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Sample records for surfaces results showed

  1. Enterococcus faecalis strains show culture heterogeneity in cell surface charge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Merode, Annet; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Waar, K; Krom, BP

    2006-01-01

    Adhesion of micro-organisms to biotic and abiotic surfaces is an important virulence factor and involves different types of interactions. Enterococcus faecalis, a human commensal and an important opportunistic pathogen, has the ability to adhere to surfaces. Biliary stents frequently become clogged

  2. Hydrophobic/superhydrophobic oxidized metal surfaces showing negligible contact angle hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozumi, Atsushi; Cheng, Dalton F; Yagihashi, Makoto

    2011-01-15

    Dynamic wettability of oxidized metal (aluminum and titanium) surfaces could be tuned by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D(4)(H)). This facile CVD method produces not only monomeric layers but also particulate films by changing the CVD temperature, resulting in a marked difference in the final wetting properties. In the samples prepared at 80°C for ~3 days, D(4)(H) layers with thicknesses of ~0.5 nm were formed on the surfaces without discernible change in surface morphology, as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. After this D(4)(H) monomeric layer formation, the hydrophilic oxidized aluminum and titanium surfaces became hydrophobic (advancing/receding water contact angles (θ(A)/θ(R))=102-104°/99-102°) showing essentially negligible contact angle hysteresis. Performing CVD of D(4)(H) at 180°C for ~1 day produced opaque film with particulate morphologies with diameters in the range of 500 nm to 4 μm observed on the surfaces. This geometric morphology enhanced the surface hydrophobicity (θ(A)/θ(R)=163°/160-161°). Droplets on these negligible-hysteresis surfaces moved very easily without "pinning".

  3. Results From Mars Show Electrostatic Charging of the Mars Pathfinder Sojourner Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolecki, Joseph C.; Siebert, Mark W.

    1998-01-01

    Indirect evidence (dust accumulation) has been obtained indicating that the Mars Pathfinder rover, Sojourner, experienced electrostatic charging on Mars. Lander camera images of the Sojourner rover provide distinctive evidence of dust accumulation on rover wheels during traverses, turns, and crabbing maneuvers. The sol 22 (22nd Martian "day" after Pathfinder landed) end-of-day image clearly shows fine red dust concentrated around the wheel edges with additional accumulation in the wheel hubs. A sol 41 image of the rover near the rock "Wedge" (see the next image) shows a more uniform coating of dust on the wheel drive surfaces with accumulation in the hubs similar to that in the previous image. In the sol 41 image, note particularly the loss of black-white contrast on the Wheel Abrasion Experiment strips (center wheel). This loss of contrast was also seen when dust accumulated on test wheels in the laboratory. We believe that this accumulation occurred because the Martian surface dust consists of clay-sized particles, similar to those detected by Viking, which have become electrically charged. By adhering to the wheels, the charged dust carries a net nonzero charge to the rover, raising its electrical potential relative to its surroundings. Similar charging behavior was routinely observed in an experimental facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center, where a Sojourner wheel was driven in a simulated Martian surface environment. There, as the wheel moved and accumulated dust (see the following image), electrical potentials in excess of 100 V (relative to the chamber ground) were detected by a capacitively coupled electrostatic probe located 4 mm from the wheel surface. The measured wheel capacitance was approximately 80 picofarads (pF), and the calculated charge, 8 x 10(exp -9) coulombs (C). Voltage differences of 100 V and greater are believed sufficient to produce Paschen electrical discharge in the Martian atmosphere. With an accumulated net charge of 8 x 10(exp

  4. Lithium inclusion in indium metal-organic frameworks showing increased surface area and hydrogen adsorption

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    Mathieu Bosch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of counterion exchange in two anionic In-Metal-Organic Frameworks (In-MOFs showed that partial replacement of disordered ammonium cations was achieved through the pre-synthetic addition of LiOH to the reaction mixture. This resulted in a surface area increase of over 1600% in {Li [In(1,3 − BDC2]}n and enhancement of the H2 uptake of approximately 275% at 80 000 Pa at 77 K. This method resulted in frameworks with permanent lithium content after repeated solvent exchange as confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lithium counterion replacement appears to increase porosity after activation through replacement of bulkier, softer counterions and demonstrates tuning of pore size and properties in MOFs.

  5. Cassini-Huygens results on Titan's surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Athena Coustenis; Mathieu Hirtzig

    2009-01-01

    Our understanding of Titan, Saturn's largest satellite, has recently been consid-erably enhanced, thanks to the Cassini-Huygens mission. Since the Saturn Orbit Injection in July 2004, the probe has been harvesting new insights of the Kronian system. In par-ticular, this mission orchestrated a climax on January 14, 2005 with the descent of the Huygens probe into Titan's thick atmosphere. The orbiter and the lander have provided us with picturesque views of extraterrestrial landscapes, new in composition but reassuringly Earth-like in shape. Thus, Saturn's largest satellite displays chains of mountains, fields of dark and damp dunes, lakes and possibly geologic activity. As on Earth, landscapes on Titan are eroded and modeled by some alien hydrology: dendritic systems, hydrocarbon lakes, and methane clouds imply periods of heavy rainfalls, even though rain was never observed directly. Titan's surface also proved to be geologically active - today or in the recent past - given the small number of impact craters listed to date, as well as a few possible cryovolcanic features. We attempt hereafter a synthesis of the most significant results of the Cassini-Huygens endeavor, with emphasis on the surface.

  6. Physically and chemically stable ionic liquid-infused textured surfaces showing excellent dynamic omniphobicity

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    Daniel F. Miranda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A fluorinated and hydrophobic ionic liquid (IL, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl imide, effectively served as an advantageous lubricating liquid for the preparation of physically and chemically stable omniphobic surfaces based on slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces. Here, we used particulate microstructures as supports, prepared by the chemical vapor deposition of 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane and subsequent surface modification with (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Confirmed by SEM and contact angle measurements, the resulting IL-infused microtextured surfaces are smooth and not only water but also various low surface tension liquids can easily slide off at low substrate tilt angles of <5°, even after exposure to high temperature, vacuum, and UV irradiation.

  7. Physically and chemically stable ionic liquid-infused textured surfaces showing excellent dynamic omniphobicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Daniel F.; Urata, Chihiro; Masheder, Benjamin; Dunderdale, Gary J.; Hozumi, Atsushi, E-mail: a.hozumi@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98, Anagahora, Shimo-Shidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 463-8560 (Japan); Yagihashi, Makoto [Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute, Rokuban, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-0058 (Japan)

    2014-05-01

    A fluorinated and hydrophobic ionic liquid (IL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide, effectively served as an advantageous lubricating liquid for the preparation of physically and chemically stable omniphobic surfaces based on slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces. Here, we used particulate microstructures as supports, prepared by the chemical vapor deposition of 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane and subsequent surface modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane. Confirmed by SEM and contact angle measurements, the resulting IL-infused microtextured surfaces are smooth and not only water but also various low surface tension liquids can easily slide off at low substrate tilt angles of <5°, even after exposure to high temperature, vacuum, and UV irradiation.

  8. Astronomy Diagnostic Test Results Reflect Course Goals and Show Room for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    The results of administering the Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT) to introductory astronomy students at Henry Ford Community College over three years have shown gains comparable with national averages. Results have also accurately corresponded to course goals, showing greater gains in topics covered in more detail, and lower gains in topics covered…

  9. Gun Shows and Gun Violence: Fatally Flawed Study Yields Misleading Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled “The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas” outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors’ prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  10. Gun shows and gun violence: fatally flawed study yields misleading results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, Garen J; Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A

    2010-10-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled "The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas" outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors' prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy.

  11. Exact results for Casimir forces using Surface Impedance: Nonlocal Media

    CERN Document Server

    Esquivel-Sirvent, R; Mochán, W L

    2003-01-01

    We show that exact results are obtained for the calculation of Casimir forces between arbitrary materials using the concept of surface impedances, obtaining in a trivial way the force in the limit of perfect conductors and also Lifshitz formula in the limit of semi-infinite media. As an example we present a full and rigorous calculation of the Casimir force between two metallic half-spaces described by a hydrodynamic nonlocal dielectric response.

  12. Long-Term Trial Results Show No Mortality Benefit from Annual Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen year follow-up data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial show higher incidence but similar mortality among men screened annually with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination

  13. Comparison of some results of program SHOW with other solar hot water computer programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M. F.; Baughn, J. W.

    Subroutines and the driver program for the simulation code SHOW (solar hot water) for solar thermosyphon systems are discussed, and simulations are compared with predictions by the F-CHART and TRNSYS codes. SHOW has the driver program MAIN, which defines the system control logic for choosing the appropriate system subroutine for analysis. Ten subroutines are described, which account for the solar system physical parameters, the weather data, the manufacturer-supplied system specifications, mass flow rates, pumped systems, total transformed radiation, load use profiles, stratification in storage, an electric water heater, and economic analyses. The three programs are employed to analyze a thermosiphon installation in Sacramento with two storage tanks. TRNSYS and SHOW were in agreement and lower than F-CHARt for annual predictions, although significantly more computer time was necessary to make TRNSYS converge.

  14. Data for behavioral results and brain regions showing a time effect during pair-association retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Jimura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current data article provides behavioral and neuroimaging data for the research article "Relatedness-dependent rapid development of brain activity in anterior temporal cortex during pair-association retrieval” (Jimura et al., 2016 [1]. Behavioral performance is provided in a table. Fig. 2 of the article is based on this table. Brain regions showing time effect are provided in a table. A statistical activation map for the time effect is shown in Fig. 3C of the article.

  15. Leishmania-specific surface antigens show sub-genus sequence variation and immune recognition.

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    Daniel P Depledge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A family of hydrophilic acylated surface (HASP proteins, containing extensive and variant amino acid repeats, is expressed at the plasma membrane in infective extracellular (metacyclic and intracellular (amastigote stages of Old World Leishmania species. While HASPs are antigenic in the host and can induce protective immune responses, the biological functions of these Leishmania-specific proteins remain unresolved. Previous genome analysis has suggested that parasites of the sub-genus Leishmania (Viannia have lost HASP genes from their genomes. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have used molecular and cellular methods to analyse HASP expression in New World Leishmania mexicana complex species and show that, unlike in L. major, these proteins are expressed predominantly following differentiation into amastigotes within macrophages. Further genome analysis has revealed that the L. (Viannia species, L. (V. braziliensis, does express HASP-like proteins of low amino acid similarity but with similar biochemical characteristics, from genes present on a region of chromosome 23 that is syntenic with the HASP/SHERP locus in Old World Leishmania species and the L. (L. mexicana complex. A related gene is also present in Leptomonas seymouri and this may represent the ancestral copy of these Leishmania-genus specific sequences. The L. braziliensis HASP-like proteins (named the orthologous (o HASPs are predominantly expressed on the plasma membrane in amastigotes and are recognised by immune sera taken from 4 out of 6 leishmaniasis patients tested in an endemic region of Brazil. Analysis of the repetitive domains of the oHASPs has shown considerable genetic variation in parasite isolates taken from the same patients, suggesting that antigenic change may play a role in immune recognition of this protein family. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings confirm that antigenic hydrophilic acylated proteins are expressed from genes in the same chromosomal

  16. Animation shows promise in initiating timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attin, Mina; Winslow, Katheryn; Smith, Tyler

    2014-04-01

    Delayed responses during cardiac arrest are common. Timely interventions during cardiac arrest have a direct impact on patient survival. Integration of technology in nursing education is crucial to enhance teaching effectiveness. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of animation on nursing students' response time to cardiac arrest, including initiation of timely chest compression. Nursing students were randomized into experimental and control groups prior to practicing in a high-fidelity simulation laboratory. The experimental group was educated, by discussion and animation, about the importance of starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognizing an unresponsive patient. Afterward, a discussion session allowed students in the experimental group to gain more in-depth knowledge about the most recent changes in the cardiac resuscitation guidelines from the American Heart Association. A linear mixed model was run to investigate differences in time of response between the experimental and control groups while controlling for differences in those with additional degrees, prior code experience, and basic life support certification. The experimental group had a faster response time compared with the control group and initiated timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognition of deteriorating conditions (P < .0001). The results demonstrated the efficacy of combined teaching modalities for timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Providing opportunities for repetitious practice when a patient's condition is deteriorating is crucial for teaching safe practice.

  17. FES Training in Aging: interim results show statistically significant improvements in mobility and muscle fiber size

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    Helmut Kern

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial process that is characterized by decline in muscle mass and performance. Several factors, including reduced exercise, poor nutrition and modified hormonal metabolism, are responsible for changes in the rates of protein synthesis and degradation that drive skeletal muscle mass reduction with a consequent decline of force generation and mobility functional performances. Seniors with normal life style were enrolled: two groups in Vienna (n=32 and two groups in Bratislava: (n=19. All subjects were healthy and declared not to have any specific physical/disease problems. The two Vienna groups of seniors exercised for 10 weeks with two different types of training (leg press at the hospital or home-based functional electrical stimulation, h-b FES. Demografic data (age, height and weight were recorded before and after the training period and before and after the training period the patients were submitted to mobility functional analyses and muscle biopsies. The mobility functional analyses were: 1. gait speed (10m test fastest speed, in m/s; 2. time which the subject needed to rise from a chair for five times (5x Chair-Rise, in s; 3. Timed –Up-Go- Test, in s; 4. Stair-Test, in s; 5. isometric measurement of quadriceps force (Torque/kg, in Nm/kg; and 6. Dynamic Balance in mm. Preliminary analyses of muscle biopsies from quadriceps in some of the Vienna and Bratislava patients present morphometric results consistent with their functional behaviors. The statistically significant improvements in functional testings here reported demonstrates the effectiveness of h-b FES, and strongly support h-b FES, as a safe home-based method to improve contractility and performances of ageing muscles.

  18. A Simple Experiment to Show Photodynamic Inactivation of Bacteria on Surfaces

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    Caminos, Daniel A.; Durantini, Edgardo N.

    2007-01-01

    New suitable approaches were investigated to visualize the photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of bacteria immobilized on agar surfaces. The PDI capacities of a cationic photosensitizer (5,10,15,20-tetra(4-N,N,N-trimethylammoniumphenyl)porphyrin) and an anionic photosensitizer (5,10,15,20-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin) were analyzed on a typical…

  19. Bone cells in birds show exceptional surface area, a characteristic tracing back to saurischian dinosaurs of the late Triassic.

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    John M Rensberger

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs are unique among terrestrial tetrapods in their body sizes, which range from less than 3 gm in hummingbirds to 70,000 kg or more in sauropods. Studies of the microstructure of bone tissue have indicated that large dinosaurs, once believed to be slow growing, attained maturity at rates comparable to or greater than those of large mammals. A number of structural criteria in bone tissue have been used to assess differences in rates of osteogenesis in extinct taxa, including counts of lines of arrested growth and the density of vascular canals.Here, we examine the density of the cytoplasmic surface of bone-producing cells, a feature which may set an upper limit to the rate of osteogenesis. Osteocyte lacunae and canaliculi, the cavities in bone containing osteocytes and their extensions, were measured in thin-sections of primary (woven and parallel fibered bone in a diversity of tetrapods. The results indicate that bone cell surfaces are more densely organized in the Saurischia (extant birds, extinct Mesozoic Theropoda and Sauropodomorpha than in other tetrapods, a result of denser branching of the cell extensions. The highest postnatal growth rates among extant tetrapods occur in modern birds, the only surviving saurischians, and the finding of exceptional cytoplasmic surface area of the cells that produce bone in this group suggests a relationship with bone growth rate. In support of this relationship is finding the lowest cell surface density among the saurischians examined in Dinornis, a member of a group of ratites that evolved in New Zealand in isolation from mammalian predators and show other evidence of lowered maturation rates.

  20. HpaA shows variable surface localization but the gene expression is similar in different Helicobacter pylori strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, A M; Blom, K; Sundaeus, V; Bölin, I

    2001-11-01

    Due to earlier contradictory results regarding the localization of the putative Helicobacter pylori adhesin A (HpaA), we aimed to compare the gene and protein expression and surface localization of HpaA in different H. pylori strains. Five H. pylori strains were cultivated for 11 days and analysed by Northern blot analysis, flow cytometry (FCM), semi-quantitative dot blot, colony blot, immuno-electron microscopy (IEM), and phase-contrast microscopy. The highest transcriptional activity of the hapA gene as observed after 3-4 days of cultivation and two mRNA transcripts of 1600 and 3100 nucleotides, respectively, were detected in all five strains with the hpaA probe. We also showed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) that the hpaA gene is co-transcribed with the downstream omp18 gene. The highest total HpaA protein production in bacteria occurred between day 3 and 7, as determined by semi-quantitative dot blot, and was similar in the different strains. The maximal proportion of cells with HpaA on the bacterial surface, detected by FCM, was for strain SS1, 90%; Hel 344, 60%; CCUG 17875, 61%; CCUG 17874, 86% and for strain AH 244 only 35%. By IEM HpaA was detected in all strains both on the bacterial surface and on the flagellar sheath. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  1. Augmented dry cooling surface test program: analysis and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, H.L.; MacGowan, L.J.; Kreid, D.K.; Wiles, L.E.; Faletti, D.W.; Johnson, B.M.

    1979-09-01

    Experiments were performed to assess the operating characteristics and potential performance of water-augmented dry cooling systems. The work was aimed at evaluating a deluged air-cooled HOETERV plate fin heat exchanger surface proposed for integrated dry/wet cooling systems and using test results to guide the development of a predictive analytical model. In the process, all-dry performance data were obtained for the HOETERV surface as well as for two Curtiss-Wright chipped fin surfaces. The dry heat transfer data indicate that a slotted Curtiss-Wright surface slightly outperforms the HOETERV and nonslotted Curtiss-Wright surfaces based on heat rejection rate per unit of fan power. However, all three surfaces are so close in performance that other factors, such as surface cost and piping and mounting costs, will probably determine which surface is preferred at a given installation. Comparisons of deluged HOETERV performance with dry HOETERV and Curtiss-Wright performance under prototypic conditions have established that deluging can provide considerable heat rejection enhancement, particularly at low ITD and low air humidity. A deluged HOETERV core operating at a 115/sup 0/F primary fluid temperature in 105/sup 0/F air at 10% relative humidity can reject over 7 times as much heat as a dry HOETERV core operating under the same conditions at the same air-side pressure drop. Deluged tests were performed to evaluate the effect of airflow rate, deluge flow rate and core tilt angle on performance. Both increased airflow and increased deluge flow increase both heat rejection rate and required fan power. Optimal airflow rate will thus be determined for a given location by the competing costs of heat exchanger surface area versus fan operation. Changes in core tilt angle from vertical to 16/sup 0/ from vertical have a negligible effect on performance.

  2. A duality result between the minimal surface equation and the maximal surface equation

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    ALÍAS LUIS J.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this note we show how classical Bernstein's theorem on minimal surfaces in the Euclidean space can be seen as a consequence of Calabi-Bernstein's theorem on maximal surfaces in the Lorentz-Minkowski space (and viceversa. This follows from a simple but nice duality between solutions to their corresponding differential equations.

  3. Surface-exposed glycoproteins of hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 show a common N-glycosylation profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Gianna; Balestrieri, Marco; Peter-Katalinić, Jasna; Pohlentz, Gottfried; Rossi, Mosè; Fiume, Immacolata; Pocsfalvi, Gabriella

    2013-06-07

    Cell surface proteins of hyperthermophilic Archaea actively participate in intercellular communication, cellular uptake, and energy conversion to sustain survival strategies in extreme habitats. Surface (S)-layer glycoproteins, the major component of the S-layers in many archaeal species and the best-characterized prokaryotic glycoproteins, were shown to have a large structural diversity in their glycan compositions. In spite of this, knowledge on glycosylation of proteins other than S-layer proteins in Archaea is quite limited. Here, the N-glycosylation pattern of cell-surface-exposed proteins of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 were analyzed by lectin affinity purification, HPAEC-PAD, and multiple mass spectrometry-based techniques. Detailed analysis of SSO1273, one of the most abundant ABC transporters present in the cell surface fraction of S. solfataricus, revealed a novel glycan structure composed of a branched sulfated heptasaccharide, Hex4(GlcNAc)2 plus sulfoquinovose where Hex is d-mannose and d-glucose. Having one monosaccharide unit more than the glycan of the S-layer glycoprotein of S. acidocaldarius, this is the most complex archaeal glycan structure known today. SSO1273 protein is heavily glycosylated and all 20 theoretical N-X-S/T (where X is any amino acid except proline) consensus sequence sites were confirmed. Remarkably, we show that several other proteins in the surface fraction of S. solfataricus are N-glycosylated by the same sulfated oligosaccharide and we identified 56 N-glycosylation sites in this subproteome.

  4. Direct Covalent Grafting of Phytate to Titanium Surfaces through Ti-O-P Bonding Shows Bone Stimulating Surface Properties and Decreased Bacterial Adhesion.

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    Córdoba, Alba; Hierro-Oliva, Margarita; Pacha-Olivenza, Miguel Ángel; Fernández-Calderón, María Coronada; Perelló, Joan; Isern, Bernat; González-Martín, María Luisa; Monjo, Marta; Ramis, Joana M

    2016-05-11

    Myo-inositol hexaphosphate, also called phytic acid or phytate (IP6), is a natural molecule abundant in vegetable seeds and legumes. Among other functions, IP6 inhibits bone resorption. It is adsorbed on the surface of hydroxyapatite, inhibiting its dissolution and decreasing the progressive loss of bone mass. We present here a method to directly functionalize Ti surfaces covalently with IP6, without using a cross-linker molecule, through the reaction of the phosphate groups of IP6 with the TiO2 layer of Ti substrates. The grafting reaction consisted of an immersion in an IP6 solution to allow the physisorption of the molecules onto the substrate, followed by a heating step to obtain its chemisorption, in an adaptation of the T-Bag method. The reaction was highly dependent on the IP6 solution pH, only achieving a covalent Ti-O-P bond at pH 0. We evaluated two acidic pretreatments of the Ti surface, to increase its hydroxylic content, HNO3 30% and HF 0.2%. The structure of the coated surfaces was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, and ellipsometry. The stability of the IP6 coating after three months of storage and after sterilization with γ-irradiation was also determined. Then, we evaluated the biological effect of Ti-IP6 surfaces in vitro on MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells, showing an osteogenic effect. Finally, the effect of the surfaces on the adhesion and biofilm viability of oral microorganisms S. mutans and S. sanguinis was also studied, and we found that Ti-IP6 surfaces decreased the adhesion of S. sanguinis. A surface that actively improves osseointegration while decreasing the bacterial adhesion could be suitable for use in bone implants.

  5. Impact of density information on Rayleigh surface wave inversion results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Julian; Tsoflias, Georgios; Miller, Richard D.; Peterie, Shelby; Morton, Sarah; Xia, Jianghai

    2016-12-01

    We assessed the impact of density on the estimation of inverted shear-wave velocity (Vs) using the multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method. We considered the forward modeling theory, evaluated model sensitivity, and tested the effect of density information on the inversion of seismic data acquired in the Arctic. Theoretical review, numerical modeling and inversion of modeled and real data indicated that the density ratios between layers, not the actual density values, impact the determination of surface-wave phase velocities. Application on real data compared surface-wave inversion results using: a) constant density, the most common approach in practice, b) indirect density estimates derived from refraction compressional-wave velocity observations, and c) from direct density measurements in a borehole. The use of indirect density estimates reduced the final shear-wave velocity (Vs) results typically by 6-7% and the use of densities from a borehole reduced the final Vs estimates by 10-11% compared to those from assumed constant density. In addition to the improved absolute Vs accuracy, the resulting overall Vs changes were unevenly distributed laterally when viewed on a 2-D section leading to an overall Vs model structure that was more representative of the subsurface environment. It was observed that the use of constant density instead of increasing density with depth not only can lead to Vs overestimation but it can also create inaccurate model structures, such as a low-velocity layer. Thus, optimal Vs estimations can be best achieved using field estimates of subsurface density ratios.

  6. Results of otoplasty by scoring anterior surface of auricular cartilage

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    Gašić Jugoslav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A prominent ear, so called a protruding or 'lop' ear, is the most common congenital deformity of the external ear. This deformity persists when the mastoid-helix angle (MHA is higher than 30 degrees. It is relatively common among the population with the incidence of about 5%. The aim of this study is to present surgical procedure and our results using otoplasty with scoring anterior surface of the auricular cartilage. To analyze objective and subjective surgical procedure effects. Between 2011 and 2014 we treated 28 patients. We found statistically high significance p<0.01 in value mastoid-helix angle (MHA preoperative and postoperative. In patients with bilateral otoplasty the difference between left and right MHAs after surgical procedure is less than 4 degrees. The difference of head-helix distance (HHD preoperative and postoperative is statistically important with high significance p<0.05. Preoperative satisfaction by personal appearance was better after surgical procedure p<0.05. Complications occurred in 9 cases (32.4%. Otoplasty by scoring anterior surface of auricular cartilage is safe procedure for correction of prominent ear with excellent results on patient satisfaction by personal appearance. Effect of reducing the MHA and HHD is long lasting.

  7. Venus surface and near surface anomalies on the Northern hemisphere observed by VIRTIS/VEX: First results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, G.; Haus, R.; Kappel, D.; Basilevski, A.; Drossart, P.; Piccioni, G.

    2009-04-01

    Venus nightside emission measurements of VIRTIS on Venus Express provide the opportunity of surface studies in the narrow near infrared atmospheric windows. The measurements as well as detailed new radiative transfer simulations show that radiance ratios in the emission windows between 1.0 and 1.35 m with respect to the 1.02 m window can be used to extract information about the surface elevation and temperature. Based on these analyses, first surface and near surface anomalies are identified on the Northern hemisphere of Venus, which are due to deviations of the elevation - temperature correlation in certain small areas. The data are selected from VIRTIS-M-IR nightside measurements. To ensure minimal atmospheric influence on the measured signatures, only pushbroom observations with small observation angles close to nadir are taken into account. The radiative transfer simulation technique considers absorption, emission, and multiple scattering by gaseous and particulate constituents of the atmosphere. Look-up tables of quasi-monochromatic gas absorption cross-sections are calculated using appropriate spectral line data bases and line profiles and a line-by-line procedure. Empirical continuum absorption coefficients are determined from a 'VIRTIS reference spectrum'. In order to derive the parameters of the H2SO4 clouds, Mie theory is applied. Multiple scattering is considered by a Successive Order procedure. The synthetic quasi-monochromatic intensity spectra at the model top level of the atmosphere are convolved with the VIRTIS spectral response function. The surface windows at 1.02, 1.10 and 1.18 m exhibit a clear dependence of transmitted radiation on topographical features and, thus, on surface thermal emission, since an elevation change of 12 km results in a temperature change of 100 K. In the first approximation, the radiance ratios are affine linear functions of the surface temperature. This is demonstrated by both measurements and simulations. In general, the

  8. Some results from 50 years' research on surface forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derjaguin, B. V.

    1992-05-01

    A review is presented about research on surface forces and surface interactions conducted over the past half-century, with some emphasis on the pioneering contributions of the Department of Surface Phenomena at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

  9. Single-Molecule Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Spectrum of Non-Resonant Aromatic Amine Showing Raman Forbidden Bands

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Yuko S; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Zhang, Zhenglong; Kozu, Tomomi; Itoh, Tamitake; Nakanishi, Shunsuke

    2016-01-01

    We present the experimentally obtained single-molecule (SM) surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum of 4-aminibenzenethiol (4-ABT), also known as para-aminothiophenol (PATP). Measured at a 4-ABT concentration of 8 * 10^-10 M, the spectra show Raman forbidden modes. The SM-SERS spectrum of 4-ABT obtained using a non-resonant visible laser is different from the previously reported SERS spectra of 4-ABT, and could not be reconstructed using quantum mechanical calculations. Careful classical assignments (not based on quantum-mechanical calculations) are reported, and indicate that differences in the reported spectra of 4-ABT are mainly due to the appearance of Raman forbidden bands. The presence of Raman forbidden bands can be explained by the charge-transfer (CT) effect of 4-ABT adsorbed on the silver nanostructures, indicating a breakdown of Raman selection rules at the SERS hotspot.

  10. Reception of Talent Shows in Denmark: First Results from a Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of the Danish part of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in Spring 2013. Within the international business model...... of format adaptation, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, X Factor and Voice have sold to a large variety of countries, covering all continents. Such global reach inevitably raises the question of the genre’s audience appeal...... that television formats to a considerable degree are adapted according to national audiences and, hence, national cultural tastes. And in our research approach, we do recognize that musical talent shows appear to contribute to ‘imagining the nation’ (Anderson 1983), often even mentioning the nation in the title...

  11. Reception of Talent Shows in Denmark: First Results from a Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    of format adaptation, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, X Factor and Voice have sold to a large variety of countries, covering all continents. Such global reach inevitably raises the question of the genre’s audience appeal......This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of the Danish part of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in Spring 2013. Within the international business model...... that television formats to a considerable degree are adapted according to national audiences and, hence, national cultural tastes. And in our research approach, we do recognize that musical talent shows appear to contribute to ‘imagining the nation’ (Anderson 1983), often even mentioning the nation in the title...

  12. Transgenic plants expressing HC-Pro show enhanced virus sensitivity while silencing of the transgene results in resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlotshwa, S.; Verver, J.; Sithole-Niang, I.; Prins, M.; Kammen, van A.; Wellink, J.

    2002-01-01

    Nicotiana benthamiana plants were engineered to express sequences of the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyvirus (CABMV). The sensitivity of the transgenic plants to infection with parental and heterologous viruses was studied. The lines expressing HC-Pro showed

  13. Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Gibson, Marc A.; Geng, Steven M.; Sanzi, James L.

    2016-01-01

    The Fission Surface Power (FSP) Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) is a system-level demonstration of fission power technology intended for use on manned missions to Mars. The Baseline FSP systems consists of a 190 kWt UO2 fast-spectrum reactor cooled by a primary pumped liquid metal loop. This liquid metal loop transfers heat to two intermediate liquid metal loops designed to isolate fission products in the primary loop from the balance of plant. The intermediate liquid metal loops transfer heat to four Stirling Power Conversion Units (PCU), each of which produce 12 kWe (48 kW total) and reject waste heat to two pumped water loops, which transfer the waste heat to titanium-water heat pipe radiators. The FSP TDU simulates a single leg of the baseline FSP system using an electrically heater core simulator, a single liquid metal loop, a single PCU, and a pumped water loop which rejects the waste heat to a Facility Cooling System (FCS). When operated at the nominal operating conditions (modified for low liquid metal flow) during TDU testing the PCU produced 8.9 kW of power at an efficiency of 21.7 percent resulting in a net system power of 8.1 kW and a system level efficiency of 17.2 percent. The reduction in PCU power from levels seen during electrically heated testing is the result of insufficient heat transfer from the NaK heater head to the Stirling acceptor, which could not be tested at Sunpower prior to delivery to the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The maximum PCU power of 10.4 kW was achieved at the maximum liquid metal temperature of 875 K, minimum water temperature of 350 K, 1.1 kg/s liquid metal flow, 0.39 kg/s water flow, and 15.0 mm amplitude at an efficiency of 23.3 percent. This resulted in a system net power of 9.7 kW and a system efficiency of 18.7 percent.

  14. Early Results Show Reduced Infection Rate Using No-touch Technique for Expander/ADM Breast Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Henry B. Wilson, MD, FACS

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Infection is a common complication of immediate breast reconstruction that often leads to device removal, a result emotionally devastating to the patient and frustrating for her surgeon. “No-touch” techniques have been used in other surgical disciplines and plastic surgery, but they have not been reported for breast reconstruction with tissue expanders or implants and acellular dermis. We report a novel technique of tissue expander and acellular dermis placement using no-touch princi...

  15. Early Results Show Reduced Infection Rate Using No-touch Technique for Expander/ADM Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry B. Wilson, MD, FACS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Infection is a common complication of immediate breast reconstruction that often leads to device removal, a result emotionally devastating to the patient and frustrating for her surgeon. “No-touch” techniques have been used in other surgical disciplines and plastic surgery, but they have not been reported for breast reconstruction with tissue expanders or implants and acellular dermis. We report a novel technique of tissue expander and acellular dermis placement using no-touch principles with a self-retaining retractor system that holds promise to decrease infectious complications of breast reconstruction.

  16. Surface deformation resulting from subduction and slab detachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiter, S.J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Convergence of lithospheric plates is accommodated at active margins by one plate moving beneath the other into the Earth's mantle. Changes in this subduction process may cause variations in the topography of the Earth's surface near a convergent plate margin. The focus of this thesis lies on

  17. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection.

  18. Low-frequency ac electroporation shows strong frequency dependence and yields comparable transfection results to dc electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yihong; Cao, Zhenning; Bao, Ning; Li, Jianbo; Wang, Jun; Geng, Tao; Lin, Hao; Lu, Chang

    2012-06-28

    Conventional electroporation has been conducted by employing short direct current (dc) pulses for delivery of macromolecules such as DNA into cells. The use of alternating current (ac) field for electroporation has mostly been explored in the frequency range of 10kHz-1MHz. Based on Schwan equation, it was thought that with low ac frequencies (10Hz-10kHz), the transmembrane potential does not vary with the frequency. In this report, we utilized a flow-through electroporation technique that employed continuous 10Hz-10kHz ac field (based on either sine waves or square waves) for electroporation of cells with defined duration and intensity. Our results reveal that electropermeabilization becomes weaker with increased frequency in this range. In contrast, transfection efficiency with DNA reaches its maximum at medium frequencies (100-1000Hz) in the range. We postulate that the relationship between the transfection efficiency and the ac frequency is determined by combined effects from electrophoretic movement of DNA in the ac field, dependence of the DNA/membrane interaction on the ac frequency, and variation of transfection under different electropermeabilization intensities. The fact that ac electroporation in this frequency range yields high efficiency for transfection (up to ~71% for Chinese hamster ovary cells) and permeabilization suggests its potential for gene delivery.

  19. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Brito Lopes

    Full Text Available This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs. Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA, back-fat thickness (BF, and rump fat thickness (RF, registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3 (P < 0.001. Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1 were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs. Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection.

  20. A new loess distribution map for the Carpathian Basin facilitates surface sediment transects and showing migration pathways for modern human dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, Frank; Lindner, Heiko; Bösken, Janina; Zeeden, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Quaternary studies in the Carpathian Basin require a detailed knowledge of the distribution of surface sediments. Existing and often cited maps, such as Haase et al. (2007), are not detailed enough for various purposes and difficult in detail as a result of the basic input data and due to the used scale. In addition, many of the maps presenting the distribution of loess and other geological features in Europe display inconsistencies such as displacements, shifts or even abrupt delimitations of different geological units such as loess across national borders. In fact, if geoscientific data from different regions or countries are combined, national borders in many medium- and large-scale thematic datasets appear as artificial breaks. To create a higher resolution map showing the more detailed distribution of Quaternary surface sediments in the Carpathian Basin the spatial data from several countries were used and combined. Particularly some issues occurred because of the thematically content of the underlying international geodata, but also due to geodetical basics such as projections and linguistic barriers, respectively. In addition to maps, transects of surface sediments from the lowlands to the uplands are provided. Together these visualizations are used for discussing the loess distribution and possible origins. This map provides a valuable contribution to the potential migration route for the dispersal of the modern humans. We can show that the distribution of Aurignacian open air sites is connect to elevations between 200 and 500 m at the foothills of the mountains and often situated in loess environments.

  1. Getting carried away: a note showing baseline observation carried forward (BOCF) results can be calculated from published complete-cases results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, K A; Affuso, O; Beasley, T M; Allison, D B

    2012-06-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in obesity are plagued by missing data due to participant dropouts. Most methodologists and regulatory bodies agree that the primary analysis of such RCTs should be based on the intent-to-treat (ITT) principle, such that all randomized subjects are included in the analysis, even those who dropped out. Unfortunately, some authors do not include an ITT analysis in their published reports. Here we show that one form of ITT analysis, baseline observation carried forward (BOCF), can be performed utilizing only information available in a published complete-case (CC) analysis, permitting readers, editors, meta-analysts and regulators to easily conduct their own ITT analyses when the original authors do not report one. We mathematically derive a simple method for estimating and testing treatment effects using the BOCF to allow a more conservative comparison of treatment effects when there are dropouts in a clinical trial. We provide two examples of this method using available CC analysis data from reported obesity trials to illustrate the application for readers who wish to determine a range of treatment effects based on published summary statistics. Commonly used CC analyses may lead to inflated type I error rates and/or treatment effect estimates. The method described herein can be useful for researchers who wish to estimate a conservative range of plausible treatment effects based on limited reported data. Limitations of this method are discussed.

  2. A high surface area Zr(IV)-based metal-organic framework showing stepwise gas adsorption and selective dye uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiu-Liang; Tong, Minman; Huang, Hongliang; Wang, Bin; Gan, Lei; Yang, Qingyuan; Zhong, Chongli; Li, Jian-Rong

    2015-03-01

    Exploitation of new metal-organic framework (MOF) materials with high surface areas has been attracting great attention in related research communities due to their broad potential applications. In this work, a new Zr(IV)-based MOF, [Zr6O4(OH)4(eddb)6] (BUT-30, H2eddb=4,4‧-(ethyne-1,2-diyl)dibenzoic acid) has been solvothermally synthesized, characterized, and explored for gases and dyes adsorptions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates a three-dimensional cubic framework structure of this MOF, in which each Zr6O4(OH)4 building unit is linked by 12 linear eddb ligands. BUT-30 has been found stable up to 400 °C and has a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area as high as 3940.6 m2 g-1 (based on the N2 adsorption at 77 K) and total pore volume of 1.55 cm3 g-1. It is more interesting that this MOF exhibits stepwise adsorption behaviors for Ar, N2, and CO2 at low temperatures, and selective uptakes towards different ionic dyes.

  3. Morphology of surface damage resulting from static and dynamic contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Vongbandit, Pratip

    2008-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Contact fatigue damages resulting either from static or dynamic contact are of interest for understanding the failure modes and mechanisms leading to improvement of the components’ performances in tribological applications. The objective of this research was to ascertain how and to what extent the counterface materials, loading conditions, contact configuration, lubrication, and the environme...

  4. Modeling of contact mechanics and friction limit surfaces for soft fingers in robotics, with experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xydas, N.; Kao, I.

    1999-09-01

    A new theory in contact mechanics for modeling of soft fingers is proposed to define the relationship between the normal force and the radius of contact for soft fingers by considering general soft-finger materials, including linearly and nonlinearly elastic materials. The results show that the radius of contact is proportional to the normal force raised to the power of {gamma}, which ranges from 0 to 1/3. This new theory subsumes the Hertzian contact model for linear elastic materials, where {gamma} = 1/3. Experiments are conducted to validate the theory using artificial soft fingers made of various materials such as rubber and silicone. Results for human fingers are also compared. This theory provides a basis for numerically constructing friction limit surfaces. The numerical friction limit surface can be approximated by an ellipse, with the major and minor axes as the maximum friction force and the maximum moment with respect to the normal axis of contact, respectively. Combining the results of the contact-mechanics model with the contact-pressure distribution, the normalized friction limit surface can be derived for anthropomorphic soft fingers. The results of the contact-mechanics model and the pressure distribution for soft fingers facilitate the construction of numerical friction limit surfaces, and will enable us to analyze and simulate contact behaviors of grasping and manipulation in robotics.

  5. Antibody recognition force microscopy shows that outer membrane cytochromes OmcA and MtrC are expressed on the exterior surface of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower, Brian H; Yongsunthon, Ruchirej; Shi, Liang; Wildling, Linda; Gruber, Hermann J; Wigginton, Nicholas S; Reardon, Catherine L; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E; Droubay, Timothy C; Boily, Jean-François; Lower, Steven K

    2009-05-01

    Antibody recognition force microscopy showed that OmcA and MtrC are expressed on the exterior surface of living Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cells when Fe(III), including solid-phase hematite (Fe(2)O(3)), was the terminal electron acceptor. OmcA was localized to the interface between the cell and mineral. MtrC displayed a more uniform distribution across the cell surface. Both cytochromes were associated with an extracellular polymeric substance.

  6. The cataract-associated V41M mutant of human γS-crystallin shows specific structural changes that directly enhance local surface hydrophobicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharat, Somireddy Venkata; Shekhtman, Alexander; Pande, Jayanti, E-mail: jpande@albany.edu

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •We present NMR analysis of V41M, a cataract-causing mutant of human γS-crystallin. •Mutation alters strand–strand interactions throughout the N-terminal domain. •Mutation directly affects Trp46 due to key Met41-S–Trp46-pi interactions. •We identify the basis of the surface hydrophobicity increase and residues involved. -- Abstract: The major crystallins expressed in the human lens are γS-, γC- and γD-crystallins. Several mutations in γS-crystallin are associated with hereditary cataracts, one of which involves the substitution of a highly conserved Valine at position 41 to Methionine. According to a recent report, the mutant protein, V41M, shows lower stability and increased surface hydrophobicity compared to the wild-type, and a propensity for self-aggregation. Here we address the structural differences between the two proteins, with residue-level specificity using NMR spectroscopy. Based on the structural model of the mutant protein, our results clearly show that the mutation creates a major local perturbation almost at the junction of the first and second “Greek-key” motifs in the N-terminal domain. A larger section of the second motif (residues 44–86) appears to be mainly affected. Based on the sizeable chemical shift of the imino proton of the indole side-chain of Trp46 in V41M, we suggest that the sulphur atom of Met41 is involved in an S–π interaction with Trp46. This interaction would bring the last β-strand of the first “Greek-key” motif closer to the first β-strand of the second motif. This appears to lead to a domino effect, towards both the N- and C-terminal ends, even as it decays off substantially beyond the domain interface. During this process discreet hydrophobic surface patches are created, as revealed by ANS-binding. Such changes would not affect the secondary structure or cause a major change in the tertiary structure, but can lead to self-aggregation or aberrant binding interactions of the mutant

  7. Show Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Story: Show Time!The whole class presents the story"Under the Sea".Everyone is so excited and happy.Both Leo and Kathy show their parentsthe characters of the play."Who’s he?"asks Kathy’s mom."He’s the prince."Kathy replies."Who’s she?"asks Leo’s dad."She’s the queen."Leo replieswith a smile.

  8. Snobbish Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The State Administration of Radio,Film and Television (SARFT),China's media watchdog,issued a new set of mles on June 9 that strictly regulate TV match-making shows,which have been sweeping the country's primetime programming. "Improper social and love values such as money worship should not be presented in these shows.Humiliation,verbal attacks and sex-implied vulgar content are not allowed" the new roles said.

  9. The new single-channel approaches for retrieving land surface temperature and the preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Yang, Song; Liu, Lin; Zhao, Xiaofeng

    2014-11-01

    Two satellites named HJ-1A and HJ-1B were launched on 6 September 2008, which are intended for environment and disaster monitoring and forecasting. The infrared scanner (IRS) onboard HJ-1B has one thermal infrared band. Currently, for sensors with one thermal band (e.g. Landsat TM/ETM+ and HJ-1B), several empirical algorithms have been developed to estimate land surface temperature (LST). However, surface emissivity and atmospheric parameters which are not readily accessible to general users are required for these empirical methods. To resolve this problem, particularly for HJ-1B, new retrieval methodology is desired. According to proper assumptions, two approaches were proposed, which included the single-channel method based on temporal and spatial information (MTSC) and the image based single-channel method (IBSC). The newly developed methods are mainly for estimating LST accurately from one thermal band, even without any accurate information related to the atmospheric parameters and land surface emissivity. In this paper, we introduce and give preliminary assessments on the new approaches. Assessments generally show good agreement between the HJ-1B retrieved results and the MODIS references. Especially, over sea and water areas the biases were less than 1K while the root mean square errors were about 1K for both MTSC and IBSC methods. As expected, the MTSC method did superiorly to the IBSC method, owning to spatiotemporal information is incorporated into the MTSC method, although more experiments and comparisons should be conducted further.

  10. EROBATIC SHOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Visitors look at plane models of the Commercial Aircraft Corp. of China, developer of the count,s first homegrown large passenger jet C919, during the Singapore Airshow on February 16. The biennial event is the largest airshow in Asia and one of the most important aviation and defense shows worldwide. A number of Chinese companies took part in the event during which Okay Airways, the first privately owned aidine in China, signed a deal to acquire 12 Boeing 737 jets.

  11. Speciated particle dry deposition to the sea surface: Results from ASEPS '97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.; Geernaert, L.L.S.

    1999-01-01

    It has been postulated that atmospheric pathways may comprise a significant source of nitrogen for aquatic ecosystems and excess atmospheric deposition to coastal areas may be a major cause of eutrophication. Dry deposition of nitrogen containing particles is a potential, but poorly quantified...... on Precipitation Scavenging and Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Processes. AMS, Richland, Washington, USA, 12pp.) model to calculate size-segregated dry deposition of particle inorganic nitrogen compounds to the western Baltic during the late Spring of 1997 based on data collected as part of the Air-Sea Exchange...... Process Study (ASEPS). The results show that over a 15 d period in April and May dry deposition fluxes varied between 30 and 400 mu g m(-2) d(-1) for nitrate and 1 and 120 mu g m(-2) d(-1) for ammonium. Sensitivity analyses run to assess the potential bounds on actual dry deposition indicate that...

  12. New experimental results on local heat transfer inside a rectangular channel with rib-roughened surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, D.; Gramazio, P.; Vitali, L.; Niro, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present new experimental results on local heat transfer characteristics of a forced air-flow through a 12-mm-height, rectangular channel of 1:10 aspect ratio, with square-cross-section ribs mounted onto the lower surface. Data are collected on a completely redesigned test section. Specifically, the electric heater is made of very thin copper tracks, in direct contact with the air flow and covering at 97.5% the channel lower surface to guarantee a very uniform heat flux. The copper tracks are laminated onto a 2-mm thick board of FR-4 glass epoxy to provide negligible heat conduction inside the plate and heat losses from its sides. Finally, the channel walls are in XPS and, into the upper one, a double glazing consisting of two 120 mm x 120 mm Germanium windows is mounted to allow optical access to the IR camera and to reduce local heat dispersions. Data here presented refer to convection over 4 mm x 2 mm ribs in transverse configuration for Reynolds numbers, based on the duct hydraulic diameter, ranging between 700 and 8000. Preliminary tests show how the new apparatus has significantly improved the quality, the ease and the quickness of the measurements.

  13. Low-cost surface reconstruction for aesthetic results assessment and prediction in breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacher, Rene M; Hipwell, John H; Williams, Norman R; Keshtgar, Mohammed R S; Hawkes, David J; Stoyanov, Danail

    2015-08-01

    The high incidence and low mortality of breast cancer surgery has led to an increasing emphasis on the cosmetic outcome of surgical treatment. Advances in aesthetic evaluation, as well as surgical planning and outcome prediction, have been investigated by using geometrically precise 3D modelling of the breast surface prior to surgery and after the procedure. However, existing solutions are based on expensive site specific setups and remain weakly validated. In this paper, we explore the possibility of using low-cost RGBD cameras as an affordable and mobile system for breast surface reconstruction. The methodology relies on sensor calibration, uncertainty-driven point filtering, dense reconstruction and subsequent multi-view joint optimization to diffuse residual pose errors. Results from a phantom study, with ground truth obtained through commercially available scanners, indicate that the approach is promising with RMS errors in order of 2 mm. A clinical study shows the practical applicability of our method and compares favourably to high-end scanning solutions.

  14. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3262, Farah (421) and Hokumat-e-pur-Chaman (422) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  15. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3468, Chak-e Wardak-Siyahgird (509) and Kabul (510) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  16. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3164, Lashkar Gah (605) and Kandahar (606) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  17. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3166, Jaldak (701) and Maruf-Nawa (702) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  18. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3568, Pul-e Khumri (503) and Charikar (504) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  19. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3466, La`l wa Sar Jangal (507) and Bamyan (508) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  20. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3268, Khayr Kot (521) and Urgun (522) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  1. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3564, Jowand (405) and Gurziwan (406) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  2. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3466, La`l wa Sar Jangal (507) and Bamyan (508) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  3. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3670, Jurm-Kishim (223) and Zebak (224) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  4. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3368, Ghazni (515) and Gardez (516) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  5. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3266, Uruzgan (519) and Moqur (520) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  6. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3164, Lashkar Gah (605) and Kandahar (606) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  7. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3366, Gizab (513) and Nawer (514) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  8. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3770, Faizabad (217) and Parkhaw (218) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  9. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3470, Jalalabad (511) and Chaghasaray (512) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  10. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3464, Shahrak (411) and Kasi (412) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  11. Hyperspectral Surface Materials Map of Quadrangle 3268, Khayr Kot (521) and Urgun (522) Quadrangles, Afghanistan, Showing Iron-bearing Minerals and Other Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  12. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3470, Jalalabad (511) and Chaghasaray (512) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  13. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3260, Dasht-e-Chah-e-Mazar (419) and Anar Darah (420) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  14. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3266, Uruzgan (519) and Moqur (520) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  15. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3568, Pul-e Khumri (503) and Charikar (504) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  16. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3562, Khawja-Jir (403) and Murghab (404) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  17. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3364, Pasaband (417) and Markaz-e Kajiran (418) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  18. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3770, Faizabad (217) and Parkhaw (218) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  19. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3162, Chakhansur (603) and Kotalak (604) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  20. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3562, Khawja-Jir (403) and Murghab (404) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  1. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3262, Farah (421) and Hokumat-e-pur-Chaman (422) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  2. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3264, Naw Zad-Musa Qala (423) and Dihrawud (424) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  3. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3570, Tagab-e-Munjan (505) and Asmar-Kamdesh (506) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  4. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3366, Gizab (513) and Nawer (514) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  5. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3464, Shahrak (411) and Kasi (412) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  6. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3570, Tagab-e-Munjan (505) and Asmar-Kamdesh (506) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  7. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3462, Herat (409) and Chishti Sharif (410) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  8. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3566, Sangcharak (501) and Sayghan-o-Kamard (502) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other material

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  9. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3564, Jowand (405) and Gurziwan (406) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  10. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3362, Shindand (415) and Tulak (416) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  11. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3468, Chak-e Wardak-Siyahgird (509) and Kabul (510) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  12. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3364, Pasaband (417) and Markaz-e Kajiran (418) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  13. Hyperspectral Surface Materials Map of Quadrangle 3566, Sangcharak (501) and Sayghan-o-Kamard (502) Quadrangles, Afghanistan, Showing Carbonates, Phyllosilicates, Sulfates, Altered Minerals, and Other Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  14. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3166, Jaldak (701) and Maruf-Nawa (702) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  15. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3162, Chakhansur (603) and Kotalak (604) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  16. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3264, Naw Zad-Musa Qala (423) and Dihrawud (424) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  17. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3362, Shindand (415) and Tulak (416) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  18. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3462, Herat (409) and Chishti Sharif (410) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  19. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3368, Ghazni (515) and Gardez (516) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  20. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3670, Jurm-Kishim (223) and Zebak (224) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  1. Existence and non-existence results for the SU(3) singular Toda system on compact surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Battaglia, Luca; Malchiodi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We consider the SU(3) Toda system on a compact surface. We give both existence and non-existence results under some conditions on the parameters. Existence results are obtained using variational methods, which involve a geometric inequality of new type; non-existence results are obtained using blow-up analysis and localized Pohozaev identities.

  2. Botswana water and surface energy balance research program. Part 1: Integrated approach and field campaign results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Owe, M.; Vugts, H. F.; Ramothwa, G. K.

    1992-01-01

    The Botswana water and surface energy balance research program was developed to study and evaluate the integrated use of multispectral satellite remote sensing for monitoring the hydrological status of the Earth's surface. Results of the first part of the program (Botswana 1) which ran from 1 Jan. 1988 - 31 Dec. 1990 are summarized. Botswana 1 consisted of two major, mutually related components: a surface energy balance modeling component, built around an extensive field campaign; and a passive microwave research component which consisted of a retrospective study of large scale moisture conditions and Nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer microwave signatures. The integrated approach of both components in general are described and activities performed during the surface energy modeling component including the extensive field campaign are summarized. The results of the passive microwave component are summarized. The key of the field campaign was a multilevel approach, whereby measurements by various similar sensors were made at several altitudes and resolution. Data collection was performed at two adjacent sites of contrasting surface character. The following measurements were made: micrometeorological measurements, surface temperatures, soil temperatures, soil moisture, vegetation (leaf area index and biomass), satellite data, aircraft data, atmospheric soundings, stomatal resistance, and surface emissivity.

  3. Analysis of conservative tracer measurement results using the Frechet distribution at planted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel and showing the effect of clogging processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Ernő; Klincsik, Mihály

    2015-11-01

    A mathematical process, developed in Maple environment, has been successful in decreasing the error of measurement results and in the precise calculation of the moments of corrected tracer functions. It was proved that with this process, the measured tracer results of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel (HSFCW-C) can be fitted more accurately than with the conventionally used distribution functions (Gaussian, Lognormal, Fick (Inverse Gaussian) and Gamma). This statement is true only for the planted HSFCW-Cs. The analysis of unplanted HSFCW-Cs needs more research. The result of the analysis shows that the conventional solutions (completely stirred series tank reactor (CSTR) model and convection-dispersion transport (CDT) model) cannot describe these types of transport processes with sufficient accuracy. These outcomes can help in developing better process descriptions of very difficult transport processes in HSFCW-Cs. Furthermore, a new mathematical process can be developed for the calculation of real hydraulic residence time (HRT) and dispersion coefficient values. The presented method can be generalized to other kinds of hydraulic environments.

  4. Transgene silencing of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome mutation results in a reversible bone phenotype, whereas resveratrol treatment does not show overall beneficial effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandgren, Charlotte; Nasser, Hasina Abdul; McKenna, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare premature aging disorder that is most commonly caused by a de novo point mutation in exon 11 of the LMNA gene, c.1824C>T, which results in an increased production of a truncated form of lamin A known as progerin. In this study, we used a mouse...... model to study the possibility of recovering from HGPS bone disease upon silencing of the HGPS mutation, and the potential benefits from treatment with resveratrol. We show that complete silencing of the transgenic expression of progerin normalized bone morphology and mineralization already after 7...... weeks. The improvements included lower frequencies of rib fractures and callus formation, an increased number of osteocytes in remodeled bone, and normalized dentinogenesis. The beneficial effects from resveratrol treatment were less significant and to a large extent similar to mice treated with sucrose...

  5. Simple instruments used in monitoring ionospheric perturbations and some observational results showing the ionospheric responses to the perturbations mainly from the lower atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zuo; Hao, Yongqiang; Zhang, Donghe; Xiao, Sai-Guan; Huang, Weiquan

    Ionospheric disturbances such as SID and acoustic gravity waves in different scales are well known and commonly discussed topics. Some simple ground equipment was designed and used for monitoring continuously the effects of these disturbances, especially, SWF, SFD. Besides SIDs, They also reflect clearly the acoustic gravity waves in different scale and Spread-F and these data are important supplementary to the traditional ionosonde records. It is of signifi-cance in understanding physical essentials of the ionospheric disturbances and applications in SID warning. In this paper, the designing of the instruments is given and results are discussed in detail. Some case studies were introduced as example which showed very clearly not only immediate effects of solar flare, but also the phenomena of ionospheric responses to large scale gravity waves from lower atmosphere such as typhoon, great earthquake and volcano erup-tion. Particularlyresults showed that acoustic gravity waves play significant role in seeding ionospheric Spread-F. These examples give evidence that lower atmospheric activities strongly influence the ionosphere.

  6. The surface chemistry resulting from low-pressure plasma treatment of polystyrene: The effect of residual vessel bound oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhayal, Marshal; Alexander, Morgan R.; Bradley, James W.

    2006-09-01

    The surface chemistry of plasma treated polystyrene samples has been studied in a specially designed low-pressure argon discharge system incorporating in situ XPS analysis. By using an electrostatic grid biasing technique, the plasma source can also be used in a mode preventing ion interactions with the sample. The system, which utilizes a vacuum transfer chamber between plasma and XPS analysis has allowed us to differentiate between the level of oxygen incorporated at the polystyrene surface from residual gas during treatment and that from the exposure of the treated sample to the laboratory atmosphere. Using typical base pressures of about 5 × 10 -3 Pa (4 × 10 -5 Torr) the XPS results show that significant oxygen surface incorporation resulted from oxygen containing species in the plasma itself (i.e. water vapour with 2 × 10 -3 Pa partial pressure). The surface concentration of O was measured at 7.6 at.%. Subsequent atmospheric exposure of the treated samples resulted in only a small increase (of 0.6 at.%) in oxygen incorporation in the form of acid anhydride functionalities. XPS measurements of PS samples exposed to plasmas with no ion-surface component (i.e. exposure from VUV, UV and excited neutral species only) showed no appreciable change in oxygen incorporation compared to those with low-energy ion bombardment from the plasma (free radical sites in this discharge regime.

  7. Transgene silencing of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome mutation results in a reversible bone phenotype, whereas resveratrol treatment does not show overall beneficial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandgren, Charlotte; Nasser, Hasina Abdul; McKenna, Tomás; Koskela, Antti; Tuukkanen, Juha; Ohlsson, Claes; Rozell, Björn; Eriksson, Maria

    2015-08-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare premature aging disorder that is most commonly caused by a de novo point mutation in exon 11 of the LMNA gene, c.1824C>T, which results in an increased production of a truncated form of lamin A known as progerin. In this study, we used a mouse model to study the possibility of recovering from HGPS bone disease upon silencing of the HGPS mutation, and the potential benefits from treatment with resveratrol. We show that complete silencing of the transgenic expression of progerin normalized bone morphology and mineralization already after 7 weeks. The improvements included lower frequencies of rib fractures and callus formation, an increased number of osteocytes in remodeled bone, and normalized dentinogenesis. The beneficial effects from resveratrol treatment were less significant and to a large extent similar to mice treated with sucrose alone. However, the reversal of the dental phenotype of overgrown and laterally displaced lower incisors in HGPS mice could be attributed to resveratrol. Our results indicate that the HGPS bone defects were reversible upon suppressed transgenic expression and suggest that treatments targeting aberrant progerin splicing give hope to patients who are affected by HGPS.

  8. Laser surface treatment and the resultant hierarchical topography of Ti grade 2 for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczyńska, Donata; Kwaśniak, Piotr; Marczak, Jan; Bonarski, Jan; Smolik, Jerzy; Garbacz, Halina

    2016-12-01

    Modern prosthesis often have a complex structure, where parts of an implant have different functional properties. This gradient of functional properties means that local surface modifications are required. Method presented in this study was develop to functionalize prefabricated elements with original roughness obtained by conventional treatments used to homogenize and clean surface of titanium implants. Demonstrated methodology results in multimodal, periodic grooved topography with roughness in a range from nano- to micrometers. The modified surfaces were characterized in terms of shape, roughness, wettability, surface energy and chemical composition. For this purpose, the following methods were used: scanning electron microscopy, optical profilometry, atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Protein adsorption studies were conducted to determine the potential biomedical application of proposed method. In order to estimate the intensity and way of the protein adsorption process on different titanium surfaces, XPS studies and AFM measurements were performed. The systematic comparison of surface states and their osseointegration tendency will be useful to evaluate suitability of presented method as an single step treatment for local surface functionalization of currently produced implantable devices.

  9. Cassini results on Titan's atmospheric and surface properties changes since the northern equinox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, Athena; Drossart, Pierre; Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard K.; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Nixon, Conor; Bampasidis, Georgios; Solomonidou, Anezina; Jennings, Donald; Lavvas, Panayiotis

    2016-07-01

    Since 2010, we observe the set in and enhancement at Titan's south pole of several trace species, such as HC3N and C6H6, observed only at high northern latitudes before equinox. We will present an analysis of spectra acquired by Cassini/CIRS at high resolution from 2012 in nadir mode. We investigated here several latitudes of 70°S to 70°N since 2010 (after the Southern Autumnal Equinox) until end of 2014 [1]. For some of the most abundant and longest-lived hydrocarbons (C2H2, C2H6 and C3H8) and CO2, the evolution in the past 4 years at a given latitude is not very significant within error bars especially until mid-2013 [1]. In more recent dates, these molecules show a dramatic trend for increase in the south. The 70°S and 50°S or mid-latitudes show different behavior demonstrating that they are subject to different dynamical processes in and out of the polar vortex region. For most species, we find higher abundances at 50°N compared to 50°S, with the exception of C3H8, CO2, C6H6 and HC3N, which arrive at similar mixing ratios after mid-2013 [1]. While the 70°N data show generally no change with a trend rather to a small decrease for most species within 2014, the 70°S results indicate a strong enhancement in trace stratospheric gases after 2012. In particular, HC3N, HCN and C6H6 have increased by 3 orders of magnitude over the past 3-4 years while other molecules, including C2H4, C3H4 and C4H2, have increased less sharply (by 1-2 orders of magnitude). This is a strong indication of the rapid and sudden buildup of the gaseous inventory in the southern stratosphere during 2013-2014, as expected as the pole moves deeper into winter shadow. Subsidence gases that accumulate in the absence of ultraviolet sunlight, evidently increased quickly since 2012 and some of them may be responsible also for the reported haze decrease in the north and its appearance in the south at the same time [2]. Clearly Titan is a dynamic system with indications of short and long

  10. Nanocrystalline diamond surfaces for adhesion and growth of primary neurons, conflicting results and rational explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya Mikhailovna Ojovan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a variety of proliferating cell types, it was shown that the surface of nanocrystalline-diamond (NCD provides a permissive substrate for cell adhesion and development without the need of complex chemical functionalization prior to cell seeding. In an extensive series of experiments we found that, unlike proliferating cells, post-mitotic primary neurons do not adhere to bare NCD surfaces when cultured in defined medium. These observations raise questions on the potential use of bare NCD as an interfacing layer for neuronal devices. Nevertheless, we also found that classical chemical functionalization methods render the hostile bare NCD surfaces with adhesive properties that match those of classically functionalized substrates used extensively in biomedical research and applications. Based on the results, we propose a mechanism that accounts for the conflicting results; which on one hand claim that un-functionalized NCD provides a permissive substrate for cell adhesion and growth, while other reports demonstrate the opposite.

  11. Nanocrystalline diamond surfaces for adhesion and growth of primary neurons, conflicting results and rational explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojovan, Silviya M.; McDonald, Mathew; Rabieh, Noha; Shmuel, Nava; Erez, Hadas; Nesladek, Milos; Spira, Micha E.

    2014-01-01

    Using a variety of proliferating cell types, it was shown that the surface of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) provides a permissive substrate for cell adhesion and development without the need of complex chemical functionalization prior to cell seeding. In an extensive series of experiments we found that, unlike proliferating cells, post-mitotic primary neurons do not adhere to bare NCD surfaces when cultured in defined medium. These observations raise questions on the potential use of bare NCD as an interfacing layer for neuronal devices. Nevertheless, we also found that classical chemical functionalization methods render the “hostile” bare NCD surfaces with adhesive properties that match those of classically functionalized substrates used extensively in biomedical research and applications. Based on the results, we propose a mechanism that accounts for the conflicting results; which on one hand claim that un-functionalized NCD provides a permissive substrate for cell adhesion and growth, while other reports demonstrate the opposite. PMID:24966832

  12. Rapamycin and chloroquine: the in vitro and in vivo effects of autophagy-modifying drugs show promising results in valosin containing protein multisystem proteinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angèle Nalbandian

    Full Text Available Mutations in the valosin containing protein (VCP gene cause hereditary Inclusion body myopathy (hIBM associated with Paget disease of bone (PDB, frontotemporal dementia (FTD, more recently termed multisystem proteinopathy (MSP. Affected individuals exhibit scapular winging and die from progressive muscle weakness, and cardiac and respiratory failure, typically in their 40s to 50s. Histologically, patients show the presence of rimmed vacuoles and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43-positive large ubiquitinated inclusion bodies in the muscles. We have generated a VCPR155H/+ mouse model which recapitulates the disease phenotype and impaired autophagy typically observed in patients with VCP disease. Autophagy-modifying agents, such as rapamycin and chloroquine, at pharmacological doses have previously shown to alter the autophagic flux. Herein, we report results of administration of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway, and chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor which reverses autophagy by accumulating in lysosomes, responsible for blocking autophagy in 20-month old VCPR155H/+ mice. Rapamycin-treated mice demonstrated significant improvement in muscle performance, quadriceps histological analysis, and rescue of ubiquitin, and TDP-43 pathology and defective autophagy as indicated by decreased protein expression levels of LC3-I/II, p62/SQSTM1, optineurin and inhibiting the mTORC1 substrates. Conversely, chloroquine-treated VCPR155H/+ mice revealed progressive muscle weakness, cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43, ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies and increased LC3-I/II, p62/SQSTM1, and optineurin expression levels. Our in vitro patient myoblasts studies treated with rapamycin demonstrated an overall improvement in the autophagy markers. Targeting the mTOR pathway ameliorates an increasing list of disorders, and these findings suggest that VCP disease and related neurodegenerative multisystem

  13. Analytical Round Robin for Elastic-Plastic Analysis of Surface Cracked Plates, Phase II Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, P. A.; Wells, D. N.

    2017-01-01

    The second phase of an analytical round robin for the elastic-plastic analysis of surface cracks in flat plates was conducted under the auspices of ASTM Interlaboratory Study 732. The interlaboratory study (ILS) had 10 participants with a broad range of expertise and experience, and experimental results from a surface crack tension test in 4142 steel plate loaded well into the elastic-plastic regime provided the basis for the study. The participants were asked to evaluate a surface crack tension test according to the version of the surface crack initiation toughness testing standard published at the time of the ILS, E2899-13. Data were provided to each participant that represent the fundamental information that would be provided by a mechanical test laboratory prior to evaluating the test result. Overall, the participant’s test analysis results were in good agreement and constructive feedback was received that has resulted in an improved published version of the standard E2899-15.

  14. Supramolecular Corrals on Surfaces Resulting from Aromatic Interactions of Nonplanar Triazoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jethwa, Siddharth; Kolsbjerg, Esben Leonhard; Vadapoo, Sundar Raja

    2017-01-01

    -shaped ensemble of bridge site positions on (111) surfaces of copper, silver, or gold. The curvature required to form the corrals is identified to result from the angle dependence of aromatic interactions between molecular phenanthrene moieties. The study provides detailed quantitative insights into triazole...

  15. Oxidants at the Surface of Mars: A Review in Light of Recent Exploration Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasne, J.; Noblet, A.; Szopa, C.; Navarro-González, R.; Cabane, M.; Poch, O.; Stalport, F.; François, P.; Atreya, S. K.; Coll, P.

    2016-12-01

    In 1976, the Viking landers carried out the most comprehensive search for organics and microbial life in the martian regolith. Their results indicate that Mars' surface is lifeless and, surprisingly, depleted in organics at part-per-billion levels. Several biology experiments on the Viking landers gave controversial results that have since been explained by the presence of oxidizing agents on the surface of Mars. These oxidants may degrade abiotic or biological organics, resulting in their nondetection in the regolith. As several exploration missions currently focus on the detection of organics on Mars (or will do so in the near future), knowledge of the oxidative state of the surface is fundamental. It will allow for determination of the capability of organics to survive on a geological timescale, the most favorable places to seek them, and the best methods to process the samples collected at the surface. With this aim, we review the main oxidants assumed to be present on Mars, their possible formation pathways, and those laboratory studies in which their reactivity with organics under Mars-like conditions has been evaluated. Among the oxidants assumed to be present on Mars, only four have been detected so far: perchlorate ions (ClO4-) in salts, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the atmosphere, and clays and metal oxides composing surface minerals. Clays have been suggested as catalysts for the oxidation of organics but are treated as oxidants in the following to keep the structure of this article straightforward. This work provides an insight into the oxidizing potential of the surface of Mars and an estimate of the stability of organic matter in an oxidizing environment.

  16. An experimental result of surface roughness machining performance in deep hole drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Azizah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental result of a deep hole drilling process for Steel material at different machining parameters which are feed rate (f, spindle speed (s, the depth of the hole (d and MQL, number of drops (m on surface roughness, Ra. The experiment was designed using two level full factorial design of experiment (DoE with centre points to collect surface roughness, Ra values. The signal to noise (S/N ratio analysis was used to discover the optimum level for each machining parameters in the experiment.

  17. Anomalous wave as a result of the collision of two wave groups on sea surface

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, V P

    2016-01-01

    The numerical simulation of the nonlinear dynamics of the sea surface has shown that the collision of two groups of relatively low waves with close but noncollinear wave vectors (two or three waves in each group with a steepness of about 0.2) can result in the appearance of an individual anomalous wave whose height is noticeably larger than that in the linear theory. Since such collisions quite often occur on the ocean surface, this scenario of the formation of rogue waves is apparently most typical under natural conditions.

  18. Reducing interior temperature resulting from solar energy using three-dimensional surface patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiang-Jiun Lin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Excessive solar energy can significantly increase interior temperatures and yield great energy demands for air conditioning. Whereas reducing energy consumptions is very crucial today, this article employs patterned glass technology which incorporates linear patterns throughout the exterior surface of glass to attenuate the solar effect on the interior thermal field based on theoretical and experimental studies. By periodically imposing linearly three-dimensional patterns over the outer surface of window glass, the analytical results indicate that the interior solar heat is able to be reduced, as the surface patterns increase the incident angle and/or decrease the solar energy loading on the patterned glass material. Moreover, the interior solar heat can be strongly affected by the pattern design. According to thermally measured results, the trapezoidal patterned glass having 3-mm-top-edged patterned members yields lower temperature on the interior surface of glass comparing with that for the trapezoidal patterns having 6-mm-top edges. Therefore, making the least non-sloped feature or flat plane appearing on the patterned glass helps decrease the interior temperature resulting from solar energy.

  19. Model of a realistic InP surface quantum dot extrapolated from atomic force microscopy results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barettin, Daniele; De Angelis, Roberta; Prosposito, Paolo; Auf der Maur, Matthias; Casalboni, Mauro; Pecchia, Alessandro

    2014-05-16

    We report on numerical simulations of a zincblende InP surface quantum dot (QD) on In₀.₄₈Ga₀.₅₂ buffer. Our model is strictly based on experimental structures, since we extrapolated a three-dimensional dot directly by atomic force microscopy results. Continuum electromechanical, [Formula: see text] bandstructure and optical calculations are presented for this realistic structure, together with benchmark calculations for a lens-shape QD with the same radius and height of the extrapolated dot. Interesting similarities and differences are shown by comparing the results obtained with the two different structures, leading to the conclusion that the use of a more realistic structure can provide significant improvements in the modeling of QDs fact, the remarkable splitting for the electron p-like levels of the extrapolated dot seems to prove that a realistic experimental structure can reproduce the right symmetry and a correct splitting usually given by atomistic calculations even within the multiband [Formula: see text] approach. Moreover, the energy levels and the symmetry of the holes are strongly dependent on the shape of the dot. In particular, as far as we know, their wave function symmetries do not seem to resemble to any results previously obtained with simulations of zincblende ideal structures, such as lenses or truncated pyramids. The magnitude of the oscillator strengths is also strongly dependent on the shape of the dot, showing a lower intensity for the extrapolated dot, especially for the transition between the electrons and holes ground state, as a result of a relevant reduction of the wave functions overlap. We also compare an experimental photoluminescence spectrum measured on an homogeneous sample containing about 60 dots with a numerical ensemble average derived from single dot calculations. The broader energy range of the numerical spectrum motivated us to perform further verifications, which have clarified some aspects of the experimental

  20. Prototype of web-based database of surface wave investigation results for site classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K.; Cakir, R.; Martin, A. J.; Craig, M. S.; Lorenzo, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    As active and passive surface wave methods are getting popular for evaluating site response of earthquake ground motion, demand on the development of database for investigation results is also increasing. Seismic ground motion not only depends on 1D velocity structure but also on 2D and 3D structures so that spatial information of S-wave velocity must be considered in ground motion prediction. The database can support to construct 2D and 3D underground models. Inversion of surface wave processing is essentially non-unique so that other information must be combined into the processing. The database of existed geophysical, geological and geotechnical investigation results can provide indispensable information to improve the accuracy and reliability of investigations. Most investigations, however, are carried out by individual organizations and investigation results are rarely stored in the unified and organized database. To study and discuss appropriate database and digital standard format for the surface wave investigations, we developed a prototype of web-based database to store observed data and processing results of surface wave investigations that we have performed at more than 400 sites in U.S. and Japan. The database was constructed on a web server using MySQL and PHP so that users can access to the database through the internet from anywhere with any device. All data is registered in the database with location and users can search geophysical data through Google Map. The database stores dispersion curves, horizontal to vertical spectral ratio and S-wave velocity profiles at each site that was saved in XML files as digital data so that user can review and reuse them. The database also stores a published 3D deep basin and crustal structure and user can refer it during the processing of surface wave data.

  1. A Successfully Treated Case of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Causing Severe Anemia and Localized Peritonitis Showing Angina Pectoris Resulting in Watershed Cerebral Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihide Sehara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke following acute myocardial infarction is a rare but a serious complication. Because the pathophysiology of stroke is dynamic, it is often hard to identify the cause of stroke. Here, we present the case of a 75-year-old man with ischemic stroke following angina pectoris caused by severe anemia and localized peritonitis due to gastrointestinal stromal tumor of small intestine. On admission, he showed consciousness disturbance, fever, and left hemiplegia. The electrocardiogram on admission showed ST-segment depression in V2 to V6 which was normalized 4 hours later. The ultrasound cardiogram showed the mild hypokinesis in the apical portion of left ventricle which was also normalized later. The magnetic resonance imaging and angiography showed ischemic stroke in watershed area between right anterior and middle cerebral arteries area and stenosis of distal portion of right middle cerebral artery. The computed tomography of abdomen showed a mass of small intestine. We decided to perform curative surgery after transfusion and successfully resected the mass of the small intestine, which was revealed to be a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST. This is a successfully treated case of GIST in which the complicated pathophysiology of watershed cerebral infarction following angina pectoris might be clearly revealed.

  2. Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

  3. Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

  4. Surface faulting during the August 24, 2016, central Italy earthquake (Mw 6.0: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz A. Livio

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present some preliminary results on the mapping of coseismically-induced ground ruptures following the Aug. 24, 2016, Central Italy earthquake (Mw 6.0. The seismogenic source, as highlighted by InSAR and seismological data, ruptured across two adjacent structures: the Vettore and Laga faults. We collected field data on ground breaks along the whole deformed area and two different scenarios of on-fault coseismic displacement arise from these observations. To the north, along the Vettore fault, surface faulting can be mapped quite continuously along a well-defined fault strand while such features are almost absent to the south, along the Laga fault, where flysch-like marly units are present. A major lithological control, affects the surface expression of faulting, resulting in a complex deformation pattern.

  5. EUMETSAT and OSI-SAF Sea Surface Temperature: Recent results and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, Anne; Le Borgne, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) delivers operational weather and climate-related satellite data, images and products throughout all day and year. EUMETSAT also has commitments to operational oceanography and atmospheric composition monitoring. Activities over the next twenty years include the continuation of the Mandatory Programmes (MSG, EPS) and future (MTG, EPS-SG), which all include ocean observations of Sea Surface Temperature. The EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea-ice (OSI) Satellite Application Facility (SAF) is lead by Meteo-France with a consortium of institutes from EUMETSAT member states, and provides reliable and timely operational services related to meteorology, oceanography and the marine environment. The OSI-SAF delivers level-2 Sea Surface Temperature products in GHRSST format from a range of EUMETSAT data including Metop AVHRR, IASI; and SEVIRI. EUMETSAT is participating in Copernicus Sentinel-3 in partnership with ESA, where EUMETSAT will operate the satellite and will serve the marine user community. The operational Sea Surface Temperature product delivered by EUMETSAT for Sentinel-3 SLSTR will be in GHRSST L2P format. On-going work towards access to relevant data from third-parties with the preparation of agreements with ISRO, SOA and JAXA, will give EUMETSAT access to an enhanced ocean products catalogue. The presentation will give an overview of activities relating to Sea Surface Temperature at EUMETSAT and the OSI-SAF, and their support to GHRSST, focusing on recent results and future developments.

  6. Potential dose distributions at proposed surface radioactvity clearance levels resulting from occupational scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.; Rabovsky, J. (Environmental Science Division); (USDOE)

    2011-08-02

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the potential dose distribution resulting from surface radioactivity, using occupational radiation exposure scenarios. The surface radioactivity clearance values considered in this analysis may ultimately replace those currently specified in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements and guidance for radiological protection of workers, the public and the environment. The surface contamination values apply to radioactive contamination deposited on a surface (i.e., not incorporated into the interior of the material). For these calculations, the dose coefficients for intake of radionuclides were taken from ICRP Publication 68 (ICRP 1994), and external exposure dose coefficients were taken from the compact disc (CD) that accompanied Federal Guidance Report (FGR) 13 (Eckerman et al. 1999). The ICRP Publication 68 dose coefficients were based on ICRP Publication 60 (ICRP 1990) and were used specifically for worker dose calculations. The calculated dose in this analysis is the 'effective dose' (ED), rather than the 'effective dose equivalent' (EDE).

  7. Randomised control trial showed that delayed cord clamping and milking resulted in no significant differences in iron stores and physical growth parameters at one year of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shivam; Jaiswal, Vijay; Singh, Dharamveer; Jaiswal, Prateek; Garg, Amit; Upadhyay, Amit

    2016-11-01

    Placental redistribution has been shown to improve haematological outcomes in the immediate neonatal period and early infancy. This study compared the effects of delayed cord clamping (DCC) and umbilical cord milking (UCM) on haematological and growth parameters at 12 months of age. This was a follow-up study of a randomised control trial, conducted in a tertiary care paediatric centre from August 2013 to August 2014. We studied 200 apparently healthy Indian infants randomised at birth to receive DCC for 60-90 seconds or UCM. The outcome measures were iron status and physical growth parameters at 12 months. Of the 200 babies, 161 completed the follow-up and baseline characteristics were comparable in both groups. The mean haemoglobin in the DCC group (102.2 (17.2) g/L and serum ferritin 16.44 (2.77) μg/L) showed no significant differences to the UCM group (98.6 (17.1) g/L and 18.2 (2.8) μg/L) at one year. In addition, there were no significant differences in weight, height and mid-upper arm circumference in the two groups. Term-born Indian infants who had DCC at 60-90 seconds or UCM showed no significant differences in ferritin and haemoglobin levels and growth parameters at 12 months of age. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Showing results? An analysis of the perceptions of internal and external stakeholders of the public performance communication by the Belgian and Dutch Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelders, Dave; Galetzka, Mirjam; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Seydel, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Information Quarterly, 15: 153–156). In Belgium and the Netherlands, one Performance measurement and communicating about it with the broader public is not self-evident if one looks at public services organizations (Hernon, 1998 P. Hernon, The government performance and results act. Government

  9. Showing results? An analysis of the perceptions of internal and external stakeholders of the public performance communication by the Belgian and Dutch Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelders, Dave; Galetzka, Mirjam; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Seydel, Erwin

    2008-01-01

    Information Quarterly, 15: 153–156). In Belgium and the Netherlands, one Performance measurement and communicating about it with the broader public is not self-evident if one looks at public services organizations (Hernon, 1998 P. Hernon, The government performance and results act. Government Inform

  10. The relevance of external quality assessment for molecular testing for ALK positive non-small cell lung cancer: results from two pilot rounds show room for optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Tembuyser

    Full Text Available Molecular profiling should be performed on all advanced non-small cell lung cancer with non-squamous histology to allow treatment selection. Currently, this should include EGFR mutation testing and testing for ALK rearrangements. ROS1 is another emerging target. ALK rearrangement status is a critical biomarker to predict response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as crizotinib. To promote high quality testing in non-small cell lung cancer, the European Society of Pathology has introduced an external quality assessment scheme. This article summarizes the results of the first two pilot rounds organized in 2012-2013.Tissue microarray slides consisting of cell-lines and resection specimens were distributed with the request for routine ALK testing using IHC or FISH. Participation in ALK FISH testing included the interpretation of four digital FISH images.Data from 173 different laboratories was obtained. Results demonstrate decreased error rates in the second round for both ALK FISH and ALK IHC, although the error rates were still high and the need for external quality assessment in laboratories performing ALK testing is evident. Error rates obtained by FISH were lower than by IHC. The lowest error rates were observed for the interpretation of digital FISH images.There was a large variety in FISH enumeration practices. Based on the results from this study, recommendations for the methodology, analysis, interpretation and result reporting were issued. External quality assessment is a crucial element to improve the quality of molecular testing.

  11. Air Processes Resulting in a Surface Layer Pollution in Industrial Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesin, Yu V.; Leshukov, T. V.

    2016-08-01

    The article describes the air quality research in Western Siberia (Kemerovo region). The problem of air quality preservation in the conditions of mining industry intensive development is caused by the weather conditions which lead either to the concentration of pollutants in the surface layer, or to their migration to other geosphere, or to dissipation as a result of convective mixing or advection of air masses. Zoning of the territory in view of the research results provides insight into areas where the greatest risk to human health and life is formed.

  12. Mathematical modelling in Matlab of the experimental results shows the electrochemical potential difference - temperature of the WC coatings immersed in a NaCl solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benea, M. L.; Benea, O. D.

    2016-02-01

    The method used for purchasing the corrosion behaviour the WC coatings deposited by plasma spraying, on a martensitic stainless steel substrate consists in measuring the electrochemical potential of the coating, respectively that of the substrate, immersed in a NaCl solution as corrosive agent. The mathematical processing of the obtained experimental results in Matlab allowed us to make some correlations between the electrochemical potential of the coating and the solution temperature is very well described by some curves having equations obtained by interpolation order 4.

  13. Transitioning from preclinical to clinical chemopreventive assessments of lyophilized black raspberries: interim results show berries modulate markers of oxidative stress in Barrett's esophagus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresty, Laura A; Frankel, Wendy L; Hammond, Cynthia D; Baird, Maureen E; Mele, Jennifer M; Stoner, Gary D; Fromkes, John J

    2006-01-01

    Increased fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with decreased risk of a number of cancers of epithelial origin, including esophageal cancer. Dietary administration of lyophilized black raspberries (LBRs) has significantly inhibited chemically induced oral, esophageal, and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Likewise, berry extracts added to cell cultures significantly inhibited cancer-associated processes. Positive results in preclinical studies have supported further investigation of berries and berry extracts in high-risk human cohorts, including patients with existing premalignancy or patients at risk for cancer recurrence. We are currently conducting a 6-mo chemopreventive pilot study administering 32 or 45 g (female and male, respectively) of LBRs to patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE), a premalignant esophageal condition in which the normal stratified squamous epithelium changes to a metaplastic columnar-lined epithelium. BE's importance lies in the fact that it confers a 30- to 40-fold increased risk for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma, a rapidly increasing and extremely deadly malignancy. This is a report on interim findings from 10 patients. To date, the results support that daily consumption of LBRs promotes reductions in the urinary excretion of two markers of oxidative stress, 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-Iso-PGF2) and, to a lesser more-variable extent, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), among patients with BE.

  14. Surface Rupture and Slip Distribution Resulting from the 2013 M7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitman, N. G.; Gold, R. D.; Briggs, R. W.; Barnhart, W. D.; Hayes, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    The 24 September 2013 M7.7 earthquake in Balochistan, Pakistan, produced a ~200 km long left-lateral strike-slip surface rupture along a portion of the Hoshab fault, a moderately dipping (45-75º) structure in the Makran accretionary prism. The rupture is remarkably continuous and crosses only two (0.7 and 1.5 km wide) step-overs along its arcuate path through southern Pakistan. Displacements are dominantly strike-slip, with a minor component of reverse motion. We remotely mapped the surface rupture at 1:5,000 scale and measured displacements using high resolution (0.5 m) pre- and post-event satellite imagery. We mapped 295 laterally faulted stream channels, terrace margins, and roads to quantify near-field displacement proximal (±10 m) to the rupture trace. The maximum near-field left-lateral offset is 15±2 m (average of ~7 m). Additionally, we used pre-event imagery to digitize 254 unique landforms in the "medium-field" (~100-200 m from the rupture) and then measured their displacements compared to the post-event imagery. At this scale, maximum left-lateral offset approaches 17 m (average of ~8.5 m). The width (extent of observed surface faulting) of the rupture zone varies from ~1 m to 3.7 km. Near- and medium-field offsets show similar slip distributions that are inversely correlated with the width of the fault zone at the surface (larger offsets correspond to narrow fault zones). The medium-field offset is usually greater than the near-field offset. The along-strike surface slip distribution is highly variable, similar to the slip distributions documented for the 2002 Denali M7.9 earthquake and 2001 Kunlun M7.8 earthquake, although the Pakistan offsets are larger in magnitude. The 2013 Pakistan earthquake ranks among the largest documented continental strike-slip displacements, possibly second only to the 18+ m surface displacements attributed to the 1855 Wairarapa M~8.1 earthquake.

  15. Realignment of Nanocrystal Aggregates into Single Crystals as a Result of Inherent Surface Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhaoming [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Zhejiang 310027 China; Pan, Haihua [Qiushi Academy for Advanced Studies, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Zhejiang 310027 China; Zhu, Genxing [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Zhejiang 310027 China; Li, Yaling [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Zhejiang 310027 China; Tao, Jinhui [Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Jin, Biao [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Zhejiang 310027 China; Tang, Ruikang [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Zhejiang 310027 China; Qiushi Academy for Advanced Studies, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Zhejiang 310027 China

    2016-07-19

    Assembly of nanoparticles building blocks during single crystal growth is widely observed in both natural and synthetic environments. Although this form of non-classical crystallization is generally described by oriented attachment, random aggregation of building blocks leading to single crystal products is also observed, but the mechanism of crystallographic realignment is unknown. We herein reveal that random attachment during aggregation-based growth initially produces a non-oriented growth front. Subsequent evolution of the orientation is driven by the inherent surface stress applied by the disordered surface layer and results in single crystal formation via grain boundary migration. This mechanism is corroborated by measurements of orientation rate vs external stress, demonstrating a predictive relationship between the two. These findings advance our understanding of aggregation-based growth of natural minerals by nanocrystals, and suggest an approach to material synthesis that takes advantage of stress induced co-alignment.

  16. Adsorption of normal pentane on the surface of rutile. Experimental results and simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmatkariev, G U; Carvalho, A J Palace; Ramalho, J P Prates

    2007-07-03

    Adsorption isotherms and differential heats of normal pentane adsorption on microcrystalline rutile were measured at 303 K. The heat of adsorption of n-pentane on rutile at zero occupancy is 64 kJ/mol. The differential heats have three descending segments, corresponding to the adsorption of n-pentane on three types of surfaces. At low coverage (first segment), the adsorption is restricted to the rows A of the (110) faces along the 5-fold coordinatively unsaturated (cus) Ti(4+) ions with differential heat showing a linear decrease with increasing occupancy. The second segment is attributed to bonding with atoms of the rows along the remaining faces exposed, (101) and (100). The third segment is related to a multilayer adsorption. The mean molar adsorption entropy of n-pentane is ca. -25 J/mol K less than the entropy of the bulk liquid, thus revealing a hindered state of motion of the n-pentane molecules on the surface of rutile. Simulations of the adsorption of n-pentane on the three most abundant crystallographic faces of rutile were also performed. The adsorption isotherm obtained from the combination of each face's isotherm weighted by the respective abundance was found to be in a good agreement with the experimental data. A structural characterization of n-pentane near the surface was also conducted, and it was found that the substrate, especially for the (110) face, strongly perturbs the distribution of n-pentane conformations, compared to those found for the gas phase. Adsorbed molecules are predominantly oriented with their long axes and their backbone zigzag planes parallel to the surface and are also characterized by fewer gauche conformations than observed in the bulk phase.

  17. The Use of Online Pre-Lab Assessments Compared with Written Pre-Lab Assignments Requiring Experimental Result Prediction Shows No Difference in Student Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L. Suchman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Exam performance was compared for students who hand wrote questions designed to prepare them for daily lab activities in a senior level virology laboratory course versus those who answered questions created to mirror the written questions on-line.  No significant difference was noted in exam scores on any of the three midterms, written final exam, nor the practical exam.  Neither was there a significant difference in the quality of the laboratory reports turned in as evidenced by similar average scores over four years.  These results indicate that using online pre-labs to prepare students for the laboratory sessions leads to equivalent learning as answering handwritten pre-lab assignments.  Online pre-labs significantly reduced the amount of grading without reducing student learning, allowing a reduction in the number of teaching assistants required per section.

  18. Cells exposed to a huntingtin fragment containing an expanded polyglutamine tract show no sign of ion channel formation: results arguing against the ion channel hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørremølle, Anne; Grunnet, Morten; Hasholt, Lis

    2003-01-01

    tract to form ion channels in two cell types. Whole cell current from Xenopus oocytes was recorded using two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, and whole cell current from CHO-K1 cells was recorded by patch-clamp technique. The fragment with an expanded polyglutamine sequence induced no change......Ion channels formed by expanded polyglutamine tracts have been proposed to play an important role in the pathological processes leading to neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease and other CAG repeat diseases. We tested the capacity of a huntingtin fragment containing an expanded polyglutamine...... in the currents recorded in any of the two expression systems, indicating no changes in ion channel activity. The results therefore argue against the proposed hypothesis of expanded polyglutamines forming ion channels....

  19. Experimental investigation and modelling of surface roughness and resultant cutting force in hard turning of AISI H13 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, M.; Yaşar, N.; Çiftçi, İ.

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, turning of hardened steels has replaced grinding for finishing operations. This process is compared to grinding operations; hard turning has higher material removal rates, the possibility of greater process flexibility, lower equipment costs, and shorter setup time. CBN or ceramic cutting tools are widely used hard part machining. For successful application of hard turning, selection of suitable cutting parameters for a given cutting tool is an important step. For this purpose, an experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of cutting tool edge geometry, feed rate and cutting speed on surface roughness and resultant cutting force in hard turning of AISI H13 steel with ceramic cutting tools. Machining experiments were conducted in a CNC lathe based on Taguchi experimental design (L16) in different levels of cutting parameters. In the experiments, a Kistler 9257 B, three cutting force components (Fc, Ff and Fr) piezoelectric dynamometer was used to measure cutting forces. Surface roughness measurements were performed by using a Mahrsurf PS1 device. For statistical analysis, analysis of variance has been performed and mathematical model have been developed for surface roughness and resultant cutting forces. The analysis of variance results showed that the cutting edge geometry, cutting speed and feed rate were the most significant factors on resultant cutting force while the cutting edge geometry and feed rate were the most significant factor for the surface roughness. The regression analysis was applied to predict the outcomes of the experiment. The predicted values and measured values were very close to each other. Afterwards a confirmation tests were performed to make a comparison between the predicted results and the measured results. According to the confirmation test results, measured values are within the 95% confidence interval.

  20. NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget: First Results From The Release 4 GEWEX Integrated Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul; Cox, Stephen; Gupta, Shashi; Mikovitz, J. Colleen; zhang, taiping

    2016-04-01

    The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project produces shortwave and longwave surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes for the 1983-near present time period. Spatial resolution is 1 degree. The current release 3 (available at gewex-srb.larc.nasa.gov) uses the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) DX product for pixel level radiance and cloud information. This product is subsampled to 30 km. ISCCP is currently recalibrating and recomputing their entire data series, to be released as the H product, at 10km resolution. The ninefold increase in pixel number should help improve the RMS of the existing products and allow for future higher resolution SRB gridded product (e.g. 0.5 degree). In addition to the input data improvements, several important algorithm improvements have been made. Most notable has been the adaptation of Angular Distribution Models (ADMs) from CERES to improve the initial calculation of shortwave TOA fluxes, from which the surface flux calculations follow. Other key input improvements include a detailed aerosol history using the Max Planck Institut Aerosol Climatology (MAC), temperature and moisture profiles from HIRS, and new topography, surface type, and snow/ice. Here we present results for the improved GEWEX Shortwave and Longwave algorithm (GSW and GLW) with new ISCCP data, the various other improved input data sets and the incorporation of many additional internal SRB model improvements. As of the time of abstract submission, results from 2007 have been produced with ISCCP H availability the limiting factor. More SRB data will be produced as ISCCP reprocessing continues. The SRB data produced will be released as part of the Release 4.0 Integrated Product, recognizing the interdependence of the radiative fluxes with other GEWEX products providing estimates of the Earth's global water and energy cycle (I.e., ISCCP, SeaFlux, LandFlux, NVAP, etc.).

  1. Value of Fused 18F-Choline-PET/MRI to Evaluate Prostate Cancer Relapse in Patients Showing Biochemical Recurrence after EBRT: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldo Piccardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We compared the accuracy of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI with that of multiparametric MRI (mMRI, 18F-Choline-PET/CT, 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT, and contrast-enhanced CT (CeCT in detecting relapse in patients with suspected relapse of prostate cancer (PC after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT. We assessed the association between standard uptake value (SUV and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC. Methods. We evaluated 21 patients with biochemical relapse after EBRT. Patients underwent 18F-Choline-PET/contrast-enhanced (CeCT, 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT, and mMRI. Imaging coregistration of PET and mMRI was performed. Results. 18F-Choline-PET/MRI was positive in 18/21 patients, with a detection rate (DR of 86%. DRs of 18F-Choline-PET/CT, CeCT, and mMRI were 76%, 43%, and 81%, respectively. In terms of DR the only significant difference was between 18F-Choline-PET/MRI and CeCT. On lesion-based analysis, the accuracy of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI, 18F-Choline-PET/CT, CeCT, and mMRI was 99%, 95%, 70%, and 85%, respectively. Accuracy, sensitivity, and NPV of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI were significantly higher than those of both mMRI and CeCT. On whole-body assessment of bone metastases, the sensitivity of 18F-Choline-PET/CT and 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT was significantly higher than that of CeCT. Regarding local and lymph node relapse, we found a significant inverse correlation between ADC and SUV-max. Conclusion. 18F-Choline-PET/MRI is a promising technique in detecting PC relapse.

  2. Analysis of cosmid clones of nuclear DNA from Trypanosome brucei shows that the genes for variant surface glycoproteins are clustered in the genome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Valerio (Dinko); T. de Lange; P. Borst (Piet); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); L.H.T. van der Ploeg

    1982-01-01

    textabstractTrypanosoma brucei contains more than a hundred genes coding for the different variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs). Activation of some of these genes involves the duplication of the gene (the basic copy or BC) and transposition of the duplicate to an expression site (yielding the expres

  3. Analytical Round Robin for Elastic-Plastic Analysis of Surface Cracked Plates: Phase I Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, D. N.; Allen, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical round robin for the elastic-plastic analysis of surface cracks in flat plates was conducted with 15 participants. Experimental results from a surface crack tension test in 2219-T8 aluminum plate provided the basis for the inter-laboratory study (ILS). The study proceeded in a blind fashion given that the analysis methodology was not specified to the participants, and key experimental results were withheld. This approach allowed the ILS to serve as a current measure of the state of the art for elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis. The analytical results and the associated methodologies were collected for comparison, and sources of variability were studied and isolated. The results of the study revealed that the J-integral analysis methodology using the domain integral method is robust, providing reliable J-integral values without being overly sensitive to modeling details. General modeling choices such as analysis code, model size (mesh density), crack tip meshing, or boundary conditions, were not found to be sources of significant variability. For analyses controlled only by far-field boundary conditions, the greatest source of variability in the J-integral assessment is introduced through the constitutive model. This variability can be substantially reduced by using crack mouth opening displacements to anchor the assessment. Conclusions provide recommendations for analysis standardization.

  4. Fusion peptide P15-CSP shows antibiofilm activity and pro-osteogenic activity when deposited as a coating on hydrophilic but not hydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian; Contreras-Garcia, Angel; LoVetri, Karen; Yakandawala, Nandadeva; Wertheimer, Michael R; De Crescenzo, Gregory; Hoemann, Caroline D

    2015-12-01

    In the context of porous bone void filler for oral bone reconstruction, peptides that suppress microbial growth and promote osteoblast function could be used to enhance the performance of a porous bone void filler. We tested the hypothesis that P15-CSP, a novel fusion peptide containing collagen-mimetic osteogenic peptide P15, and competence-stimulating peptide (CSP), a cationic antimicrobial peptide, has emerging properties not shared by P15 or CSP alone. Peptide-coated surfaces were tested for antimicrobial activity toward Streptoccocus mutans, and their ability to promote human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) attachment, spreading, metabolism, and osteogenesis. In the osteogenesis assay, peptides were coated on tissue culture plastic and on thin films generated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to have hydrophilic or hydrophobic character (water contact angles 63°, 42°, and 92°, respectively). S. mutans planktonic growth was specifically inhibited by CSP, whereas biofilm formation was inhibited by P15-CSP. MSC adhesion and actin stress fiber formation was strongly enhanced by CSP, P15-CSP, and fibronectin coatings and modestly enhanced by P15 versus uncoated surfaces. Metabolic assays revealed that CSP was slightly cytotoxic to MSCs. MSCs developed alkaline phosphatase activity on all surfaces, with or without peptide coatings, and consistently deposited the most biomineralized matrix on hydrophilic surfaces coated with P15-CSP. Hydrophobic thin films completely suppressed MSC biomineralization, consistent with previous findings of suppressed osteogenesis on hydrophobic bioplastics. Collective data in this study provide new evidence that P15-CSP has unique dual capacity to suppress biofilm formation, and to enhance osteogenic activity as a coating on hydrophilic surfaces.

  5. Flood Damage Analysis: First Floor Elevation Uncertainty Resulting from LiDAR-Derived Digital Surface Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Bodoque

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of high resolution ground-based light detection and ranging (LiDAR datasets provides spatial density and vertical precision for obtaining highly accurate Digital Surface Models (DSMs. As a result, the reliability of flood damage analysis has improved significantly, owing to the increased accuracy of hydrodynamic models. In addition, considerable error reduction has been achieved in the estimation of first floor elevation, which is a critical parameter for determining structural and content damages in buildings. However, as with any discrete measurement technique, LiDAR data contain object space ambiguities, especially in urban areas where the presence of buildings and the floodplain gives rise to a highly complex landscape that is largely corrected by using ancillary information based on the addition of breaklines to a triangulated irregular network (TIN. The present study provides a methodological approach for assessing uncertainty regarding first floor elevation. This is based on: (i generation an urban TIN from LiDAR data with a density of 0.5 points·m−2, complemented with the river bathymetry obtained from a field survey with a density of 0.3 points·m−2. The TIN was subsequently improved by adding breaklines and was finally transformed to a raster with a spatial resolution of 2 m; (ii implementation of a two-dimensional (2D hydrodynamic model based on the 500-year flood return period. The high resolution DSM obtained in the previous step, facilitated addressing the modelling, since it represented suitable urban features influencing hydraulics (e.g., streets and buildings; and (iii determination of first floor elevation uncertainty within the 500-year flood zone by performing Monte Carlo simulations based on geostatistics and 1997 control elevation points in order to assess error. Deviations in first floor elevation (average: 0.56 m and standard deviation: 0.33 m show that this parameter has to be neatly characterized in order

  6. Shear shedding of drops and the use of superhydrophobic surfaces in microgravity: PFC and ground based results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Andrew; Amirfazli, Alidad

    In free fall, the absence of gravity poses many challenges for fluid handling systems. One such example of this is condensers. On earth, the condensed liquid is removed from the tilted condenser plate by gravity forced shedding. In microgravity, proposed solutions include the use of surfaces with gradients in wettability [1], the use of electrowetting [2], and shearing airflow [3]. In this talk, shear shedding results for a variety of surface (hydrophilic to superhydrophobic (extremely water repelling)) will be presented. Surface science and aerodynamics are used to reveal fundamental parameters controlling incipient motion for drops exposed to shearing airflow. It is found that wetting parameters such as contact angle and surface tension are very influential in determining the minimum required air velocity for drop shedding. Based on experimental results for drops of water and hexadecane (0.5-100 l) on PMMA, Teflon, and a superhydrophobic aluminum surface, an exponential function is proposed that relates the critical air velocity for shedding to the ratio of drop base length to projected area. The results for the water systems can be collapsed to a self similar curve by normalization, which also explains results from other researchers. Since shedding from superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS) is seen to be easier compared to other surfaces, the behaviour of SHS is also probed in this talk. SHS have space-based applications to shedding, self cleaning, anti-icing (spacecraft launch/re-entry), anti-fouling, fluid actuation, and decreased fluid friction. The mechanism for SHS is understood to be the existence of an air layer between large portions of the drop and solid. The first concrete visual evidence of this was gained performing a parabolic flight experiment with the ESA. Results of this experi-ment will be discussed, showing the extreme water repelling potential of SHS in microgravity, and demonstrating how the wetting behaviours seen (partial penetration, transition

  7. Determination of aerodynamic parameters of urban surfaces: methods and results revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, A. F.; Zaki, S. A.; Hagishima, A.; Ali, M. S. M.

    2015-11-01

    Estimates of aerodynamic parameters, in particular roughness length z 0 and displacement height d, are important for the analysis of the roughness of an urban surface, which affects processes that occur within the urban boundary layer such as pollutant dispersion and urban ventilation. Findings regarding the aerodynamic effects of various configurations of urban arrays were compiled from various studies. Several experimental, numerical and semi-empirical studies to estimate z 0 and d were reviewed and compared with each other. The results can be summarized as follows: (1) the influence of the frontal area index ( λ f ) on z 0 is significant and their relationship has been confirmed by both experimental and numerical data; (2) compared to one-parameter and two-parameter fitting methods, the three-parameter fitting method is the least accurate; (3) the physical meaning of d remains vague because its definition as the height where surface drag acts may not be accurate for sharp-edged roughness blocks and (4) the peak values of z 0 for uniform and heterogeneous block heights indicate presence of skimming or wake-interference flow effects, which may influence surface roughness. Finally, the semi-empirical models were found to be limited to cases derived from available experimental data, which normally involve uniform arrays of cubes.

  8. Operations analysis for lunar surface construction: Results of two office of exploration case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lisa Y.; Boles, Walter; Smith, Alvin

    1991-08-01

    In an environment of intense competition for Federal funding, the U.S. space research community is responsible for developing a feasible, cost-effective approach to establishing a surface base on the moon to fulfill long-term Government objectives. This report presents the results of a construction operations analysis of two lunar scenarios provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Activities necessary to install the lunar base surface elements are defined and scheduled, based on the productivities and availability of the base resources allocated to the projects depicted in each scenario. The only construction project in which the required project milestones were not completed within the nominal timeframe was the initial startup phase of NASA's FY89 Lunar Evolution Case Study (LECS), primarily because this scenario did not include any Earth-based telerobotic site preparation before the arrival of the first crew. The other scenario analyzed. Reference Mission A from NASA's 90-Day Study of the Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars, did use telerobotic site preparation before the manned phase of the base construction. Details of the analysis for LECS are provided, including spreadsheets indicating quantities of work and Gantt charts depicting the general schedule for the work. This level of detail is not presented for the scenario based on the 90-Day Study because many of the projects include the same (or similar) surface elements and facilities.

  9. Transitioning MODIS to VIIRS observations for Land: Surface Reflectance results, Status and Long-term Prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermote, E.

    2015-12-01

    Surface reflectance is one of the key products from VIIRS and as with MODIS, is used in developing several higher-order land products. The VIIRS Surface Reflectance (SR) IP is based on the heritage MODIS Collection 5 product (Vermote et al. 2002). The quality and character of surface reflectance depends on the accuracy of the VIIRS Cloud Mask (VCM) and aerosol algorithms and of course on the adequate calibration of the sensor. Early evaluation of the VIIRS SR product in the context of the maturity of the operational processing system known as the Interface Data Processing System (IDPS), has been a major focus of work to-date, but is now evolving into the development of a VIIRS suite of Climate Data Records produced by the NASA Land Science Investigator Processing System (SIPS). We will present the calibration performance and the role of the surface reflectance in calibration monitoring, the performance of the cloud mask with a focus on vegetation monitoring (no snow conditions), the performance of the aerosol input used in the atmospheric correction with quantitative results of the performance of the SR product over AERONET sites. Based on those elements and further assessment, we will address the readiness of the SR product for the production of higher-order land products such as Vegetation Indices, Albedo and LAI/FPAR, the its application to agricultural monitoring and in particular the integration of VIIRS data into the global agricultural monitoring (GLAM) system developed at UMd. Finally from the lessons learned, we will articulate a set of critical recommendations to ensure consistency and continuity of the JPSS mission with the MODIS data record.

  10. OSL surface exposure dating of wave-emplaced coastal boulders - Research concept and first results from the Rabat coast, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Dominik; May, Simon Matthias; Mhammdi, Nadia; King, Georgina; Brückner, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    Fields of wave-emplaced blocks and boulders represent impressive evidence of cyclone and tsunami flooding over Holocene time scales. Unfortunately, their use for coastal hazard assessment is in many cases impeded by the absence of appropriate dating approaches, which are needed to generate robust chronologies. The commonly applied AMS-14C, U/Th or ESR dating of coral-reef rocks and marine organisms attached to the clasts depends on a - mostly hypothetical - coincidence between the organisms' death and boulder displacement, and inferred event chronologies may be biased by the marine 14C-reservoir effect and reworked organisms. Here we discuss the potential of the recently developed optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) surface exposure dating technique to directly date the relocation process of wave-emplaced boulders. By measuring the depth-dependent resetting of luminescence signals in exposed rock surfaces and comparing it to the signal-depth profiles of known-age samples, OSL surface exposure dating may be capable to model direct depositional ages for boulder transport. Thereby, it promises to overcome the limitations of existing dating techniques, and to decipher complex transport histories of clasts that underwent multiple phases of exposure and burial. The concept and some first results of OSL surface exposure dating shall be presented for coastal boulders from the Rabat coast, Morocco, where the preconditions for successful dating are promising: (i) Several coastal boulders show clear indication of overturning during wave transport in the form of downward-facing bio-eroded surfaces; (ii) the boulders are composed of different types of sandstone that contain quartz and feldspar, the required dosimeters for OSL dating; (iii) all boulders are of Holocene age and, therefore, in the dating range of OSL surface exposure dating. The main challenges for a successful application are the intensive bio-erosion and weathering of some surfaces exposed after transport

  11. Direction-sensitive dark matter search results in a surface laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miuchi, Kentaro [Cosmic-Ray Group, Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University Kitashirakawa-oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: miuchi@cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Hattori, Kaori; Kabuki, Shigeto; Kubo, Hidetoshi; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Nishimura, Hironobu; Okada, Yoko; Takada, Atsushi; Tanimori, Toru; Tsuchiya, Ken' ichi; Ueno, Kazuki [Cosmic-Ray Group, Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University Kitashirakawa-oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Sekiya, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Atsushi [Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, University of Tokyo Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka cho, Hida 506-1205 (Japan)

    2007-10-11

    We developed a three-dimensional gaseous tracking device and performed a direction-sensitive dark matter search in a surface laboratory. By using 150 Torr carbon-tetrafluoride (CF{sub 4}) gas, we obtained a sky map drawn with the recoil directions of the carbon and fluorine nuclei, and set the first limit on the spin-dependent WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles)-proton cross section by a direction-sensitive method. Thus, we showed that a WIMP-search experiment with a gaseous tracking device can actually set limits. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this method will potentially play a certain role in revealing the nature of dark matter when a low-background large-volume detector is developed.

  12. The WELSONS experiment: overview and presentation of first results on the surface atmospheric boundary-layer in semiarid Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Frangi

    Full Text Available This study presents the preliminary results of the local energy budget and dynamic characteristics of the surface atmospheric boundary-layer (SBL during the WELSONS (wind erosion and losses of soil nutrients in semiarid Spain experiment. Some Mediterranean regions suffer land degradation by wind erosion as a consequence of their particular soil and climate conditions and inappropriate agricultural practice. In Spain, where land degradation by water erosion is well known, the lack of field studies to quantify soils losses by wind erosion resulted in the European Community organizing a scientific program for this specific issue. The European programme known as WELSONS was devoted to study the wind erosion process in central Aragon (NE Spain. This multidisciplinary experiment, which began in 1996 and finished in 1998, was carried out over an agricultural soil which was left fallow. Within the experimental field, two plots were delimited where two tillage treatments were applied, a mould-board ploughing (or conventional tillage denoted CT and chisel ploughing (reduced tillage denoted RT. This was to study on bare soil the influence of tillage method on surface conditions, saltation flux, vertical dust flux, erosion rates, dynamics characteristics such as friction velocity, roughness length, etc., and energy budget. The partitioning of the available energy, resulting from the dynamics of the SBL, are quite different over the two plots because of their own peculiar soil and surface properties. The first results show that the RT treatment seems to provide a wind erosion protection. Because of the long data recording time and particular phenomena (formation of a crust at the soil surface, very dry conditions, high wind speed for instance, these microclimatological data acquired during the WELSONS programmes may be helpful to test atmospheric boundary-layer models coupled with soil models.

    Key words: Hydrology (desertification - Meterology and

  13. Photocatalytic activities of tin(IV) oxide surface-modified titanium(IV) dioxide show a strong sensitivity to the TiO 2 crystal form

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Qiliang; Fujishima, Musashi; Nolan, Michael; Iwaszuk, Anna; Tada, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Surface modification of rutile TiO2 with extremely small SnO2 clusters gives rise to a great increase in its UV light activity for degradation of model organic water pollutants, while the effect is much smaller for anatase TiO2. This crystal form sensitivity is rationalized in terms of the difference in the electronic modification of TiO2 through the interfacial Sn−O−Ti bonds. The increase in the density of states near the conduction band minimum of rutile by hybridization with the SnO2 clust...

  14. Biocompatible photocrosslinked poly(ester anhydride) based on functionalized poly(epsilon-caprolactone) prepolymer shows surface erosion controlled drug release in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönkäre, J; Hakala, R A; Vlasova, M A; Huotari, A; Kilpeläinen, M; Kiviniemi, A; Meretoja, V; Herzig, K H; Korhonen, H; Seppälä, J V; Järvinen, K

    2010-09-15

    Star-shaped poly(epsilon-caprolactone) oligomers functionalized with succinic anhydride were used as prepolymers to prepare photocrosslinked poly(ester anhydride) to evaluate their in vivo drug delivery functionality and biocompatibility. Thus, in this work, erosion, drug release and safety of the photocrosslinked poly(ester anhydride) were examined in vitro and in vivo. A small water-soluble drug, propranolol HCl (M(w) 296 g/mol, solubility 50 mg/ml), was used as the model drug in an evaluation of the erosion controlled release. Drug-free and drug-loaded (10-60% w/w) poly(ester anhydride) discoids eroded in vitro (pH 7.4 buffer, +37 degrees C) linearly within 24-48 h. A strong correlation between the polymer erosion and the linear drug release in vitro was observed, indicating that the release had been controlled by the erosion of the polymer. Similarly, in vivo studies (s.c. implantation of discoids in rats) indicated that surface erosion controlled drug release from the discoids (drug loading 40% w/w). Oligomers did not decrease cell viability in vitro and the implanted discoids (s.c., rats) did not evoke any cytokine activity in vivo. In summary, surface erosion controlled drug release and the safety of photocrosslinked poly(ester anhydride) were demonstrated in this study.

  15. Noninvasive surface measurement of corrosion impedance of reinforcing bar in concrete - part 1: experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jieying; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.; Morrison, H. Frank

    2000-11-01

    The corrosion state of a reinforcing steel bar in concrete can be characterized by the electrical impedance of the interface between the steel bar and the concrete. The experimental part of this study, has shown that changes in the interfacial impedance that are diagnostic of the rate and extent of the corrosion can be measured indirectly with an array of current and voltage electrodes on the concrete surface. The measured impedance, however depends on the electrical resistivity of the concrete, and the depth and diameter of the steel reinforcing bar as well as the interfacial properties. To relate the measured impedance directly to the interfacial properties, a closed-form solution to the governing Poisson's equation was developed and programmed for the potentials from arbitrary, current sources in the vicinity of the reinforcing bar. The solution uses an impedance boundary, condition for the complex impedance at the steel-concrete interface. The response of an arbitrary corrosion state can be simulated in this model by embedding the appropriate complex, frequency-dependent impedance at the interface and computing the voltage/current response that would be measured for an arbitrary placement of electrodes on the concrete surface. To simulate the experimental findings, this paper presents the modeling results by various interfacial impedances but constant concrete resistivity and constant geometry of the steel reinforcing bar This simulation confirms that important parameters of the interfacial impedance controlling corrosion kinetics such as polarization resistance and double layer capacitance are clearly, observed in the measured surface data. [References: 10

  16. Structural changes in proteins resulting from homomolecular exchange at solid surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, C.E.; Norde, W.

    2003-01-01

    The overall protein adsorption process comprises various steps or stages: transport of the protein from the bulk solution into the interfacial region, attachment of the protein at the sorbent surface and relaxation of the protein on the surface, detachment from the surface, and transport back into t

  17. The "Strength" of Cometary Surface Material: Relevance of Deep Impact Results for Future Comet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biele, J.; Ulamec, S.; Richter, L.; Kührt, E.; Knollenberg, J.; Möhlmann, D.

    In the view of the ongoing Rosetta Mission which was launched in March 2004 and will arrive at the target comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014 where a Lander is going to be delivered the results of the Deep Impact Mission in particular regarding comet surface properties have been acknowledged with highest interest Analysis of the velocity of dust ejecta indicates very soft surface material of comet Tempel 1 with strength of only 65 Pa A Hearn M F et al Deep Impact Excavating Comet Tempel 1 Science 310 258-264 14 Oct 2005 It appears however necessary to discuss three principal issues in the interpretation of the data 1 By the impact shock itself the material is stressed fractured and its tensile strength is modified Thus the pristine material properties can most likely not be determined with the applied method 2 Due to the impact a non-negligible amount of gas has been released from an extended source modifying the velocity distribution of the ejected dust particles Thus the detection of a minimum velocity of dust grains cannot be directly related to the material strength 3 The definition of strength in A Hearn et al 2005 needs to be defined more clearly in order to draw conclusions on e g the penetration of a lander device with an impact speed of 1 m s Slow penetration into cometary material is depending primarily on the compressive strength which is typically at least one order of magnitude higher than the tensile strength We will discuss the three issues stated above and estimate the real compressive

  18. A network of autonomous surface ozone monitors in Antarctica: technical description and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J.-B. Bauguitte

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A suite of 10 autonomous ozone monitoring units, each powered using renewable energy, was developed and built to study surface ozone in Antarctica during the International Polar Year (2007–2009. The monitoring systems were deployed in a network around the Weddell Sea sector of coastal Antarctica with a transect up onto the Antarctic Plateau. The aim was to measure for a full year, thus gaining a much-improved broader view of boundary layer ozone seasonality at different locations as well as of factors affecting the budget of surface ozone in Antarctica. Ozone mixing ratios were measured based on UV photometry using a modified version of the commercial 2B Technologies Inc. Model 202 instrument. All but one of the autonomous units measured successfully within its predefined duty cycle throughout the year, with some differences in performance dependent on power availability and ambient temperature. Mean data recovery after removal of outliers was on average 70% (range 44–83% and precision varied between 1.5 and 8 ppbv, thus was sufficiently good to resolve year-round the main ozone features of scientific interest. We conclude that, with adequate power, and noting a minor communication problem, our units would be able to operate successfully at ambient temperatures down to −60 °C. Systems such as the one described in this paper, or derivatives of it, could therefore be deployed either as local or regional networks elsewhere in the Arctic or Antarctic. Here we present technical information and first results from the experiment.

  19. Instability of surface lenticular vortices: results from laboratory experiments and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaye, Noé; Paci, Alexandre; Smith, Stefan Llewellyn

    2016-04-01

    We examine the instability of lenticular vortices -- or lenses -- in a stratified rotating fluid. The simplest configuration is one in which the lenses overlay a deep layer and have a free surface, and this can be studied using a two-layer rotating shallow water model. We report results from laboratory experiments and high-resolution direct numerical simulations of the destabilization of vortices with constant potential vorticity, and compare these to a linear stability analysis. The stability properties of the system are governed by two parameters: the typical upper-layer potential vorticity and the size (depth) of the vortex. Good agreement is found between analytical, numerical and experimental results for the growth rate and wavenumber of the instability. The nonlinear saturation of the instability is associated with conversion from potential to kinetic energy and weak emission of gravity waves, giving rise to the formation of coherent vortex multipoles with trapped waves. The impact of flow in the lower layer is examined. In particular, it is shown that the growth rate can be strongly affected and the instability can be suppressed for certain types of weak co-rotating flow.

  20. A climatology of surface ozone in the extra tropics: cluster analysis of observations and model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Tarasova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Important aspects of the seasonal variations of surface ozone are discussed. The underlying analysis is based on the long-term (1990–2004 ozone records of the Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP and the World Data Centre of Greenhouse Gases, which provide data mostly for the Northern Hemisphere. Seasonal variations are pronounced at most of the 114 locations at all times of the day. A seasonal-diurnal variations classification using hierarchical agglomeration clustering reveals 6 distinct clusters: clean background, rural, semi-polluted non-elevated, semi-polluted semi-elevated, elevated and polar/remote marine. For the "clean background" cluster the seasonal maximum is observed in March-April, both for night and day. For those sites with a double maximum or a wide spring-summer maximum, the spring maximum appears both for day and night, while the summer maximum is more pronounced for daytime and hence can be attributed to photochemical processes. The spring maximum is more likely caused by dynamical/transport processes than by photochemistry as it is observed in spring for all times of the day. We compare the identified clusters with corresponding data from the 3-D atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1 covering the period of 1998–2005. For the model output as for the measurements 6 clusters are considered. The simulation shows at most of the sites a spring seasonal maximum or a broad spring-summer maximum (with higher summer mixing ratios. For southern hemispheric and polar remote locations the seasonal maximum in the simulation is shifted to spring, while the absolute mixing ratios are in good agreement with the measurements. The seasonality in the model cluster covering background locations is characterized by a pronounced spring (April–May maximum. For the model clusters which cover rural and semi-polluted sites the role of the

  1. Surface properties of latex film and solvent-borne film resulted from fluorinated acrylate copolymers prepared by emulsion polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The fluorinated acrylate copolymer, poly (BMA-co-DFHMA, was prepared by emulsion polymerization using a preemulsified monomer addition process. The FTIR and 1H –NMR were used to characterize the copolymer structure. The contact angle of water on the solvent-borne film increased dramatically and reached an equilibrium value (103° when the PDFHMA content in the copolymer was only 0.97 mol%. However, the contact of water on the latex film increased slowly, and reached the equilibrium value of 99° until the fluorinated component content was as highly as 9 mol%. A similar result was observed for the oil contact angle on the two types of films. XPS results showed that when the F/C ratio on film surfaces reached equilibrium, the required content of fluorinated component in the copolymer for the solvent-borne film was much lower than that for the latex film.

  2. Altered T cell surface glycosylation in HIV-1 infection results in increased susceptibility to galectin-1-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantéri, Marion; Giordanengo, Valérie; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Fuzibet, Jean-Gabriel; Auberger, Patrick; Fukuda, Minoru; Baum, Linda G; Lefebvre, Jean-Claude

    2003-12-01

    The massive T cell death that occurs in HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infection contributes profoundly to the pathophysiology associated with AIDS. The mechanisms controlling cell death of both infected and uninfected T cells ("bystander" death) are not completely understood. We have shown that HIV-1 infection of T cells results in altered glycosylation of cell surface glycoproteins; specifically, it decreased sialylation and increased expression of core 2 O-glycans. Galectin-1 is an endogenous human lectin that recognizes these types of glycosylation changes and induces cell death of activated lymphocytes. Therefore we studied the possible contribution of galectin-1 in the pathophysiology of AIDS. O-glycan modifications were investigated on peripheral lymphocytes from AIDS patients. Oligosaccharides from CD43 and CD45 of CEM cells latently infected with HIV-1 were chemically analyzed. Consistent with our previous results, we show that HIV-1 infection results in accumulation of exposed lactosamine residues, oligosaccharides recognized by galectin-1 on cell surface glycoproteins. Both latently HIV-1-infected T cell lines and peripheral CD4 and CD8 T cells from AIDS patients exhibited exposed lactosamine residues and demonstrated marked susceptibility to galectin-1-induced cell death, in contrast to control cultures or cells from uninfected donors. The fraction of cells that died in response to galectin-1 exceeded the fraction of infected cells, indicating that death of uninfected cells occurred. Altered cell surface glycosylation of T cells during HIV-1 infection increases the susceptibility to galectin-1-induced cell death, and this death pathway can contribute to loss of both infected and uninfected T cells in AIDS.

  3. The use of a well-defined surface organometallic complex as a probe molecule: [(SiO)TaVCl2Me2] shows different isolated silanol sites on the silica surface

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yin

    2014-01-01

    TaVCl2Me3 reacts with silica(700) and produces two different [(SiO)TaVCl2Me2] surface organometallic species, suggesting a heterogeneity of the highly dehydroxylated silica surface, which was studied with a combined experimental and theoretical approach. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  4. Evaluation of streamflow simulation results of land surface models in GLDAS on the Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Peng; Liu, Xiaomang; Yang, Tiantian; Liang, Kang; Liu, Changming

    2016-10-01

    The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) project estimates long-term runoff based on land surface models (LSMs) and provides a potential way to solve the issue of nonexistent streamflow data in gauge-sparse regions such as the Tibetan Plateau (TP). However, the reliability of GLDAS runoff data must be validated before being practically applied. In this study, the streamflows simulated by four LSMs (CLM, Noah, VIC, and Mosaic) in GLDAS coupled with a river routing model are evaluated against observed streamflows in five river basins on the TP. The evaluation criteria include four aspects: monthly streamflow value, seasonal cycle of streamflow, annual streamflow trend, and streamflow component partitioning. The four LSMs display varying degrees of biases in monthly streamflow simulations: systematic overestimations are found in the Noah (1.74 ≤ bias ≤ 2.75) and CLM (1.22 ≤ bias ≤ 2.53) models, whereas systematic underestimations are observed in the VIC (0.36 ≤ bias ≤ 0.85) and Mosaic (0.34 ≤ bias ≤ 0.66) models. The Noah model shows the best performance in capturing the temporal variation in monthly streamflow and the seasonal cycle of streamflow, while the VIC model performs the best in terms of bias statistics. The Mosaic model provides the best performance in modeling annual runoff trends and runoff component partitioning. The possible reasons for the different performances of the LSMs are discussed in detail. In order to achieve more accurate streamflow simulations from the LSMs in GLDAS, suggestions are made to further improve the accuracy of the forcing data and parameterization schemes in all models.

  5. Physical properties of the martian surface from the viking 1 lander: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorthill, R W; Hutton, R E; Moore, H J; Scott, R F; Spitzer, C R

    1976-08-27

    The purpose of the physical properties experiment is to determine the characteristics of the martian "soil" based on the use of the Viking lander imaging system, the surface sampler, and engineering sensors. Viking 1 lander made physical contact with the surface of Mars at 11:53:07.1 hours on 20 July 1976 G.M.T. Twenty-five seconds later a high-resolution image sequence of the area around a footpad was started which contained the first information about surface conditions on Mars. The next image is a survey of the martian landscape in front of the lander, including a view of the top support of two of the landing legs. Each leg has a stroke gauge which extends from the top of the leg support an amount equal to the crushing experienced by the shock absorbers during touchdown. Subsequent images provided views of all three stroke gauges which, together with the knowledge of the impact velocity, allow determination of "soil" properties. In the images there is evidence of surface erosion from the engines. Several laboratory tests were carried out prior to the mission with a descent engine to determine what surface alterations might occur during a Mars landing. On sol 2 the shroud, which protected the surface sampler collector head from biological contamination, was ejected onto the surface. Later a cylindrical pin which dropped from the boom housing of the surface sampler during the modified unlatching sequence produced a crater (the second Mars penetrometer experiment). These two experiments provided further insight into the physical properties of the martian surface.

  6. Rock size distributions on lava flow surfaces: New results from a range of compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M. P.; Anderson, S. W.; Bulmer, M. H.

    2005-12-01

    We measured block sizes along 15-25m orthogonal transects on 12 lava flows of compositions ranging from basalt to rhyolite. At each site, we stretched a line across the flow surface then measured the length of each block cut by this line that were greater than 3-12cm (depending on composition). The measurements from each site were reduced to cumulative size frequency distribution plots, with block size (D) plotted against the fraction of the line f(D) composed of blocks greater than or equal to that size, and fitted with an exponential curve of the form f(D) = k exp(-qD) where k is the intercept and q is the decay parameter. Average block size and geometric mean were also determined for each site. Our data show no clear trends linking average or mean block size to composition, although there does seem to be relationship between block size and the decay parameter. Block size corresponds with the decay parameter at each site except for the basaltic andesite flow at Paint Pot Crater (CA). Many sites at this flow were covered with secondary spatter deposits. Largest blocks and smallest decay parameters were found for the andesite flows at Sabancaya (Peru), while the basalt flows at Cima (CA) exhibited the smallest blocks and largest decay parameters. The second largest block sizes occurred at the four Inyo domes composed of both crystal-rich and glassy rhyolite, and these domes also showed the second smallest decay parameters. All four of the Inyo domes were emplaced along the same feeder dike trend, and the average and mean sizes and decay parameters at these domes are nearly identical, suggesting that composition, extrusion rate, or eruption history controls the block size distributions. However, values for the two andesitic flows, Mt. Shasta (CA) and Sabancaya, were very different, suggesting that extrusion rate and/or eruption history exert a stronger control over the block size distributions than does composition. LIDAR data sets are capable of detecting sub

  7. Observational study of 67 wide platform implants treated with avantblast surface. Results at three year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barona-Dorado, Cristina; Martínez-Rodríguez, Natalia; Torres-Lear, Francisco; Martínez-González, José-Ma

    2009-04-01

    This paper shows the results of the clinical and radiographic behavior, at 3 years, of 67 wide platform implants undergoing prosthetic load. This is an observational prospective study of 67 implants in 49 patients within the range of 54-69 years of age. Screening was performed after a radiological study with panoramic and tomographic radiographs followed by the implantological treatment with prosthetic load and clinical (15 days, 1, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months) and radiological control follow-up (6, 12, 24 and 36 months). During the healing period 1 implant failed, representing a 98.5% survival. After placing the prosthesis, it was not necessary to remove any implant, therefore 66 implants remain successfully in place. The favorable results and follow-up after the prosthetic load of 66 implants (CSR of 100%) attest that wide platform implants can and should be applied after careful planning and case selection.

  8. Electroporation mediated DNA vaccination directly to a mucosal surface results in improved immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Kichaev, Gleb; Mendoza, Janess M; Amante, Dinah; Smith, Trevor RF; McCoy, Jay R; Sardesai, Niranjan Y.; Kate E. Broderick

    2013-01-01

    In vivo electroporation (EP) has been shown to be a highly efficient non-viral method for enhancing DNA vaccine delivery and immunogenicity, when the site of immunization is the skin or muscle of animals and humans. However, the route of entry for many microbial pathogens is via the mucosal surfaces of the human body. We have previously reported on minimally invasive, surface and contactless EP devices for enhanced DNA delivery to dermal tissue. Robust antibody responses were induced followin...

  9. Adherence of Molecules to Silica Glass Surface: Experimental Results and Theoretical Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Edison; Prado, Miguel Oscar; Nuñez, Matias

    The adherence of molecules to surfaces is used in a wide scope of technological applications. In this work we study the attachment of molecules onto porous silica glass surface obtained from a Vycor glass, after glass- glass phase separation and leaching of the soluble phase with water. Nitrogen adsorption at 77 K was used for the determination of the specific surface area (BET area) and pore size distribution on the leached glass. The adherence onto the glass surface, of model molecules methylene blue (MB) and eosine yellow (EY), with positive and negative electrical charges respectively, was studied. The adsorption kinetics was determined from aqueous solutions using UV-VIS spectroscopy. It was found that the silica glass surface as prepared in this work is selective for positively charged molecules at pH≈5.20, an adsorption of 1 mg MB per gram of glass was found for methylene blue, and almost null adsorption for eosine yellow. First principles calculations were performed using the Density Functional Theory in order to model the interaction between both molecules and the glass surface.

  10. New Results on Titan’s Atmosphere and Surface from Huygens Probe Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph

    2013-10-01

    The global Titan perspective afforded by ongoing Cassini observations, and prospects for future in-situ exploration, have prompted a re-examination of Huygens data, yielding new results in several areas. Gravity waves have been detected (Lorenz, Ferri and Young, submitted) in the HASI descent temperature data, with 2K amplitude. These waves are seen above about 60km, and analysis suggests they may therefore be controlled by interaction of upward-propagating waves with the zonal wind field. A curious cessation of detection of sound pulses by a Surface Science Package ultrasound instrument about 15 minutes after the probe landed appears to be best explained (Lorenz et al., submitted) by an accumulation of polyatomic vapors such as ethane, sweated out of the ground by the warm probe. Such gases have high acoustic attenuation, and were independently measured by the probe GCMS. A new integrated timeline product, which arranges second-by-second measurements from several Huygens sensors on a convenient, common tabulation, has been archived on the PDS Atmospheres node. Also archived is an independent retrieval of Doppler information from VLBI receivers that has a higher time resolution than the DWE archive product, and an expanded event summary product that documents when key observations, system events and anomalies occurred. Finally, a troubling discrepancy exists between radio occultation and infrared soundings from Cassini, and the lower stratospheric temperature retrieved from the HASI accelerometer record. Two factors may contribute to this discrepancy - the assumed probe mass history, and the assumed zonal wind profile. The sensitivity of the recovered temperature profile to these factors is examined : in particular it is noted that the speed relative to the atmosphere in the late part of entry, when the hypersonic entry speed has been largely bled away by drag, is particularly sensitive to assumed winds, and it is in this altitude region where the recovered density

  11. Experiment 5: Science and Technology of Surface Controlled Oscillations: Report on USML-2 Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfel, Robert E.; Tian, Yuren; Jankovsky, Joseph; Chen, Xiaohui; Ketterling, Jeffrey; Croonquist, Arvid; Trinh, Eugene; Holt, R. Glynn

    1998-01-01

    Minuscule amounts (e.g., 1 part in 10,000) of a surface-active material in a liquid can drastically affect the surface behavior of the liquid, influencing how the material flows and mixes with other liquid and solid materials. In many respects, the science of surfactants has been empirical, with trial and error dominating over the ability to predict how surfactant type and concentration influence surface behavior. A program for the modeling of surfactant behavior has been established at Yale. This program combines experimental work performed both on the ground and in space, and theoretical and numerical modeling. By levitating a drop of liquid in air, away from solid container surfaces, and by manipulating the drop with acoustic radiation forces, we have been able to establish idealized conditions for surface behavior studies. The primary experiments involve the study of the free oscillations of initially deformed drops. In STS-73, the USML-2 mission of the Space Shuttle, we performed the following measurements: 1) the oscillation of a spherical drop in its quadrupole mode; 2) the oscillation of a drop about a deformed (oblate) shape; 3) the slow static squeezing of the drop from spherical to nearly flat; and 4) the superoscillations of drops when the radiation forces maintaining the drop in a flattened state are suddenly reduced. Analytic and numerical studies have enabled us to understand the physics of these oscillations and to extract material properties such as the dynamic surface tension and the surface viscosities (shear and dilatational). The relation to ground-based studies is essential, because the knowledge and understanding gleaned from our space studies enable us to interpret ground-based data.

  12. Resonance surface enhanced Raman optical activity of myoglobin as a result of optimized resonance surface enhanced Raman scattering conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdali, Salim; Johannessen, Christian; Nygaard, Jesper;

    2007-01-01

    at single molecule level. The results of this work, using silver nanoparticles and a laser excitation of 532 nm, became only feasible when the concentrations of nanoparticles, aggregation agent NaCl and the studied molecule were optimized in a series of systematic optimization steps. The spectral analysis...... has shown that the SERS effect behaves consequently, depending on the concentration ratio of each component, i.e., myoglobin, Ag colloids and NaCl. Accordingly, it is shown here that SERS intensity has its maximum at certain concentration of these components, whereas below or above this value...

  13. Critical heat flux maxima resulting from the controlled morphology of nanoporous hydrophilic surface layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault-Friend, Melanie; Azizian, Reza; Bucci, Matteo; McKrell, Thomas; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Rubner, Michael; Cohen, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Porous hydrophilic surfaces have been shown to enhance the critical heat flux (CHF) in boiling heat transfer. In this work, the separate effects of pore size and porous layer thickness on the CHF of saturated water at atmospheric pressure were experimentally investigated using carefully engineered surfaces. It was shown that, for a fixed pore diameter (˜20 nm), there is an optimum layer thickness (˜2 μm), for which the CHF value is maximum, corresponding to ˜115% enhancement over the value for uncoated surfaces. Similarly, a maximum CHF value (˜100% above the uncoated surface CHF) was observed while changing the pore size at a constant layer thickness (˜1 μm). To explain these CHF maxima, we propose a mechanistic model that can capture the effect of pore size and pore thickness on CHF. The good agreement found between the model and experimental data supports the hypothesis that CHF is governed by the competition between capillary wicking, viscous pressure drop and evaporation, as well as conduction heat transfer within the porous layer. The model can be used to guide the development of engineered surfaces with superior boiling performance.

  14. Jet-Surface Interaction Test: Phased Array Noise Source Localization Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podboy, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Subsonic jets are relatively simple. The peak noise source location gradually moves upstream toward the nozzle as frequency increases. 2) Supersonic jets are more complicated. The peak noise source location moves downstream as frequency increases through a BBSN hump. 3) In both subsonic and supersonic jets the peak noise source location corresponding to a given frequency of noise moves downstream as jet Mach number increases. 4) The noise generated at a given frequency in a BBSN hump is generated by a small number of shocks, not from all the shocks at the same time. 5) Single microphone spectrum levels decrease when the noise source locations measured with the phased array are blocked by a shielding surface. This consistency validates the phased array data and the stationary monopole source model used to process it. 6) Reflecting surface data illustrate that the law of reflection must be satisfied for noise to reflect off a surface toward an observer. Depending on the relative locations of the jet, the surface and the observer only some of the jet noise sources may satisfy this requirement. 7) The low frequency noise created when a jet flow impinges on a surface comes primarily from the trailing edge regardless of the axial extent impacted by the flow.

  15. Sorption of phosphate onto calcite; results from batch experiments and surface complexation modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sø, Helle Ugilt; Postma, Dieke; Jakobsen, Rasmus;

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption of phosphate onto calcite was studied in a series of batch experiments. To avoid the precipitation of phosphate-containing minerals the experiments were conducted using a short reaction time (3h) and low concentrations of phosphate (⩽50μM). Sorption of phosphate on calcite...... was studied in 11 different calcite-equilibrated solutions that varied in pH, PCO2, ionic strength and activity of Ca2+, CO32- and HCO3-. Our results show strong sorption of phosphate onto calcite. The kinetics of phosphate sorption onto calcite are fast; adsorption is complete within 2–3h while desorption...... of a high degree of super-saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (SIHAP⩽7.83). The amount of phosphate adsorbed varied with the solution composition, in particular, adsorption increases as the CO32- activity decreases (at constant pH) and as pH increases (at constant CO32- activity). The primary effect...

  16. Lunar surface magnetic fields and their interaction with the solar wind: results from lunar prospector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin; Mitchell; Curtis; Anderson; Carlson; McFadden; Acuna; Hood; Binder

    1998-09-04

    The magnetometer and electron reflectometer experiment on the Lunar Prospector spacecraft has obtained maps of lunar crustal magnetic fields and observed the interaction between the solar wind and regions of strong crustal magnetic fields at high selenographic latitude (30 degreesS to 80 degreesS) and low ( approximately 100 kilometers) altitude. Electron reflection maps of the regions antipodal to the Imbrium and Serenitatis impact basins, extending to 80 degreesS latitude, show that crustal magnetic fields fill most of the antipodal zones of those basins. This finding provides further evidence for the hypothesis that basin-forming impacts result in magnetization of the lunar crust at their antipodes. The crustal magnetic fields of the Imbrium antipode region are strong enough to deflect the solar wind and form a miniature (100 to several hundred kilometers across) magnetosphere, magnetosheath, and bow shock system.

  17. Infrared thermal mapping of the martian surface and atmosphere: first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, H H; Chase, S C; Miner, E D; Palluconi, F D; Münch, G; Neugebauer, G; Martin, T Z

    1976-08-27

    The Viking infrared thermal mapper measures the thermal emission of the martian surface and atmosphere and the total reflected sunlight. With the high resolution and dense coverage being achieved, planetwide thermal structure is apparent at large and small scales. The thermal behavior of the best-observed areas, the landing sites, cannot be explained by simple homogeneous models. The data contain clear indications for the relevance of additional factors such as detailed surface texture and the occurrence of clouds. Areas in the polar night have temperatures distinctly lower than the CO(2) condensation point at the surface pressure. This observation implies that the annual atmospheric condensation is less than previously assumed and that either thick CO(2) clouds exist at the 20-kilometer level or that the polar atmosphere is locally enriched by noncondensable gases.

  18. Infrared thermal mapping of the Martian surface and atmosphere - First results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, H. H.; Martin, T. Z.; Chase, S. C., Jr.; Miner, E. D.; Palluconi, F. D.; Muench, G.; Neugebauer, G.

    1976-01-01

    The Viking infrared thermal mapper measures the thermal emission of the Martian surface and atmosphere and the total reflected sunlight. With the high resolution and dense coverage being achieved, planetwide thermal structure is apparent at large and small scales. The thermal behavior of the best-observed areas, the landing sites, cannot be explained by simple homogeneous models. The data contain clear indications for the relevance of additional factors such as detailed surface texture and the occurrence of clouds. Areas in the polar night have temperatures distinctly lower than the CO2 condensation point at the surface pressure. This observation implies that the annual atmospheric condensation is less than previously assumed and that either thick CO2 clouds exist at the 20-kilometer level or that the polar atmosphere is locally enriched by noncondensable gases.

  19. Preliminary results of endorectal surface coil magnetic resonance imaging for local staging of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, G.H. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Abt. fuer Abdominale Roentgendiagnostik; Barentsz, J.O. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Abt. fuer Abdominale Roentgendiagnostik; Rosette, J.J.M.C.H. de la [Medizinische Universitaetsklinik, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Abt. fuer Urologie; Rosenbusch, G. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Abt. fuer Abdominale Roentgendiagnostik

    1994-03-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of endorectal surface coil (ERC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the local staging of adenocarcinoma of the prostate (ACP). Materials and methods: A total of 23 patients who were considered candidates for radical prostatectomy because of clinically localized ACP were examined by ERC-MRI. All patients underwent laparoscopic or open lymph-node dissection prior to surgery. Four patients had positive lymph nodes at operation. A total of 19 underwant radical prostatectomy, allowing comparison of the MRI data with the surgical pathologic findings. Results: Twelve patients had extraglandular spread of ACP (T3) and 7 had locally confined ACP (T2). ERC-MRI predicted correctly a T3 tumor in 10 of 12 cases and a T2 tumor in 4 of 7 cases. ERC-MRI was 74% accurate in differentiating T2 from T3 tumor. Three cases of overestimation were in studies with poor image quality because of bowel movement motion artifacts. Conclusion: ERC-MRI was found to be a sensitive modality in staging clinically localized ACP. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Bestimmung der Wertigkeit der Kernspintomographie (MRI) mit einer endorektalen Oberflaechenspule (ERC) fuer das lokale staging des Adenokarzinoms der Prostata (ACP). Material und Methode: Insgesamt 23 Patienten die als Kandidaten fuer eine radikale Prostatektomie wegen eines klinisch lokalisierten ACP galten, wurden mit ERC-MRI untersucht. Alle Patienten unterzogen sich einer laparoskopischen oder offenen Lymphdruesendissektion bei der Operation. Bei 19 Patienten, bei denen eine radikale Prostatektomie ausgefuehrt wurde, konnte eine Korrelation der MRI-Befunde mit denen der Operation erfolgen. Ergebnisse: Zwoelf Patienten wiesen extraglandulaere Ausbreitung des ACP (T3) auf und 7 hatten ein lokal begrenztes ACP (T2). ERC-MRI ergab korrekt einen T3-Tumor in 10 der 12 Faelle und einen T2-Tumor in 4 der 7 Faelle. Die Genauigkeit der ERC-MRI um einen T2- von einem T3-Tumor zu differenzieren betrug 74%. Bei drei

  20. Numerical results for near surface time domain electromagnetic exploration: a full waveform approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H.; Li, K.; Li, X., Sr.; Liu, Y., Sr.; Wen, J., Sr.

    2015-12-01

    Time domain or Transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey including types with airborne, semi-airborne and ground play important roles in applicants such as geological surveys, ground water/aquifer assess [Meju et al., 2000; Cox et al., 2010], metal ore exploration [Yang and Oldenburg, 2012], prediction of water bearing structures in tunnels [Xue et al., 2007; Sun et al., 2012], UXO exploration [Pasion et al., 2007; Gasperikova et al., 2009] etc. The common practice is introducing a current into a transmitting (Tx) loop and acquire the induced electromagnetic field after the current is cut off [Zhdanov and Keller, 1994]. The current waveforms are different depending on instruments. Rectangle is the most widely used excitation current source especially in ground TEM. Triangle and half sine are commonly used in airborne and semi-airborne TEM investigation. In most instruments, only the off time responses are acquired and used in later analysis and data inversion. Very few airborne instruments acquire the on time and off time responses together. Although these systems acquire the on time data, they usually do not use them in the interpretation.This abstract shows a novel full waveform time domain electromagnetic method and our recent modeling results. The benefits comes from our new algorithm in modeling full waveform time domain electromagnetic problems. We introduced the current density into the Maxwell's equation as the transmitting source. This approach allows arbitrary waveforms, such as triangle, half-sine, trapezoidal waves or scatter record from equipment, being used in modeling. Here, we simulate the establishing and induced diffusion process of the electromagnetic field in the earth. The traditional time domain electromagnetic with pure secondary fields can also be extracted from our modeling results. The real time responses excited by a loop source can be calculated using the algorithm. We analyze the full time gates responses of homogeneous half space and two

  1. Modeling forest ecosystem changes resulting from surface coal mining in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Brown; Andrew J. Lister; Mary Ann Fajvan; Bonnie Ruefenacht; Christine Mazzarella

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project is to assess the effects of surface coal mining on forest ecosystem disturbance and restoration in the Coal River Subbasin in southern West Virginia. Our approach is to develop disturbance impact models for this subbasin that will serve as a case study for testing the feasibility of integrating currently available GIS data layers, remote...

  2. Surface concentration nonuniformities resulting from chronoamperometry of a reversible reaction at an ultramicrodisk electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Britz, Dieter H.; Strutwolf, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    The chronoamperometric experiment at a disk electrode was simulated, assuming a reversible reaction. When the diffusion coefficients of the two substances involved are different, there appears a surface concentration non- uniformity in the radial direction, exhibiting a maximum effect in time. At...

  3. Fluxes over a heterogeneous land surface: results and perspectives of the LITFASS program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyrich, F.; Richter, S.H.; Weisensee, U.; Herzog, H.J.; DeBruin, H.A.R.; Meijninger, W.M.L.

    2002-01-01

    From 1995 till 2001, the German Meteorological Service (DWD) has performed a research project (LITFASS='Lindenberg Inhomogeneous Terrain - Fluxes between Atmosphere and Surface: a Long-term Study') in order to develop and to test a strategy for the determination of the area-averaged turbulent fluxes

  4. SpiNon- Invasive Diagnostics and Results of Interventive Treatment of Cardiac Arrhythmia Using the New System of Non-Invasive Surface Mapping “Amycard 01K”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revishvili A. Sh.

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion. Using results of the surface activation mapping in patients with various cardiac arrhythmias shows its high diagnostic value and the necessity for a preoperative examination. Previously held topical diagnosis of arrhythmogenic substrate will reduce the time of the arrhythmia origin finding, to avoid possible adverse intraoperative complications such as a damage of coronary vessels, as well as reduce the time of intraoperative fluoroscopy.

  5. Titan's surface at 2.2-cm wavelength imaged by the Cassini RADAR radiometer: Calibration and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, M.A.; Lorenz, R.D.; West, R.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.M.; Kirk, R.L.; Elachi, C.; Wall, S.D.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Anderson, Y.; Boehmer, R.A.; Callahan, P.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.A.; Kelleher, K.D.; Roth, L.; Stiles, B.; Le, Gall A.

    2009-01-01

    The first comprehensive calibration and mapping of the thermal microwave emission from Titan's surface is reported based on radiometric data obtained at 2.2-cm wavelength by the passive radiometer included in the Cassini Radar instrument. The data reported were accumulated from 69 separate observational segments in Titan passes from Ta (October 2004) through T30 (May 2007) and include emission from 94% of Titan's surface. They are diverse in the key observing parameters of emission angle, polarization, and spatial resolution, and their reduction into calibrated global mosaic maps involved several steps. Analysis of the polarimetry obtained at low to moderate resolution (50+ km) enabled integration of the radiometry into a single mosaic of the equivalent brightness temperature at normal incidence with a relative precision of about 1 K. The Huygens probe measurement of Titan's surface temperature and radiometry obtained on Titan's dune fields allowed us to infer an absolute calibration estimated to be accurate to a level approaching 1 K. The results provide evidence for a surface that is complex and varied on large scales. The radiometry primarily constrains physical properties of the surface, where we see strong evidence for subsurface (volume) scattering as a dominant mechanism that determines the emissivity, with the possibility of a fluffy or graded-density surface layer in many regions. The results are consistent with, but not necessarily definitive of a surface composition resulting from the slow deposition and processing of organic compounds from the atmosphere. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  6. Femtosecond laser microstructuring of titanium surfaces for middle ear ossicular replacement prosthesis: results of preliminary studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, S.; Ilgner, J. F. R.; Fadeeva, E.; Chichkov, B.; Prescher, A.; Bovi, M.; Westhofen, M.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize titanium surfaces by means of Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser to improve the attachment of human cartilage cells on titanium prosthesis in middle ear surgery. The application of microstructures on titanium samples was evaluated and the influence of these microstructures on human auricular chondrocytes was studied in-vitro. After establishing the ear chondrocyte cell culture, cells were seeded on titanium platelets with selected microstructure patterns. Whereas the phenotype of cells seeded on unstructured titanium was similar to cells grown on standard tissue culture surfaces, the morphology of chondrocytes grown on structured titanium samples was influenced by the pattern. For future titanium middle ear prosthesis structural optimizations will be developed to promote chondrocyte growth and adhesion while impeding fibrocyte proliferation to avoid scarring on implant interfaces.

  7. On the issue of the surface contamination of a Langmuir Probe sensor: Demeter ISL results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, J. P.

    2011-10-01

    The Demeter Instrument Sonde de Langmuir (ISL) comprises two Langmuir Probe sensors. It includes a classical cylindrical sensor and a 6-sector spherical Segmented Langmuir Probe (SLP) sensor. The CNES Demeter satellite was launched in June 2004 on a 700-km altitude high-inclination orbit. ISL worked flawlessly till the satellite was decommissioned in March 2011. It provided more than 6 years of data. For operational reasons, the science payload was only operated below magnetic latitude 65°. It was switched off twice per orbit when above 65°. A transient behavior of the ISL sensors was systematically observed each time it was turned on at the beginning of each half-orbit segment. This transient behavior is attributed to surface contamination of the sensors. Some surface contamination of the sensor is indeed inferred from the recording of a series of I-V curves at different sweep rates using a special mode designed to monitor the evolution of the surface state of the sensor during the mission. As independently observed from the comparison between Demeter ISL measurements and Ground-based radar ionospheric sounding measurements, (J.-L. Berthelier, private communication, 2011) it is shown that the electron temperature measurements performed by a contaminated Langmuir Probe are significantly higher than the true physical value. Based on the work of Piel at al., a method was developed to determine the electrical characteristics of the surface contamination layer, and to remove the effect of the contamination layer on the determination of the main plasma parameters from the analysis of the I-V curve (the plasma electron density Ne and the Electron temperature Ne). Potential contamination issues for Langmuir Probes on future planetary mission orbiters will be addressed and ways to avoid or at least mitigate the effects of will be discussed.

  8. Mobility of large clusters on a semiconductor surface: Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Esen; A, T. Tüzemen; M, Ozdemir

    2016-01-01

    The mobility of clusters on a semiconductor surface for various values of cluster size is studied as a function of temperature by kinetic Monte Carlo method. The cluster resides on the surface of a square grid. Kinetic processes such as the diffusion of single particles on the surface, their attachment and detachment to/from clusters, diffusion of particles along cluster edges are considered. The clusters considered in this study consist of 150-6000 atoms per cluster on average. A statistical probability of motion to each direction is assigned to each particle where a particle with four nearest neighbors is assumed to be immobile. The mobility of a cluster is found from the root mean square displacement of the center of mass of the cluster as a function of time. It is found that the diffusion coefficient of clusters goes as D = A(T)Nα where N is the average number of particles in the cluster, A(T) is a temperature-dependent constant and α is a parameter with a value of about -0.64 a value of -0.5. The diffusion coefficient is found to change by one order of magnitude as a function of cluster size.

  9. Development and hydrology of biological soil crusts -- first results from a surface inoculation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhailova, Larysa; Raab, Thomas; Gypser, Stella; Fischer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Representing a set of various micro-biocoenoses, biocrusts often reside in adjacent patches, which not necessarily relate to structural elements of the habitat, like (micro-) topography or vegetational patterns. Such biocrust patches may become more stable through the formation of mutually dependent ecohydrological regimes. For example, algal patches inhibiting infiltration and generating runoff alternate with runoff-receiving moss patches possessing high water holding capacities. Here, we preliminarily report on a lysimeter field experiment where natural biocrust isolates were used for surface inoculation to (I) prove stochastic vs. deterministic biocrust development and (II) to quantitatively relate biocrust development to soil hydrology. Lysimeter sand was collected from 3-4 m below surface at natural dune outcrops in south-eastern Brandenburg, Germany (Glashütte (GLA) and Neuer Lugteich (LUG)), where biocrust samples were collected at the respective dune bases. The lysimeters were designed to prevent runoff. In a completely randomized full-factorial design, three factors were considered. (A) Inocolum in three treatments (bare control, mosses, algae), (B) mineral substrate texture in two treatments (GLA: 55% and LUG: 79% particles >630 μm), and (C) surface compaction in two treatments (control, 41.5 kN m-2 for 30 seconds). The samples were kept dry and re-moistened to -60 hPa two days before inoculation. After a species inventory, the inoculate was isolated by gently washing off sand particles from the biocrust samples. Algal/lichen crusts were dominated by Zygogonium ericetorum and Cladonia sp. at both sites. All moss crusts were dominated by Polytrichum piliferum and Ceratodon purpureus, whereas Brachythecium albicans was present at GLA only. 20 g of homogenized moist inoculate were spread over the surface of each lysimeter (Ø 19 cm, 22 cm depth). We performed autochthonous inoculation, i.e. biocrust isolates collected from GLA were used for inoculation of

  10. What is the role of historical anthropogenically-induced land-cover change on the surface climate of West Africa? Results from the LUCID intercomparison project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souleymane, S.

    2015-12-01

    West Africa has been highlighted as a hot spot of land surface-atmosphere interactions. This study analyses the outputs of the project Land-Use and Climate, IDentification of Robust Impacts (LUCID) over West Africa. LUCID used seven atmosphere-land models with a common experimental design to explore the impacts of Land Use induced Land Cover Change (LULCC) that are robust and consistent across the climate models. Focusing the analysis on Sahel and Guinea, this study shows that, even though the seven climate models use the same atmospheric and land cover forcing, there are significant differences of West African Monsoon variability across the climate models. The magnitude of that variability differs significantly from model to model resulting two major "features": (1) atmosphere dynamics models; (2) how the land-surface functioning is parameterized in the Land surface Model, in particular regarding the evapotranspiration partitioning within the different land-cover types, as well as the role of leaf area index (LAI) in the flux calculations and how strongly the surface is coupled to the atmosphere. The major role that the models'sensitivity to land-cover perturbations plays in the resulting climate impacts of LULCC has been analysed in this study. The climate models show, however, significant differences in the magnitude and the seasonal partitioning of the temperature change. The LULCC induced cooling is directed by decreases in net shortwave radiation that reduced the available energy (QA) (related to changes in land-cover properties other than albedo, such as LAI and surface roughness), which decreases during most part of the year. The biophysical impacts of LULCC were compared to the impact of elevated greenhouse gases resulting changes in sea surface temperatures and sea ice extent (CO2SST). The results show that the surface cooling (related a decrease in QA) induced by the biophysical effects of LULCC are insignificant compared to surface warming (related an

  11. Changing the surface properties on naval steel as result of non-thermal plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatiuc, B.; Sabău, A.; Dumitrache, C. L.; Hnatiuc, M.; Crețu, M.; Astanei, D.

    2016-08-01

    The problem of corrosion, related to Biofouling formation, is an issue with very high importance in the maritime domain. According to new rules, the paints and all the technologies for the conditioning of naval materials must fulfil more restrictive environmental conditions. In order to solve this issue, different new clean technologies have been proposed. Among them, the use of non-thermal plasmas produced at atmospheric pressure plays a very important role. This study concerns the opportunity of plasma treatment for preparation or conditioning of naval steel OL36 type. The plasma reactors chosen for the experiments can operate at atmospheric pressure and are easy to use in industrial conditions. They are based on electrical discharges GlidArc and Spark, which already proved their efficiency for the surface activation or even for coatings of the surface. The non-thermal character of the plasma is ensured by a gas flow blown through the electrical discharges. One power supply has been used for reactors that provide a 5 kV voltage and a maximum current of 100 mA. The modifications of the surface properties and composition have been studied by XPS technique (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy). There were taken into consideration 5 samples: 4 of them undergoing a Mini-torch plasma, a Gliding Spark, a GlidArc with dry air and a GlidArc with CO2, respectively the fifth sample which is the untreated witness. Before the plasma treatment, samples of naval steel were processed in order to obtain mechanical gloss. The time of treatment was chosen to 12 minutes. In the spectroscopic analysis, done on a ULVAC-PHI, Inc. PHI 5000 Versa Probe scanning XPS microprobe, a monocromated Al Kα X-ray source with a spot size of 100 μm2 was used to scan each sample while the photoelectrons were collected at a 45-degree take-off angle. Differences were found between atomic concentrations in each individual case, which proves that the active species produced by each type of plasma affects

  12. Empirical Results of a Surface-Level GNSS-R Experiment in a Wave Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Carreno-Luengo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The scattering of GNSS signals over a water surface is studied when the receiver is at a low height, as in GNSS-R coastal altimetry. The precise determination of the local sea level and wave state from the coast will provide useful altimetry and wave information as “dry” tide and wave gauges. An experiment has been conducted at the Canal d'Investigació i Experimentació Marítima (CIEM wave channel for two simulated “sea” states. The GNSS-reflectometer used is the P(Y and C/A ReflectOmeter (PYCARO instrument, a closed-loop receiver with delay and Doppler tracking loops that uses the conventional GNSS-R technique for the GPS C/A code. After retracking of the scattered GPS signals, the coherent and incoherent components have been studied. To reproduce the transmitted GPS signals indoors, a Rohde and Schwarz signal generator is used. It is found that, despite the ratio of the coherent and incoherent components being ~1, the coherent component is strong enough that it can be tracked. The coherent component comes from clusters of points on the surface that approximately satisfy the specular reflection conditions (“roughed facet”. The Pearson’s linear correlation coefficients of the derived “sea” surface height with the wave gauge data are: 0.78, 0.85 and 0.81 for a SWH = 36 cm and 0.34, 0.74, and 0.72 for a SWH = 64 cm, respectively, for transmitter elevation angles of = 60°, 75° and 86°, respectively. Finally, the rms phase of the received signal before the retracking processing is used to estimate the effective rms surface height of the ‘facets’, where the waves get scattered. It is found to be between 2.5- and 4.1-times smaller than the theoretical values corresponding to the half of the coherent reflectivity decaying factor.

  13. [Moist ablation of the corneal surface with the Er:YAG laser. Results of optimizing ablation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bende, T; Jean, B; Matallana, M; Seiler, T; Steiner, R

    1994-10-01

    The Er:YAG laser, emitting light at 2.94 microns, may be an alternative to the 193 nm excimer laser for photorefractive keratectomy. Compared to the excimer laser, the ablation rate is very high. Surface roughness is also more pronounced than for the excimer laser. Using a precorneal liquid film, these two factors can be reduced, as shown in ablation experiments performed on porcine corneas. Thermal damage of the remaining corneal tissue is another side effect. There is no significant decrease in the amount of thermal damage with this new technique,--not even when the pulse length is reduced.

  14. Some theoretical results on the observability of repolarization heterogeneity on surface ECG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardi, Luca; Sassi, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Assessing repolarization heterogeneity (RH) from surface ECG recording is an open issue in modern electrocardiography, despite the fact that several indexes measured on the T-wave have been proposed and tested. To understand how RH occurring at myocite level is reflected on T-wave shapes, in this paper we propose a mathematical framework that combines a simple statistical model of cardiac repolarization times with the dominant T-wave formalism. Within this framework we compare different T-wave features such as T-wave amplitude, T-wave amplitude variability or QT intervals and we describe mathematically how they are linked to the spatial and temporal components of repolarization heterogeneity.

  15. Results of experimental tests and calibrations of the surface neutron moisture measurement probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, W.T.; Bussell, J.H., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-13

    The surface neutron moisture probe has been tested both to demonstrate that is is able to operate in the expected in-tank temperature and gamma-ray fields and to provide detector responses to known moisture concentration materials. The probe will properly function in a simultaneous high temperature (80 degrees C) and high gamma radiation field (210 rad/hr)environment. Comparisons between computer model predicted and experimentally measured detector responses to changes in moisture provide a basis for the probe calibration to in-tank moisture concentrations.

  16. Laboratory and field testing results of the LMT/GTM primary surface actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; Souccar, Kamal; Montalvo, Gabriela; Arteaga Magaña, César; Hernández Rebollar, José Luis; Olmos Tapia, Arak; Gallieni, Daniele; Lazzarini, Paolo; Fumi, Pierluigi; Anaclerio, Enzo

    2016-07-01

    With the final installation of the two outermost rings of the primary surface of the Large Millimeter Telescope/ Gran Telescopio Milimétrico (LMT/GTM), the project is also upgrading the primary surface actuators. There are commercial actuators that can approach the required operational accuracy and stroke, but the combination of the size and load requirements ultimately required a customized design. The new actuators fit within the volume constraints imposed by the tighter interior angles in the outer rings and are designed to support the operational and survival loading conditions even for the largest surface segments. Laboratory testing confirmed that the actuators should meet the precision, repeatability, load, and lifetime requirements. However, the LMT/GTM is at a particularly difficult site for electromechanical systems. The high altitude has the usual effect of reducing cooling effectiveness for the drives and motors, and the ambient temperature hovers near freezing. Since there is a significant amount of precipitation during some times of the year, there are frequent freeze/thaw cycles. The constant formation and either sublimation or melting of ice, along with the associated high humidity, has been a challenge for the environmental protection of many devices at the LMT/GTM. Because there are a total of 720 primary surface actuators in the system, it is particularly important that the actuators, their local drive control boxes, and their cable connections be able to meet its specifications even under the site conditions. To confirm the suitability of the actuators, the LMT/GTM procured an initial set of sixteen actuators for testing at the site. After laboratory testing, the actuators were installed into the outer two rings of the telescope and cycled during the early winter months of the 2015-16 scientific observing season. Because of the continuing installation activities in these two rings, they are not illuminated by the receivers, so field testing

  17. Results from studies of surface deposits on the claddings of fuel rods used in RBMK-1000 reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, I. M.; Markov, D. V.

    2010-07-01

    The results of studies on analyzing the element composition of deposits on the cladding surfaces of fuel rods used in a fuel assembly at the Leningrad nuclear power station are presented. The distribution of elements in deposits over the fuel rod height is analyzed, and the zones of their concentration are revealed. It is shown that deposits of copper penetrating into cracks in the surface layer of zirconium oxide introduce an essential contribution in the development of nodular corrosion of fuel rod claddings.

  18. Violence and TV Shows

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Şinasi

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to discuss theories on theviolent effects of TV shows on viewers, especiallyon children. Therefore, this study includes a briefdiscussion of definitions of violence, discussionof violence theories, main results of researcheson televised violence, measuring TV violence,perception of televised violence, individualdifferences and reactions to TV violence,aggressiveness and preferences for TV violence.

  19. Results and Observations of the Integral Loss-of-coolant Accident Test with Surface Modified Claddings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dong Jun; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Hyun Gil; Yang, Jae Ho; Koo, Yang Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, integral loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) test was carried for comprehensive understanding of phenomena such as ballooning, burst failures, and oxidation for the ATF cladding during a LOCA scenario. In this section some of the experimental procedure and technical details of apparatus are described. Highlight data obtained from simulated LOCA test is also presented. Cracks can be initiated at this brittle burst tip and will propagate rapidly though the ballooned region. Therefore, the flexural strength of the ruptured tubes mainly depends on the thickness of the load bearing Zr metal at the opposite side to the rupture opening. To improve the reliability and safety of existing Zr alloy fuel cladding under LWR accident conditions, a high temperature oxidation resistant layer was coated onto the surface of Zr alloy samples using various coating techniques. The rupture temperature of the coated tube was higher than that of the uncoated cladding.

  20. Sound Wave Energy Resulting from the Impact of Water Drops on the Soil Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryżak, Magdalena; Bieganowski, Andrzej; Korbiel, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The splashing of water drops on a soil surface is the first step of water erosion. There have been many investigations into splashing-most are based on recording and analysing images taken with high-speed cameras, or measuring the mass of the soil moved by splashing. Here, we present a new aspect of the splash phenomenon's characterization the measurement of the sound pressure level and the sound energy of the wave that propagates in the air. The measurements were carried out for 10 consecutive water drop impacts on the soil surface. Three soils were tested (Endogleyic Umbrisol, Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol and Haplic Chernozem) with four initial moisture levels (pressure heads: 0.1 kPa, 1 kPa, 3.16 kPa and 16 kPa). We found that the values of the sound pressure and sound wave energy were dependent on the particle size distribution of the soil, less dependent on the initial pressure head, and practically the same for subsequent water drops (from the first to the tenth drop). The highest sound pressure level (and the greatest variability) was for Endogleyic Umbrisol, which had the highest sand fraction content. The sound pressure for this soil increased from 29 dB to 42 dB with the next incidence of drops falling on the sample The smallest (and the lowest variability) was for Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol which had the highest clay fraction. For all experiments the sound pressure level ranged from ~27 to ~42 dB and the energy emitted in the form of sound waves was within the range of 0.14 μJ to 5.26 μJ. This was from 0.03 to 1.07% of the energy of the incident drops.

  1. Sound Wave Energy Resulting from the Impact of Water Drops on the Soil Surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Ryżak

    Full Text Available The splashing of water drops on a soil surface is the first step of water erosion. There have been many investigations into splashing-most are based on recording and analysing images taken with high-speed cameras, or measuring the mass of the soil moved by splashing. Here, we present a new aspect of the splash phenomenon's characterization the measurement of the sound pressure level and the sound energy of the wave that propagates in the air. The measurements were carried out for 10 consecutive water drop impacts on the soil surface. Three soils were tested (Endogleyic Umbrisol, Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol and Haplic Chernozem with four initial moisture levels (pressure heads: 0.1 kPa, 1 kPa, 3.16 kPa and 16 kPa. We found that the values of the sound pressure and sound wave energy were dependent on the particle size distribution of the soil, less dependent on the initial pressure head, and practically the same for subsequent water drops (from the first to the tenth drop. The highest sound pressure level (and the greatest variability was for Endogleyic Umbrisol, which had the highest sand fraction content. The sound pressure for this soil increased from 29 dB to 42 dB with the next incidence of drops falling on the sample The smallest (and the lowest variability was for Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol which had the highest clay fraction. For all experiments the sound pressure level ranged from ~27 to ~42 dB and the energy emitted in the form of sound waves was within the range of 0.14 μJ to 5.26 μJ. This was from 0.03 to 1.07% of the energy of the incident drops.

  2. A climatology of surface ozone in the extra tropics: cluster analysis of observations and model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Tarasova

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Important aspects of the seasonal variations of surface ozone are discussed. The underlying analysis is based on the long-term (1990–2004 ozone records of Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP and the World Data Center of Greenhouse Gases which do have a strong Northern Hemisphere bias. Seasonal variations are pronounced at most of the 114 locations for any time of the day. Seasonal-diurnal variability classification using hierarchical agglomeration clustering reveals 5 distinct clusters: clean/rural, semi-polluted non-elevated, semi-polluted semi-elevated, elevated and polar/remote marine types. For the cluster "clean/rural" the seasonal maximum is observed in April, both for night and day. For those sites with a double maximum or a wide spring-summer maximum, the one in spring appears both for day and night, while the one in summer is more pronounced for daytime and hence can be attributed to photochemical processes. For the spring maximum photochemistry is a less plausible explanation as no dependence of the maximum timing is observed. More probably the spring maximum is caused by dynamical/transport processes. Using data from the 3-D atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1 covering the period of 1998–2005 a comparison has been performed for the identified clusters. For the model data four distinct classes of variability are detected. The majority of cases are covered by the regimes with a spring seasonal maximum or with a broad spring-summer maximum (with prevailing summer. The regime with winter–early spring maximum is reproduced by the model for southern hemispheric locations. Background and semi-polluted sites appear in the model in the same cluster. The seasonality in this model cluster is characterized by a pronounced spring (May maximum. For the model cluster that covers partly semi-elevated semi-polluted sites the role of the

  3. Reduction of computer usage costs in predicting unsteady aerodynamic loadings caused by control surface motions: Analysis and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, W. S.; Sebastian, J. D.; Petrarca, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Results of theoretical and numerical investigations conducted to develop economical computing procedures were applied to an existing computer program that predicts unsteady aerodynamic loadings caused by leading and trailing edge control surface motions in subsonic compressible flow. Large reductions in computing costs were achieved by removing the spanwise singularity of the downwash integrand and evaluating its effect separately in closed form. Additional reductions were obtained by modifying the incremental pressure term that account for downwash singularities at control surface edges. Accuracy of theoretical predictions of unsteady loading at high reduced frequencies was increased by applying new pressure expressions that exactly satisified the high frequency boundary conditions of an oscillating control surface. Comparative computer result indicated that the revised procedures provide more accurate predictions of unsteady loadings as well as providing reduction of 50 to 80 percent in computer usage costs.

  4. Low surface gravitational acceleration of Mars results in a thick and weak lithosphere: Implications for topography, volcanism, and hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Michael J.; Byrne, Paul K.; Mikhail, Sami

    2017-01-01

    Surface gravitational acceleration (surface gravity) on Mars, the second-smallest planet in the Solar System, is much lower than that on Earth. A direct consequence of this low surface gravity is that lithostatic pressure is lower on Mars than on Earth at any given depth. Collated published data from deformation experiments on basalts suggest that, throughout its geological history (and thus thermal evolution), the Martian brittle lithosphere was much thicker but weaker than that of present-day Earth as a function solely of surface gravity. We also demonstrate, again as a consequence of its lower surface gravity, that the Martian lithosphere is more porous, that fractures on Mars remain open to greater depths and are wider at a given depth, and that the maximum penetration depth for opening-mode fractures (i.e., joints) is much deeper on Mars than on Earth. The result of a weak Martian lithosphere is that dykes-the primary mechanism for magma transport on both planets-can propagate more easily and can be much wider on Mars than on Earth. We suggest that this increased the efficiency of magma delivery to and towards the Martian surface during its volcanically active past, and therefore assisted the exogeneous and endogenous growth of the planet's enormous volcanoes (the heights of which are supported by the thick Martian lithosphere) as well as extensive flood-mode volcanism. The porous and pervasively fractured (and permeable) nature of the Martian lithosphere will have also greatly assisted the subsurface storage of and transport of fluids through the lithosphere throughout its geologically history. And so it is that surface gravity, influenced by the mass of a planetary body, can greatly modify the mechanical and hydraulic behaviour of its lithosphere with manifest differences in surface topography and geomorphology, volcanic character, and hydrology.

  5. Discrimination of surface wear on obsidian tools using LSCM and RelA: pilot study results (area-scale analysis of obsidian tool surfaces).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemp, W James; Chung, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study tests the reliability of laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) to quantitatively measure wear on experimental obsidian tools. To our knowledge, this is the first use of confocal microscopy to study wear on stone flakes made from an amorphous silicate like obsidian. Three-dimensional surface roughness or texture area scans on three obsidian flakes used on different contact materials (hide, shell, wood) were documented using the LSCM to determine whether the worn surfaces could be discriminated using area-scale analysis, specifically relative area (RelA). When coupled with the F-test, this scale-sensitive fractal analysis could not only discriminate the used from unused surfaces on individual tools, but was also capable of discriminating the wear histories of tools used on different contact materials. Results indicate that such discriminations occur at different scales. Confidence levels for the discriminations at different scales were established using the F-test (mean square ratios or MSRs). In instances where discrimination of surface roughness or texture was not possible above the established confidence level based on MSRs, photomicrographs and RelA assisted in hypothesizing why this was so. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Preliminary results of the ice_sheet_CCI round robin activity on the estimation of surface elevation changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ticconi, F.; Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Khvorostovsky, K.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the first results of a research activity aiming to compare estimates of Surface Elevation Changes (SEC) over the Jakobshavn Isbræ basin (Greenland) using different repeat altimetry techniques and different sensors (laser vs. radar altimetry). The goal of this comparison is the ...

  7. The surface modification of TiN nano-particles using macromolecular coupling agents, and their resulting dispersibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Guojun, E-mail: chengguojun0436@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001 (China); Qian, Jiasheng, E-mail: qianjs@ahu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Miao, Jibin; Yang, Bin; Xia, Ru; Chen, Peng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: The hydroxyl groups on the surface of nano-TiN particles interacted with the silanol groups [-Si-OCH{sub 3}] of a F-MCA to form an organic coating layer that hindered the aggregation of the nano-TiN. The obvious agglomeration and homogeneous dispersion can be seen in TEM images. - Highlights: • The dispersible TiN nano-particles were prepared to increase its surface activity. • Surface hydrophobicity increased due to being modified by F-MCA. • TiN nano-particles modified with F-MCA shows good dispersion in anhydrous ethanol. • The coupling agents are tightly absorbed on the surface of particles by chemisorption. • Modified TiN nano-particles can be widely used in polymers with great compatibility. - Abstract: Titanium nitride (TiN) nano-particles were modified by the grafting of a random copolymerization functionalized macromolecular coupling agent (F-MCA) via a direct blending method. The hydroxyl groups on the surface of the nano-TiN particles interact with the silanol groups [-Si-OCH{sub 3}] of the F-MCA to form an organic coating layer. The formation of covalent bonds [Ti-O-Si] was verified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. An X-ray diffraction analysis suggests that the presence of the F-MCA inhibited the growth of the crystal plane but did not change the crystal structure of the TiN. Thermogravimetric analysis and contact angle measurement indicated that the F-MCA molecules were adsorbed or anchored to the surface of the nano-TiN particles, which hindered their aggregation. Pristine nano-TiN particles are poorly dispersed in ethyl acetate. Compared with the pristine TiN particles, the modified TiN particles show good dispersibility and form a stable colloidal dispersion in ethyl acetate. The surface hydrophobicity of the modified TiN increases, and the F-MCA molecules are anchored on the surface of the TiN particles. TiN particles modified by a F-MCA can be used in polymer blends, thermoplastic elastomers and polymer

  8. Coordination modes and bonding of sulfur oxides on transition metal surfaces: combined ab initio and BOC-MP results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seller, Harrell; Shustorovich, Evgeny

    1996-02-01

    Binding energies for sulfur oxides, SO x, x = 1-3, have been determined for several coordination modes on silver, gold and palladium surfaces employing ab initio quantum chemical methods and the bond order conservation Morse potential (BOC-MP) method. SO 2 coordination was studied in the most detail. In general the agreement between the BOC-MP and ab initio binding energies is good for the (111) surfaces of silver and palladium with both methods predicting that, in the zero coverage limit, di-coordination via S,O and O,O will be more favorable energetically than mono-coordination via S. In the case of chemisorption on the Pd (110) surface the two methods agree well for the cases in which there are formulas for the BOC-MP binding energies. In going from the (111) surfaces to the (110) surfaces of silver and palladium the ab initio calculations predict that the preferred chemisorption site shifts from the bridge site to the hollow site. On the silver surfaces the net charge transferred to the adsorbate as judged from the Mulliken populations correlates roughly with the binding energy. No significant charge transfer was found on the palladium surfaces. Our SO 2 chemisorption calculations indicate that the work functions of the metal surfaces examined should increase upon mono-S adsorption, increase to a lesser extent upon di S,O adsorption and may even decrease upon di O,O adsorption. Ab initio calculations provide evidence of the existence of SO 2 surface dimers. The binding energy predicted by the BOC-MP model for SO 3 in the bridging site agrees well with the ab initio result for SO 3 di-coordinated in the long bridge of the Ag(110) surface. The methods yield similar predictions for the case of SO on silver. Our modeling provides a coherent picture consistent with many aspects of the experimental literature. We present some model predictions, particularly the di O,O coordination mode for SO 2, that require verification experimentally.

  9. Attempts to grow optically coupled Fibonacci-spaced InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells result in surface gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, B C; Hendrickson, J; Sweet, J; Khitrova, G; Litvinov, D; Gerthsen, D; Myer, B; Pau, S; Sarid, D; Wegener, M; Ivchenko, E L; Poddubny, A N; Gibbs, H M

    2008-12-22

    An instability in the growth of nonperiodic InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well samples, ordinarily of high-quality when grown with equal periods of order of half the wavelength of light in the material, leads to a dramatic microscopic, self-organized surface grating. This effect was discovered while growing quantum wells with two unequal barrier lengths arranged in a Fibonacci sequence to form an optical quasicrystal. A laser beam incident normal to the surface of the sample is diffracted into a propeller-shaped pattern. The sample surface has a distinctly cloudy appearance when viewed along one crystal axis but is mirror-like when the sample is rotated 90 degrees. The instability results in a five-fold increase in the absorption linewidth of the heavy-hole exciton transition. Atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the samples.

  10. Prediction of 3D internal organ position from skin surface motion: results from electromagnetic tracking studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kenneth H.; Tang, Jonathan; Zhang, Hui J.; Varghese, Emmanuel; Cleary, Kevin R.

    2005-04-01

    An effective treatment method for organs that move with respiration (such as the lungs, pancreas, and liver) is a major goal of radiation medicine. In order to treat such tumors, we need (1) real-time knowledge of the current location of the tumor, and (2) the ability to adapt the radiation delivery system to follow this constantly changing location. In this study, we used electromagnetic tracking in a swine model to address the first challenge, and to determine if movement of a marker attached to the skin could accurately predict movement of an internal marker embedded in an organ. Under approved animal research protocols, an electromagnetically tracked needle was inserted into a swine liver and an electromagnetically tracked guidewire was taped to the abdominal skin of the animal. The Aurora (Northern Digital Inc., Waterloo, Canada) electromagnetic tracking system was then used to monitor the position of both of these sensors every 40 msec. Position readouts from the sensors were then tested to see if any of the movements showed correlation. The strongest correlations were observed between external anterior-posterior motion and internal inferior-superior motion, with many other axes exhibiting only weak correlation. We also used these data to build a predictive model of internal motion by taking segments from the data and using them to derive a general functional relationship between the internal needle and the external guidewire. For the axis with the strongest correlation, this model enabled us to predict internal organ motion to within 1 mm.

  11. Sub-surface Meridional Flow Results from MWO, GONG, and MDI during Solar Cycle 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Stephen; Rhodes, Edward J.; Bogart, Richard S.

    2014-06-01

    Time series of full-disk Dopplergrams were acquired at the 60-Foot Solar tower of the Mount Wilson Observatory every year between 1987 and 2009. Analysis of this archive revealed that the focal plane of the Tower did experience a small amount of systematic rotation, which suggested that the alignment of the optics had changed slightly over the years since its construction in 1907. This has caused some of the initial daily flow maps to possess a so-called “washing machine” effect similar to the pattern that was seen in raw GONG flow maps. We have incorporated a systematic program of ring-diagram analysis in which we have tracked the raw solar images using five differing assumed instrumental rotation rates. We have then gone on to compute synoptic maps of the horizontal flow vectors at several different depths over much of Solar Cycle 23 in order to study how such an instrumental rotation might affect both the zonal and meridional flows as functions of latitude, depth, and time. We compare these results with GONG and MDI flow measurements to empirically determine the regime within which the MWO results are reliable and extend our analysis into Solar Cycle 22.

  12. - and Syn-Eruptive Surface Movements of Azerbaijan Mud Volcanoes Detected Through Insar Analysis: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonielli, Benedetta; Monserrat, Oriol; Bonini, Marco; Righini, Gaia; Sani, Federico; Luzi, Guido; Feyzullayev, Akper; Aliyev, Chingiz

    2014-05-01

    Mud volcanism is a process that consists in the extrusion of mud, fragments or blocks of country rocks, saline waters and gases, mostly methane. This mechanism is typically linked to in-depth hydrocarbon traps, and it builds up a variety of conical edifices with dimension and morphology similar to those of magmatic volcanoes. Interferometry by Satellite Aperture Radar (InSAR) techniques have been commonly used to monitor and investigate the ground deformation connected to the eruptive phases of magmatic volcanoes. InSAR techniques have also been employed to explore the ground deformation associated with the LUSI mud volcano in Java (Indonesia). We aim to carry out a study on the paroxysmal activities of the Azerbaijan mud volcanoes, among the largest on Earth, using similar techniques. In particular the deformations of the mud volcanic systems were analyzed through the technique of satellite differential interferometry (DInSAR), thanks to the acquisition of 16 descending and 4 ascending Envisat images, spanning about 4 years (October 2003-November 2007); these data were provided by the European Space Agency. The preliminary analysis of a set of 77 interferograms and the unwrapping process elaboration of some of them selected according to the best coherence values, allowed the detection of significant deformations in correspondence of Ayaz-Akhtarma and Khara Zira Island mud volcanoes. This analysis has allowed to identify relevant ground deformations of the volcanic systems in connection with the main eruptive events in 2005 and in 2006 respectively, that are recorded by the catalogue of Azerbaijan mud volcano eruptions until 2007. The preliminary analysis of the interferograms of the Ayaz-Akhtarma and the Khara Zira mud volcanoes shows that the whole volcano edifice or part of it is subject to a ground displacement before or in coincidence with the eruption. Assuming that the movement is mainly vertical, we suppose that deformation is due to bulging of the volcanic

  13. Results of investigations on reducing the lumpiness of gray clay removed from the Kosovo surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizvanoli, F.

    1983-04-01

    Tectonic disturbances, fractures, crushing properties and other features of the gray clay overburden reduced the output of bucket wheel excavators and caused frequent breakdowns in mine operation. It was found that clay lumpiness may be reduced by undertaking the following measures: 1) improving bucket wheel design and construction; 2) applying horizontal cutting of clay seams and secondary crushing of excavated clay by installation of a clay crusher on the bucket wheel excavators. The results of 90 days of observation of SRs-470 and SRs-1300 bucket wheel excavators with 6, 16 and 21 buckets are described. On one of the SRs-1300 bucket wheel excavators, a crusher was installed in order to avoid breakdowns in operation of excavator, belt conveyor system and waste stackers. (4 refs.) (In Serbo-Croat)

  14. Surface conductivity in electrokinetic systems with porous and charged interfaces: Analytical approximations and numerical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbati, Alexander C; Kirby, Brian J

    2016-07-01

    We derive an approximate analytical representation of the conductivity for a 1D system with porous and charged layers grafted onto parallel plates. Our theory improves on prior work by developing approximate analytical expressions applicable over an arbitrary range of potentials, both large and small as compared to the thermal voltage (RTF). Further, we describe these results in a framework of simplifying nondimensional parameters, indicating the relative dominance of various physicochemical processes. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approximate expression with comparisons to numerical representations of the exact analytical conductivity. Finally, we utilize this conductivity expression, in concert with other components of the electrokinetic coupling matrix, to describe the streaming potential and electroviscous effect in systems with porous and charged layers.

  15. Technical Results from the Surface Run of the LUX Dark Matter Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Akerib, D S; Bernard, E; Bernstein, A; Bradley, A; Byram, D; Cahn, S B; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Chapman, J J; Coffey, T; Dobi, A; Dragowsky, E; Druszkiewicz, E; Edwards, B; Faham, C H; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Gibson, K R; Gilchriese, M; Hall, C; Hanhardt, M; Ihm, M; Jacobsen, R G; Kastens, L; Kazkaz, K; Knoche, R; Larsen, N; Lee, C; Lesko, K T; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Lyashenko, A; Malling, D C; Mannino, R; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D; Mock, J; Moongweluwan, M; Morii, M; Nelson, H; Neves, F; Nikkel, J A; Pangilinan, M; Pech, K; Phelps, P; Rodionov, A; Shutt, T; Silva, C; Skulski, W; Solovov, V N; Sorensen, P; Stiegler, T; Sweany, M; Szydagis, M; Taylor, D; Tripathi, M; Uvarov, S; Verbus, J R; de Viveiros, L; Walsh, N; Webb, R; White, J T; Wlasenko, M; Wolfs, F L H; Woods, M; Zhang, C

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of the three-month above-ground commissioning run of the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment at the Sanford Underground Research Facility located in Lead, South Dakota, USA. LUX is a 370 kg liquid xenon detector that will search for cold dark matter in the form of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The commissioning run, conducted with the detector immersed in a water tank, validated the integration of the various sub-systems in preparation of the underground deployment. Using the data collected, we report excellent light collection properties, achieving 8 photoelectrons per keV for 662 keV electron recoils without an applied electric field, measured in the center of the WIMP target. We also find good energy and position resolution in relatively high-energy interactions from a variety of internal and external sources. Finally, we have used the commissioning data to tune the optical properties of our simulation and report updated sensitivity projections for spin-independe...

  16. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF B & BX & BY TANK FARMS AT THE HANFORD SITE RESULTS OF BACKGROUND CHARACTERIZATION WITH MAGNETICS AND ELECTROMAGNETICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYERS DA

    2007-09-28

    This report documents the results of preliminary surface geophysical exploration activities performed between October and December 2006 at the B, BX, and BY tank farms (B Complex). The B Complex is located in the 200 East Area of the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State. The objective of the preliminary investigation was to collect background characterization information with magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic induction to understand the spatial distribution of metallic objects that could potentially interfere with the results from high resolution resistivity survey. Results of the background characterization show there are several areas located around the site with large metallic subsurface debris or metallic infrastructure.

  17. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3260, Dasht-e-Chah-e-Mazar (419) and Anar Darah (420) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  18. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3666 and 3766, Balkh (219), Mazar-e Sharif (220), Qarqin (213), and Hazara Toghai (214) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  19. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3668 and 3768, Baghlan (221), Taluqan (222), Imam Sahib (215), and Rustaq (216) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  20. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 2962 and 3062, Gawdezereh (615), Galachah (616), Chahar Burjak (609), and Khan Neshin (610) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefen, Todd M.; King, Trude V.V.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  1. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3360 and 3460, Kawir-e Naizar (413), Kohe-Mahmudo-Esmailjan (414), Kol-e Namaksar (407), and Ghoriyan (408) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  2. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3664 and 3764, Char Shengo (123), Shibirghan (124), Jalajin (117), and Kham-Ab (118) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  3. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3666 and 3766, Balkh (219), Mazar-e Sharif (220), Qarqin (213), and Hazara Toghai (214) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  4. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3360 and 3460, Kawir-e Naizar (413), Kohe-Mahmudo-Esmailjan (414), Kol-e Namaksar (407), and Ghoriyan (408) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  5. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3664 and 3764, Char Shengo (123), Shibirghan (124), Jalajin (117), and Kham-Ab (118) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  6. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 2962 and 3062, Gawdezereh (615), Galachah (616), Chahar Burjak (609), and Khan Neshin (610) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  7. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3668 and 3768, Baghlan (221), Taluqan (222), Imam Sahib (215), and Rustaq (216) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  8. Protein attachment onto silica surfaces--a survey of molecular fundamentals, resulting effects and novel preventive strategies in CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, Hanno

    2009-06-01

    This review addresses the fundamentals governing the adsorption of individual protein molecules onto the surface of fused-silica capillaries, the protein aggregation to adsorbate clusters and their final accretion to monolayers with subsequent stratification to protein multilayers. The attention in CE protein separation has primarily been focused on (i) tuning the BGE including the buffer type, ionic strength, pH and additives, (ii) tailored post-rinse procedures to detach adhered protein residues and (iii) the optimization of capillary wall shielding in order to reduce protein attachment. Improvements in protein separation as well as related adverse effects are mainly discussed on the basis of parameters known to become deteriorated in case of protein adhesion, e.g. repeatability of the EOF and of migration times, peak width, theoretical plate numbers, resolution and asymmetry factor. However, knowledge of the molecular principles controlling protein adsorption onto silica surfaces is indispensable for separation optimization. Furthermore, it facilitates troubleshooting and the interpretation of undesired concomitant phenomena. This review comprehensively discusses protein adsorption models derived from surface chemistry primarily in terms of their relevance for CE, clearly showing that the adsorption process in its complexity is only partially revealed by models, which address single or binary protein solutions. In a further section theoretical concepts and surface models are related to surface phenomena encountered in CE. The final part of the review surveys recent concepts for prevention of protein adhesion, thereby addressing capillary treatment, favorable buffer types, dynamic and adhesive semi-permanent coating strategies covering the literature from 2000-2008.

  9. Simulation of plasma-surface interactions in a fusion reactor by means of QSPA plasma streams: recent results and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkusha, I. E.; Aksenov, N. N.; Byrka, O. V.; Makhlaj, V. A.; Herashchenko, S. S.; Malykhin, S. V.; Petrov, Yu V.; Staltsov, V. V.; Surovitskiy, S. V.; Wirtz, M.; Linke, J.; Sadowski, M. J.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.

    2016-09-01

    This paper is devoted to plasma-surface interaction issues at high heat-loads which are typical for fusion reactors. For the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which is now under construction, the knowledge of erosion processes and the behaviour of various constructional materials under extreme conditions is a very critical issue, which will determine a successful realization of the project. The most important plasma-surface interaction (PSI) effects in 3D geometry have been studied using a QSPA Kh-50 powerful quasi-stationary plasma accelerator. Mechanisms of the droplet and dust generation have been investigated in detail. It was found that the droplets emission from castellated surfaces has a threshold character and a cyclic nature. It begins only after a certain number of the irradiating plasma pulses when molten and shifted material is accumulated at the edges of the castellated structure. This new erosion mechanism, connected with the edge effects, results in an increase in the size of the emitted droplets (as compared with those emitted from a flat surface). This mechanism can even induce the ejection of sub-mm particles. A concept of a new-generation QSPA facility, the current status of this device maintenance, and prospects for further experiments are also presented.

  10. Influence of grain orientation on evolution of surface features in fatigued polycrystalline copper: A comparison of thermal and uniaxial mechanical fatigue results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aicheler, Markus, E-mail: markus.aicheler@cern.c [EN-MME-MM Metallurgy and Metrology, CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    Surface state plays a major role in the crack nucleation process of pure metals in the High-Cycle-Fatigue (HCF) as well as in the Ultra-High-Cycle-Fatigue (UHCF) regime. Therefore, in studies dealing with HCF or UHCF, special attention is paid to the evolution of surface degradation during fatigue life. The accelerating structures of the future Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) under study at CERN will be submitted to a high number of thermal-mechanical fatigue cycles, arising from Radio Frequency (RF) induced eddy currents, causing local superficial cyclic heating. The number of cycles during the foreseen lifetime of CLIC reaches 2x10{sup 11}. Fatigue may limit the lifetime of CLIC structures. In order to assess the effects of superficial fatigue, specific tests are defined and performed on polycrystalline Oxygen Free Electronic (OFE) grade Copper, a candidate material for the structures. Surface degradation depends on the orientation of near-surface grains. Copper samples thermally fatigued in two different fatigue experiments, pulsed laser and pulsed RF-heating, underwent postmortem Electron Backscattered Diffraction measurements. Samples fatigued by pulsed laser show the same trend in the orientation-fatigue damage behavior as samples fatigued by pulsed RF-heating. It is clearly observed that surface grains, oriented [1 1 1] with respect to the surface, show significantly more damage than surface grains oriented [1 0 0]. Results arising from a third fatigue experiment, the ultrasound (US) swinger, are compared to the results of the mentioned experiments. The US swinger is an uniaxial mechanical fatigue test enabling to apply within several days a total number of cycles representative of the life of the CLIC structures, thanks to a high repetition rate of 24 kHz. For comparison, laser fatigue experiments have much lower repetition rates. The dependence of surface degradation on grain orientation of samples tested by the US swinger was monitored during the fatigue

  11. Preliminary results of continuous GPS monitoring of surface deformation at the Aquistore underground CO2 storage site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craymer, M. R.; Henton, J. A.; Piraszewski, M.; Silliker, J.; Samsonov, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    Aquistore is a demonstration project for the underground storage of CO2 at a depth of ~3350 m near Estevan, Saskatchewan, Canada. An objective of the project is to design, adapt, and test non-seismic monitoring methods that have not been systematically utilized to date for monitoring CO2 storage projects, and to integrate the data from these various monitoring tools to obtain quantitative estimates of the change in subsurface fluid distributions, pressure changes and associated surface deformation. Monitoring methods being applied include satellite-, surface- and wellbore-based monitoring systems and comprise natural- and controlled-source electromagnetic methods, gravity monitoring, GPS, synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR), tiltmeter array analysis, and chemical tracer studies. Here we focus on the GPS monitoring of surface deformation. Five of the planned thirteen GPS monitoring stations were installed in November 2012 and results subsequently processed on a weekly basis. The first GPS results prior to CO2 injection have just been determined using both precise point positioning (PPP) and baseline processing with the Bernese GPS Software. The time series of the five sites are examined, compared and analysed with respect to monument stability, seasonal signals and estimates of expected regional ground motion. The individual weekly network solutions are combined together in a cumulative 4D network solution to provide a preliminary local velocity field in the immediately vicinity of the injection well. The results are compared to those from InSAR.

  12. Public medical shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre.

  13. [Cleaning and disinfection of surfaces in hospitals: Data on structure, process and result in the Frankfurt/Main Metropolitan Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausemann, A; Hofmann, H; Otto, U; Heudorf, Ursel

    2015-06-01

    In addition to hand hygiene and reprocessing of medical products, cleaning and disinfection of surfaces is also an important issue in the prevention of germ transmission and by implication infections. Therefore, in 2014, the quality of the structure, process and result of surface preparation of all hospitals in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, was monitored. All 17 hospitals transferred information on the quality of structure. Process quality was obtained through direct observation during cleaning and disinfection of rooms and their plumbing units. Result quality was gained using the fluorescent method, i.e. marking surfaces with a fluorescent liquid and testing if this mark has been sufficiently removed by cleaning. Structure quality: in all hospitals the employees were trained regularly. In 12 of them, the foremen had the required qualifications, in 6 hospitals unclarity as to the intersection of the cleaning and care services remained. In 14 hospitals only visible contamination was cleaned on the weekends, whereas complete cleaning was reported to take place in 12 hospitals on Saturdays and in 2 hospitals on Sundays. The contractually stipulated cleaning (observations specified in brackets) averaged 178 m(2)/h (148 m(2)/h) per patient room and 69 m(2)/h (33 m(2)/h) for bathrooms. Process quality: during process monitoring, various hand contact surfaces were prepared insufficiently. Result quality: 63 % of fluorescent markings were appropriately removed. The need for improvement is given especially in the area of the qualification of the foremen and a in a clear definition of the intersection between cleaning and care services, as well as in the regulations for weekends and public holidays.

  14. Endometrial cancer: results of clinical and histopathological staging compared to magnetic resonance imaging using an endorectal surface coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocker, Kerstin A; Alt, Céline D; Breyer, Ulrike; Hallscheidt, Peter; Sohn, Christof

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the staging accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an endorectal surface coil on patients with endometrial cancer compared to results obtained using the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification and histopathology. In this prospective study, patients with biopsy-proven endometrial cancer were staged clinically using the FIGO classification before undergoing 1.5 T MRI with an endorectal surface coil (eMRI). The staging results from the FIGO classification and from eMRI were compared with the histopathological results after surgery. Furthermore, each patient was given a questionnaire designed by the authors to evaluate the patients' opinions on eMRI. The responses were examined using the methods of descriptive analysis. A total of 33 consecutive patients were recruited and clinically staged before undergoing eMRI. Subsequently, 21 patients underwent primary surgery and 12 patients primary radiochemotherapy. The FIGO stages were identical to the histopathological results in 17 (81 %) cases, and those of eMRI were identical in 15 (71 %). In 13 (62 %) cases, FIGO and eMRI staged identically. In 12 (57 %) of the 21 cases, all three staging modalities diagnosed the same tumor stage. eMRI overstaged the tumor in four patients and understaged it in two. All T1a tumors were staged correctly by eMRI. Eighteen patients answered the questionnaire, of whom 11 (61 %) patients stated that their experience with eMRI was overall positive. It seems feasible in principle to employ eMRI for diagnosing patients with endometrial cancer stage T1a. Yet, the results of eMRI for our study population were not better than the results obtained using the FIGO classification or than those from using MRI without an endorectal surface coil. eMRI thus does not meet the expectations based on its use in other pelvic tumor entities.

  15. Lake Towuti, Indonesia: First Sedimentological Results of a New Surface Sediment Study during the Icdp-Tdp Campaign 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasberg, A. K.; Melles, M.; Vogel, H.; Russel, J.; Bijaksana, S.

    2015-12-01

    A. HASBERG1, M. MELLES1, H. VOGEL2, J. RUSSEL3, S. BIJAKSANA4 and all ICDP field campaign participations 1Institute for Geology and Mineralogy, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Str. 49a, 50974 Cologne, Germany, email: hasberga@uni-koeln.de 2Department for Geology, University Bern, Switzerland3Department of Geology, Brown University, USA 4Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia Lake Towuti (2.75°S, 121.5°E), the largest tectonically formed lake (surface area: 561 km²) of the Republic Indonesia, is located in Central Sulawesi. The lake has a high, unique, Fe-reducing bacterial biodiversity and it has an important relevance to evolutionary biology through its location. Furthermore it is part of the Malili lake system, which consists of five lakes. The three largest of these, Matano, Mahalona and Towuti, are connected through a surface outflow today, but the linkage may not have always existed during the past, as indicated by the high level of endemism in each lake and the active tectonic movement of the 'Matano Fault system'. In summer 2015 the ICDP-funded Towuti Drilling Project (TDP) was conducted at Lake Towuti and recovered over 1000 meters of new sediment core. Within the scope of the TDP, lake surface sediments were also collected to investigate the modern terrestrial climate and aquatic environmental conditions, as well as the major sediment input sources from the catchment area. We collected a 1 to 4 km high-resolution grid of 84 surface samples from Lake Towuti and five samples from the Mahalona River, which links the Malili Lakes. These 89 surface samples were analyzed by various, sedimentological methods including smear-slide microscopy, coarse-fraction analyses, grain-size analysis, XRF-powder, and CNS measurements. The results will help to understand the interaction between the present-day lake sedimentation, hydrological and climatic conditions and to evaluate these as proxies for the hydrological

  16. Preliminary Results on the Surface of a New Fe-Based Metallic Material after “In Vivo” Maintaining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Săndulache, F.; Stanciu, S.; Cimpoeşu, N.; Stanciu, T.; Cimpoeșu, R.; Enache, A.; Baciu, R.

    2017-06-01

    Abstract A new Fe-based alloy was obtained using UltraCast melting equipment. The alloy, after mechanical processing, was implanted in five rabbit specimens (with respect for the “in-bone” procedure). After 30 days of implantation the samples were recovered and analyzed by weight and surface state meanings. Scanning electron microscopy technique was used to determine the new compounds morphology from the metallic surface and X-ray dispersive energy spectroscopy for chemical analyze results. A bond between the metallic material and biological material of the bone was observed through increasing of sample weight and by SEM images. After the first set of tests, as the samples were extracted and biologically cleaned, the samples were ultrasonically cleaned and re-analyzed in order to establish the stability of the chemical compounds.

  17. Field Investigation of Surface-Lake Processes on Ice Shelves: Results of the 2015/16 Field Campaign on McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAyeal, Doug; Banwell, Alison; Willis, Ian; Macdonald, Grant

    2016-04-01

    Ice-shelf instability and breakup of the style exhibited by Larsen B Ice Shelf in 2002 remains the most difficult glaciological process of consequence to observe in detail. It is, however, vital to do so because ice-shelf breakup has the potential to influence the buttressing controls on inland ice discharge, and thus to affect sea level. Several mechanisms enabling Larsen B style breakup have been proposed, including the ability of surface lakes to introduce ice-shelf fractures when they fill and drain, thereby changing the surface loads the ice-shelf must adjust to. Our model suggest that these fractures resulted in a chain-reaction style drainage of >2750 surface lakes on the Larsen B in the days prior to its demise. To validate this and other models, we began a field project on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) during the 2015/16 austral summer. Advantages of the MIS study site are: there is considerable surface melting during 3-6 weeks of the summer season, the ice is sufficiently thin (logistical support (McMurdo Station). Here we show initial results from the field campaign, including GPS and water-depth observations of a lake that has filled and drained over multiple week timescales in previous austral summers. We also report on the analysis of high-resolution WorldView satellite imagery from several summers that reveals the complexity of surface meltwater movement in channels and subsurface void spaces. Initial reconnaissance of the largest surface-lake features reveal that they have a central circular depression surrounded by an uplifted ring, which supports one of the central tenets of our ice-shelf flexure theory. A second field season is anticipated for the 2016/17 austral summer.

  18. The Great Cometary Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with

  19. Detachment and successive re-attachment of multiple, reversibly-binding tethers result in irreversible bacterial adhesion to surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjollema, Jelmer; van der Mei, Henny C; Hall, Connie L; Peterson, Brandon W; de Vries, Joop; Song, Lei; Jong, Ed D de; Busscher, Henk J; Swartjes, Jan J T M

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion to surfaces occurs ubiquitously and is initially reversible, though becoming more irreversible within minutes after first contact with a surface. We here demonstrate for eight bacterial strains comprising four species, that bacteria adhere irreversibly to surfaces through multiple

  20. Ephemeral liquid water at the surface of the martian North Polar Residual Cap: Results of numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losiak, Anna; Czechowski, Leszek; Velbel, Michael A.

    2015-12-01

    Gypsum, a mineral that requires water to form, is common on the surface of Mars. Most of it originated before 3.5 Gyr when the Red Planet was more humid than now. However, occurrences of gypsum dune deposits around the North Polar Residual Cap (NPRC) seem to be surprisingly young: late Amazonian in age. This shows that liquid water was present on Mars even at times when surface conditions were as cold and dry as the present-day. A recently proposed mechanism for gypsum formation involves weathering of dust within ice (e.g., Niles, P.B., Michalski, J. [2009]. Nat. Geosci. 2, 215-220.). However, none of the previous studies have determined if this process is possible under current martian conditions. Here, we use numerical modelling of heat transfer to show that during the warmest days of the summer, solar irradiation may be sufficient to melt pure water ice located below a layer of dark dust particles (albedo ⩽ 0.13) lying on the steepest sections of the equator-facing slopes of the spiral troughs within martian NPRC. During the times of high irradiance at the north pole (every 51 ka; caused by variation of orbital and rotational parameters of Mars e.g., Laskar, J. et al. [2002]. Nature 419, 375-377.) this process could have taken place over larger parts of the spiral troughs. The existence of small amounts of liquid water close to the surface, even under current martian conditions, fulfils one of the main requirements necessary to explain the formation of the extensive gypsum deposits around the NPRC. It also changes our understanding of the degree of current geological activity on Mars and has important implications for estimating the astrobiological potential of Mars.

  1. Postoperative assessment of surgical results using three dimensional surface reconstruction CT (3D-CT) in a craniofacial anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Jiro; Sato, Kaoru; Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Tsukiyama, Takashi; Fujioka, Mutsuhisa; Akagawa, Tetsuya.

    1988-07-01

    In 1983, Michael W. Vannier and Jeffrey L. Marsh developed a computer method that reconstructs three dimensional (3D) born and soft tissue surfaces, given a high resolution CT scan-series of the facial skeleton. This method has been applied to craniofacial anomalies, basal encephaloceles, and musculoskeletal anomalies. In this study, a postoperative assessment of the craniofacial surgical results has been accomplished using this 3D-CT in 2 children with craniofacial dysmorphism. The authors discuss the advantages of this 3D-CT imaging method in the postoperative assessments of craniofacial anomalies. Results are detailed in the following listing : 1) a postoperative 3D-CT reveals the anatomical details corrected by the craniofacial surgery more precisely and stereographically than conventional radiological methods ; 2) secondary changes of the cranium after the surgery, such as bony formation in the area of the osteotomy and postoperative asymmetric deformities, are detected early by the 3D-CT imaging technique, and, 3) 3D-CT mid-sagittal and top axial views of the intracranial skull base are most useful in postoperative assessments of the surgical results. Basesd on our experience, we expect that three dimensional surface reconstructions from CT scans will become to be used widely in the postoperative assessments of the surgical results of craniofacial anomalies.

  2. Results of applying a non-evaporative mitigation technique to laser-initiated surface damage on fused-silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J J; Bolourchi, M; Bude, J D; Guss, G M; Matthews, M J; Nostrand, M C

    2010-10-26

    We present results from a study to determine an acceptable CO{sub 2} laser-based non-evaporative mitigation protocol for use on surface damage sites in fused-silica optics. A promising protocol is identified and evaluated on a set of surface damage sites created under ICF-type laser conditions. Mitigation protocol acceptability criteria for damage re-initiation and growth, downstream intensification, and residual stress are discussed. In previous work, we found that a power ramp at the end of the protocol effectively minimizes the residual stress (<25 MPa) left in the substrate. However, the biggest difficulty in determining an acceptable protocol was balancing between low re-initiation and problematic downstream intensification. Typical growing surface damage sites mitigated with a candidate CO{sub 2} laser-based mitigation protocol all survived 351 nm, 5 ns damage testing to fluences >12.5 J/cm{sup 2}. The downstream intensification arising from the mitigated sites is evaluated, and all but one of the sites has 100% passing downstream damage expectation values. We demonstrate, for the first time, a successful non-evaporative 10.6 {micro}m CO{sub 2} laser mitigation protocol applicable to fused-silica optics used on fusion-class lasers like the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  3. First results with a surface conversion H ion source based on helicon wave mode-driven plasma discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, Ollie A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geros, Ernest [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rouleau, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zaugg, Thomas J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The currently employed converter-type negative ion source at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is based on cesium enhanced surface production of H{sup -} ion beams in a filament-driven discharge. The extracted H{sup -} beam current is limited by the achievable plasma density, which depends primarily on the electron emission current from the filaments. The emission current can be increased by increasing the filament temperature but, unfortunately, this leads not only to shorter filament lifetime but also to an increase in metal evaporation from the filament, which degrades the performance of the H{sup -} conversion surface. In order to overcome these limitations we have designed and tested a prototype of a surface conversion H{sup -} ion source, based on excitation of helicon plasma wave mode with an external antenna. The source has been operated with and without cesium injection. An H{sup -} beam current of over 12 mA has been transported through the low energy beam transport of the LANSCE ion source test stand. The results of these experiments and the effects of different source parameters on the extracted beam current are presented. The limitations of the source prototype are discussed and future improvements are proposed based on the experimental observations.

  4. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    librarians on student achievement. Todd notes, “If we do not show value, we will not have a future. Evidence-based practice is not about the survival of school librarians, it’s about the survival of our students” (40. In this issue we feature school libraries and their connection to evidence based practice. Former Editor-in-Chief, Lindsay Glynn, began putting the wheels in motion for this feature almost a year ago. She invited Carol Gordon and Ross Todd to act as guest editors of the section, drawing upon their contacts and previous work in this field. The result is an issue with five feature articles exploring different aspects of the connection between school libraries and evidence based practice, from the theoretical to the practical. In addition, there is a thought-provoking Commentary by David Loertscher, asking whether we need the evolutionary model of evidence based practice, or something more revolutionary!In addition to the Feature section, we have a well-rounded issue with articles on the topics of library human resources, and the development of a scholars’ portal. As well, there are a record 10 evidence summaries and our educational EBL101 column. I hope there is something for everyone in this issue of EBLIP – enjoy, and see you soon in Stockholm!

  5. X-ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) show the presence of Cr{sup +} at the surface and in the bulk of CrF{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Mier, J. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, 04510 México DF, México (Mexico); Olalde-Velasco, P. [The Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Swiss Light Source. Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Yang, W.-L.; Denlinger, J. [The Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-07-23

    X-Ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra of CrF{sub 2} recorded at the chromium L{sub 2,3} are presented. An atomic multiplet crystal field calculation is compared with the experimental data. Experiment and theory are in agreement once the calculation includes three chromium oxidation states, namely Cr{sup +}, Cr{sup 2+}, and Cr{sup 3+}. X-Ray absorption allows a direct determination of the surface oxidation, while the RIXS spectra shows the presence of these three oxidation states in the sample bulk. To give a quantitative interpretation of the RIXS data the effect of the incomming and outgoing photon penetration depth and self-absorption must be considered. For the much simpler case of MnF{sub 2}, with only one metal oxidation state, the measured RIXS spectra relative intensities are found to be proportional to the square of the sample attenuation length.

  6. Self-assembling behaviour of Pt nanoparticles onto surface of TiO2 and their resulting photocatalytic activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Qamar; Ashok K Ganguli

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, self-assembling behaviour of guest nanoparticles (platinum) onto the surface of host support (titanium dioxide) during photodeposition process as a function of solution pH has been explored in detail by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM). The photocatalytic activity of the resulting bimetallic nanoassembly (Pt/TiO2) was evaluated by studying the degradation of two organic pollutants viz. triclopyr and methyl orange. Microscopic studies revealed that the deposition and/or distribution of Pt nanoparticles onto the surface of TiO2 were strongly guided by the ionization state of support which in turn was regulated by the solution pH of photodeposition process. A direct relationship between the solution pH of deposition process and the photocatalytic activity of resulting bimetallic catalyst has been observed. A mechanism based on the interparticle interaction between TiO2 and hydrolytic products of metal ions has been proposed for the differences in the photocatalytic activity of the resulting nanocomposite.

  7. Evaluation of hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B virus-DNA results in postmortem plasma specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihan Ziyade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen, one of the serologic markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, in postmortem blood samples from autopsy cases using ELISA, and to compare the results with those obtained by PCR, which is the gold standard method in assessing HBV infection. Methods: The HBV test results of the blood samples from 880 autopsy cases determined in our laboratory, were retrospectively studied. Results: When compared with the gold standard method PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of postmortem ELISA were 100% and 84.1%, respectively. Conclusions: The increasingly used molecular diagnostic methods, such as PCR, should be used in cases where serological tests remain insufficient.We think that prospective studies on the comparison of ELISA and PCR assessment of postmortem blood samples with larger material should be carried out.

  8. Evaluation of hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B virus-DNA results in postmortem plasma specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nihan Ziyade; Sermet Koc; Fatih Abali

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To assess the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen, one of the serologic markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, in postmortem blood samples from autopsy cases using ELISA, and to compare the results with those obtained byPCR, which is the gold standard method in assessingHBV infection. Methods: TheHBV test results of the blood samples from 880 autopsy cases determined in our laboratory, were retrospectively studied. Results:When compared with the gold standard methodPCR, the sensitivity and specificity of postmortemELISA were 100% and 84.1%, respectively. Conclusions: The increasingly used molecular diagnostic methods, such asPCR, should be used in cases where serological tests remain insufficient.We think that prospective studies on the comparison ofELISA andPCR assessment of postmortem blood samples with larger material should be carried out.

  9. Shear bond strength of self-adhering flowable composite on dentin surface as a result of scrubbing pressure and duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Jaya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-adhering flowable composite is a combination of composite resin and adhesive material. Its application needs scrubbing process on the dentin surface, but sometimes it is difficult to determine the pressure and duration of scrubbing. Purpose: This study was aimed to analyze the effect of scrubbing pressure and duration on shear bond strength of self-adhering flowable composite to dentin surface Methods: Fifty four mandibulary third molar were cut to get the dentin surface and divided into nine groups (n = 6. Dentin surface was scrubbed with 1, 2, and 3 grams of scrubbing pressure, each for 15, 20, and 25 seconds respectively. surface was scrubbed with 1, 2, and 3 grams of scrubbing pressure, each for 15, 20, and 25 seconds respectively. Composite resin was applied incrementally and polymerized for 20 seconds. All specimens were immersed in saline solution at 37º C for 24 hours. Shear bond strength was tested for all specimens by using Universal Testing Machine (Shimadzu AG-5000E, Japan at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute and analyzed by ANOVA and Post Hoc Test Bonferonni. The interface between self-adhering flowable interface between self-adhering flowable composite and dentin was observed with a Scanning Electron Microscope (JEOL JSM 6510LA. Results: The highest shear bond strength was obtained by 3 grams scrubbing pressure for 25 seconds or equal to applying the brush applicator in 0º relative to dentin surface. Conclusion: Increasing the scrubbing pressure and duration will increase the shear bond strength of self adhering flowable composite resin to dentinal surface. The highest shear bond strength was obtained when the applicator in 0º relative to dentin surface. Latar belakang: Self-adhering flowable composite merupakan gabungan resin komposit dengan material adhesif yang dalam penggunaannya memerlukan teknik scrubbing pada permukaan dentin, namun sulit untuk menentukan besar tekanan yang tepat saat scrubbing. Tujuan

  10. Europa's surface composition from near-infrared observations: A comparison of results from linear mixture modeling and radiative transfer modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, James H.; Jamieson, Corey S.; Dalton, J. Bradley

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative estimates of the abundance of surface materials and of water ice particle grain sizes at five widely separated locations on the surface of Europa have been obtained by two independent methods in order to search for possible discrepancies that may be attributed to differences in the methods employed. Results of radiative transfer (RT) compositional modeling (also known as intimate mixture modeling) from two prior studies are here employed without modification. Areal (or "checkerboard") mixture modeling, also known as linear mixture (LM) modeling, was performed to allow direct comparisons. The failure to model scattering processes (whose effects may be strongly nonlinear) in the LM approach is recognized as a potential source of errors. RT modeling accounts for nonlinear spectral responses due to scattering but is subject to other uncertainties. By comparing abundance estimates for H2SO4 · nH2O and water ice, obtained through both methods as applied to identical spectra, we may gain some insight into the importance of "volume scattering" effects for investigations of Europa's surface composition. We find that both methods return similar abundances for each location analyzed; linear correlation coefficients of ≥ 0.98 are found between the derived H2SO4 · nH2O and water ice abundances returned by both methods. We thus find no evidence of a significant influence of volume scattering on the compositional solutions obtained by LM modeling for these locations. Some differences in the results obtained for water ice grain sizes are attributed to the limited selection of candidate materials allowed in the RT investigations.

  11. First Results of Continuous GPS Monitoring of Surface Deformation at the Aquistore Underground CO2 Storage Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craymer, M. R.; Ferland, R.; Piraszewski, M.; Samsonov, S. V.; Czarnogorska, M.

    2014-12-01

    Aquistore is a demonstration project for the underground storage of CO2 at a depth of ~3350 m near Estevan, Saskatchewan, Canada. An objective of the project is to design, adapt, and test non-seismic monitoring methods that have not been systematically utilized to date for monitoring CO2 storage projects, and to integrate the data from these various monitoring tools to obtain quantitative estimates of the change in subsurface fluid distributions, pressure changes and associated surface deformation. Monitoring methods being applied include satellite-, surface- and wellbore-based monitoring systems and comprise natural- and controlled-source electromagnetic methods, gravity monitoring, GPS, synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR), tiltmeter array analysis, and chemical tracer studies. Here we focus on the GPS monitoring of surface deformation. Five GPS monitoring stations were installed in 2012 and another six in 2013, some collocated on top of InSAR retroreflectors. The GPS data from these stations have been processed on a weekly basis in both baseline processing mode using the Bernese GPS Software and precise point positioning mode using CSRS-PPP. Here we present the first complete results with 1-2 years of data at all sites prior to CO2 injection. The time series of these sites are examined, compared and analysed with respect to monument stability, seasonal signals and estimates of expected regional ground motion. The individual weekly network solutions have also been combined together in a cumulative 4D network solution to provide a preliminary local velocity field in the immediately vicinity of the injection well. These results are also compared to those obtained independently from InSAR, in particular the direct comparison of GPS and InSAR at the retroreflectors.

  12. The Health Show

    OpenAIRE

    Swann, David

    2011-01-01

    Dr David Swann interviewed on The Health Show, Series 1, Episode 5, 2011 for BBC World about the award-winning 21st Century Nursing Bag. BBC World News reaches 241million people every week, available in 296 million homes, 1.8 million hotel rooms and has the highest average viewership on a weekday of any international news channel. The Health Show is a new 26-part series for BBC World News covering the most important news stories from around the world.

  13. Crosslinkable mixed matrix membranes with surface modified molecular sieves for natural gas purification: I. Preparation and experimental results

    KAUST Repository

    Ward, Jason K.

    2011-07-01

    Dense film mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) comprised of SSZ-13 dispersed in a crosslinkable polyimide (PDMC) were fabricated and evaluated for carbon dioxide/methane separations. MMMs containing 25% (w/w) as-received (AR) SSZ-13 exhibited a carbon dioxide permeability of 153 Barrers with a carbon dioxide/methane ideal selectivity of 34.7 at 65. psia and 35 °C. This represents a permeability enhancement of 129% and a decline in selectivity of 4.7% over neat PDMC (PCO2=66.9 Barrers, αCO2/CH4=36.4). A sieve surface modification procedure was developed with the aim of improving SSZ-13/PDMC MMM transport properties. MMMs containing 25% (w/w) surface modified (SM) SSZ-13 exhibited a carbon dioxide permeability of 148 Barrers and carbon dioxide/methane selectivity of 38.9 at 65. psia and 35 °C, representing enhancements in both permeability and selectivity of 121% and 6.9%, respectively. Mixed gas permeation analyses of MMMs containing SM-SSZ-13 using a 10% carbon dioxide/90% methane mixture shows that permeability and selectivity enhancements of 47% and 13%, respectively, over neat PDMC are possible at 700. psia and 35 °C. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Dissolved organic matter dynamics in surface waters affected by oil spill pollution: Results from the Serious Game exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnelli, M.; Galletti, Y.; Marchetti, E.; Mercadante, L.; Retelletti Brogi, S.; Ribotti, A.; Sorgente, R.; Vestri, S.; Santinelli, C.

    2016-11-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chromophoric and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (CDOM and FDOM, respectively) surface distribution was studied during the Serious Game exercise carried out in the Eastern Ligurian Sea, where an oil spill was localized by using satellite images and models. This paper reports the first DOC, CDOM and FDOM data for this area together with an evaluation of fluorescence as a fast and inexpensive tool for early oil spill detection in marine waters. The samples collected in the oil spill showed a fluorescence intensity markedly higher ( 5 fold) than all the other samples. The excitation-emission matrixes, coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), allowed for the identification in the FDOM pool of a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, humic-like and protein-like fluorophores.

  15. A Fashion Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Story: The yearly fashion show day.The children take turns to walk on the stage and show the class their favorite clothes.Now it’s Joe’s and Phoebe’s turn.Joe walks on the stage and says,“My shorts are blue.Do you like my blue shorts?”On the other side of the stage, Phoebe is wearing her favorite pink skirt.“My skirt is pink.Do you like my pink skirt?”asks

  16. Determination of averaged axisymmetric flow surfaces according to results obtained by numerical simulation of flow in turbomachinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović-Jovanović Jasmina B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the increasing need for energy saving worldwide, the designing process of turbomachinery, as an essential part of thermal and hydroenergy systems, goes in the direction of enlarging efficiency. Therefore, the optimization of turbomachinery designing strongly affects the energy efficiency of the entire system. In the designing process of turbomachinery blade profiling, the model of axisymmetric fluid flows is commonly used in technical practice, even though this model suits only the profile cascades with infinite number of infinitely thin blades. The actual flow in turbomachinery profile cascades is not axisymmetric, and it can be fictively derived into the axisymmetric flow by averaging flow parameters in the blade passages according to the circular coordinate. Using numerical simulations of flow in turbomachinery runners, its operating parameters can be preliminarily determined. Furthermore, using the numerically obtained flow parameters in the blade passages, averaged axisymmetric flow surfaces in blade profile cascades can also be determined. The method of determination of averaged flow parameters and averaged meridian streamlines is presented in this paper, using the integral continuity equation for averaged flow parameters. With thus obtained results, every designer can be able to compare the obtained averaged flow surfaces with axisymmetric flow surfaces, as well as the specific work of elementary stages, which are used in the procedure of blade designing. Numerical simulations of flow in an exemplary axial flow pump, used as a part of the thermal power plant cooling system, were performed using Ansys CFX. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33040: Revitalization of existing and designing new micro and mini hydropower plants (from 100 kW to 1000 kW in the territory of South and Southeast Serbia

  17. On not showing scalps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    proposed by Janet Marstine, the editor of the Routledge Companion to Museum Ethics, I show how the museum succeeded in engaging users in questions of museum ethics. However, this specific debate on human remains in museums developed into an encounter between a global, museological discourse...

  18. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  19. A Visionary Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Seduction. Distinction. Relax. Pulsation. These are the "style universes" on display at Première Vision, heralded as "The World’s Premiere Fabric Show." Started more than 35 years ago by 15 French weavers, Première Vision has expanded beyond its

  20. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  1. A New Determination of the Binding Energy of Atomic Oxygen on Dust Grain Surfaces: Experimental Results and Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jiao; Hopkins, Tyler; Vidali, Gianfranco; Kaufman, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The energy to desorb atomic oxygen from an interstellar dust grain surface, $E_{\\rm des}$, is an important controlling parameter in gas-grain models; its value impacts the temperature range over which oxygen resides on a dust grain. However, no prior measurement has been done of the desorption energy. We report the first direct measurement of $E_{\\rm des}$ for atomic oxygen from dust grain analogs. The values of $E_{\\rm des}$ are $1660\\pm 60$~K and $1850\\pm 90$~K for porous amorphous water ice and for a bare amorphous silicate film, respectively, or about twice the value previously adopted in simulations of the chemical evolution of a cloud. We use the new values to study oxygen chemistry as a function of depth in a molecular cloud. For $n=10^4$ cm$^{-3}$ and $G_0$=10$^2$ ($G_0$=1 is the average local interstellar radiation field), the main result of the adoption of the higher oxygen binding energy is that H$_2$O can form on grains at lower visual extinction $A_{\\rm V}$, closer to the cloud surface. A higher ...

  2. An evaluation of the influence of measurement geometry on the uncertainties of photometric model results based on the laboratory measurements of particulate surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yunfeng; Sun, Zhongqiu

    2017-01-01

    Sunlight reflected by particulate surfaces carries important information about its physical properties. Modeling the reflectance of different types of particulate samples is an attractive field of study, so estimating the favorable measurement geometry for accurate inversion of photometric model parameters is necessary. This research examines the distribution of the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) with different particle sizes by multi-angular reflectance. Two types of particulate samples (one with low reflectance and the other with moderate reflectance) with particle sizes of 0.3, 0.45 and 0.9 mm were measured over a wide viewing range under the assumption of left-to-right symmetry of the BRF. Based on these measurements, we computed the reflectance of particulate surfaces by a photometric model and analyzed the influence of measurement geometry (different combinations of incident zenith angle, viewing zenith angle and azimuth angle) on the inverted parameters and the results modeled by the best-fit parameters. The results show that by using the measurements in the single azimuth (including the principal plane) to invert the model parameters, the difference between the modeled results and measured results will exceed the reflectance change caused by the samples' particle size; this difference is also found when we used the combined measurements at two different incident zenith angles. Including the measurements in the principal plane, an increase in the number of azimuth angles will improve the match between the modeled results and measurements. Our results also confirm that the single-scattering albedo is the only model parameter that could be empirically used to determine the particle sizes of our samples over a wide range of measurement directions. This study proposes several favorable combinations of measurement geometry and also appears to provide a promising empirical reference for the particulate surfaces similar to ours in future laboratory

  3. Shanghai Shows Its Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The city known as China’s economic powerhouse showed a more caring face as host of the Special Olympic Games Between October 2 and 11,the Special Olympics Summer Games were hosted in Shanghai,the first time the 40-year-old athletic com- petition for people with intellectual disabilities came to a developing country. This Special Olympics was also larger than all previous games in temps of the number of athletes.

  4. Dietary fiber showed no preventive effect against colon and rectal cancers in Japanese with low fat intake: an analysis from the results of nutrition surveys from 23 Japanese prefectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Kazuo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Fuchs' report in 1999, the reported protective effect of dietary fiber from colorectal carcinogenesis has led many researchers to question its real benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between diet, especially dietary fiber and fat and colorectal cancer in Japan. Methods A multiple regression analysis (using the stepwise variable selection method was performed using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs of colon and rectal cancer in 23 Japanese prefectures as objective variables and dietary fiber, nutrients and food groups as explanatory variables. Results As for colon cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficients were positively significant for fat (1,13, P = 0.000, seaweeds (0.41, P = 0.026 and beans (0.45, P = 0.017 and were negatively significant for vitamin A (-0.63, P = 0.003, vitamin C (-0.42, P = 0.019 and yellow-green vegetables (-0.37, P = 0.046. For rectal cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficient in fat (0.60, P = 0.002 was positively significant. Dietary fiber was not found to have a significant relationship with either colon or rectal cancers. Conclusions This study failed to show any protective effect of dietary fiber in subjects with a low fat intake (Japanese in this analysis, which supports Fuchs' findings in subjects with a high fat intake (US Americans.

  5. The Efficacy of Umbelliferone, Arbutin, and N-Acetylcysteine to Prevent Microbial Colonization and Biofilm Development on Urinary Catheter Surface: Results from a Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated, in a preliminary study, the efficacy of umbelliferone, arbutin, and N-acetylcysteine to inhibit biofilm formation on urinary catheter. We used 20 urinary catheters: 5 catheters were incubated with Enterococcus faecalis (control group; 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (150 mg, arbutin (60 mg, and N-acetylcysteine (150 mg (group 1; 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (150 mg, arbutin (60 mg, and N-acetylcysteine (400 mg (group 2; and 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (300 mg, arbutin (60 mg, and N-acetylcysteine (150 mg (group 3. After 72 hours, planktonic microbial growth and microorganisms on catheter surface were assessed. In the control group, we found a planktonic load of ≥105 CFU/mL in the inoculation medium and retrieved 3.69 × 106 CFU/cm from the sessile cells adherent to the catheter surface. A significantly lower amount in planktonic (p<0.001 and sessile (p=0.004 bacterial load was found in group 3, showing <100 CFU/mL and 0.12 × 106 CFU/cm in the incubation medium and on the catheter surface, respectively. In groups 1 and 2, 1.67 × 106 CFU/cm and 1.77 × 106 CFU/cm were found on catheter surface. Our results document that umbelliferone, arbutin, and N-acetylcysteine are able to reduce E. faecalis biofilm development on the surface of urinary catheters.

  6. The Efficacy of Umbelliferone, Arbutin, and N-Acetylcysteine to Prevent Microbial Colonization and Biofilm Development on Urinary Catheter Surface: Results from a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tommaso; Gallelli, Luca; Meacci, Francesca; Brugnolli, Anna; Prosperi, Letizia; Roberta, Stefani; Eccher, Cristina; Mazzoli, Sandra; Lanzafame, Paolo; Caciagli, Patrizio; Malossini, Gianni; Bartoletti, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated, in a preliminary study, the efficacy of umbelliferone, arbutin, and N-acetylcysteine to inhibit biofilm formation on urinary catheter. We used 20 urinary catheters: 5 catheters were incubated with Enterococcus faecalis (control group); 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (150 mg), arbutin (60 mg), and N-acetylcysteine (150 mg) (group 1); 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (150 mg), arbutin (60 mg), and N-acetylcysteine (400 mg) (group 2); and 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (300 mg), arbutin (60 mg), and N-acetylcysteine (150 mg) (group 3). After 72 hours, planktonic microbial growth and microorganisms on catheter surface were assessed. In the control group, we found a planktonic load of ≥10(5) CFU/mL in the inoculation medium and retrieved 3.69 × 10(6) CFU/cm from the sessile cells adherent to the catheter surface. A significantly lower amount in planktonic (p < 0.001) and sessile (p = 0.004) bacterial load was found in group 3, showing <100 CFU/mL and 0.12 × 10(6) CFU/cm in the incubation medium and on the catheter surface, respectively. In groups 1 and 2, 1.67 × 10(6) CFU/cm and 1.77 × 10(6) CFU/cm were found on catheter surface. Our results document that umbelliferone, arbutin, and N-acetylcysteine are able to reduce E. faecalis biofilm development on the surface of urinary catheters.

  7. A Case Study Correlating Innovative Gamma Ray Scanning Detection Systems Data to Surface Soil Gamma Spectrometry Results - 13580

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Shannon; Rodriguez, Rene; Billock, Paul [HydroGeoLogic, Inc., 11107 Sunset Hills Road, Suite 400, Reston, VA 20190 (United States); Lit, Peter [Nomad Science Group, 7738 Nautilus Shell Street, Las Vegas, NV 89139 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    HydroGeoLogic (HGL), Inc. completed a United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) study to characterize radiological contamination at a site near Canoga Park, California. The characterized area contained 470 acres including the site of a prototype commercial nuclear reactor and other nuclear design, testing, and support operations from the 1950's until 1988 [1]. The site history included radiological releases during operation followed by D and D activities. The characterization was conducted under an accelerated schedule and the results will support the project remediation. The project has a rigorous cleanup to background agenda and does not allow for comparison to risk-based guidelines. To target soil sample locations, multiple lines of evidence were evaluated including a gamma radiation survey, geophysical surveys, historical site assessment, aerial photographs, and former worker interviews. Due to the time since production and decay, the primary gamma emitting radionuclide remaining is cesium-137 (Cs-137). The gamma ray survey covered diverse, rugged terrain using custom designed sodium iodide thallium-activated (NaI(Tl)) scintillation detection systems. The survey goals included attaining 100% ground surface coverage and detecting gamma radiation as sensitively as possible. The effectiveness of innovative gamma ray detection systems was tested by correlating field Cs-137 static count ratios to Cs-137 laboratory gamma spectrometry results. As a case study, the area encompassing the former location of the first nuclear power station in the U. S. was scanned, and second by second global positioning system (GPS)-linked gamma spectral data were evaluated by examining total count rate and nuclide-specific regions of interest. To compensate for Compton scattering from higher energy naturally occurring radionuclides (U-238, Th-232 and their progeny, and K-40), count rate ratios of anthropogenic nuclide-specific regions of interest to the total count rate

  8. Effects on surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology of an open repository in Laxemar Results of modelling with MIKE SHE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, Erik; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran (DHI Sverige AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bosson, Emma (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    This report presents the methodology and the results from the modelling of an open repository for spent nuclear fuel in Laxemar. Specifically, the present work analyses the hydrological effects of the planned repository during the construction and operational phases when it is open, i.e. air-filled, and hence may cause a disturbance of the hydrological conditions in the surroundings. The numerical modelling is based on the SDM-Site Laxemar MIKE SHE model. The modelling was divided into three steps. The first step was to update the SDM-Site Laxemar model with a new hydrogeological bedrock model. The other main updates were an increase of the depth of the MIKE SHE model domain, enhanced vertical computational resolution and that the drainage of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory was included in the model. The resulting model was used to simulate undisturbed natural conditions. The next step was to describe the open repository conditions, using Laxemar layout D2, by implementing the access tunnel, the repository tunnels and shafts in the model, and to simulate the consequences for the surface hydrology caused by an open repository under different conditions. The final step was a sensitivity analysis that aimed to investigate the sensitivity of the modelled effects of the open repository to the hydrogeological properties of the bedrock and the Quaternary deposits, the sediments under the sea, and changes in boundary conditions. The model covers an area of 34 km2. The groundwater divides were assumed to coincide with the surface water divides; thus, a no-flow boundary condition was used at the horizontal boundaries, except in the Quaternary deposit layers towards the sea where a time-varying boundary condition describing the sea-level in the area was used. In the bedrock layers, however, a no-flow boundary condition was applied. Also the bottom boundary was described as a no-flow boundary. The transient top boundary condition was based on meteorological data gathered at

  9. Not a "reality" show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  10. Monitoring the surface deformation of Hurd rockglacier using D-GPS measurements and D-INSAR: first results (Livingston Island, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Gonçalo; Catalão, João; Prates, Gonçalo; Correia, António

    2014-05-01

    Rockglaciers have been described by various authors in the South Shetlands archipelago (Antarctic Peninsula region), with the main contribution being that of Serrano and Lopez-Martínez (2000), who have described 9 rockglaciers and 11 protalus lobes. However, little is known about the deformation rates of rockglaciers in the region nor about possible changes associated with climate warming. Since the Western Antarctic Peninsula region is one of the areas on Earth which has been warming at a faster rate, monitoring rockglacier deformation should provide insight into the influence of climate change on geomorphodynamics. Hurd rockglacier is located in the south part of Hurd Peninsula, in a glacial cirque with a ridge varying from 227 to 301 m asl that connects directly to False Bay through a series of raised-beach terraces. The bedrock is composed of sandstones, shales and greywackes with a flysch facies, of the Myers Bluff formation. The valley shows steep rockwalls with extensive scree slopes and a small retreating valley glacier with a prominent frontal moraine, from where the rockglacier develops. The rockglacier body is ci 630 m long and 290 m wide and the surface shows frequent pressure ridges and furrows, especially in the lower sector. The rockglacier front is 15-20 m high and shows a slope of 45º (Serrano and López-Martínez 2000). In this poster we present the first data from surface deformation monitoring using stakes and D-GPS measurements conducted annually since 2011. Preliminary results show deformation values of 8 to 15 cm/year. Since 2011 we are also conducting DInSAR analysis using TerraSAR-X imagery and despite problems related mostly to snow cover, we have obtained image pairs allowing to identify deformation in the same order of magnitude of field observations. We expect to be able to present new results from the summer of 2013-14 campaign, which include a more intensive image acquisition plan. Results from a Vertical Electrical Sounding fro

  11. Tracing transfer processes of metal pollutants from soils to surface water using environmental magnetic techniques - results from Paris suburbia (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Christine; Lamy, Isabelle; van Oort, Folkert; Thiesson, Julien; Barsalini, Luca

    2015-04-01

    Major river systems in Europe are potential sinks for environmental pollutions and therefore reflect the consequences of European industrialization and urbanization. Surface water pollution is a major concern for the health of the population and its related ecosystems as well as for the water quality. Within the variety of different typical pollutants in a river watershed, the metallic fraction embraces many toxic/dangerous contaminants. Each of these elements comprises different sources and follows specific processes throughout its pathways from its origin to and within the river system. But the detection, estimation and follow up of the different contaminants is highly complex. Physico-chemical techniques such as environmental and rock magnetics are powerful complementary tools to traditional methods because they comprise the possibility to trace the entire metal fraction and do offer the possibility to perform spatio-temporal analyze campaigns directly in the field and on a relative high number of samples from both the river and the adjacent areas (suspended particular matter, soils, dust, sediments, etc). In this study, we took advantages of the recent results on the Seine river (France) that have shown the high potential of environmental magnetic methods to estimate the metal fraction in suspended particular matter samples, and to allow the discrimination of its natural detrital, biogenic or anthropogenic origin (see parallel EGU abstract of Kayvantash et al. in this session). We focused on a suburban agricultural area west of Paris (Pierrelaye-Bessancourt) adjacent to the Seine river, which suffers from a high accumulation of heavy metal pollutants caused by long-term historical irrigation with urban waste waters. For the time being, these heavy metals seem to be geochemically fixed in the surface layer mainly by the soil organic matter. Future land use planning, however, arises questions on the fate of these pollutants and their potential remobilization by

  12. Susceptibility to tuberculosis is associated with TLR1 polymorphisms resulting in a lack of TLR1 cell surface expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uciechowski, Peter; Imhoff, Heidi; Lange, Christoph; Meyer, Christian G; Browne, Edmund N; Kirsten, Detlef K; Schröder, Anja K; Schaaf, Bernhard; Al-Lahham, Adnan; Reinert, Ralf René; Reiling, Norbert; Haase, Hajo; Hatzmann, Adelheid; Fleischer, Daniela; Heussen, Nicole; Kleines, Michael; Rink, Lothar

    2011-08-01

    Human TLR1 plays an important role in host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our aim was to analyze the association of the loss of TLR1 surface expression and TLR1 SNPs with susceptibility to TB. TLR1neg and TLR1pos cells from healthy individuals were identified by flow cytometry and compared by sequencing. TLR1 expression was measured using quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting. TLR1 SNP analyses of healthy individuals and TB patients from EU-C and Ghana were performed, and association of the TLR1 genotypes with increased risk of developing TB was statistically evaluated. Lack of TLR1 surface expression accompanied by impaired function was strongly associated with TLR1 SNP G743A. Genotyping of EU-C controls and TB patients revealed an association of TLR1 743A/1805G alleles [OR 2.37 (95% CI 1.13, 4.93), P=0.0219; OR 2.74 (95% CI 1.26, 6.05), P=0.0059] as well as TLR1neg 743AA/1805GG versus TLR1pos genotypes 743AG/1805TG [OR 4.98 (95% CI 1.64, 15.15), P=0.0034; OR 5.70 (95% CI 1.69, 20.35), P=0.0015] and 743AG + GG/1805TG + TT [OR 3.54 (95% CI 1.29, 9.90), P=0.0086; OR 4.17 (95% CI 1.52, 11.67), P=0.0025] with increased susceptibility to TB. No association of G743A with TB was found in Ghana as a result of a low frequency of genotype 743AA. Our data gain new insights in the role of TLR1 in M. tuberculosis defense and provide the first evidence that TLR1 variants are associated with susceptibility to TB in a low-incidence country.

  13. Idaho's surface-water-quality monitoring program: results from five sites sampled during water years 1990-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality, implemented a statewide water-quality monitoring program in response to Idaho's antidegradation policy as required by the Clean Water Act. The program objective is to provide water-quality managers with a coordinated statewide network to detect trends in surface-water quality. The monitoring program includes the collection and analysis of samples from 56 sites on the Bear, Clearwater, Kootenai, Pend Oreille, Salmon, Snake, and Spokane Rivers and their tributaries (fig. 1). Samples are collected every year at 5 sites (annual sites) in drainage basins where long-term water-quality management is practiced, every other year at 19 sites (biennial sites) in basins where land and water uses change slowly, and every third year at 32 sites (triennial sites) where future development may affect water quality. Each year, 25 of the 56 sites are sampled. This report discusses results of sampling at five annual sites. During water years 1990-93 (October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1993), samples were collected six times per year at the five annual sites (fig. 1). Onsite analyses were made for discharge, specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, bacteria (fecal coliform and fecal streptococci), and alkalinity. Laboratory analyses were made for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, and suspended sediment. Suspended sediment, nitrate, fecal coliform, trace elements, and specific conductance were used to characterize surface-water quality. Because concentrations of all trace elements except zinc were near detection limits, only zinc is discussed.

  14. Performance of a universal adhesive on etched and non-etched surfaces: Do the results match the expectations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grégoire, Geneviève, E-mail: genevieve.gregoire@univ-tlse3.fr [Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Odontology, University Toulouse III, 31062 Toulouse (France); Sharrock, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.sharrock@gmail.com [CNRS UMR 5302, University Toulouse III, Mines-Albi, 81013 Albi (France); Prigent, Yann, E-mail: prigent@chimie.ups-tlse.fr [Institut de Chimie de Toulouse (ICT) – FR 2599, Faculté des Sciences et de l' Ingénierie, University Toulouse III, 31062 Toulouse (France)

    2016-09-01

    A universal adhesive was applied to human dentin in both the etched and rinsed state and the normal non etched state, to compare the resulting properties and detect any significant differences. The study focused on observations of the hybrid layer by scanning electron microscopy and on fluid permeation measurements as a function of time. Spectroscopic characterizations included infrared and differential calorimetric curves of the samples. The results obtained show non-statistically significant fluid permeability between the two sample types. Both the etched and rinsed samples and the non-etched ones showed similar homogeneous hybrid layers that reduced the fluid flow, and corresponded to well spread polymer coatings. The infrared results illustrated the spectra obtained on going from the outside adhesive layer to the inside portion of the dentin-polymer interface and did not reveal any intermediate zone resembling demineralized collagen that would be water saturated and not infiltrated with adhesive. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) curves corresponded to the curves obtained with ethanol wet bonding in that free water (melting at 0 °C) was removed by the universal adhesive, and that no collagen melting was observed for the non-etched samples. The Diffusion-Ordered Spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (DOSY NMR) spectrum of the virgin adhesive showed the presence of water and ethanol solvents and indicated that several monomer or prepolymer molecules were present with multiple acrylic functional groups with diffusion coefficients related to molecular weights. Overall, the results show that universal adhesive can be used in the milder self-etch mode and that more aggressive etch and rinse procedure can be reserved for the occasions with sclerotic dentin or enamel regions more difficult to treat.

  15. Resistivity and Seismic Surface Wave Tomography Results for the Nevşehir Kale Region: Cappadocia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşkun, Nart; Çakır, Özcan; Erduran, Murat; Arif Kutlu, Yusuf

    2014-05-01

    The Nevşehir Kale region located in the middle of Cappadocia with approximately cone shape is investigated for existence of an underground city using the geophysical methods of electrical resistivity and seismic surface wave tomography together. Underground cities are generally known to exist in Cappadocia. The current study has obtained important clues that there may be another one under the Nevşehir Kale region. Two-dimensional resistivity and seismic profiles approximately 4-km long surrounding the Nevşehir Kale are measured to determine the distribution of electrical resistivities and seismic velocities under the profiles. Several high resistivity anomalies with a depth range 8-20 m are discovered to associate with a systematic void structure beneath the region. Because of the high resolution resistivity measurement system currently employed we were able to isolate the void structure from the embedding structure. Low seismic velocity zones associated with the high resistivity depths are also discovered. Using three-dimensional visualization techniques we show the extension of the void structure under the measured profiles.

  16. Comparison of radon exposure assessment results: {sup 210}Po surface activity on glass objects vs. contemporary air radon concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, F. E-mail: francesco.bochicchio@iss.it; McLaughlin, J.P.; Walsh, C

    2003-06-01

    Radon exposure assessment in case-control studies on radon and lung cancer is generally based on contemporary radon concentration measurements, which can be affected by significant changes in the building structures or in living habits. Another method to estimate the radon exposure of the subjects is the recently developed retrospective dosimetry technique based on the {sup 210}Po surface activity from glass objects. In order to compare the results obtained by the two methods, a study has been carried out in a sample of 26 dwellings in Rome, with radon concentration values ranging from 28 to 623 Bq m{sup -3}. Retrospective detectors based on CR-39 and LR 115 were exposed on 50 glass objects in bedrooms and living rooms. The correlation factor between the two sets of data, after removing six extreme values, is 0.67, which is similar to results obtained in other validation studies of similar sample size. The correlation increases to 0.83 if the 21 objects exposed in non-smoky dwellings are selected, while it vanishes to -0.01 for the 23 objects exposed in smoky dwellings, suggesting quite larger variations of plate-out in presence of environmental tobacco smoke.

  17. Skin surface microscopy of port-wine stains: preliminary data on classification and assessment of laser therapy results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotteleur, Guy; Huan, P.; Mordon, Serge R.; Beacco, Claire; Brunetaud, Jean Marc

    1994-12-01

    In order to characterize port-wine stains (PWS) before and after laser-therapy, a study using epiluminescence microscopy is achieved. The technique consists in placing a thin layer of mineral oil on the skin surface and inspecting the PWS with a Delta 10 dermatoscope (HEINE). A contact microphotography is then performed in a similar manner by means of a Dermaphot optical module (HEINE). One hundred and sixteen patients have been explored prior to laser treatment. Twenty eight have been explored at the same place three months after the first treatment and four three months after two treatments. The preliminary results are compared with Jones, Shakespeare, and Carruth's studies on transcutaneous microscopy. It is possible to classify PWS according to their epiluminescence microscopic aspect. The classification proposed by the English authors is not ideal and some adaptations are desirable, regarding particularly the background condition. Some correlation can be established between the macroscopic and microscopic aspect of PWS. It is far too early to correlate epiluminescence aspect before treatment and long term results of laser-therapy.

  18. Determining Robust Impacts of Land-Use-Induced Land Cover Changes on Surface Temperature over China and surrounding regions: Results from the First Set of LUCID Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zheng; Guo, Weidong

    2016-04-01

    The project Land-Use and Climate, Identification of Robust Impacts (LUCID) was designed to address the robustness of biogeophysical impacts of historical land use-land cover change (LULCC). LUCID used seven atmosphere-land models with a common experimental design to explore those impacts of LULCC that are robust and consistent across the climate models. The biogeophysical impacts of LULCC were also compared to the impact of elevated greenhouse gases and resulting changes in sea surface temperatures and sea ice extent (hereafter SST/CO2). Focusing the analysis on China and surrounding regions, the climate models involved in LUCID show, however, significant differences in the magnitude and the seasonal partitioning of the temperature change. The LULCC-induced cooling is directed by decreases in absorbed solar radiation, but its amplitude is 30 to 50% smaller than the one that would be expected from the sole radiative changes. This results from direct impacts on the total turbulent energy flux (related to changes in land-cover properties other than albedo, such as evapotranspiration efficiency or surface roughness) that decreases at all seasons, and thereby induces a relative warming in all models. The magnitude of those processes varies significantly from model to model, resulting on different climate responses to LULCC.

  19. Investigating the Present Day Cosmic Dust Flux at the Earth's Surface: Initial Results from the Kwajalein Micrometeorite Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Price, M. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Ishii, H. A.; Brownlee, D. E.; Russell, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of impact craters on the Long Duration Exposure Facility satellite indicate a present day micrometeoroid flux of approx. 30,000 tonnes [1 after 2]. But what portion of this material arrives at the Earth's surface as micrometeorites? Studies of available micrometeorite collections from deep sea sediments [e.g. 3], Greenland blue ice [e.g. 4] and the South Pole water well [e.g. 1] may be complicated by terrestrial weathering and, in some cases, collection bias (magnetic separation for deep sea sediments) and poorly constrained ages. We have recently set up a micrometeorite collection station on Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean, using high volume air samplers to collect particles directly from the atmosphere. By collecting in this way, the terrestrial age of the particles is known, the weathering they experience is minimal, and we are able to constrain particle arrival times. Collecting at this location also exploits the considerably reduced anthropogenic background [5]. Method: High volume air samplers were installed on top of the two-story airport building on Kwajalein. These were fitted with polycarbonate membrane filters with 5µm diameter perforations. The flow rates were set to 0.5m3/min, and filters were changed once a week. After collection, filters were washed to remove salt and concentrate particles [see 5] in preparation for analysis by SEM. Results and Discussion: A selection of filters have been prepared and surveyed. Due to their ease of identification our initial investigations have focused on particles resembling cosmic spherules. The spheres can be divided into three main groups: 1. Silicate spherules rich in Al, Ca, K and Na (to varying degrees), 2. Silicate spherules rich in Mg and Fe and 3. Fe-rich spherules. Group 1 spherules are often vesiculated and can occur as aggregates. They are similar in appearance and composition to volcanic microspheres [e.g. 6] and are thus likely terrestrial in

  20. Investigations on the effect of high surface albedo on erythemally effective UV irradiance: results of a campaign at the Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuder, Joachim; Ghezzi, Flavio; Palenque, Eduardo; Torrez, Rene; Andrade, Marco; Zaratti, Francesco

    2007-04-02

    Measurements and model calculations have been performed to study the effect of high surface albedo on erythemally effective UV irradiance. A central part of the investigation has been a one week measurement campaign at Salar de Uyuni in the Southern part of the Bolivian Altiplano. The Salar de Uyuni, the largest salt lake of the world, is characterized by largely homogeneous surface conditions during most of the year. Albedo measurements performed by an UV radiometer result in a reflectivity for erythemally effective radiation of 0.69+/-0.02. The measurements show hardly any dependency on solar elevation, indicating the homogeneity of the surface and nearly isotropic reflection properties of the Salar. The effects of the high albedo surface on the erythemally effective irradiance, i.e. the UV index (UVI), has been experimentally determined by simultaneous measurements of several UV radiometers located at different sites around and on the Salar. In this context a method for the minimization of systematic deviations between the individual detectors used for the investigation is presented. It ensures the intercomparability of the performed UV measurements within +/-2% which is a distinct improvement compared to the typical absolute accuracy of UV irradiance measurements in the order of +/-5%. For solar elevations around 50 degrees the UVI measured close to the center of the Salar is typically enhanced by 20% compared to the values determined outside. Towards lower solar elevations this increase becomes slightly weaker. The measurements agree well with both, own corresponding 1D and previously published 3D radiative transfer calculations from literature.

  1. The spatial and temporal variability of the surface mass balance in Antarctica: results from a regional climate model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipzig, N.P.M. van; Meijgaard, E. van; Oerlemans, J.

    2002-01-01

    A 14 year integration with a regional atmospheric model (RACMO) is used to obtain detailed information on the Antarctic surface mass balance and to understand the mechanisms that are responsible for the spatial and temporal distribution of the surface mass balance. The model (Δx = 55 km) uses the pa

  2. Field observations and results of a 1-D boundary layer model for developing near-surface temperature maxima in the Western Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn G. Gallaher

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Summer sea ice extent in the Western Arctic has decreased significantly in recent years resulting in increased solar input into the upper ocean. Here, a comprehensive set of 'in situ' shipboard, on-ice, and autonomous ice-ocean measurements were made of the early stages of formation of the near-surface temperature maximum (NSTM in the Canada Basin. These observations along with the results from a 1-D turbulent boundary layer model indicate that heat storage associated with NSTM formation is largely due to the absorption of penetrating solar radiation just below a protective summer halocline. The depth of the summer halocline was found to be the most important factor for determining the amount of solar radiation absorbed in the NSTM layer, while halocline strength controlled the amount of heat removed from the NSTM by turbulent transport. Observations using the Naval Postgraduate School Turbulence Frame show that the NSTM was able to persist despite periods of intermittent turbulence because transport rates were too small to remove significant amounts of heat from the NSTM layer. The development of the early and late summer halocline and NSTM were found to be linked to summer season buoyancy and wind events. For the early summer NSTM, 1-D boundary layer model results show that melt pond drainage provides sufficient buoyancy to the summer halocline to prevent subsequent wind events from mixing out the NSTM. For the late summer NSTM, limited freshwater inputs reduce the strength of the summer halocline making the balance between interfacial stresses and buoyancy more tenuous. As a result, the late summer NSTM is an ephemeral feature dependent on local wind conditions, while the early summer NSTM is more persistent and able to store heat in the near-surface ocean beyond the summer season.

  3. Children’s School-Breakfast Reports and School-Lunch Reports (in 24-hour Dietary Recalls): Conventional and Reporting-Error-Sensitive Measures Show Inconsistent Accuracy Results for Retention Interval and for Breakfast Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Guinn, Caroline H.; Smith, Albert F.; Hitchcock, David B.; Royer, Julie A.; Puryear, Megan P.; Collins, Kathleen L.; Smith, Alyssa L.

    2017-01-01

    Validation-study data were analyzed to investigate retention interval (RI) and prompt effects on accuracy of fourth-grade children’s reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch (in 24-hour recalls), and accuracy of school-breakfast reports by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria). Randomly-selected fourth-grade children at 10 schools in four districts were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and interviewed under one of eight conditions (two RIs [short (prior-24-hour recall obtained in afternoon); long (previous-day recall obtained in morning)] crossed with four prompts [forward (distant-to-recent), meal-name (breakfast, etc.), open (no instructions), reverse (recent-to-distant)]). Each condition had 60 children (half girls). Of 480 children, 355 and 409 reported meals satisfying criteria for reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch, respectively. For breakfast and lunch separately, a conventional measure—report rate—and reporting-error-sensitive measures—correspondence rate and inflation ratio—were calculated for energy per meal-reporting child. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio—but not report rate—showed better accuracy for school-breakfast and school-lunch reports with the short than long RI; this pattern was not found for some prompts for each sex. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better school-breakfast report accuracy for the classroom than cafeteria location for each prompt, but report rate showed the opposite. For each RI, correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better accuracy for lunch than breakfast, but report rate showed the opposite. When choosing RI and prompts for recalls, researchers and practitioners should select short RIs to maximize accuracy. Recommendations for prompt selections are less clear. As report rates distort validation-study accuracy conclusions, reporting-error-sensitive measures are recommended. PMID:26865356

  4. Expression of activated PIK3CA in ovarian surface epithelium results in hyperplasia but not tumor formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase is a key regulator in various cancer-associated signal transduction pathways. Genetic alterations of its catalytic subunit alpha, PIK3CA, have been identified in ovarian cancer. Our in vivo data suggests that PIK3CA activation is one of the early genetic events in ovarian cancer. However, its role in malignant transformation of ovarian surface epithelium (OSE is largely unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the Müllerian inhibiting substance type II receptor (MISIIR promoter, we generated transgenic mice that expressed activated PIK3CA in the Müllerian epithelium. Overexpression of PIK3CA in OSE induced remarkable hyperplasia, but was not able to malignantly transform OSE in vivo. The consistent result was also observed in primary cultured OSEs. Although enforced expression of PIK3CA could not induce OSE anchorage-independent growth, it significantly increased anchorage-independent growth of OSE transformed by mutant K-ras. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While PIK3CA activation may not be able to initiate OSE transformation, we conclude that activation of PIK3CA may be an important molecular event contributing to the maintenance of OSE transformation initiated by oncogenes such as K-ras.

  5. Planetary Entry Probes and Mass Spectroscopy: Tools and Science Results from In Situ Studies of Planetary Atmospheres and Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Hasso B.

    2007-01-01

    Probing the atmospheres and surfaces of the planets and their moons with fast moving entry probes has been a very useful and essential technique to obtain in situ or quasi in situ scientific data (ground truth) which could not otherwise be obtained from fly by or orbiter only missions and where balloon, aircraft or lander missions are too complex and costly. Planetary entry probe missions have been conducted successfully on Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Titan after having been first demonstrated in the Earth's atmosphere. Future missions will hopefully also include more entry probe missions back to Venus and to the outer planets. 1 he success of and science returns from past missions, the need for more and better data, and a continuously advancing technology generate confidence that future missions will be even more successful with respect to science return and technical performance. I'he pioneering and tireless work of Al Seiff and his collaborators at the NASA Ames Research Center had provided convincing evidence of the value of entry probe science and how to practically implement flight missions. Even in the most recent missions involving entry probes i.e. Galileo and Cassini/Huygens A1 contributed uniquely to the science results on atmospheric structure, turbulence and temperature on Jupiter and Titan.

  6. Severe Ankyrin-R deficiency results in impaired surface retention and lysosomal degradation of RhAG in human erythroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satchwell, Timothy J.; Bell, Amanda J.; Hawley, Bethan R.; Pellegrin, Stephanie; Mordue, Kathryn E.; van Deursen, Cees Th. B. M.; Braak, Nicole Heitink-ter; Huls, Gerwin; Leers, Mathie P.G; Overwater, Eline; Tamminga, Rienk Y. J.; van der Zwaag, Bert; Fermo, Elisa; Bianchi, Paola; van Wijk, Richard; Toye, Ashley M.

    2016-01-01

    Ankyrin-R provides a key link between band 3 and the spectrin cytoskeleton that helps to maintain the highly specialized erythrocyte biconcave shape. Ankyrin deficiency results in fragile spherocytic erythrocytes with reduced band 3 and protein 4.2 expression. We use in vitro differentiation of erythroblasts transduced with shRNAs targeting ANK1 to generate erythroblasts and reticulocytes with a novel ankyrin-R ‘near null’ human phenotype with less than 5% of normal ankyrin expression. Using this model, we demonstrate that absence of ankyrin negatively impacts the reticulocyte expression of a variety of proteins, including band 3, glycophorin A, spectrin, adducin and, more strikingly, protein 4.2, CD44, CD47 and Rh/RhAG. Loss of band 3, which fails to form tetrameric complexes in the absence of ankyrin, alongside GPA, occurs due to reduced retention within the reticulocyte membrane during erythroblast enucleation. However, loss of RhAG is temporally and mechanistically distinct, occurring predominantly as a result of instability at the plasma membrane and lysosomal degradation prior to enucleation. Loss of Rh/RhAG was identified as common to erythrocytes with naturally occurring ankyrin deficiency and demonstrated to occur prior to enucleation in cultures of erythroblasts from a hereditary spherocytosis patient with severe ankyrin deficiency but not in those exhibiting milder reductions in expression. The identification of prominently reduced surface expression of Rh/RhAG in combination with direct evaluation of ankyrin expression using flow cytometry provides an efficient and rapid approach for the categorization of hereditary spherocytosis arising from ankyrin deficiency. PMID:27247322

  7. In favour of the definition "adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis": juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis braced after ten years of age, do not show different end results. SOSORT award winner 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Donzelli, Sabrina; Zaina, Fabio; Lusini, Monia; Minnella, Salvatore; Negrini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Background The most important factor discriminating juvenile (JIS) from adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the risk of deformity progression. Brace treatment can change natural history, even when risk of progression is high. The aim of this study was to compare the end of growth results of JIS subjects, treated after 10 years of age, with final results of AIS. Methods Design: prospective observational controlled cohort study nested in a prospective database. Setting: outpatient tertiary...

  8. Evaluation of the mineralization degree of the vestibular surface of the upper central incisors with a 655-nm diode laser in mouth breathers: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro Ladalardo, Thereza C. C. G.; Cappellette, Mario, Jr.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Anthero de Azevedo, Ramiro; Pignatari, Shirley; Weckx, Luc L. M.

    2003-06-01

    Mouth breathing unbalances the physiological mechanisms of the dental surface hydration by compromising lip closure, and, very often, causing the vestibular positioning of upper incisors. That variance leads to the interruption of the dental demineralization and remineralization feedback, prevailing a demineralized condition of the dental surface which increases caries risk. The laser fluorescence examination allows an early demineralization diagnosis, thus it makes possible through preventive measures to minimize the risk factor - dental mineral structure loss - in the bacterial infection of the demineralized area, and hence, preventing invasive therapeutical procedures. A DIAGNOdent apparatus was used to evaluate the mineralization degree of the upper central incisors in 40 patients - twenty of them with a mouth breathing diagnosis; the remaining twenty were nasal breathers (control group). Age ranging from 6 to 12 years, both male and female. To measure the vestibular surface of the incisors, it was divided into 3 segments: cervical, medial and incisal. The average of the results pertaining to the mouth breathing patients was as follows: tooth 11 cervical third - 5.45, medial third - 7.15, incisal third - 7.95, and tooth 21 - cervical third - 5.95, medial third - 7.25, incisal third - 8.15. The control patients, nasal breathers, presented the following results: tooth 11 cervical third - 1.75, medial third - 2.30, incisal third - 1.85, and tooth 21 - cervical third - 1.80, medial third - 2.20, incisal third - 2.15. The mouth breathing patients showed demineralization in the teeth examined at the initial stage, subclinical, comparing with the control patients, nasal breathers, who did not present any mineral deficit in these teeth.

  9. Tildrakizumab versus placebo or etanercept for chronic plaque psoriasis (reSURFACE 1 and reSURFACE 2): results from two randomised controlled, phase 3 trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Kristian; Papp, Kim A; Blauvelt, Andrew; Tyring, Stephen K; Sinclair, Rodney; Thaçi, Diamant; Nograles, Kristine; Mehta, Anish; Cichanowitz, Nicole; Li, Qing; Liu, Kenneth; La Rosa, Carmen; Green, Stuart; Kimball, Alexa B

    2017-07-15

    Tildrakizumab is a high-affinity, humanised, IgG1 κ antibody targeting interleukin 23 p19 that represents an evolving treatment strategy in chronic plaque psoriasis. Previous research suggested clinical improvement with inhibition of interleukin 23 p19. We did two phase 3 trials to investigate whether tildrakizumab is superior to placebo and etanercept in the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis. We did two three-part, parallel group, double-blind, randomised controlled studies, reSURFACE 1 (at 118 sites in Australia, Canada, Japan, the UK, and the USA) and reSURFACE 2 (at 132 sites in Europe, Israel, and the USA). Participants aged 18 years or older with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis (body surface area involvement ≥10%, Physician's Global Assessment [PGA] score ≥3, and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index [PASI] score ≥12) were randomised (via interactive voice and web response system) to tildrakizumab 200 mg, tildrakizumab 100 mg, or placebo in reSURFACE 1 (2:2:1), or to tildrakizumab 200 mg, tildrakizumab 100 mg, placebo, or etanercept 50 mg (2:2:1:2). Randomisation was done by region and stratified for bodyweight (≤90 kg or >90 kg) and previous exposure to biologics therapy for psoriasis. Investigators, participants, and study personnel were blinded to group allocation and remained blinded until completion of the studies. Assigned medication was identical in appearance and packaging. Tildrakizumab was administered subcutaneously at weeks 0 and 4 during part 1 and at week 16 during part 2 (weeks 12 and 16 for participants re-randomised from placebo to tildrakizumab; etanercept was given twice weekly in part 1 of reSURFACE 2 and once weekly during part 2). The co-primary endpoints were the proportion of patients achieving PASI 75 and PGA response (score of 0 or 1 with ≥2 grade score reduction from baseline) at week 12. Safety was assessed in the all-participants-as-treated population, and efficacy in the full-analysis set. These trials are

  10. Laser-induced periodic surface structure formation resulting from single-pulse ultrafast irradiation of Au microstructures on a Si substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ryan D.; Torralva, Ben; Adams, David P.; Yalisove, Steven M.

    2013-05-01

    We have observed laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) formation with sub-micron periodicities after single-pulse ultrafast irradiation of isolated, 110 nm-tall Au microstructures on Si substrates. Fresnel diffraction patterns are established on both the structure surface and surrounding Si substrate when light is scattered by feature edges, and the resultant intensity distribution is partially responsible for LIPSS formation. LIPSS form for any in-plane, laser polarization orientation with respect to surface feature edges, although the LIPSS amplitude varies with the orientation. This explains the formation of LIPSS patterns having different wavevectors and amplitudes after multi-pulse irradiation of initially smooth surfaces.

  11. No significant steady state surface creep along the North Anatolian Fault offshore Istanbul: Results of 6 months of seafloor acoustic ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakic, P.; Piété, H.; Ballu, V.; Royer, J.-Y.; Kopp, H.; Lange, D.; Petersen, F.; Özeren, M. S.; Ergintav, S.; Geli, L.; Henry, P.; Deschamps, A.

    2016-07-01

    The submarine Istanbul-Silivri fault segment, within 15 km of Istanbul, is the only portion of the North Anatolian Fault that has not ruptured in the last 250 years. We report first results of a seafloor acoustic ranging experiment to quantify current horizontal deformation along this segment and assess whether the segment is creeping aseismically or accumulating stress to be released in a future event. Ten transponders were installed to monitor length variations along 15 baselines. A joint least squares inversion for across-fault baseline changes, accounting for sound speed drift at each transponder, precludes fault displacement rates larger than a few millimeters per year during the 6 month observation period. Forward modeling shows that the data better fit a locked state or a very moderate surface creep—less than 6 mm/yr compared to a far-field slip rate of over 20 mm/yr—suggesting that the fault segment is currently accumulating stress.

  12. Ocular Surface Reconstruction with Cultivated Limbal Epithelial Cells in Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency: One-year Follow-up Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Durak

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the 1-year follow-up results of cultivated limbal epithelial cell (CLEC transplantation in unilateral limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD. Ma te ri al and Met hod: One-year follow-up results of five unilateral LSCD patients who had undergone CLEC transplantation were evaluated. Parameters for this evaluation were: fluorescein staining of ocular surface, corneal vascularization and status of epithelium with slit lamp, and visual acuity. 1.5-mm limbal biopsy was performed from the superior limbus of the healthy eyes, broke into two equal pieces, expanded on human amniotic membrane (hAM and inserts for 14 days until getting 20 mm in size. CLECs on hAMs were used directly, and cells on inserts were usedafter detachment procedure. The symblepharon and pannus tissues were removed, superficial keratectomy was performed. CLEC on hAMs were transplanted with the epithelial side up onto the bare corneal stroma, sutured to the conjunctiva with 10-0 nylon sutures. Free CLEC layer from insert was placed on hAM as a second layer, additional hAM was used as a protective layer all over other tissues. Re sults: Median age was 44.4 years (14-71. The etiology was chemical burn in all patients. Median duration of symptoms was 10 years (2-18, median follow-up period was 12.6 (12-12.5 months. Preoperative best corrected visual acuities (BCVA were light perception in three patients, counting fingers at 50 cm in one patient and 3/10 in one patient. Visions were improved in all patients. Postoperative BCVA 12 months after the surgery were between counting fingers at 3 meters to 6/10. There was a temporary hemorrhage between the two layers of hAMs in one patient at the early postoperative period. Peripheral corneal vascularization has occurred in three patients, in patient corneal vascularization has reached to the paracentral area. Dis cus si on: CLEC transplantation is an efficient treatment option for unilateral LSCD in mid-long term. (Turk J

  13. Long-term safety assessment of trench-type surface repository at Chernobyl, Ukraine - computer model and comparison with results from simplified models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haverkamp, B.; Krone, J. [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Peine (Germany); Shybetskyi, I. [Radioenvironmental Centre at Presidium of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    The Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (RWDF) Buryakovka was constructed in 1986 as part of the intervention measures after the accident at Chernobyl NPP (ChNPP). Today, the surface repository for solid low and intermediate level waste (LILW) is still being operated but its maximum capacity is nearly reached. Long-existing plans for increasing the capacity of the facility shall be implemented in the framework of the European Commission INSC Programme (Instrument for Nuclear Safety Co-operation). Within the first phase of this project, DBE Technology GmbH prepared a safety analysis report of the facility in its current state (SAR) and a preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR) for a future extended facility based on the planned enlargement. In addition to a detailed mathematical model, also simplified models have been developed to verify results of the former one and enhance confidence in the results. Comparison of the results show that - depending on the boundary conditions - simplifications like modeling the multi trench repository as one generic trench might have very limited influence on the overall results compared to the general uncertainties associated with respective long-term calculations. In addition to their value in regard to verification of more complex models which is important to increase confidence in the overall results, such simplified models can also offer the possibility to carry out time consuming calculations like probabilistic calculations or detailed sensitivity analysis in an economic manner. (authors)

  14. The "Life Potential": a new complex algorithm to assess "Heart Rate Variability" from Holter records for cognitive and diagnostic aims. Preliminary experimental results showing its dependence on age, gender and health conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Barra, Orazio A

    2013-01-01

    Although HRV (Heart Rate Variability) analyses have been carried out for several decades, several limiting factors still make these analyses useless from a clinical point of view. The present paper aims at overcoming some of these limits by introducing the "Life Potential" (BMP), a new mathematical algorithm which seems to exhibit surprising cognitive and predictive capabilities. BMP is defined as a linear combination of five HRV Non-Linear Variables, in turn derived from the thermodynamic formalism of chaotic dynamic systems. The paper presents experimental measurements of BMP (Average Values and Standard Deviations) derived from 1048 Holter tests, matched in age and gender, including a control group of 356 healthy subjects. The main results are: (a) BMP always decreases when the age increases, and its dependence on age and gender is well established; (b) the shape of the age dependence within "healthy people" is different from that found in the general group: this behavior provides evidence of possible illn...

  15. Ultrasmooth reaction-sintered silicon carbide surface resulting from combination of thermal oxidation and ceria slurry polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xinmin; Dai, Yifan; Deng, Hui; Guan, Chaoliang; Yamamura, Kazuya

    2013-06-17

    An ultrasmooth reaction-sintered silicon carbide surface with an rms roughness of 0.424 nm is obtained after thermal oxidation for 30 min followed by ceria slurry polishing for 30 min. By SEM-EDX analysis, we investigated the thermal oxidation behavior of RS-SiC, in which the main components are Si and SiC. As the oxidation rate is higher in the area with defects, there are no scratches or cracks on the surface after oxidation. However, a bumpy structure is formed after oxidation because the oxidation rates of Si and SiC differ. Through a theoretical analysis of thermal oxidation using the Deal-Grove model and the removal of the oxide layer by ceria slurry polishing in accordance with the Preston equation, a model for obtaining an ultrasmooth surface is proposed and the optimal processing conditions are presented.

  16. Comparison of results of ATP bioluminescence and traditional hygiene swabbing methods for the determination of surface cleanliness at a hospital kitchen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Hasan; Oguz, Utku; Karci, Koray

    2006-03-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence and traditional microbiological swabbing culture methods were used for detection of surface hygiene on worktops, cutting boards and equipments at a hospital kitchen. A total of 280 surface samples were collected from the kitchen. The agreement between the two methods (coefficient of Kappa) was statistically significant (corrected chi(2)=30.886; kappa=0.249; p<0.001). Consequently, the ATP monitoring method provides results rapidly with improved benefits in the control of surface contamination and application of corrective action against poor hygiene. However, it is not a substitute for culturing methods, the combination of both methods was emphasized for surface hygiene monitoring. Besides, the results indicate that, for food safety and public health, the hygienic status of the surfaces in the kitchen should be improved and food handlers should be trained well on hygiene.

  17. Acquisition of C1 inhibitor by Bordetella pertussis virulence associated gene 8 results in C2 and C4 consumption away from the bacterial surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise S Hovingh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Whooping cough, or pertussis, is a contagious disease of the respiratory tract that is re-emerging worldwide despite high vaccination coverage. The causative agent of this disease is the Gram-negative Bordetella pertussis. Knowledge on complement evasion strategies of this pathogen is limited. However, this is of great importance for future vaccine development as it has become apparent that a novel pertussis vaccine is needed. Here, we unravel the effect of Virulence associated gene 8 (Vag8 of B. pertussis on the human complement system at the molecular level. We show that both recombinant and endogenously secreted Vag8 inhibit complement deposition on the bacterial surface at the level of C4b. We reveal that Vag8 binding to human C1-inhibitor (C1-inh interferes with the binding of C1-inh to C1s, C1r and MASP-2, resulting in the release of active proteases that subsequently cleave C2 and C4 away from the bacterial surface. We demonstrate that the depletion of these complement components in the bacterial surrounding and subsequent decreased deposition on B. pertussis leads to less complement-mediated bacterial killing. Vag8 is the first protein described that specifically prevents C1s, C1r and MASP-2 binding to C1-inh and thereby mediates complement consumption away from the bacterial surface. Unravelling the mechanism of this unique complement evasion strategy of B. pertussis is one of the first steps towards understanding the interactions between the first line of defense complement and B. pertussis.

  18. Evaluation of real-time data obtained from gravimetric preparation of antineoplastic agents shows medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact: Results of a large-scale, multicentre, multinational, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkola, R; Czejka, M; Bérubé, J

    2017-08-01

    Medication errors are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality especially with antineoplastic drugs, owing to their narrow therapeutic index. Gravimetric workflow software systems have the potential to reduce volumetric errors during intravenous antineoplastic drug preparation which may occur when verification is reliant on visual inspection. Our aim was to detect medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact as determined by the rate of prevented medication errors in chemotherapy compounding after implementation of gravimetric measurement. A large-scale, retrospective analysis of data was carried out, related to medication errors identified during preparation of antineoplastic drugs in 10 pharmacy services ("centres") in five European countries following the introduction of an intravenous workflow software gravimetric system. Errors were defined as errors in dose volumes outside tolerance levels, identified during weighing stages of preparation of chemotherapy solutions which would not otherwise have been detected by conventional visual inspection. The gravimetric system detected that 7.89% of the 759 060 doses of antineoplastic drugs prepared at participating centres between July 2011 and October 2015 had error levels outside the accepted tolerance range set by individual centres, and prevented these doses from reaching patients. The proportion of antineoplastic preparations with deviations >10% ranged from 0.49% to 5.04% across sites, with a mean of 2.25%. The proportion of preparations with deviations >20% ranged from 0.21% to 1.27% across sites, with a mean of 0.71%. There was considerable variation in error levels for different antineoplastic agents. Introduction of a gravimetric preparation system for antineoplastic agents detected and prevented dosing errors which would not have been recognized with traditional methods and could have resulted in toxicity or suboptimal therapeutic outcomes for patients undergoing anticancer treatment.

  19. Short term results of complete (D3) vs. standard (D2) mesenteric excision in colon cancer shows improved outcome of complete mesenteric excision in patients with TNM stages I-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storli, K E; Søndenaa, K; Furnes, B; Nesvik, I; Gudlaugsson, E; Bukholm, I; Eide, G E

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the new method of complete mesocolic excision (CME) with a high (apical) vascular tie (D3 resection) had an immediate effect compared with a conventional (standard) approach even in those patients without lymph node metastases. A cohort of 189 consecutive patients with tumour-nodal-metastasis (TNM) stages I-II and a mean age of 73 years were operated on in the period from January 2007 to December 2008 in three community teaching hospitals. The CME approach (n = 89), used in hospital A, was compared to the standard technique used (n = 105) in two other hospitals, B and C. Lymph node yields from the specimens were used as a surrogate measure of radical resections. Outcome was analysed after a median follow-up of 50.2 months. In-hospital mortality rate was 2.8 % in the CME group and 8.6 % in the standard group. The 3-year overall survival (OS) in the CME group was 88.1 versus 79.0 % (p = 0.003) in the standard group, and the corresponding disease-free survival (DFS) was 82.1 versus 74.3 % (p = 0.026). Cancer-specific survival was 95.2 % in the CME group versus 90.5 % in the standard group (p = 0.067). Age, operative technique, and T category were significant in multiple Cox regressions of OS and DFS. Compared with the standard (D2) approach, introduction of CME surgical management of colon cancer resulted in a significant immediate improvement of 3-year survival for patients with TNM stage I-II tumours as assessed by OS and DFS.

  20. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF TX-TY TANK FARMS AT THE HANFORD SITE RESULTS OF BACKGROUND CHARACTERIZATION WITH GROUND PENETRATING RADAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYERS DA; CUBBAGE R; BRAUCHLA R; O' BRIEN G

    2008-07-24

    Ground penetrating radar surveys of the TX and TY tank farms were performed to identify existing infrastructure in the near surface environment. These surveys were designed to provide background information supporting Surface-to-Surface and Well-to-Well resistivity surveys of Waste Management Area TX-TY. The objective of the preliminary investigation was to collect background characterization information with GPR to understand the spatial distribution of metallic objects that could potentially interfere with the results from high resolution resistivity{trademark} surveys. The results of the background characterization confirm the existence of documented infrastructure, as well as highlight locations of possible additional undocumented subsurface metallic objects.

  1. Novel recurrent chromosomal aberrations detected in clonal plasma cells of light chain amyloidosis patients show potential adverse prognostic effect: first results from a genome-wide copy number array analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzow, Martin; Hegenbart, Ute; Hinderhofer, Katrin; Hose, Dirk; Seckinger, Anja; Bochtler, Tilmann; Hemminki, Kari; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Schönland, Stefan O; Jauch, Anna

    2017-07-01

    Immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a rare plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by the deposition of abnormal amyloid fibrils in multiple organs, thus impairing their function. In the largest cohort studied up to now of 118 CD138-purified plasma cell samples from previously untreated immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis patients, we assessed in parallel copy number alterations using high-density copy number arrays and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH). We used fluorescence in situ hybridization probes for the IgH translocations t(11;14), t(4;14), and t(14;16) or any other IgH rearrangement as well as numerical aberrations of the chromosome loci 1q21, 8p21, 5p15/5q35, 11q22.3 or 11q23, 13q14, 15q22, 17p13, and 19q13. Recurrent gains included chromosomes 1q (36%), 9 (24%), 11q (24%), as well as 19 (15%). Recurrent losses affected chromosome 13 (29% monosomy) and partial losses of 14q (19%), 16q (14%) and 13q (12%), respectively. In 88% of patients with translocation t(11;14), the hallmark chromosomal aberration in AL amyloidosis, a concomitant gain of 11q22.3/11q23 detected by iFISH was part of the unbalanced translocation der(14)t(11;14)(q13;q32) with the breakpoint in the CCND1/MYEOV gene region. Partial loss of chromosome regions 14q and 16q were significantly associated to gain 1q. Gain 1q21 detected by iFISH almost always resulted from a gain of the long arm of chromosome 1 and not from trisomy 1, whereas deletions on chromosome 1p were rarely found. Overall and event-free survival analysis found a potential adverse prognostic effect of concomitant gain 1q and deletion 14q as well as of deletion 1p. In conclusion, in the first whole genome report of clonal plasma cells in AL amyloidosis, novel aberrations and hitherto unknown potential adverse prognostic effects were uncovered. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  2. Drugs of abuse and tranquilizers in Dutch surface waters, drinking water and wastewater: Results of screening monitoring 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, N.G.F.M.; Dijkman, E.; Bijlsma, L.; Emke, E.; van de Ven, B.M.; van Nuijs, A.L.N.; de Voogt, P.

    2011-01-01

    In the surface waters of the rivers Rhine and Meuse, twelve drugs that are listed in the Dutch Opium act were detected at low concentrations. They are from the groups amphetamines, tranquilizers (barbiturates and benzodiazepines) opiates and cocaine. During drinking water production, most compounds

  3. Results from one-year continuous operation of a large aperture scintillometer over a heterogeneous land surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyrich, F.; DeBruin, H.A.R.; Meijninger, W.M.L.; Schipper, J.W.; Lohse, H.

    2002-01-01

    A large-aperture scintillometer (LAS) was operated continuously during a period of more than one year over a heterogeneous land surface in Central Europe at the transition between marine and continental climates. The LAS measurements of the refractive index structure parameter, C N2, were used to es

  4. Surface energy budget on Larsen and Wilkins ice shelves in the Antarctic Peninsula: results based on reanalyses in 1989–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Välisuo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ice shelves in the Antarctic Peninsula have significantly disintegrated during the recent decades. To better understand the atmospheric contribution in the process, we have analysed the inter-annual variations in radiative and turbulent surface fluxes and weather conditions over Larsen C Ice Shelf (LCIS and Wilkins Ice Shelf (WIS in the Antarctic Peninsula in 1989–2010. Three atmospheric reanalyses were applied: ERA-Interim by ECMWF, Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR by NCEP, and JRA-25/JCDAS by the Japan Meteorological Agency. In addition, in situ observations from an automatic weather station (AWS on LCIS were applied, mainly for validation of the reanalyses. The AWS observations on LCIS did not show any significant temperature trend, and the reanalyses showed warming trends only over WIS: ERA-Interim in winter (0.23 °C yr−1 and JRA in autumn (0.13 °C yr−1. In LCIS from December through August and in WIS from March through August, the variations of surface net flux were partly explained by the combined effects of atmospheric pressure, wind, and cloud fraction. The explained variance was much higher in LCIS (up to 80% than in WIS (26–27%. Summer melting on LCIS varied between 0 and 45 cm water equivalent (w.e., which is comparable to previous results. The mean amount of melt days per summer on LCIS was only 17. The high values of melting in summer 2001–2002 presented in previous studies on the basis of simple calculations were not supported by our study. Instead, our calculations based on ERA-Interim yielded strongest melting in summer 1992–1993 on both ice shelves. On WIS the summer melting ranged between 2 and 40 cm w.e., and the peak values coincided with the largest disintegrations of the ice shelf.

  5. Non-hazardous pesticide concentrations in surface waters: An integrated approach simulating application thresholds and resulting farm income effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannwarth, M A; Grovermann, C; Schreinemachers, P; Ingwersen, J; Lamers, M; Berger, T; Streck, T

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide application rates are high and increasing in upland agricultural systems in Thailand producing vegetables, fruits and ornamental crops, leading to the pollution of stream water with pesticide residues. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum per hectare application rates of two widely used pesticides that would achieve non-hazardous pesticide concentrations in the stream water and to evaluate how farm household incomes would be affected if farmers complied with these restricted application rates. For this purpose we perform an integrated modeling approach of a hydrological solute transport model (the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT) and an agent-based farm decision model (Mathematical Programming-based Multi-Agent Systems, MPMAS). SWAT was used to simulate the pesticide fate and behavior. The model was calibrated to a 77 km(2) watershed in northern Thailand. The results show that to stay under a pre-defined eco-toxicological threshold, the current average application of chlorothalonil (0.80 kg/ha) and cypermethrin (0.53 kg/ha) would have to be reduced by 80% and 99%, respectively. The income effect of such reductions was simulated using MPMAS. The results suggest that if farm households complied with the application thresholds then their income would reduce by 17.3% in the case of chlorothalonil and by 38.3% in the case of cypermethrin. Less drastic income effects can be expected if methods of integrated pest management were more widely available. The novelty of this study is to combine two models from distinctive disciplines to evaluate pesticide reduction scenarios based on real-world data from a single study site.

  6. Regularities of shaping of a wheel profile as a result of deterioration of the rolling surface in exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander VORON’KO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the 90s the deterioration of wheels flanges and lateral rail surfaces on roads in the countries of CIS from natural process of wear process of surfaces has turned to the sharp problem which has received the status of a «rail plague». On separate roads the lateral deterioration of rails has reached 1 mm times 106 tons, by exceeding a level of normative deterioration in some times. Thus the run of wheel pairs between regrinding on flange undercuts was reduced in by 3-5 times [5]. In the article some ways of elimination of deterioration of wheels and rails are considered. The technique of process modeling of parameters changes of deterioration is offered.

  7. Study of surface integrity AISI 4140 as result of hard, dry and high speed machining using CBN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, B.; Sembiring, R. W.; Manurung, N.

    2017-09-01

    The concept of hard, dry and high speed machining can be combined, to produce high productivity, with lower production costs in manufacturing industry. Hard lathe process can be a solution to reduce production time. In lathe hard alloy steels reported problems relating to the integrity of such surface roughness, residual stress, the white layer and the surface integrity. AISI 4140 material is used for high reliable hydraulic system components. This material includes in cold work tool steel. Consideration election is because this material is able to be hardened up to 55 HRC. In this research, the experimental design using CCD model fit with three factors, each factor is composed of two levels, and six central point, experiments were conducted with 1 replications. The experimental design research using CCD model fit.

  8. Surface complexation modeling of groundwater arsenic mobility: Results of a forced gradient experiment in a Red River flood plain aquifer, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Søren; Postma, Dieke; Larsen, Flemming; Nhan, Pham Quy; Hoa, Le Quynh; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Long, Tran Vu; Viet, Pham Hung; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    2012-12-01

    Three surface complexation models (SCMs) developed for, respectively, ferrihydrite, goethite and sorption data for a Pleistocene oxidized aquifer sediment from Bangladesh were used to explore the effect of multicomponent adsorption processes on As mobility in a reduced Holocene floodplain aquifer along the Red River, Vietnam. The SCMs for ferrihydrite and goethite yielded very different results. The ferrihydrite SCM favors As(III) over As(V) and has carbonate and silica species as the main competitors for surface sites. In contrast, the goethite SCM has a greater affinity for As(V) over As(III) while PO43- and Fe(II) form the predominant surface species. The SCM for Pleistocene aquifer sediment resembles most the goethite SCM but shows more Si sorption. Compiled As(III) adsorption data for Holocene sediment was also well described by the SCM determined for Pleistocene aquifer sediment, suggesting a comparable As(III) affinity of Holocene and Pleistocene aquifer sediments. A forced gradient field experiment was conducted in a bank aquifer adjacent to a tributary channel to the Red River, and the passage in the aquifer of mixed groundwater containing up to 74% channel water was observed. The concentrations of As (SCM correctly predicts desorption for As(III) but for Si and PO43- it predicts an increased adsorption instead of desorption. The goethite SCM correctly predicts desorption of both As(III) and PO43- but failed in the prediction of Si desorption. These results indicate that the prediction of As mobility, by using SCMs for synthetic Fe-oxides, will be strongly dependent on the model chosen. The SCM based on the Pleistocene aquifer sediment predicts the desorption of As(III), PO43- and Si quite superiorly, as compared to the SCMs for ferrihydrite and goethite, even though Si desorption is still somewhat under-predicted. The observation that a SCM calibrated on a different sediment can predict our field results so well suggests that sediment based SCMs may be a

  9. Stem cells show promising results for lymphoedema treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lymphoedema is a debilitating condition, manifesting in excess lymphatic fluid and swelling of subcutaneous tissues. Lymphoedema is as of yet still an incurable condition and current treatment modalities are not satisfactory. The capacity of mesenchymal stem cells to promote angiogenesis......, secrete growth factors, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types make them a potential ideal therapy for lymphoedema. Adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells and they can be harvested, isolated, and used for therapy...... in a single stage procedure as an autologous treatment. The aim of this paper was to review all studies using mesenchymal stem cells for lymphoedema treatment with a special focus on the potential use of adipose-derived stem cells. A systematic search was performed and five preclinical and two clinical...

  10. Volumetric gas monitoring through a DSA laser network for the estimation of the gas emission flux by surface sources: methods and simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccoli, Fabrizio; Facheris, Luca; Lupo, Roberto; Berna, Tommaso

    2007-10-01

    A measurement approach for estimating the emission flux by a surface-distributed source, based on the use of IR laser measurements over optical links and atmospheric diffusion models is presented. An ad hoc disposition of the optical links close to the emission area allows to measure gas concentration over a closed surface corresponding to an air volume that covers the whole emission area. The real time concentration measurements over this closed surface, associated to suitable diffusion models, allow us to estimate the emission flux of the area under exam. The diffusion model to be applied strictly depends on the current atmospheric conditions, therefore it requires the knowledge of the main atmospheric parameters. In this paper we present some simulation results about a system for the surface flux monitoring assuming the faces of a parallelepiped the surfaces interested by laser measurements. The closed surface is therefore defined by 5 of its sides, while the 6th is the emission surface. We discuss some estimation results using diffusion models where the air diffusion and transportation phenomena are due mainly to the wind strength.

  11. The multi-seasonal NOy budget in coastal Antarctica and its link with surface snow and ice core nitrate: results from the CHABLIS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Salmon

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of individual NOy components were carried out at Halley station in coastal Antarctica. The measurements were made as part of the CHABLIS campaign (Chemistry of the Antarctic Boundary Layer and the Interface with Snow and cover over half a year, from austral winter 2004 through to austral summer 2005. They are the longest duration and most extensive NOy budget study carried out to date in polar regions. Results show clear dominance of organic NOy compounds (PAN and MeONO2 during the winter months, with low concentrations of inorganic NOy, but a reversal of this situation towards summer when the balance shifts in favour of inorganic NOy. Multi-seasonal measurements of surface snow nitrate correlate strongly with inorganic NOy species. One case study in August suggested that particulate nitrate was the dominant source of nitrate to the snowpack, but this was not the consistent picture throughout the measurement period. An analysis of NOx production rates showed that emissions of NOx from the snowpack dominate over gas-phase sources of "new NOx", suggesting that, for certain periods in the past, the flux of NOx into the boundary layer can be calculated from ice core nitrate data.

  12. Geophysical techniques in the historical center of Venice (Italy): preliminary results from HVSR and multichannel analysis of surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisani, Sebastiano; Rocca, Michele; Boaga, Jacopo

    2014-05-01

    This presentation aims to outline the preliminary findings related to an extensive seismic survey conducted in the historical center of Venice, Italy. The survey was conducted via noninvasive and low-cost seismic techniques based on surface waves analysis and microtremor methods, mainly using single station horizontal to vertical spectral ratio techninques (HVSR) and multichannel analysis of surface waves in passive (ReMI) and active (MASW) configurations. The importance and the fragility of the cultural heritage of Venice, coupled with its peculiar geological and geotechnical characteristics, stress the importance of a good knowledge of its geological architecture and seismic characteristics as an opportunity to improve restoration and conservation planning. Even if Venice is located in a relatively low seismic hazard zone, a local characterization of soil resonance frequencies and surficial shear waves velocities could improve the planning of engineering interventions, furnishing important information on possible local effects related to seismic amplification and possible coupling within buildings and soil resonance frequencies. In the specific we collected more than 50 HVSR single station noise measurements and several passive and active multichannel analysis of surface waves located in the historical center. In this work we report the characteristics of the conducted seismic surveys (instrumentation, sampling geometry, etc.) and the preliminary findings of our analysis. Moreover, we discuss briefly the practical issues, mainly of logistic nature, of conducting this kind of surveys in a peculiar and crowed historical center as represented by Venice urban contest. Acknowledgments Instrumentation acquired in relation to the project co-financed by Regione Veneto, POR-CRO, FESR, 2007-2013, action 1.1.1. "Supporto ad attività di ricerca, processi e reti di innovazione e alla creazione di imprese in settori a elevato contenuto tecnologico"

  13. Reaction of Basaltic Materials under High-Fidelity Venus Surface Conditions using the Glenn Extreme Environment Rig: First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoman-Shaw, Brandon; Harvey, Ralph; Costa, Gustavo; Nakley, Leah Michelle; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2016-01-01

    Both historical and current investigations of Venus suggest that atmosphererock interactions play a critical role in the evolution of its atmosphere and crust. We have begun a series of systematic experiments designed to further our understanding of atmosphere-driven weathering and secondary mineralization of basaltic materials that may be occurring on Venus today. Our experiments expose representative igneous phases (mineral, glasses and rocks) to a high-fidelity simulation of Venus surface conditions using the NASA Glenn Extreme Environment Rig (GEER) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. GEER is a very large (800L) vessel capable of producing a long-term, high fidelity simulation of both the physical conditions (750 K and 92 bar) and atmospheric chemistry (down to the ppb-level) asso-ciated with the Venusian surface. As of this writing we have just finished the first of several planned experiments: a 42-day exposure of selected mineral, rocks and volcanic glasses. Our goal is to identify and prioritize the reactions taking place and better our understanding of their importance in Venus' climate history.

  14. Attributing the impacts of land-cover changes in temperate regions on surface temperature and heat fluxes to specific causes: Results from the first LUCID set of simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boisier, J.P.; Noblet-Ducoudré, de N.; Pitman, A.J.; Cruz, F.T.; Delire, C.; Hurk, van den B.J.J.M.; Molen, van der M.K.; Müller, C.; Voldoire, A.

    2012-01-01

    Surface cooling in temperate regions is a common biogeophysical response to historical Land-Use induced Land Cover Change (LULCC). The climate models involved in LUCID show, however, significant differences in the magnitude and the seasonal partitioning of the temperature change. The LULCC-induced c

  15. Infrared absorption by molecular gases as a probe of nanoporous silica xerogel and molecule-surface collisions: Low-pressure results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Auwera, J.; Ngo, N. H.; El Hamzaoui, H.; Capoen, B.; Bouazaoui, M.; Ausset, P.; Boulet, C.; Hartmann, J.-M.

    2013-10-01

    Transmission spectra of gases confined (but not adsorbed) within the pores of a 1.4-cm-thick silica xerogel sample have been recorded between 2.5 and 5 μm using a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. This was done for pure CO, CO2, N2O, H2O, and CH4 at room temperature and pressures of a few hectopascals. Least-squares fits of measured absorption lines provide the optical-path lengths within the confined (LC) and free (LF) gas inside the absorption cell and the half width at half maximum ΓC of the lines of the confined gases. The values of LC and LF retrieved using numerous transitions of all studied species are very consistent. Furthermore, LC is in satisfactory agreement with values obtained from independent measurements, thus showing that reliable information on the open porosity volume can be retrieved from an optical experiment. The values of ΓC, here resulting from collisions of the molecules with the inner surfaces of the xerogel pores, are practically independent of the line for each gas and inversely proportional to the square root of the probed-molecule molar mass. This is a strong indication that, for the studied transitions, a single collision of a molecule with a pore surface is sufficient to change its rotational state. A previously proposed simple model, used for the prediction of the line shape, leads to satisfactory agreement with the observations. It also enables a determination of the average pore size, bringing information complementary to that obtained from nitrogen adsorption porosimetry.

  16. High brightness imaging system using vertical cavity surface-emitting laser micro-arrays- results and proposed enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Mark A.; Ghosh, Chuni L.

    2011-05-01

    Laser illumination systems for high brightness imaging through the self-luminosity of explosive events, at Aberdeen Proving Ground and elsewhere, required complex pulse timing, extensive cooling, large-scale laser systems (frequencydoubled flash-pumped Nd:YAG, Cu-vapor, Q-switched ruby), making them difficult to implement for range test illumination in high speed videography. A Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) array was designed and implemented with spectral filtering to effectively remove self-luminosity and the fireball from the image, providing excellent background discrimination in a variety of range test scenarios. Further improvements to the system are proposed for applications such as imaging through murky water or dust clouds with optimal penetration of obscurants.

  17. Relating surface backscatter response from TRMM precipitation radar to soil moisture: results over a semi-arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Stephen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM carries aboard the Precipitation Radar (TRMMPR that measures the backscatter (σ° of the surface. σ° is sensitive to surface soil moisture and vegetation conditions. Due to sparse vegetation in arid and semi-arid regions, TRMMPR σ° primarily depends on the soil water content. In this study we relate TRMMPR σ° measurements to soil water content (ms in the Lower Colorado River Basin (LCRB. σ° dependence on ms is studied for different vegetation greenness values determined through Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. A new model of σ° that couples incidence angle, ms, and NDVI is used to derive parameters and retrieve soil water content. The calibration and validation of this model are performed using simulated and measured ms data. Simulated ms is estimated using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC model and measured ms is acquired from ground measuring stations in Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW.

    σ° model is calibrated using VIC and WGEW ms data during 1998 and the calibrated model is used to derive ms during later years. The temporal trends of derived ms are consistent with VIC and WGEW ms data with a correlation coefficient (R of 0.89 and 0.74, respectively. Derived ms is also consistent with the measured precipitation data with R=0.76. The gridded VIC data is used to calibrate the model at each grid point in LCRB and spatial maps of the model parameters are prepared. The model parameters are spatially coherent with the general regional topography in LCRB. TRMMPR σ° derived soil moisture maps during May (dry and August (wet 1999 are spatially similar to VIC estimates with correlation 0.67 and 0.76, respectively. This research provides new

  18. Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave Lidar Measurements of Surface Reflectance and Implications for CO2 Column Measurements: Results from 2013 ASCENDS Airborne Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehrir, A. R.; Browell, E. V.; Harrison, F. W.; Dobler, J. T.; Lin, B.; Ismail, S.; Kooi, S. A.; Obland, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Improved knowledge of the Earth's surface reflectance in the 1.57-micron spectral band is of particular importance for accurate Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) measurements and modeling of IPDA CO2 column measurements as required by the Active Sensing of CO2 Emission of Nights Days and Seasons (ASCENDS) Decadal Survey space mission. The Earth's surface albedo in the near-infrared portion of the spectrum is extremely low for snow and ice and for water under high wind conditions, and this can lead to degraded signal to noise ratios of surface reflectances and of IPDA CO2 column retrievals, requiring increased integration periods. This paper discusses the magnitude and variability of the surface reflectance and corresponding column CO2 measurements over snow measured using an intensity-modulated continuous-wave (IM-CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS), namely the Exelis Multi-function Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL), during the winter 2013 ASCENDS airborne campaign. This LAS system is currently being evaluated by NASA Langley as the ASCENDS space mission prototype system. The surface reflectance measurements over snow and ice as well as over water collected during the 2013 winter DC-8 flight campaign were calibrated using surface reflectance data obtained over well-established satellite radiometric calibration sites such as Railroad Valley, Nevada and over other homogeneous desert sites in California and Arizona that have been used for similar calibrations on past ASCENDS airborne campaigns. Two separate flights targeting differences in surface reflectances between fresh and aged snow were conducted over the U.S. Central Plains and Colorado Rockies, respectively. From these measurements, the nominal surface reflectance of fresh snow (less than 1-2 days old; ~ 0.01/sr at 1.57 microns) was found to be approximately half that of aged snow (3-4 days old; ~ 0.02/sr) which is believed to be a result of increased absorption due to the snow water content. The

  19. China's air pollution reduction efforts may result in an increase in surface ozone levels in highly polluted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anger, Annela; Dessens, Olivier; Xi, Fengming; Barker, Terry; Wu, Rui

    2016-03-01

    China, as a fast growing fossil-fuel-based economy, experiences increasing levels of air pollution. To tackle air pollution, China has taken the first steps by setting emission-reduction targets for nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans. This paper uses two models-the Energy-Environment-Economy Model at the Global level (E3MG) and the global Chemistry Transport Model pTOMCAT-to test the effects of these policies. If the policy targets are met, then the maximum values of 32 % and 45 % reductions below 'business as usual' in the monthly mean NO x and SO2 concentrations, respectively, will be achieved in 2015. However, a decrease in NO x concentrations in some highly polluted areas of East, North-East and South-East China can lead to up to a 10% increase in the monthly mean concentrations in surface ozone in 2015. Our study demonstrates an urgent need for the more detailed analysis of the impacts and designs of air pollution reduction guidelines for China.

  20. Surface energy budget on Larsen and Wilkins ice shelves in the Antarctic Peninsula: results based on reanalyses in 1989-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välisuo, I.; Vihma, T.; King, J. C.

    2014-08-01

    Ice shelves in the Antarctic Peninsula have significantly disintegrated during recent decades. To better understand the atmospheric contribution in the process, we have analysed the inter-annual variations in radiative and turbulent surface fluxes and weather conditions over Larsen C Ice Shelf (LCIS) and Wilkins Ice Shelf (WIS) in the Antarctic Peninsula in 1989-2010. Three atmospheric reanalyses were applied: ERA-Interim by ECMWF, Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) by NCEP, and JRA-25/JCDAS by the Japan Meteorological Agency. In addition, in situ observations from an automatic weather station (AWS) on LCIS were applied, mainly for validation of the reanalyses. The AWS observations on LCIS did not show any significant temperature trend, and the reanalyses showed warming trends only over WIS: ERA-Interim in winter (0.23 °C yr-1) and JRA-25/JCDAS in autumn (0.13 °C yr-1). In LCIS from December through August and in WIS from March through August, the variations of surface net flux were partly explained by the combined effects of atmospheric pressure, wind and cloud fraction. The explained variance was much higher in LCIS (up to 80%) than in WIS (26-27%). Summer melting on LCIS varied between 11 and 58 cm water equivalent (w.e.), which is comparable to previous results. The mean amount of melt days per summer on LCIS was 69. The high values of melting in summer 2001-2002 presented in previous studies on the basis of simple calculations were not supported by our study. Instead, our calculations based on ERA-Interim yielded strongest melting in summer 1992-1993 on both ice shelves. On WIS the summer melting ranged between 10 and 23 cm w.e., and the peak values coincided with the largest disintegrations of the ice shelf. The amount of melt on WIS may, however, be underestimated by ERA-Interim, as previously published satellite observations suggest that it suffers from a significant bias over WIS.

  1. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF SX TANK FARM AT THE HANFORD SITE RESULTS OF BACKGROUND CHARACTERIZATION WITH MAGNETICS AND ELECTROMAGNETICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYERS DA; RUCKER D; LEVIT M; CUBBAGE B; HENDERSON C

    2009-09-24

    This report presents the results of the background characterization of the cribs and trenches surrounding the SX tank farm prepared by HydroGEOPHYSICS Inc, Columbia Energy & Environmental Services Inc and Washington River Protection Solutions.

  2. Results of ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry monitoring, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, G.R.; Monroe, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Black Mesa monitoring program is designed to document long-term effects of ground-water pumping from the N aquifer by industrial and municipal users. The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area, and the ground water occurs under confined and unconfined conditions. Monitoring activities include continuous and periodic measurements of (1) ground-water pumpage from the confined and unconfined areas of the aquifer, (2) ground-water levels in the confined and unconfined areas of the aquifer, (3) surface-water discharge, and (4) chemistry of the ground water and surface water. In 1994, ground-water withdrawals for industrial and municipal use totaled about 7,000 acre-feet, which is an 8-percent increase from the previous year. Pumpage from the confined part of the aquifer increased by about 9 percent to 5,400 acre-feet, and pumpage from the unconfined part of the aquifer increased by about 2 percent to 1,600 acre-feet. Water-level declines in the confined area during 1994 were recorded in 10 of 16 wells, and the median change was a decline of about 2.3 feet as opposed to a decline of 3.3 feet for the previous year. The median change in water levels in the unconfined area was a rise of 0.1 foot in 1994 as opposed to a decline of 0.5 foot in 1993. Measured low-flow discharge along Moenkopi Wash decreased from 3.0 cubic feet per second in 1993 to 2.9 cubic feet per second in 1994. Eleven low-flow measurements were made along Laguna Creek between Tsegi, Arizona, and Chinle Wash to determine the amount of discharge that would occur as seepage from the N aquifer under optimal base-flow conditions. Discharge was 5.6 cubic feet per second near Tsegi and 1.5 cubic feet per second above the confluence with Chinle Wash. Maximum discharge was 5.9 cubic feet per second about 4 miles upstream from Dennehotso. Discharge was measured at three springs. The changes in discharge at Burro and Whisky Springs were small and within the uncertainty of

  3. The improvement of pelvic floor muscle function in POP patients after the Prolift procedure: results from surface electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihua; Chen, Xinliang; Li, Xiaocui; Gong, Yao; Li, Huaifang; Tong, Xiaowen

    2013-10-01

    Patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) have lower pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function. We hypothesized that pelvic reconstructive surgery could improve PFM function and strength. The controlled, nonrandomized study recruited 37 POP patients in the Prolift group and 30 non-POP patients in the control group. Two urogynecologists performed the Prolift procedure. One experienced physiotherapist who was blinded to the grouping conducted the surface electromyography (SEMG) evaluation using an intravaginal probe. The patient was considered objectively cured if she had stage 0 or I according to the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system (POP-Q) at the 3rd month postoperatively. Two types of contractions, namely maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and short, fast contractions (SFC) in 6 s were performed at each SEMG measurement. The SEMG data were collected once in the control group on admission and twice in the Prolift group (on admission and at the 3rd month postoperatively). The t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Wilcoxon test were used for statistical analysis. A total of 36 POP patients were cured by the Prolift procedure. At the 3-month follow-up, the voltage and duration of MVC as well as the numbers and voltage of SFC increased significantly in the Prolift group. These variables were lower in POP patients compared to women without POP. The restoration of pelvic anatomy may account for the improved PFM function with increased electrical activity in POP patients verified by SEMG. Evaluation of PFM function may be used as a clinical tool in the overall assessment of pelvic reconstructive surgeries.

  4. Severe Ankyrin-R deficiency results in impaired surface retention and lysosomal degradation of RhAG in human erythroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satchwell, Timothy J.; Bell, Amanda J.; Hawley, Bethan R.; Pellegrin, Stephanie; Mordue, Kathryn E.; van Deursen, Cees Th. B. M.; Heitink-ter Braak, Nicole; Huls, Gerwin; Leers, Mathie P. G.; Overwater, Eline; Tamminga, Rienk Y. J.; van der Zwaag, Bert; Fermo, Elisa; Bianchi, Paola; van Wijk, Richard; Toye, Ashley M.

    2016-01-01

    Ankyrin-R provides a key link between band 3 and the spectrin cytoskeleton that helps to maintain the highly specialized erythrocyte biconcave shape. Ankyrin deficiency results in fragile spherocytic erythrocytes with reduced band 3 and protein 4.2 expression. We use in vitro differentiation of eryt

  5. Severe Ankyrin-R deficiency results in impaired surface retention and lysosomal degradation of RhAG in human erythroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satchwell, Timothy J; Bell, Amanda J; Hawley, Bethan R; Pellegrin, Stephanie; Mordue, Kathryn E; van Deursen, Cees Th B M; Heitink-Ter Braak, Nicole; Huls, Gerwin; Leers, Mathie P G; Overwater, Eline; Tamminga, Rienk Y J; van der Zwaag, Bert; Fermo, Elisa; Bianchi, Paola; van Wijk, Richard; Toye, Ashley M

    2016-01-01

    Ankyrin-R provides a key link between band 3 and the spectrin cytoskeleton that helps to maintain the highly specialised erythrocyte biconcave shape. Ankyrin deficiency results in fragile spherocytic erythrocytes with reduced band 3 and protein 4.2 expression. We use in vitro differentiation of eryt

  6. Quality-control results for ground-water and surface-water data, Sacramento River Basin, California, National Water-Quality Assessment, 1996-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Cathy; Domagalski, Joseph L.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluating the extent that bias and variability affect the interpretation of ground- and surface-water data is necessary to meet the objectives of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Quality-control samples used to evaluate the bias and variability include annual equipment blanks, field blanks, field matrix spikes, surrogates, and replicates. This report contains quality-control results for the constituents critical to the ground- and surface-water components of the Sacramento River Basin study unit of the NAWQA Program. A critical constituent is one that was detected frequently (more than 50 percent of the time in blank samples), was detected at amounts exceeding water-quality standards or goals, or was important for the interpretation of water-quality data. Quality-control samples were collected along with ground- and surface-water samples during the high intensity phase (cycle 1) of the Sacramento River Basin NAWQA beginning early in 1996 and ending in 1998. Ground-water field blanks indicated contamination of varying levels of significance when compared with concentrations detected in environmental ground-water samples for ammonia, dissolved organic carbon, aluminum, and copper. Concentrations of aluminum in surface-water field blanks were significant when compared with environmental samples. Field blank samples collected for pesticide and volatile organic compound analyses revealed no contamination in either ground- or surface-water samples that would effect the interpretation of environmental data, with the possible exception of the volatile organic compound trichloromethane (chloroform) in ground water. Replicate samples for ground water and surface water indicate that variability resulting from sample collection, processing, and analysis was generally low. Some of the larger maximum relative percentage differences calculated for replicate samples occurred between samples having lowest absolute concentration differences and(or) values near

  7. A comparative study of autokeratometric and Scheimpflug keratometric measurements of the anterior corneal surface: results for a single subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mathebula

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One purpose of the broader study was to determine whether keratometric measurements obtained with an autokeratometer (Nidek ARK-700 would be comparable with those measured using the Oculus Pentacam(model 70700. Ten healthy subjects without ocular abnormality, no previous or current contact lens wear or history of ocular surgery were recruited and at least 43 successive keratometric measurements were obtained for the right eye of each subject using both instruments, namely the autokeratometer and the Pentacam. This paper will concern itself with data from only one of the ten subjects involved, namely Subject 1. The corneal powers were analyzed using multivariate methods for analyzing dioptric power. Scatter plots and meridional profiles of skewness and kurtosis were used to compare the results for the two instruments. Mean dioptric powers in conventional and scientific notation were determined.The results for this subject indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the autokeratometry and the Pentacam. Although the means  between the two instruments were found to be significantly different at a 95% level of confidence, there was minimal clinical difference between the means of the two instruments. That is, this preliminary investigation suggests that in normal eyes, clinically, keratometric results obtained by means of an autokeratometer and a Pentacam are reasonably similar and can be used interchangeably.

  8. Influence of wetting effect at the outer surface of the pipe on increase in leak rate - experimental results and discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isozaki, Toshikuni; Shibata, Katsuyuki

    1997-04-01

    Experimental and computed results applicable to Leak Before Break analysis are presented. The specific area of investigation is the effect of the temperature distribution changes due to wetting of the test pipe near the crack on the increase in the crack opening area and leak rate. Two 12-inch straight pipes subjected to both internal pressure and thermal load, but not to bending load, are modelled. The leak rate was found to be very susceptible to the metal temperature of the piping. In leak rate tests, therefore, it is recommended that temperature distribution be measured precisely for a wide area.

  9. Computer program for predicting surface subsidence resulting from pressure depletion in geopressured wells: subsidence prediction for the DOW test well No. 1, Parcperdue, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, J.C.; Carver, D.R.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    The nucleus-of-strain concept is used to construct a computer program for predicting surface subsidence due to pressure reduction in geopressured reservoirs. Numerical integration allows one to compute the vertical displacement of the ground surface directly above and beyond the aquifer boundaries which results from the pressure reduction in each of the small finite volumes into which the aquifer is partitioned. The program treats depth (measured from the surface to the mean thickness of the aquifer) as a constant. Variation in aquifer thickness is accounted for by linear interpolation from one boundary to its opposite. In this simple model, subsidence is proportional to the pressure reduction (considered constant in this presentation) and to but one physical parameter, Cm(1-..nu..), in which Cm is its coefficient of uniaxial compaction, and ..nu.. is Poisson's ratio.

  10. Hydrogeophysical Cyberinfrastructure For Real-Time Interactive Browser Controlled Monitoring Of Near Surface Hydrology: Results Of A 13 Month Monitoring Effort At The Hanford 300 Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, R. J.; Johnson, T.; Henrie, A.; Johnson, D.

    2013-12-01

    . This infrastructure was used for the acquisition and processing of an electrical geophysical timelapse survey which was collected over a highly instrumented field site in the Hanford 300 Area. Over a 13 month period between November 2011 and December 2012 1823 timelapse datasets were collected (roughly 5 datasets a day for a total of 23 million individual measurements) on three parallel resistivity lines of 30 m each with 0.5 meter electrode spacing. In addition, hydrological and environmental data were collected from dedicated and general purpose sensors. This dataset contains rich information on near surface processes on a range of different spatial and temporal scales (ranging from hourly to seasonal). We will show how this cyberinfrastructure was used to manage and process this dataset and how the cyberinfrastructure can be used to access, mine and visualize the resulting data and information.

  11. Historical Evolution of Global and Regional Surface Air Temperature Simulated by FGOALS-s2 and FGOALS-g2:How Reliable Are the Model Results?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tianjun; SONG Fengfei; CHEN Xiaolong

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess the performance of two versions of the IAP/LASG Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System (FGOALS) model,simulated changes in surface air temperature (SAT),from natural and anthropogenic forcings,were compared to observations for the period 1850-2005 at global,hemispheric,continental and regional scales.The global and hemispheric averages of SAT and their land and ocean components during 1850 2005 were well reproduced by FGOALS-g2,as evidenced by significant correlation coefficients and small RMSEs.The significant positive correlations were firstly determined by the warming trends,and secondly by interdecadal fluctuations.The abilities of the models to reproduce interdecadal SAT variations were demonstrated by both wavelet analysis and significant positive correlations for detrended data.The observed land-sea thermal contrast change was poorly simulated.The major weakness of FGOALS-s2 was an exaggerated warming response to anthropogenic forcing,with the simulation showing results that were far removed from observations prior to the 1950s.The observations featured warming trends (1906-2005)of 0.71,0.68 and 0.79℃ (100 yr) 1 for global,Northern and Southern Hemispheric averages,which were overestimated by FGOALS-s2 [1.42,1.52 and 1.13℃ (100 yr)-1] but underestimated by FGOALS-g2 [0.69,0.68 and 0.73℃ (100 yr)-1].The polar amplification of the warming trend was exaggerated in FGOALS-s2 but weakly reproduced in FGOALS-g2.The stronger response of FGOALS-s2 to anthropogenic forcing was caused by strong sea-ice albedo feedback and water vapor feedback.Examination of model results in 15 selected subcontinental-scale regions showed reasonable performance for FGOALS-g2 over most regions.However,the observed warming trends were overestimated by FGOALS-s2 in most regions.Over East Asia,the meridional gradient of the warming trend simulated by FGOALS-s2 (FGOALS-g2) was stronger (weaker)than observed.

  12. Effect of the La(OH){sub 3} preparation method on the surface and rehydroxylation properties of resulting La{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, M. [Univ. Rovira i Virgili (URV), Departament de Quimica Fisica i Inorganica, Centre EmaS (Spain); Carvajal, J. J. [Univ. Rovira i Virgili (URV), Fisica i Cristallografia de Materials i Nanomaterials (FICMA-FiCNA), Centre EmaS (Spain); Marsal, L. F. [Univ. Rovira i Virgili (URV), Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, Centre EmaS (Spain); Salagre, P. [Univ. Rovira i Virgili (URV), Departament de Quimica Fisica i Inorganica, Centre EmaS (Spain); Aguilo, M.; Diaz, F. [Univ. Rovira i Virgili (URV), Fisica i Cristallografia de Materials i Nanomaterials (FICMA-FiCNA), Centre EmaS (Spain); Formentin, P.; Pallares, J. [Univ. Rovira i Virgili (URV), Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, Centre EmaS (Spain); Cesteros, Y., E-mail: yolanda.cesteros@urv.cat [Univ. Rovira i Virgili (URV), Departament de Quimica Fisica i Inorganica, Centre EmaS (Spain)

    2013-03-15

    Several lanthanum hydroxides (28-146 m{sup 2}/g) were prepared by different procedures involving precipitation and hydrothermal methods by conventional heating or with microwaves. The use of ultrasounds during precipitation led to the formation of additional crystalline phases whereas the aging treatment with microwaves decreased the temperature needed to form the lanthanum oxide phase when compared with the samples aged by conventional heating. After calcination, La{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples showed similar BET surface areas (3-5 m{sup 2}/g) but different particle sizes ranging from 150 to 600 nm depending on the La(OH){sub 3} preparation method, as observed by TEM. La{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples were completely rehydroxylated after 80 h of exposure to atmospheric air at controlled humidity conditions recovering only partially the surface areas of the La(OH){sub 3} precursors (14-18 m{sup 2}/g). The progress of rehydroxylation with time occurred in several steps at different rates. Rehydroxylation rate mainly depended on the particle size and surface area of the lanthanum oxide sample. Therefore, the method used to prepare the initial lanthanum hydroxide affects the surface and rehydroxylation properties of the subsequent lanthanum oxide sample.

  13. Curved reformat of the paediatric brain MRI into a 'flat-earth map' - standardised method for demonstrating cortical surface atrophy resulting from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Ewan; Andronikou, Savvas; Vedajallam, Schadie; Chacko, Anith; Thai, Ngoc Jade

    2016-09-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is optimally imaged with brain MRI in the neonatal period. However neuroimaging is often also performed later in childhood (e.g., when parents seek compensation in cases of alleged birth asphyxia). We describe a standardised technique for creating two curved reconstructions of the cortical surface to show the characteristic surface changes of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in children imaged after the neonatal period. The technique was applied for 10 cases of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and also for age-matched healthy children to assess the visibility of characteristic features of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. In the abnormal brains, fissural or sulcal widening was seen in all cases and ulegyria was identifiable in 7/10. These images could be used as a visual aid for communicating MRI findings to clinicians and other interested parties.

  14. Liquid drops on a surface: Using density functional theory to calculate the binding potential and drop profiles and comparing with results from mesoscopic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Adam P.; Thiele, Uwe; Archer, Andrew J.

    2015-02-01

    The contribution to the free energy for a film of liquid of thickness h on a solid surface due to the interactions between the solid-liquid and liquid-gas interfaces is given by the binding potential, g(h). The precise form of g(h) determines whether or not the liquid wets the surface. Note that differentiating g(h) gives the Derjaguin or disjoining pressure. We develop a microscopic density functional theory (DFT) based method for calculating g(h), allowing us to relate the form of g(h) to the nature of the molecular interactions in the system. We present results based on using a simple lattice gas model, to demonstrate the procedure. In order to describe the static and dynamic behaviour of non-uniform liquid films and drops on surfaces, a mesoscopic free energy based on g(h) is often used. We calculate such equilibrium film height profiles and also directly calculate using DFT the corresponding density profiles for liquid drops on surfaces. Comparing quantities such as the contact angle and also the shape of the drops, we find good agreement between the two methods. We also study in detail the effect on g(h) of truncating the range of the dispersion forces, both those between the fluid molecules and those between the fluid and wall. We find that truncating can have a significant effect on g(h) and the associated wetting behaviour of the fluid.

  15. Temporal disaggregation of satellite-derived monthly precipitation estimates and the resulting propagation of error in partitioning of water at the land surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Margulis

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Global estimates of precipitation can now be made using data from a combination of geosynchronous and low earth-orbit satellites. However, revisit patterns of polar-orbiting satellites and the need to sample mixed-clouds scenes from geosynchronous satellites leads to the coarsening of the temporal resolution to the monthly scale. There are prohibitive limitations to the applicability of monthly-scale aggregated precipitation estimates in many hydrological applications. The nonlinear and threshold dependencies of surface hydrological processes on precipitation may cause the hydrological response of the surface to vary considerably based on the intermittent temporal structure of the forcing. Therefore, to make the monthly satellite data useful for hydrological applications (i.e. water balance studies, rainfall-runoff modelling, etc., it is necessary to disaggregate the monthly precipitation estimates into shorter time intervals so that they may be used in surface hydrology models. In this study, two simple statistical disaggregation schemes are developed for use with monthly precipitation estimates provided by satellites. The two techniques are shown to perform relatively well in introducing a reasonable temporal structure into the disaggregated time series. An ensemble of disaggregated realisations was routed through two land surface models of varying complexity so that the error propagation that takes place over the course of the month could be characterised. Results suggest that one of the proposed disaggregation schemes can be used in hydrological applications without introducing significant error. Keywords: precipitation, temporal disaggregation, hydrological modelling, error propagation

  16. Performance of skid resistance of warm-mix asphalt with buton natural asphalt-rubber (BNA-R) and zeolite additives as a result of road surface temperature changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagi, Natasha; Hadiwardoyo, Sigit Pranowo; Sumabrata, R. Jachrizal; Wahjuningsih, Nurul

    2017-06-01

    Roughness of the road surface acts as an obstacle for the vehicle wheel slip on the road surface especially in wet conditions. Road surface roughness can be generated from the properties of the aggregate or bitumen as a characteristic of asphalt mixture. Various types of added material have been used to improve the performance of hot mix asphalt mixture as well as the warm mix asphalt. The addition of BNA-R and zeolite on the warm asphalt mixtures has been investigated, particularly related with its effect on the value of the skid surface due to the wheels track of the vehicle. The study was conducted in an asphalt mixture before and after the traversed wheel condition. In this study, 7.560 trajectory path using the Wheel Tracking Machine and skid resistance test using a modified British Pendulum Tester, were conducted. Skid resistance test involved various temperatures on the surface of the specimen. The results showed that the addition of BNA-R can increase the value of the skid at the beginning of the track, but at the last track, skid resistance performance was stagnant. Zeolite additive material in warm mix asphalt has improved skid resistance, especially the resistance of asphalt concrete mixture to temperature changes.

  17. Ribavirin shows immunomodulatory effects on activated microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Danijela; Stojiljkovic, Mirjana; Lavrnja, Irena; Parabucki, Ana; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda; Herdegen, Thomas; Pekovic, Sanja

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Ribavirin (RBV) is synthetic purine nucleoside analogue, licensed as anti-viral drug that displays immunomodulatory actions on various immune cells. Our previous ex vivo studies have demonstrated immunosuppressive effects of RBV on reactive T-lymphocytes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Here, we examined the effects of RBV on inflammatory response of microglia. RBV potency to down-regulate microglia inflammatory response was assessed by measuring microglia cell body size, and the production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. RBV exerted cytotoxic effects on LPS-stimulated microglia, leaving non-stimulated microglia unaffected. The exposure of activated microglia to RBV led to: decrease in the level of NO as a result of decreased cell number, lower average cell surface, the reduction of membrane ruffling, the suppression of interleukin-6 release and promoted interleukin-10 production. On the other hand, RBV promoted LPS-induced interleukin-1 beta release. Our results imply that RBV is a complex immunomodulator showing both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects on activated microglia.

  18. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  19. Antigenic topology of the P29 surface lipoprotein of Mycoplasma fermentans: differential display of epitopes results in high-frequency phase variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss, P; Karpas, A; Wise, K S

    1996-05-01

    Antibodies to P29, a major lipid-modified surface protein of Mycoplasma fermentans, reveal phase variation of surface epitopes occurring with high frequency in clonal lineages of the organism. This occurs despite continuous expression of the entire epitope-bearing P29 product (detected by Western immunoblotting) and contrasts with phase variation of other surface antigens mediated by differential expression of proteins. To understand the structure and antigenic topology of P29, the single-copy p29 gene from strain PG18 was cloned and sequenced. The gene encodes a prolipoprotein containing a signal sequence predicted to be modified with lipid and cleaved at the N-terminal Cys-1 residue of the mature P29 lipoprotein. The remaining 218-residue hydrophilic sequence of P29 is predicted to be located external to the single plasma membrane. Additional Cys residues at positions 91 and 128 in the mature protein were shown to form a 36-residue disulfide loop by selectively labeling sulfhydryl groups that were liberated only after chemical reduction of monomeric P29. Two nearly identical charged amino acid sequences occurred in P29, within the disulfide loop and upstream of this structure. Two distinct epitopes binding different monoclonal antibodies were associated with opposite ends of the P29 protein, by mapping products expressed in Escherichia coli from PCR-generated 3' deletion mutations of the p29 gene. Each monoclonal antibody detected high-frequency and noncoordinate changes in accessibility of the corresponding epitopes in colony immunoblots of clonal variants, yet sequencing of the p29 gene from these variants and analysis of disulfide bonds revealed no associated changes in the primary sequence or disulfide loop structure of P29. These results suggest that P29 surface epitope variation may involve masking of selected regions of P29, possibly by other surface components undergoing phase variation by differential expression. Differential masking may be an important

  20. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  1. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  2. Modeling of surface metrology of state-of-the-art x-ray mirrors as a result of stochastic polishing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Tyurin, Yury N.; Tyurina, Anastasia Y.

    2016-07-01

    The design and evaluation of the expected performance of optical systems requires sophisticated and reliable information about the surface topography of planned optical elements before they are fabricated. The problem is especially severe in the case of x-ray optics for modern diffraction-limited-electron-ring and free-electron-laser x-ray facilities, as well as x-ray astrophysics missions, such as the X-ray Surveyor under development. Modern x-ray source facilities are reliant upon the availability of optics of unprecedented quality, with surface slope accuracy x-ray space observatories require high-quality optics of 100 m2 in total area. The uniqueness of the optics and limited number of proficient vendors make the fabrication extremely time-consuming and expensive, mostly due to the limitations in accuracy and measurement rate of metrology used in fabrication. We continue investigating the possibility of improving metrology efficiency via comprehensive statistical treatment of a compact volume of metrology of surface topography, which is considered the result of a stochastic polishing process. We suggest, verify, and discuss an analytical algorithm for identification of an optimal symmetric time-invariant linear filter model with a minimum number of parameters and smallest residual error. If successful, the modeling could provide feedback to deterministic polishing processes, avoiding time-consuming, whole-scale metrology measurements over the entire optical surface with the resolution required to cover the entire desired spatial frequency range. The modeling also allows forecasting of metrology data for optics made by the same vendor and technology. The forecast data are vital for reliable specification for optical fabrication, evaluated from numerical simulation to be exactly adequate for the required system performance, avoiding both over- and underspecification.

  3. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  4. A new scheme for joint surface wave and earthquake travel-time inversion and resulting 3-D velocity model for the western North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart-Phillips, Donna; Fry, Bill

    2017-08-01

    We have developed a joint inversion of surface wave group velocity (U) and local earthquake travel-time (LET) data and applied it to the North Island, New Zealand, to improve the existing New Zealand wide 3-D seismic velocity model. This approach takes full advantage of the differing sensitivities of surface and body waves. The data are complementary, particularly at shallow depths where LET tomography suffers from vertical smearing and surface wave tomography is susceptible to horizontal smearing. The employed U observations are 2-D models at discrete periods which were developed for Rayleigh wave dispersion curves measured from the 1744 interstation Green's Functions obtained by stacked cross-correlations of broadband ambient noise data. In the volume surrounding each U observation, we distribute numerous points for relating the U observation to the gridded 3-D tomography model, analogous to points along a raypath. The partial derivatives at the points are computed using the U sensitivity kernels for Vp and Vs, with Vs related to Vp and Vp/Vs perturbations. Thus, the U observations are included along with the travel-time observations in a joint inversion to best fit the data and the existing tomography model. The resulting model favors the U where there is little travel-time resolution. The combined inversion used 2949 U observations at 6-16 s period and LET from 1509 earthquakes that extend to 370 km depth, and improved the model fit by reducing the U residual data variance by 62% and the LET by 9%. The resulting model generally has better constrained depth of shallow anomalies, with decreased velocity in the upper 2 km in the western North Island, and slight focusing of crustal high velocity features at 8 km depth. Significantly, the increased resolution in the shallowest 5 km of the model improves the utility of the 3-D model for use in seismic hazard assessment, wave propagation studies, and studies comparing seismic velocities to geological mapping.

  5. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Lau, Morten I.; Rutström, E. Elisabet

    2008-01-01

    , and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  6. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makidono, Akari; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Mori, Miki; Yagata, Hiroshi; Onoda, Yui; Kikuchi, Mari; Nozaki, Taiki; Saida, Yukihisa; Nakamura, Seigo; Suzuki, Koyu

    2013-07-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare fibroepithelial lesion and particularly uncommon in adolescent girls. It is thought to arise from the periductal rather than intralobular stroma. Usually, it is seen as a well-defined mass. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth is extremely rare. Here we report a girl who has a phyllodes tumor with intraductal growth.

  7. Pembrolizumab Shows Promise for NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Data from the KEYNOTE-001 trial show that pembrolizumab improves clinical outcomes for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and is well tolerated. PD-L1 expression in at least 50% of tumor cells correlated with improved efficacy.

  8. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  9. Surface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide observations by shipboard automated gas chromatography: Results from expeditions between 1977 and 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, R.F.; Van Woy, F.A.; Salameh, P.K. (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States)); Sepanski, R.J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center)

    1992-12-01

    This document presents the results of surface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) and nitrous oxide (N[sub 2]O) measurements carried out by shipboard gas chromatography over the period 1977--1990. These data include results from 11 different oceanic surveys for a total of 41 expedition legs. Collectively, they represent a globally distributed sampling that includes locations in the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Southern Oceans, as well as the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The measurements were made by an automated high-precision shipboard gas chromatographic system developed during the late 1970s and used extensively over the intervening years. This instrument measures CO[sub 2] by flame ionization after quantitative reaction to methane in a stream of hydrogen. Nitrous oxide is measured by a separate electron capture detector. The chromatographic system measures 196 dry-gas samples a day, divided equally among the atmosphere, gas equilibrated with surface water, a low-range gas standard, and a high-range gas standard.

  10. Resrad-recycle: a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing radioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-Jy; Kassas, Bassel; Yu, Charley; Amish, John; LePoire, Dave; Chen, Shih-Yew; Williams, W A; Wallo, A; Peterson, H

    2004-11-01

    RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data.

  11. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  12. Spatial pattern of grain-size distribution in surface sediments as a result of variations in the aeolian environment in China's Shapotou railway protective system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaqiong; Zhang, Chunlai; Zhou, Na; Ma, Xiaojie

    2011-12-01

    China's Shapotou railway protective system provides effective protection against the region's mobile sands, but little quantitative evidence is available about how it affects the aeolian environment surrounding the railway. In the present study, we analyzed the grain-size distribution in surface sediments as a result of variations in the aeolian environment at different spatial scales: the scale of a cross-section of the protective system along the prevailing wind direction (from the northwest to southeast), of individual stabilized sand dunes in the area protected by straw checkerboards and unirrigated vegetation, of the area around individual plants in the protective system, and of individual straw checkerboards. Surface sediments were sampled to define the spatial pattern of the grain-size distribution at these four scales. Along the transect from the area of mobile dunes through the protective system, sediment particles became finer (silt and clay contents increased) and sorting decreased. This indicated that the protective system is a deposition-dominated aeolian environment, with sediment characteristics stabilizing with increasing distance inside the protected area. In such an environment, dune topographic relief also played an important role in determining the deposition pattern; the dune top is particularly fragile and subject to wind erosion if the straw checkerboards or planted vegetation are destroyed. The influences of the straw checkerboards and the plant canopies on the grain size of the surface sediments within a single checkerboard or near a single plant were limited. However, the combination of straw checkerboards and planted vegetation has synergistically produced a deposition-dominated aeolian environment.

  13. Picasso on Show in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A staff member of the National Picasso Museum of France checks one of the great Spanish artist Pablo Picasso’s works at the China Pavilion inside the site of the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai on October 12.Sixty-two priceless paintings and statues selected from the works of the renowned artist have been brought to the pavilion for an upcoming exhibition to premiere on October 18.Besides these representative masterpieces,50 valuable photographs showing the artist’s whole life will also be presented.The exhibition’s estimated value is 678 million euros ($934 million).It will be held until January 10,2012.

  14. Graphene Oxides Show Angiogenic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Sriram, Pavithra; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Nethi, Susheel Kumar; Veeriah, Vimal; Chatterjee, Suvro; Suresh, Kattimuttathu Ittara; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2015-08-05

    Angiogenesis, a process resulting in the formation of new capillaries from the pre-existing vasculature plays vital role for the development of therapeutic approaches for cancer, atherosclerosis, wound healing, and cardiovascular diseases. In this report, the synthesis, characterization, and angiogenic properties of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been demonstrated, observed through several in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. The results here demonstrate that the intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species as well as activation of phospho-eNOS and phospho-Akt might be the plausible mechanisms for GO and rGO induced angiogenesis. The results altogether suggest the possibilities for the development of alternative angiogenic therapeutic approach for the treatment of cardiovascular related diseases where angiogenesis plays a significant role.

  15. Reality shows: uma abordagem psicossocial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Bueno Millan

    Full Text Available Desde os primórdios da civilização, o ser humano mostra necessidade de representar cenicamente seus dramas pessoais e vicissitudes existenciais. O "reality show" é uma das versões pós-modernas da encenação da vida humana. Este artigo, por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, analisa criticamente as relações existentes entre o "reality show" e aspectos psicossociais do comportamento humano. Conclui-se que tais programas televisivos são o retrato da contemporaneidade, ou seja, revelam a morte do sujeito, a fugacidade das experiências vividas, a desvalorização da história e o culto à imagem e à superficialidade. Por meio da sedução do espectador, mobilizam-se aspectos primitivos de seu psiquismo, fazendo com que ele se sinta narcisicamente poderoso e onipotente e se acredite dono do destino dos participantes do programa. Sugerem-se novos estudos que contribuam para a reflexão crítica e maior conscientização.

  16. "Medicine show." Alice in Doctorland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This is an excerpt from the script of a 1939 play provided to the Institute of Social Medicine and Community Health by the Library of Congress Federal Theater Project Collection at George Mason University Library, Fairfax, Virginia, pages 2-1-8 thru 2-1-14. The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was part of the New Deal program for the arts 1935-1939. Funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) its goal was to employ theater professionals from the relief rolls. A number of FTP plays deal with aspects of medicine and public health. Pageants, puppet shows and documentary plays celebrated progress in medical science while examining social controversies in medical services and the public health movement. "Medicine Show" sharply contrasts technological wonders with social backwardness. The play was rehearsed by the FTP but never opened because funding ended. A revised version ran on Broadway in 1940. The preceding comments are adapted from an excellent, well-illustrated review of five of these plays by Barabara Melosh: "The New Deal's Federal Theatre Project," Medical Heritage, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 1986), pp. 36-47.

  17. Two or three machined vs roughened surface dental implants loaded immediately supporting total fixed prostheses: 1-year results from a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzaro, Gioacchino; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Gherlone, Enrico; Vinci, Raffaele; Loi, Ignazio; Trullenque-Eriksson, Anna; Esposito, Marco

    2017-01-01

    both groups losing marginal bone in a statistically significant way (0.35 ± 0.23 mm for machined and 0.42 ± 0.27 mm for roughened surface). These preliminary results suggest that immediately loaded cross-arch prostheses can be supported by only two mandibular or three maxillary dental implants at least up to 1 year post-loading, independently of the type of implant surface used. Longer follow-ups are needed to understand whether one of the two-implant surfaces is preferable.

  18. Modelling the passive microwave signature from land surfaces: a review of recent results and application to the SMOS & SMAP soil moisture retrieval algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two passive microwave missions are currently operating at L-band to monitor surface soil moisture (SM) over continental surfaces. The SMOS sensor, based on an innovative interferometric technology enabling multi-angular signatures of surfaces to be measured, was launched in November 2009....

  19. F-18 high alpha research vehicle surface pressures: Initial in-flight results and correlation with flow visualization and wind-tunnel data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David F.; Banks, Daniel W.; Richwine, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Pressure distributions measured on the forebody and the leading-edge extensions (LEX's) of the NASA F-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV) were reported at 10 and 50 degree angles of attack and at Mach 0.20 to 0.60. The results were correlated with HARV flow visualization and 6-percent scale F-18 wind-tunnel-model test results. The general trend in the data from the forebody was for the maximum suction pressure peaks to first appear at an angle of attack (alpha) of approximately 19 degrees and increase in magnitude with angle of attack. The LEX pressure distribution general trend was the inward progression and increase in magnitude of the maximum suction peaks up to vortex core breakdown and then the decrease and general flattening of the pressure distribution beyond that. No significant effect of Mach number was noted for the forebody results. However, a substantial compressibility effect on the LEX's resulted in a significant reduction in vortex-induced suction pressure as Mach number increased. The forebody primary and the LEX secondary vortex separation lines, from surface flow visualization, correlated well with the end of pressure recovery, leeward and windward, respectively, of maximum suction pressure peaks. The flight to wind-tunnel correlations were generally good with some exceptions.

  20. The 3rd generation Front-End cards of the Pierre Auger surface detectors: Test results and performance in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szadkowski, Z.; Bäcker, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Buchholz, P.; Fleck, I.; Kampert, K.-H.; Rammes, M.; Rautenberg, J.; Taşcău, O.

    2009-07-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory comprises 1600 water Cherenkov detectors distributed over an area of 3000 km2. The Cherenkov light is detected by three 9-in. photo-multiplier tubes from which the signals of the anode and last dynode are digitized by 10 bit 40 MHz FADCs. An Altera Cyclone FPGA is employed to generate different local triggers and to handle the data transfer to a communication board. After briefly discussing the design of the cards we present an autonomous test-bench, which has been set up in order to test the large number of boards prior to installation in the field. The qualification procedure and the results obtained in the laboratory are presented. Up to three years of operation in the field demonstrate a very good performance and reliability of the Front-End cards.

  1. The 3rd generation Front-End cards of the Pierre Auger surface detectors: Test results and performance in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szadkowski, Z. [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Department of Physics, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); University of Lodz, Department of Physics and Applied Informatics, 90-236 Lodz (Poland)], E-mail: zszadkow@kfd2.phys.uni.lodz.pl; Baecker, T. [Universitaet Siegen, Department of Physics, 57058 Siegen (Germany); Becker, K.-H. [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Department of Physics, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Buchholz, P.; Fleck, I. [Universitaet Siegen, Department of Physics, 57058 Siegen (Germany); Kampert, K.-H. [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Department of Physics, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany)], E-mail: kampert@uni-wuppertal.de; Rammes, M. [Universitaet Siegen, Department of Physics, 57058 Siegen (Germany); Rautenberg, J.; Tascau, O. [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Department of Physics, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2009-07-21

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory comprises 1600 water Cherenkov detectors distributed over an area of 3000km{sup 2}. The Cherenkov light is detected by three 9-in. photo-multiplier tubes from which the signals of the anode and last dynode are digitized by 10 bit 40 MHz FADCs. An Altera Cyclone FPGA is employed to generate different local triggers and to handle the data transfer to a communication board. After briefly discussing the design of the cards we present an autonomous test-bench, which has been set up in order to test the large number of boards prior to installation in the field. The qualification procedure and the results obtained in the laboratory are presented. Up to three years of operation in the field demonstrate a very good performance and reliability of the Front-End cards.

  2. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    CERN Document Server

    Sernelius, Bo E

    2009-01-01

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can exp...

  3. Monitoring peak power and cooling energy savings of shade trees and white surfaces in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) service area: Project design and preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, H.; Bretz, S.; Hanford, J.; Rosenfeld, A.; Sailor, D.; Taha, H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bos, W. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Urban areas in warm climates create summer heat islands of daily average intensity of 3--5{degrees}C, adding to discomfort and increasing air-conditioning loads. Two important factors contributing to urban heat islands are reductions in albedo (lower overall city reflectance) and loss of vegetation (less evapotranspiration). Reducing summer heat islands by planting vegetation (shade trees) and increasing surface albedos, saves cooling energy, allows down-sizing of air conditioners, lowers air-conditioning peak demand, and reduces the emission of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from electric power plants. The focus of this multi-year project, jointly sponsored by SMUD and the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE), was to measure the direct cooling effects of trees and white surfaces (mainly roofs) in a few buildings in Sacramento. The first-year project was to design the experiment and obtain base case data. We also obtained limited post retrofit data for some sites. This report provides an overview of the project activities during the first year at six sites. The measurement period for some of the sites was limited to September and October, which are transitional cooling months in Sacramento and hence the interpretation of results only apply to this period. In one house, recoating the dark roof with a high-albedo coating rendered air conditioning unnecessary for the month of September (possible savings of up to 10 kWh per day and 2 kW of non-coincidental peak power). Savings of 50% relative to an identical base case bungalow were achieved when a school bungalow`s roof and southeast wall were coated with a high-albedo coating during the same period. Our measured data for the vegetation sites do not indicate conclusive results because shade trees were small and the cooling period was almost over. We need to collect more data over a longer cooling season in order to demonstrate savings conclusively.

  4. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme Gln1069Arg mutation impairs trafficking to the cell surface resulting in selective denaturation of the C-domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei M Danilov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE; Kininase II; CD143 hydrolyzes small peptides such as angiotensin I, bradykinin, substance P, LH-RH and several others and thus plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Complete absence of ACE in humans leads to renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD, a severe disorder of renal tubule development characterized by persistent fetal anuria and perinatal death. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Patient with RTD in Lisbon, Portugal, maintained by peritoneal dialysis since birth, was found to have a homozygous substitution of Arg for Glu at position 1069 in the C-terminal domain of ACE (Q1069R resulting in absence of plasma ACE activity; both parents and a brother who are heterozygous carriers of this mutation had exactly half-normal plasma ACE activity compared to healthy individuals. We hypothesized that the Q1069R substitution impaired ACE trafficking to the cell surface and led to accumulation of catalytically inactive ACE in the cell cytoplasm. CHO cells expressing wild-type (WT vs. Q1069R-ACE demonstrated the mutant accumulates intracellularly and also that it is significantly degraded by intracellular proteases. Q1069R-ACE retained catalytic and immunological characteristics of WT-ACE N domain whereas it had 10-20% of the nativity of the WT-ACE C domain. A combination of chemical (sodium butyrate or pharmacological (ACE inhibitor chaperones with proteasome inhibitors (MG 132 or bortezomib significantly restored trafficking of Q1069R-ACE to the cell surface and increased ACE activity in the cell culture media 4-fold. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Homozygous Q1069R substitution results in an ACE trafficking and processing defect which can be rescued, at least in cell culture, by a combination of chaperones and proteasome inhibitors. Further studies are required to determine whether similar treatment of individuals with this ACE mutation would provide therapeutic benefits such as

  5. Regular patterns of Cs-137 distribution in natural conjugated elementary landscapes as a result of a balanced surface and depth water migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Distribution of artificial radionuclides in the environment has long been used successfully for revealing migration pathways of their stable analogues. Migration of water in natural conjugated elementary landscapes characterizing the system of top-slope-resulting depression, has a specific structure and the radionuclide tracer is inevitably reflecting it by specific sorption and exchange processes. Other important issues are the concentration levels and the difference in characteristic time of chemical element dispersion. Modern biosphere has acquired its sustainable structure within a long period of time and is formed by basic macroelements allowing the water soluble portion of elements functioning as activators of chemical exchange. Water migration is controlled by gravitation, climate and relief while fixation depends upon the parameters of surfaces and chemical composition. The resulting structure depends on specificity and duration of the process. The long-term redistribution of chemical elements in terrestrial environment has led to a distinct geochemical structure of conjugated landscapes with a specific geometry of redistribution and accumulation of chemical elements. Migration of the newly born anthropogenic radionuclides followed natural pathways in biosphere. The initial deposition of the Chernobyl's radionuclides within the elementary landscape-geochemical system was even by condition of aerial deposition. But further exchange process is controlled by the strength of fixation and migration ability of the carriers. Therefore patterns of spatial distribution of artificial radionuclides in natural landscapes are considerably different as compared to those of the long-term forming the basic structure of chemical fields in biosphere. Our monitoring of Cs-137 radial and lateral distribution in the test plots characterizing natural undisturbed conjugated elementary landscapes performed in the period from 2005 until now has revealed a stable and specifically

  6. Forsmark site investigation. Hydrochemical monitoring of groundwaters and surface waters. Results from water sampling in the Forsmark area, January-December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin (ed.); Berg, Cecilia; Harrstroem, Johan; Joensson, Stig; Thur, Pernilla (Geosigma AB (Sweden)); Borgiel, Micke; Qvarfordt, Susanne (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    variations in groundwater composition during the period 2005 to 2009 are presented in the report. The nitrogen concentration in the groundwater from soil pipe SFM0037 continued to be somewhat high also in August 2009, and especially the phosphate concentration was very high at that occasion. The sampled surface waters in the Forsmark area show similar seasonal variations as last year. Seasonal and annual variations in surface water composition during the period 2005 to 2009 are presented in the report. The waters are well buffered with high alkalinity, high pH and high calcium concentrations, and waters affected or recently affected by brackish sea water show high sodium chloride concentrations. Elevated tritium concentrations have been observed occasionally in samples collected close to the cooling water outlet from the nuclear power plant (Lake Biotestsjoen). This occurred once during 2009 (August)

  7. Results of the application of seismic-reflection and electromagnetic techniques for near-surface hydrogeologic and environmental investigations at Fort Bragg, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M.T.; Fine, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Facilities Investigations at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, selected geophysical techniques were evaluated for their usefulness as assessment tools for determining subsurface geology, delineating the areal extent of potentially contaminated landfill sites, and locating buried objects and debris of potential environmental concern. Two shallow seismic-reflection techniques (compression and shear wave) and two electromagnetic techniques (ground-penetrating radar and terrain conductivity) were evaluated at several sites at the U.S. Army Base. The electromagnetic techniques also were tested for tolerance to cultural noise, such as nearby fences, vehicles, and power lines. For the terrain conductivity tests, two instruments were used--the EM31 and EM34, which have variable depths of exploration. The shallowest reflection event was 70 feet below land surface observed in common-depth point, stacked compression-wave data from 24- and 12-fold shallow-seismic-reflection surveys. Several reflection events consistent with clay-sand interfaces between 70 and 120 feet below land surface, along with basement-saprolite surfaces, were imaged in the 24-fold, common- depth-point stacked data. 12-fold, common-depth-point stacked data set contained considerably more noise than the 24-fold, common-depth-point data, due to reduced shot-to-receiver redundancy. Coherent stacked reflection events were not observed in the 24-fold, common-depth-point stacked shear-wave data because of the partial decoupling of the shear- wave generator from the ground. At one site, ground-penetrating radar effectively delineated a shallow, 2- to 5-foot thick sand unit bounded by thin (less than 1 foot) clay layers. The radar signal was completely attenuated where the overlying and underlying clay units thickened and the sand unit thinned. The pene- tration depth of the radar signal was less than 10 feet below land surface. A slight

  8. Bioactive glass 45S5 powders: effect of synthesis route and resultant surface chemistry and crystallinity on protein adsorption from human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahniuk, Markian S; Pirayesh, Hamidreza; Singh, Harsh D; Nychka, John A; Unsworth, Larry D

    2012-12-01

    Despite its medical applications, the mechanisms responsible for the osseointegration of bioactive glass (45S5) have yet to be fully understood. Evidence suggests that the strongest predictor for osseointegration of bioactive glasses, and ceramics, with bone tissue as the formation of an apatitic calcium phosphate layer atop the implanted material, with osteoblasts being the main mediator for new bone formation. Most have tried to understand the formation of this apatitic calcium phosphate layer, and other bioresponses between the host and bioactive glass 45S5 using Simulated Body Fluid; a solution containing ion concentrations similar to that found in human plasma without the presence of proteins. However, it is likely that cell attachment is probably largely mediated via the adsorbed protein layer. Plasma protein adsorption at the tissue bioactive glass interface has been largely overlooked. Herein, we compare crystalline and amorphous bioactive glass 45S5, in both melt-derived as well as sol-gel forms. Thus, allowing for a detailed understanding of both the role of crystallinity and powder morphology on surface ions, and plasma protein adsorption. It was found that sol-gel 45S5 powders, regardless of crystallinity, adsorbed 3-5 times as much protein as the crystalline melt-derived counterpart, as well as a greater variety of plasma proteins. The devitrification of melt-cast 45S5 resulted in only small differences in the amount and variety of the adsorbed proteome. Surface properties, and not material crystallinity, play a role in directing protein adsorption phenomena for bioactive glasses given the differences found between crystalline melt-cast 45S5 and sol-gel derived 45S5.

  9. Forsmark site investigation. Hydrochemical monitoring of groundwaters and surface waters. Results from water sampling in the Forsmark area, January-December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin (ed.); Berg, Cecilia; Harrstroem, Johan; Joensson, Stig; Thur, Pernilla (Geosigma AB (Sweden)); Borgiel, Micke; Qvarfordt, Susanne (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    The fifth year (2009) of hydrochemical monitoring of groundwaters, surface waters and precipitation in Forsmark is documented in the report. The hydrochemical monitoring programme 2009 included water sampling from: - percussion- and core boreholes equipped with installations for long-term pressure monitoring, tracer tests and water sampling in packed off borehole sections, sampling and analysis performed twice (spring and autumn), - near surface groundwaters (sampling four times a year), - private wells (once per year in October), - surface waters (eleven sampling occasions per year). Due to the somewhat different performance of the hydrogeochemical monitoring of the deep groundwaters during the autumn 2009 compared to previous years, some new findings and knowledge were obtained: 1) Removal of water volumes corresponding to three to five times the volume of the borehole section (the routine procedure) is seldom enough to obtain a complete exchange of the water present in the borehole section when the pumping starts. 2) It is likely that the elevated sulphide concentrations observed in the monitoring programme /1/ is due to contamination from initial water present in the borehole sections when the pumping starts. This water may have a very high sulphide concentration. Dirty water in tubes and in stand pipes may also contribute to the enhanced sulphide concentration. 3) Plug flow calculations will be introduced in the future as a new routine procedure to estimate the water volumes to be removed, in order to exchange the section water volume, prior to groundwater sampling in delimited borehole sections. During the autumn sampling, sample series of five samples per sampling location were collected during continuous pumping in thirteen selected borehole sections. Furthermore, special efforts were put on cleaning of stand pipes and exchange of water prior to sampling. The analytical protocol was rather extensive and included sulphide and uranium analyses for each sample

  10. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 2964, 2966, 3064, and 3066, Shah-Esmail (617), Reg-Alaqadari (618), Samandkhan-Karez (713), Laki-Bander (611), Jahangir-Naweran (612), and Sreh-Chena (707) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  11. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 2964, 2966, 3064, and 3066, Shah-Esmail (617), Reg-Alaqadari (618), Samandkhan-Karez (713), Laki-Bander (611), Jahangir-Naweran (612), and Sreh-Chena (707) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefen, Todd M.; King, Trude V.V.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  12. Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia in 200 Patients: A Case-Control Study of Immunosuppression Resulting from Human Immunodeficiency Virus versus Immunocompetency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Saurabh; Kaliki, Swathi; Mishra, Dilip K; Batra, Jyoti; Naik, Milind N

    2015-08-01

    To describe and compare the clinical presentation, treatment outcomes, and histopathologic features of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) based on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status. Case-control study. A total of 200 patients with OSSN, of whom 83 (41%) had positive results for HIV and were classified as cases and 117 (59%) had negative results for HIV and were classified as controls. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for HIV, conjuntival excision biopsy, extended enucleation, orbital exenteration. Clinical features, treatment outcomes, and histopathologic characteristics. The mean age at presentation of OSSN in both cases and controls was 40 years (median, 40 years; range, 13-65 years) and in controls was 40 years (median, 38 years; range, 15-80 years). On comparison of cases versus controls with OSSN, HIV-positive individuals had larger (12 vs. 8 mm; P < 0.001) and thicker (3.2 vs. 2.3 mm; P = 0.041) tumors, with a higher incidence of corneal (60% vs. 40%; P = 0.007), scleral (19% vs. 9%; P = 0.044), and orbital (13% vs. 3%; P = 0.019) invasion and a higher need for extended enucleation or exenteration (27% vs. 11%; P < 0.001). The bilateral presentation (11% vs. 4%; P = 0.13), need for lamellar sclerectomy (13% vs. 8%; P = 0.29), and tumor recurrence after primary treatment (30% vs. 20%; P = 0.12) was higher in HIV-positive cases compared with HIV-negative controls. However, these features were not statistically significant. Based on American Joint Committee on Cancer classification, T1 tumor was more common in controls (13% in cases vs. 35% in controls; P = 0.0009), and T4 tumor was more common in cases (13% in cases vs. 4% in controls; P = 0.019). None of the patients demonstrated systemic metastases or died of disease during a mean follow-up period of 10 months (median, 4 months; range, <1-75 months) in cases and 9 months (median, 4 months; range, <1-99 months) in controls. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia in HIV-positive individuals is

  13. Geochemical processes in ground water resulting from surface mining of coal at the Big Sky and West Decker Mine areas, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A potential hydrologic effect of surface mining of coal in southeastern Montana is a change in the quality of ground water. Dissolved-solids concen- trations in water in spoils aquifers generally are larger than concentrations in water in the coal aquifers they replaced; however, laboratory experiments have indicated that concentrations can decrease if ground water flows from coal-mine spoils to coal. This study was conducted to determine if decreases in concentrations occur onsite and, if so, which geochemical processes caused the decreases. Solid-phase core samples of spoils, unmined over- burden, and coal, and ground-water samples were collected from 16 observation wells at two mine areas. In the Big Sky Mine area, changes in ground- water chemistry along a flow path from an upgradient coal aquifer to a spoils aquifer probably were a result of dedolomitization. Dissolved-solids concentrations were unchanged as water flowed from a spoils aquifer to a downgradient coal aquifer. In the West Decker Mine area, dissolved-solids concentrations apparently decreased from about 4,100 to 2,100 milligrams per liter as water moved along an inferred flow path from a spoils aquifer to a downgradient coal aquifer. Geochemical models were used to analyze changes in water chemistry on the basis of results of solid-phase and aqueous geochemical characteristics. Geochemical processes postulated to result in the apparent decrease in dissolved-solids concentrations along this inferred flow path include bacterial reduction of sulfate, reverse cation exchange within the coal, and precipitation of carbonate and iron-sulfide minerals.

  14. Results from Assimilating AMSR-E Soil Moisture Estimates into a Land Surface Model Using an Ensemble Kalman Filter in the Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Clay B.; Crosson, William L.; Case, Jonathan L.; Hale, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Improve simulations of soil moisture/temperature, and consequently boundary layer states and processes, by assimilating AMSR-E soil moisture estimates into a coupled land surface-mesoscale model Provide a new land surface model as an option in the Land Information System (LIS)

  15. What is the role of historical and future anthropogenically-induced land-cover change on the surface climate of West Africa? Results from the LUCID and LUCID-CMIP5 intercomparison project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Souleymane; de Noblet Ducoudré, Nathalie; Boisier, Juan Pablo; Sultan, benjamin; Thierno Gaye, Amadou

    2016-04-01

    West Africa has been highlighted as a hot spot of land surface-atmosphere interactions. A significant climate feature in this region is the West African monsoon (WAM), which variability dominants the climate variability. The role of historical anthropogenically induced land-cover change on the surface climate of West Africa is assessed using the outputs of the project Land-Use and Climate, IDentification of Robust Impacts (LUCID). Focusing the analysis on Sahel and Guinea, the results reveal that even though a common experimental design are used among the seven climate LUCID models, the areas of crops and pastures are specific for each Land Surface Model (LSM) due to different interpretations of land-use changes. In addition, the historical effects of land-use changes are not regionally significant among the seven climate models due to a small land-use change prescribed in these regions, the intercomparison analysis reveals a very contrasted responses between the models which transforms crops and pastures to desert fraction and others which deforest massively. Despite this various characterization within the seven LSMs, the results reveal that the change in surface albedo, leaf area index, and roughness surface is roughly proportional in Guinea to the amount of deforestation imposed on the individual models. The analysis highlights also the importance of having a realistic land-cover distribution to correctly represent the present-day surface climate in West African regions. The obtained results show that there is neither better nor worse performance among the climate models than others in these regions. Furthermore, there is no consistency among the various models regarding the response on both imposed land cover map to present day surface climate resulting in uncertainty in the representation of atmospheric processes. These climatic effects of land-use changes are relatively small compared to those resulting from the increased greenhouse gases. Therefore, for a

  16. Urban trees and light-colored surfaces as a climate change strategy: Results from the US and potential in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, H.; Sathaye, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the impact of two strategies in an urban environment for effecting substantial energy savings. They are the use of light colored materials on roofing and other flat surfaces, and the planting of additional trees. The lighter colored roofing materials will reflect more solar heat, resulting in lowered air conditioning costs. The additional trees will provide more shading, thereby increasing comfort, and will act as an aid in dropping the ambient temperature by means of evapotranspiration through the leaf systems. Both of these effects will reduce the direct energy inputs leading to air conditioning loads in an urban setting, and indirectly they will have an impact on urban smog though the lowered ambient temperature. The authors also discuss the applications of these ideas in developing countries, where often building energy costs can consume half of developed electrical capacity, and which tend to be in warmer climates. The density of many major urban areas in developing countries make the use of trees much harder to implement.

  17. Results of soil, ground-water, surface-water, and streambed-sediment sampling at Air Force Plane 85, Columbus, Ohio, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, prepared the Surface- and Ground- Water Monitoring Work Plan for Air Force Plant 85 (AFP 85 or Plant), Columbus, Ohio, under the Air Force Installation Restoration Program to characterize any ground-water, surface-water, and soil contamination that may exist at AFP 85. The USGS began the study in November 1996. The Plant was divided into nine sampling areas, which included some previously investi gated study sites. The investigation activities included the collection and presentation of data taken during drilling and water-quality sampling. Data collection focused on the saturated and unsatur ated zones and surface water. Twenty-three soil borings were completed. Ten monitoring wells (six existing wells and four newly constructed monitoring wells) were selected for water-quality sam pling. Surface-water and streambed-sediment sampling locations were chosen to monitor flow onto and off of the Plant. Seven sites were sampled for both surface-water and streambed-sediment quality. This report presents data on the selected inorganic and organic constituents in soil, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments at AFP 85. The methods of data collection and anal ysis also are included. Knowledge of the geologic and hydrologic setting could aid Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, and its governing regulatory agencies in future remediation studies.

  18. DNA ELECTROPHORESIS AT SURFACES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAFAILOVICH, MIRIAM; SOKOLOV, JONATHAN; GERSAPPE, DILIP

    2003-09-01

    During this year we performed two major projects: I. We developed a detailed theoretical model which complements our experiments on surface DNA electrophoresis. We found that it was possible to enhance the separation of DNA chains by imposing a chemical nanoscale pattern on the surface. This approach utilized the surface interaction effect of the DNA chains with the substrate and is a refinement to our previous method in which DNA chains were separated on homogeneous flat surfaces. By introducing the nano-patterns on the surface, the conformational changes of DNA chains of different lengths can be amplified, which results in the different friction strengths with the substrate surface. Our results also show that, when compared to the DNA electrophoresis performed on homogeneous flat surfaces, nanopatterned surfaces offer a larger window in choosing different surface interactions to achieve separation. II. In collaboration with a large international manufacturer of skin care products we also embarked on a project involving photo toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, which are a key ingredient in sunscreen and cosmetic lotions. The results clearly implicated the nanoparticles in catalyzing damage to chromosomal DNA. We then used this knowledge to develop a polymer/anti-oxidant coating which prevented the photocatalytic reaction on DNA while still retaining the UV absorptive properties of the nanoparticles. The standard gel electrophoresis was not sufficient in determining the extent of the DNA damage. The conclusions of this study were based predominantly on analysis obtained with the surface electrophoresis method.

  19. Determination of drugs in surface water and wastewater samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: Methods and preliminary results including toxicity studies with Vibrio fischeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farre, M.; Ferrer, I.; Ginebreda, A.; Figueras, M.; Olivella, L.; Tirapu, L.; Vilanova, M.; Barcelo, D.

    2001-01-01

    In the present work a combined analytical method involving toxicity and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) was developed for the determination of pharmaceutical compounds in water samples. The drugs investigated were the analgesics: ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, and diclofenac, the decomposition product of the acetyl salicylic acid: salicylic acid and one lipid lowering agent, gemfibrozil. The selected compounds are acidic substances, very polar and all of them are analgesic compounds that can be purchased without medical prescription. The developed protocol consisted, first of all, on the use Microtox?? and ToxAlert??100 toxicity tests with Vibrio fischeri for the different pharmaceutical drugs. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values and the toxicity units (TU) were determined for every compound using both systems. Sample enrichment of water samples was achieved by solid-phase extraction procedure (SPE), using the Merck LiChrolut?? EN cartridges followed by LC-ESI-MS. Average recoveries loading 1 l of samples with pH=2 varied from 69 to 91% and the detection limits in the range of 15-56 ng/l. The developed method was applied to real samples from wastewater and surface-river waters of Catalonia (north-east of Spain). One batch of samples was analyzed in parallel also by High Resolution Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (HRGC-MS) and the results have been compared with the LC-ESI-MS method developed in this work. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The CheMin XRD on the Mars Science Laboratory Rover Curiosity: Construction, Operation, and Quantitative Mineralogical Results from the Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David F.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory mission was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida on Nov. 26, 2011 and landed in Gale crater, Mars on Aug. 6, 2012. MSL's mission is to identify and characterize ancient "habitable" environments on Mars. MSL's precision landing system placed the Curiosity rover within 2 km of the center of its 20 X 6 km landing ellipse, next to Gale's central mound, a 5,000 meter high pile of laminated sediment which may contain 1 billion years of Mars history. Curiosity carries with it a full suite of analytical instruments, including the CheMin X-ray diffractometer, the first XRD flown in space. CheMin is essentially a transmission X-ray pinhole camera. A fine-focus Co source and collimator transmits a 50µm beam through a powdered sample held between X-ray transparent plastic windows. The sample holder is shaken by a piezoelectric actuator such that the powder flows like a liquid, each grain passing in random orientation through the beam over time. Forward-diffracted and fluoresced X-ray photons from the sample are detected by an X-ray sensitive Charge Coupled Device (CCD) operated in single photon counting mode. When operated in this way, both the x,y position and the energy of each photon are detected. The resulting energy-selected Co Kalpha Debye-Scherrer pattern is used to determine the identities and amounts of minerals present via Rietveld refinement, and a histogram of all X-ray events constitutes an X-ray fluorescence analysis of the sample.The key role that definitive mineralogy plays in understanding the Martian surface is a consequence of the fact that minerals are thermodynamic phases, having known and specific ranges of temperature, pressure and composition within which they are stable. More than simple compositional analysis, definitive mineralogical analysis can provide information about pressure/temperature conditions of formation, past climate, water activity and the like. Definitive mineralogical analyses are necessary to establish

  1. Clinical performance of wide-body implants with a sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) surface: results of a 3-year follow-up study in a referral clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Michael M; Harnisch, Hendrik; Lussi, Adrian; Buser, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the 3-year success rates of wide-body implants with a regular- or wide-neck configuration and a sandblasted, large grit, acid-etched (SLA) surface. A total of 151 implants were consecutively placed in posterior sites of 116 partially edentulous patients in a referral clinic at the School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern. All implants were restored with cemented crowns or fixed partial dentures after a healing period of 6 to 8 weeks (for implants placed without simultaneous bone augmentation) or 10 to 14 weeks (for implants with simultaneous bone augmentation). All patients were recalled 36 months following implant placement for a clinical and radiographic examination. One implant failed to integrate during healing, and 11 implants were lost to follow-up and considered dropouts. The remaining 139 implants showed favorable clinical and radiographic findings and were considered successfully integrated at the 3-year examination. This resulted in a 3-year success rate of 99.3%. Radiographic evaluation of 134 implants indicated stability of the crestal bone levels: During the study period, the crestal bone level changed less than 0.5 mm for 129 implants. Successful tissue integration was achieved with wide-body implants with a regular or a wide-neck configuration and an SLA surface with high predictability. This successful tissue integration was well maintained for up to 3 years of follow-up.

  2. Multiple scattering in the high-frequency limit with second-order shadowing function from 2D anisotropic rough dielectric surfaces: II. Comparison with numerical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlier, C.; Berginc, G.

    2004-07-01

    This second part presents illustrative examples of the model developed in the companion paper, which is based on the first- and second-order optics approximation. The surface is assumed to be Gaussian and the correlation height is chosen as anisotropic Gaussian. The incoherent scattering coefficient is computed for a height rms range from 0.5lgr to 1lgr (where lgr is the electromagnetic wavelength), for a slope rms range from 0.5 to 1 and for an incidence angle range from 0 to 70°. In addition, simulations are presented for an anisotropic Gaussian surface and when the receiver is not located in the plane of incidence. For a metallic and dielectric isotropic Gaussian surfaces, the cross- and co-polarizations are also compared with a numerical approach obtained from the forward-backward method with a novel spectral acceleration algorithm developed by Torrungrueng and Johnson (2001, JOSA A 18).

  3. The null result of a search for pulsational variations of the surface magnetic field in the roAp star gamma Equulei

    CERN Document Server

    Kochukhov, O P; Landstreet, J D; Weiss, W W

    2004-01-01

    We describe an analysis of the time-resolved measurements of the surface magnetic field in the roAp star gamma Equ. We have obtained a high-resolution and high S/N spectroscopic time-series, and the magnetic field was determined using Zeeman resolved profiles of the Fe II 6149.25 A and Fe I 6173.34 A lines. Contrary to recent reports we do not find any evidence of magnetic variability with pulsation phase, and derive an upper limit of 5-10 G for pulsational modulation of the surface magnetic field in gamma Equ.

  4. Combining moving inlets for measuring gradients of reactive trace gases and thoron measurements for the determination of near surface fluxes -first results from the Amazon rain forest-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörgel, Matthias; Artaxo, Paulo; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Ferreira de Souza, Rodrigo Augusto; Trebs, Ivonne; Vega, Oscar; Yañez-Serrano, Ana Maria

    2016-04-01

    For many compounds of interest no fast response sensors for the determination of eddy covariance fluxes are available. Therefore, flux-gradient relationships are used. The most common are the aerodynamic gradient method and the modified Bowen ratio method. For those approaches some assumptions have to be made which restrict their use. An alternative approach to calculate these fluxes might be given by the "thoron clock" method. The radon isotope Thoron (220Rn) is exhaled from the soil and has a half life time of 56 seconds. Therefore, it exists in measureable amounts only close to the ground and is hardly advected. Its only source is the radioactive decay of Thorium in soil. As it is a noble gas Thoron is not influenced by biochemical processes in air. Consequently, its concentration profile only depends on vertical mixing and the radioactive decay which is a physical constant. According to Lehmann et al. (1999) and Plake and Trebs (2013) a transport-time can be directly calculated from two heights thoron concentration/activity for the layer in-between without further assumptions. From this transport time the transfer velocity is derived which is then applied to calculate the fluxes of other (reactive) trace gases. A major advantage of the method is that the transport-time is known and using the measured concentration profile the chemical loss of a compound can be directly calculated and corrected for. We have applied this method for a first time in the Amazon rainforest during a field campaign at the ATTO site 150 km North East of Manaus in the dry season of 2014. We measured gradients of NO, NO2, O3, HONO and VOCs by using a movable inlet on a lift system close to the forest floor (0.19 m, 0.52 m and 1.59 m). A Thoron profile was measure in parallel at the lower two heights. First results of the gradients, the transport times and some preliminary flux values will be presented. References: Lehmann, B.E., Lehmann, M., Neftel, A .: 220 Radon calibration of near-surface

  5. Ten Years of Near-Surface-Sensitive Satellite Observations of Carbon Dioxide and Methane: Selected Results Related to Natural and Anthropogenic Sources and Sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwitz, M. A.; Reuter, M.; Schneising, O.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Prior to the recently successfully launched OCO-2 mission, global near-surface-sensitive satellite observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been made with SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT during 2002-2012 and are still being made since 2009 with TANSO-FTS/GOSAT, which also deliver atmospheric methane (CH4). The SCIAMACHY and GOSAT overlapping time series of atmospheric column-averaged mole fractions, i.e., XCO2 and XCH4, now cover more than 10 years. During the last years significant progress has been made in improving the quality of the XCO2 and XCH4 data products retrieved from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT and in extending the time series so that more and more applications can be addressed. In this presentation we present some recent results related to CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks. The SCIAMACHY products have been generated using retrieval algorithms developed at University of Bremen. For XCO2 we use an ensemble of data products generated using GOSAT retrieval algorithms developed in Japan (at NIES), in the US (at NASA/JPL and collaborating institutes) and at European institutions (University of Leicester, UK, and SRON, Netherlands, in collaboration with KIT, Germany). Focus will be on three applications: (i) An assessment of the strength of the European terrestrial carbon sink during 2003-2010 based on an ensemble of SCIAMACHY (2003-2010) and GOSAT (2010) XCO2 data products, (ii) an assessment of CO2 and NO2 anthropogenic emission and emission ratio trends using co-located SCIAMACHY XCO2 and NO2 observations over Europe, North America and East Asia, and (iii) an analysis of SCIAMACHY XCH4 retrievals during 2006-2011 over North America focusing on fugitive methane emissions from oil and gas production using tight geological formations ("fracking"). It will be shown that (i) the European terrestrial carbon sink appears to be stronger than expected, (ii) that recent Chinese CO2 and NO2 emissions are increasing but with a trend towards reduced NO2-to-CO2 emission ratios pointing to

  6. Geodynamic Evolution of Subduction to Collision to Escape in Central Anatolia From Surface to Mantle - Results From the CD-CAT Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Despite significant progress toward understanding the kinematics of modern tectonic escape in Anatolia, considerable uncertainty remains regarding the dynamics of the transition from collision to escape. Because of the relatively small size of the Anatolia microplate, regional-scale studies spanning the plate margins and interior are well-suited to investigate the driving forces and space-time evolution of this unique tectonic transition in collisional orogens. CD-CAT (Continental Dynamics-Central Anatolia Tectonics) is a five-year (2011-2016) project funded by the National Science Foundation (USA) designed to explore the surface-to-mantle dynamics of Anatolia during the Cenozoic subduction-collision-escape transition in central Anatolia. Our approach integrates results from a diversity of methods including: structural, stratigraphic, and geomorphic analyses; magnetostratigraphy; low-temperature thermochronometry; Ar/Ar geochronology; geochemistry; passive seismic experiments (71 stations over two years); magnetotellurics; and numerical modeling. The principal results from this project include: recognition of a margin-wide magmatic lull from 40-20 Ma, followed by a southwestward migration of the initiation of magmatism toward and within the Central Anatolia Volcanic Province (CAVP); an early Miocene switch from contraction/transpression to extension/transtension in the Kırşehir and Niǧde Massifs, while contraction changed to late Miocene strike-slip deformation east of the Central Anatolian fault zone (CAFZ); rain shadow development due to uplift of the central Taurides 11-5 Ma; thin to absent lithospheric mantle beneath central Anatolia; the lack of an Arabia slab shallower than 800 km depth; and a change in the Cyprus slab from horizontal beneath the central Taurides and apparently fragmented beneath the CAVP, to very steeply dipping beneath the eastern Isparta Angle. The CAFZ lies along part of the Inner Tauride Suture (ITS) and represents a fundamental

  7. Influence of grain orientation on evolution of surface features in fatigued polycrystalline copper: a comparison of thermal and uniaxial mechanical fatigue results

    CERN Document Server

    Aicheler, M

    2010-01-01

    Surface state plays a major role in the crack nucleation process of pure metals in the High-Cycle-Fatigue (HCF) as well as in the Ultra-High-Cycle-Fatigue (UHCF) regime. Therefore, in studies dealing with HCF or UHCF, special attention is paid to the evolution of surface degradation during fatigue life. The accelerating structures of the future Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) under study at CERN will be submitted to a high number of thermal-mechanical fatigue cycles, arising from Radio Frequency (RF) induced eddy currents, causing local superficial cyclic heating. The number of cycles during the foreseen lifetime of CLIC reaches 2x10(11). Fatigue may limit the lifetime of CLIC structures. In order to assess the effects of superficial fatigue, specific tests are defined and performed on polycrystalline Oxygen Free Electronic (OFE) grade Copper, a candidate material for the structures. Surface degradation depends on the orientation of near-surface grains. Copper samples thermally fatigued in two different fatigu...

  8. Ocean surface waves and winds over the north Indian Ocean from satellite altimeter - preliminary results of SAC-NIO joint project

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Rajkumar, R.; Gairola, R.M.; Gohil, B.S.; Vethamony, P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    and NIO. Though there had been three cruises during the period, there were very few satellite-ship overlaps. Data pairs (satellite derived and in situ) of surface wind speed, significant wave height and minimum significant swell height were used to find...

  9. New experimental results on the interference of the states of the hydrogen atom due to long-range interaction with the metal surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kucheryaev, YA; Pal'chikov, VG; Pchelin, YA; Sokolov, YL; Yakovlev, VP

    2005-01-01

    The interference of the 2P state of the hydrogen atom due to unknown long-range interaction with the metal surface (Sokolov effect) has been studied by an atomic interferometer. In contrast to previous experiments, where an atomic beam passed through slits in metal plates, a beam in the presented ex

  10. Diagnostic model of 3-D circulation in the Arabian Sea and western equatorial Indian Ocean: Results of monthly mean sea surface topography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bahulayan, N.; Shaji, C.

    -frog numerical scheme, the sea surface topography equation is solved by successive over-relaxation technique. Model has 18 levels in the vertical with a maximum depth of 900 meters, a resolution of 1 degrees in the latitute and longitude directions and is forced...

  11. Modelling the Passive Microwave Signature from Land Surfaces: A Review of Recent Results and Application to the L-Band SMOS SMAP Soil Moisture Retrieval Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigneron, J.-P.; Jackson, T. J.; O'Neill, P.; De Lannoy, G.; De Rosnay, P.; Walker, J. P.; Ferrazzoli, P.; Mironov, V.; Bircher, S.; Grant, J. P.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Two passive microwave missions are currently operating at L-band to monitor surface soil moisture (SM) over continental surfaces. The SMOS sensor, based on an innovative interferometric technology enabling multi-angular signatures of surfaces to be measured, was launched in November 2009. The SMAP sensor, based on a large mesh reflector 6 m in diameter providing a conically scanning antenna beam with a surface incidence angle of 40deg, was launched in January of 2015. Over the last decade, an intense scientific activity has focused on the development of the SM retrieval algorithms for the two missions. This activity has relied on many field (mainly tower-based) and airborne experimental campaigns, and since 2010-2011, on the SMOS and Aquarius space-borne L-band observations. It has relied too on the use of numerical, physical and semi-empirical models to simulate the microwave brightness temperature of natural scenes for a variety of scenarios in terms of system configurations (polarization, incidence angle) and soil, vegetation and climate conditions. Key components of the inversion models have been evaluated and new parameterizations of the effects of the surface temperature, soil roughness, soil permittivity, and vegetation extinction and scattering have been developed. Among others, global maps of select radiative transfer parameters have been estimated very recently. Based on this intense activity, improvements of the SMOS and SMAP SM inversion algorithms have been proposed. Some of them have already been implemented, whereas others are currently being investigated. In this paper, we present a review of the significant progress which has been made over the last decade in this field of research with a focus on L-band, and a discussion on possible applications to the SMOS and SMAP soil moisture retrieval approaches.

  12. Why pinning by surface irregularities can explain the peak effect in transport properties and neutron diffraction results in NbSe2 and Bi-2212 crystals?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Charles Simon; Alain Pautrat; Christophe Goupil; Joseph Scola; Patrice Mathieu; Annie Brûlet; Antoine Ruyter; M J Higgins; Shobo Bhattacharya; D Plessis

    2006-01-01

    The existence of a peak effect in transport properties (a maximum of the critical current as function of magnetic field) is a well-known but still intriguing feature of Type II superconductors such as NbSe2 and Bi-2212. Using a model of pinning by surface irregularities in anisotropic superconductors, we have developed a calculation of the critical current which allows estimating quantitatively the critical current in both the high critical current phase and the low critical current phase. The only adjustable parameter of this model is the angle of the vortices at the surface. The agreement between the measurements and the model is really very impressive. In this framework, the anomalous dynamical properties close to the peak effect is due to coexistence of two different vortex states with different critical currents. Recent neutron diffraction data in NbSe2 crystals in the presence of transport current support this point of view.

  13. Synthesis of lignin-based copolymer LSAA and the application on controlling non-point source pollution (NPS) resulted from surface runoff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chen; WU Guangxia; MU Huanzhen; YUAN Zonghuan; TANG Lianyi; LIN Xiangwei

    2008-01-01

    In this article, alkali lignin separated from paper pulp waste was grafted into a novel copolymer LSAA (a copolymer of lignin, starch, acrylamide and acrylic acid). Its practical application effect and environmental safety were studied. The results of field simulation experiment indicated that the application of LSAA significantly affected the output of the runoff and pollutants. The runoff quantity was decreased by 16.67%-47.00% and the loads of total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were reduced by 17.78%-62.14%, 26.32%-59.91%, 26.67%-42.86%, and 22.18%-52.78%, respectively. Tests on its environmental safety showed that LSAA did no harm the soil. Compared with polyacrylamide (PAM), a dominant product in this field, LSAA exhibited similar effects and cheap cost. Thus, this study not only created a new product for controlling runoff water quality but also offered a beneficial application for industrial paper waste.

  14. Results of Analyses of the Fungicide Chlorothalonil, Its Degradation Products, and Other Selected Pesticides at 22 Surface-Water Sites in Five Southern States, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    tetrachlorobenzene) is a broad spectrum, non-systemic fungicide used as a preven- tative treatment to control foliar diseases of vegetable, field, and...surface soil following foliar application to peanuts: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 35, p. 2634–2639. Rouchaud, Jean, Roucourt, Pascal...tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (TPN) in soil: Biology Fertilizer Soils, v. 3, p. 205–209. Scott, G.I., Fulton, M.H., Wirth, E.F., Chandler, G.T., Key, P.B

  15. Periodic regularities in bonding, coordination modes and reactivity of sulfur oxides on transition metal surfaces: Combined BOC-MP and ab initio results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shustorovich, E. [Blue Planet Technologies Co., New York, NY (United States); Sellers, H. [South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A combination of theoretical methods (BOC-MP and high quality ab initio calculations) has been employed to understand the nature of bonding, coordination modes and reactivity of sulfur oxides on metal fcc (111), (100), (110) surfaces along the periodic series Cu, Pt, Pd and Ni. The emphasis was on the molecular chemisorption of SO{sub 2} and its dissociative pathways: S + 20 <--- SO + O <--- SO{sub 2} --- > SO{sub 3} --- > SO{sub 4}. M

  16. Hemocompatibility of polymeric nanostructured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczak, Victoria; Smith, Barbara S; Popat, Ketul C

    2013-01-01

    Tissue integration is an important property when inducing transplant tolerance, however, the hemocompatibility of the biomaterial surface also plays an important role in the ultimate success of the implant. Therefore, in order to induce transplant tolerance, it is critical to understand the interaction of blood components with the material surfaces. In this study, we have investigated the adsorption of key blood serum proteins, in vitro adhesion and activation of platelets and clotting kinetics of whole blood on flat polycaprolactone (PCL) surfaces, nanowire (NW) surfaces and nanofiber (NF) surfaces. Previous studies have shown that polymeric nanostructured surfaces improve cell adhesion, proliferation and viability; however it is unclear how these polymeric nanostructured surfaces interact with the blood and its components. Protein adsorption results indicate that while there were no significant differences in total albumin (ALB) adsorption on PCL, NW and NF surfaces, NW surfaces had higher total fibrinogen (FIB) and immunoglobulin-G (IgG) adsorption compared to NF and PCL surfaces. In contrast, NF surfaces had higher surface FIB and IgG adsorption compared to PCL and NW surfaces. Platelet adhesion and viability studies show more adhesion and clustering of platelets on the NF surfaces as compared to PCL and NW surfaces. Platelet activation studies reveal that NW surfaces have the highest percentage of unactivated platelets, whereas NF surfaces have the highest percentage of fully activated platelets. Whole blood clotting results indicate that NW surfaces maintain an increased amount of free hemoglobin during the clotting process compared to PCL and NF surface, indicating less clotting and slower rate of clotting on their surfaces.

  17. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  18. Change in the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Aerofoil as a Result of the One-Sided Force Action of its Surface Segment on the Transonic Flow Around it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamuraev, V. P.; Kalinina, A. P.

    2017-05-01

    Mathematical simulation of the forced vibrations of a surface segment on one side of an aerofoil on the shock wave formed in the transonic flow around it has been performed. The influence of the vibrations of this segment in a wide frequency range on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the wave drag and lift of the aerofoil were investigated for the case of maximum amplitude of oscillations of the velocity of movement of the vibrating segment of the aerofoil, close to the velocity of the incident flow. It is shown that an additional lifting force arises in this case.

  19. Controlling Mercury Release from Source Zones to Surface Water: Initial Results of Pilot Tests at the Y-12 National Security Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, George R [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Bogle, Mary Anna [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Elliott, Mike [Y-12 National Security Complex

    2009-01-01

    This report presents initial results obtained during year 2008 and satisfies a deliverable listed in the work breakdown structure (WBS) element OR081301. Broad objectives of the multi-year project are: (1) evaluation of remediation technologies for waterborne mercury, (2) development of treatment methods for soil mercury, and (3) source identification, characterization and analyses to improve mass balance on mercury estimates. This report presents the results of pilot tests, conducted in summer and fall 2008, which focused on remediation of waterborne mercury. The goal of this task is to develop strategies and treatment technologies that reduce the concentration and loading of waterborne mercury discharges to the UEFPC, thus minimizing mercury uptake by fish. The two specific studies are: (1) reducing flow augmentation in UEFPC to lessen mercury mobilization from contaminated stream sediments, and (2) treatment of contaminated source waters with a chemical reductant to convert dissolved mercury to a volatile form that can be removed by air stripping or natural evasion. Diversion of 50% of the flow currently added to UEFPC by the flow management system appeared to reduce mercury inputs from a localized, highly contaminated streambed by 0.6-1.5 grams per day (g/d). A reduction of 0.6 g/d represents {approx} 7-10% decrease in mercury input to UEFPC. Mercury concentrations within UEFPC did not rise proportionately with the loss of dilution, in part because of the reduction in input from the streambed source and in part because of reduced flow from the Y-12 NSC storm drain system. A longer-term test that includes seasonal variability will be the next step to validate these initial field observations of the flow diversion experiment. Preliminary laboratory experiments show that a large fraction ({approx} 90%) of the mercury can be chemically reduced to Hg(0) by addition of low concentrations of tin, Sn(II). Conversion of mercury to volatile Hg(0) in UEFPC was also

  20. Data-based estimates of the ocean carbon sink variability – first results of the Surface Ocean pCO2 Mapping intercomparison (SOCOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rödenbeck

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Using measurements of the surface-ocean CO2 partial pressure (pCO2 and 14 different pCO2 mapping methods recently collated by the Surface Ocean pCO2 Mapping intercomparison (SOCOM initiative, variations in regional and global sea–air CO2 fluxes have been investigated. Though the available mapping methods use widely different approaches, we find relatively consistent estimates of regional pCO2 seasonality, in line with previous estimates. In terms of interannual variability (IAV, all mapping methods estimate the largest variations to occur in the Eastern equatorial Pacific. Despite considerable spead in the detailed variations, mapping methods with closer match to the data also tend to be more consistent with each other. Encouragingly, this includes mapping methods belonging to complementary types – taking variability either directly from the pCO2 data or indirectly from driver data via regression. From a weighted ensemble average, we find an IAV amplitude of the global sea–air CO2 flux of 0.31 PgC yr−1 (standard deviation over 1992–2009, which is larger than simulated by biogeochemical process models. On a decadal perspective, the global CO2 uptake is estimated to have gradually increased since about 2000, with little decadal change prior to 2000. The weighted mean total ocean CO2 sink estimated by the SOCOM ensemble is consistent within uncertainties with estimates from ocean-interior carbon data or atmospheric oxygen trends.

  1. New algorithms for evaluating parametric surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Through generalization of mathematical model of surface lofting program in the CONSURF system, the definitions for two generalized Ball surfaces and their recursive algorithms are given. Furthermore, the conversion al gorithms from Bézier surface to these two generalized Ball surfaces are presented. On the basis of these algorithms, two more efficient algorithms for evaluating parametric surfaces are also derived. One uses generalized Ball forms directly for evaluating surface, and the other converts the given Bézier surface to a generalized Ball surface firstly, and then evalu ates the surface. Both theoretical analysis and example computations show that the two new algorithms are more efficient than the de Casteljau algorithm. Especially when Wang-Ball surface is used, the time complexity is reduced from cubic to quadratic of the degree of the surface. If these algorithms are applied to displaying, interactive rendering, designing, intersection-finding, offsetting and approximating for surfaces, considerable economic results can be achieved.

  2. Long-term results of a three arms prospective cohort study on implants in periodontally compromised patients: 10-year data around sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccuzzo, Mario; Bonino, Luca; Dalmasso, Paola; Aglietta, Marco

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the long-term outcomes of sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) implants in patients previously treated for periodontitis and in periodontally healthy patients (PHP). One hundred and forty-nine partially edentulous patients were consecutively enrolled in private specialist practice and divided into three groups according to their periodontal condition: PHP, moderately periodontally compromised patients (PCP) and severely PCP. Implants were placed to support fixed prostheses, after successful completion of initial periodontal therapy. At the end of active periodontal treatment (APT), patients were asked to follow an individualized supportive periodontal therapy (SPT) program. Diagnosis and treatment of peri-implant biological complications were performed according to cumulative interceptive supportive therapy (CIST). At 10 years, clinical and radiographic measures were recorded by two calibrated operators, blind to the initial patient classification, on 123 patients, as 26 were lost to follow up. The number of sites treated according to therapy modalities C and D (antibiotics and/or surgery) during the 10 years was registered. Six implants were removed for biological complications. The implant survival rate was 100% for PHP, 96.9% for moderate PCP and 97.1% for severe PCP. Antibiotic and/or surgical therapy was performed in 18.8% of cases in PHP, in 52.2% of cases in moderate PCP and in 66.7% cases in severe PCP, with a statistically significant differences between PHP and both PCP groups. At 10 years, the percentage of implants, with at least one site that presented a PD ≥ 6 mm, was, respectively, 0% for PHP, 9.4% for moderate PCP and 10.8% for severe PCP, with a statistically significant difference between PHP and both PCP groups. This study shows that SLA implants, placed under a strict periodontal control, offer predictable long-term results. Nevertheless, patients with a history of periodontitis, who did not fully adhere to

  3. Surface-water-quality assessment of the upper Illinois River Basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin; results of investigations through April 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Arthur R.; Blanchard, Stephen F.

    1997-01-01

    ,p'-DDE was the most commonly detected organic compound in biota in both 1989 and 1990. In the nine fish-fillet samples collected in 1989, exceedances of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) fish tissue concentrations were noted for p,p'-DDE in all nine fillets and for dieldrin in five of the nine fillets. Nutrient concentrations in water in the study area generally were larger than concentrations typically found in natural waters. The Des Plaines River Basin contributed approximately 41 percent of the total nitrogen load to the upper Illinois River Basin, whereas the Kankakee River and Iroquois River Basins contributed about 34 and 14 percent of the total load, respectively. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations measured during a 1988 synoptic sampling exceeded State water-quality standards at 76 percent of the sampled sites. Bacteria densities greater than water-quality standards were observed at all of the fixed-monitoring stations, but densities greater than water-quality criteria and standards were observed more often at stations in the Des Plaines River Basin. Results from the analysis of changes in water quality following changes in wastewater-treatment practices indicated that current monitoring programs, although sufficient for their intended purposes, are not suitable for this type of retrospective assessment in large-scale water-quality assessments. Changes were not indicated in fish-community structure and population following changes in wastewater-treatment practices. A strong relation between the quality of the fish community and overall water-quality conditions was observed, although USEPA acute criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life were rarely exceeded. Analyses of fish-community data clearly showed that water quality in the urbanized parts of the study area were degraded relative to those in agricultural areas. Total chromium in streambed sediments and total recoverable sodium in water were highly correlated

  4. Surface X-Ray Diffraction Results on the III-V Droplet Heteroepitaxy Growth Process for Quantum Dots: Recent Understanding and Open Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossi Paltiel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, epitaxial growth of self-assembled quantum dots has offered a way to incorporate new properties into existing solid state devices. Although the droplet heteroepitaxy method is relatively complex, it is quite relaxed with respect to the material combinations that can be used. This offers great flexibility in the systems that can be achieved. In this paper we review the structure and composition of a number of quantum dot systems grown by the droplet heteroepitaxy method, emphasizing the insights that these experiments provide with respect to the growth process. Detailed structural and composition information has been obtained using surface X-ray diffraction analyzed by the COBRA phase retrieval method. A number of interesting phenomena have been observed: penetration of the dots into the substrate (“nano-drilling” is often encountered; interdiffusion and intermixing already start when the group III droplets are deposited, and structure and composition may be very different from the one initially intended.

  5. Surface X-Ray Diffraction Results on the III-V Droplet Heteroepitaxy Growth Process for Quantum Dots: Recent Understanding and Open Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Eyal [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Applied Physics Dept.; Elfassy, Naomi [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Applied Physics Dept.; Koplovitz, Guy [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Applied Physics Dept.; Yochelis, Shira [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Applied Physics Dept.; Shusterman, Sergey [Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Centre (Soreq NRC). Electro-Optics Division, Solid State Physics; Kumah, Divine P. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Applied Physics Program; Yacoby, Yizhak [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics; Clarke, Roy [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Applied Physics Program; Paltiel, Yossi [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Applied Physics Dept.

    2011-11-08

    In recent years, epitaxial growth of self-assembled quantum dots has offered a way to incorporate new properties into existing solid state devices. Although the droplet heteroepitaxy method is relatively complex, it is quite relaxed with respect to the material combinations that can be used. This offers great flexibility in the systems that can be achieved. In this paper we review the structure and composition of a number of quantum dot systems grown by the droplet heteroepitaxy method, emphasizing the insights that these experiments provide with respect to the growth process. Detailed structural and composition information has been obtained using surface X-ray diffraction analyzed by the COBRA phase retrieval method. A number of interesting phenomena have been observed: penetration of the dots into the substrate (“nano-drilling”) is often encountered; interdiffusion and intermixing already start when the group III droplets are deposited, and structure and composition may be very different from the one initially intended.

  6. Surface X-Ray Diffraction Results on the III-V Droplet Heteroepitaxy Growth Process for Quantum Dots: Recent Understanding and Open Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Eyal; Elfassy, Naomi; Koplovitz, Guy; Yochelis, Shira; Shusterman, Sergey; Kumah, Divine P.; Yacoby, Yizhak; Clarke, Roy; Paltiel, Yossi (Michigan); (Hebrew)

    2012-04-24

    In recent years, epitaxial growth of self-assembled quantum dots has offered a way to incorporate new properties into existing solid state devices. Although the droplet heteroepitaxy method is relatively complex, it is quite relaxed with respect to the material combinations that can be used. This offers great flexibility in the systems that can be achieved. In this paper we review the structure and composition of a number of quantum dot systems grown by the droplet heteroepitaxy method, emphasizing the insights that these experiments provide with respect to the growth process. Detailed structural and composition information has been obtained using surface X-ray diffraction analyzed by the COBRA phase retrieval method. A number of interesting phenomena have been observed: penetration of the dots into the substrate ('nano-drilling') is often encountered; interdiffusion and intermixing already start when the group III droplets are deposited, and structure and composition may be very different from the one initially intended.

  7. First results from the Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph - Evidence for photospheric microturbulence in early O stars - Are surface gravities systematically underestimated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubeny, I.; Heap, S. R.; Altner, B.

    1991-01-01

    GHRS spectra of two very hot stars provide evidence for the presence of microturbulence in their photospheres. In attempting to reproduce the observed spectra, theoretical models have been built in which the microturbulence is allowed to modify not only the Doppler line widths (classical 'spectroscopic' microturbulence), but also the turbulent pressure (thus mimicking a 'physical' turbulence). It is found that a corresponding modification of the temperature-pressure stratification influences the hydrogen and helium line profiles to the extent that the surface gravities of early O stars determined without considering microturbulence are too low by 0.1-0.15 dex. Thus, including microturbulence would reduce, or resolve completely, a long-standing discrepancy between evolutionary and spectroscopic stellar masses.

  8. Localized Acoustic Surface Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-08-04

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes (ASMs). We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  9. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering - Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Rafi, H. Khalid, E-mail: khalidrafi@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Ram, G.D. Janaki [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Reddy, G. Madhusudhan [Metal Joining Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Nagalakshmi, R. [Welding Research Institute, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli 620 014 (India)

    2012-08-15

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  10. This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’ simultaneously. The analysis also showed that partially labor has positive and significant influence on the business success, yet innovation and promotion have insignificant and positive influence on the business success.

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Inggrita Gusti Sari; Muchtar, Yasmin Chairunnisa

    2013-01-01

    This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small busine...

  11. Quantifying soil evaporation and transpiration at the scale of a remote sensing pixel by extrapolating mini-lysimeter results with the aid of remote sensed surface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voortman, B.; Bartholomeus, R.; Witte, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Lysimeters are often used to measure evapotranspiration (Et) by changes in mass of a volume of soil. Precision lysimeters generate data of Et at a high resolution in the order of 0.02 to 0.05 mm. This resolution is often reported as the accuracy of the lysimeter, which is in fact the accuracy of the weighing device. Improper installation or design of lysimeters is often not accounted for when assessing their accuracy. In general, measurement errors due to improper environmental conditions will decrease with increasing surface area and depth of the lysimeter. This is primarily because a larger part of the lysimeter is unaffected by its boundaries and because heterogeneities in soil hydraulic properties and micro-climate are more averaged out. However, the cost of large systems make them unattractive and scientists often choose for more economical solutions, optimizing between lysimeter dimensions and costs. One of the difficulties when designing a lysimeter is controlling the boundary condition at the base of the lysimeter. In case of a freely draining lysimeter (atmospheric pressure at the bottom), the lower portion of the lysimeter must saturate to generate a hydraulic gradient in downward direction, after which the lysimeter starts to drain. In groundwater independent sites this will lead to a higher soil moisture content in the lysimeter in comparison with the surrounding soil. One could overcome this problem by using suction plates and vacuum pumps to set a suction level at the base of the lysimeter equal to the surrounding soil., In dry soils, however, suction plates may dry out beyond the air entry value of the ceramic material, which neutralizes the suction pressure. Furthermore, a sophisticated drainage system will increase the maintenance and construction cost of the lysimeter. Moisture conditions in lysimeters are difficult to control and whenever this affects the available water for rooting plants this will lead to erroneous measurements of Et. We

  12. Strength of mineral absorption features in the transmitted component of near-infrared reflected light - First results from RELAB. [spectrogoniometer for planetary and lunar surface composition experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Bidirectional reflectance measurements are the only type of reflectance data available to the remote observer. For compositional interpretations, data are desired not only for identification of possible mineral components but also for modal abundance. The latter requires detailed information about the strength of absorption features. Using a new laboratory facility, the RELAB, laboratory data in the near infrared are presented that document effects of particle size, mineral mixtures, and viewing geometry for selected materials with well-developed absorption bands. The commonly observed increase in reflectance with decrease in particle size is also observed for absorption bands as well as a related decrease in absorption strength. For small particles in parts of the spectrum of maximum reflectance, however, a minor decrease in reflectance with a decrese in particle size is sometimes observed. Small particles dominate the observed characteristics of particulate surfaces, which contain a range of particle sizes. The mean optical path length (transmission through particles) of reflected radiation measured for a variety of particle sizes has an apparent upper limit of about 2 mm for particles of less than 250 microns. The typical number of particles involved in the optical path is less than 50.

  13. Colloidal Iron, Aluminum, and DOC/DON in Surface Waters of the Northwest Pacific: Results from the 2002 NSF/IOC Cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonke, J.; Landing, W. M.

    2002-12-01

    Over 70 surface seawater samples were collected on the 2002 NSF/IOC cruise between Japan and Hawaii using a towed "fish" peristaltic pump trace-metals clean sampling system. Samples for total dissolved Fe and AL were filtered using 0.2 um cartridge filters. Colloidal Fe and Al were isolated using a Millipore PrepScale 1 kDa regenerated cellulose tangential flow ultrafiltration device. Concentration factors were 8-10. Aluminum concentrations were measured using the lumogallion fluorometric technique; Fe concentrations were measured by Fe-57 isotope dilution with a Finnegan Element high-resolution magnetic sector ICPMS. Total dissolved Fe concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 0.6 nM and were weakly correlated with atmospheric Fe deposition (calculated from aerosol Fe concentrations). Colloidal Fe ranged from 10-60 percent of the total dissolved Fe and appeared to be related to atmospheric input and biological activity. We will discuss the relationships between the concentrations of particulate, dissolved and colloidal Fe, Al, and DOC/DON and the intertwined effects of atmospheric input, complexation by natural ligands, and physical dilution into the mixed layer.

  14. Experimental research on showing automatic disappearance pen handwriting based on spectral imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi; Xu, Lei; Liu, Ningning; Huang, Wei; Xu, Xiaojing

    2016-10-01

    Purpose to find an efficient, non-destructive examining method for showing the disappearing words after writing with automatic disappearance pen. Method Using the imaging spectrometer to show the potential disappearance words on paper surface according to different properties of reflection absorbed by various substances in different bands. Results the disappeared words by using different disappearance pens to write on the same paper or the same disappearance pen to write on different papers, both can get good show results through the use of the spectral imaging examining methods. Conclusion Spectral imaging technology can show the disappearing words after writing by using the automatic disappearance pen.

  15. Laser surface texturing: chosen problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszewski, Bogdan; Sek, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    In modern machines for realization of goals like lubrication intesyfication, heat flow intensyfiacation, microflow simulation; more and more often surface texturing is used. It became possible due to develepment of technologies that use sources of concentrated energy stream like microlasers. The paper shows results of experimental investigation on seal rings made of silicon carbide. Experiments were conducted using seal rings without surface modifications and a seal rings with a geometrical surface textures made with Nd:Yag laser.

  16. Visual detection of gas shows from coal core and cuttings using liquid leak detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, C.E. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Coal core descriptions are difficult to obtain, as they must be obtained immediately after the core is retrieved and before the core is closed in a canister. This paper described a method of marking gas shows on a core surface by coating the core with a water-based liquid leak detector and photographing the subsequent foam developed on the core surface while the core is still in the core tray. Coals from a borehole at the Yukon Flats Basin in Alaska and the Maverick Basin in Texas were used to illustrate the method. Drilling mud and debris were removed from the coal samples before the leak detector solution was applied onto the core surfaces. A white froth or dripping foam developed rapidly at gas shows on the sample surfaces. A hand-held lens and a binocular microscope were used to magnify the foaming action. It was noted that foaming was not continuous across the core surface, but was restricted to localized points along the surface. It was suggested that the localized point foaming may have resulted from the coring process. However, the same tendency toward point gas show across the sample surface was found in some hard, well-indurated samples that still had undisturbed bedding and other sedimentary structures. It was concluded that gas shows marked as separate foam centres may indicate a real condition of local permeability paths. Results suggested that the new gas show detection method could be used in core selection studies to reduce the costs of exploration programs. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Silicon surface structure-controlled oleophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Xiu, Yonghao; Hess, Dennis W; Wong, C P

    2010-06-01

    Superoleophobic surfaces display contact angles >150 degrees with liquids that have lower surface energies than does water. The design of superoleophobic surfaces requires an understanding of the effect of the geometrical shape of etched silicon surfaces on the contact angle and hysteresis observed when different liquids are brought into contact with these surfaces. This study used liquid-based metal-assisted etching and various silane treatments to create superoleophobic surfaces on a Si(111) surface. Etch conditions such as the etch time and etch solution concentration played critical roles in establishing the oleophobicity of Si(111). When compared to Young's contact angle, the apparent contact angle showed a transition from a Cassie to a Wenzel state for low-surface-energy liquids as different silane treatments were applied to the silicon surface. These results demonstrated the relationship between the re-entrant angle of etched surface structures and the contact angle transition between Cassie and Wenzel behavior on etched Si(111) surfaces.

  18. The wear resistance of cobalt free hard surfaced alloys in nuclear power plant conditions. Test results; Kobolttivapaiden pinnoitteiden kulumiskestaevyys ydinvoimalaitosolosuhteissa. Koetulokset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosonen, A.M. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-09-01

    Use of cobalt containing materials is restricted in primary circuits of nuclear power plants since the cobalt is activated in the reactor core. The resulting isotope leads to increase of activity in the primary circuit. This report presents the results of the wear resistance tests of four hard facing alloys. The test method was a pin on plate test. The pins were coated with hard-facing alloys and the plates were manufactured from stainless steel. The tested materials were nickel based Stellite 6, wolfram carbide (WC), METCO 442 and cobalt based Stellite 6. Tests were carried out in simulated BWR-environment. According to the results of these tests it is not possible to get any differences between any hard facing alloys if the hardness of the plate material is much lower than that of the hard facing alloys examined. (orig.) (4 refs.).

  19. Lemurs and macaques show similar numerical sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah M.; Pearson, John; DeWind, Nicholas K.; Paulsen, David; Tenekedjieva, Ana-Maria; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the precision of the approximate number system (ANS) in three lemur species (Lemur catta, Eulemur mongoz, and Eulemur macaco flavifrons), one Old World monkey species (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens). In Experiment 1, four individuals of each nonhuman primate species were trained to select the numerically larger of two visual arrays on a touchscreen. We estimated numerical acuity by modeling Weber fractions (w) and found quantitatively equivalent performance among all four nonhuman primate species. In Experiment 2, we tested adult humans in a similar procedure, and they outperformed the four nonhuman species but showed qualitatively similar performance. These results indicate that the ANS is conserved over the primate order. PMID:24068469

  20. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    Recent claims of cultivable ancient bacteria within sealed environments highlight our limited understanding of the mechanisms behind long-term cell survival. It remains unclear how dormancy, a favored explanation for extended cellular persistence, can cope with spontaneous genomic decay over......-term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  1. Preliminary results with a torsion microbalance indicate that carbon dioxide and exposed carbonic anhydrase in the organic matrix are the basis of calcification on the skeleton surface of living corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M Sandeman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is altering the calcification of corals, but the mechanism is still unclear. To explore what controls calcification, small pieces from the edges of thin plates of Agaricia agaricites were suspended from a torsion microbalance into gently stirred, temperaturecontrolled, seawater. Net calcification rates were monitored while light, temperature and pH were manipulated singly. The living coral pieces were sensitive to changes in conditions, especially light, and calcification was often suspended for one or two hours or overnight. The mean calcification rate increased from 0.06 in the dark to 0.10 mg.h-1.cm-2 (T test, n=8, p<0.01 in low light (15 μmol.s-1.m-2 and showed a positive linear relationship with temperature. With a reduction of mean pH from 8.2 to 7.6 the mean calcification rate in the light (65 μmol.s-1.m-2 increased from 0.19 to 0.28 mg.h-1.cm-2 (T test, n=8, p<0.05 indicating a dependency on carbon dioxide. After waterpiking and exposure of the skeletal surface/organic matrix to seawater, calcification showed an astonishing initial increase of more than an order of magnitude then decreased following a non-linear generalised Michaelis-Menten growth curve and reached a steady rate. Calcification rate of the freshly waterpiked coral was not influenced by light and was positively correlated with temperature. For a mean pH reduction from 8.1 to 7.6 the mean calcification rate increased from 0.18 to 0.32 mg.h-1.cm-2 (T test, n=11, p<0.02 again indicating a dependency on carbon dioxide. Calcification ceased in the presence of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor azolamide. Staining confirmed the presence of carbonic anhydrase, particularly on the ridges of septae. After immersion of waterpiked corals in seawater for 48 hours weight gain and loss became linear and positively correlated to temperature. When the mean pH was reduced from 8.2 to 7.5 the mean rate of weight gain decreased from 0.25 to 0.13 mg.h-1.cm-2 (T test, n=6

  2. New thermodynamics for evaluating the surface-phase enrichment in the lower surface tension component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M Soledade C S; Reis, João Carlos R

    2014-09-15

    Regarding the surface phase of liquid mixtures as a thermodynamic phase, ideal surface phases are designed so that at fixed bulk-phase composition, real and ideal surface phases have the same chemical composition and identical limiting slopes for the dependence of surface tension on mole fraction. Standard chemical potentials are introduced for surface phase components, and quasi-exact expressions are worked out to compute ideal surface tensions and surface-phase compositions of real liquid mixtures. Guidelines for choosing molecular models to estimate the molar surface area of pure constituents are given. Ideal and excess surface tensions are calculated by using literature data for aqueous ethanol solutions at 298 K. These results show treatment based on Butler's equations grossly overestimate predicted surface tensions, thus leading to lower ethanol content in the surface phase. These inaccuracies are ascribed to the use of molar surface areas in model equations that are too small.

  3. Tetrahydrobiopterin shows chaperone activity for tyrosine hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöny, Beat; Calvo, Ana C; Scherer, Tanja; Svebak, Randi M; Haavik, Jan; Blau, Nenad; Martinez, Aurora

    2008-07-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters. Primary inherited defects in TH have been associated with l-DOPA responsive and non-responsive dystonia and infantile parkinsonism. In this study, we show that both the cofactor (6R)-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) and the feedback inhibitor and catecholamine product dopamine increase the kinetic stability of human TH isoform 1 in vitro. Activity measurements and synthesis of the enzyme by in vitro transcription-translation revealed a complex regulation by the cofactor including both enzyme inactivation and conformational stabilization. Oral BH(4) supplementation to mice increased TH activity and protein levels in brain extracts, while the Th-mRNA level was not affected. All together our results indicate that the molecular mechanisms for the stabilization are a primary folding-aid effect of BH(4) and a secondary effect by increased synthesis and binding of catecholamine ligands. Our results also establish that orally administered BH(4) crosses the blood-brain barrier and therapeutic regimes based on BH(4) supplementation should thus consider the effect on TH. Furthermore, BH(4) supplementation arises as a putative therapeutic agent in the treatment of brain disorders associated with TH misfolding, such as for the human TH isoform 1 mutation L205P.

  4. 超高频雷达海洋表面流的探测结果与分析%Results and analysis of surface current based on UHF radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文必洋; 李艳; 侯义东; 杨静

    2016-01-01

    近岸海域地形、海流复杂,而超高频雷达系统具有较高距离分辨率、小发射功率的特点,波长介于高频电磁波和微波之间,能同时提取海浪毛细波与重力波信息,与波浪作用比较敏感,能实现近海海洋动力参数的精细测量.不同于高频雷达回波谱,超高频雷达回波中一阶峰、二阶峰展宽严重并混叠在一起,难以划分一阶峰区域,因此,文中系统设计采用数字波束形成进行流速方位提取.雷达反演的流速结果与浮标数据的相关系数为0.88,但是均方根误差很大.通过分析,得出海洋表面流速不仅受到潮汐效应、地球自转的影响,当地风速在很大程度上也会影响表面流速的结论.%Ultra high frequency(UHF)radar has the characteristics of high range resolution and low-power,which can extract information of both capillary wave and gravity wave with the wavelength be-tween high frequency and microwave.It is possible to obtain precise monitoring of the coastal ocean dy-namics parameters by UHF radar,though the offshore topography and ocean surface current are complex. UHF radar is different from HF radar,since the first-order peak and second-order spectrum are indistin-guishable in the sea echo spectrum.It is difficult to extract first-order peak,therefore,multiple signal classification algorithm (MUSIC)is unavailable and digital beam-forming(DBF)is used in extracting the radial velocity.After a month,the radar and buoy datais highly correlated with a coefficient of 0.88,how-ever,the root mean square error is large.The results show that the velocity of the ocean surface is influ-enced not only by the tidal effect and the rotationof the earth,but also by the local wind speed.

  5. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Gianangelo

    2013-01-01

    The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

  6. Surface nanobubbles and nanodroplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Detlef; Zhang, Xuehua

    2015-07-01

    Surface nanobubbles are nanoscopic gaseous domains on immersed substrates which can survive for days. They were first speculated to exist about 20 years ago, based on stepwise features in force curves between two hydrophobic surfaces, eventually leading to the first atomic force microscopy (AFM) image in 2000. While in the early years it was suspected that they may be an artifact caused by AFM, meanwhile their existence has been confirmed with various other methods, including through direct optical observation. Their existence seems to be paradoxical, as a simple classical estimate suggests that they should dissolve in microseconds, due to the large Laplace pressure inside these nanoscopic spherical-cap-shaped objects. Moreover, their contact angle (on the gas side) is much smaller than one would expect from macroscopic counterparts. This review will not only give an overview on surface nanobubbles, but also on surface nanodroplets, which are nanoscopic droplets (e.g., of oil) on (hydrophobic) substrates immersed in water, as they show similar properties and can easily be confused with surface nanobubbles and as they are produced in a similar way, namely, by a solvent exchange process, leading to local oversaturation of the water with gas or oil, respectively, and thus to nucleation. The review starts with how surface nanobubbles and nanodroplets can be made, how they can be observed (both individually and collectively), and what their properties are. Molecular dynamic simulations and theories to account for the long lifetime of the surface nanobubbles are then reported on. The crucial element contributing to the long lifetime of surface nanobubbles and nanodroplets is pinning of the three-phase contact line at chemical or geometric surface heterogeneities. The dynamical evolution of the surface nanobubbles then follows from the diffusion equation, Laplace's equation, and Henry's law. In particular, one obtains stable surface nanobubbles when the gas influx from

  7. Liquid droplet movement on horizontal surface with gradient surface energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Qiang; WANG Hong; ZHU Xun; LI Mingwei

    2006-01-01

    A surface with gradient surface energy was fabricated on a silicon wafer by using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology with the dodecyltrichlorosilane (C12H25Cl3Si) vapor which was adsorbed chemically on the surface of the silicon wafer to form a self-assemble monolayer (ASM) and thus a gradient profile of wettability. The microscopic contours of the gradient surface were measured with Seiko SPA400 atom force microscope (AFM). And the surface wettability profile was characterized by the sessile drop method, measuring the contact angle of fine water droplets that lay on the gradient surface, to represent the distribution of the surface energy on the surface. Using a high-speed video imaging system, the motion of water droplet on the horizontal gradient surface was visualized and the transient velocity was measured under ambient condition. The experimental results show that the liquid droplets can be driven to move from hydrophobic side to hydrophilic side on the horizontal gradient surface and the velocity of droplet can reach up to 40 mm/s. In addition, the motion of the water droplet can be generally divided into two stages: an acceleration stage and a deceleration stage. The droplet presents a squirming movement on the surface with a lower peak velocity and a larger extent of deceleration motion. And the static advancing contact angle of the droplet is obviously larger than the dynamic advancing contact angle on the gradient energy surface.

  8. F-18 high alpha research vehicle surface pressures - Initial in-flight results and correlation with flow visualization and wind-tunnel data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David F.; Banks, Daniel W.; Richwine, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Flight tests with the NASA F-18 high-alpha research vehicle (HARV) have yielded pressure distributions at angles of attack from 10 to 50 deg, at Mach 0.23 to 0.6, at five fuselage forebody stations and three on the leading-edge extensions (LEXs). Correlations are made between these data and both previously obtained HARV flow visualizations and wind tunnel model test results. The general trend is one in which the forebody's maximum suction pressure peaks increase in magnitude, after their first appearance at alpha of about 19 deg, with increasing alpha. LEX pressure-distribution trends involve the inward progression of the maximum suction peaks, an increase in the magnitude of the maximum pressure peaks up to pressure core breakdown, and the decrease and general flattening of the pressure distribution beyond the LEX primary vortex breakdown.

  9. Comparison with Experimental Results of Models and Modelling with Fuzzy Logic of the Effect on Surface Roughness of Cutting Parameters in Machining of Co28Cr6Mowrought Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asilturk, Ilhan; AlperInce, Mehmet

    2017-06-01

    This study includes comparison with experimental results of models and modelling with fuzzy logic of the effect on surface roughness of cutting parameters (rotational speed (n), feed rate (f), depth of cut (a) and tool tip radius (r)) in CNC turning of Co28Cr6Mo wrought steels. Fuzzy logic modelswere established that can determine the optimum rotational speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool tip radius for surface roughness (Ra) according to the hardness of material and type of cutting tool. In the model created using fuzzy logic, membership functions and foot widths of input parameters and output parameter were utilized. In the rule base, triangular (trim-f) membership functions were selected by the Mamdani approach. The results obtained using this fuzzymodel and experimental results were interpreted and compared with 2dimensional graphics.

  10. Stability of surface nanobubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Shantanu; van der Hoef, Martin; Zhang, Xuehua; Lohse, Detlef

    2015-11-01

    We have studied the stability and dissolution of surface nanobubbles on the chemical heterogenous surface by performing Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of binary mixture consists of Lennard-Jones (LJ) particles. Recently our group has derived the exact expression for equilibrium contact angle of surface nanobubbles as a function of oversaturation of the gas concentration in bulk liquid and the lateral length of bubble. It has been showed that the contact line pinning and the oversaturation of gas concentration in bulk liquid is crucial in the stability of surface nanobubbles. Our simulations showed that how pinning of the three-phase contact line on the chemical heterogenous surface lead to the stability of the nanobubble. We have calculated the equilibrium contact angle by varying the gas concentration in bulk liquid and the lateral length of the bubble. Our results showed that the equilibrium contact angle follows the expression derived analytically by our group. We have also studied the bubble dissolution dynamics and showed the ''stick-jump'' mechanism which was also observed experimentally in case of dissolution of nanodrops.

  11. A Consensus for Classification and Pathologic Reporting of Pseudomyxoma Peritonei and Associated Appendiceal Neoplasia: The Results of the Peritoneal Surface Oncology Group International (PSOGI) Modified Delphi Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Norman J; Cecil, Thomas D; Mohamed, Faheez; Sobin, Leslie H; Sugarbaker, Paul H; González-Moreno, Santiago; Taflampas, Panos; Chapman, Sara; Moran, Brendan J

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a complex disease with unique biological behavior that usually arises from appendiceal mucinous neoplasia. The classification of PMP and its primary appendiceal neoplasia is contentious, and an international modified Delphi consensus process was instigated to address terminology and definitions. A classification of mucinous appendiceal neoplasia was developed, and it was agreed that "mucinous adenocarcinoma" should be reserved for lesions with infiltrative invasion. The term "low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm" was supported and it was agreed that "cystadenoma" should no longer be recommended. A new term of "high-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm" was proposed for lesions without infiltrative invasion but with high-grade cytologic atypia. Serrated polyp with or without dysplasia was preferred for tumors with serrated features confined to the mucosa with an intact muscularis mucosae. Consensus was achieved on the pathologic classification of PMP, defined as the intraperitoneal accumulation of mucus due to mucinous neoplasia characterized by the redistribution phenomenon. Three categories of PMP were agreed-low grade, high grade, and high grade with signet ring cells. Acellular mucin should be classified separately. It was agreed that low-grade and high-grade mucinous carcinoma peritonei should be considered synonymous with disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis and peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis, respectively. A checklist for the pathologic reporting of PMP and appendiceal mucinous neoplasms was also developed. By adopting the classifications and definitions that were agreed, different centers will be able to use uniform terminology that will allow meaningful comparison of their results.

  12. The use of skin surface electropotentials for breast cancer detection--preliminary clinical trial results obtained using the biofield diagnostic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sree, Subbhuraam Vinitha; Ng, E Y K; Kaw, G; U, Rajendra Acharya; Chong, B K

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of the Biofield Diagnostic System (BDS) as an adjunct to established diagnostic techniques such as mammography and ultrasound in differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions. The clinical trial was conducted at the Tan Tock Seng hospital, Singapore. 103 women scheduled for mammography and/or ultrasound tests participated in the study. The BDS test recorded a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 97.6%, and an accuracy of 98.1%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.988 which was slightly lower than that of ultrasound (0.994) and slightly higher than that of mammography (0.951). The BDS test has demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity values in the studied population. The accuracy is also comparable to that of diagnostic techniques like mammography and ultrasound. Thus, it is evident that BDS can be a fast and reliable adjunct tool for getting a secondary opinion on lesions with indeterminate mammographic and sonographic results.

  13. Hydrophobicity of silver surfaces with microparticle geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, Ján; Oriňaková, Renáta; Oriňak, Andrej; Kovaľ, Karol; Kupková, Miriam; Erdélyi, Branislav; Kostecká, Zuzana; Smith, Roger M.

    2016-11-01

    The effect of the duration of the current deposition cycle and the number of current pulses on the geometry of silver microstructured surfaces and on the free surface energy, polarizability, hydrophobicity and thus adhesion force of the silver surfaces has been investigated. The changes in surface hydrophobicity were entirely dependent on the size and density of the microparticles on the surface. The results showed that formation of the silver microparticles was related to number of current pulses, while the duration of one current pulse played only a minor effect on the final surface microparticle geometry and thus on the surface tension and hydrophobicity. The conventional geometry of the silver particles has been transformed to the fractal dimension D. The surface hydrophobicity depended predominantly on the length of the dendrites not on their width. The highest silver surface hydrophobicity was observed on a surface prepared by 30 current pulses with a pulse duration of 1 s, the lowest one when deposition was performed by 10 current pulses with a duration of 0.1 s. The partial surface tension coefficients γDS and polarizability kS of the silver surfaces were calculated. Both parameters can be applied in future applications in living cells adhesion prediction and spectral method selection. Silver films with microparticle geometry showed a lower variability in final surface hydrophobicity when compared to nanostructured surfaces. The comparisons could be used to modify surfaces and to modulate human cells and bacterial adhesion on body implants, surgery instruments and clean surfaces.

  14. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  15. The results of percutaneous release of trigger digits by using full handle knife 15 degrees: an anatomical hand surface landmark and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongjirasiri, Yolchai

    2007-07-01

    Know the results of percutaneous release of trigger digits by using full handle knife 15 degrees. The author identified 510 cadaveric digits to find the anatomical landmark of Al pulley that relates to the knuckle and measurements of A1 pulley lengths. The proximal margin of the Al pulleys on the perpendicular line from the knuckle to the palm was in the same line in 327 (64.1%) digits, while 464 (91.0%) digits were finger; 6.32, middle finger; 6.58, ring finger; 6.32, and little finger 5.30 mm. The average lengths of all fingers were 6.13 mm. A further 338 digits of trigger digit in 248 patients were treated by percutaneous release by using full handle knife 15 degrees with these landmarks. Three hundred and thirty-eight trigger digits were treated. There was a complete resolution of symptoms in 314 digits (92.90%) when followed up 6 weeks after operation. One digit, an index finger had residual grade 1 after 3 weeks and complete resolution in 8 weeks. Three digits (0.89%), which were one thumb and two index fingers, underwent local steroid injection because of painful scar. Nineteen digits (5.62%) were stiff at proximal interphalangeal joint because of grade 4 triggering and osteoarthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint but they increased the range of motion after 6 months. A case (0.30%) had numbness of the radial tip of the thumb, which may have been caused by injury to the radial digital nerve ofthe thumb. No one had open release of A1 pulley. This technique was a safe and effective out patient procedure on 248 patients and had a complete resolution of symptoms 92.90%.

  16. Atomic force microscopy analysis of different surface treatments of Ti dental implant surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathomarco, Ti R. V.; Solorzano, G.; Elias, C. N.; Prioli, R.

    2004-06-01

    The surface of commercial unalloyed titanium, used in dental implants, was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The morphology, roughness, and surface area of the samples, submitted to mechanically-induced erosion, chemical etching and a combination of both, were compared. The results show that surface treatments strongly influence the dental implant physical and chemical properties. An analysis of the length dependence of the implant surface roughness shows that, for scan sizes larger than 50 μm, the average surface roughness is independent of the scanning length and that the surface treatments lead to average surface roughness in the range of 0.37 up to 0.48 μm. It is shown that the implant surface energy is sensitive to the titanium surface area. As the area increases there is a decrease in the surface contact angle.

  17. Atomic force microscopy analysis of different surface treatments of Ti dental implant surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathomarco, R.V.; Solorzano, G.; Elias, C.N.; Prioli, R

    2004-06-30

    The surface of commercial unalloyed titanium, used in dental implants, was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The morphology, roughness, and surface area of the samples, submitted to mechanically-induced erosion, chemical etching and a combination of both, were compared. The results show that surface treatments strongly influence the dental implant physical and chemical properties. An analysis of the length dependence of the implant surface roughness shows that, for scan sizes larger than 50 {mu}m, the average surface roughness is independent of the scanning length and that the surface treatments lead to average surface roughness in the range of 0.37 up to 0.48 {mu}m. It is shown that the implant surface energy is sensitive to the titanium surface area. As the area increases there is a decrease in the surface contact angle.

  18. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  19. Rubber friction on (apparently) smooth lubricated surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mofidi, M; Prakash, B [Division of Machine Elements, Luleaa University of Technology, Luleaa SE-97187 (Sweden); Persson, B N J [IFF, FZ-Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Albohr, O [Pirelli Deutschland AG, 64733 Hoechst/Odenwald, Postfach 1120 (Germany)

    2008-02-27

    We study rubber sliding friction on hard lubricated surfaces. We show that even if the hard surface appears smooth to the naked eye, it may exhibit short-wavelength roughness, which may make the dominant contribution to rubber friction. That is, the observed sliding friction is mainly due to the viscoelastic deformations of the rubber by the counterface surface asperities. The results presented are of great importance for rubber sealing and other rubber applications involving (apparently) smooth surfaces.

  20. Rubber friction on (apparently) smooth lubricated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofidi, M.; Prakash, B.; Persson, B. N. J.; Albohr, O.

    2008-02-01

    We study rubber sliding friction on hard lubricated surfaces. We show that even if the hard surface appears smooth to the naked eye, it may exhibit short-wavelength roughness, which may make the dominant contribution to rubber friction. That is, the observed sliding friction is mainly due to the viscoelastic deformations of the rubber by the counterface surface asperities. The results presented are of great importance for rubber sealing and other rubber applications involving (apparently) smooth surfaces.

  1. Curved reformat of the paediatric brain MRI into a 'flat-earth map' - standardised method for demonstrating cortical surface atrophy resulting from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Ewan [Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Bristol (United Kingdom); Andronikou, Savvas [Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Bristol (United Kingdom); University of Bristol, CRICBristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Vedajallam, Schadie; Chacko, Anith; Thai, Ngoc Jade [University of Bristol, CRICBristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-15

    Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is optimally imaged with brain MRI in the neonatal period. However neuroimaging is often also performed later in childhood (e.g., when parents seek compensation in cases of alleged birth asphyxia). We describe a standardised technique for creating two curved reconstructions of the cortical surface to show the characteristic surface changes of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in children imaged after the neonatal period. The technique was applied for 10 cases of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and also for age-matched healthy children to assess the visibility of characteristic features of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. In the abnormal brains, fissural or sulcal widening was seen in all cases and ulegyria was identifiable in 7/10. These images could be used as a visual aid for communicating MRI findings to clinicians and other interested parties. (orig.)

  2. MRI shows clodronate-liposomes attenuating liverinjuryinratswithsevereacutepancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xin Zhang; Sheng-Chun Dang; Yong Zhang; Xin Sha; Li-Rong Zhang; Chuan-She Wei; Min Chen; De-Li Jiang

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have revealed that macrophages play an important role in the development of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Activated macrophages can lead to a systemic inlfammatory response, induce lipid peroxidation, impair membrane structure, result in injury to the liver and the other extrahepatic organs, and eventually result in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome by promoting excessive secretion of cytokines. Liver injury can further aggravate the systemic inlfammatory response and increase mortality by affecting the metabolism of toxins and the release of excessive inlfammatory mediators. Clodronate is a synthetic bisphosphonate, which is often used for treating bone changes caused by osteoporosis and other factors. In the current study, we created liposomes containing superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIOs) for macrophage labeling and magnetic resonance imaging, using a novel method that can bind the clodronate to induce apoptosis and deplete macrophages. METHODS: Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by chemical coprecipitation. SPIO-containing liposomes and SPIO-clodronate-containing liposomes were prepared by the thin iflm method. SAP models were prepared by injection of sodium taurocholate (2 ml/kg body weight) into the subcapsular space of the pancreas. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group, a SAP plus SPIO-liposome group, and a SAP plus SPIO-clodronate-containing group. Two and six hours after SAP models were available, T2-weighted MRI scans (in the same plane) of the livers of rats in each group were performed. At the end of the scans, 2 ml of blood was taken from the superior mesenteric vein to measure the levels of serum amylase, ALT, AST, TNF-α, and IL-6. Pathological changes in the liver and pancreas were assessed. RESULTS: Transmission electron microscopy showed that the liposomes had a uniform size. No pathological changes in the pancreata of rats in the control group were noted. The

  3. Surface Modification of Exfoliated Graphite Nano-Reinforcements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I results showed that two surface treatments, oxidative plasma and reactive finishes, are effective means of modifying the surface chemistry of exfoliated...

  4. DAST in Flight Showing Diverging Wingtip Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of the structure, driven by aerodynamic forces and resulting in structural failure. The program used refined theoretical tools to predict at what speed flutter would occur. It then designed a high-response control system to counteract the motion and permit a much lighter wing structure. The wing had, in effect, 'electronic stiffness.' Flight research with this concept was extremely hazardous because an error in either the flutter prediction or control system implementation would result in wing structural failure and the loss of the vehicle. Because of this, flight demonstration of a sub-scale vehicle made sense from the standpoint of both safety and cost. The program anticipated structural failure during the course of the flight research. The Firebee II was a supersonic drone selected as the DAST testbed because its wing could be easily replaced, it used only tail-mounted control surfaces, and it was available as surplus from the U. S. Air Force. It was capable of 5-g turns (that is, turns producing acceleration equal to 5 times that of gravity). Langley outfitted a drone with an aeroelastic, supercritical research wing suitable for a Mach 0.98 cruise transport with a predicted flutter speed of Mach 0.95 at an altitude of 25,000 feet. Dryden and Langley, in conjunction with Boeing, designed and fabricated a digital flutter suppression system (FSS). Dryden developed an RPRV (remotely piloted research vehicle) flight control system; integrated the wing, FSS, and vehicle systems; and conducted the flight program. In addition to a digital flight control system and aeroelastic wings, each DAST drone had research equipment mounted in its nose and a mid-air retrieval system in its tail. The drones were originally launched from the NASA B-52 bomber and later from a DC-130. The DAST vehicle's flight was monitored from the sky by an F

  5. An easy route to make superhydrophobic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Kalpataru; Kumar, N.; Polaki, S. R.; Panigrahi, B. K.

    2012-06-01

    Superhydrophobic films with excellent flexibility have been fabricated on silicon surface, generated by means of a chemical galvanic cell route, within a short span of 10 sec. The results show a water contact angle of 155° (superhydrophobic) for the chemically modified silicon surface while it is 63° (hydrophilic) in pure silicon substrate. The surface roughness increases with well ordered protrusions after the chemical treatment. Surface roughness and low surface energy are ascribed for the superhydrophobic behavior of these chemically modified silicon surfaces.

  6. Fabrics China Creation Show Hold in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On August 5-6th.the 3rd Fabrics China Creation Show(one series events of Reach & Touch),organized by China National Textile & Apparel Council and National Textile Development Center,was held in Shanghai,aiming to providing textile producers and designers a platform to show their inspirations and creative ideas in fabric design.

  7. Serving Up Activities for TV Cooking Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchen, Johanna E.

    This paper documents a presentation given on the use of English-language television cooking shows in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) classrooms in Taiwan. Such shows can be ideal for classroom use, since they have a predictable structure consisting of short segments, are of interest to most students,…

  8. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate in combination with a twice-daily lopinavir-ritonavir-based regimen in HIV-infected women showed effective contraception and a lack of clinically significant interactions, with good safety and tolerability: results of the ACTG 5283 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Amneris E; Cohn, Susan E; Park, Jeong-Gun; Cramer, Yoninah; Weinberg, Adriana; Livingston, Elizabeth; Klingman, Karin L; Aweeka, Francesca; Watts, D Heather

    2015-04-01

    We conducted an open-label, steady-state pharmacokinetic (PK) study of drug-drug interactions between depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and twice-daily lopinavir (LPV) plus low-dose ritonavir (RTV) (LPV/r) among 24 HIV-infected women and compared the results to those for HIV-infected women receiving DMPA while on no antiretroviral therapy or on nucleosides only (n = 14 subjects from the control arm of AIDS Clinical Trials Group [ACTG] study 5093). The objectives of the study were to address the effect of LPV/r on DMPA and to address the effect of DMPA on LPV/r therapy. PK parameters were estimated using noncompartmental analysis with between-group comparisons of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) PKs and within-subject comparisons of LPV and RTV PKs before and 4 weeks after DMPA dosing. Plasma progesterone concentrations were measured every 2 weeks after DMPA dosing through week 12. Although the MPA area under the concentration-time curve and maximum concentration of drug in plasma were statistically significantly increased in the study women on LPV/r compared to those in the historical controls, these increases were not considered clinically significant. There were no changes in LPV or RTV exposure after DMPA. DMPA was well tolerated, and suppression of ovulation was maintained. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01296152.). Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Contribution of the surface contamination of uranium-materials on the quantitative analysis results by electron probe microbeam analysis; Contributions des effets de surface des materiaux uraniferes aux resultats d'analyses quantitatives par microsonde electronique a dispersion de longueur d'onde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, O.; Fournier, C.; Fucili, C.; Dugne, O. [CEA Valrho, (DCC/DTE/SIM), 30 - Marcoule (France); Merlet, C. [Montpellier-2 Univ. (ISTEEM/CNRS), 34 (France)

    2000-07-01

    The analytical testing of uranium materials is necessary for quality research and development in nuclear industry applications (enrichment, safety studies, fuel, etc). Electron Probe Microbeam Analysis Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometry (EPMA-WDS) is a dependable non-destructive analytical technology. The characteristic X-ray signal is measured to identify and quantify the sample components, and the analyzed volume is about one micron cube. The surface contamination of uranium materials modifies and contributes to the quantitative analysis results of EPMA-WDS. This contribution is not representative of the bulk. A thin oxidized layer appears in the first instants after preparation (burnishing, cleaning) as well as a carbon contamination layer, due to metallographic preparation and carbon cracking under the impact of the electron probe. Several analytical difficulties subsequently arise, including an overlapping line between the carbon Ka ray and the Uranium U{sub NIVOVI} ray. Sensitivity and accuracy of the quantification of light elements like carbon and oxygen are also reduced by the presence of uranium. The aim of this study was to improve the accuracy of quantitative analysis on uranium materials by EPMA-WDS by taking account of the contribution of surface contamination. The first part of this paper is devoted to the study of the contaminated surface of the uranium materials U, UFe{sub 2} and U{sub 6}Fe a few hours after preparation. These oxidation conditions are selected so as to reproduce the same contamination surfaces occurring in microprobe analytical conditions. Surface characterization techniques were SIMS and Auger spectroscopy. The contaminated surfaces are shown. They consist of successive layers: a carbon layer, an oxidized iron layer, followed by an iron depletion layer (only in UFe{sub 2} and U{sub 6}Fe), and a ternary oxide layer (U-Fe-O for UFe{sub 2} et U{sub 6}Fe and UO{sub 2+x} for uranium). The second part of the paper addresses the

  10. Voyeurismo Televisivo, Reality Shows e Brasilidade Televisiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Kilpp

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years we watched a boom of reality shows in the media and also in the academic production specialized in this subject. It remains, however, a epistemological gap related to the aesthetic and techniques (which are related to the televisions grammars that TV uses in these programs to enunciate ethics directions to its own voyeurism, that goes far beyond reality shows, having repercussions on social imaginary of transparency and surveillance, and the redesign of public and private spaces. In this gap, the article points out the debate of Brazilian reality shows in the perspective of the televisions grammars.

  11. Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163263.html Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism Small study found giving healthy gut bacteria to ... study suggests a novel treatment for kids with autism: Give these young patients a fresh supply of ...

  12. Poverty Harder on Women's Hearts, Research Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163168.html Poverty Harder on Women's Hearts, Research Shows Poor females ... reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease around the world," Peters said. The study findings were published online ...

  13. Diabetes Drug Shows Promise Against Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_167612.html Diabetes Drug Shows Promise Against Parkinson's Byetta improved symptoms of motor disease in small, ... may do double duty as a treatment for Parkinson's disease, a new study suggests. "This is a ...

  14. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  15. Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162514.html Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain Virus can copy itself thousands ... New research paints a chilling portrait of how Zika ravages the infant brain. Scientists from the U.S. ...

  16. Fabrics China Creation Show Held in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On August 5-6th,the 3rd Fabrics China Creation Show (one series events of Reach & Touch),organized by China National Textile & Apparel Council and National Textile Development Center,was held in Shanghai,

  17. Voyeurismo Televisivo, Reality Shows e Brasilidade Televisiva

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Kilpp

    2008-01-01

    In the last years we watched a boom of reality shows in the media and also in the academic production specialized in this subject. It remains, however, a epistemological gap related to the aesthetic and techniques (which are related to the televisions grammars) that TV uses in these programs to enunciate ethics directions to its own voyeurism, that goes far beyond reality shows, having repercussions on social imaginary of transparency and surveillance, and the redesign of public and private s...

  18. Computation of surface roughness using optical correlation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M hamed; M Saudy

    2007-05-01

    The laser speckle photography is used to calculate the average surface roughness from the autocorrelation function of the aluminum diffuse objects. The computed results of surface roughness obtained from the profile shapes of the autocorrelation function of the diffuser show good agreement with the results obtained by the stylus profile meter.

  19. Laser surface texturing of tool steel: textured surfaces quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šugár, Peter; Šugárová, Jana; Frnčík, Martin

    2016-05-01

    In this experimental investigation the laser surface texturing of tool steel of type 90MnCrV8 has been conducted. The 5-axis highly dynamic laser precision machining centre Lasertec 80 Shape equipped with the nano-second pulsed ytterbium fibre laser and CNC system Siemens 840 D was used. The planar and spherical surfaces first prepared by turning have been textured. The regular array of spherical and ellipsoidal dimples with a different dimensions and different surface density has been created. Laser surface texturing has been realized under different combinations of process parameters: pulse frequency, pulse energy and laser beam scanning speed. The morphological characterization of ablated surfaces has been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. The results show limited possibility of ns pulse fibre laser application to generate different surface structures for tribological modification of metallic materials. These structures were obtained by varying the processing conditions between surface ablation, to surface remelting. In all cases the areas of molten material and re-cast layers were observed on the bottom and walls of the dimples. Beside the influence of laser beam parameters on the machined surface quality during laser machining of regular hemispherical and elipsoidal dimple texture on parabolic and hemispherical surfaces has been studied.

  20. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  1. Liquid Crystal Research Shows Deformation By Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    These images, from David Weitz's liquid crystal research, show ordered uniform sized droplets (upper left) before they are dried from their solution. After the droplets are dried (upper right), they are viewed with crossed polarizers that show the deformation caused by drying, a process that orients the bipolar structure of the liquid crystal within the droplets. When an electric field is applied to the dried droplets (lower left), and then increased (lower right), the liquid crystal within the droplets switches its alignment, thereby reducing the amount of light that can be scattered by the droplets when a beam is shone through them.

  2. Simulation shows hospitals that cooperate on infection control obtain better results than hospitals acting alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Bartsch, Sarah M; Wong, Kim F; Yilmaz, S Levent; Avery, Taliser R; Singh, Ashima; Song, Yeohan; Kim, Diane S; Brown, Shawn T; Potter, Margaret A; Platt, Richard; Huang, Susan S

    2012-10-01

    Efforts to control life-threatening infections, such as with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), can be complicated when patients are transferred from one hospital to another. Using a detailed computer simulation model of all hospitals in Orange County, California, we explored the effects when combinations of hospitals tested all patients at admission for MRSA and adopted procedures to limit transmission among patients who tested positive. Called "contact isolation," these procedures specify precautions for health care workers interacting with an infected patient, such as wearing gloves and gowns. Our simulation demonstrated that each hospital's decision to test for MRSA and implement contact isolation procedures could affect the MRSA prevalence in all other hospitals. Thus, our study makes the case that further cooperation among hospitals--which is already reflected in a few limited collaborative infection control efforts under way--could help individual hospitals achieve better infection control than they could achieve on their own.

  3. Interpreting Reading Comprehension Test Results: Quantile Regression Shows That Explanatory Factors Can Vary with Performance Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Anh N.; Keenan, Janice M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important findings to emerge from recent reading comprehension research is that there are large differences between tests in what they assess--specifically, the extent to which performance depends on word recognition versus listening comprehension skills. Because this research used ordinary least squares regression, it is not clear…

  4. Pilot evaluation of a media literacy program for tobacco prevention targeting early adolescents shows mixed results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestle, Christine E; Chen, Yvonnes; Estabrooks, Paul A; Zoellner, Jamie; Bigby, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the impact of media literacy for tobacco prevention for youth delivered through a community site. A randomized pretest-posttest evaluation design with matched-contact treatment and control conditions. The pilot study was delivered through the YMCA in a lower-income suburban and rural area of Southwest Virginia, a region long tied, both economically and culturally, to the tobacco industry. Children ages 8 to 14 (76% white, 58% female) participated in the study (n = 38). The intervention was an antismoking media literacy program (five 1-hour lessons) compared with a matched-contact creative writing control program. General media literacy, three domains of tobacco-specific media literacy ("authors and audiences," "messages and meanings," and "representation and reality"), tobacco attitudes, and future expectations were assessed. Multiple regression modeling assessed the impact of the intervention, controlling for pretest measures, age, and sex. General media literacy and tobacco-specific "authors and audiences" media literacy improved significantly for treatment compared with control (p media literacy measures and for tobacco attitudes were not significant. Future expectations of smoking increased significantly for treatment participants ages 10 and younger (p media literacy are accompanied by an increase in future expectations to smoke for younger children.

  5. Results from a survey of the South African GISc community show ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serena Coetzee

    the GISc community fulfil roles of data analysis and interpretation, together with data .... The subsections of section 4 answer the research questions: 1) 4.1 and 4.3 ...... 2. Map use and evaluation. 3. Raster backdrops;. Principles of map design.

  6. Are Corporate Universities (CU possible in emerging countries? A survey conducted in Argentina showed impacting results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro A. Viltard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available At the time of our investigation, the CU was not a widespread concept in Argentina, being viewed as a “foreign - far long project” (coming from developed countries and standing for the long term. It is suggested that the rate of CU evolution, in emerging countries like Argentina, is more related to mentality issues than to CU strategic or operative limitations. Although the executives who replied to a survey were not the only power factor in their organization, their comments allow us to think that, in those countries, the CU may have a better future perspective. The research used a quali-quantitative methodology, which was based on a survey to top executives of different kinds of companies located in Argentina. The research design was not experimental and transversal, as it was limited to a specific moment in time.

  7. Surface phonons

    CERN Document Server

    Wette, Frederik

    1991-01-01

    In recent years substantial progress has been made in the detection of surface phonons owing to considerable improvements in inelastic rare gas scattering tech­ niques and electron energy loss spectroscopy. With these methods it has become possible to measure surface vibrations in a wide energy range for all wave vectors in the two-dimensional Brillouin zone and thus to deduce the complete surface phonon dispersion curves. Inelastic atomic beam scattering and electron energy loss spectroscopy have started to play a role in the study of surface phonons similar to the one played by inelastic neutron scattering in the investigation of bulk phonons in the last thirty years. Detailed comparison between experimen­ tal results and theoretical studies of inelastic surface scattering and of surface phonons has now become feasible. It is therefore possible to test and to improve the details of interaction models which have been worked out theoretically in the last few decades. At this point we felt that a concise, co...

  8. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  9. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the cinem

  10. Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163824.html Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma Over one-third ... TUESDAY, Feb. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental gene therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma beat back more ...

  11. Development, management and economy of show caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigna Arrigo A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems concerning the development of show caves are here considered by taking into account different aspects of the problem. A procedure to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA has been established in the last decade and it is now currently applied. Such an assessment starts with a pre-operational phase to obtain sufficient information on the undisturbed status of a cave to be developed into a show cave. Successively a programme for its development is established with the scope to optimise the intervention on the cave at the condition that its basic environmental parameters are not irreversibly modified. The last phase of the assessment is focussed to assure a feedback through a monitoring network in order to detect any unforeseen difference or anomaly between the project and the effective situation achieved after the cave development. Some data on some of the most important show caves in the world are reported and a tentative evaluation of the economy in connection with the show caves business is eventually made.

  12. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  13. TV-Show Retrieval and Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musto, C.; Narducci, F.; Lops, P.; Semeraro G.; Gemmis, M. de; Barbieri, M.; Korst, J.H.M.; Pronk, S.P.P.; Clout, R.A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Recommender systems are becoming popular tools to aid users in finding interesting and relevant TV-shows and other digital video assets,based on implicitly learned user preferences. In this context, a common assumption is that user preferences can be specified by program types (movie, sports, ...) a

  14. The British Show in Australia, 1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bond

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1984–85, The British Show, an exhibition largely made up of New British Sculpture, was curated for Australia and New Zealand. This essay discusses the context and effects of the exhibition on art in Australia. It also seeks to define the sources of originality and innovation of the artists included.

  15. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  16. Zenith Movie showing Phoenix's Lidar Beam (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation A laser beam from the Canadian-built lidar instrument on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander can be seen in this contrast-enhanced sequence of 10 images taken by Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager on July 26, 2008, during early Martian morning hours of the mission's 61st Martian day after landing. The view is almost straight up and includes about 1.5 kilometer (about 1 mile) of the length of the beam. The camera, from its position close to the lidar on the lander deck, took the images through a green filter centered on light with wavelength 532 nanometers, the same wavelength of the laser beam. The movie has been artificially colored to to approximately match the color that would be seen looking through this filter on Mars. Contrast is enhanced to make the beam more visible. The lidar beam can be seen extending from the lower right to the upper right, near the zenith, as it reflects off particles suspended in the atmosphere. Particles that scatter the beam directly into the camera can be seen to produce brief sparkles of light. In the background, dust can be seen drifting across the sky pushed by winds aloft. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. La mujer, en los talk shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antrop. José Gamboa Cetina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de los medios de comunicación, uno de los que más ha impactado a la población latinoamericana ha sido la televisión, y en la barra programática de las televisoras ha surgido un tipo de programas denominados talk shows. En los últimos meses, la sociedad mexicana ha vivido el "boom" de los talk shows, que en poco tiempo han saturado la barra de la programación vespertina de las dos principales empresas televisivas de la república mexicana. Este fenómeno puede estudiarse desde diversas perspectivas. Sin embargo, por motivos de espacio, en esta ocasión analizaremos su impacto en las mujeres, desde diferentes dimensiones.

  18. Protein Adsorption to Surface Chemistry and Crystal Structure Modification of Titanium Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Jimbo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To observe the early adsorption of extracellular matrix and blood plasma proteins to magnesium-incorporated titanium oxide surfaces, which has shown superior bone response in animal models.Material and Methods: Commercially pure titanium discs were blasted with titanium dioxide (TiO2 particles (control, and for the test group, TiO2 blasted discs were further processed with a micro-arc oxidation method (test. Surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, surface topography by optic interferometry, characterization by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The adsorption of 3 different proteins (fibronectin, albumin, and collagen type I was investigated by an immunoblotting technique.Results: The test surface showed a porous structure, whereas the control surface showed a typical TiO2 blasted structure. XPS data revealed magnesium-incorporation to the anodic oxide film of the surface. There was no difference in surface roughness between the control and test surfaces. For the protein adsorption test, the amount of albumin was significantly higher on the control surface whereas the amount of fibronectin was significantly higher on the test surface. Although there was no significant difference, the test surface had a tendency to adsorb more collagen type I.Conclusions: The magnesium-incorporated anodized surface showed significantly higher fibronectin adsorption and lower albumin adsorption than the blasted surface. These results may be one of the reasons for the excellent bone response previously observed in animal studies.

  19. 2009 Hands Across Pacific Show Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The 2009 Hands Across the Pacific Show co-sponsored by the Canadian International Cultural Exchanges (CICEX) and Hunan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(HPPAFFC) was held respectively in the Tower Hall of Tokyo,Japan from July 2 to 7 and in the Hunan Provincial Museum from August 1 to 5.Jing Dunquan,Vice President of the

  20. The People's Show: A Critical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Francis

    1996-01-01

    The 1990s heralded a new form of museum exhibition: "The People's Show." A light-hearted celebration of popular culture, the concept has had phenomenal success throughout the United Kingdom. Beneath the humour, however, are more complex and radical agendas relating to cultural rights. The paper explores the issues associated with the rise and possible wane of this museum-based popular cultural phenomenon.

  1. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.