sequences of alpha-like polypeptide toxins from B. martensii Karsch possess a distinctive structural motif in its 5-residue reverse turn (alpha-turn) that is conserved. Sequence similarities with putative polypeptides encoded by cDNAs obtained from a cDNA library [Zhu, S. Y., Li, W. X., Zenq, X. C., et al. (2000) Nine novel precursors of Buthus martensii scorpiox alpha-toxin homologues. Toxicon 38, 1653-1661] from BmK venom glands showed that an active polypeptide toxin cleaved from the putative propolypeptide toxin BmK M9 is likely identical to BmK 17[4]. Sequence comparisons with toxins and putative toxins from B. martensii Karsch and other species revealed that a group of these toxins possess a common structural motif in their alpha-turn. A neighbor

  17. Dendritic silica nanomaterials (KCC-1) with fibrous pore structure possess high DNA adsorption capacity and effectively deliver genes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxi; Tao, Zhimin; Praskavich, John C; Goswami, Anandarup; Al-Sharab, Jafar F; Minko, Tamara; Polshettiwar, Vivek; Asefa, Tewodros

    2014-09-16

    The pore size and pore structure of nanoporous materials can affect the materials' physical properties, as well as potential applications in different areas, including catalysis, drug delivery, and biomolecular therapeutics. KCC-1, one of the newest members of silica nanomaterials, possesses fibrous, large pore, dendritic pore networks with wide pore entrances, large pore size distribution, spacious pore volume and large surface area--structural features that are conducive for adsorption and release of large guest molecules and biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins and DNAs). Here, we report the results of our comparative studies of adsorption of salmon DNA in a series of KCC-1-based nanomaterials that are functionalized with different organoamine groups on different parts of their surfaces (channel walls, external surfaces or both). For comparison the results of our studies of adsorption of salmon DNA in similarly functionalized, MCM-41 mesoporous silica nanomaterials with cylindrical pores, some of the most studied silica nanomaterials for drug/gene delivery, are also included. Our results indicate that, despite their relatively lower specific surface area, the KCC-1-based nanomaterials show high adsorption capacity for DNA than the corresponding MCM-41-based nanomaterials, most likely because of KCC-1's large pores, wide pore mouths, fibrous pore network, and thereby more accessible and amenable structure for DNA molecules to diffuse through. Conversely, the MCM-41-based nanomaterials adsorb much less DNA, presumably because their outer surfaces/cylindrical channel pore entrances can get blocked by the DNA molecules, making the inner parts of the materials inaccessible. Moreover, experiments involving fluorescent dye-tagged DNAs suggest that the amine-grafted KCC-1 materials are better suited for delivering the DNAs adsorbed on their surfaces into cellular environments than their MCM-41 counterparts. Finally, cellular toxicity tests show that the KCC-1-based

  18. The need to belong and the value of belongings: Does ostracism change the subjective value of personal possessions?

    OpenAIRE

    Walasek, Lukasz; William J. Matthews; Rakow, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214804315000725. A growing body of research has demonstrated that feelings of possession influence the valuation of personal possessions. Psychological theories of ownership suggest that a special bond between a person and his/her possession arises in response to the innate motivation for effectance, self-identity and need for home. However, current empirical support...

  19. Typical and atypical bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors: a clinicopathologic and KI-67-labeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, V; Marty-Ané, C; Picot, M C; Serre, I; Pujol, J L; Mary, H; Baldet, P

    1995-07-01

    Expression of a proliferating antigen by KI-67 immunohistochemistry was analyzed with a SAMBA 2005 computer-assisted image processor (Traitement de l'Information for des Techniques Nouvelles, Grenoble, France) in 47 surgically resected bronchopulmonary carcinoids embedded in paraffin. The clinicopathologic characteristics and KI-67 labeling, expressed in percentage of stained nuclear surface relative to the total nuclear surface, of 31 typical carcinoids and 16 atypical carcinoids were compared and assessed with respect to patient survival. The proliferation status was significantly higher in histologically atypical than in typical carcinoids. Moreover, using a 4% cutoff, we observed a significant difference for the 4-year overall survival rate. Semiquantitative analysis of the proliferation index by KI-67 immunostaining seemed to be an effective means of identifying high risk subsets among patients with histologically atypical carcinoids and for whom adjuvant chemotherapy could be proposed.

  20. The Ge(0 0 1) surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Although germanium (Ge) (0 0 1) has a relatively small surface unit cell, this surface displays a wealth of fascinating phenomena. The Ge(0 0 1) surface is a prototypical example of a system possessing both a strong short-range interaction due to dimerization of the surface atoms, as well as an

  1. A critical review of dissociative trance and possession disorders: etiological, diagnostic, therapeutic, and nosological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During, Emmanuel H; Elahi, Fanny M; Taieb, Olivier; Moro, Marie-Rose; Baubet, Thierry

    2011-04-01

    Although the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fourth Edition, acknowledges the existence of dissociative trance and possession disorders, simply named dissociative trance disorder (DTD), it asks for further studies to assess its clinical utility in the DSM-5. To answer this question, we conducted the first review of the medical literature. The MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases were searched from 1988 to 2010, seeking case reports of DTD according to the DSM or the International Classification of Diseases definitions. For each article, we collected epidemiologic and clinical data, explanatory models used by authors, treatments, and information on the outcome. We found 28 articles reporting 402 cases of patients with DTD worldwide. The data show an equal proportion of female and male patients, and a predominance of possession (69%), compared with trance (31%). Amnesia is reported by 20% of patients. Conversely, hallucinatory symptoms during possession episodes were found in 56% of patients and thus should feature as an important criterion. Somatic complaints are found in 34% of patients. Multiple explanatory models are simultaneously held and appear to be complementary. Data strongly suggest the inclusion of DTD in the DSM-5, provided certain adjustments are implemented. DTD is a widespread disorder that can be understood as a global idiom of distress, probably underdiagnosed in Western countries owing to cultural biases, whose incidence could increase given the rising flow of migration. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate management should result from a comprehensive evaluation both of sociocultural and of idiosyncratic issues, among which acculturation difficulties should systematically be considered, especially in cross-cultural settings.

  2. Food and Wine Tourism: an Analysis of Italian Typical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to focus the specific role of local food productions in spite of its relationship with tourism sector to valorization and promotion of the territorial cultural heritage. The modern agriculture has been and, in the recent years, several specific features are emerging referring to different territorials areas. Tourist would like to have a complete experience consumption of a destination, specifically to natural and cultural heritage and genuine food. This contribute addresses the topics connected to the relationship between typical productions system and tourism sector to underline the competitive advantages to local development. The typical productions are Designation of Protected Origin (Italian DOP, within wine certifications DOCG and DOC and Typical Geographical Indication (IGP and wine’s IGT. The aim is an analysis of the specialization of these kinds of production at Italian regional scale. The implication of the work has connected with defining a necessary and appropriate value strategies based on marketing principles in order to translate the benefit of typical productions to additional value for the local system. Thus, the final part of the paper describes the potential dynamics with the suitable accommodation typology of agriturismo and the typical production system of Italian Administrative Regions.

  3. Poly[tetraaquatriglutaratodicerium(III) decahydrate], a novel luminescent metal-organic framework possessing hydrophilic hexagonal channels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    REMYA M NAIR; M R SUDARSANAKUMAR; S SUMA; M R PRATHAPACHANDRA KURUP; P K SUDHADEVI ANTHARJANAM

    2016-09-01

    A novel 2D metal–organic framework poly[tetraaquatriglutaratodicerium(III) decahydrate] with an open framework structure has been successfully grown by single gel diffusion technique. Sodium metasilicate was used for gel preparation. The structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compoundcrystallizes in orthorhombic space group Pnma and possesses a structure consisting of [CeO₁₀] polyhedra and H₂O molecules with hydrophilic hexagonal channels. The crystals were further characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and UV-Visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. The luminescent property and magnetic susceptibility of the complex were also investigated.

  4. Power, slavery, and spirit possession in East Africa: A few reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Nicolini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Spirit possession and its relationship with power aims to offer here a better understanding not only of East African societies, but, most of all, of their historical role in numerous political and military conflicts and also within peace-building processes that represent a continuation of a topic of longstanding concern in East African history. The relationships between religions, local cultures and institutional powers throughout contemporary East African history will be re-read through regional and transnational, as well as international dynamics.

  5. Entanglement Dynamics in Typical Local- and Normal-Mode Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xi-Wen; WAN Ming-Fang; MA Zhong-Qi

    2007-01-01

    The entanglement dynamics of two stretching vibrations in theoretically typical local- and normal-mode molecules and realistic molecules H2O and SO2 in an algebraic model is studied in terms of the reduced-density linear entropy with initial entangled states taken to be two-mode squeezed vacuum states. It is shown that the behaviour of the entropy in theoretically typical molecules appears to be more regular than that in realistic ones, and that the entropy becomes irregular as the amplitude of two-mode squeezed vacuum states increases. For initial states with a small amplitude, it is demonstrated that the periodicity and the "classical" beat phenomenon of the entropy occur with the beat in theoretically typical molecules being more regular than that in realistic molecules H2O and SO2.

  6. Typical Skin Injuries in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingsby, Brett; Yatchmink, Yvette; Goldberg, Amy

    2017-09-01

    Pediatric skin injuries have primarily been described in typically developing children. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence and pattern of skin injuries of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), to describe how this compared with previously demonstrated skin injury locations in typically developing children, and to identify differences in skin injury frequency and locations between autistic children with and without self-injurious behaviors (SIBs). Children with ASD were recruited between September of 2011 and September of 2014. Demographic information was obtained from the caregiver. All skin injuries and their locations were documented. Of the 41 children enrolled, half were reported to have SIBs. The most identified skin injury locations were the legs, knees, and back. Children with autism (1) obtain skin injuries frequently and in similar locations as typically developing children and (2) rarely obtain skin injuries to locations that are considered uncommon for accidental injuries despite reports of SIBs.

  7. Apoplastic polyesters in Arabidopsis surface tissues--a typical suberin and a particular cutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Rochus; Briesen, Isabel; Wojciechowski, Tobias; Faust, Andrea; Yephremov, Alexander; Nawrath, Christiane; Schreiber, Lukas

    2005-11-01

    Cutinized and suberized cell walls form physiological important plant-environment interfaces as they act as barriers limiting water and nutrient loss and protect from radiation and invasion by pathogens. Due to the lack of protocols for the isolation and analysis of cutin and suberin in Arabidopsis, the model plant for molecular biology, mutants and transgenic plants with a defined altered cutin or suberin composition are unavailable, causing that structure and function of these apoplastic barriers are still poorly understood. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that Arabidopsis leaf cuticle thickness ranges from only 22 nm in leaf blades to 45 nm on petioles, causing the difficulty in cuticular membrane isolation. We report the use of polysaccharide hydrolases to isolate Arabidopsis cuticular membranes, suitable for depolymerization and subsequent compositional analysis. Although cutin characteristic omega-hydroxy acids (7%) and mid-chain hydroxylated fatty acids (8%) were detected, the discovery of alpha,omega-diacids (40%) and 2-hydroxy acids (14%) as major depolymerization products reveals a so far novel monomer composition in Arabidopsis cutin, but with chemical analogy to root suberin. Histochemical and TEM analysis revealed that suberin depositions were localized to the cell walls in the endodermis of primary roots and the periderm of mature roots of Arabidopsis. Enzyme digested and solvent extracted root cell walls when subjected to suberin depolymerization conditions released omega-hydroxy acids (43%) and alpha,omega-diacids (24%) as major components together with carboxylic acids (9%), alcohols (6%) and 2-hydroxyacids (0.1%). This similarity to suberin of other species indicates that Arabidopsis roots can serve as a model for suberized tissue in general.

  8. Spatial Resolution of the ECE for JET Typical Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribaldos, V. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to obtain estimations of the spatial resolution of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) phenomena for the typical plasmas found in JET tokamak. The analysis of the spatial resolution of the ECE is based on the underlying physical process of emission and a working definition is presented and discussed. In making these estimations a typical JET pulse is being analysed taking into account the magnetic configuration, the density and temperature profiles, obtained with the EFIT code and from the LIDAR diagnostic. Ray tracing simulations are performed for a Maxwellian plasma taking into account the antenna pattern. (Author) 5 refs.

  9. Hierarchical-Multiplex DNA Patterns Mediated by Polymer Brush Nanocone Arrays That Possess Potential Application for Specific DNA Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wendong; Liu, Xueyao; Ge, Peng; Fang, Liping; Xiang, Siyuan; Zhao, Xiaohuan; Shen, Huaizhong; Yang, Bai

    2015-11-11

    This paper provides a facile and cost-efficient method to prepare single-strand DNA (ssDNA) nanocone arrays and hierarchical DNA patterns that were mediated by poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) brush. The PHEMA brush nanocone arrays with different morphology and period were fabricated via colloidal lithography. The hierarchical structure was prepared through the combination of colloidal lithography and traditional photolithography. The DNA patterns were easily achieved via grafting the amino group modified ssDNA onto the side chain of polymer brush, and the anchored DNA maintained their reactivity. The as-prepared ssDNA nanocone arrays can be applied for target DNA sensing with the detection limit reaching 1.65 nM. Besides, with the help of introducing microfluidic ideology, the hierarchical-multiplex DNA patterns on the same substrate could be easily achieved with each kind of pattern possessing one kind of ssDNA, which are promising surfaces for the preparation of rapid, visible, and multiplex DNA sensors.

  10. Chronic lymphocytic-leukemia with pleomorphic lymphocytes (cll-pleo) - a comparative-study with typical cll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batata, A; Shen, B; Batata, S

    1994-05-01

    Cell suspensions from the peripheral brood of 21 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with pleomorphic lymphocytes (CLL-pleo) and 155 cases of typical CLL were analyzed to define the phenotype of the former and compare it with the phenotype of the latter. CLL-pleo was characterized by weak fluorescence intensity of surface immunoglobulin (mean channel number on flow cytometry <200), positive mouse rosettes and CD5, and negative CD22 and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase. Comparison of the positive rates of the markers and of the mean percentages of marker-expressing cells showed no statistical difference between CLL-pleo and typical CLL. CLL-pleo constitutes a morphological variant of typical CLL bearing the same membrane phenotype as typical CLL, although the mean absolute lymphocyte count in CLL-pleo was significantly higher than that of typical CLL.

  11. Simian virus 40 late proteins possess lytic properties that render them capable of permeabilizing cellular membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Robert; Rusan, Nasser M; Wilbuer, Anne-Kathrin; Norkin, Leonard C; Wadsworth, Patricia; Hebert, Daniel N

    2006-07-01

    Many nonenveloped viruses have evolved an infectious cycle that culminates in the lysis or permeabilization of the host to enable viral release. How these viruses initiate the lytic event is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated that the simian virus 40 progeny accumulated at the nuclear envelope prior to the permeabilization of the nuclear, endoplasmic reticulum, and plasma membranes at a time which corresponded with the release of the progeny. The permeabilization of these cellular membranes temporally correlated with late protein expression and was not observed upon the inhibition of their synthesis. To address whether one or more of the late proteins possessed an inherent capacity to induce membrane permeabilization, we examined the permeability of Escherichia coli that separately expressed the late proteins. VP2 and VP3, but not VP1, caused the permeabilization of bacterial membranes. Additionally, VP3 expression resulted in bacterial cell lysis. These findings demonstrate that VP3 possesses an inherent lytic property that is independent of eukaryotic signaling or cell death pathways.

  12. Euglena gracilis and Trypanosomatids possess common patterns in predicted mitochondrial targeting presequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krnáčová, Katarína; Vesteg, Matej; Hampl, Vladimír; Vlček, Čestmír; Horváth, Anton

    2012-10-01

    Euglena gracilis possessing chloroplasts of secondary green algal origin and parasitic trypanosomatids Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania major belong to the protist phylum Euglenozoa. Euglenozoa might be among the earliest eukaryotic branches bearing ancestral traits reminiscent of the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) or missing features present in other eukaryotes. LECA most likely possessed mitochondria of endosymbiotic α-proteobacterial origin. In this study, we searched for the presence of homologs of mitochondria-targeted proteins from other organisms in the currently available EST dataset of E. gracilis. The common motifs in predicted N-terminal presequences and corresponding homologs from T. brucei, T. cruzi and L. major (if found) were analyzed. Other trypanosomatid mitochondrial protein precursor (e.g., those involved in RNA editing) were also included in the analysis. Mitochondrial presequences of E. gracilis and these trypanosomatids seem to be highly variable in sequence length (5-118 aa), but apparently share statistically significant similarities. In most cases, the common (M/L)RR motif is present at the N-terminus and it is probably responsible for recognition via import apparatus of mitochondrial outer membrane. Interestingly, this motif is present inside the predicted presequence region in some cases. In most presequences, this motif is followed by a hydrophobic region rich in alanine, leucine, and valine. In conclusion, either RR motif or arginine-rich region within hydrophobic aa-s present at the N-terminus of a preprotein can be sufficient signals for mitochondrial import irrespective of presequence length in Euglenozoa.

  13. H7N9 influenza virus neutralizing antibodies that possess few somatic mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburg, Natalie J.; Zhang, Heng; Bangaru, Sandhya; Kose, Nurgun; Lampley, Rebecca M.; Bombardi, Robin G.; Yu, Yingchun; Graham, Stephen; Branchizio, Andre; Yoder, Sandra M.; Rock, Michael T.; Creech, C. Buddy; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Lee, David; Li, Sheng; Wilson, Ian A.; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Albrecht, Randy A.; Crowe, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Avian H7N9 influenza viruses are group 2 influenza A viruses that have been identified as the etiologic agent for a current major outbreak that began in China in 2013 and may pose a pandemic threat. Here, we examined the human H7-reactive antibody response in 75 recipients of a monovalent inactivated A/Shanghai/02/2013 H7N9 vaccine. After 2 doses of vaccine, the majority of donors had memory B cells that secreted IgGs specific for H7 HA, with dominant responses against single HA subtypes, although frequencies of H7-reactive B cells ranged widely between donors. We isolated 12 naturally occurring mAbs with low half-maximal effective concentrations for binding, 5 of which possessed neutralizing and HA-inhibiting activities. The 5 neutralizing mAbs exhibited narrow breadth of reactivity with influenza H7 strains. Epitope-mapping studies using neutralization escape mutant analysis, deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, and x-ray crystallography revealed that these neutralizing mAbs bind near the receptor-binding pocket on HA. All 5 neutralizing mAbs possessed low numbers of somatic mutations, suggesting the clones arose from naive B cells. The most potent mAb, H7.167, was tested as a prophylactic treatment in a mouse intranasal virus challenge study, and systemic administration of the mAb markedly reduced viral lung titers. PMID:26950424

  14. Npw38, a novel nuclear protein possessing a WW domain capable of activating basal transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komuro, A; Saeki, M; Kato, S

    1999-05-01

    We have found a novel cDNA encoding a 265 amino acid protein possessing a WW domain in our full-length cDNA bank. The WW domain was sandwiched between an acidic region and an acidic-basic amino acid repetitive region. In vitro transcription/translation of the cDNA produced a 38 kDa product that was also found in the cell lysate by western blot analysis. Thus this protein is named the nuclear protein containing a WW domain with a molecular mass of 38 kDa, Npw38. Immunofluorescence studies and expression of a fusion protein to a green fluorescent protein revealed that this protein is localized in the nucleus. Npw38 was shown to be capable of binding to a poly(rG) resin. Interestingly, the WW domain of Npw38 was found to function as a transcriptional activator in CHO cells using the GAL4 DNA-binding fusion system. Furthermore, the WW domains of human YAP and Pin1 were demonstrated to have a similar transcription-promoting activity. Combined mutation of the conserved first and second Trp residues and a hydrophobic triplet of TyrTyrTrp in the WW domain of Npw38 abolished the transcription-promoting activity, but single mutations of these sites did not. These results suggest that some WW domains potentially possess transcription-promoting activity in mammalian cells.

  15. Phthalocyanine derivatives possessing 2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethoxy groups as potential agents for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucinska, Malgorzata; Skupin-Mrugalska, Paulina; Szczolko, Wojciech; Sobotta, Lukasz; Sciepura, Mateusz; Tykarska, Ewa; Wierzchowski, Marcin; Teubert, Anna; Fedoruk-Wyszomirska, Agnieszka; Wyszko, Eliza; Gdaniec, Maria; Kaczmarek, Mariusz; Goslinski, Tomasz; Mielcarek, Jadwiga; Murias, Marek

    2015-03-12

    Three 2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethoxy substituted phthalocyanines were synthesized and characterized. Phthalocyanine derivatives revealed moderate to high quantum yields of singlet oxygen production depending on the solvent applied (e.g., in DMF ranging from 0.25 to 0.53). Their photosensitizing potential for photodynamic therapy was investigated in an in vitro model using cancer cell lines. Biological test results were found particularly encouraging for the zinc(II) phthalocyanine derivative possessing two 2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethoxy substituents in nonperipheral positions. Cells irradiated for 20 min at 2 mW/cm(2) revealed the lowest IC50 value at 0.25 μM for prostate cell line (PC3), whereas 1.47 μM was observed for human malignant melanoma (A375) cells. The cytotoxic activity in nonirradiated cells of novel phthalocyanine was found to be very low. Moreover, the cellular uptake, localization, cell cycle, apoptosis through an ELISA assay, and immunochemistry method were investigated in LNCaP cells. Our results showed that the tested photosensitizer possesses very interesting biological activity, depending on experimental conditions.

  16. 77 FR 58627 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds; Final Rule...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds AGENCY: Fish and...

  17. 75 FR 58993 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 185... Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession...

  18. Homogeneous Lotka-Volterra Equation Possessing a Lie Symmetry: Extension to n-Dimensional Equation and Integrability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, a new n-dimensional homogeneous Lotka-Volterra (HLV) equation, which possesses a Lie symmetry, is derived by the extension from a three-dimensional HLV equation. Its integrability is shown from the viewpoint of Lie symmetries. Furthermore, we derive dynamical systems of higher order, which possess the Lie symmetry, using the algebraic structure of this HLV equation.

  19. 78 FR 53199 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the... Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous United States, Alaska...; migratory game birds in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; youth waterfowl day; and...

  20. 77 FR 53751 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the... Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous United States, Alaska...; migratory game birds in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; youth waterfowl day; and...

  1. 41 CFR 102-74.400 - What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Drugs § 102-74.400 What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs? 102-74.400 Section 102-74.400...

  2. 41 CFR 102-73.140 - When may agencies that do not possess independent leasing authority lease space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... do not possess independent leasing authority lease space? 102-73.140 Section 102-73.140 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 73-REAL ESTATE ACQUISITION Acquisition by Lease Delegations of Leasing Authority § 102-73.140 When may agencies that do not possess independent leasing authority lease...

  3. Assessment of Management Competencies Possessed by Postgraduate University Business Education Students to Handle Entrepreneurship Business Challenges in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, James

    2015-01-01

    University Business Education graduates, by the nature of their programme, ought to possess relevant management competencies for successful entrepreneurship but casual observation and empirical reports indicate that they are not doing well in this aspect. Therefore, this study assessed the management competencies possessed by the university…

  4. 49 CFR 375.407 - Under what circumstances must I relinquish possession of a collect-on-delivery shipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... possession of the shipment at the time of delivery. If there are either charges for any additional services... delivery. You must accept the form of payment agreed to at the time of estimate, unless the shipper agrees... possession of a collect-on-delivery shipment transported under a non-binding estimate? 375.407 Section 375...

  5. 10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of... Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.108 Appendix H—Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of...

  6. Qualitative Quantitative and Experimental Concept Possession, Criteria for Identifying Conceptual Change in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappi, Otto

    2013-01-01

    Students sometimes misunderstand or misinterpret scientific content because of persistent misconceptions that need to be overcome by science education--a learning process typically called conceptual change. The acquisition of scientific content matter thus requires a transformation of the initial knowledge-state of a common-sense picture of the…

  7. Qualitative Quantitative and Experimental Concept Possession, Criteria for Identifying Conceptual Change in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappi, Otto

    2013-01-01

    Students sometimes misunderstand or misinterpret scientific content because of persistent misconceptions that need to be overcome by science education--a learning process typically called conceptual change. The acquisition of scientific content matter thus requires a transformation of the initial knowledge-state of a common-sense picture of the…

  8. Fostering an Interest in Science in a Typically Underrepresented Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sarah F.; McEntire, Jennifer Cleveland; Sarakatsannis, James

    2007-01-01

    This "case study" details how food science was introduced into the classrooms of a typically underrepresented population. James Sarakatsannis, an 8th grade physical science teacher, was planning a unit that would use fast food to teach science to his classes, when he came across the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) website and a wealth of…

  9. The simulation study of three typical time frequency analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yifeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The principals and characteristics of three typical time frequency analysis methods that Short Time Furious transformation, wavelet transformation and Hilbert-Huang transformation are introduced, and the mathematical definition, characteristics and application ranges of these analysis methods and so on are pointed out, then their time-frequency local performance is made analysis and comparison through computer programming and simulation.

  10. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Sung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu College of Medicine, Daegu 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk Jung [Department of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Yoon [Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast.

  11. 28 CFR 61.5 - Typical classes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Implementing Procedures § 61.5 Typical classes of action. (a) The NEPA.... These classes are: actions normally requiring environmental impact statements (EIS), actions normally...; (ii) Proposals for legislation developed by or with the significant cooperation and support of...

  12. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  13. Typical School Day Experiences of Indian Children in Different Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, N.; Malar, G.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that India has experienced conditions that have lead to significant illiteracy, but that commitment to education can be found in lesser-known parts of India today. Profiles three schools in Tamil Nadu and describes a typical school day for a student with special needs, a student in a tribal setting, and a student in a rural setting. (TJQ)

  14. Stimulus Overselectivity in Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, William V.; Farber, Rachel S.; Mueller, Marlana R.; Grant, Eileen; Lorin, Lucy; Deutsch, Curtis K.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulus overselectivity refers to maladaptive narrow attending that is a common learning problem among children with intellectual disabilities and frequently associated with autism. The present study contrasted overselectivity among groups of children with autism, Down syndrome, and typical development. The groups with autism and Down syndrome…

  15. Typical Lexical and Syntactical Mistakes in Technical Treatises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Gedzevičienė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article suggests the analysis of typical mechanically made lexical and syntactical mistakes appearing in treatises. The article also provides the examples of mistakes found in this book. Causes for language mistakes (mistakes in using the wrong words, cases and prepositions and correction of errors are given.Article in Lithuanian

  16. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-02-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each conditionalization scheme studied, we analyze how correlations between densities of different dark matter species affect the prediction, and explicate the effects of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that the effects of correlations can depend on the conditionalization scheme, and that in each case atypicality can significantly change the prediction. In doing so, we demonstrate the existence of overlaps in the predictions of different "frameworks" consisting of conjunctions of theory, conditionalization scheme and typicality assumption. This conclusion highlights the acute challenges involved in using such tests to identify a preferred framework that aims to describe our observational situation in a multiverse.

  17. The Roots of Disillusioned American Dream in Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古冬华

    2016-01-01

    Typical American is one of Gish Jen’s notable novels catching attention of the American literary circle. The motif of disillusioned American dream can be seen clearly through the experiences of three main characters. From perspectives of the consumer culture and cultural conflicts, this paper analyzes the roots of the disillusioned American dream in the novel.

  18. Realizing the Typical Gas Burning System' s Control by PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang,Hengcheng; Wang,Yanbin

    2003-01-01

    This Paper introduced the typical gas burning sys-tem's cemposing, analysesed and discussed its operation theoryand two different leak control methods in detail, investigatedconcretely the software and hardware design project of realizingcontrol and performed communication with upper computer bySiemens' s S7-300 Programmable Logical Controller.

  19. Describing Typical Capstone Course Experiences from a National Random Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahe, Jon E.; Hauhart, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    The pedagogical value of capstones has been regularly discussed within psychology. This study presents results from an examination of a national random sample of department webpages and an online survey that characterized the typical capstone course in terms of classroom activities and course administration. The department webpages provide an…

  20. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  1. Whittaker categories and strongly typical Whittaker modules for Lie superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Bagci, Irfan; Wiesner, Emilie

    2012-01-01

    Following analogous constructions for Lie algebras, we define Whittaker modules and Whittaker categories for finite-dimensional simple Lie superalgebras. Results include a decomposition of Whittaker categories for a Lie superalgebra according to the action of an appropriate sub-superalgebra; and, for basic classical Lie superalgebras of type I, a description of the strongly typical simple Whittaker modules.

  2. BRONCHOSCOPIC THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH INTRALUMINAL TYPICAL BRONCHIAL CARCINOID

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SUTEDJA, TG; SCHREURS, AJ; VANDERSCHUEREN, RG; KWA, B; VANDERWERF, TS; POSTMUS, PE

    1995-01-01

    Objective: To study the efficacy of bronchoscopic therapy in patients with intraluminal typical bronchial carcinoid. Design: Retrospective analysis of the data of patients with bronchial carcinoid, treated primarily with bronchoscopic techniques such as Nd-YAG laser in various hospitals in the Nethe

  3. Typical neuroleptic malignant syndrome presented in patient on maintenance quetiapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintan Madhusudan Raval

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is an acute, life-threatening medical complication caused by antipsychotics. It is commonly seen with typical antipsychotics and very rare with atypicals. Cases have been reported with quetiapine also, but this case is of special interest because it occurred in patient who was stable on maintenance quetiapine 200 mg/day for last 5 years.

  4. Temperament Dimensions in Stuttering and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Kurt; De Nil, Luc F.; Van den Bergh, Bea R. H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether children who stutter (CWS) and typically developing children (TDC) differ from each other on composite temperament factors or on individual temperament scales. Methods: Participants consisted of 116 age and gender-matched CWS and TDC (3.04-8.11). Temperament was assessed with a Dutch…

  5. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  6. Sonographic findings of typical and atypical scrotal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Daniel N; Jensen, Jeff

    2015-06-01

    This review article illustrates sonographic findings in the setting of accidental and nonaccidental scrotal trauma. Although sonographic findings may be irrespective of the type of trauma, the goals of sonographic evaluation are similar in both atypical and typical mechanisms of scrotal injury. Familiarity with findings such as disruption of testicular integrity or vascularity facilitates prompt diagnosis and plays a critical role in clinical management.

  7. On the entailment problem for a logic of typicality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available , Buenos Aires, Argentina, 25-31 July 2015 On the entailment problem for a logic of typicality Richard Booth Mahasarakham University Thailand ribooth@gmail.com Giovanni Casini CAIR, Univ. of Pretoria and CSIR Meraka South Africa; Univ...

  8. Hydroxyl migration disorders the surface structure of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiajie; Wu, Hong; Zhang, Li; Ma, Xingtao; Zhang, Xingdong; Yang, Mingli

    2017-09-01

    The surface structure of nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) was investigated using a combined simulated annealing and molecular dynamics method. The stationary structures of nano-HAP with 4-7 nm in diameter and annealed under different temperatures were analyzed in terms of pair distribution function, structural factor, mean square displacement and atomic coordination number. The particles possess different structures from bulk crystal. A clear radial change in their atomic arrangements was noted. From core to surface the structures change from ordered to disordered. A three-shell model was proposed to describe the structure evolution of nano-HAP. Atoms in the core zone keep their arrangements as in crystal, while atoms in the surface shell are in short-range order and long-range disorder, adopting a typically amorphous structure. Atoms in the middle shell have small displacements and/or deflections but basically retain their original locations as in crystal. The disordered shell is about 1 nm in thickness, in agreement with experimental observations. The disordering mainly stems from hydroxyl migration during which hydroxyls move to the surface and bond with the exposed Ca ions, and their left vacancies bring about a rearrangement of nearby atoms. The disordering is to some extent different for particles unannealed under different temperatures, resulting from fewer number of migrated hydroxyls at lower temperatures. Particles with different sizes have similar surface structures, and their surface energy decreases with increasing size. Moreover, the surface energy is reduced by hydroxyl migration because the exposed Ca ions on the surface are ionically bonded with the migrated hydroxyls. Our calculations proposed a new structure model for nano-HAP, which indicates a surface structure with activities different from those without surface reorganization. This is particularly interesting because most bioactivities of biomaterials are dominated by their surface activity.

  9. Copper (II) complexes possessing alkyl-substituted polypyridyl ligands: Structural characterization and in vitro antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Noah R; Khatib, Raneen M; Jenkins, Julia; Smith, Michelle; Rubalcava, Justin M; Le, Brian Khoa; Lussier, Daniel; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Tham, Fook S; Wilson, Emma H; Eichler, Jack F

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to find alternatives to the antitumor drug cisplatin, a series of copper (II) complexes possessing alkyl-substituted polypyridyl ligands have been synthesized. Eight new complexes are reported herein: μ-dichloro-bis{2,9-di-sec-butyl-1,10-phenanthrolinechlorocopper(II)} {[((di-sec-butyl)phen)ClCu(μ-Cl)2CuCl((di-sec-butyl)phen)]}(1), 2-sec-butyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedichlorocopper(II) {([mono-sec-butyl)phen) CuCl2} (2), 2,9-di-n-butyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedichlorocopper(II) {[(di-n-butyl)phen) CuCl2}(3), 2-n-butyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedichlorocopper(II) {[(mono-n-butyl)phen) CuCl2} (4), 2,9-di-methyl-1,10-phenanthrolineaquadichlorocopper(II) {[(di-methyl)phen) Cu(H2O)Cl2}(5), μ-dichloro-bis{6-sec-butyl-2,2'-bipyridinedichlorocopper(II)} {((mono-sec-butyl)bipy) ClCu(μ-Cl)2CuCl((mono-sec-butyl)bipy)} (6), 6,6'-di-methyl-2,2'-bipyridinedichlorocopper(II) {(6,6'-di-methyl)bipy) CuCl2} (7), and 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridinedichlorocopper(II) {(4,4'-di-methyl)bipy) CuCl2} (8). These complexes have been characterized via elemental analysis, UV-vis spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. Single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments revealed the complexes synthesized with the (di-sec-butyl)phen ligand (1) and (mono-sec-butyl)bipy ligand (6) crystallized as dimers in which two copper(II) centers are bridged by two chloride ligands. Conversely, complexes 2, 7, and 8 were isolated as monomeric species possessing distorted tetrahedral geometries, and the [((di-methyl)phen)Cu(H2O)Cl2] (5) complex was isolated as a distorted square pyramidal monomer possessing a coordinating aqua ligand. Compounds 1-8 were evaluated for their in vitro antitumor efficacy. Compounds 1, 5, and 7 in particular were found to exhibit remarkable activity against human derived lung cancer cells, yet this class of copper(II) compounds had minimal cytotoxic effect on non-cancerous cells. In vitro control experiments indicate the activity of the copper(II) complexes most likely does not arise from the

  10. Novel donors of nitric oxide derived of S-nitrosocysteine possessing antioxidant activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petit C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel S-nitrosothiols possessing a phenolic function were investigated as nitric oxide (NO donors. A study of NO release from these derivatives was carried out by electron spin resonance (ESR. All compounds gave rise to a characteristic three-line ESR signal in the presence of the complex [Fe(II(MGD2], revealing the formation of the complex [Fe(II(MGD2(NO]. Furthermore, tests based on cytochrome c reduction were performed in order to study the ability of each phenolic disulfide, the final organic decomposition product of S-nitrosothiols, to trap superoxide radical anion (O2-. This study revealed a high reactivity of 1b and 3b towards O2-. For these two compounds, the respective inhibitory concentration (IC 50 values were 92 µM and 43 µM.

  11. Cluster reduction and compensatory lengthening in the acquisition of possessive -s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealings, Kiri Trengove; Demuth, Katherine

    2014-05-01

    Previous research shows that two-year-olds' third person singular -s and plural -s are produced more accurately in utterance-final compared to utterance-medial position. However, only the third person singular is affected by coda complexity. This study explores these effects with possessive -s. Acoustic analysis of twelve two-year-olds' elicited imitations examined the use of simple versus complex codas (e.g. Sue's vs. Doug's ) both utterance-medially and utterance-finally. Morpheme production was surprisingly robust across contexts, though coda clusters were often simplified to a lengthened -s morpheme utterance-medially (e.g., Dou's [dɐz]). The findings raise many questions about the development of speech planning processes across populations.

  12. Medicine, belief, witchcraft and demonic possession in late seventeenth-century Ulster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Ireland's only published witchcraft pamphlet, written by Daniel Higgs, The Wonderful and True Relation of the Bewitching of a Young Girle in Ireland, What Ways she was Tormented, and a Receipt of the Ointment that she was Cured with (1699), works within the confines of late seventeenth-century demonology, while upholding the patriarchy of the fledgling Protestant Ascendancy. More importantly, it provides rare insight into early modern Protestant witchcraft beliefs, highlights the limits of contemporary medical care and provision and details the pathways of self-medication people resorted to. Higgs' method of promoting self-medication as a cure to bewitchment and demonic possession was based on a remedy described in an obscure Renaissance magical text. To promote his 'cure' the pamphlet included a particularly vitriolic critique of the established Irish medical profession, as self-regarding and incompetent witchcraft deniers. This article uses Higgs' pamphlet to explore the limits to/of medical knowledge in early modern Ireland and Europe.

  13. Effects of Youth Tobacco Access and Possession Policy Interventions on Heavy Adolescent Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard A. Jason

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of tobacco PUP (Purchase, Use and Possession laws on tobacco use patterns among students in twenty-four towns, which were randomly assigned into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group involved both PUP law enforcement and reducing minors’ access to commercial sources of tobacco, and the condition for the control group involved only efforts to reduce minors’ access to commercial sources of tobacco. The present study found that adolescents in the control group had a significantly greater increase in the percentage of youth who smoked 20 or more cigarettes per day when compared to the experimental group.

  14. Triterpenes possessing an unprecedented skeleton isolated from hydrolyzate of total saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Wu, Chun-Fu; Xu, Xin-Yue; Liu, Zhen-Yang; Li, Xian; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2012-04-01

    Five novel triterpenes were isolated from hydrolyzate of total saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum and identified as gypensapogenin A (1), gypensapogenin B (2), gypensapogenin C (3), 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-gypensapogenin D (4) and gypensapogenin D (5), two of which (1 and 2) possess unprecedented ring A. The cyclization of the side chains-3 formed five-membered cyclic ketone rings similar to ring E in 1. The 21-oic acid-21, 23-lactone was present in the side chains of 4 and 5. We also proposed the possible formation mechanisms of compounds 1-3. Compounds 1-5 were evaluated for cytotoxic activities in three cell lines including A549, U87 and Hep3B and compound 3 showed significant activities toward A549 and U87 human cancer cells (with IC 50 values at 0.11 and 0.58 μm respectively). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Design and preparation of Zn-based materials possessing both high damping and good mechanical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new idea of design and manufacture of metal-based materials possessing both high damping and good mechanical properties was proposed. The key of the idea is the combination of fining restriction-damping structures, using all mechanisms and taking advantages of different materials. Based upon this idea a foam ZA27 was prepared by the technology of prefabricated salt-mass centrifugal seeping foundry, its tensile strength and compressive strength are 83~119 MPa and 100~189 MPa, respectively. The damping properties of the foam ZA27 increase remarkably after the carpenter pastern or rosin (the damping-increased materials) was immerged into it, which approaches to the level of viscous-elastic polymer materials (Q-1≥20×10-3).

  16. Compound MMH01 possesses toxicity against human leukemia and pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Chou, Cheng-Jen; Chang, Tun-Tschu

    2009-04-01

    MMH01 is a compound isolated from Antrodia cinnamomea. MMH01 markedly inhibited growth of human leukemia U937 and pancreatic cancer BxPC3 cells. It resulted in distinct patterns of cell cycle distribution in U937 (G2/M, sub-G1 and polyploidy) and BxPC3 cells (G0/G1 and sub-G1). The modes of cell death in U937 cells include apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe, whereas apoptosis-associated events or necrosis in BxPC3 cells. Neither mitochondrial membrane permeabilization nor caspase dependence was noted. Proteins involving mitotic catastrophe-associated cell death such as cyclin B1 and checkpoint kinase 2 were activated in U937 cells. Only slight to moderate viability inhibition was noted to human monocytes, the normal counterpart of these myeloid leukemic cells. In conclusion, MMH01 possesses cytotoxicity against human leukemia and pancreatic cancer cells.

  17. Relationship and Discrepancies Among Typical Interatomic Potential Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIM Teik-Cheng

    2004-01-01

    @@ We develop a simultaneous relationship among parameters of the generalized version of the Lennard-Jones,Morse, Rydberg and Buckingham pair potentials, and the two-body portion of the Kaxiras-Pandey potential function by introducing a set of scaling factors. These potential functions are selected according to their frequent adoption in condensed matter and molecular computation. In addition to verifying the parametric relations,theoretical plots of these potential curves show that each of these potential functions is unique in terms of their characteristic shape. However, gaps between these potential functions are narrowed for interatomic interactions possessing lower separation energy and longer interatomic equilibrium distance. Finally, comparison with the ab initio results shows that the extended-Rydberg potential energy curve gives the best agreement among the five empirical potential functions, for the specific case of hydrogen molecule.

  18. An increase in telomere sister chromatid exchange in murine embryonic stem cells possessing critically shortened telomeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yisong [ORNL; Giannone, Richard J [ORNL; Wu, Jun [ORNL; Gomez, Marla V [ORNL; Liu, Yie [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Telomerase deficiency leads to a progressive loss of telomeric DNA that eventually triggers cell apoptosis in human primary cells during prolonged growth in culture. Rare survivors can maintain telomere length through either activation of telomerase or recombination-based telomere lengthening, and thus proliferate indefinitely. We have explored the possibility that telomeres may be maintained through telomere sister chromatid exchange (T-SCE) in murine telomere reverse transcriptase-deficient (mTert -/-) splenocytes and ES cells. Because telomerase deficiency leads to gradual loss of telomeric DNA in mTert -/- splenocytes and ES cells and eventually to chromosomes with telomere signal-free ends (SFEs), we examined these cell types for evidence of sister chromatid exchange at telomeres, and observed an increase in T-SCEs only in a subset of mTert -/- splenocytes or ES cells that possessed multiple SFEs. Furthermore, T-SCEs were more often detected in ES cells than in splenocytes that harbored a similar frequency of SFEs. In mTert heterozygous (mTert +/-) ES cells or splenocytes, which are known to exhibit a decrease in average telomere length but no SFEs, no increase in T-SCE was observed. In addition to T-SCE, other genomic rearrangements (i.e., SCE) were also significantly increased in mTert -/- ES cells possessing critically short telomeres, but not in splenocytes. Our results suggest that animals and cell culture differ in their ability to carry out genomic rearrangements as a means of maintaining telomere integrity when telomeres become critically shortened.

  19. Novel Imidazopyridine Derivatives Possess Anti-Tumor Effect on Human Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniyan, Sakthivel; D’Cunha, Napoleon; Robinson, Tashika; Hoelting, Kyle; Dwyer, Jennifer G.; Bu, Xiu R.; Batra, Surinder K.; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death afflicting United States males. Most treatments to-date for metastatic PCa include androgen-deprivation therapy and second-generation anti-androgens such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide. However, a majority of patients eventually develop resistance to these therapies and relapse into the lethal, castration-resistant form of PCa to which no adequate treatment option remains. Hence, there is an immediate need to develop effective therapeutic agents toward this patient population. Imidazopyridines have recently been shown to possess Akt kinase inhibitory activity; thus in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of novel imidazopyridine derivatives HIMP, M-MeI, OMP, and EtOP on different human castration-resistant PCa cells. Among these compounds, HIMP and M-MeI were found to possess selective dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition: they reduced castration-resistant PCa cell proliferation and spared benign prostate epithelial cells. Using LNCaP C-81 cells as the model system, these compounds also reduced colony formation as well as cell adhesion and migration, and M-MeI was the most potent in all studies. Further investigation revealed that while HIMP primarily inhibits PCa cell growth via suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, M-MeI can inhibit both PI3K/Akt and androgen receptor pathways and arrest cell growth in the G2 phase. Thus, our results indicate the novel compound M-MeI to be a promising candidate for castration-resistant PCa therapy, and future studies investigating the mechanism of imidazopyridine inhibition may aid to the development of effective anti-PCa agents. PMID:26121643

  20. Resveratrol possesses protective effects in a pristane-induced lupus mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo-Long Wang

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a multisystemic autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies. To date, no therapy has been found to satisfactorily treat SLE. SIRT1 deficiency results in the development of an autoimmune syndrome in mice, including a high titer of anti-nuclear antibody in serum, immunoglobulin deposition in the kidney, and immune complex glomerulonephritis. Resveratrol is an activator of SIRT1 and possesses anti-inflammation and immune-regulatory properties.To evaluate the preventative effects of resveratrol on a pristane-induced lupus animal model and assess its putative immune modulation effects.BALB/c mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml of pristane on day 1 and then various doses of resveratrol were given to the mice daily starting on day 2 and continuing for seven months. The autoantibodies in serum and supernatants were measured. Single cells isolated from spleen, isolated CD4+ T cells, and CD19+ B cells were cultured with or without resveratrol in vitro and assessed by flow cytometry.Resveratrol attenuated proteinuria, immunoglobuin depositon in kidney, and glomerulonephritis as well as IgG1 and IgG2a in serum in pristane-induced lupus mice. Resveratrol also suppressed CD69 and CD71 expression on CD4+ T cells as well as CD4+ T cell proliferation, induced CD4+ T cell apoptosis, and decreased CD4 IFNγ+ Th1 cells and the ratio of Th1/Th2 cells in vitro. In vitro antibody production and proliferation of B cells were also inhibited.Resveratrol possesses protective effects in pristane-induced lupus mice and may represent a novel approach for the management of SLE.

  1. Novel Imidazopyridine Derivatives Possess Anti-Tumor Effect on Human Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Ingersoll

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the second leading cause of cancer-related death afflicting United States males. Most treatments to-date for metastatic PCa include androgen-deprivation therapy and second-generation anti-androgens such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide. However, a majority of patients eventually develop resistance to these therapies and relapse into the lethal, castration-resistant form of PCa to which no adequate treatment option remains. Hence, there is an immediate need to develop effective therapeutic agents toward this patient population. Imidazopyridines have recently been shown to possess Akt kinase inhibitory activity; thus in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of novel imidazopyridine derivatives HIMP, M-MeI, OMP, and EtOP on different human castration-resistant PCa cells. Among these compounds, HIMP and M-MeI were found to possess selective dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition: they reduced castration-resistant PCa cell proliferation and spared benign prostate epithelial cells. Using LNCaP C-81 cells as the model system, these compounds also reduced colony formation as well as cell adhesion and migration, and M-MeI was the most potent in all studies. Further investigation revealed that while HIMP primarily inhibits PCa cell growth via suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, M-MeI can inhibit both PI3K/Akt and androgen receptor pathways and arrest cell growth in the G2 phase. Thus, our results indicate the novel compound M-MeI to be a promising candidate for castration-resistant PCa therapy, and future studies investigating the mechanism of imidazopyridine inhibition may aid to the development of effective anti-PCa agents.

  2. Association between socio-economic status and childhood undernutrition in Bangladesh; a comparison of possession score and poverty index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsena, Masuda; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas; Goto, Rie

    2010-10-01

    To determine how much of the variation in nutritional status of Bangladeshi children under 5 years old can be attributed to the socio-economic status of the family. Nutritional status used reference Z-scores of weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ). A 'possession score' was generated based on ownership of a radio, television, bicycle, motorcycle and telephone, and the availability of electricity, with categories of 0 to 4+ possessions. A five-point (quintile) 'poverty index' was created using principal component analysis. The Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004 was the source of data. A sample of 4891 children aged <5 years was obtained. Some 57.8 % of the sample was either stunted, wasted or underweight (7.7 % were stunted, wasted and underweight). Of those stunted (48.4 %), 25.7 % were also underweight. Underweight and wasting prevalences were 40.7 % and 14.3 %, respectively. Mean WAZ, HAZ and WHZ did not differ by sex. Children of mothers with no education or no possessions were, on average, about 1 sd more underweight and stunted than those with higher educated mothers or with 4+ possessions. The possession score provided much greater discrimination of undernutrition than the poverty index. Nearly 50 % of children from households with no possessions were stunted, wasted or underweight (only 27 % in the poorest quintile), compared with only 3-6 % of children from households with 4+ possessions (over 13 % in the richest quintile). Maternal education and possession score were the main predictors of a child's nutritional status. Possession score was a much better indicator of undernutrition than the poverty index.

  3. [A case of disseminated gonococcal infection without typical skin rash].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Kazuhisa; Gomi, Harumi; Morisawa, Yuji

    2011-07-01

    Few case reports have been published on disseminated gonococcal infection in Japan. We report such a non-HIV case without typical skin rash. A 49-year-old Japanese man living in Thailand on business was seen for fever and multiple arthralgia after returning to Japan. Given the travel history, differential diagnoses included endemic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dengue fever, and chikungunya. Diagnosis was based on right-knee arthrocentesis, and synovial fluid culture followed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The isolated strain was sensitive to penicillin. The man was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone and oral levofloxacin. Disseminated gonococcal infection should thus be considered when examining those with classical polyarthralgia symptoms even without a typical skin rash.

  4. Artificial bias typically neglected in comparisons of uncertain atmospheric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Mikko R. A.; Mikkonen, Santtu; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.; Lipponen, Antti; Arola, Antti

    2016-09-01

    Publications in atmospheric sciences typically neglect biases caused by regression dilution (bias of the ordinary least squares line fitting) and regression to the mean (RTM) in comparisons of uncertain data. We use synthetic observations mimicking real atmospheric data to demonstrate how the biases arise from random data uncertainties of measurements, model output, or satellite retrieval products. Further, we provide examples of typical methods of data comparisons that have a tendency to pronounce the biases. The results show, that data uncertainties can significantly bias data comparisons due to regression dilution and RTM, a fact that is known in statistics but disregarded in atmospheric sciences. Thus, we argue that often these biases are widely regarded as measurement or modeling errors, for instance, while they in fact are artificial. It is essential that atmospheric and geoscience communities become aware of and consider these features in research.

  5. Energy Renovation of a Typical Danish Single-family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2007-01-01

    the effect of the new requirements for renovation is that existing buildings should be brought up to the energy performance level of new buildings in connection with larger renovations and other substantial changes in the buildings. To demonstrate how it could be done, a thorough energy efficient renovation...... of a typical Danish single-family house from the 1960/70’s with need of renovation has been initiated and the preliminary results are presented in this paper. It is worth noting that about 500,000 of a total of 1.1 million Danish detached single-family houses were erected in that time period. Specifically......, the purpose of the project was to demonstrate that energy efficient renovation of a typical single-family house would lead to large reductions in energy consumption in a cost efficient manner, and at the same time improve living conditions. The focus has also been on achieving a commonly acceptable design...

  6. Diagnosis and management of typical and atypical lung carcinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusceddu, Sara; Lo Russo, Giuseppe; Macerelli, Marianna; Proto, Claudia; Vitali, Milena; Signorelli, Diego; Ganzinelli, Monica; Scanagatta, Paolo; Duranti, Leonardo; Trama, Annalisa; Buzzoni, Roberto; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Pastorino, Ugo; de Braud, Filippo; Garassino, Marina Chiara

    2016-04-01

    An estimated 20% to 30% of all neuroendocrine tumours originate in the bronchial tree and lungs. According to the 2015 World Health Organization categorization, these tumours are separated into four subtypes characterized by increasing biological aggressiveness: typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small-cell carcinoma. Although typical and atypical lung carcinoids account for less than 1-5% of all pulmonary malignancies, the incidence of these neoplasms has risen significantly in recent decades. Surgery is the treatment of choice for loco-regional disease but for advanced lung carcinoids there is no recognized standard of care and successful management requires a multidisciplinary approach. The aim of this review is to provide a useful guide for the clinical management of lung carcinoids.

  7. Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

  8. Stimulus Overselectivity in Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, William V; Farber, Rachel S; Mueller, Marlana R; Grant, Eileen; Lorin, Lucy; Deutsch, Curtis K

    2016-05-01

    Stimulus overselectivity refers to maladaptive narrow attending that is a common learning problem among children with intellectual disabilities and frequently associated with autism. The present study contrasted overselectivity among groups of children with autism, Down syndrome, and typical development. The groups with autism and Down syndrome were matched for intellectual level, and all three groups were matched for developmental levels on tests of nonverbal reasoning and receptive vocabulary. Delayed matching-to-sample tests presented color/form compounds, printed words, photographs of faces, Mayer-Johnson Picture Communication Symbols, and unfamiliar black forms. No significant differences among groups emerged for test accuracy scores. Overselectivity was not statistically overrepresented among individuals with autism in contrast to those with Down syndrome or typically developing children.

  9. Memory for radio advertisements: the effect of program and typicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Luengo, Beatriz; Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of the type of radio program on the memory for radio advertisements. We also investigated the role in memory of the typicality (high or low) of the elements of the products advertised. Participants listened to three types of programs (interesting, boring, enjoyable) with two advertisements embedded in each. After completing a filler task, the participants performed a true/false recognition test. Hits and false alarm rates were higher for the interesting and enjoyable programs than for the boring one. There were also more hits and false alarms for the high-typicality elements. The response criterion for the advertisements embedded in the boring program was stricter than for the advertisements in other types of programs. We conclude that the type of program in which an advertisement is inserted and the nature of the elements of the advertisement affect both the number of hits and false alarms and the response criterion, but not the accuracy of the memory.

  10. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-01-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each condi...

  11. Verbal communication skills in typical language development: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Camila Mayumi; Bretanha, Andreza Carolina; Bozza, Amanda; Ferraro, Gyovanna Junya Klinke; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate verbal communication skills in children with typical language development and ages between 6 and 8 years. Participants were 10 children of both genders in this age range without language alterations. A 30-minute video of each child's interaction with an adult (father and/or mother) was recorded, fully transcribed, and analyzed by two trained researchers in order to determine reliability. The recordings were analyzed according to a protocol that categorizes verbal communicative abilities, including dialogic, regulatory, narrative-discursive, and non-interactive skills. The frequency of use of each category of verbal communicative ability was analyzed (in percentage) for each subject. All subjects used more dialogical and regulatory skills, followed by narrative-discursive and non-interactive skills. This suggests that children in this age range are committed to continue dialog, which shows that children with typical language development have more dialogic interactions during spontaneous interactions with a familiar adult.

  12. Designing bioinspired superoleophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip S.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-01-01

    Nature provides a range of functional surfaces, for example, water-repellent or superhydrophobic surfaces, most common among them the lotus leaf. While water-repellency is widespread in nature, oil-repellency is typically limited to surfaces submerged in water, such as fish scales. To achieve oleophobicity in air, inspiration must be taken from natural structures and chemistries that are not readily available in nature need to be introduced. Researchers usually turn to fluorinated materials to provide the low surface energy that, when combined with bioinspired surface topography, is the key to unlocking oil-repellency. This review presents the state-of-the-art in the fabrication of superoleophobic surfaces.

  13. CYBERCITY:CONCEPTION,TECHNICAL SUPPORTS AND TYPICAL APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper,the concepts about the CyberCity and the corresponding technique supports and typical applications are introduced.As the pilot projects,the applications of CCGIS software in CyberShenzhen and CyberShanghai are also presented.At last,some of key technologies such as the reconstruction of three dimensional city model,vast amount of data integration and its real time application of 3D animation are discussed.

  14. [Design of Electrocardiogram Signal Generator Based on Typical Electrocardiogram Database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuting; Wang, Xiaofei; Li, Dongshang; Liu, Guili

    2016-02-01

    Using LabVIEW programming and high-speed multifunction data acquisition card PCI-6251, we designed an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal generator based on Chinese typical ECG database. When the ECG signals are given off by the generator, the generator can also display the ECG information annotations at the same time, including waveform data and diagnostic results. It could be a useful assisting tool of ECG automatic diagnose instruments.

  15. Performance of a commercial transport under typical MLS noise environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of a 747-200 automatic flight control system (AFCS) subjected to typical Microwave Landing System (MLS) noise is discussed. The performance is then compared with the results from a previous study which had a B747 AFCS subjected to the MLS standards and recommended practices (SARPS) maximum allowable noise. A glide slope control run with Instrument Landing System (ILS) noise is also conducted. Finally, a linear covariance analysis is presented.

  16. Typical Event Horizons in AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Avery, Steven G

    2015-01-01

    We consider the construction of local bulk operators in a black hole background dual to a pure state in conformal field theory. The properties of these operators in a microcanonical ensemble are studied. It has been argued in the literature that typical states in such an ensemble contain firewalls, or otherwise singular horizons. We argue this conclusion can be avoided with a proper definition of the interior operators.

  17. Dealing with typical values via Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmidt, Eulalia; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2010-07-01

    This paper is an improved and extended version of our previous work2 on typicality in terms of Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy sets (to be called A-IFSs, for short)3. We follow the line of reasoning known from psychological and cognitive sciences, in particular from linguistic experiments, and verify how those results work in the case of classification - a typical problem in computer science, decision sciences, etc. Our considerations concentrate on a typical example discussed in cognitive sciences - we investigate to which extent a linguistic representation in a psychological space (we start from nominal data - names are assigned to objects as labels) succeeds in predicting categories via A-IFSs. First, we consider a model of categories with a geometrical centroid model in which the similarity is defined in terms of a distance to centroids. Next, we verify if the extreme ideals, which are important in cognitive processes when categories are learnt in the presence of the alternative (contrast) category, give comparative results. Finally, we discuss if the 'reachable extreme ideals' and 'dominating frequency centres' give comparative results. We show that A-IFSs make it possible to reflect a positive and negative information via the concept of membership and non-membership. Although the paper presents ongoing research, the results obtained are promising and point out the usefulness and strength of A-IFSs as a tool to account for more aspects of vague data and information. Based on 'On Some Typical Values for A-IFS', by E. Szmidt and J. Kacprzyk which appeared in the Proceedings of the 4th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Systems IS'08, pp. 13-2-13-7. There is currently a discussion on the appropriateness of the name IFS introduced by Dubois et al. (2005), and also Atanassov's (2005) response. This is, however, beyond the scope of this paper which will not be dealing with this issue.

  18. Rural Tourism and Local Development: Typical Productions of Lazio

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2014-01-01

    The local development is based on the integration of the tourism sector with the whole economy. The rural tourism seems to be a good occasion to analyse the local development: consumption of "tourist products" located in specific local contexts. Starting from the food and wine supply chain and the localization of typical productions, the aim of the present work will be analyse the relationship with local development, rural tourism sustainability and accommodation system, referring to Lazio. W...

  19. Theory of Mind experience sampling in typical adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lauren; Coffey, Anna; Povinelli, Daniel J; Pruett, John R

    2013-09-01

    We explored the frequency with which typical adults make Theory of Mind (ToM) attributions, and under what circumstances these attributions occur. We used an experience sampling method to query 30 typical adults about their everyday thoughts. Participants carried a Personal Data Assistant (PDA) that prompted them to categorize their thoughts as Action, Mental State, or Miscellaneous at approximately 30 pseudo-random times during a continuous 10-h period. Additionally, participants noted the direction of their thought (self versus other) and degree of socializing (with people versus alone) at the time of inquiry. We were interested in the relative frequency of ToM (mental state attributions) and how prominent they were in immediate social exchanges. Analyses of multiple choice answers suggest that typical adults: (1) spend more time thinking about actions than mental states and miscellaneous things, (2) exhibit a higher degree of own- versus other-directed thought when alone, and (3) make mental state attributions more frequently when not interacting (offline) than while interacting with others (online). A significant 3-way interaction between thought type, direction of thought, and socializing emerged because action but not mental state thoughts about others occurred more frequently when participants were interacting with people versus when alone; whereas there was an increase in the frequency of both action and mental state attributions about the self when participants were alone as opposed to socializing. A secondary analysis of coded free text responses supports findings 1-3. The results of this study help to create a more naturalistic picture of ToM use in everyday life and the method shows promise for future study of typical and atypical thought processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Interferon alpha antibodies show no cross reactions with typical autoantibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görg, S; Klouche, M; Wilhelm, D; Kirchner, H

    1993-04-01

    Patients treated with natural human interferon alpha develop anti-interferon antibodies (IFN-AB) only in very rare cases. By contrast, patients with autoimmune disorders are able to generate high-titered IFN-AB against endogenous interferon alpha. One explanation for the development of auto-IFN-AB could be cross-reactivity with typical autoimmune antigens. We investigated the cross-reactivity of 3 high-titered IgG IFN-AB of female autoimmune patients (aged 32, 36, 74 years; two severe cases of SLE, one case of autoimmune thyroiditis) as well as 25 low-titered natural IgM IFN-AB of healthy blood donors (aged 19-48 years). Typical autoimmune antigens including dsDNA, ENA, as well as natural interferon beta and recombinant interferon gamma are not able to inhibit binding of IFN-AB to interferon alpha in an ELISA test system. Preincubation of sera containing either dsDNA antibodies (dsDNA-AB) (24 patients), thyroid peroxidase (TPO-AB) (9 patients) or thyroglobulin (TG-AB) (12 patients) with interferon alpha resulted in no change in the respective autoantibody titer. These data suggest that there is no cross-reactivity between IFN-alpha-AB and dsDNA-AB, TPO-AB or TG-AB. Thus, an explanation for the occurrence of IFN-AB in autoimmune disorders cannot be found in a cross-reaction between interferon alpha with typical autoimmune antigens.

  1. Rural Tourism and Local Development: Typical Productions of Lazio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The local development is based on the integration of the tourism sector with the whole economy. The rural tourism seems to be a good occasion to analyse the local development: consumption of "tourist products" located in specific local contexts. Starting from the food and wine supply chain and the localization of typical productions, the aim of the present work will be analyse the relationship with local development, rural tourism sustainability and accommodation system, referring to Lazio. Which are the findings to create tourism local system based on the relationship with touristic and food and wine supply chain? Italian tourism is based on accommodation system, so the whole consideration of the Italian cultural tourism: tourism made in Italy. The touristic added value to specific local context takes advantage from the synergy with food and wine supply chain: made in Italy of typical productions. Agritourism could be better accommodation typology to rural tourism and to exclusivity of consumption typical productions. The reciprocity among food and wine supply chain and tourism provides new insights on the key topics related to tourism development and to the organization of geographical space as well and considering its important contribution nowadays to the economic competitiveness.

  2. Typically Female Features in Hungarian Shopping Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Michalkó

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Although shopping has been long acknowledged as a major tourist activity, the extent and characteristics of shopping tourism have only recently become the subject of academic research and discussion. As a contribution to this field of knowledge, the paper presents the characteristics of shopping tourism in Hungary, and discusses the typically female features of outbound Hungarian shopping tourism. The research is based on a survey of 2473 Hungarian tourists carried out in 2005. As the findings of the study indicate, while female respondents were altogether more likely to be involved in tourist shopping than male travellers, no significant difference was experienced between the genders concerning the share of shopping expenses compared to their total travel budget. In their shopping behaviour, women were typically affected by price levels, and they proved to be both more selfish and more altruistic than men by purchasing more products for themselves and for their family members. The most significant differences between men and women were found in their product preferences as female tourists were more likely to purchase typically feminine goods such as clothes, shoes, bags and accessories, in the timing of shopping activities while abroad, and in the information sources used by tourists, since interpersonal influences such as friends’, guides’ and fellow travellers’ recommendations played a higher role in female travellers’ decisions.

  3. Review: Lisa Mackenrodt, Swahili Spirit Possession and Islamic Healing in Contemporary Tanzania: The Jinn Fly on Friday (2011 Buchbesprechung: Lisa Mackenrodt, Swahili Spirit Possession and Islamic Healing in Contemporary Tanzania: The Jinn Fly on Friday (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigal Beez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Lisa Mackenrodt, Swahili Spirit Possession and Islamic Healing in Contemporary Tanzania: The Jinn Fly on Friday, Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovač, 2011, ISBN 978-3-8300-5806-9, 216 pagesBesprechung der Monographie:Lisa Mackenrodt, Swahili Spirit Possession and Islamic Healing in Contemporary Tanzania: The Jinn Fly on Friday, Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovač, 2011, ISBN 978-3-8300-5806-9, 216 Seiten

  4. Possession et pouvoir dans le culte de María Lionza au Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Fernández Quintana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article constitue une approche préliminaire des changements et réaménagements subis par le culte de María Lionza de 1930 à nos jours. La description de la conformation progressive du panthéon des esprits et, surtout, de l’apparition de nouvelles modalités de transe, offre un excellent point de départ pour l’analyse du lien étroit entre ce culte et l’histoire contemporaine du Venezuela. Les difficultés rencontrées par un projet de standardisation rituelle en cours feront l’objet d’une discussion détaillée. Ce projet, basé sur une conception de la pratique « traditionnelle » du spiritisme — qui propose, entre autres, un modèle spécifique de possession et rejette l’intégration récente de certains esprits — contredit clairement la plasticité et la pluralité qui ont caractérisé le culte depuis presque un siècle.This article constitutes a first reflection on the religion of Maria Lionza’s changes and transformations since the 1930’s. The formation of a pantheon of spirits as well as the appearance of new techniques of trance and possession are chosen as a starting point to analyse the link between this religion and the contemporary history of Venezuela. The attempt of standardizing the religion will also be discussed. While trying to impose a « traditional » practice of spiritism based on a specific technique of possession and rejecting the recent integration of new spirits in the pantheon, this effort of standardization goes against the nature of a religion that has always been funded on diversity and inclusiveness.El presente artículo constituye una aproximación preliminar a los cambios y reconfiguraciones sufridas por el culto a María Lionza desde 1930 hasta nuestros días. En este sentido, la descripción de la progresiva conformación del panteón de espíritus y, sobre todo, de la aparición de nuevas modalidades de trance, ofrece un excelente punto de partida para el análisis de la

  5. Possession of bed nets in Haut-Katanga (DRC): prevalence-elastic behaviour or performance of health care system delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seban, Juliette; Thuilliez, Josselin; Herbreteau, Vincent

    2013-11-01

    This article provides an empirical multi-disciplinary strategy that enables to identify prevalence-elastic behaviours influencing the possession of mosquito nets and to assess the relative performance of health centers in promoting the possession of nets in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We use a household survey conducted in 2009 in Haut Katanga, DRC. We combine these data with estimates on malaria prevalence from the Malaria Atlas project. Results show that households behave rationally with respect to the disease, meaning that the cause for a low possession of nets should be found elsewhere. They also show that health centers are not the most effective in promoting possession of bed nets, in areas where they are most needed for malaria control.

  6. Investigation of four classical groove patterns with three typical tool types for use in the rigid tool smoothing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsing-Yu; Meng, Kai

    2016-07-01

    When a surface experiencing robotic processing to improve its optical performance (such as removing mid-spatial frequencies, localized grinding errors, and regional surface scratches), spindle speed, tool travel speed, pressure, slurry density as well as groove patterns are main factors to influence surface finishes. Based on the desired material removal rate, the Preston equation can provide optimized pressures and velocities between the tool and processed surface. Various groove patterns, however, can hardly predict by the equation because different patterns can cause unique tool deformation and pressure distribution, leading to determine unique smoothing result. In this paper, four typical groove patterns are studied: non-groove, grid grove, annular groove and radial groove with three typical tool types are evaluated by Finite Element Method (FEM) and statistics. Characteristics of these tools and groove patterns are presented in the end of this paper.

  7. Structural Influence on Superatomic Orbitals of Typical Gold Nanostructure Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wanrun; Gao, Yang; Xu, Dexuan; Liu, Fang; Wang, Zhigang

    2016-10-01

    We compared superatomic orbitals mainly contributed by 6s atomic orbitals among spherical core-shell cluster Au13, hexagonal plane Au7 and a (5,5) nanotube segment Au35 through first-principles density functional theory calculations. The compatibility between geometry and orbital morphology influences both the presence and the energy level order of particular superatomic orbitals. Taking Au13 as a reference, which possesses a regular configuration of 1S 21P 61D 5, the hexagonal Au7 in 1S 21P 41D 1 lacks the 1P occupied superatomic orbital which is distributed out of the structural plane. Different from the nearly degenerated five occupied 1D orbitals in Au13, Au35 in 1S 21P 61D 101F 101G 61H 1 shows energy separations over 4.0 eV between split 1D regions and 1F regions according to the preference of tubular geometry to different orbital morphologies. The structural reliance of the electronic structure revealed by these typical building blocks might be informative for bottom-up design and fabrication of nanoscale devices based on a gold nanostructure and contributes to the variety and operability of nanoscale materials.

  8. Medicine possession ratio as proxy for adherence to antiepileptic drugs: prevalence, associations, and cost implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs K

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Karen Jacobs,1 Marlene Julyan,2 Martie S Lubbe,1 Johanita R Burger,1 Marike Cockeran1 1Medicine Usage in South Africa, Faculty of Health Sciences, 2Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus, Potchefstroom, South Africa Objective: To determine the adherence status to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs among epilepsy patients; to observe the association between adherence status and age, sex, active ingredient prescribed, treatment period, and number of comorbidities; and to determine the effect of nonadherence on direct medicine treatment cost of AEDs. Methods: A retrospective study analyzing medicine claims data obtained from a South African pharmaceutical benefit management company was performed. Patients of all ages (N=19,168, who received more than one prescription for an AED, were observed from 2008 to 2013. The modified medicine possession ratio (MPRm was used as proxy to determine the adherence status to AED treatment. The MPRm was considered acceptable (adherent if the calculated value was ≥80%, but ≤110%, whereas an MPRm of <80% (unacceptably low or >110% (unacceptably high was considered nonadherent. Direct medicine treatment cost was calculated by summing the medical scheme contribution and patient co-payment associated with each AED prescription. Results: Only 55% of AEDs prescribed to 19,168 patients during the study period had an acceptable MPRm. MPRm categories depended on the treatment period (P>0.0001; Cramer’s V=0.208 but were independent of sex (P<0.182; Cramer’s V=0.009. Age group (P<0.0001; Cramer’s V=0.067, active ingredient (P<0.0001; Cramer’s V=0.071, and number of comorbidities (P<0.0001; Cramer’s V=0.050 were statistically but not practically significantly associated with MPRm categories. AEDs with an unacceptably high MPRm contributed to 3.74% (US$736,376.23 of the total direct cost of all AEDs included in the study, whereas those with an unacceptably low MPRm amounted to US

  9. Health App Possession Among Smartphone or Tablet Owners in Hong Kong: Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Wang, Man Ping; Chu, Joanna Tw; Wan, Alice; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Lam, Tai Hing

    2017-06-05

    Health apps are increasingly used with important implications for health. Hong Kong is one of the most technologically advanced and connected cities-smartphone ownership and Internet access rates are among the highest in the world. We investigated the prevalence of health app possession and related sociodemographic factors and health behaviors among smartphone or tablet owners in Hong Kong. A territory-wide population-based dual (landline and mobile) telephone survey was conducted in 2016. Respondents were asked whether they had health-related apps on their smartphones or tablets and what functions were available on the apps (eg, tracking physical activity and logging health records). Logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% CI of health app possession for different demographic characteristics, socioeconomic position (education, employment, and income), health behaviors (smoking, alcohol, and physical activity) and health (body mass index and chronic diseases). Of the 4129 smartphone or tablet owners (81.28%, 4129/5080 respondents), 995 (24.10%) had a health app. Tracking physical activity (67.0% of 995) and logging health records (43.0% of 995) were the most common functions of the health apps. Overall, younger age, higher education, and household income were associated with having health apps (all Papps (aOR 1.45 [95% CI 1.20-1.75] for 1-3 days/week, and aOR 1.32 [95% CI 1.07-1.62] for ≥4 days/week). Having a history of chronic diseases was associated with having health apps (aOR 1.36 [95% CI 1.11-1.68]). We have shown a lower prevalence of use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in respondents with lower education and income in the most developed Chinese city. This could be seen as a confirmation of the "Inverse information law," which suggests that those most in need have less use of services and hence receive less benefits from advancements in medicine and health related ICTs.

  10. Global mental health and trauma exposure: the current evidence for the relationship between traumatic experiences and spirit possession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hecker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We present a literature review on trauma exposure and spirit possession in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Despite the World Health Organization's objective of culturally appropriate mental health care in the Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020, and the recommendations of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee to consider local idioms of distress and to collaborate with local resources, this topic still receives very little attention. Pathological spirit possession is commonly defined as involuntary, uncontrollable, and occurring outside of ritual settings. It is often associated with stigmatization, suffering, and dysfunctional behavior. While spirit possession has been discussed as an idiom of distress in anthropological literature, recent quantitative studies have presented support for a strong relationship between traumatic experiences and pathological possession states. Objective: The aim of this review was to investigate this relationship systematically in LMICs, in view of the debate on how to address the mental health gap in LMICs. Methods: Twenty-one articles, published in peer-reviewed English-language journals between 1994 and 2013, were identified and analyzed with regard to prevalence of possessive trance disorders, patients’ sociodemographic characteristics, and its relation to traumatic experiences. Results: The review and analysis of 917 patients with symptoms of possessive trance disorders from 14 LMICs indicated that it is a phenomenon occurring worldwide and with global relevance. This literature review suggests a strong relationship between trauma exposure and spirit possession with high prevalence rates found especially in postwar areas in African countries. Conclusions: More attention for possessive trance disorders in mental health and psychosocial intervention programs in humanitarian emergency settings as well as in societies in transition in LMICs is needed and justified by the results of this

  11. Global mental health and trauma exposure: the current evidence for the relationship between traumatic experiences and spirit possession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Tobias; Braitmayer, Lars; van Duijl, Marjolein

    2015-01-01

    Background We present a literature review on trauma exposure and spirit possession in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite the World Health Organization's objective of culturally appropriate mental health care in the Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020, and the recommendations of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee to consider local idioms of distress and to collaborate with local resources, this topic still receives very little attention. Pathological spirit possession is commonly defined as involuntary, uncontrollable, and occurring outside of ritual settings. It is often associated with stigmatization, suffering, and dysfunctional behavior. While spirit possession has been discussed as an idiom of distress in anthropological literature, recent quantitative studies have presented support for a strong relationship between traumatic experiences and pathological possession states. Objective The aim of this review was to investigate this relationship systematically in LMICs, in view of the debate on how to address the mental health gap in LMICs. Methods Twenty-one articles, published in peer-reviewed English-language journals between 1994 and 2013, were identified and analyzed with regard to prevalence of possessive trance disorders, patients’ sociodemographic characteristics, and its relation to traumatic experiences. Results The review and analysis of 917 patients with symptoms of possessive trance disorders from 14 LMICs indicated that it is a phenomenon occurring worldwide and with global relevance. This literature review suggests a strong relationship between trauma exposure and spirit possession with high prevalence rates found especially in postwar areas in African countries. Conclusions More attention for possessive trance disorders in mental health and psychosocial intervention programs in humanitarian emergency settings as well as in societies in transition in LMICs is needed and justified by the results of this systematic literature review

  12. To do, to have, or to share? Valuing experiences over material possessions depends on the involvement of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprariello, Peter A; Reis, Harry T

    2013-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that spending discretionary money with the intention of acquiring life experiences-events that one lives through-makes people happier than spending money with the intention of acquiring material possessions-tangible objects that one obtains and possesses. We propose and show that experiences are more likely to be shared with others, whereas material possessions are more prone to solitary use and that this distinction may account for their differential effects on happiness. In 4 studies, we present evidence demonstrating that the inclusion of others is a key dimension of how people derive happiness from discretionary spending. These studies showed that when the social-solitary and experiential-material dimensions were considered simultaneously, social discretionary spending was favored over solitary discretionary spending, whereas experiences showed no happiness-producing advantage relative to possessions. Furthermore, whereas spending money on socially shared experiences was valued more than spending money on either experiences enacted alone or material possessions, solitary experiences were no more valued than material possessions. Together, these results extend and clarify the basic findings of prior research and add to growing evidence that the social context of experiences is critical for their effects on happiness.

  13. Volatile S-nitrosothiols and the typical smell of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Wolfgang

    2015-03-09

    An unconventional approach to investigations into the identification of typical volatile emissions during illnesses gives rise to the proposal of a new class of cancer markers. Until now, cancer markers seem not to have been conclusively identified, though the obvious behavior of dogs points to their existence. The focus has been directed towards molecules containing sulfurous functionalities. Among such compounds, S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) are known to be involved in important physiological processes in living organisms and they are described as being typically elevated in cancer. Volatile SNOs (vSNOs) are proposed to be the source of the significant smell of cancer. Synthetic vSNOs are known to have lifetimes of between some minutes and several hours, which may be the main reason as to why they have been ignored until now, and also for the inability of analytics to detect them in vivo. Based on typical structures occurring in the volatile sulfur organics being emitted from human breath, four vSNOs have been synthesized and characterized by tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Simulating the relatively fatty consistency of cancer tissue by diluting the samples in n-decane, surprisingly reduces their tendency to decompose to lifetimes of weeks even at room temperature. A sniffer dog was trained with the synthetic vSNOs, and the results of the tests indicate that synthetic and cancer smells are very similar or even the same. The findings can be a clue for further target-oriented systematic optimization of existing sensitive measurement methods to prove vSNOs as cancer emissions and finally establish future methods for cancer diagnosis based on screening for this new class of volatile illness markers.

  14. A typical example of a photomagnetic study carried out on a spin-crossover material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jean-François Létard; Chiara Carbonera; Emilie Courcot; José Sanchez Costa

    2006-11-01

    The light-induced excited spin state trapping (LIESST) is a well known phenomenon in an iron(II) spin-crossover (SCO) material which offers some interesting prospects in data storage. In this work, we present a typical investigation of the photomagnetic properties of a SCO material. At the surface of the sample, the light-induced phenomenon is investigated by using a home-built reflectivity set up and in bulk material by using a quantum design SQUID magnetometer coupled to a light source.

  15. Typical and unusual cases of female genital tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchavenya, E; Dubrovina, S

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a disease with myriad presentations and manifestations; it can affect any organ or tissue, excluding only hair and nails. Doctors who are not familiar with extrapulmonary tuberculosis often overlook this disease. Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) is the second most common form of TB in countries with severe epidemic situation and the third most common form in regions with low incidence of TB. The term "Urogenital tuberculosis" includes kidney tuberculosis; male and female tuberculosis and urinary tract tuberculosis as complication of kidney tuberculosis. We describe rarest case of tuberculosis of a placenta in young woman, suffered from genital tuberculosis, which was overlooked before delivery, as well as typical tubo-ovarian tuberculomas.

  16. SSI response of a typical shear wall structure. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.J.; Schewe, E.C.; Maslenikov, O.R.

    1984-04-01

    The Simplified Methods project of the US NRC-funded Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has as its goal the development of a methodology to perform routine seismic probabilistic risk assessments of commercial nuclear power plants. The study reported here develops calibration factors to relate best estimate response to design values accounting for approximations and simplifications in SSI analysis procedures. Nineteen cases were analyzed and in-structure response compared. The structure of interest was a typical shear wall structure. 6 references, 44 figures, 22 tables.

  17. Conditioned place preference successfully established in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Leah Ticker; Takata, Sandy; Thompson, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Affective processing, known to influence attention, motivation, and emotional regulation is poorly understood in young children, especially for those with neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by language impairments. Here we faithfully adapt a well-established animal paradigm used for affective processing, conditioned place preference (CPP) for use in typically developing children between the ages of 30-55 months. Children displayed a CPP, with an average 2.4 fold increase in time spent in the preferred room. Importantly, associative learning as assessed with CPP was not correlated with scores on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), indicating that CPP can be used with children with a wide range of cognitive skills.

  18. Lipomatosis of the sciatic nerve: typical and atypical MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Bernadette Zhi Ying [Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); University College London, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London (United Kingdom); Amrami, Kimberly K.; Wenger, Doris E. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Dyck, P. James B. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurology, Rochester, MN (United States); Scheithauer, Bernd W. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Pathology, Rochester, MN (United States); Spinner, Robert J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurologic Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedics, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Lipomatosis of nerve, also known as fibrolipomatous hamartoma, is a rare condition of nerve, usually affecting the median nerve. The MRI appearance is characteristic. We describe two cases of lipomatosis of nerve involving the sciatic nerve, an extremely unusual location for this lesion, in patients with sciatic neuropathy. These cases share the typical features previously described in the literature for other nerves, but also contain atypical features not previously highlighted, relating to the variability in distribution and extent of the fatty deposition. Recognition of the MRI appearance of this entity is important in order to avoid unnecessary attempts at surgical resection of this lesion. (orig.)

  19. Formation of disinfection byproducts in typical Chinese drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbo Liu; Yanmei Zhao; Christopher WK Chow; Dongsheng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Eight typical drinking water supplies in China were selected in this study.Both source and tap water were used to investigate the occurrence of chlorinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), and seasonal variation in the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) of seven water sources was compared.The results showed that the pollution level for source water in China, as shown by DBP formation potential, was low.The most encountered DBPs were chloroform, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and chiorodibromoacetic acid.The concentration of every THMs and haloacetic acid (HAA) compound was under the limit of standards for drinking water quality.The highest total THMs concentrations were detected in spring.

  20. Monte Carlo based radial shield design of typical PWR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gul, Anas; Khan, Rustam; Qureshi, M. Ayub; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Raza, S.A. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Stummer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Atominst.

    2016-11-15

    Neutron and gamma flux and dose equivalent rate distribution are analysed in radial and shields of a typical PWR type reactor based on the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNP5. The ENDF/B-VI continuous energy cross-section library has been employed for the criticality and shielding analysis. The computed results are in good agreement with the reference results (maximum difference is less than 56 %). It implies that MCNP5 a good tool for accurate prediction of neutron and gamma flux and dose rates in radial shield around the core of PWR type reactors.

  1. Typical exposure of children to EMF: exposimetry and dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valič, Blaž; Kos, Bor; Gajšek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A survey study with portable exposimeters, worn by 21 children under the age of 17, and detailed measurements in an apartment above a transformer substation were carried out to determine the typical individual exposure of children to extremely low- and radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. In total, portable exposimeters were worn for >2400 h. Based on the typical individual exposure the in situ electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) values were calculated for an 11-y-old female human model. The average exposure was determined to be low compared with ICNIRP reference levels: 0.29 μT for an extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic field and 0.09 V m(-1) for GSM base stations, 0.11 V m(-1) for DECT and 0.10 V m(-1) for WiFi; other contributions could be neglected. However, some of the volunteers were more exposed: the highest realistic exposure, to which children could be exposed for a prolonged period of time, was 1.35 μT for ELF magnetic field and 0.38 V m(-1) for DECT, 0.13 V m(-1) for WiFi and 0.26 V m(-1) for GSM base stations. Numerical calculations of the in situ electric field and SAR values for the typical and the worst-case situation show that, compared with ICNIRP basic restrictions, the average exposure is low. In the typical exposure scenario, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.03 % and the RF exposure <0.001 % of the corresponding basic restriction. In the worst-case situation, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.11 % and the RF exposure <0.007 % of the corresponding basic restrictions. Analysis of the exposures and the individual's perception of being exposed/unexposed to an ELF magnetic field showed that it is impossible to estimate the individual exposure to an ELF magnetic field based only on the information provided by the individuals, as they do not have enough knowledge and information to properly identify the sources in their vicinity.

  2. Formation of disinfection byproducts in typical Chinese drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbo; Zhao, Yanmei; Chow, Christopher W K; Wang, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Eight typical drinking water supplies in China were selected in this study. Both source and tap water were used to investigate the occurrence of chlorinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), and seasonal variation in the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) of seven water sources was compared. The results showed that the pollution level for source water in China, as shown by DBP formation potential, was low. The most encountered DBPs were chloroform, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and chlorodibromoacetic acid. The concentration of every THMs and haloacetic acid (HAA) compound was under the limit of standards for drinking water quality. The highest total THMs concentrations were detected in spring.

  3. Plasmodium alveolins possess distinct but structurally and functionally related multi-repeat domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khattaf, Fatimah S; Tremp, Annie Z; Dessens, Johannes T

    2015-02-01

    The invasive and motile life stages of malaria parasites (merozoite, ookinete and sporozoite) possess a distinctive cortical structure termed the pellicle. The pellicle is characterised by a double-layered 'inner membrane complex' (IMC) located underneath the plasma membrane, which is supported by a cytoskeletal structure termed the subpellicular network (SPN). The SPN consists of intermediate filaments, whose major constituents include a family of proteins called alveolins. Here, we re-appraise the alveolins in the genus Plasmodium with respect to their repertoire, structure and interrelatedness. Amongst 13 family members identified, we distinguish two domain types that, albeit distinct at the primary structure level, are structurally related and contain tandem repeats with a consensus 12-amino acid periodicity. Analysis in Plasmodium berghei of the most divergent alveolin, PbIMC1d, reveals a zoite-specific expression in ookinetes and a subcellular localisation in the pellicle, consistent with its predicted role as a SPN component. Knockout of PbIMC1d gives rise to a wild-type phenotype with respect to ookinete morphogenesis, tensile strength, gliding motility and infectivity, presenting the first example of apparent functional redundancy amongst alveolin family members.

  4. Stereotypes possess heterogeneous directionality: a theoretical and empirical exploration of stereotype structure and content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T L Cox

    Full Text Available We advance a theory-driven approach to stereotype structure, informed by connectionist theories of cognition. Whereas traditional models define or tacitly assume that stereotypes possess inherently Group → Attribute activation directionality (e.g., Black activates criminal, our model predicts heterogeneous stereotype directionality. Alongside the classically studied Group → Attribute stereotypes, some stereotypes should be bidirectional (i.e., Group ⇄ Attribute and others should have Attribute → Group unidirectionality (e.g., fashionable activates gay. We tested this prediction in several large-scale studies with human participants (NCombined = 4,817, assessing stereotypic inferences among various groups and attributes. Supporting predictions, we found heterogeneous directionality both among the stereotype links related to a given social group and also between the links of different social groups. These efforts yield rich datasets that map the networks of stereotype links related to several social groups. We make these datasets publicly available, enabling other researchers to explore a number of questions related to stereotypes and stereotyping. Stereotype directionality is an understudied feature of stereotypes and stereotyping with widespread implications for the development, measurement, maintenance, expression, and change of stereotypes, stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination.

  5. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 possesses an active quorum sensing regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Elisa V; Nieto Peñalver, Carlos G; Leguina, Ana C; Irazusta, Verónica P; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2014-09-01

    The endophytic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus colonizes a broad range of host plants. Its plant growth-promoting capability is related to the capacity to perform biological nitrogen fixation, the biosynthesis of siderophores, antimicrobial substances and the solubilization of mineral nutrients. Colonization of and survival in these endophytic niche requires a complex regulatory network. Among these, quorum sensing systems (QS) are signaling mechanisms involved in the control of several genes related to microbial interactions, host colonization and stress survival. G. diazotrophicus PAL5 possesses a QS composed of a luxR and a luxI homolog, and produces eight molecules from the AHL family as QS signals. In this report data are provided showing that glucose concentration modifies the relative levels of these signal molecules. The activity of G. diazotrophicus PAL5 QS is also altered in presence of other carbon sources and under saline stress conditions. Inactivation of the QS system of G. diazotrophicus PAL5 by means of a quorum quenching strategy allowed the identification of extracellular and intracellular proteins under the control of this regulatory mechanism.

  6. Costus afer Possesses Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes Inhibitory Activity and Antioxidant Capacity In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle D. Tchamgoue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism which correlates with postprandial hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Control of blood glucose level is imperative in the management of diabetes. The present study tested the hypothesis that Costus afer, an antihyperglycemic medicinal plant, possesses inhibitory activity against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts were prepared from the leaf, stem, and rhizome of C. afer and subjected to phytochemical screening, assayed for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and antioxidant capacity (determined by total phenolic and total flavonoids contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, and DPPH radical scavenging activity. All extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Ethyl acetate rhizome and methanol leaf extracts exhibited the best inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase (IC50: 0.10 and 5.99 mg/mL, respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed two modes of enzyme inhibition (competitive and mixed. All extracts showed antioxidant capacity, with hexane extracts exhibiting the best activity. DPPH assay revealed that methanol leaf, rhizome, and ethyl acetate stem extracts (IC50 < 5 mg/mL were the best antioxidants. The presence of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, and tannins may account for the antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitory activity of C. afer.

  7. The meaning of illness in nursing practice: a philosophical model of communication and concept possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, Halvor

    2016-04-01

    It is fundamental assumption in nursing theory that it is important for nurses to understand how patients experience states of ill health. This assumption is often related to aims of empathic understanding, but normative principles of social interpretation can have an important action-guiding role whenever nurses seek to understand patients' subjective horizons on the basis of active or passive expressions of meaning. The aim of this article is to present a philosophical theory of concept possession and to argue that it can shed light on how nurses should seek to understand patients' subjective perspectives on the meaning of illness. The two basic ideas in the theory are that patients' beliefs and thoughts about their experiences involve concepts and that concepts can be communicated on the basis of shared implicit conceptions of what they mean. These conditions of understanding have a striking application: nurse-patient communication is limited by many contextual factors, but it is often possible for nurses to detect shared implicit conceptions of the meaning of concepts of disease and illness. Furthermore, by acting as sympathetic linguistic experts and creating an atmosphere for dialogue, nurses can make patients feel comfortable about deferring to medical explanations of meaning that can constitute a communicative platform. The last part of the article uses a number of cases studies to show how these implications can be implemented as conceptual tools for securing meaningful communication about illness experiences in patient dialogue.

  8. Characterization of a novel Bacillus thuringiensis phenotype possessing multiple appendages attached to a parasporal body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Suárez, Antonio; Cruz-Camarillo, Ramón; Rampersad, Joanne; Ammons, David R; López-Villegas, Edgar O; Ibarra, Jorge E; Rojas-Avelizapa, Luz I

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium best known for its production of crystal-like bodies comprised of one or more Cry-proteins, which can be toxic to insects, nematodes or cancer cells. Although strains of B. thuringiensis have occasionally been observed with filamentous appendages attached to their spores, appendages in association with their parasporal bodies are extremely rare. Herein we report the characterization of Bt1-88, a bacterial strain isolated from the Caribbean that produces a spore-crystal complex containing six long appendages, each comprised of numerous thinner filaments approximately 10 nm in diameter and 2.5 μm in length. Each of the multi-filament appendages was attached to a single, small parasporal body located at one end of the bacterial spore. Biochemical tests, 16S rDNA gene sequencing, and the identification of two Cry proteins by partial protein sequencing (putatively Cry1A and Cry2A), unambiguously identified Bt1-88 as a strain of B. thuringiensis. Bt1-88 represents the second reported strain of B. thuringiensis possessing a parasporal body/appendage phenotype characterized by one or more long appendages, comprised of numerous filaments in association with a parasporal body. This finding suggests that Bt1-88 is a member of a new phenotypic class of B. thuringiensis, in which the parasporal body may perform a novel structural role through its association with multi-filament appendages.

  9. Stereotypes Possess Heterogeneous Directionality: A Theoretical and Empirical Exploration of Stereotype Structure and Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, William T. L.; Devine, Patricia G.

    2015-01-01

    We advance a theory-driven approach to stereotype structure, informed by connectionist theories of cognition. Whereas traditional models define or tacitly assume that stereotypes possess inherently Group → Attribute activation directionality (e.g., Black activates criminal), our model predicts heterogeneous stereotype directionality. Alongside the classically studied Group → Attribute stereotypes, some stereotypes should be bidirectional (i.e., Group ⇄ Attribute) and others should have Attribute → Group unidirectionality (e.g., fashionable activates gay). We tested this prediction in several large-scale studies with human participants (NCombined = 4,817), assessing stereotypic inferences among various groups and attributes. Supporting predictions, we found heterogeneous directionality both among the stereotype links related to a given social group and also between the links of different social groups. These efforts yield rich datasets that map the networks of stereotype links related to several social groups. We make these datasets publicly available, enabling other researchers to explore a number of questions related to stereotypes and stereotyping. Stereotype directionality is an understudied feature of stereotypes and stereotyping with widespread implications for the development, measurement, maintenance, expression, and change of stereotypes, stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. PMID:25811181

  10. Amy63, a novel type of marine bacterial multifunctional enzyme possessing amylase, agarase and carrageenase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ge; Wu, Shimei; Jin, Weihua; Sun, Chaomin

    2016-01-04

    A multifunctional enzyme is one that performs multiple physiological functions, thus benefiting the organism. Characterization of multifunctional enzymes is important for researchers to understand how organisms adapt to different environmental challenges. In the present study, we report the discovery of a novel multifunctional enzyme Amy63 produced by marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus 63. Remarkably, Amy63 possesses amylase, agarase and carrageenase activities. Amy63 is a substrate promiscuous α-amylase, with the substrate priority order of starch, carrageenan and agar. Amy63 maintains considerable amylase, carrageenase and agarase activities and stabilities at wide temperature and pH ranges, and optimum activities are detected at temperature of 60 °C and pH of 6.0, respectively. Moreover, the heteroexpression of Amy63 dramatically enhances the ability of E. coli to degrade starch, carrageenan and agar. Motif searching shows three continuous glycosyl hydrolase 70 (GH70) family homologs existed in Amy63 encoding sequence. Combining serial deletions and phylogenetic analysis of Amy63, the GH70 homologs are proposed as the determinants of enzyme promiscuity. Notably, such enzymes exist in all kingdoms of life, thus providing an expanded perspective on studies of multifunctional enzymes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amylase having additional agarase and carrageenase activities.

  11. Human BAT possesses molecular signatures that resemble beige/brite cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Z Sharp

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT dissipates chemical energy and generates heat to protect animals from cold and obesity. Rodents possess two types of UCP-1 positive brown adipocytes arising from distinct developmental lineages: "classical" brown adipocytes develop during the prenatal stage whereas "beige" or "brite" cells that reside in white adipose tissue (WAT develop during the postnatal stage in response to chronic cold or PPARγ agonists. Beige cells' inducible characteristics make them a promising therapeutic target for obesity treatment, however, the relevance of this cell type in humans remains unknown. In the present study, we determined the gene signatures that were unique to classical brown adipocytes and to beige cells induced by a specific PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone in mice. Subsequently we applied the transcriptional data to humans and examined the molecular signatures of human BAT isolated from multiple adipose depots. To our surprise, nearly all the human BAT abundantly expressed beige cell-selective genes, but the expression of classical brown fat-selective genes were nearly undetectable. Interestingly, expression of known brown fat-selective genes such as PRDM16 was strongly correlated with that of the newly identified beige cell-selective genes, but not with that of classical brown fat-selective genes. Furthermore, histological analyses showed that a new beige cell marker, CITED1, was selectively expressed in the UCP1-positive beige cells as well as in human BAT. These data indicate that human BAT may be primary composed of beige/brite cells.

  12. Costus afer Possesses Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes Inhibitory Activity and Antioxidant Capacity In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamgoue, Armelle D.; Tchokouaha, Lauve R. Y.; Tarkang, Protus A.; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Agbor, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism which correlates with postprandial hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Control of blood glucose level is imperative in the management of diabetes. The present study tested the hypothesis that Costus afer, an antihyperglycemic medicinal plant, possesses inhibitory activity against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts were prepared from the leaf, stem, and rhizome of C. afer and subjected to phytochemical screening, assayed for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and antioxidant capacity (determined by total phenolic and total flavonoids contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and DPPH radical scavenging activity). All extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Ethyl acetate rhizome and methanol leaf extracts exhibited the best inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase (IC50: 0.10 and 5.99 mg/mL), respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed two modes of enzyme inhibition (competitive and mixed). All extracts showed antioxidant capacity, with hexane extracts exhibiting the best activity. DPPH assay revealed that methanol leaf, rhizome, and ethyl acetate stem extracts (IC50 < 5 mg/mL) were the best antioxidants. The presence of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, and tannins may account for the antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitory activity of C. afer. PMID:26246844

  13. Criminal history and future offending of juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Ernest, Melanie; Kaszynski, Katie; Bessler, Cornelia

    2014-08-01

    Most child pornography is distributed online. It is estimated that 3% to 15% of child pornography consumers are juveniles. The present study analyzed a consecutive sample of 54 male juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography. Demographic characteristics, criminal history, and subsequent offending were assessed from criminal files and official reports. Juvenile possessors of child pornography were compared to three different groups of juveniles: Juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography (n = 42), juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a child (n = 64), and juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a peer or adult (n = 104). Juvenile possessors of child pornography were found to have downloaded the illegal material more frequently and over a longer time period than juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography. Furthermore, juvenile possessors of child pornography differed from juveniles who had committed a sexual contact offense in terms of demographics and showed fewer previous and subsequent offending than juveniles who sexually offended against a peer or adult. We conclude that juvenile possessors of child pornography need a specific target intervention focusing on dysfunctional Internet use and sexually deviant arousal. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Label-retaining cells in the adult murine salivary glands possess characteristics of adult progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro M Chibly

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy is the primary treatment for patients with head and neck cancer, which account for roughly 500,000 annual cases worldwide. Dysfunction of the salivary glands and associated conditions like xerostomia and dysphagia are often developed by these patients, greatly diminishing their life quality. Current preventative and palliative care fail to deliver an improvement in the quality of life, thus accentuating the need for regenerative therapies. In this study, a model of label retaining cells (LRCs in murine salivary glands was developed, in which LRCs demonstrated proliferative potential and possessed markers of putative salivary progenitors. Mice were labeled with 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU at postnatal day 10 and chased for 8 weeks. Tissue sections from salivary glands obtained at the end of chase demonstrated co-localization between LRCs and the salivary progenitor markers keratin 5 and keratin 14, as well as kit mRNA, indicating that LRCs encompass a heterogeneous population of salivary progenitors. Proliferative potential of LRCs was demonstrated by a sphere assay, in which LRCs were found in primary and secondary spheres and they co-localized with the proliferation marker Ki67 throughout sphere formation. Surprisingly, LRCs were shown to be radio-resistant and evade apoptosis following radiation treatment. The clinical significance of these findings lie in the potential of this model to study the mechanisms that prevent salivary progenitors from maintaining homeostasis upon exposure to radiation, which will in turn facilitate the development of regenerative therapies for salivary gland dysfunction.

  15. Capsaicinoids but not their analogue capsinoids lower plasma cholesterol and possess beneficial vascular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weihuan; Cheang, Wai San; Wang, Xiaobo; Lei, Lin; Liu, Yuwei; Ma, Ka Ying; Zheng, Fangrui; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2014-08-20

    Capsaicinoids exist in chili peppers, whereas capsinoids are present in some sweet peppers. The present study investigated the effects of capsaicinoids and capsinoids on plasma lipids, relaxation of the aorta, atherosclerotic plaque development, and fecal sterol excretion in hamsters fed a high-cholesterol diet. Five groups of male hamsters were given the control diet or one of the four experimental diets containing 1.3 mmol of capsaicinoids (NL), 2.6 mmol of capsaicinoids (NH), 1.3 mmol of capsinoids (OL), or 2.6 mmol of capsinoids (OH), respectively. Results showed capsaicinoids but not capsinoids could decrease plasma total cholesterol (TC), reduce the formation of atherosclerotic plaque, and relax the aortic artery. This was accompanied by a 28-175% increase in fecal excretion of acidic sterols in hamsters fed the diets containing capsaicinoids. Similarly, capsaicinoids but not capsinoids could decrease the pad weights of epididymal and prerenal adipose tissues. It was concluded that capsaicinoids but not capsinoids could favorably modulate plasma lipids and possess beneficial vascular activity.

  16. Designing bioinspired superoleophobic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Philip S. Brown; Bharat Bhushan

    2016-01-01

    Nature provides a range of functional surfaces, for example, water-repellent or superhydrophobic surfaces, most common among them the lotus leaf. While water-repellency is widespread in nature, oil-repellency is typically limited to surfaces submerged in water, such as fish scales. To achieve oleophobicity in air, inspiration must be taken from natural structures and chemistries that are not readily available in nature need to be introduced. Researchers usually turn to fluorinated materials t...

  17. Typical magnitude and spatial extent of crowding in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyberg, Jan; Robertson, Caroline E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced spatial processing of local visual details has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC), and crowding is postulated to be a mechanism that may produce this ability. However, evidence for atypical crowding in ASC is mixed, with some studies reporting a complete lack of crowding in autism and others reporting a typical magnitude of crowding between individuals with and without ASC. Here, we aim to disambiguate these conflicting results by testing both the magnitude and the spatial extent of crowding in individuals with ASC (N = 25) and age- and IQ-matched controls (N = 23) during an orientation discrimination task. We find a strong crowding effect in individuals with and without ASC, which falls off as the distance between target and flanker is increased. Both the magnitude and the spatial range of this effect were comparable between individuals with and without ASC. We also find typical (uncrowded) orientation discrimination thresholds in individuals with ASC. These findings suggest that the spatial extent of crowding is unremarkable in ASC, and is therefore unlikely to account for the visual symptoms reported in individuals with the diagnosis.

  18. Diversity of amino acids in a typical chernozem of Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frunze, N. I.

    2014-12-01

    The content and composition of the amino acids in typical chernozems were studied. The objects of the study included a reference soil under an old fallow and three variants under fodder crop rotations: not fertilized, with mineral fertilizers, and with organic fertilizers. The contents of 18 amino acids were determined in these soils. The amino acids were extracted by the method of acid hydrolysis and identified by the method of ion-exchange chromatography. The total content of most of the amino acids was maximal in the reference soil; it was much lower in the cultivated soils and decreased in the following sequence: organic background > mineral background > no fertilization. The diversity of amino acids was evaluated quantitatively using different parameters applied in ecology for estimating various aspects of the species composition of communities (Simpson, Margalef, Menhinick, and Shannon's indices). The diversity and contribution of different amino acids to the total pool of amino acids also varied significantly in the studied variants. The maximum diversity of amino acids and maximum evenness of their relative abundance indices were typical of the reference chernozem; these parameters were lower in the cultivated soils. It was concluded that the changes in the structure of the amino acids under the impact of agricultural loads are similar to those that are usually observed under stress conditions.

  19. A study on prioritizing typical women’s entrepreneur characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Ramezani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is one of the main pivot of progress and growth of every country. The spread of entrepreneurship particularly the role of women in this category has speeded up today more than any other times. Many of researchers believe that attention to women entrepreneurship plays remarkable role in soundness and safety of nation’s economy. Maybe in Iran less attention has been paid to this matter in proportion to other countries and due to various reasons, there are not many entrepreneur woman. However, employing typical entrepreneur women in various fields of productivity, industrial, commercial, social and cultural and even higher than these, in country’s political issue proves that women’s role is magnificent and in many cases they enjoy higher abilities in portion to men. In this paper, using additive ratio assessment (ARAS as a prioritizing method, eleven entrepreneur women were chosen for prioritizing criteria for measuring a typical women’s entrepreneurship characteristics. The results show that the balance between work and family among criteria are propounded as the highest weight and fulfilling different jobs simultaneously as the lowest weight.

  20. The experimental investigation of microcracks nucleation in typical tectonics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The evolution and nucleation of microcracks in typical tectonics are investigated in the experiment of fracture of marble specimen. The change of state during nucleation of microcracks is observed. The controlling effect of tectonics on evolution of microcracks is analyzed by using the damage mechanics theory. These characteristics can be analogized to kilometer meters as the first effect of earthquake precursors. These studies may be helpful to interpret the foreshock or general foreshock in the moderate or short stage before strong earthquakes. The other physical precursors are second or third effect. The local density of microcracks increasing abruptly may be helpful to interpret the phenomenon that part precursor records appear catastrophic jump. The part out of nucleation where some microcracks heal and the density change reversibly may be helpful to interpret the phenomenon that some precursors records appear reverse change. The area difference of microcracks accumulation and evolution in different part of typical tectonics is studied. This difference may be helpful to interpret the characteristics (including the area) of earthquake preparation of different tectonics, and further to interpret the difference of the precursors between plate edge and intraplate. These differences may be introduced by the scholars with different points of view as to discuss about the existence of precursors before earthquakes. However, when the precursor records are studied, one must notice the geology background in different areas.

  1. Recommended Concentration Limits of Typical Indoor Air Contaminants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV Chao; JIANG Yun-tao; ZHAO Jia-ning

    2009-01-01

    From the view of both objective and subjective factors.the indoor air quality(IAQ)evaluation was considered.Carbon dioxide (CO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) were selected as the typical contaminants of indoor air,and the evaluation method of logarithmic index was adopted as the evaluation means of IAQ.Then the recommended limits (RL) of typical contaminants CO2 and HCHO were given through analysis and calcula-tion.The limits of CO2 and HCHO in Indoor Air Quahty Standard of China or other existing standards probably correspond to the level of PD=25(%).The result shows that the existing standards fail to meet the require-ment of the definition of"acceptable indoor air quality",that is to say,less than 20% of the people express dis-satisfaction.When PD=20%,RL of CO2 and HCHO are 728×10-6 and 0.068×10-6 respectively,which are stricter than the limits in the existing standards.The method proposed in this paper is applicable to 13.1%≤PD≤86.7%.

  2. [Hydrogeochemical characteristics of a typical karst groundwater system in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping-Heng; Lu, Bing-Qing; He, Qiu-Fang; Chen, Xue-Bin

    2014-04-01

    The two-year hydrologic process, hydrochemistry, and a portion of deltaD, delta18O of both the surface water at the inlet and the groundwater at the outlet, were investigated to identify the spatial and temporal variations of hydrogeochemistry in the Qingmuguan karst groundwater system. Research results show that there are wet and dry periods in the groundwater system owing to the striking influence of seasonal rainfall. The evolution of the chemical compositions in the groundwater is significantly influenced by the water and rock interaction, anthropogenic activities and rainwater dilution. The variations of the chemical compositions in the groundwater exhibit obvious spatiality and temporality. The deltaD and delta18O of the surface water beneath the local Meteoric Water Line of Chonqing indicate that the surface water is strongly evaporated. Furthermore, the deltaD and delta18O of the surface water are more positive in the dry period than in the wet period, showing a distinct seasonal effect. The deltaD and delta18O of the groundwater are quite stable and much negative compared with those of the surface water, which suggests that the rainwater recharge the groundwater via two pathways, one directly through sinkholes and the other via the vadose zone.

  3. Novel, species-typical esters from preputial glands of sympatric voles,Microtus montanus andM. pennsylvanicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, C J; Moore, R E; Bartelt, R J; Jackson, L L

    1988-01-01

    Olfactory signals may facilitate species recognition between the sympatric voles,Microtus montanus andM. pennsylvanicus. In an effort to isolate and identify compounds that might contribute to such a chemical communication system, the preputial glands of those voles have been examined. Morphological examinations show both vole species possess preputial glands; however, the glands ofM. montanus are much larger than those ofM. pennsylvanicus. Gas Chromatographie analysis revealed that the preputial glands ofM. montanus contain a series of species-typical lipids that are not found inM. pennsylvanicus. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, the species-typical lipids were identified as esters of branched, saturated, and unsaturated C5 and C4 alcohols and straight-chain C16, and "iso" branched C17 fatty acids. This is the first description of such esters from mammalian tissues. The results are discussed relative to the possibility that the species-typical esters act as species recognition cues for the sympatric voles.

  4. Quenchant Characterization System Based on Application of Thermal Probes of Typical Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-ting; ZHANG Li-wen; PEI Ji-bin; WANG Fu-gang; YU Cheng-xin

    2004-01-01

    A system was developed to identify characteristics of quenchants. It consists of computerized hardware,temperature acquisition software as well as changeable probes of steels. The feature of the ability to use probes made of any metallic material enables evaluation of hardening power of quenchants. Three thermal couples located on the same cross-section plane in the middle of probe's length give cooling curves that present cooling behavior at different depths from the surface of probe. Microstructure and hardness of the quenched probes on the same plane in the middle of probe's length from surface to center was investigated to estimate hardening effect. A number of quenchants were tested by this characterization system with several thermal probes of typical steels. Experimental data were stored in QuenDB quenchant database, which was designed for quenchants identification and hardness distribution storage.

  5. Experiences of possession and paranormal phenomena among women in the general population: are they related to traumatic stress and dissociation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Alioğlu, Firdevs; Akyüz, Gamze

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of experiences of possession and paranormal phenomena (PNP) in the general population and their possible relations to each other and to traumatic stress and dissociation. The study was conducted on a representative female sample recruited from a town in central eastern Turkey. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule, the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and borderline personality disorder sections of the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV Axis-I and Personality Disorders, and the Childhood Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire were administered to 628 women. Of these, 127 (20.2%) women reported at least 1 type of PNP and 13 (2.1%) women reported possession. Women with a dissociative disorder reported all types of possession and PNP (except telepathy) more frequently than those without. Whereas women with a trauma history in childhood and adulthood or PTSD reported possession more frequently than those without, PNP were associated with childhood trauma only. Factor analysis yielded 4 dimensions: possession by and/or contact with nonhuman entities, extrasensory communications, possession by a human entity, and precognition. These factors correlated with number of secondary features of dissociative identity disorder and Schneiderian symptoms. Latent class analysis identified 3 groups. The most traumatized group, with predominantly dissociative and trauma-related disorders, had the highest scores on all factors. Notwithstanding their presence in healthy individuals, possession and PNP were associated with trauma and dissociation in a subgroup of affected participants. Both types of experience seem to be normal human capacities of experiencing that may be involved in response to traumatic stress. Given the small numbers, this study should be considered preliminary.

  6. Characterizing the Effective Bandwidth of Nonlinear Vibratory Energy Harvesters Possessing Multiple Stable Equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyam Mohan Ram, Meghashyam

    In the last few years, advances in micro-fabrication technologies have lead to the development of low-power electronic devices spanning critical fields related to sensing, data transmission, and medical implants. Unfortunately, effective utilization of these devices is currently hindered by their reliance on batteries. In many of these applications, batteries may not be a viable choice as they have a fixed storage capacity and need to be constantly replaced or recharged. In light of such challenges, several novel concepts for micro-power generation have been recently introduced to harness, otherwise, wasted ambient energy from the environment and maintain these low-power devices. Vibratory energy harvesting is one such concept which has received significant attention in recent years. While linear vibratory energy harvesters have been well studied in the literature and their performance metrics have been established, recent research has focused on deliberate introduction of stiffness nonlinearities into the design of these devices. It has been shown that, nonlinear energy harvesters have a wider steady-state frequency bandwidth as compared to their linear counterparts, leading to the premise that they can used to improve performance, and decrease sensitivity to variations in the design and excitation parameters. This dissertation aims to investigate this premise by developing an analytical framework to study the influence of stiffness nonlinearities on the performance and effective bandwidth of nonlinear vibratory energy harvesters. To achieve this goal, the dissertation is divided into three parts. The first part investigates the performance of bi-stable energy harvesters possessing a symmetric quartic potential energy function under harmonic excitations and carries out a detailed analysis to define their effective frequency bandwidth. The second part investigates the relative performance of mono- and bi-stable energy harvesters under optimal electric loading

  7. Type II skeletal myofibers possess unique properties that potentiate mitochondrial H(2)O(2) generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ethan J; Neufer, P Darrell

    2006-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in a number of skeletal muscle pathologies, most notably aging-induced atrophy and loss of type II myofibers. Although oxygen-derived free radicals are thought to be a primary cause of mitochondrial dysfunction, the underlying factors governing mitochondrial superoxide production in different skeletal myofiber types is unknown. Using a novel in situ approach to measure H(2)O(2) production (indicator of superoxide formation) in permeabilized rat skeletal muscle fiber bundles, we found that mitochondrial free radical leak (H(2)O(2) produced/O(2) consumed) is two- to threefold higher (P < 0.05) in white (WG, primarily type IIB fibers) than in red (RG, type IIA) gastrocnemius or soleus (type I) myofibers during basal respiration supported by complex I (pyruvate + malate) or complex II (succinate) substrates. In the presence of respiratory inhibitors, maximal rates of superoxide produced at both complex I and complex III are markedly higher in RG and WG than in soleus muscle despite approximately 50% less mitochondrial content in WG myofibers. Duplicate experiments conducted with +/-exogenous superoxide dismutase revealed striking differences in the topology and/or dismutation of superoxide in WG vs. soleus and RG muscle. When normalized for mitochondrial content, overall H(2)O(2) scavenging capacity is lower in RG and WG fibers, whereas glutathione peroxidase activity, which is largely responsible for H(2)O(2) removal in mitochondria, is similar in all three muscle types. These findings suggest that type II myofibers, particularly type IIB, possess unique properties that potentiate mitochondrial superoxide production and/or release, providing a potential mechanism for the heterogeneous development of mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle.

  8. To have and to hold: possessing the sacred in the late renaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E. Benay

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Private devotional art of the early 17th century often found its place in the galleries of noblemen and women whose diverse collections were symbols not only of stylistic taste, but of their owners’ exhaustive curiosity. In these domestic settings, boundaries between sacred and secular were permeable, as the unprecedented physical intimacy portrayed in popular religious subjects such as St Matthew and the Angel, the Stigmatisation of St Francis, or Christ’s Agony in the Garden reveal. Representations of the latter reminded viewers of Christ’s human, corporal suffering and suggested a model of resolve strengthened by prayer. The Agony in the Garden appears on the interior of Jacopo Ligozzi’s virtuosic Portable Altar with Carrying Case (1608, likely a Medici gift presented to the Austrian court in anticipation of the marriage of archduchess Maria Maddalena to soon-to-be grand duke Cosimo II. Adorned with lavish botanical motifs on its exterior, the Altar’s potency as a sacred possession was redoubled by the owner’s tactile revelation of the portrayal of Christ supported by an Angel contained inside the case. Comprised of wood, oil on copper, and pietre dure inlay, it is an object intended to be held, opened, and experienced. This paper suggests that Ligozzi’s selective combination of sumptuous materials and choice of subject matter – botanical illustration and Christological iconography – allowed the object to appeal to the full sensorium, and therefore to function as efficaciously as a devotional aid as it did as a curiosity among other rare collectibles.

  9. A rationale for determining, testing, and controlling specific impurities in pharmaceuticals that possess potential for genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lutz; Mauthe, Robert J; Riley, Christopher M; Andino, Marta M; Antonis, David De; Beels, Chris; DeGeorge, Joseph; De Knaep, Alfons G M; Ellison, Dean; Fagerland, Jane A; Frank, Rebecca; Fritschel, Betsy; Galloway, Sheila; Harpur, Ernie; Humfrey, Charles D N; Jacks, Alexander S; Jagota, Nirdosh; Mackinnon, John; Mohan, Ganapathy; Ness, Daniel K; O'Donovan, Michael R; Smith, Mark D; Vudathala, Gopi; Yotti, Larry

    2006-04-01

    The synthesis of pharmaceutical products frequently involves the use of reactive reagents and the formation of intermediates and by-products. Low levels of some of these may be present in the final drug substance and drug product as impurities. Such chemically reactive impurities may have at the same time the potential for unwanted toxicities including genotoxicity and carcinogenicity and hence can have an impact on product risk assessment. This paper outlines a procedure for testing, classification, qualification, toxicological risk assessment, and control of impurities possessing genotoxic potential in pharmaceutical products. Referencing accepted principles of cancer risk assessment, this document proposes a staged threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) approach for the intake of genotoxic impurities over various periods of exposure. This staged TTC is based on knowledge about tumorigenic potency of a wide range of genotoxic carcinogens and can be used for genotoxic compounds, for which cancer data are limited or not available. The delineated acceptable daily intake values of between approximately 1.5 microg/day for approximately lifetime intake and approximately 120 microg/day for < or = 1 month are virtually safe doses. Based on sound scientific reasoning, these virtually safe intake values do not pose an unacceptable risk to either human volunteers or patients at any stage of clinical development and marketing of a pharmaceutical product. The intake levels are estimated to give an excess cancer risk of 1 in 100,000 to 1 in a million over a lifetime, and are extremely conservative given the current lifetime cancer risk in the population of over 1 in 4 (http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html.all.html). The proposals in this document apply to all clinical routes of administration and to compounds at all stages of clinical development. It is important to note that certain types of products, such as those for life-threatening indications for which there are no

  10. Vector correlation analysis for inelastic and reactive collisions between partners possessing spin and orbital angular momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint-Kurti, Gabriel G; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S

    2009-12-31

    A general reactive collision of the type A + B --> C + D is considered where both the collision partners (A and B) or the products (C and D) may possess internal, i.e., spin, orbital or rotational, angular momenta. Compact expressions are derived using a rigorous quantum mechanical analysis for the angular momentum anisotropy of either of the products (C or D) arising from an initially polarized distribution of the reactant angular momentum. The angular momentum distribution of the product is expressed in terms of canonical spherical tensors multiplied by anisotropy-transforming coefficients c(K(i)q(k))(K)(K(r),L). These coefficients act as transformation coefficients between the angular momentum anisotropy of the reactants and that of the product. They are independent of scattering angle but depend on the details of the scattering dynamics. The relationship between the coefficients c(K(i)q(k))(K)(K(r),L) and the body-fixed scattering S matrix is given and the methodology for the quantum mechanical calculation of the anisotropy-transforming coefficients is clearly laid out. The anisotropy-transforming coefficients are amenable to direct experimental measurement in a similar manner to vector correlation and alignment parameters in photodissociation processes. A key aspect of the theory is the use of projections of both reactant and product angular momenta onto the product recoil vector direction. An important new conservation rule is revealed through the analysis, namely that if the state multipole for reactant angular momentum distribution has a projection q(k) onto the product recoil vector the state multipoles for the product angular momentum distribution all have this same projection. Expressions are also presented for the distribution of the product angular momentum when its components are evaluated relative to the space-fixed Z-axis. Notes with detailed derivations of all the formulas are available as Supporting Information.

  11. Rheum turkestanicum rhizomes possess anti-hypertriglyceridemic, but not hypoglycemic or hepatoprotective effect in experimental diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa-Al-Reza Hadjzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rheum turkestanicum (R. turkestanicum rhizomes have been used in Iranain traditional medicine as an anti-diabetic agent. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the anti-diabetic and antioxidant activities of R. turkestanicum rhizome extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg/kg streptozotocin in male Wistar rats. Diabetic rats received the decoction extract of R. turkestanicum rhizomes at the doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg daily by gavage for 3 weeks. Serum glucose and lipid levels were measured in all groups before diabetes induction and at the end of week 3. Oxidative stress was evaluated in the liver by measurement of malondialdehyde levels and total thiol concentration at the end of the experiment.Results: A significant increase in serum glucose and triglyceride levels was observed in diabetic rats, which was accompanied by increased malondialdehyde levels and decreased total thiol concentration in the liver after 3 weeks. Treatment of diabetic rats with R. turkestanicum rhizome extract at the doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg over a 3-week period did not change serum glucose, hepatic malondialdehyde and total thiol levels in diabetic rats. However, treatment with R. turkestanicum extract significantly decreased serum triglyceride levels in a dose-dependent manner at the end of the experiment.Conclusion: R. turkestanicum rhizome extract possess anti-hypertriglyceridemic, but not hypoglycemic or hepatoprotective effect in diabetic rats. Therefore, R. turkestanicum rhizome should be consumed with more caution by diabetic patients.

  12. Platelets possess functional TGF-beta receptors and Smad2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, P R; Salim, J P; Marta, R F; Osorio, M J Mela; Goette, N P; Molinas, F C

    2007-02-01

    TGF-beta1 plays a main role in tissue repair by regulating extracellular matrix production and tissue granulation. Platelets are one of the main sources of this cytokine in the circulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of the TGF-beta receptors on platelets, the effect of TGF-beta1 on platelet aggregation and the underlying intracellular mechanisms. TGF-beta receptors on platelets were studied by flow cytometry and their mRNA by PCR. Platelet aggregation was assessed by turbidimetric methods and intracellular pathways by Western blot. TGF-beta receptor type II and mRNA codifying for TbetaRI and TbetaRII were found in platelets. We demonstrated that TGF-beta1 did not trigger platelet aggregation by itself but had a modulating effect on ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Either inhibition or increase in platelet aggregation, depending on the exposure time to TGF-beta1 and the ADP concentration used, were shown. We found that platelets possess Smad2 protein and that its phosphorylation state is increased after exposure to TGF-beta1. Besides, TGF-beta1 modified the pattern of ADP-induced tyrosine phosphorylation. Increased phosphorylation levels of 64-, 80- and 125-kDa proteins during short time incubation with TGF-beta1 and increased phosphorylation of 64- and 125-kDa proteins after longer incubation were observed. The modulating effect of TGF-beta1 on platelet aggregation could play a role during pathological states in which circulating TGF-beta1 levels are increased and intravascular platelet activation is present, such as myeloproliferative disorders. In vascular injury, in which platelet activation followed by granule release generates high local ADP concentrations, it could function as a physiological mechanism of platelet activation control.

  13. Crystal structure of a plant albumin from Cicer arietinum (chickpea) possessing hemopexin fold and hemagglutination activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Urvashi; Katre, Uma V; Suresh, C G

    2015-05-01

    Crystal structure of a reported PA2 albumin from Cicer arietinum shows that it belongs to hemopexin fold family, has four beta-propeller motifs and possesses hemagglutination activity, making it different from known legume lectins. A plant albumin (PA2) from Cicer arietinum, presumably a lectin (CAL) owing to its hemagglutination activity which is inhibited by complex sugars as well as glycoproteins such as fetuin, desialylated fetuin and fibrinogen. The three-dimensional structure of this homodimeric protein has been determined using X-ray crystallography at 2.2 Å in two crystal forms: orthorhombic (P21212) and trigonal (P3). The structure determined using molecular replacement method and refined in orthorhombic crystal form reached R-factors R free 22.6 % and R work 18.2 % and in trigonal form had 22.3 and 17.9 % in the resolution range of 20.0-2.2 and 35.3-2.2 Å, respectively. Interestingly, unlike the known legume lectin fold, the structure of this homodimeric hemagglutinin belonged to hemopexin fold that consisted of four-bladed β-propeller architecture. Each subunit has a central cavity forming a channel, inside of which is lined with hydrophobic residues. The channel also bears binding sites for ligands such as calcium, sodium and chloride ions, iodine atom in the case of iodine derivative and water molecules. However, none of these ligands seem important for the sugar recognition. No monosaccharide sugar specificity could be detected using hemagglutination inhibition. Chemical modification studies identified a potential sugar-binding site per subunit molecule. Comparison of C-alpha atom positions in subunit structures showed that the deviations between the two crystal forms were more with respect to blades I and IV. Differences also existed between subunits in two forms in terms of type and site of ligand binding.

  14. Bacillus sp.CDB3 isolated from cattle dip-sites possesses two ars gene clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somanath Bhat; Xi Luo; Zhiqiang Xu; Lixia Liu; Ren Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Contamination of soil and water by arsenic is a global problem.In Australia, the dipping of cattle in arsenic-containing solution to control cattle ticks in last centenary has left many sites heavily contaminated with arsenic and other toxicants.We had previously isolated five soil bacterial strains (CDB1-5) highly resistant to arsenic.To understand the resistance mechanism, molecular studies have been carried out.Two chromosome-encoded arsenic resistance (ars) gene clusters have been cloned from CDB3 (Bacillus sp.).They both function in Escherichia coli and cluster 1 exerts a much higher resistance to the toxic metalloid.Cluster 2 is smaller possessing four open reading frames (ORFs) arsRorf2BC, similar to that identified in Bacillus subtilis Skin element.Among the eight ORFs in cluster 1 five are analogs of common ars genes found in other bacteria, however, organized in a unique order arsRBCDA instead of arsRDABC.Three other putative genes are located directly downstream and designated as arsTIP based on the homologies of their theoretical translation sequences respectively to thioredoxin reductases, iron-sulphur cluster proteins and protein phosphatases.The latter two are novel of any known ars operons.The arsD gene from Bacillus species was cloned for the first time and the predict protein differs from the well studied E.coli ArsD by lacking two pairs of C-terrninal cysteine residues.Its functional involvement in arsenic resistance has been confirmed by a deletion experiment.There exists also an inverted repeat in the intergenic region between arsC and arsD implying some unknown transcription regulation.

  15. Exosomes carring gag/env of ALV-J possess negative effect on immunocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Wang, Zhenzhen; Zhuang, Pingping; Zhao, Xiaomin; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2017-09-12

    J subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an exogenous retrovirus of avian. A key feature of ALV-J infection is leading to severe immunosuppressive characteristic of diseases. Viral components of retrovirus were reported closely associated with immunosuppression, and several similarities between exosomes and retrovirus preparations have lead to the hypotheses of retrovirus hijacker exosomes pathway. In this study, we purified exosomes from DF-1 cells infected and uninfected by ALV-J. Electron microscopy and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis showed that ALV-J not only increased the production of exosomes from ALV-J infected DF-1 cells (Exo-J) but also stimulated some proteins expression, especially ALV-J components secreted in exosomes. Immunosuppressive domain peptide (ISD) of envelope subunit transmembrane (TM) and gag of ALV-J were secreted in Exo-J. It has been reported that HIV gag was budded from endosome-like domains of the T cell plasma membrane. But env protein was first detected in exosomes from retrovirus infected cells. We found that Exo-J caused negative effects on splenocytes in a dose-dependant manner by flow cytometric analysis. And low dose of Exo-J activated immune activity of splenocytes, while high dose possessed immunosuppressive properties. Interestingly, Exo-J has no significant effects on the immunosuppression induced by ALV-J, and the immunosuppressive effects induced by Exo-J lower than that by ALV-J. Taken together, our data indicated that Exo-J supplied a microenvironment for the replication and transformation of ALV-J. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Provable Data Possession of Resource-constrained Mobile Devices in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Benefited from cloud storage services, users can save their cost of buying expensive storage and application servers, as well as deploying and maintaining applications. Meanwhile they lost the physical control of their data. So effective methods are needed to verify the correctness of the data stored at cloud servers, which are the research issues the Provable Data Possession (PDP faced. The most important features in PDP are: 1 supporting for public, unlimited numbers of times of verification; 2 supporting for dynamic data update; 3 efficiency of storage space and computing. In mobile cloud computing, mobile end-users also need the PDP service. However, the computing workloads and storage burden of client in existing PDP schemes are too heavy to be directly used by the resource-constrained mobile devices. To solve this problem, with the integration of the trusted computing technology, this paper proposes a novel public PDP scheme, in which the trusted third-party agent (TPA takes over most of the calculations from the mobile end-users. By using bilinear signature and Merkle hash tree (MHT, the scheme aggregates the verification tokens of the data file into one small signature to reduce communication and storage burden. MHT is also helpful to support dynamic data update. In our framework, the mobile terminal devices only need to generate some secret keys and random numbers with the help of trusted platform model (TPM chips, and the needed computing workload and storage space is fit for mobile devices. Our scheme realizes provable secure storage service for resource-constrained mobile devices in mobile cloud computing.

  17. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viganò

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  18. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervasio Antonelli

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  19. Estimating Typical Multiple Sclerosis Disability Progression Speed from Clinical Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Murray G.; Asbridge, Mark; Hicks, Vern; Kirby, Sarah; Murray, Thomas J.; Andreou, Pantelis; Lin, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system. Estimates of MS natural history (NH) disability progression speed from clinical observations vary worldwide. This may reflect, in part, variance in censoring-bias) (missing observations) and assumptions about when irreversible disability progression events occurred. We test whether estimates of progression speed which assume midpoint survival time at irreversible disability endpoints are significantly faster than estimates which assume maximum survival time, and are more stable across study groups and time periods. Methods Our Nova Scotia NH study population includes 2,240 definite relapsing-onset multiple sclerosis (R-MS) natural history patients with 18,078 Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) clinical observations in study period 1979–2010. Progression speed is measured by rate-of-change in range EDSS 0–6 and by survival time at irreversible endpoints EDSS 1–9. Midpoint censoring-bias-reduction methods are applied to clinical observations. Findings Typical EDSS increase per year in range EDSS 0–6, assuming midpoint survival time, is estimated to be 0.168 for all R-MS, 0.204 for eventually-DMD-treated patients and 0.155 for never-DMD-treated patients. Estimates assuming midpoint rather than maximum survival time are significantly faster: 16% faster for all R-MS natural history patients, 6% faster for eventually-DMD-treated patients, and 21% faster for never-DMD-treated patients. The variability of estimates across study groups and time periods decreased when midpoint survival time was assumed. Conclusions Estimates of typical disease progression speed from 1979–2010 Nova Scotia clinical observations are sensitive to censoring-bias and to analysts’ survival time assumptions. Censoring-bias-adjusted estimates of typical natural history disability progression speed in relapsing-onset multiple sclerosis patients are significantly faster, and less variable within

  20. Estimating typical multiple sclerosis disability progression speed from clinical observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray G Brown

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic disease of the central nervous system. Estimates of MS natural history (NH disability progression speed from clinical observations vary worldwide. This may reflect, in part, variance in censoring-bias (missing observations and assumptions about when irreversible disability progression events occurred. We test whether estimates of progression speed which assume midpoint survival time at irreversible disability endpoints are significantly faster than estimates which assume maximum survival time, and are more stable across study groups and time periods. METHODS: Our Nova Scotia NH study population includes 2,240 definite relapsing-onset multiple sclerosis (R-MS natural history patients with 18,078 Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS clinical observations in study period 1979-2010. Progression speed is measured by rate-of-change in range EDSS 0-6 and by survival time at irreversible endpoints EDSS 1-9. Midpoint censoring-bias-reduction methods are applied to clinical observations. FINDINGS: Typical EDSS increase per year in range EDSS 0-6, assuming midpoint survival time, is estimated to be 0.168 for all R-MS, 0.204 for eventually-DMD-treated patients and 0.155 for never-DMD-treated patients. Estimates assuming midpoint rather than maximum survival time are significantly faster: 16% faster for all R-MS natural history patients, 6% faster for eventually-DMD-treated patients, and 21% faster for never-DMD-treated patients. The variability of estimates across study groups and time periods decreased when midpoint survival time was assumed. CONCLUSIONS: Estimates of typical disease progression speed from 1979-2010 Nova Scotia clinical observations are sensitive to censoring-bias and to analysts' survival time assumptions. Censoring-bias-adjusted estimates of typical natural history disability progression speed in relapsing-onset multiple sclerosis patients are significantly faster, and less variable

  1. Typical and unusual cases of female genital tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kulchavenya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a disease with myriad presentations and manifestations; it can affect any organ or tissue, excluding only hair and nails. Doctors who are not familiar with extrapulmonary tuberculosis often overlook this disease. Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB is the second most common form of TB in countries with severe epidemic situation and the third most common form in regions with low incidence of TB. The term “Urogenital tuberculosis” includes kidney tuberculosis; male and female tuberculosis and urinary tract tuberculosis as complication of kidney tuberculosis. We describe rarest case of tuberculosis of a placenta in young woman, suffered from genital tuberculosis, which was overlooked before delivery, as well as typical tubo-ovarian tuberculomas.

  2. Analysis and Comparison of Typical Models within Distribution Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Jacob; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    are covered in the categorisation include fixed vs. general networks, specialised vs. general nodes, linear vs. nonlinear costs, single vs. multi commodity, uncapacitated vs. capacitated activities, single vs. multi modal and static vs. dynamic. The models examined address both strategic and tactical planning...... for educational purposes. Furthermore, the paper can be seen as a practical introduction to network design modelling as well as a being an art manual or recipe when constructing such a model.......This paper investigates the characteristics of typical optimisation models within Distribution Network Design. During the paper fourteen models known from the literature will be thoroughly analysed. Through this analysis a schematic approach to categorisation of distribution network design models...

  3. A Modal Model to Simulate Typical Structural Dynamic Nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacini, Benjamin Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mayes, Randall L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roettgen, Daniel R [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Some initial investigations have been published which simulate nonlinear response with almost traditional modal models: instead of connecting the modal mass to ground through the traditional spring and damper, a nonlinear Iwan element was added. This assumes that the mode shapes do not change with amplitude and there are no interactions between modal degrees of freedom. This work expands on these previous studies. An impact experiment is performed on a structure which exhibits typical structural dynamic nonlinear response, i.e. weak frequency dependence and strong damping dependence on the amplitude of vibration. Use of low level modal test results in combination with high level impacts are processed using various combinations of modal filtering, the Hilbert Transform and band-pass filtering to develop response data that are then fit with various nonlinear elements to create a nonlinear pseudo-modal model. Simulations of forced response are compared with high level experimental data for various nonlinear element assumptions.

  4. Processing relative clauses by Hungarian typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas, Bence; Lukács, Agnes

    2012-05-01

    Hungarian is a language with morphological case marking and relatively free word order. These typological characteristics make it a good ground for testing the crosslinguistic validity of theories on processing sentences with relative clauses. Our study focussed on effects of structural factors and processing capacity. We tested 43 typically developing children in two age groups (ages of 4;11-7;2 and 8;2-11;4) in an act-out task. Differences in comprehension difficulty between different word order patterns and different head function relations were observed independently of each other. The structural properties causing difficulties in comprehension were interruption of main clauses, greater distance between the verb and its arguments, accusative case of relative pronouns, and SO head function relations. Importantly, analyses of associations between working memory and sentence comprehension revealed that structural factors made processing difficult by burdening components of working memory. These results support processing accounts of sentence comprehension in a language typologically different from English.

  5. Aeroelastic Calculations Using CFD for a Typical Business Jet Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Michael D.

    1996-01-01

    Two time-accurate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes were used to compute several flutter points for a typical business jet model. The model consisted of a rigid fuselage with a flexible semispan wing and was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center where experimental flutter data were obtained from M(sub infinity) = 0.628 to M(sub infinity) = 0.888. The computational results were computed using CFD codes based on the inviscid TSD equation (CAP-TSD) and the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations (CFL3D-AE). Comparisons are made between analytical results and with experiment where appropriate. The results presented here show that the Navier-Stokes method is required near the transonic dip due to the strong viscous effects while the TSD and Euler methods used here provide good results at the lower Mach numbers.

  6. Anthropic reasoning and typicality in multiverse cosmology and string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Steven [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Philosophy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2006-06-21

    Anthropic arguments in multiverse cosmology and string theory rely on the weak anthropic principle (WAP). We show that the principle is fundamentally ambiguous. It can be formulated in one of two ways, which we refer to as WAP{sub 1} and WAP{sub 2}. We show that WAP{sub 2}, the version most commonly used in anthropic reasoning, makes no physical predictions unless supplemented by a further assumption of 'typicality', and we argue that this assumption is both misguided and unjustified. WAP{sub 1}, however, requires no such supplementation; it directly implies that any theory that assigns a non-zero probability to our universe predicts that we will observe our universe with probability one. We argue, therefore, that WAP{sub 1} is preferable, and note that it has the benefit of avoiding the inductive overreach characteristic of much anthropic reasoning.

  7. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  8. Conditioned place preference successfully established in typically developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah T Hiller

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Affective processing, known to influence attention, motivation and emotional regulation is poorly understood in young children, especially for those with neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by language impairments. Here we faithfully adapt a well-established animal paradigm used for affective processing, conditioned place preference for use in typically developing children between the ages of 30-55 months. Children displayed a conditioned place preference, with an average 2.4 fold increase in time spent in the preferred room. Importantly, associative learning as assessed with conditioned place preference was not correlated with scores on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, indicating that conditioned place preference can be used with children with a wide range of cognitive skills.

  9. [Injury patterns and typical stress situations in paragliding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnsack, M; Schröter, E

    2005-05-01

    Paragliding is known as a high risk sport with a substantial rate of severe and fatal injuries. Analysis of typical injury mechanisms and statistics showed that the total rate of paragliding injuries has decreased in recent years for an increasing number of pilots. In 2003, the rate of severe and fatal injuries in paragliding was less than that of other air sports and motorcycling. Through the introduction of a spine protector system in Germany and Austria, the number of vertebral fractures decreased significantly between 2000 and 2003. Most other injuries, especially of the lower extremities, could be avoided by adequate and farsighted flight behavior. Qualified instruction with regular training, standardized development of safety equipment and consequent analysis of paragliding injuries will help to improve the safety status in paragliding.

  10. Waste streams in a typical crewed space habitat: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, M. A.; Wydeven, T.

    1992-01-01

    A compilation of generation rates and chemical compositions of potential waste streams in a typical crewed space habitat, reported in a prior NASA Technical Memorandum and a related journal article, was updated. This report augments that compilation by the inclusion of the following new data: those data uncovered since completion of the prior report; those obtained from Soviet literature relevant to life support issues; and those for various minor human body wastes not presented previously (saliva, flatus, hair, finger- and toenails, dried skin and skin secretions, tears, and semen), but included here for purposes of completeness. These waste streams complement those discussed previously: toilet waste (urine, feces, etc.), hygiene water (laundry, shower/handwash, dishwasher water and cleansing agents), trash, humidity condensate, perspiration and respiration water, trace contaminants, and dust generation. This report also reproduces the latest information on the environmental control and life support system design parameters for Space Station Freedom.

  11. Porokeratosis ptychotropica: a rare manifestation with typical histological exam*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, John Verrinder; Dalapicola, Monique Coelho; Lellis, Rute Facchini; Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Manzione, Thiago da Silveira; Rodrigues, Maria Clarissa de Faria Soares

    2016-01-01

    Porokeratosis is a disorder of epidermal keratinization characterized clinically by a distinctive ridge-like border, and histologically by cornoid lamellae. The known clinical variants of porokeratosis are: classic porokeratosis of Mibelli, disseminated superficial (actinic) porokeratosis (DSAP), porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris disseminata, linear porokeratosis and punctate porokeratosis. In 1995, a seventh form was described as porokeratosis ptychotropica: a verrucous form resembling psoriasis involving the gluteal cleft presenting on the histological exam multiple cornoid lamellae. There are very few reports in the literature of this clinical variant. The present study describes the case of a healthy male presenting gluteal hyperkeratotic plaques for 22 years. He had been to several dermatologists, none of them had achieved a definitive diagnosis. We present a typical clinical presentation and its dermoscopy findings, in addition to histological examination that confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:27579746

  12. The Sun. A typical star in the solar neighborhood?

    CERN Document Server

    Melendez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The Sun is used as the fundamental standard in chemical abundance studies, thus it is important to know whether the solar abundance pattern is representative of the solar neighborhood. Albeit at low precision (0.05 - 0.10 dex) the Sun seems to be a typical solar-metallicity disk star, at high precision (0.01 dex) its abundance pattern seems abnormal when compared to solar twins. The Sun shows a deficiency of refractory elements that could be due to the formation of terrestrial planets. The formation of giant planets may also introduce a signature in the chemical composition of stars. We discuss both planet signatures and also the enhancement of neutron-capture elements in the solar twin 18 Sco.

  13. GENERATION OF A TYPICAL METEOROLOGICAL YEAR FOR PORT HARCOURT ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OGOLOMA O.B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data for the typical meteorological year (TMY for the Port Harcourt climatic zone based on the hourly meteorological data recorded during the period 1983–2002, using the Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method. The data are the global solar radiation, wind velocity, dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, and others. The HVAC outside design conditions for the Port Harcourt climatic zone (latitude 4.44oN, longitude 7.1oE, elevation 20 m were found to be 26.7oC, 78.6% and 3.5 m/s for the dry bulb temperature, relative humidity and wind speed, respectively, and 13.5 MJ/m2/day for the global solar radiation. The TMY data for the zone are shown to be sufficiently reliable for engineering practice.

  14. Design of a Typical Offshore Transportation System for External Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shittu, A. A

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The external corrosion assessment of a typical offshore transportation system has been presented. Cathodic protection design was carried out for the pipeline and it was found that a bracelet square weld on anode of L = 195, G =101.6 , Thickness = 70, M = 149.75 , ∅ = 1.2235, N = 128 and s = 300was found to be satisfactory in providing secondary/ backup protection for the 48inchespipeline in the external environment provided. The external anticorrosion coating selected is the Three layer polyethylene (3LPE coating based on the dimensions of the pipeline and the design temperature of 80℃. The 3LPE external corrosioncoating will comprise of an inner layer fusion bond epoxy, a middle layer: adhesive and an outer layer: High density polyethylene (HDPE base with additives.

  15. Shielding of gamma radiation by typical European houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckbach, Reinhard; Jacob, Peter; Paretzke, Herwig G.

    1987-03-01

    The shielding of gamma radiation by typical European houses has been investigated using a Monte Carlo photon transport code. Sources of the gamma radiation are activity deposited on the building and its surroundings and air-borne radionuclides in an semi-infinite cloud. Results are given for different source energies and at various locations inside and outside of the buildings. The effects of deposition on nearby trees and of shielding by neighbouring buildings was investigated. A comparison has been made with results obtained for the same buildings by the point kernel buildup factor method. More than an order of magnitude underestimations by the point kernel method are shown to arise in certain cases.

  16. Infiuence of Bicycle Traffic on Capacity of Typical Signalized Intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaoming; SHAO Chunfu; YUE Hao

    2007-01-01

    Bicycle traffic has a significant effect on the capacity of signalized intersections. This paper divides the influence of bicyclists on vehicular flow into four types with the time durations estimated based on probability, shock wave, and gap acceptance theory. Vehicular saturation flow rate is predicted for various conditions on the basis of the speed-flow curve for the capacity of typical intersections influenced by bicycle traffic.The model overcomes the limitations of the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM, 2000) method for left-turns due to data collection, and takes into account the effect of trapped bicycles on the through vehicular traffic.The numerical results show that the left-turn and through capacities predicted by the model are lower than those of the HCM method. The right-turn capacity is close to that of the HCM method at Iow bicycle volumes and higher than that of the HCM method at high bicycle volumes.

  17. Surface area and conductivity of polyaniline synthesized under UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, S.; Fitri, E.; Paristiowati, M.; Cahyana, U.; Pusparini, E.; Nasbey, H.; Imaddudin, A.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports our study on the synthesis of high electrical conductivity and surface area polyaniline using oxidative polymerization under UV light irradiation. The formation of emeraldine structures of polyaniline was revealed by major absorption bands of FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) spectra attributed to C-N stretching, C=C stretching in the benzenoid ring, C=C stretching in the quinoid ring and QNH+B stretching. XRD (X-ray diffractometer) measurements confirmed typical diffraction patterns with a crystallinity of 13% and 16% for polyaniline prepared under non-stirred and stirred reaction, respectively. SEM (Scanning electron microscope) studies showed more uniform morphology of polyaniline was obtained with stirring reaction process compare to those prepared without stirring. Surface analysis using SAA (surface area analyzer) showed that pure polyaniline with the relatively high surface area of ca.28 m2/g was successfully prepared in this work. Based on four point probe measurement, the prepared polyaniline possesses high conductivity which is important in electrode application.

  18. Fluctuating asymmetry and preferences for sex-typical bodily characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William M.; Price, Michael E.; Kang, Jinsheng; Pound, Nicholas; Zhao, Yue; Yu, Hui

    2008-01-01

    Body size and shape seem to have been sexually selected in a variety of species, including humans, but little is known about what attractive bodies signal about underlying genotypic or phenotypic quality. A widely used indicator of phenotypic quality in evolutionary analyses is degree of symmetry (i.e., fluctuating asymmetry, FA) because it is a marker of developmental stability, which is defined as an organism's ability to develop toward an adaptive end-point despite perturbations during its ontogeny. Here we sought to establish whether attractive bodies signal low FA to observers, and, if so, which aspects of attractive bodies are most predictive of lower FA. We used a 3D optical body scanner to measure FA and to isolate size and shape characteristics in a sample of 77 individuals (40 males and 37 females). From the 3D body scan data, 360° videos were created that separated body shape from other aspects of visual appearance (e.g., skin color and facial features). These videos then were presented to 87 evaluators for attractiveness ratings. We found strong negative correlations between FA and bodily attractiveness in both sexes. Further, sex-typical body size and shape characteristics were rated as attractive and correlated negatively with FA. Finally, geometric morphometric analysis of joint configurations revealed that sex-typical joint configurations were associated with both perceived attractiveness and lower FA for male but not for female bodies. In sum, body size and shape seem to show evidence of sexual selection and indicate important information about the phenotypic quality of individuals. PMID:18711125

  19. [Typical dishes consumed in Sonora: regionalization and nutrient contribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardines, R P; Bermúdez, M C; Wong, P; León, G

    1985-12-01

    This study deals with the development of a method to identify typical food dishes, successfully applied in the State of Sonora, Mexico. The State was divided into six regions considering the size of the territory and existence of different physical, economic and sociocultural conditions, and how they influence the consumption patterns. A list of 66 regional food dishes was prepared by interviewing housewives from different parts of Sonora who now lived in the city of Hermosillo. From this list, 47 dishes were identified as regionally consumed, and a State-wide survey was performed to determine their frequency of consumption. Based on the categories of "very frequently", "frequently" and "less frequently", a group of 15 dishes (2 per region, plus 3 dishes throughout the State) was selected. A questionnaire was used to obtain the different ways they had of preparing them. The "typical recipe" for each dish was also determined, using the mode as statistical parameter. Samples of these food dishes were prepared at the laboratory following the selected home recipes for proximal analysis and determination of their vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, phosphorus and iron content. The results showed that a portion of "gallina pinta" contributed more than 25% of the daily recommended intake established by the National Institute of Nutrition "Salvador Zubirán" (INNSZ) for an adult man for energy, protein, iron, niacin and 24.3% thiamine and 21.0% calcium. The "chivichangas de queso", for example, contributed 45.2% of the calcium requirement, and the "tamales de carne", 36% iron.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Specific Heat in a Typical Metallic Glass Former

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Hai-Bo; ZHAO Zuo-Feng; WEN Ping; WANG Wei-Hua

    2012-01-01

    The specific heat in a typical Pd40Ni10Cu30P20 metallic glass forming system is investigated.It is found that the specific heat of the metallic liquid is around 4.7R (R is the gas constant) and that it is almost independent of temperature.The glass transition observed during cooling is accompanied by a decrease in the specific heat of 1.5R.The specific heat of the metallic glass is similar to that of its crystalline phases,contributed mainly from atomic vibrations.Combined with the results of the structural relaxation and diffusivities,we demonstrate an intrinsic connection between the atomic motion and the specific heat in the metallic glass-forming liquid.The results support the idea that glass transition is a process accompanied by the freezing of most of the atomic transitional motions in a metallic supercooled liquid during cooling.%The specific heat in a typical Pd40 Ni10 Cu30 P20 metallic glass forming system is investigated. It is found that the specific heat of the metallic liquid is around 4.7R (R is the gas constant) and that it is almost independent of temperature. The glass transition observed during cooling is accompanied by a decrease in the specific heat of 1.5R. The specific heat of the metallic glass is similar to that of its crystalline phases, contributed mainly from atomic vibrations. Combined with the results of the structural relaxation and diffusivities, we demonstrate an intrinsic connection between the atomic motion and the specific heat in the metallic glass-forming liquid. The results support the idea that glass transition is a process accompanied by the freezing of most of the atomic transitional motions in a metallic supercooled liquid during cooling.

  1. New genetic tools to identify and protect typical italian products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lanteri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During last decades the use of local varieties was strongly reduced due to introduction of modern cultivars characterized by higher yield, and breed for different traits of agronomic value. However, these cultivars not always have the quality aspects that was found in old traditional and typical crops also depending from the know-how of traditional cultivation. Nowadays the practise of intensive agriculture select only a small number of species and varieties with a consequent reduction of the diversity in agro-ecosystems and risk of loss of important alleles characterizing genetic materials adapted to specific environments. The creation of quality marks of the European Union proved to be a successful system to protect typical products through the Denomination of Origins (PDO- Protected Denomination of Origin and PGI- Protected Geographical Indication. However, the protection of quality needs efficient instruments to discriminate DOP or IGP varieties in the field and to trace them along the agro-food chain. DNA fingerprinting represents an excellent system to discriminate herbaceous and tree species as well as to quantify the amount of genetic variability present in germplasm collections. The paper describes several examples in which AFLPs, SSRs and minisatellite markers were successfully used to identify tomato, artichoke, grape, apple and walnut varieties proving to be effective in discriminating also closely related genetic material. DNA fingerprinting based on SSR is also a powerful tool to trace and authenticate row plant materials in agro-food chains. The paper describes examples of varieties traceability in the food chains durum wheat, olive, apple and tomato pursued through the identification of SSR allelic profiles obtained from DNA isolated from complex highly processed food, such as bread, olive oil, apple pureè and nectar and peeled tomato.

  2. New genetic tools to identify and protect typical italian products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lanteri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available During last decades the use of local varieties was strongly reduced due to introduction of modern cultivars characterized by higher yield, and breed for different traits of agronomic value. However, these cultivars not always have the quality aspects that was found in old traditional and typical crops also depending from the know-how of traditional cultivation. Nowadays the practise of intensive agriculture select only a small number of species and varieties with a consequent reduction of the diversity in agro-ecosystems and risk of loss of important alleles characterizing genetic materials adapted to specific environments. The creation of quality marks of the European Union proved to be a successful system to protect typical products through the Denomination of Origins (PDO- Protected Denomination of Origin and PGI- Protected Geographical Indication. However, the protection of quality needs efficient instruments to discriminate DOP or IGP varieties in the field and to trace them along the agro-food chain. DNA fingerprinting represents an excellent system to discriminate herbaceous and tree species as well as to quantify the amount of genetic variability present in germplasm collections. The paper describes several examples in which AFLPs, SSRs and minisatellite markers were successfully used to identify tomato, artichoke, grape, apple and walnut varieties proving to be effective in discriminating also closely related genetic material. DNA fingerprinting based on SSR is also a powerful tool to trace and authenticate row plant materials in agro-food chains. The paper describes examples of varieties traceability in the food chains durum wheat, olive, apple and tomato pursued through the identification of SSR allelic profiles obtained from DNA isolated from complex highly processed food, such as bread, olive oil, apple pureè and nectar and peeled tomato.

  3. Space and language in Williams syndrome: insights from typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Barbara; Ferrara, Katrina

    2013-11-01

    One of the holy grails of cognitive science is to understand the causal chain that links genes and cognition. Genetic syndromes accompanied by cognitive effects offer natural experiments that can uniquely inform our understanding of this chain. In this article, we discuss the case of Williams syndrome (WS), which is characterized by a set of missing genes on chromosome 7q11.23, and presents with a unique cognitive profile that includes severe spatial impairment along with strikingly fluent and well-structured language. An early inference from this profile was the idea that a small group of genes could directly target one cognitive system while leaving others unaffected. Recent evidence shows that this inference fails. First, the profile within the spatial domain is varied, with relative strength in some aspects of spatial representation but severe impairment in others. Second, some aspects of language may fail to develop fully, raising the question of how to compare the resilience and fragility of the two key cognitive domains in this syndrome. Third, much research on the profile fails to place findings in the context of typical developmental trajectories. We explore these points and propose a new hypothesis that explains the unusual WS cognitive profile by considering normal mechanisms of cognitive development that undergo change on an extremely prolonged timetable. This hypothesis places the elements of the WS cognitive profile in a new light, refocuses the discussion of the gene-cognition causal chain for WS and other disorders, and more generally, underlines the importance of understanding cognitive structure in both typical and atypical development. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:693-703. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1258 Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Memory for sequences of events impaired in typical aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy A.; Morris, Andrea M.; Stark, Shauna M.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2015-01-01

    Typical aging is associated with diminished episodic memory performance. To improve our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying this age-related memory deficit, we previously developed an integrated, cross-species approach to link converging evidence from human and animal research. This novel approach focuses on the ability to remember sequences of events, an important feature of episodic memory. Unlike existing paradigms, this task is nonspatial, nonverbal, and can be used to isolate different cognitive processes that may be differentially affected in aging. Here, we used this task to make a comprehensive comparison of sequence memory performance between younger (18–22 yr) and older adults (62–86 yr). Specifically, participants viewed repeated sequences of six colored, fractal images and indicated whether each item was presented “in sequence” or “out of sequence.” Several out of sequence probe trials were used to provide a detailed assessment of sequence memory, including: (i) repeating an item from earlier in the sequence (“Repeats”; e.g., ABADEF), (ii) skipping ahead in the sequence (“Skips”; e.g., ABDDEF), and (iii) inserting an item from a different sequence into the same ordinal position (“Ordinal Transfers”; e.g., AB3DEF). We found that older adults performed as well as younger controls when tested on well-known and predictable sequences, but were severely impaired when tested using novel sequences. Importantly, overall sequence memory performance in older adults steadily declined with age, a decline not detected with other measures (RAVLT or BPS-O). We further characterized this deficit by showing that performance of older adults was severely impaired on specific probe trials that required detailed knowledge of the sequence (Skips and Ordinal Transfers), and was associated with a shift in their underlying mnemonic representation of the sequences. Collectively, these findings provide unambiguous evidence that the

  5. Artificial bias typically neglected in comparisons of uncertain atmospheric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Mikko R. A.; Mikkonen, Santtu; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.; Arola, Antti

    2016-04-01

    Researchers in atmospheric sciences frequently disregard data uncertainty in their choice of methods for data analysis and visualisation. Such methods include the widely used standard least squares line fitting in combination with some variations of scatter plots when comparing two different data sets of the same physical quantity. When using these methods, random data uncertainty (eg. measurement uncertainty) causes artificial systematic bias in the comparison between the extreme values of the data sets, which is then often interpreted falsely as a consequence of some true physical phenomenon or instrument misbehavior. This artificial bias is recognized as regression to the mean (RTM), that is a known effect in the field of statistics, but mostly disregarded in atmospheric sciences and not acknowledged at all in the vast majority of publications in our field. All kinds of data comparisons are subject to the bias, as long as uncertainty is present in the data. This work introduces the concept of RTM bias and demonstrates the necessity of considering the RTM effect in comparisons of data with uncertainties. We not only visualize the RTM effect with synthetic data but also use simulations based on real atmospheric data to estimate the magnitude of RTM bias in data comparisons common in our field. Typically, RTM bias is greater when the reference data (often on the x-axis) has greater uncertainty. For example, mid-visible aerosol optical thickness determined using a sun photometer may have a fairly low uncertainty of +-0.01 and, thus the RTM effect is small when using it as reference data. On the other hand UV index measurements with a broadband instrument may have an uncertainty of 10 % and higher, and the bias caused by RTM becomes larger. The bias caused by RTM is typically greatest for the extreme values of the data sets, emphasizing the need to account for RTM bias when comparing and interpreting these cases.

  6. Paragonimus westermani possesses aerobic and anaerobic mitochondria in different tissues, adapting to fluctuating oxygen tension in microaerobic habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamiya, Shinzaburo; Fukuda, Koich; Nakamura, Takeshi; Aoki, Takashi; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2010-12-01

    We previously showed that adult Paragonimus westermani, the causative agent of paragonimiasis and whose habitat is the host lung, possesses both aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chains, i.e., cyanide-sensitive succinate oxidase and NADH-fumarate reductase systems, in isolated mitochondria (Takamiya et al., 1994). This finding raises the intriguing question as to whether adult Paragonimus worms possess two different populations of mitochondria, one having an aerobic succinate oxidase system and the other an anaerobic fumarate reductase system, or whether the worms possess a single population of mitochondria possessing both respiratory chains (i.e., mixed-functional mitochondria). Staining of trematode tissues for cytochrome c oxidase activity showed three types of mitochondrial populations: small, strongly stained mitochondria with many cristae, localised in the tegument and tegumental cells; and two larger parenchymal cell mitochondria, one with developed cristae and the other with few cristae. The tegumental and parenchymal mitochondria could be separated by isopycnic density-gradient centrifugation and showed different morphological characteristics and respiratory activities, with low-density tegumental mitochondria having cytochrome c oxidase activity and high-density parenchymal mitochondria having fumarate reductase activity. These results indicate that Paragonimus worms possess three different populations of mitochondria, which are distributed throughout trematode tissues and function facultatively, rather than having mixed-functional mitochondria.

  7. SfDredd, a Novel Initiator Caspase Possessing Activity on Effector Caspase Substrates in Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouning Yang

    Full Text Available Sf9, a cell line derived from Spodoptera frugiperda, is an ideal model organism for studying insect apoptosis. The first notable study that attempted to identify the apoptotic pathway in Sf9 was performed in 1997 and included the discovery of Sf-caspase-1, an effector caspase of Sf9. However, it was not until 2013 that the first initiator caspase in Sf9, SfDronc, was discovered, and the apoptotic pathway in Sf9 became clearer. In this study, we report another caspase of Sf9, SfDredd. SfDredd is highly similar to insect initiator caspase Dredd homologs. Experimentally, recombinant SfDredd underwent autocleavage and exhibited different efficiencies in cleavage of synthetic caspase substrates. This was attributed to its caspase activity for the predicted active site mutation blocked the above autocleavage and synthetic caspase substrates cleavage activity. SfDredd was capable of not only cleaving Sf-caspase-1 in vitro but also cleaving Sf-caspase-1 and inducing apoptosis when it was co-expressed with Sf-caspase-1 in Sf9 cells. The protein level of SfDredd was increased when Sf9 cells were treated by Actinomycin D, whereas silencing of SfDredd reduced apoptosis and Sf-caspase-1 cleavage induced by Actinomycin D treatment. These results clearly indicate that SfDredd functioned as an apoptotic initiator caspase. Apoptosis induced in Sf9 cells by overexpression of SfDredd alone was not as obvious as that induced by SfDronc alone, and the cleavage sites of Sf-caspase-1 for SfDredd and SfDronc are different. In addition, despite sharing a sequence homology with initiator caspases and possessing weak activity on initiator caspase substrates, SfDredd showed strong activity on effector caspase substrates, making it the only insect caspase reported so far functioning similar to human caspase-2 in this aspect. We believe that the discovery of SfDredd, and its different properties from SfDronc, will improve the understanding of apoptosis pathway in Sf9 cells.

  8. SfDredd, a Novel Initiator Caspase Possessing Activity on Effector Caspase Substrates in Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhouning; Zhou, Ke; Liu, Hao; Wu, Andong; Mei, Long; Liu, Qingzhen

    2016-01-01

    Sf9, a cell line derived from Spodoptera frugiperda, is an ideal model organism for studying insect apoptosis. The first notable study that attempted to identify the apoptotic pathway in Sf9 was performed in 1997 and included the discovery of Sf-caspase-1, an effector caspase of Sf9. However, it was not until 2013 that the first initiator caspase in Sf9, SfDronc, was discovered, and the apoptotic pathway in Sf9 became clearer. In this study, we report another caspase of Sf9, SfDredd. SfDredd is highly similar to insect initiator caspase Dredd homologs. Experimentally, recombinant SfDredd underwent autocleavage and exhibited different efficiencies in cleavage of synthetic caspase substrates. This was attributed to its caspase activity for the predicted active site mutation blocked the above autocleavage and synthetic caspase substrates cleavage activity. SfDredd was capable of not only cleaving Sf-caspase-1 in vitro but also cleaving Sf-caspase-1 and inducing apoptosis when it was co-expressed with Sf-caspase-1 in Sf9 cells. The protein level of SfDredd was increased when Sf9 cells were treated by Actinomycin D, whereas silencing of SfDredd reduced apoptosis and Sf-caspase-1 cleavage induced by Actinomycin D treatment. These results clearly indicate that SfDredd functioned as an apoptotic initiator caspase. Apoptosis induced in Sf9 cells by overexpression of SfDredd alone was not as obvious as that induced by SfDronc alone, and the cleavage sites of Sf-caspase-1 for SfDredd and SfDronc are different. In addition, despite sharing a sequence homology with initiator caspases and possessing weak activity on initiator caspase substrates, SfDredd showed strong activity on effector caspase substrates, making it the only insect caspase reported so far functioning similar to human caspase-2 in this aspect. We believe that the discovery of SfDredd, and its different properties from SfDronc, will improve the understanding of apoptosis pathway in Sf9 cells.

  9. Medicinal Mushroom Extracts Possess Differential Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity to Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbatrawy, Eman Nasr; Ghonimy, Eglal AbdAllah; Alassar, Mahomud Mohammed; Wu, Fang-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Many species of edible mushrooms are known to contain a wide array of compounds with high nutritional and medicinal values. However, these values vary widely among mushroom species because of the wide diversity of compounds with different solubilities to solvents used in extraction. We report here the comparison of antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity against cancer cells in extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, Agaricus campestris, and A. bisporus from 7 different solvents, including water, ethanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, chloroform, hexane, and petroleum ether. The extracts were analyzed for their antioxidant activities using the % DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazylhydrate) scavenging activity method. Our results revealed that the water extracts exhibited the highest % DPPH scavenging activity in comparison to all other solvent extracts. The highest value was obtained from the water extract of P. sajor-caju (78.1%), and the lowest one was from the hexane extract of A. bisporus (0.8%). In general, extracts from nonpolar solvents exhibited much lower antioxidant activities than those from polar solvents. The cytotoxic effects of these extracts were evaluated using 2 cancer cell lines of larynx carcinoma (HEp-2) and breast carcinoma (MCF-7). When added into Hep-2 cells, the hexane extracts from P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, A. bisporus, and A. campestris yielded the highest IC50 values of 1.7 ± 1.56, 2.1 ± 2.82, 4.4 ± 1.71, and 2.2 ± 1.34 μg/mL, respectively, in comparison to all other solvent extracts. Similar IC50 values were obtained when the MCF-2 cancer cells were tested, suggesting that hexane is the preferred solvent to extract the anticancer compounds from these mushrooms. Our results also indicated that extracts from solvents with nonpolar or intermediate polarity were more potent than those with high polarity in their cytotoxicity against cancer cells, and extracts from different mushrooms by the same solvent possessed varied degrees of

  10. Rickettsia typhi possesses phospholipase A2 enzymes that are involved in infection of host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sayeedur Rahman

    Full Text Available The long-standing proposal that phospholipase A2 (PLA2 enzymes are involved in rickettsial infection of host cells has been given support by the recent characterization of a patatin phospholipase (Pat2 with PLA2 activity from the pathogens Rickettsia prowazekii and R. typhi. However, pat2 is not encoded in all Rickettsia genomes; yet another uncharacterized patatin (Pat1 is indeed ubiquitous. Here, evolutionary analysis of both patatins across 46 Rickettsia genomes revealed 1 pat1 and pat2 loci are syntenic across all genomes, 2 both Pat1 and Pat2 do not contain predicted Sec-dependent signal sequences, 3 pat2 has been pseudogenized multiple times in rickettsial evolution, and 4 ubiquitous pat1 forms two divergent groups (pat1A and pat1B with strong evidence for recombination between pat1B and plasmid-encoded homologs. In light of these findings, we extended the characterization of R. typhi Pat1 and Pat2 proteins and determined their role in the infection process. As previously demonstrated for Pat2, we determined that 1 Pat1 is expressed and secreted into the host cytoplasm during R. typhi infection, 2 expression of recombinant Pat1 is cytotoxic to yeast cells, 3 recombinant Pat1 possesses PLA2 activity that requires a host cofactor, and 4 both Pat1 cytotoxicity and PLA2 activity were reduced by PLA2 inhibitors and abolished by site-directed mutagenesis of catalytic Ser/Asp residues. To ascertain the role of Pat1 and Pat2 in R. typhi infection, antibodies to both proteins were used to pretreat rickettsiae. Subsequent invasion and plaque assays both indicated a significant decrease in R. typhi infection compared to that by pre-immune IgG. Furthermore, antibody-pretreatment of R. typhi blocked/delayed phagosomal escapes. Together, these data suggest both enzymes are involved early in the infection process. Collectively, our study suggests that R. typhi utilizes two evolutionary divergent patatin phospholipases to support its intracellular life

  11. Aqueous Extracts of Teucrium polium Possess Remarkable Antioxidant Activity In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Ljubuncic

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Teucrium polium L. (Lamiaceae (RDC 1117 is a medicinal plant whose species have been used for over 2000 years in traditional medicine due to its diuretic, diaphoretic, tonic, antipyretic, antispasmodic and cholagogic properties. The therapeutic benefit of medicinal plants is often attributed to their antioxidant properties. We previously reported that an aqueous extract of the leaves and stems of this plant could inhibit iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate at concentrations that were not toxic to cultured hepatic cells. Others have reported that organic extracts of the aerial components of this plant could inhibit oxidative processes. Against this background, we felt further investigation on the antioxidant action of the extract of T. polium prepared according to traditional Arab medicine was warranted. Accordingly, we assessed (i its ability to inhibit (a oxidation of β-carotene, (b 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropan dihydrochloride (AAPH-induced plasma oxidation and (c iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenates; (ii to scavenge the superoxide ($${\\hbox{ O }}_{2}^{\\bullet -}$$ radical and the hydroxyl radical (OH•; (iii its effects on the enzyme xanthine oxidase activity; (iv its capacity to bind iron; and (v its effect on cell glutathione (GSH homeostasis in cultured Hep G2 cells. We found that the extract (i inhibited (a oxidation of β-carotene, (b AAPH-induced plasma oxidation (c Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenates (IC50 = 7 ± 2 μg ml−1; (ii scavenged $${\\hbox{ O }}_{2}^{\\bullet -}$$(IC50 = 12 ± 3 μg ml−1 and OH• (IC50 = 66 ± 20 μg ml−1; (iii binds iron (IC50 = 79 ± 17 μg ml−1; and (iv tended to increase intracellular GSH levels resulting in a decrease in the GSSG/GSH ratio. These results demonstrate that the extract prepared from the T. polium possesses antioxidant activity in vitro. Further investigations are needed to verify whether this antioxidant effect occurs

  12. Comparison of Energy Performance of Different HVAC Systems for a Typical Office Room and a Typical Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    This report is part of the work performed under the project “Natural cooling and Ventilation through Diffuse Ceiling Supply and Thermally Activated Building Constructions”. In this project, a new system solution combining natural ventilation with diffuse ceiling inlet and thermally activated...... the energy consumption for buildings with cooling demand in cold seasons. In this way, the building system can operate at a very low energy use all the year round. The main purpose of this task is to investigate the energy performance of different HVAC systems used in the office room and the classroom......, and find the potential of energy saving for the proposed new system solution. In this report, a typical room is selected according to the previous study, but the occupation is different for the purpose of the office and the classroom. Energy performance of these two types of room under different internal...

  13. Longitudinal changes in cortical thickness in autism and typical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigge, Molly B. D.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Zygmunt, Kristen M.; Travers, Brittany G.; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of brain growth in autism spectrum disorders remains unclear. Cross-sectional studies have identified regional abnormalities in brain volume and cortical thickness in autism, although substantial discrepancies have been reported. Preliminary longitudinal studies using two time points and small samples have identified specific regional differences in cortical thickness in the disorder. To clarify age-related trajectories of cortical development, we examined longitudinal changes in cortical thickness within a large mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal sample of autistic subjects and age- and gender-matched typically developing controls. Three hundred and forty-five magnetic resonance imaging scans were examined from 97 males with autism (mean age = 16.8 years; range 3–36 years) and 60 males with typical development (mean age = 18 years; range 4–39 years), with an average interscan interval of 2.6 years. FreeSurfer image analysis software was used to parcellate the cortex into 34 regions of interest per hemisphere and to calculate mean cortical thickness for each region. Longitudinal linear mixed effects models were used to further characterize these findings and identify regions with between-group differences in longitudinal age-related trajectories. Using mean age at time of first scan as a reference (15 years), differences were observed in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis and pars triangularis, right caudal middle frontal and left rostral middle frontal regions, and left frontal pole. However, group differences in cortical thickness varied by developmental stage, and were influenced by IQ. Differences in age-related trajectories emerged in bilateral parietal and occipital regions (postcentral gyrus, cuneus, lingual gyrus, pericalcarine cortex), left frontal regions (pars opercularis, rostral middle frontal and frontal pole), left supramarginal gyrus, and right transverse temporal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and

  14. The impact of possession on legality of mortgage registered on a building under construction: With case law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicković Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the subject of a mortgage to buildings under construction is a considerable step forward in regulating mortgages. It is not possible to register ownership rights on buildings under construction. A person acquiring ownership does not have the possibility to protect his rights. Acquiring ownership rights to a building under construction is tied to possession. This is detrimental to the principle of publicity which in turn erodes the principle of reliance. Validity of the mortgage is tied to the possession over the mortgaged real estate at the time of its registration. Such position of the courts challenges the very essence of mortgage.

  15. Concepts or metacognition--what is the issue? Commentary on Stephane Savanah's "The concept possession hypothesis of self-consciousness".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musholt, Kristina

    2012-06-01

    The author claims that concept possession is not only necessary but also sufficient for self-consciousness, where self-consciousness is understood as the awareness of oneself as a self. Further, he links concept possession to intelligent behavior. His ultimate aim is to provide a framework for the study of self-consciousness in infants and non-human animals. I argue that the claim that all concepts are necessarily related to the self-concept remains unconvincing and suggest that what might be at issue here are not so much conceptual but rather metacognitive abilities.

  16. Cortical and subcortical changes in typically developing preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftuler, L Tugan; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Buss, Claudia; Head, Kevin; Hasso, Anton N; Sandman, Curt A

    2011-07-05

    There is evidence that abnormal cerebral development during childhood is a risk factor for various cognitive and psychiatric disorders. There is not, however, sufficient normative data available on large samples of typically developing children, especially within the narrow preadolescent age range. We analyzed high resolution MRI images from 126 normally developing children between ages 6 and 10 years. Age related differences in cortical thickness and in the volumes of major subcortical structures were assessed. Thinner cortices were observed in the occipital, parietal and somatosensory regions as well as in distinct regions of the temporal and frontal lobes with increasing age. Among the major subcortical structures analyzed in this study, only the thalamus showed increased volume with age after accounting for intracranial volume. Within the age range studied age-related cortical and subcortical differences were similar for boys and girls except for the right insula, where girls showed a slight increase in thickness with age. The findings reveal age-associated changes in brain anatomy, providing information about the trajectory of normal brain development during late childhood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Effect of Three Typical Disinfection Byproducts on Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Lu; Zhang, Meng-lu; Wang, Chun-ming; Lin, Hui-rong; Yu, Xin

    2015-07-01

    The effect of typical disinfection byproducts (DBPs) on bacterial antibiotic resistance was investigated in this study. chlorodibromomethane (CDBM), iodoacetic acid (IAA) and chloral hydrate (CH) were selected, which belong to trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and aldehydes, respectively. After exposure to the selected DBPs, the resistance change of the tested strains to antibiotics was determined. As a result, all of the three DBPs induced Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to gain increased resistance to the five antibiotics tested, and the DBPs ranked as IAA > CH > CDBM according to their enhancement effects. Multidrug resistance could also be enhanced by treatment with IAA. The same result was observed in Escherichia coli K12, suggesting that the effect of DBPs on antibiotic resistance was a common phenomenon. The mechanism was probably that DBPs stimulated oxidative stress, which induced mutagenesis. And the antibiotic resistance mutation frequency could be increased along with mutagenesis. This study revealed that the acquisition of bacterial antibiotic resistance might be related to DBPs in drinking water systems. Besides the genotoxicological risks, the epidemiological risks of DBPs should not be overlooked.

  18. Typical application of Rogowski coils in inspection of electrobath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭红; 贾正春

    2004-01-01

    During the aluminum electrolytic roasting process, each component of the electrobath of aluminum performs unsteadily when the electrolytic bath is in the pre-roasting stage. It is important to monitor the currents of the anodes and the cathodes of the aluminum electrobath at regular intervals. Both practice and investigation indicate that Rogowski coil can be adopted to measure heavy direct current of the anodes and the cathodes of the aluminum electrobath. The paper not only introduces the typical application of the Rogowski coil to inspect the state of aluminum electrobath in the roasting process, but also analyzes the principles of the coil sensor including its dynamic properties and some important measurement results respectively. The optimal parameters of the coil can be simulated by means of an advanced simulation tool: simulink tools based on MATLAB soft environment. Based on the gathered current data, an even-current coefficient has been introduced, and the current curve can be drawn. Since they are applied in AL-Electrolyzing, it is possible to distinguish the anode of which the current is not evenly distributed, and to take adjusting measures over a period of time to ensure that the current is evenly distributed.

  19. INDIVIDUAL TYPICAL FEATURES OF MICROCIRCULATION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anosov I. P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the question of primary school age children`s blood microcirculation in dependence on their individual typical features. We examined some 120 healthy children of 6-9 years, which were the students of secondary schools of the city of Melitopol. Anthropometric survey was conducted by the standard measurement scheme of longitudinal chest and weight parameters of the bodies of children. Diagnosis of body type (somatotype was conducted by the method of M. Chernorutskiy. According to the index of physical development - Pine index (PI, the children were divided into three somatic type: asthenic with IP> 30 gipersteni at PI <10 and normostenic type at 10

  20. ORGANIC NITROGEN IN A TYPIC HAPLUDOX FERTILIZED WITH PIG SLURRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco André Grohskopf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of pig slurry may have a different effect on nitrogen dynamics in soil compared to mineral fertilization. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the different forms of organic N in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (Typic Hapludox and their relationship to N uptake by crops in response to 10 years of annual application of pig slurry and mineral fertilizer. The treatments were application rates of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 m3 ha-1 of pig slurry, in addition to mineral fertilizer, organized in a randomized block design with four replications. The N contents were determined in the plant tissue and in the forms of total N and acid hydrolyzed fractions: ammonium-N, hexosamine-N, α-amino-N, amide-N, and unidentified-N. Annual application of pig slurry or mineral fertilizer increased the total-N content in the 0-10 cm depth layer. The main fractions of organic N in the soil were α-amino-N when pig slurry was applied and unidentified-N in the case of mineral fertilizers. Pig slurry increased the N fractions considered as labile: α-amino-N, ammonium-N, and amide-N. The increase in these labile organic N fractions in the soil through pig slurry application allows greater N uptake by the maize and oat crops in a no-tillage system.

  1. Typical distribution of the solar erythemal UV radiation over Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pribullová

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Maps of the solar erythemal ultraviolet (UV radiation daily doses were created for every month with horizontal resolution of 500 m at geographical domain 47.15 N–49.86 N×16.94 E–22.81 E covering the territory of Slovakia. Cloud modification factor for the UV radiation (cmfUV was modelled utilizing relation between the cmf of total and UV radiation.

    The maps of the cmf factor of the UV radiation were created utilizing measurements of total radiation performed at 9 observatories during 1995–2004 period and the model of cmf dependence on altitude. Maps of clear-sky UV radiation daily dose and UV radiation daily dose affected by average cloudiness were constructed for mean monthly total ozone, their upper and lower monthly limits, for two probability levels of snow cover occurrence as criterion for the snow effect incorporation in the model and for 1 day representing typical values of every month. The map-set can be considered as an atlas of the solar erythemal UV radiation over Slovakia.

  2. Typical distribution of the solar erythemal UV radiation over Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chmelík

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Maps of solar erythemal ultraviolet (EUV irradiance daily doses were created for every month with a horizontal resolution of 500 m at the geographical domain 47.15 N–49.86 N×16.94 E–22.81 E covering the territory of Slovakia. The cloud modification factor for the EUV radiation (cmfUV was modeled utilizing the relation between the cloud modification factor of global and EUV radiation. The maps of the cmfUV factor were created by utilizing measurements of global irradiance performed at nine observatories during the period 1995–2004 and modeling of the cmfUV dependence on altitude. Maps of the EUV irradiance daily dose corresponded to clear-sky conditions and EUV irradiance daily dose affected by average cloudiness were constructed for mean monthly total ozone, its upper and lower monthly limits, for two probability levels of snow cover occurrence as criteria for the snow effect incorporation in the model and for one day representing typical values for every month. The map-set can be regarded as an atlas of solar EUV radiation over Slovakia.

  3. New typical meterological years and solar radiation data manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A new solar radiation data manual and new typical meterological years (TMYs) were developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Analytic Studies Division under the Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project. These tasks were funded and monitored by the Photovoltaics Branch of the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The new manual and the new TMYs were derived from the 1961-1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). The new manual is entitled Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors. It provides designers and engineers of solar-energy-related systems with average monthly and yearly solar radiation values for various types of collectors for 239 stations in the United States and its territories. The new TMY data sets are referred to as TMY2s. This distinguishes them from earlier TMY data sets derived from the 1952-1975 SOLMET/ERSATZ data base. This paper describes the new data manual and the new TMY2s.

  4. A Typical Simulation of a 3-KW Stirling Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Stirling engine is being received more and more attention with the development of renewable energy utility. The paper described the design and simulation of a 3-KW Stirling engine based on a testing V-type machine while in the process of manufactured at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology. The engine was driven by solar energy. Based on the testing machine, the heater model of variable heat source, regenerator model and complete appliance model were built, and the thermal performance was simulated and shown under a typical sunlight in the area of Wuhan. The results suggested that the output power curve of Stirling engine appeared as the shape of a saddle in consideration that the radiant energy density of solar energy was non-constant, and electrical heating was employed to serve as the auxiliary heat source. There was about 1.83 KW output work of the manufactured engine during the simulation, and the effective efficiency was about 25.4%.

  5. Dependence of gait parameters on height in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Valentina; Nascimbeni, Alberto; Di Nardo, Francesco; Fioretti, Sandro; Burattini, Laura; Knaflitz, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In clinical gait analysis is fundamental to have access to normative data, to be used as a reference in the interpretation of pathological walking. In a paediatric population this may be complicated by the dependence of gait parameters on child growth. The aim of this work is to provide the correlations of spatial-temporal gait parameters with children's height. We obtained the regression lines of cadence, double support, and gait phases, with respect to height, from a sample of 85 normally typically developing children aged 6 to 11. Our analysis of gait phases was not limited to the traditional analysis of stance and swing, but rather focused on the sub-phases of stance - heel contact, flat foot contact, push off - which proved to be an innovative approach to gait analysis. Heel contact decreased, flat foot contact increased and push off remained essentially unchanged with respect to children's height. These results may be useful in the interpretation of gait data in developing children, and the regression lines obtained may be used to normalize their gait parameters.

  6. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in typically developing children: Laterality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to elucidate the dACC laterality in typically developing children and their sex/age-related differences with a sample of 84 right-handed children (6–16 years, 42 boys. We first replicated the previous finding observed in adults that gray matter density asymmetry in the dACC was region-specific: leftward (left > right in its superior part, rightward (left < right in its inferior part. Intrinsic connectivity analysis of these regions further revealed region-specific asymmetric connectivity profiles in dACC as well as their sex and age differences. Specifically, the superior dACC connectivity with frontoparietal network and the inferior dACC connectivity with visual network are rightward. The superior dACC connectivity with the default network (lateral temporal cortex was more involved in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the inferior dACC connectivity with the default network (anterior medial prefrontal cortex was more lateralized towards the right hemisphere. The superior dACC connectivity with lateral visual cortex was more distinct across two hemispheres in girls than that in boys. This connection in boys changed with age from right-prominent to left-prominent asymmetry whereas girls developed the connection from left-prominent to no asymmetry. These findings not only highlight the complexity and laterality of the dACC but also provided insights into dynamical structure–function relationships during the development.

  7. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in typically developing children: Laterality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Yang, Ning; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Han; Yan, Chao-Gan; Zang, Yu-Feng; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to elucidate the dACC laterality in typically developing children and their sex/age-related differences with a sample of 84 right-handed children (6-16 years, 42 boys). We first replicated the previous finding observed in adults that gray matter density asymmetry in the dACC was region-specific: leftward (left > right) in its superior part, rightward (left lateral temporal cortex) was more involved in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the inferior dACC connectivity with the default network (anterior medial prefrontal cortex) was more lateralized towards the right hemisphere. The superior dACC connectivity with lateral visual cortex was more distinct across two hemispheres in girls than that in boys. This connection in boys changed with age from right-prominent to left-prominent asymmetry whereas girls developed the connection from left-prominent to no asymmetry. These findings not only highlight the complexity and laterality of the dACC but also provided insights into dynamical structure-function relationships during the development.

  8. Emergence of typical entanglement in two-party random processes

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlsten, O C O; Plenio, M B

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the entanglement within a system undergoing a random, local process. We find that there is initially a phase of very fast generation and spread of entanglement. At the end of this phase the entanglement is typically maximal. In previous work we proved that the maximal entanglement is reached to a fixed arbitrary accuracy within $O(N^3)$ steps, where $N$ is the total number of qubits. Here we provide a detailed and more pedagogical proof. We demonstrate that one can use the so-called stabilizer gates to simulate this process efficiently on a classical computer. Furthermore, we discuss three ways of identifying the transition from the phase of rapid spread of entanglement to the stationary phase: (i) the time when saturation of the maximal entanglement is achieved, (ii) the cut-off moment, when the entanglement probability distribution is practically stationary, and (iii) the moment block entanglement scales exhibits volume scaling. We furthermore investigate the mixed state and multipartite sett...

  9. Structure of executive functions in typically developing kindergarteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, Sébastien; Bigras, Marc; Lafrenière, Marc-André

    2015-12-01

    Whereas studies of the past 10 years have shown the executive functions (EFs) in adults to be differentiated into at least three principal components (working memory, inhibition, and flexibility), EF structure in children is far less well understood despite a large body of research on the subject. A study was undertaken to test different structural models of EFs through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on a large sample of typically developing kindergarteners (N = 272). The method employed sought to remedy the shortcomings of past research in this field such as absence of CFA, insufficient number of EF components tested, insufficient number of indicators per latent variable, and absence of control on processing speed. Children were assessed using a battery of EF tasks developed by the researchers to measure working memory (WM), flexibility, and inhibition (backward word span, backward block span, fruit Stroop, day-night test, hand Stroop, Trails-P, card sort, face sort, and verbal fluency shift). CFA results show the best-fitting model to comprise two factors, namely, an inhibition factor and a WM-flexibility factor. Invariance analyses suggest that this structure is the same for girls and boys and that latent variable means do not differ by sex. These results support the hypothesis of EF differentiation during development. The researchers formulate other hypotheses regarding neurophysiological development.

  10. Comparison of typical mega cities in China using emergy synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. X.; Chen, B.; Yang, Z. F.; Chen, G. Q.; Jiang, M. M.; Liu, G. Y.

    2009-06-01

    An emergy-based comparison analysis is conducted for three typical mega cities in China, i.e., Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, from 1990 to 2005 in four perspectives including emergy intensity, resource structure, environmental pressure and resource use efficiency. A new index of non-renewable emergy/money ratio is established to indicate the utilization efficiency of the non-renewable resources. The results show that for the three mega urban systems, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the total emergy inputs were 3.76E+23, 3.54E+23, 2.52E+23 sej in 2005, of which 64.88%, 91.45% and 72.28% were imported from the outsides, respectively. As to the indicators of emergy intensity involving the total emergy use, emergy density and emergy use per cap, three cities exhibited similar overall increase trends with annual fluctuations from 1990 to 2005. Shanghai achieved the highest level of economic development and non-renewable resource use efficiency, and meanwhile, lower proportion of renewable resource use and higher environmental pressure compared to those of Beijing and Guangzhou. Guangzhou has long term sustainability considering an amount of local renewable resources used, per capita emergy used, energy consumption per unit GDP and the ratio of waste to renewable emergy. It can be concluded that different emergy-based evaluation results arise from different geographical locations, resources endowments, industrial structures and urban orientations of the concerned mega cities.

  11. Characterisation of lab in typical Salento Pecorino cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, M S; Laddomada, B; Poltronieri, P; Zacheo, G

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-nine strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria isolated from the typical Pecorino cheese of the Salento area of Italy, were identified and grouped according to their genetic similarity. A preliminary characterisation of the strains was conducted by means of morphological and biochemical analysis, but molecular approaches were necessary for the clear identification of the species. For the species detection, the amplification and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene was employed In addition, restriction analysis of amplified rDNA (ARDRA) and PCR and AFLP fingerprinting enabled inter- and intra-specific variation to be estimated UPGMA cluster analysis was used to divide the strains into distinct clusters which corresponded with the species delineation obtained by molecular identification. The data obtained show that the community of lactobacilli responsible for the fermentation and aging of Pecorino cheese is composed of a limited number of species. The main identified strains were Lactobacillus brevis, L. plantarum, L. casei, L. sakei, L. pentosus, L. farciminis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides.

  12. Costimulatory receptors in a teleost fish: Typical CD28, elusive CTLA4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, D.; Riteau, B.; Hansen, J.D.; Phillips, R.B.; Michel, F.; Boudinot, P.; Benmansour, A.

    2006-01-01

    T cell activation requires both specific recognition of the peptide-MHC complex by the TCR and additional signals delivered by costimulatory receptors. We have identified rainbow trout sequences similar to CD28 (rbtCD28) and CTLA4 (rbtCTLA4). rbtCD28 and rbtCTLA4 are composed of an extracellular Ig-superfamily V domain, a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic tail. The presence of a conserved ligand binding site within the V domain of both molecules suggests that these receptors likely recognize the fish homologues of the B7 family. The mRNA expression pattern of rbtCD28 and rbtCTLA4 in naive trout is reminiscent to that reported in humans and mice, because rbtCTLA4 expression within trout leukocytes was quickly up-regulated following PHA stimulation and virus infection. The cytoplasmic tail of rbtCD28 possesses a typical motif that is conserved in mammalian costimulatory receptors for signaling purposes. A chimeric receptor made of the extracellular domain of human CD28 fused to the cytoplasmic tail of rbtCD28 promoted TCR-induced IL-2 production in a human T cell line, indicating that rbtCD28 is indeed a positive costimulator. The cytoplasmic tail of rtrtCTLA4 lacked obvious signaling motifs and accordingly failed to signal when fused to the huCD28 extracellular domain. Interestingly, rbtCTLA4 and rbtCD28 are not positioned on the same chromosome and thus do not belong to a unique costimulatory cluster as in mammals. Finally, oar results raise questions about the origin and evolution of positive and negative costimulation in vertebrate immune systems. Copyright ?? 2006 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  14. Investigation of pollution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls in the typical drinking water sources in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ye; Chunhong, Zhou; Xiaoxiong, Zeng

    2009-11-01

    Concentration and composition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the typical drinking water sources in Jiangsu Province were studied by scene investigation and physical and chemical analyses as well. Total amount of PCBs in some surface water and surface microlayers exceeded the standard (20 ng/l) in the "Environmental Quality Standard of Surface Water". There were less PCBs in suspended substances and bottom mud. It reflected that there was less PCB pollution in drinking water sources in Jiangsu Province for quite a long period. The main kind of PCBs in the typical drinking water sources was dichlorobiphenyl. Monochlorobiphenyl and trichlorobiphenyl ranked next to dichlorobiphenyl. In the study of PCB distribution in drinking water sources, it was found that the concentration of PCBs in surface microlayer was higher than that in deep water. The concentration of PCBs along the Yangtze River bank was more than that in the middle of Yangtze River. PCBs in the typical drinking water sources mostly came from by-products in industrial production.

  15. Typical tumors of the petrous bone; Typische Tumoren des Felsenbeins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlhelm, F.; Mueller, U. [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Institut fuer Radiologie, Baden (Switzerland); Ulmer, S. [Medizinisch-Radiologisches Institut, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2014-04-15

    In the region of the petrous bone, inner acoustic canal and cerebellopontine angle, a variety of different tissues can be found, such as bony, epithelial, neural and vascular structures. Tumorous or tumor-like lesions, vascular or bony malformations or other pathologies can therefore be found in all of these areas. We discuss various frequently occurring tumorous or tumor-like pathologies including congential lesions, such as mucoceles, inflammatory disorders including osteomyelitis, pseudotumors and Wegener's granulomatosis. Benign non-neoplastic lesions, such as cholesteatoma, cholesterol granuloma, epidermoid and benign neoplastic tumors, such as the most commonly found vestibular schwannoma, meningeoma, paraganglioma, vascular pathologies and finally malignant lesions, such as metastasis, chordoma or chondrosarcoma and endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) are also discussed. The emphasis of this article is on the appearance of these entities in computed tomography (CT) and more so magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it provides key facts and typical images and discusses possibilities how to distinguish these pathologies. (orig.) [German] In der Region des Felsenbein, inneren Gehoerkanals und Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels findet sich eine Vielzahl an unterschiedlichen Gewebearten inklusive knoechernes, epitheliales, nervales und vaskulaeres Gewebe. Tumoren oder tumoraehnliche Laesionen, ossaere oder vaskulaere Pathologien koennen entsprechend dort gefunden werden. Wir diskutieren verschiedene Tumoren oder tumoraehnliche Pathologien inklusive angeborene Laesionen wie Muko- und Meningozelen, entzuendliche Veraenderungen wie die Osteomyelitis, Pseudotumoren, die Wegener-Granulomatose, nichtneoplastische Tumoren wie das Epidermoid, Cholesteatom oder Cholesterolgranulom und gutartige neoplastische Tumoren wie das am haeufigsten zu findende Vestibularisschwannom, das Paragangliom und das Meningeom, Gefaessprozesse/-pathologien und schliesslich maligne Laesionen wie Metastasen

  16. Typical Lignocellulose-degrading Enzymes: a Synthesis of Kinetic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.; Post, W. M.; Mayes, M. A.; Frerichs, J.; Jagadamma, S.

    2011-12-01

    While soil enzymes have been explicitly included in the soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition models, there are big concerns on the model parameterization. Our object is to study the kinetic parameters of five typical lignocellulose-degrading enzymes through literature research and data synthesis. The kinetic parameters refer to the maximum specific enzyme activity (Vmax) and half-saturation constant (Km) in the Michaelis-Menton equation. The Activation energy (Ea) and the pH optimum and sensitivity (pHopt and pHsen) were also analyzed. pHsen was estimated by curve fitting of an exponential-quadratic function. The Vmax values in different units under various conditions were converted into the same units at a reference temperature (20°C) and optimum pH. The scaling issue on Vmax and Km and the effects of soil temperature, pH, and SWC were discussed later. Major findings are summarized as follows. (i) Both Vmax and Km are log-normal distributed. (ii) No significant difference in Vmax is found between groups (ligninases and cellulases). The one-standard-deviation interval of Vmax falls within 10-1000 (mean ≈ 100) mg C mg^-1 Enz h^-1. However, there is significant difference in Km between groups. (iii) Significant difference in activation energy, i.e., 53±17 and 37±15 kJ mol^-1 is found for ligninases and cellulases, respectively. (iv) Both ligninases and cellulases prefer to acid environment. The average ratio of pHsen to pHopt ranges 0.3-0.4 and the optimum pH for ligninases is significantly lower than pHopt for cellulases. (v) A preliminary analysis of Vmax indicates a scaling factor 0.01-0.1 for transforming the Vmax from lab measurements to SOC decomposition models. This study provides useful information for the parameterization of enzyme-driven SOC decomposition models.

  17. Accuracy of the typical computed tomographic appearances of fibrosing alveolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, K T; Wells, A U; Rubens, M B; Kirk, J M; du Bois, R M; Hansell, D M

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Open lung biopsy is often performed to confirm the diagnosis in patients with suspected fibrosing alveolitis. The superior sensitivity and specificity of high resolution computed tomography (CT) over chest radiography in various diffuse lung diseases suggest that the characteristic appearance of fibrosing alveolitis on high resolution CT might render biopsy confirmation unnecessary. METHODS--The chest radiographs and high resolution CT scans of 86 patients (41 with fibrosing alveolitis and 45 with various other diffuse lung diseases) were examined individually and independently by two observers. No clinical information was given and the observers gave a level of confidence when the diagnosis was thought to be fibrosing alveolitis. RESULTS--The observers correctly and confidently discriminated between fibrosing alveolitis and other diffuse lung diseases on high resolution CT with an accuracy of 88% and on chest radiography with an accuracy of 76%. The false negative rate for fibrosing alveolitis diminished from 29% on chest radiography to 11% on high resolution CT. The false positive rate on chest radiography was 19% and on high resolution CT 13%; the false positive diagnoses on CT were the result of a few conditions (extrinsic allergic alveolitis, sarcoidosis, cryptogenic organising pneumonia, and pulmonary eosinophilia) which mimicked some of the CT features of fibrosing alveolitis. The superficial similarity of the CT patterns of these conditions are discussed. CONCLUSIONS--High resolution CT is superior to chest radiography in establishing the diagnosis of fibrosing alveolitis and the typical CT appearances are virtually pathognomonic. The diagnostic advantages of CT over chest radiography should further reduce the need for open lung biopsy in this condition. Images PMID:8135910

  18. TYPICAL HOT WATER DRAW PATTERNS BASED ON FIELD DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, Jim; Melody, Moya

    2012-11-08

    There is significant variation in hot water use and draw patterns among households. This report describes typical hot water use patterns in single-family residences in North America. We found that daily hot water use is highly variable both among residences and within the same residence. We compared the results of our analysis of the field data to the conditions and draw patterns established in the current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure for residential water heaters. The results show a higher number of smaller draws at lower flow rates than used in the test procedure. The data from which the draw patterns were developed were obtained from 12 separate field studies. This report describes the ways in which we managed, cleaned, and analyzed the data and the results of our data analysis. After preparing the data, we used the complete data set to analyze inlet and outlet water temperatures. Then we divided the data into three clusters reflecting house configurations that demonstrated small, medium, or large median daily hot water use. We developed the three clusters partly to reflect efforts of the ASHRAE standard project committee (SPC) 118.2 to revise the test procedure for residential water heaters to incorporate a range of draw patterns. ASHRAE SPC 118.2 has identified the need to separately evaluate at least three, and perhaps as many as five, different water heater capacities. We analyzed the daily hot water use data within each cluster in terms of volume and number of hot water draws. The daily draw patterns in each cluster were characterized using distributions for volume of draws, duration of draws, time since previous draw, and flow rates.

  19. Integrated SNG Production in a Typical Nordic Sawmill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennai Mesfun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced biomass-based motor fuels and chemicals are becoming increasingly important to replace fossil energy sources within the coming decades. It is likely that the new biorefineries will evolve mainly from existing forest industry sites, as they already have the required biomass handling infrastructure in place. The main objective of this work is to assess the potential for increasing the profit margin from sawmill byproducts by integrating innovative downstream processes. The focus is on the techno-economic evaluation of an integrated site for biomass-based synthetic natural gas (bio-SNG production. The option of using the syngas in a biomass-integrated gasification combined cycle (b-IGCC for the production of electricity (instead of SNG is also considered for comparison. The process flowsheets that are used to analyze the energy and material balances are modelled in MATLAB and Simulink. A mathematical process integration model of a typical Nordic sawmill is used to analyze the effects on the energy flows in the overall site, as well as to evaluate the site economics. Different plant sizes have been considered in order to assess the economy-of-scale effect. The technical data required as input are collected from the literature and, in some cases, from experiments. The investment cost is evaluated on the basis of conducted studies, third party supplier budget quotations and in-house database information. This paper presents complete material and energy balances of the considered processes and the resulting process economics. Results show that in order for the integrated SNG production to be favored, depending on the sawmill size, a biofuel subsidy in the order of 28–52 €/MWh SNG is required.

  20. Food Poisioning Typicality in Food Safety Vulnerable Area of Indonesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AdilBasukiAhza

    2001-01-01

    Food poisoning characteristics and patterns were studied in six vulnerable provinces of Indonesia to identify the typicality of food poisonings.Units of analysis were district level,gender,type of food,and place of events,using the data of incidence of food poisoning from 1987to 1998 period(ten year),Multivariate analysis and bi-plot technique were used to characterize the vulnerability of the areas based on the following variables:(1) time of symptom perceived,(2) number of cases for each kind of poison,(3) incidence of chemicals poisoning,and (4)incidence the microbial poisonings,It was found that the three provinces most vulnerable to food poisoning are Central Java,West Java and Jogyakarta.The causes of food poisoning incidence are microbial poisonings(49.36%),chemicals(24.50%),natural toxicant(4.66%),and other causes or indications(21.37%),The poisoning symptoms were perceived within 1.0-144 hrs with incubation time of 0.08 to 33.00 hrs after food intake,depedn on the type of poison.The type of foods that caused poisoning are family prepared foods(30.57%),preserved food(industrial products) (29.94%),food from catering services(21.66%),traditional foods(10.83%) and street foods(7.00%),WOmen are more vulnerable(67.84)than men(32.16%),The most vulnerable places for food poisoning are respectively at home(family)(44.16%),at workplaces (16.23%),party venue(14.29%),school(12.99%),and in public places(12.34%).The results lead to the urgent needs of a better formulation,more stringent food control policy and regulation at district levels,the use of different approach towards a more locally oriented food poisoning safety measures and actions.

  1. Thermal diffusivity of typical Chernozems in the Kamennaya Steppe reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhangel'skaya, T. A.; Luk'yashchenko, K. I.; Tikhonravova, P. I.

    2015-02-01

    The thermal diffusivity of medium-deep light clayey typical chernozems (Voronic Chernozems (Pachic, Clayic)) has been studied, which varies with the soil water content in the ranges of (0.77-2.88) × 10-7 m2/s for the Ap horizon, (0.82-2.60) × 10-7 m2/s for the Ad horizon, (0.86-2.58) × 10-7 m2/s for the A1 horizon, (0.78-2.31) × 10-7 m2/s for the A1' horizon, (0.81-2.87) × 10-7 m2/s for the AB horizon, (1.01-3.33) × 10-7 m2/s for the B horizon, and (0.98-3.26) × 10-7 m2/s for the Bca horizon. The dependences of the thermal diffusivity on the water content are described by S-shaped curves with a long gently sloped segment in the region of volumetric water content below 0.15 cm3/cm3, a region of pronounced increase of thermal diffusivity in the water content range from 0.15 to 0.30-0.35 cm3/cm3, and the cessation of the increase or even some decrease in the water content range above 0.30-0.35 cm3/cm3. The approximation of the experimental curves has allowed developing a set of pedotransfer functions, which reflect the differences between the horizons and can be used for the quantification of the thermal diffusivity of the studied horizons at any water content.

  2. 78 FR 58204 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final... selection. Taking of migratory birds is prohibited unless specifically provided for by annual...

  3. 26 CFR 1.937-3 - Income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in a possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., pursuant to a plan or arrangement— (i) The income is received in exchange for consideration provided to... of a like kind) to a third person in exchange for one or more payments constituting income from... facility and shipped via common carrier, or downloaded from Corporation A's server in Possession X. The...

  4. Children enacting idioms of witchcraft and spirit possession as a response to trauma: therapeutically beneficial, and for whom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis, R.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines children’s enactment of spirit possession idioms and witchcraft in Africa including the meanings such idioms provide and the local healing resources they mobilize. Idioms of haunting spirits in Northern Uganda and witch-children elsewhere in Africa can be interpreted as manifes

  5. Do drug seizures predict drug-related emergency department presentations or arrests for drug use and possession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wai-Yin; Weatherburn, Don; Wardlaw, Grant; Sarafidis, Vasilis; Sara, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Direct evidence of the effect of drug seizures on drug use and drug-related harm is fairly sparse. The aim of this study was to see whether seizures of heroin, cocaine and ATS predict the number of people arrested for use and possession of these drugs and the number overdosing on them. We examined the effect of seizure frequency and seizure weight on arrests for drug use and possession and on the frequency of drug overdose with autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) models. Granger causality tests were used to test for simultaneity. Over the short term (i.e. up to 4 months), increases in the intensity of high-level drug law enforcement (as measured by seizure weight and frequency) directed at ATS, cocaine and heroin did not appear to have any suppression effect on emergency department (ED) presentations relating to ATS, cocaine and heroin, or on arrests for use and/or possession of these drugs. A significant negative contemporaneous relationship was found between the heroin seizure weight and arrests for use and/or possession of heroin. However no evidence emerged of a contemporaneous or lagged relationship between heroin seizures and heroin ED presentations. The balance of evidence suggests that, in the Australian context, increases in the monthly seizure frequency and quantity of ATS, cocaine and heroin are signals of increased rather than reduced supply. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 75 FR 53226 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous United States, Alaska, Hawaii...; woodcock; common snipe; sandhill cranes; sea ducks; early (September) waterfowl seasons; migratory game... seasons, limits, and other regulations for hunting migratory game birds under Sec. Sec. 20.101 through...

  7. Teen Tobacco Court: A Determination of the Short-Term Outcomes of Judicial Processes with Teens Engaging in Tobacco Possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Lilly M.; Warheit, George J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the impact of a tobacco citation and subsequent court appearance on teens who possessed tobacco, examining offenders' attitudes and behaviors following citation and court appearance. Surveys and interviews indicated that being ticketed and appearing in teen tobacco court had significant, positive, short-term impacts on large numbers…

  8. Potential Use of Singing in Educational Settings with Pre-Pubertal Children Possessing Speech and Voice Disorders: A Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinta, Tiija

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether children who possess speech and voice disorders could benefit from engaging in singing activities in educational settings, based on the psychological benefits of such activities. The impact of singing on children's psychological state and well-being was investigated with a participant population…

  9. Reactive, anxious and possessive forms of jealousy and their relation to relationship quality among heterosexuals and homosexuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, Dick P. H.; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between relational quality and three different types of jealousy-reactive, anxious and possessive jealousy. The sample consisted of 76 gay men, 79 lesbians, 70 heterosexual women and 70 heterosexual men. Findings show that different types of jealousy affec

  10. Residential photovoltaic installations in communities which possess Diesel generators; Instalacoes fotovoltaicas domiciliares em comunidades que possuam geradores a Diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilles, Andre Mocelin Roberto; Morante, Federico [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Lab. de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos]. E-mail: mocelin@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article presents a discussion on two possible options to provide with power energy one using Diesel generators with mini networks for distribution and other using residential photovoltaic systems. The objective of this article is to discuss some questions referring to the planing required by electrification projects using photovoltaic systems in communities already possessing distribution mini network and Diesel generators.

  11. When what you have is who you are: self-uncertainty leads individualists to see themselves in their possessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kimberly Rios; Johnson, Camille S

    2011-05-01

    Four studies tested whether uncertainty about the self-concept can motivate people, particularly individualists who define themselves in terms of their personal traits and characteristics, to perceive their material possessions as extensions of themselves (i.e., as self-expressive). In Study 1, European American participants rated their favorite pair of blue jeans as more self-expressive after being induced to feel self-uncertain, whereas Asian American participants did not. In Study 2, participants who scored high on a measure of individualism rated their cars as more self-expressive following a self-uncertainty manipulation. In Study 3, individualists (but not collectivists) rated their favorite possessions as more self-expressive after being subject to self-uncertainty; a manipulation of self-irrelevant uncertainty did not produce these results. In Study 4, thinking about a self-expressive (relative to utilitarian) possession bolstered self-certainty among individualists, but not collectivists. Implications for research on culture, the self-concept, and possessions are discussed.

  12. 76 FR 54657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... September 1, 2011 Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons...

  13. On the co-variation between form and function of adnominal possessive modifiers in Dutch and English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This contribution is concerned with Dutch and to a lesser extent English possessive modifiers introduced by the preposition of (Dutch van), as in a woman OF INFLUENCE or (Dutch) de auto VAN MIJN BROER (the car OF MY BROTHER) ‘my brother’s car’. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate that t...

  14. 22 CFR 72.27 - Export of cultural property; handling other property when export, possession, or import may be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export of cultural property; handling other property when export, possession, or import may be illegal. 72.27 Section 72.27 Foreign Relations... Personal Estates of Deceased United States Citizens and Nationals § 72.27 Export of cultural...

  15. Children enacting idioms of witchcraft and spirit possession as a response to trauma: therapeutically beneficial, and for whom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis, R.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines children’s enactment of spirit possession idioms and witchcraft in Africa including the meanings such idioms provide and the local healing resources they mobilize. Idioms of haunting spirits in Northern Uganda and witch-children elsewhere in Africa can be interpreted as

  16. Buccal and lingual activity during mastication and swallowing in typical adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, M J; Kenny, D J; Macmillan, R E

    2003-01-01

    A non-invasive protocol was developed to assess tongue and cheek movements during mastication and to evaluate the temporal relationship between mastication and the initiation of pharyngeal swallowing. Typical adults (three males and three females) were monitored during chewing. Miniature pressure transducers were bonded unilaterally to the buccal and lingual surfaces of the first mandibular molar and the buccal surface of the first maxillary molar on each subject's preferred chewing side. Surface electromyography of the ipsilateral masseter muscle was recorded as an indicator of jaw-closing activity. Pressure and electromyography (EMG) recordings were time-linked to simultaneous B-mode ultrasound imaging of the oral cavity using a submental, coronal view aligned with the first mandibular molar. The intervals between peak pressure recorded at each pressure transducer and peak jaw-closing activity for each masticatory cycle were not statistically different [analysis of variance (anova), P=0.9856] and displayed large statistical variation. These intervals were not different at the beginning of the trials (hard biscuit) than they were at the completion of mastication when the cookie had been broken down to a paste/puree consistency bolus. The interval between the last chewing stroke and the initiation of swallowing was 0.92 +/- 0.34 s). No significant difference existed among subjects for this time interval (anova, P=0.382).

  17. Basic evaluation of typical nanoporous silica nanoparticles in being drug carrier: Structure, wettability and hemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Guo, Yingyu

    2017-04-01

    Herein, the present work devoted to study the basic capacity of nanoporous silica nanoparticles in being drug carrier that covered structure, wettability and hemolysis so as to provide crucial evaluation. Typical nanoporous silica nanoparticles that consist of nanoporous silica nanoparticles (NSN), amino modified nanoporous silica nanoparticles (amino-NSN), carboxyl modified nanoporous silica nanoparticles (carboxyl-NSN) and hierachical nanoporous silica nanoparticles (hierachical-NSN) were studied. The results showed that their wettability and hemolysis were closely related to structure and surface modification. Basically, wettability became stronger as the amount of OH on the surface of NSN was higher. Both large nanopores and surface modification can reduce the wettability of NSN. Furthermore, NSN series were safe to be used when they circulated into the blood in low concentration, while if high concentration can not be avoided during administration, high porosity or amino modification of NSN were safer to be considered. It is believed that the basic evaluation of NSN can make contribution in providing scientific instruction for designing drug loaded NSN systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Rick, II; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Danielson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition (e.g., Evans et al. 2012; Nittler et al. 201 l; Peplowski et al. 2012; Weider et al. 2012). The high Sand low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER on the planet's surface suggests a low oxygen fugacity of the present planetary materials. Estimates of the oxygen fugacity for Mercurian magmas are approximately 3- 7 log units below the Iron-Wiistite (Fe-FeO) oxygen buffer (McCubbin et al. 2012; Zolotov et al. 2013), several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from such as the Earth, Moon, or Mars (Herd 2008; Sharp, McCubbin, and Shearer 2013; Wadhwa 2008). Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions are available in our collections (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites). The goal of this study is to conduct experiments at high pressure and temperature conditions to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements as a function of decreasing oxygen fugacity.

  19. A Typical Case Study: Solid Waste Management in Petroleum Refineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadea S. Alshammari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current environmental concerns have forced developed and developing countries to reduce air, water and land pollution for sustainable growth. Solid refinery waste is cocktail of hydrocarbons, water, heavy metal and fine solids and is substantial in quantity. The principal processes of waste management focus mainly on waste source reduction, reusing, recycling, composting, incineration with or without energy recovery, fuel production and land filling. Waste management models have a common approach of assignment of generating sources to landfills, transfer stations sitting, site selection for landfills, etc. but recently new integrated models have been developed and applied. Waste management system in an industrial complexes uses multi-objective mixed integer programming approach for the running of existing facilities in dynamic net work flow models with nonlinear costs of management. The latest multi-objective mixed integer programming techniques are applied to resolve the potential conflict between environmental and economic goals and to evaluate sustainable strategies for waste management. In this approach, material recycling in an economic sense exhibits huge indirect benefits, although the emphasis of environmental quality as a major objective in decision-making drives the optimal solution toward pro-recycling programs. The use of grey and fuzzy system theories as uncertainty analysis tools as an enhancement of this modeling analysis proves to be highly profitable. A multi-objective optimization model based on the goal programming approach has been developed and tested in this study for passable management of solid waste generated by a typical petroleum refining industry in the state of Kuwait. The analytic hierarchy process, a decision-making approach, including qualitative and quantitative aspects of a problem, has been integrated in the model to prioritize the conflicting goals existing in the waste management problems of the petroleum

  20. Indoor air quality in typical temperate zone Australian dwellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, S. B.; Cheng, M.; Galbally, I. E.; Keywood, M. D.; Lawson, S. J.; Powell, J. C.; Gillett, R.; Dunne, E.; Selleck, P. W.

    2012-07-01

    We report the results of a comprehensive study of indoor air quality in typical temperate zone Australian dwellings. Forty dwellings located over an 800 km2 area in the south-east of Melbourne with a range of ages, materials and structures representative of Australian dwellings were selected. A range of indoor air quality pollutants were sampled both inside and outside for one week each in Winter/Spring 2008 and Summer/Autumn 2009. Information was collected on house characteristics, the surrounding areas and occupant activities during the sampling. Weekly indoor averaged CO2 (536 ± 121 ppm), CO (0.3 ± 0.2 ppm), PM2.5 (8.4 ± 4.0 μg m-3), temperatures (21.2 ± 2.0 °C), water vapour mixing ratios (7.9 ± 1.3 g kg-1), benzene (1.3 ± 1.1 μg m-3), toluene (8.8 ± 7.9 μg m-3) and xylenes (6.2 ± 6.7 μg m-3) varied from 1.1 to approximately three times higher compared to the equivalent outdoors concentrations. Formaldehyde (12.2 ± 4.7 ppb), other carbonyls (7.9 ± 2.6 ppb) and total volatile organic compounds (181.1 ± 89.5 μg m-3) had indoor concentrations of factors between eight and 12 times higher compared to outdoor concentrations. Weekly averaged indoor ozone (0.7 ± 0.7 ppb), NO2 (8.4 ± 3.9 ppb) and PM10 (20.4 ± 8.1 μg m-3) were significantly lower than outdoors. Correlations and factor analysis showed the major influences on this indoor air quality were (a) dwelling age, whereby dwellings constructed in recent decades compared to older buildings were found to have increased concentrations of the highly elevated species formaldehyde, other carbonyls and total volatile organic compounds, and (b) combustion and cooking activities that increased the concentrations of multiple species including CO, CO2, NO2, H2O and particles. The indoor pollutant concentrations from this study were in general comparable with or lower than other Australian or overseas studies.

  1. Physical Composition, Nutrients and Contaminants of Typical Waste Dumping Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Meuser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The composition of wastes is quite variable depending upon the generating source and mode of collection. Most of the material from the domestic activities will be organic in nature and contains essential plant nutrients, whereas the dumping material of commercial and industrial wastes usually contains appreciable amounts of heavy and potentially toxic metals and organic pollutants. Approach: Objective of the present study was to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the waste material and the distribution and extent of toxic pollutants in three selected typical dumping sites in the state of Haryana, India. Results: 62-65% of the waste fine material consisted of mineral particles and biodegradable organic waste, 20-25% consisted of construction and demolition waste and the remaining 10-15% were other materials such as study, plastic, metals, glass and timber, with an amount of polyethene of 3.4-5.7%. The ratio of the plant available concentrations of P, K and S and their total amounts were 3-7% for P and 1-4% for S, whereas the macronutrient potassium reached values of 29-39%. Metals As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were present in all samples (total concentration in aqua regia extract. As, Ba, Ni and Pb did not show clear differences between the three investigates sites. Cd, Cr and Zn concentrations were high but different at the different sites (Cu maximum: 1,964 mg kg−1, Zn maximum: 2,200 mg kg−1. The mobility of the metals was calculated as the ratio of DTPA/aqua regia extraction. Cd showed the highest ratio (18-22%, while the other calculated metals showed much lower ratios (Cu 6.7, Pb 7.9 Ni 2.1, Zn 3.6 and Cr 0.5%. In general, PAH and benzo(apyrene concentrations fell below the detection limit. Also the phenol index did not exceed the detection limit of 1.2 mg kg−1 (with two exceptions. In 14 out of 36 samples a GC-MS screening was conducted in order to get an overview of the organic

  2. Response of Maize Plant to Phosphorus Fertilization on Typic Distrudepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Kasno

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available On the acid soil, phosphorus nutrients become critical for agricultural crops growth. At the present, price of fertilizers significantly increase and fertilizers are not available. These conditions can affect on soil productivity and crop production. The objective of these research were to study the response of maize (Zea mays L. to phosphate fertilizers on Inceptisol. The research was conducted in Cicadas Village on Typic Dystrudept. Experiment was conducted in a randomized completely block design, with 8 treatments and three replications. Treatments consisted of 6 dosages of P fertilizers, which were P source is SP-36 WIKA Agro 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg ha-1. SP-36 and Tunisia rock phosphate (40 kg P ha-1 were used for standard. Pioneer 12 variety of maized was used as an indicator. Plot size was 5 m x 6 m and the maize was planting with distance of 75 cm x 20 cm with one seed per hole. The results showed that organic C and N, P (extracted by Bray 1, K and CEC on the soil were low. Phosphate fertilizers significantly increased which was P extracted by HCl 25% from 24 to 67 mg P 100 g-1 soil and which were extracted by Bray 1 increased from 0,87 to 63.31 mg P kg-1 soil. Phosphate fertilizers significantly increased plant height from 175.2 cm become to 221.1 cm. Plant height of maize using SP-36 WIKA Agro fertilizer (210.6 cm was similar to plant heigh using SP-36 fertilizer (213.4 cm but less height from Tunisia rock phosphate. The yield of maize on SP-36 WIKA Agro (4.94 t ha-1 were linely higher than SP-36 (4.69 t ha-1, significantly was higher than that of Tunisia rock phosphate. Maximum dosage of SP-36 fertilizer was 66.67 kg P ha-1, and optimum dosage was 42 kg P ha-1. Value of Relative Agronomic Effectiveness SP-36 WIKA Agro fertilizer was heigher than SP-36.

  3. Inhibition of misleading heuristics as a core mechanism for typical cognitive development: evidence from behavioural and brain-imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Grégoire; Aïte, Ania; Houdé, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive development is generally conceived as incremental with knowledge of increasing complexity acquired throughout childhood and adolescence. However, several studies have now demonstrated not only that infants possess complex cognitive abilities but also that older children, adolescents, and adults tend to make systematic errors even in simple logical reasoning tasks. Therefore, one of the main issues for any theory of typical cognitive development is to provide an explanation of why at some age and in some contexts children, adolescents, and adults do not express a knowledge or cognitive principle that they already acquired when they were younger. In this review, we present convergent behavioural and neurocognitive evidence that cognitive development is more similar to a non-linear dynamic system than to a linear, stage-like system. In this theoretical framework, errors can emerge in problems similar to the ones infants or young children were succeeding when older children, adolescents, and adults rely on a misleading heuristic rather than on the correct logical algorithm to solve such problems. And the core mechanism for overcoming these errors is inhibitory control (i.e. the ability to inhibit the misleading heuristics). Therefore, typical cognitive development relies not only on the ability to acquire knowledge of incremental complexity but also to inhibit previously acquired knowledge.

  4. [Modeling Study of A Typical Summer Ozone Pollution Event over Yangtze River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Zhu, Bin; Gao, Jin-hui; Kang, Han-qing; Yang, Peng; Wang, Hong-lei; Li, Yue-e; Shao, Ping

    2015-11-01

    WRF/Chem model was used to analyze the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics and physical and chemical mechanism of a typical summer ozone pollution event over Yangtze River Delta (YRD). The result showed that the model was capable of reproducing the temporal and spatial distribution and evolution characteristics of the typical summer ozone pollution event over YRD. The YRD region was mainly affected by the subtropical high-pressure control, and the weather conditions of sunshine, high temperature and small wind were favorable for the formation of photochemical pollution on August 10-18, 2013. The results of simulation showed that the spatial and temporal distribution of O3 was obviously affected by the meteorological fields, geographic location, regional transport and chemical formation over YRD. The sensitivity experiment showed that the O3 concentration affected by maritime airstream was low in Shanghai, but the impact of Shanghai emissions on the spatial and temporal distribution of O3 concentration over YRD was significant; The main contribution of the high concentration of O3 in Nanjing surface was chemical generation ( alkene and aromatic) and the vertical transport from high-altitude O3, whereas the main contribution of the high concentration of O3 in Hangzhou and Suzhou was physics process. The influence of the 15:00 peak concentration of O3 over YRD was very obvious when O3 precursor was reduced at the maximum O3 formation rate (11-13 h).

  5. Differentiation characteristics and source analysis of heavy metals in typical brown soil under different vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhicheng; Zhang, Lina; Li, Xueshuang; Lv, Shuangyan; He, Shijie; Liu, Ying; Ma, Xuanxuan

    2017-08-01

    Anomalous enrichment of soil elements (especially heavy metals) has aroused popular attention in China. In order to discuss distribution characteristics and analyze sources of elements in brown soil, field investigation and sample collection were carried out under different vegetation (cherry, apple, bamboos and pine) in Qixia, a typical apple production base in China. Element contents, pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and magnetic susceptibility (MS) were tested. Results showed that element concentrations were about roughly 2.48 times as China’s background values, while significantly lower than the class ii of National soil Environment Quality Standard (Ni excepted). Meanwhile, vertical distribution and accumulation characteristics of elements in typical brown soil were significantly different under different vegetation. In detail, elements (Zn excepted) of Pine soil accumulated in surface, while they (Cd, Arsenic excepted) increased with depth under other vegetation. Moreover, pH and EC changed like elements, while MS was exactly opposite. It was found that those differences above were mainly caused by human activities (such as improper use of fertilizer, pesticide and inadequate use of organic fertilizer, etc.). Additionally, differences in composition and decomposition rate of vegetation litter also resulted in vertical differentiations of soil elements under different vegetation.

  6. Nanostructured Surfaces to Target and Kill Circulating Tumor Cells While Repelling Leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematogenous metastasis, the process of cancer cell migration from a primary to distal location via the bloodstream, typically leads to a poor patient prognosis. Selectin proteins hold promise in delivering drug-containing nanocarriers to circulating tumor cells (CTCs in the bloodstream, due to their rapid, force-dependent binding kinetics. However, it is challenging to deliver such nanocarriers while avoiding toxic effects on healthy blood cells, as many possess ligands that adhesively interact with selectins. Herein, we describe a nanostructured surface to capture flowing cancer cells, while preventing human neutrophil adhesion. Microtube surfaces with immobilized halloysite nanotubes (HNTs and E-selectin functionalized liposomal doxorubicin (ES-PEG L-DXR significantly increased the number of breast adenocarcinoma MCF7 cells captured from flow, yet also significantly reduced the number of captured neutrophils. Neutrophils firmly adhered and projected pseudopods on surfaces coated only with liposomes, while neutrophils adherent to HNT-liposome surfaces maintained a round morphology. Perfusion of both MCF7 cells and neutrophils resulted in primarily cancer cell adhesion to the HNT-liposome surface, and induced significant cancer cell death. This work demonstrates that nanostructured surfaces consisting of HNTs and ES-PEG L-DXR can increase CTC recruitment for chemotherapeutic delivery, while also preventing healthy cell adhesion and uptake of therapeutic intended for CTCs.

  7. Adaptive tool servo diamond turning for enhancing machining efficiency and surface quality of freeform optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; To, Suet

    2015-08-10

    Fast tool servo/ slow tool servo (FTS/STS) diamond turning is a very promising technique for the generation of freeform optics. However, the currently adopted constant scheme for azimuth sampling and side-feeding motion possesses no adaptation to surface shape variation, leading to the non-uniform surface quality and low machining efficiency. To overcome this defect, this paper reports on a novel adaptive tool servo (ATS) diamond turning technique which is essentially based on the novel two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) FTS/STS. In the ATS, the sampling interval and the side-feeding motion are actively controlled at any cutting point to adapt the machining process to shape variation of the desired surface, making both the sampling induced interpolation error and the side-feeding induced residual tool mark be within the desired tolerances. Characteristic of the required cutting motion suggests that besides the conventional z-axis servo motion, another servo motion along the x-axis synthesizing by the c-axis is mandatory for implementing the ATS. Comparative studies of surface generation of typical micro-structured surfaces in FTS/STS and ATS are thoroughly conducted both theoretically and experimentally. The result demonstrates that the ATS outperforms the FTS/STS with improved surface quality while simultaneously enhanced machining efficiency.

  8. A Case Study of a Typical Dust Storm Event over the Loess Plateau of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Xiao-Lu; GUO Wei-Dong; ZHAO Qian-Fei; ZHANG Bei-Dou

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced observational meteorological elements, energy fluxes, and the concentration of dust aerosols collected from the Semi-Arid Climate Observatory and Laboratory (SACOL) during a typical dust storm period in March 2010 at Lanzhou were used in this paper to investigate the impact of dust aerosols on near surface atmospheric variables and energy budgets. The results show that the entire dust storm event was associated with high wind velocities and decreasing air pressure, and the air changed from cold and wet to warm and dry and then recovered to its initial state. The response of energy fluxes occurred behind meteorological elements. At high dust concentration periods, the net radiation was significantly less in the daytime and higher at night, while the heat fluxes displayed the same trend, indicating the weakening of the land-atmosphere energy exchange. The results can be used to provide verification for numerical model results in semi-arid areas.

  9. Structural and chemical modifications of typical South African biomasses during torrefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafu, Lihle D; Neomagus, Hein W J P; Everson, Raymond C; Carrier, Marion; Strydom, Christien A; Bunt, John R

    2016-02-01

    Torrefaction experiments were carried out for three typical South African biomass samples (softwood chips, hardwood chips and sweet sorghum bagasse) to a weight loss of 30 wt.%. During torrefaction, moisture, non-structural carbohydrates and hemicelluloses were reduced, resulting in a structurally modified torrefaction product. There was a reduction in the average crystalline diameter (La) (XRD), an increase in the aromatic fraction and a reduction in aliphatics (substituted and unsubstituted) (CPMAS (13)C NMR). The decrease in the aliphatic components of the lignocellulosic material under the torrefaction conditions also resulted in a slight ordering of the carbon lattice. The degradation of hemicelluloses and non-structural carbohydrates increased the inclusive surface area of sweet sorghum bagasse, while it did not change significantly for the woody biomasses.

  10. Modeling a typical winter-time dust event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, S.

    2013-02-20

    We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ?2.4 Tg day-1 and ?1.5 Tg day-1, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground-and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, and mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3-4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W m-2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.

  11. Modeling a typical winter-time dust event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalenderski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ~2.4 Tg day−1 and ~1.5 Tg day−1, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground- and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, and mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3–4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W m−2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous indium tin oxide possessing an electronically conductive framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emons, Theo T; Li, Jianquan; Nazar, Linda F

    2002-07-24

    The new mesoporous transparent conducting oxide based on indium-tin-oxide, meso-ITO, has been synthesized by a modified sol-gel method, using CTAB as the surfactant. Critical was the employment of triethanolamine to control the rate of hydrolysis and inhibit deposition of the bulk oxides. Removal of the surfactant by calcination yielded a relatively well-ordered worm-hole motif arrangement of pores visible in the TEM and stable to 400 degrees C. BET measurements revealed no hysteresis in the absorption-desorption isotherm, consistent with a narrow pore-size distribution (between 20 and 40 A depending on the In:Sn ratio); surface areas ranged between 270 and 310 m2/g. This colorless material is the first mesoporous oxide exhibiting substantial framework conductivity, with a conductivity at 25 degrees C of 1.2 x 10-3 S/cm. This distinguishes it from mesoporous mixed-valence transition-metal oxides that exhibit weak hopping semiconductor behavior and much lower conductivity.

  13. Losses of glyphosate and AMPA via drainflow in a typical Belgian residential area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ting; Boënne, Wesley; van Griensven, Ann; Seuntjens, Piet; Bronders, Jan; Desmet, Nele

    2014-05-01

    Urban hard surfaces are considered as important facilitators for pesticide transport into urban streams. To obtain concurrent high-resolution data for a detailed investigation on the losses of pesticide runoff from hard surfaces, a monitoring campaign was performed in a typical Belgian residential area (9.5 ha) between 7 May and 7 August, 2013. The campaign yielded a concurrent dataset of rainfall (1-mm rainfall interval), discharge (1-min interval), glyphosate application by the residents and the occurrences of glyphosate and its major degradation product - aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in the separated storm drainage outflow during 12 rainfall events. In addition, detailed information was obtained on the spatial characteristics of the study area. The resulting dataset allows us to investigate the relevance of catchment hydrology, urban surface properties and pesticide application to the transport and losses of glyphosate in a residential environment. During the campaign, glyphosate was only applied by local residents, mainly on their private driveways. As a result of their continuous use, both glyphosate and AMPA were detected in all analysed outflow samples, with maximum concentrations of 6.1 μg/L and 5.8 μg/L, respectively. Overall, the storm drainage system collected 0.43% of the applied amount of glyphosate. However, this loss rate varied considerably among rainfall events, ranging from 0.04% to 23.36%. According to statistical analysis of the 12 rainfall events, the loss rate was significantly correlated with three factors: the application amount prior to a rainfall event (p glyphosate application and the start of the rainfall event (negatively, p glyphosate. Furthermore, three types of glyphosate runoff were classified by a clustering analysis based on these factors: events dominated by runoff availability (runoff-limited), dominated by glyphosate availability (pesticide-limited) and controlled by both runoff and glyphosate availability. To sum up

  14. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Rick, II; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Danielson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high Sand low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER suggest a low oxygen fugacity of the present materials on the planet's surface. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples, estimated at approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wtistite (lW) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites) are available in our collections for examination of this change in geochemical affinity. Our goal is to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements at lower oxygen fugacity as a function of temperature and pressure. Experiments were conducted at I GPa in a 13 mm QUICKpress piston cylinder and at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multianvil press, at temperatures up to 1850degC. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were designed so the final run products contained metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity was controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, in order to utilize the Si-Si02 buffer, which is approximately 5 log units more reducing than the IW buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt composition was diopside (CaMgSi206) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. The results of our experiments will aid in our understanding of

  15. Tannins Possessing Bacteriostatic Effect Impair Pseudomonas aeruginosa Adhesion and Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentin, Danielle S.; Silva, Denise B.; Amaral, Matheus W.; Zimmer, Karine R.; Silva, Márcia V.; Lopes, Norberto P.; Giordani, Raquel B.; Macedo, Alexandre J.

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce many compounds that are biologically active, either as part of their normal program of growth and development or in response to pathogen attack or stress. Traditionally, Anadenanthera colubrina, Commiphora leptophloeos and Myracrodruon urundeuva have been used by communities in the Brazilian Caatinga to treat several infectious diseases. The ability to impair bacterial adhesion represents an ideal strategy to combat bacterial pathogenesis, because of its importance in the early stages of the infectious process; thus, the search for anti-adherent compounds in plants is a very promising alternative. This study investigated the ability of stem-bark extracts from these three species to control the growth and prevent biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important opportunistic pathogen that adheres to surfaces and forms protective biofilms. A kinetic study (0–72 h) demonstrated that the growth of extract-treated bacteria was inhibited up to 9 h after incubation, suggesting a bacteriostatic activity. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy showed both viable and nonviable cells, indicating bacterial membrane damage; crystal violet assay and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that treatment strongly inhibited biofilm formation during 6 and 24 h and that matrix production remained impaired even after growth was restored, at 24 and 48 h of incubation. Herein, we propose that the identified (condensed and hydrolyzable) tannins are able to inhibit biofilm formation via bacteriostatic properties, damaging the bacterial membrane and hindering matrix production. Our findings demonstrate the importance of this abundant class of Natural Products in higher plants against one of the most challenging issues in the hospital setting: biofilm resilience. PMID:23776646

  16. Visione, possessione, estasi: sulla teoria della trance rituale - Vision, possession, ecstasy: on the theory of ritual trance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luigi Palmisano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ritual trances are the expression of the institutionalization of modified states of consciousness. This essay identifies and proposes three major paradigms of institutionalization – vision, possession and ecstasy – and proceeds then to the analysis of the modes and modalities of ritualization and institutionalization of modified states of consciousness – initiation, therapy, liturgy and divination – which lead to a thematization of the structure of trance. Beginning with the discussion of the preceding ethnographies which contribute to the elaboration of a new general theory of trance and are at the same time the result of this same theory of trance – certainly not wholly formulated although much has been done – the author examines the ethnographic material on the zar cults of Ethiopia on the basis of his many years fieldwork in Ethiopia and in other ethnic, social, political and cultural contexts, always concentrated on ritual trances of vision, possession and ecstasy.

  17. The influence of match location, quality of opposition, and match status on possession strategies in professional association football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Carlos

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of match location, quality of opposition, and match status on possession strategies in a professional Spanish football team. Twenty-seven matches from the 2005-2006 domestic league season were notated post-event using a computerized match analysis system. Matches were divided into episodes according to evolving match status. Linear regression analysis showed that possession of the ball was greater when losing than when winning (P location (P location, quality of opposition, and match status during assessments of technical and tactical components of football performance. In particular, the findings indicate that strategies in soccer are influenced by match variables and teams alter their playing style during the game accordingly.

  18. Designing bioinspired superoleophobic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip S. Brown

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature provides a range of functional surfaces, for example, water-repellent or superhydrophobic surfaces, most common among them the lotus leaf. While water-repellency is widespread in nature, oil-repellency is typically limited to surfaces submerged in water, such as fish scales. To achieve oleophobicity in air, inspiration must be taken from natural structures and chemistries that are not readily available in nature need to be introduced. Researchers usually turn to fluorinated materials to provide the low surface energy that, when combined with bioinspired surface topography, is the key to unlocking oil-repellency. This review presents the state-of-the-art in the fabrication of superoleophobic surfaces.

  19. Visione, possessione, estasi: sulla teoria della trance rituale - Vision, possession, ecstasy: on the theory of ritual trance

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Luigi Palmisano

    2013-01-01

    The ritual trances are the expression of the institutionalization of modified states of consciousness. This essay identifies and proposes three major paradigms of institutionalization – vision, possession and ecstasy – and proceeds then to the analysis of the modes and modalities of ritualization and institutionalization of modified states of consciousness – initiation, therapy, liturgy and divination – which lead to a thematization of the structure of trance. Beginning with the d...

  20. ON THE EROTIC-LIRIC POSSESSION OR THE WORD SILENCE IN ANTÓNIO FRANCO ALEXANDRE POETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo Braz de Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The work of the Portuguese poet António Franco Alexandre has been read in various ways. Nevertheless, the interest in its reception is a very recurrent topic. The present paper intends to discuss how the eroticism is linked with the António Franco Alexandre’s poetry and how the Idea of mutism is associated with this anlysis, elucidating the erotic possession is­sue as an image of the act of reading. 

  1. Colorimetric Assay for the Detection of Typical Biomarkers for Periodontitis Using a Magnetic Nanoparticle Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignarajah, Shayalini; Suaifan, Ghadeer A R Y; Bizzarro, Sergio; Bikker, Floris J; Kaman, Wendy E; Zourob, Mohammed

    2015-12-15

    Periodontitis is a chronic disease which affects at least 10% of the population. If untreated, periodontitis can lead to teeth loss. Unfortunately, current diagnostic tests are limited in their sensitivity and specificity. In this study, a novel multiplex hand-held colorimetric diagnostic biosensor, using two typical inflammatory salivary biomarkers, Human Neutrophil Elastase (HNE) and Cathepsin-G, was constructed as proof of concept to potentially detect periodontitis. The biosensing method was based on the measurement of proteolytic activity using specific proteases probes. These probes consist of specific proteases substrates covalently bound to a magnetic bead from one end and to the gold sensor surface by the other end. When intact, this renders the golden sensor black. Upon proteolysis, the cleaved magnetic beads will be attracted by an external magnet revealing the golden color of the sensor surface observable by the naked eye. The biosensor was capable of specific and quantitative detection of HNE and Cathepsin-G in solution and in spiked saliva samples with a lower detection limit of 1 pg/mL and 100 fg/mL for HNE and Cathepsin-G, respectively. Examination of periodontitis patients' sample and a healthy control showed the potential of the multiplex biosensor to detect the presence of HNE and Cathepsin-G activity in situ. This approach is anticipated to be a useful biochip array amenable to low-cost point-of-care devices.

  2. Phosphorus content in three physical fractions of typical Chernozem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikova, Anna; Egorova, Zoya; Sushkov, Nikolai; Matveeva, Natalia; Fastovets, Ilya; Rogova, Olga; Volkov, Dmitriy

    2017-04-01

    than 1.5 times higher than in the control, while for LF the increase in TPC was not significant, and RF TPC was practically the same as in the control. Association of phosphorus predominantly with CF suggests that phosphorus was mainly adsorbed to the surface of clay particles rather than to organic components. Therefore, despite the increase in CF TPC as a consequence of treatment with fertilizers, the increase in availability of phosphorus is questionable. In the aftereffect period no significant differences in TPC were found. In conclusion, we showed that availability of fertilizers may be dependent on fractional composition of soil. Under our experimental conditions, phosphorus tended to bind predominantly to clay particles. However, in the aftereffect period, fractionation of TPC was similar to the control, indicating the need to further investigate the fate of phosphorus in soils.

  3. Structural Color Model Based on Surface Morphology of MORPHO Butterfly Wing Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongjia; Cai, Congcong; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Hui; Huttula, Marko; Cao, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Color production through structural coloration is created by micrometer and sub-micrometer surface textures which interfere with visible light. The shiny blue of morpho menelaus is a typical example of structural coloring. Modified from morphology of the morpho scale, a structure of regular windows with two side offsets was constructed on glass substrates. Optical properties of the bioinspired structure were studied through numerical simulations of light scattering. Results show that the structure can generate monochromatic light scattering. Wavelength of scattered light is tunable via changing the spacing between window shelves. Compared to original butterfly model, the modified one possesses larger illumination scopes in azimuthal distributions despite being less in polar directions. Present bionic structure is periodically repeated and is easy to fabricate. It is hoped that the computational materials design work can inspire future experimental realizations of such a structure in photonics applications.

  4. Assessment of soil organic contamination in a typical petrochemical industry park in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yong; Zhou, Qixing; Miao, Xinyu; Chen, Yuming

    2015-07-01

    The concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), n-alkanes (n-C8 through n-C40), and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils were determined to assess the level of organic contamination in soils from the Da-gang Petrochemical Industry Park with several big state-run enterprises, a recent rapid flourishing park in China. The results showed that the concentration of TPH in soil was high, up to 20 ng/g-12.8478%; in particular, the content in most sites ranged from 1 to 2%. Thus, it is clear that soil environment in the Da-gang Petrochemical Industry Park has been seriously polluted by TPH according to the Nemerow pollution index method. Furthermore, the average concentration of Σ(n-C>16 through n-C34) in 30 sampling sites was above the maximum limit set for F3 under all the conditions in the Canada-wide standards for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC CWS) with 43.33-93.33% soil samples exceeding F3 standards, and n-alkanes possessing higher concentrations were proved much abundant alkanes in this study. Besides, the predominance of even n-alkanes and lower carbon preference index (CPI) demonstrated that n-alkanes in surface soils were mainly caused by anthropogenic inputs, while the concentration of Σ16-PAHs was in the range of 1652.5-8217.3 ng/g and the BaA/(BaA + Chr) and Flu/(Flu + Pyr) ratios indicated that pyrogenic PAHs may be the dominant PAHs in most soils with the contribution of petrogenic hydrocarbons in some sites.

  5. Ultrasmooth, Polydopamine Modified Surfaces for Block Copolymer Nanopatterning on Inert and Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Reika; Cho, Joon Hee; Zhou, Sunshine; Kim, Chae Bin; Dulaney, Austin; Janes, Dustin; Ellison, Christopher

    Nature has engineered universal, catechol-containing adhesives that can be synthetically mimicked in the form of polydopamine (PDA). We exploited PDA to enable block copolymer (BCP) nanopatterning on a variety of soft material surfaces in a way that can potentially be applied to flexible electrical devices. Applying BCP nanopatterning to soft substrates is challenging because soft substrates are often chemically inert and possess incompatible low surface energies. In this study, we exploited PDA to enable the formation of BCP nanopatterns on a variety of surfaces such as Teflon, poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and Kapton. While previous studies produced a PDA coating layer too rough for BCP nanopatterning, we succeeded in fabricating conformal and ultra-smooth surfaces of PDA by engineering the PDA coating process and post-sonication procedure. This chemically functionalized, biomimetic thin film (3 nm thick) served as a reactive platform for subsequently grafting a surface treatment to perpendicularly orient a lamellae-forming BCP layer. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a perfectly nanopatterned PDA-PET substrate can be bent without distorting or damaging the nanopattern in conditions that far exceeds typical bending curvatures in roll-to-roll manufacturing.

  6. How old is surface science?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paparazzo, E. E-mail: paparazzo@ism.cnr.it

    2004-01-01

    Philosophical and literary testimonies from the Classical World (5th century B.C. to 3rd century A.D.) involving solid surfaces are reviewed. Plato thought the surface to be a real entity, whereas Aristotle considered it to possess an unqualified existence, i.e. not to be a substance, but just an accidental entity. The Old Stoics asserted that surfaces do not possess any physical existence, although the Stoic philosopher Posidonius--apparently the only exception in his school--held them to exist both in thought and reality. While both the Atomists and the Epicureans were very little interested in them, the Sceptic philosopher Sextus Empiricus considered surfaces to be the limits of a body, although he maintained that both the view that they are corporeal or the view that they are incorporeal present unsurmountable difficulties. Among Roman authors, the testimony from Pliny the Elder is mostly concerned with metallic surfaces, chemical change occurring there, and surface treatments used in antiquity. Besides the philosophical motivations, the implications of the testimonies are discussed in the light of surface science. The purely geometrical surface of Plato is found to compare favorably to single-crystal surface, Posidonius' 'corporeal' surface is best likened to an air-oxidized, or otherwise ambient-modified surface, and ancient accounts on mixture are compared to XPS results obtained in adhesion studies of enameled steels. I argue that the long-standing dominance of Aristotle's view from antiquity onwards may have had a part in delaying theoretical speculation into solid surfaces.

  7. Les Differences dans l'emploi de la construction possessive "N1"+"DE"+"N2" entre le XIX et le XX s. dans la prose litteraire francaise (Differences in the Use of the Possessive Construction "N1"+"de"+"N2" between 19th and 20th Century French Literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roglic, Vera

    1991-01-01

    Study looks at frequency of noun1 + de + noun2 possessive in French prose. Researchers used chi-square and Pearson test to analyze results of syntagmatic possessive construction in works by Hugo, Stendahl, Balzac, Zola, Gide, Malraux, St. Exupery, and Sartre. Findings indicate that syntagmatic genitive possessive is more commonly found in…

  8. Functioning of peripheral Ia pathways in infants with typical development: responses in antagonist muscle pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Caroline; Ulrich, Beverly D; Martin, Bernard

    2011-02-01

    In muscle responses of proprioceptive origin, including the stretch/tendon reflex (T-reflex), the corresponding reciprocal excitation and irradiation to distant muscles have been described from newborn infants to older adults. However, the functioning of other responses mediated primarily by Ia-afferents has not been investigated in infants. Understanding the typical development of these multiple pathways is critical to determining potential problems in their development in populations affected by neurological disease, such as spina bifida or cerebral palsy. Hence, the goal of the present study was to quantify the excitability of Ia-mediated responses in lower limb muscles of infants with typical development. These responses were elicited by mechanical stimulation applied to the distal tendons of the gastrocnemius-soleus (GS), tibialis anterior (TA) and quadriceps (QAD) muscles of both legs in twelve 2- to 10-month-old infants and recorded simultaneously in antagonist muscle pairs by surface EMG. Tendon taps alone elicited responses in either, both or neither muscle. The homonymous response (T-reflex) was less frequent in the TA than the GS or QAD muscle. An 80 Hz vibration superimposed on tendon taps induced primarily an inhibition of monosynaptic responses; however, facilitation also occurred in either muscle of the recorded pair. These responses were not influenced significantly by age or gender. Vibration alone produced a tonic reflex response in the vibrated muscle (TVR) and/or the antagonist muscle (AVR). However, for the TA muscle the TVR was more frequently elicited in older than younger infants. High variability was common to all responses. Overall, the random distribution and inconsistency of muscle responses suggests that the gain of Ia-mediated feedback is unstable. We propose that during infancy the central nervous system needs to learn to set stable feedback gain, or destination of proprioceptive assistance, based on their use during functional

  9. Spirit-possession in theory and practice: séances with Tibetan spirit-mediums in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per-Arne Berglie

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a short study of the séances and trance-performances of three Tibetan spirit-mediums (dpa' bo from a refugee-community in Nepal. The field-work on which this study is based was carried out in a Tibetan refugee-village in Nepal during 1970 and 1971. For each dpa' bo: dBang phyug, Sri gcod, and Nyi ma don grub, a summary of personal thoughts and beliefs concerning possession is provided, followed by an example of how a séance was structured. A common feature is that when all the gods summoned have arrived, possession took place by the god most suited to carry out the task of the evening. The actual change of the ritual status of the spirit-medium is marked by the putting on of the headdress. From now on, until it falls off at the end of the séance, it is the god who speaks and acts through the medium, who afterwards claims that he has no recollection whatsoever of what then passes. A necessary condition for the activity of a spirit-medium is, of course, the conviction that their possession is genuine. Theoretically, when a dpa' bo has passed the period of calling and has been tested and has received the necessary training, this genuineness is proved. Of an established dpa' bo no further proofs are therefore required in addition to the satisfactory solution of the problems put to him at the séances. If, after all, someone has doubts about a dpa' bo, he can call a lama.

  10. Multiscale approach to the electronic structure of doped semiconductor surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinai, Ofer; Hofmann, Oliver T.; Rinke, Patrick; Scheffler, Matthias; Heimel, Georg; Kronik, Leeor

    2015-02-01

    The inclusion of the global effects of semiconductor doping poses a unique challenge for first-principles simulations, because the typically low concentration of dopants renders an explicit treatment intractable. Furthermore, the width of the space-charge region (SCR) at charged surfaces often exceeds realistic supercell dimensions. Here, we present a multiscale technique that fully addresses these difficulties. It is based on the introduction of a charged sheet, mimicking the SCR-related field, along with free charge which mimics the bulk charge reservoir, such that the system is neutral overall. These augment a slab comprising "pseudoatoms" possessing a fractional nuclear charge matching the bulk doping concentration. Self-consistency is reached by imposing charge conservation and Fermi level equilibration between the bulk, treated semiclassically, and the electronic states of the slab, which are treated quantum-mechanically. The method, called CREST—the charge-reservoir electrostatic sheet technique—can be used with standard electronic structure codes. We validate CREST using a simple tight-binding model, which allows for comparison of its results with calculations encompassing the full SCR explicitly. Specifically, we show that CREST successfully predicts scenarios spanning the range from no to full Fermi level pinning. We then employ it with density functional theory, obtaining insight into the doping dependence of the electronic structures of the metallic "clean-cleaved" Si(111) surface and its semiconducting (2 ×1 ) reconstructions.

  11. Awareness, Possession, and Use of Take-Home Naloxone Among Illicit Drug Users, Vancouver, British Columbia, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Seonaid; Buxton, Jane; Dobrer, Sabina; Dong, Huiru; Hayashi, Kanna; Milloy, M J; Kerr, Thomas; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    Although take-home naloxone (THN) programs are integral in strategies to prevent overdose deaths among opioid users, the uptake of THN among people who use drugs (PWUD) (including non-opioid users) is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine awareness, possession, and use of THN among PWUD in Vancouver, Canada, and identify barriers to adopting this strategy. From December 1, 2014, to May 29, 2015, participants in 2 prospective cohort studies of PWUD in Vancouver completed a standardized questionnaire, which asked about awareness, possession, and use of THN; sociodemographic characteristics; and drug use patterns. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to determine factors independently associated with awareness and possession of THN. Of 1137 PWUD, 727 (64%) reported at least 1 previous overdose ever, and 220 (19%) had witnessed an overdose in the previous 6 months. Although 769 (68%) participants overall reported awareness of THN, only 88 of 392 (22%) opioid users had a THN kit, 18 (20%) of whom had previously administered naloxone. Factors that were positively associated with awareness of THN included witnessing an overdose in the previous 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-3.34; P < .001), possession of THN (aOR = 1.85; 95% CI, 1.11-3.06; P = .02), younger age (aOR = 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; P = .003), white race (aOR = 1.67; 95% CI, 1.27-2.19; P < .001), hepatitis C infection (aOR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.13-2.36; P = .01), residing in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside neighborhood (aOR = 1.93; 95% CI, 1.47-2.53; P < .001), and at least daily heroin injection (aOR = 1.69; 95% CI, 1.09-2.62; P < .02). Efforts to improve knowledge of and participation in the THN program may contribute to reduced opioid overdose mortality in Vancouver.

  12. Development of Gene-Pyramid Lines of the Elite Restorer Line, RPHR-1005 Possessing Durable Bacterial Blight and Blast Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhilash Kumar, V; Balachiranjeevi, C H; Bhaskar Naik, S; Rambabu, R; Rekha, G; Harika, G; Hajira, S K; Pranathi, K; Anila, M; Kousik, M; Vijay Kumar, S; Yugander, A; Aruna, J; Dilip Kumar, T; Vijaya Sudhakara Rao, K; Hari Prasad, A S; Madhav, M S; Laha, G S; Balachandran, S M; Prasad, M S; Viraktamath, B C; Ravindra Babu, V; Sundaram, R M

    2016-01-01

    RPHR-1005, the stable restorer line of the popular medium slender (MS) grain type rice hybrid, DRRH-3 was improved in this study for resistance against bacterial blight (BB) and blast diseases through marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB). In this study, four major resistance genes (i.e., Xa21 and Xa33 for BB resistance and Pi2 and Pi54 for blast resistance) have been transferred to RPHR-1005 using RPBio Patho-1 (possessing Xa21 + Pi2), RPBio Patho-2 (possessing Xa21 + Pi54) and FBR1-15EM (possessing Xa33) as the donors. Foreground selection was carried out using PCR-based molecular markers specific for the target resistance genes and the major fertility restorer genes, Rf3 and Rf4, while background selection was carried out using a set of parental polymorphic rice SSR markers and backcrossing was continued uptoBC2 generation. At BC2F2, plants possessing the gene combination- Xa21 + Pi2, Xa21 + Pi54 and Xa33 in homozygous condition and with >92% recovery of the recurrent parent genome (RPG) were identified and intercrossed to combine all the four resistance genes. Twenty-two homozygous, pyramid lines of RPHR-1005 comprising of three single-gene containing lines, six 2-gene containing lines, eight 3-gene containing lines, and five 4-gene containing lines were identified among the double intercross lines at F3 generation (DICF3). They were then evaluated for their resistance against BB and blast, fertility restoration ability and for key agro-morphological traits. While single gene containing lines were resistant to either BB or blast, the 2-gene, 3-gene, and 4-gene pyramid lines showed good level of resistance against both and/or either of the two diseases. Most of the 2-gene, 3-gene, and 4-gene containing pyramid lines showed yield levels and other key agro-morphological and grain quality traits comparable to the original recurrent parent and showed complete fertility restoration ability, with a few showing higher yield as compared to RPHR-1005. Further, the

  13. Synthetic cyclohexenyl chalcone natural products possess cytotoxic activities against prostate cancer cells and inhibit cysteine cathepsins in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb Majumdar, Ishita; Devanabanda, Arvind; Fox, Benjamin; Schwartzman, Jacob; Cong, Huan; Porco, John A; Weber, Horst C

    2011-12-16

    A number of cyclohexenyl chalcone Diels-Alder natural products possess promising biological properties including strong cytotoxicity in various human cancer cells. Herein, we show that natural products in this class including panduratin A and nicolaioidesin C inhibit cysteine cathepsins as indicated by protease profiling assays and cell-free cathepsin L enzyme assays. Owing to the critical roles of cathepsins in the biology of human tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis, these findings should pave the way for development of novel antitumor agents for use in clinical settings.

  14. A sycamore cell wall polysaccharide and a chemically related tomato leaf polysaccharide possess similar proteinase inhibitor-inducing activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, C A; Bishop, P; Pearce, G

    1981-09-01

    A large pectic polysaccharide, called rhamnogalacturonan I, that is solubilized by a fungal endo-alpha-1,4-polygalacturonase from the purified walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells possesses proteinase inhibitor-inducing activity similar to that of the proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor, a pectic-like oligosaccharide fraction isolated from tomato leaves. This suggests that the proteinase inhibitor-inducing activity resides in particular polysaccharide fragments which can be released when plant cell walls are exposed to appropriate enzyme degradation as a result of either wounding or pest attack.

  15. Se soigner ou soigner les autres  ? Dimensions thérapeutiques d’un culte de possession vietnamien Healing Myself, Healing Others : Therapeutic Skills of a Vietnamese Possession Cult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Chauvet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Les médiums des esprits des Quatre Palais, en articulation avec d’autres spécialistes religieux, participent à l’espace thérapeutique vietnamien. Ils contribuent de longue date, et ce malgré les aléas de l’histoire, à prendre en charge les maladies par le biais de la pratique rituelle et, plus généralement, par le biais des interventions des esprits. Si ces dimensions thérapeutiques ne constituent qu’un aspect du culte, à côté des enjeux religieux, politiques et territoriaux, les requêtes de guérison sont parmi les principales requêtes formulées aux esprits. Cet article examine les dimensions thérapeutiques de la pratique du culte qui s’articulent autour de deux pôles : pratiquer la possession pour soigner les autres ou pour se soigner soi-même. C’est, en effet, la santé, avec l’harmonie au sein de la vie familiale, la réussite dans le commerce ou les études, que les disciples viennent chercher auprès des esprits et de leurs intermédiaires. Par ailleurs, comme pour de nombreux cultes de possession, la maladie est très souvent à l’origine du processus qui mène à la pratique médiumnique. Certains médiums, ainsi que quelques esprits, ont à cet effet des pouvoirs spécialisés dans la guérison. Enfin, l’article envisage certaines transformations du rôle social des médiums.Spirits mediums of the Four Palaces have been taking part for a long time, along with other religious specialists, in the Vietnamese therapeutic area. They have helped, and still do despite historical upheavals, taking care of different kind of illnesses through rituals and, more generally, through spirits’ interventions. If healing is only one side of the worship, beside religious, political and territorial issues, it is one of the main issues addressed to the spirits. This paper investigates healing dimensions of the worship which are of two kinds : performing spirit possession in order to cure others or in order to cure

  16. For Your Local Eyes Only: Culture-Specific Face Typicality Influences Perceptions of Trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Oikawa, Masanori; Oikawa, Haruka; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Recent findings show that typical faces are judged as more trustworthy than atypical faces. However, it is not clear whether employment of typicality cues in trustworthiness judgment happens across cultures and if these cues are culture specific. In two studies, conducted in Japan and Israel, participants judged trustworthiness and attractiveness of faces. In Study 1, faces varied along a cross-cultural dimension ranging from a Japanese to an Israeli typical face. Own-culture typical faces were perceived as more trustworthy than other-culture typical faces, suggesting that people in both cultures employ typicality cues when judging trustworthiness, but that the cues, indicative of typicality, are culture dependent. Because perceivers may be less familiar with other-culture typicality cues, Study 2 tested the extent to which they rely on available facial information other than typicality, when judging other-culture faces. In Study 2, Japanese and Israeli faces varied from either Japanese or Israeli attractive to unattractive with the respective typical face at the midpoint. For own-culture faces, trustworthiness judgments peaked around own-culture typical face. However, when judging other-culture faces, both cultures also employed attractiveness cues, but this effect was more apparent for Japanese participants. Our findings highlight the importance of culture when considering the effect of typicality on trustworthiness judgments.

  17. Biochemical characterization of Toxoplasma gondii 1-Cys peroxiredoxin 2 with mechanistic similarities to typical 2-Cys Prx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deponte, Marcel; Becker, Katja

    2005-03-01

    TgPrx2 represents a recently discovered cytosolic 1-Cys peroxiredoxin (Prx) from the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Over-expression of the respective gene confers protection against H(2)O(2), suggesting that the protein possesses peroxidase activity. According to the current nomenclature eukaryotic typical and atypical 2-Cys Prx contain a second conserved resolving cysteine residue whereas 1-Cys Prx work on the basis of a monothiol mechanism. Only a few 1-Cys peroxiredoxins have been biochemically characterized to date. Here we describe the mechanistic characterization of TgPrx2 in vitro, including site directed mutagenesis studies, gel filtration chromatography, and molecular modeling. TgPrx2 has general antioxidant properties as indicated by its ability to protect glutamine synthetase against a dithiothreitol Fe(3+)-catalyzed oxidation system. However, TgPrx2 does not reduce H(2)O(2) nor tert-butyl hydroperoxide at the expense of glutaredoxin, thioredoxin or glutathione. Cys(47) was identified as the active site cysteine residue. Most interestingly, Cys(47) was found to form an intermolecular disulfide with Cys(209) from the C-terminal domain of a second subunit which acts as the resolving cysteine. This is a mechanism analogous to typical peroxiredoxins. In contrast to the latter, however, dimeric TgPrx2 does not oligomerize to decamers but is able to form tetramers and hexamers which are non-covalently associated. To our knowledge, TgPrx2 is the first eukaryotic 'so called' 1-Cys peroxiredoxin shown to act on the basis of a 2-Cys mechanism. Our data indicate that mechanistic studies are essential for classifying peroxiredoxins.

  18. Canonical Typicality

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Sheldon; Lebowitz, Joel L.; Tumulka, Roderich; Zanghi, Nino

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that a system, S, weakly coupled to a heat bath, B, is described by the canonical ensemble when the composite, S+B, is described by the microcanonical ensemble corresponding to a suitable energy shell. This is true both for classical distributions on the phase space and for quantum density matrices. Here we show that a much stronger statement holds for quantum systems. Even if the state of the composite corresponds to a single wave function rather than a mixture, the reduced ...

  19. Production of fertile zebrafish (Danio rerio) possessing germ cells (gametes) originated from primordial germ cells recovered from vitrified embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Shogo; Eto, Yoshiki; Kawakami, Yutaka; Yamaha, Etsuro; Kagawa, Noriko; Kuwayama, Masashige; Nagano, Masashi; Katagiri, Seiji; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2010-04-01

    This study aimed to produce fertile zebrafish (Danio rerio) possessing germ cells (gametes) that originated from cryopreserved primordial germ cells (PGCs). First, to improve the vitrification procedure of PGCs in segmentation stage embryos, dechorionated yolk-intact and yolk-removed embryos, the PGCs of which were labeled with green fluorescent protein, were cooled rapidly after serial exposures to equilibration solution (ES) and vitrification solution (VS), which contained ethylene glycol, DMSO, and sucrose. Yolk removal well prevented ice formation in the embryos during cooling and improved the viability of cryopreserved PGCs. The maximum recovery rate of live PGCs in the yolk-removed embryos vitrified after optimum exposure to ES and VS was estimated to be about 90%, and about 50% of the live PGCs showed pseudopodial movement. Next, to elucidate the ability of cryopreserved PGCs to differentiate into functional gametes, PGCs recovered from the yolk-removed embryos (striped-type) that were vitrified under the optimum exposure to ES and VS were transplanted individually into 218 sterilized recipient blastulae (golden-type). Two days after the transplantation, 7.5% (14/187) of morphologically normal embryos had PGC(s) in the genital ridges. Six (5 males and 1 female) of the 14 recipient embryos developed into mature fish and generated progeny with characteristics inherited from PGC donors. In conclusion, we demonstrated the successful cryopreservation of PGCs by vitrification of yolk-removed embryos and the production of fertile zebrafish possessing germ cells that originated from the PGCs in vitrified embryos.

  20. Surface electrostatics: theory and computations

    KAUST Repository

    Chatzigeorgiou, G.

    2014-02-05

    The objective of this work is to study the electrostatic response of materials accounting for boundary surfaces with their own (electrostatic) constitutive behaviour. The electric response of materials with (electrostatic) energetic boundary surfaces (surfaces that possess material properties and constitutive structures different from those of the bulk) is formulated in a consistent manner using a variational framework. The forces and moments that appear due to bulk and surface electric fields are also expressed in a consistent manner. The theory is accompanied by numerical examples on porous materials using the finite-element method, where the influence of the surface electric permittivity on the electric displacement, the polarization stress and the Maxwell stress is examined.