WorldWideScience

Sample records for surfaces lines auxiliary

  1. Terminal Sliding Mode Control with Unidirectional Auxiliary Surfaces for Hypersonic Vehicles Based on Adaptive Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naibao He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel flight control scheme is proposed using the terminal sliding mode technique, unidirectional auxiliary surfaces and the disturbance observer model. These proposed dynamic attitude control systems can improve control performance of hypersonic vehicles despite uncertainties and external disturbances. The terminal attractor is employed to improve the convergence rate associated with the critical damping characteristics problem noted in short-period motions of hypersonic vehicles. The proposed robust attitude control scheme uses a dynamic terminal sliding mode with unidirectional auxiliary surfaces. The nonlinear disturbance observer is designed to estimate system uncertainties and external disturbances. The output of the disturbance observer aids the robust adaptive control scheme and improves robust attitude control performance. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed terminal sliding mode with unidirectional auxiliary surfaces.

  2. Experiment and numerical analysis of the NPP pressurizer auxiliary spray line submitted to large thermal shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couterot, C.; Geyer, P.; Proix, J.M.

    1994-03-01

    The pressurizer auxiliary spray line of PWR nuclear power plants may be submitted to severe temperature transients during upset conditions: a 325 deg C cold thermal shock in one second is followed by a 200 deg C hot thermal shock. For such transients, the RCC-M French design code rules that prevent the ratcheting deformation hazard are not respected for the components with thickness transition. Consequently, Electricite de France has realized twenty thermal cycles under pressure on a representative mock-up. During these tests, many temperature, strain and diametral variations were measured. No significant ratcheting deformation was detected on all components, except on the 6'' x 2'' x 6'' T-piece, where a weak progressive diameter increase was observed during a few cycles. Moreover, computations of a 2'' socket welding were made with the non linear kinematic hardening Chaboche model which also showed a weak progressive deformation behaviour. (authors). 7 figs., 7 refs

  3. Are Modal Auxiliaries in Malaysian English Language Textbooks in Line with Their Usage in Real Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojasteh, Laleh; Kafipour, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Based on the discrepancies found in many Malaysian English language textbooks, a detailed analysis on the way modal auxiliary verb forms and their semantic functions were introduced and presented in texts and exercises in five Malaysian textbooks was done. For that to be achieved, a qualitative page-by-page content analysis was applied. From the…

  4. Plasma immersion ion implantation of the interior surface of a large cylindrical bore using an auxiliary electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, X.C.; Kwok, T.K.; Liu, A.G.; Chu, P.K.; Tang, B.Y.

    1998-01-01

    A model utilizing cold, unmagnetized, and collisionless fluid ions as well as Boltzmann electrons is used to comprehensively investigate the sheath expansion into a translationally invariant large bore in the presence of an auxiliary electrode during plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) of a cylindrical bore sample. The governing equation of ion continuity, ion motion, and Poisson close-quote s equation are solved by using a numerical finite difference method for different cylindrical bore radii, auxiliary electrode radii, and voltage rise times. The ion density and ion impact energy at the cylindrical inner surface, as well as the ion energy distribution, maximum ion impact energy, and average ion impact energy for the various cases are obtained. Our results show a dramatic improvement in the impact energy when an auxiliary electrode is used and the recommended normalized auxiliary electrode radius is in the range of 0.1 endash 0.3. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  5. Copper Heat Exchanger for the External Auxiliary Bus-Bars Routing Line in the LHC Insertion Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C; Seyvet, F; Sitko, M; Skoczen, B; Tock, J P

    2006-01-01

    The corrector magnets and the main quadrupoles of the LHC dispersion suppressors are powered by a special superconducting line (called auxiliary bus-bars line N), external to the cold mass and housed in a 50 mm diameter stainless steel tube fixed to the cold mass. As the line is periodically connected to the cold mass, the same gaseous and liquid helium cools both the magnets and the line. The final sub-cooling process (from around 4.5 K down to 1.9 K) consists in the phase transformation from liquid to superfluid helium. Heat is extracted from the line through the magnets via their point of junction. In dispersion suppressor zones, approximately 40 m long, the sub-cooling of the line is slightly delayed with respect to the magnets. This might have an impact on the readiness of the accelerator for operation. In order to accelerate the process, a special heat exchanger has been designed. It is located in the middle of the dispersion suppressor portion of the line. Its main function consists in providing a loca...

  6. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-2: Auxiliary Files (NODC Accession 0044983)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the data descriptions for the OSTM/Jason-2 Auxiliary data files, which is served through the NOAA/NESDIS Comprehensive Large Array-data...

  7. Auxiliary buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakner, I.; Lestyan, E.

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear power station represents a complicated and a particular industrial project. Consequently, the design of the auxiliary buildings serving the power station (offices, kitchen, refreshment room, workshops, depots, water treatment plant building, boiler houses, etc.) requires more attention than usual. This chapter gives a short survey of the auxiliary buildings already completed and discusses the problems of their design, location and structure. (author)

  8. Real quartic surfaces containing 16 skew lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Nieto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that there is an open three-dimensional subvariety Ms of the Grassmannian of lines in ℙ3 which parametrizes smooth irreducible complex surfaces of degree 4 which are Heisenberg invariant, and each quartic contains 32 lines but only 16 skew lines, being determined by its configuration of lines, are called a double 16. We consider here the problem of visualizing in a computer the real Heisenberg invariant quartic surface and the real double 16. We construct a family of points l∈Ms parametrized by a two-dimensional semialgebraic variety such that under a change of coordinates of l into its Plüecker, coordinates transform into the real coordinates for a line L in ℙ3, which is then used to construct a program in Maple 7. The program allows us to draw the quartic surface and the set of transversal lines to L. Additionally, we include a table of a group of examples. For each test example we specify a parameter, the viewing angle of the image, compilation time, and other visual properties of the real surface and its real double 16. We include at the end of the paper an example showing the surface containing the double 16.

  9. A boundary integral equation method using auxiliary interior surface approach for acoustic radiation and scattering in two dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S A

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents an effective solution method for predicting acoustic radiation and scattering fields in two dimensions. The difficulty of the fictitious characteristic frequency is overcome by incorporating an auxiliary interior surface that satisfies certain boundary condition into the body surface. This process gives rise to a set of uniquely solvable boundary integral equations. Distributing monopoles with unknown strengths over the body and interior surfaces yields the simple source formulation. The modified boundary integral equations are further transformed to ordinary ones that contain nonsingular kernels only. This implementation allows direct application of standard quadrature formulas over the entire integration domain; that is, the collocation points are exactly the positions at which the integration points are located. Selecting the interior surface is an easy task. Moreover, only a few corresponding interior nodal points are sufficient for the computation. Numerical calculations consist of the acoustic radiation and scattering by acoustically hard elliptic and rectangular cylinders. Comparisons with analytical solutions are made. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the current solution method.

  10. Integral effect test and code analysis on the cooling performance of the PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system) during an FLB (feedwater line break) accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Byoung-Uhn; Kim, Seok; Park, Yu-Sun; Kang, Kyoung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This study focuses on the experimental validation of the operational performance of the PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system). • A transient simulation of the FLB (feedwater line break) in the integral effect test facility, ATLAS-PAFS, was performed to investigate thermal hydraulic behavior during the PAFS actuation. • The test result confirmed that the APR+ has the capability of coping with the FLB scenario by adopting the PAFS and proper set-points for its operation. • The experimental result was utilized to evaluate the prediction capability of a thermal hydraulic system analysis code, MARS-KS. - Abstract: APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus), which is a GEN-III+ nuclear power plant developed in Korea, adopts PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system) as an advanced safety feature. The PAFS can completely replace an active auxiliary feedwater system by cooling down the secondary side of steam generators with a natural convection mechanism. This study focuses on experimental and analytical investigation for cooling and operational performance of the PAFS during an FLB (feedwater line break) transient with an integral effect test facility, ATLAS-PAFS. To realistically simulate the FLB accident of the APR+, the three-level scaling methodology was taken into account to design the test facility and determine the test condition. From the test result, the PAFS was actuated to successfully cool down the decay heat of the reactor core by the condensation heat transfer at the PCHX (passive condensation heat exchanger), and thus it could be confirmed that the APR+ has the capability of coping with a FLB scenario by adopting the PAFS and proper set-points for its operation. This integral effect test data were used to evaluate the prediction capability of a thermal hydraulic system analysis code, MARS-KS. The code analysis result proved that it could reasonably predict the FLB transient including the actuation of the PAFS and the natural convection

  11. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-3: Auxiliary Files, 2015- (NODC Accession 0122597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Jason-3 is the fourth mission in U.S.-European series of satellite missions that measure the height of the ocean surface. Scheduled to launch in 2015, the mission...

  12. Comparison of elevation and remote sensing derived products as auxiliary data for climate surface interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Otto; Guo, Qinghua; Klinger, Robert C.; Li, Wenkai; Doherty, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Climate models may be limited in their inferential use if they cannot be locally validated or do not account for spatial uncertainty. Much of the focus has gone into determining which interpolation method is best suited for creating gridded climate surfaces, which often a covariate such as elevation (Digital Elevation Model, DEM) is used to improve the interpolation accuracy. One key area where little research has addressed is in determining which covariate best improves the accuracy in the interpolation. In this study, a comprehensive evaluation was carried out in determining which covariates were most suitable for interpolating climatic variables (e.g. precipitation, mean temperature, minimum temperature, and maximum temperature). We compiled data for each climate variable from 1950 to 1999 from approximately 500 weather stations across the Western United States (32° to 49° latitude and −124.7° to −112.9° longitude). In addition, we examined the uncertainty of the interpolated climate surface. Specifically, Thin Plate Spline (TPS) was used as the interpolation method since it is one of the most popular interpolation techniques to generate climate surfaces. We considered several covariates, including DEM, slope, distance to coast (Euclidean distance), aspect, solar potential, radar, and two Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) products derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). A tenfold cross-validation was applied to determine the uncertainty of the interpolation based on each covariate. In general, the leading covariate for precipitation was radar, while DEM was the leading covariate for maximum, mean, and minimum temperatures. A comparison to other products such as PRISM and WorldClim showed strong agreement across large geographic areas but climate surfaces generated in this study (ClimSurf) had greater variability at high elevation regions, such as in the Sierra

  13. Speed-up of ab initio hybrid Monte Carlo and ab initio path integral hybrid Monte Carlo simulations by using an auxiliary potential energy surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Akira; Taketsugu, Tetsuya; Shiga, Motoyuki

    2009-01-01

    Efficiency of the ab initio hybrid Monte Carlo and ab initio path integral hybrid Monte Carlo methods is enhanced by employing an auxiliary potential energy surface that is used to update the system configuration via molecular dynamics scheme. As a simple illustration of this method, a dual-level approach is introduced where potential energy gradients are evaluated by computationally less expensive ab initio electronic structure methods. (author)

  14. Revised-Confirmatory Survey Report for Portions of the Auxiliary Building Structural Surfaces and Turbine Building Embedded Piping, Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, Herald, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W. C. Adams

    2007-01-01

    During the period of October 15 and 18, 2007, ORISE performed confirmatory radiological survey activities which included beta and gamma structural surface scans and beta activity direct measurements within the Auxiliary Building, beta or gamma scans within Turbine Building embedded piping, beta activity determinations within Turbine Building Drain 3-1-27, and gamma scans and the collection of a soil sample from the clay soils adjacent to the Lower Mixing Box

  15. Moving contact lines on vibrating surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomenko, Zlatko; Spelt, Peter; Scott, Julian

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale simulations of flows with moving contact lines for realistic conditions generally requires a subgrid scale model (analyses based on matched asymptotics) to account for the unresolved part of the flow, given the large range of length scales involved near contact lines. Existing models for the interface shape in the contact-line region are primarily for steady flows on homogeneous substrates, with encouraging results in 3D simulations. Introduction of complexities would require further investigation of the contact-line region, however. Here we study flows with moving contact lines on planar substrates subject to vibrations, with applications in controlling wetting/dewetting. The challenge here is to determine the change in interface shape near contact lines due to vibrations. To develop further insight, 2D direct numerical simulations (wherein the flow is resolved down to an imposed slip length) have been performed to enable comparison with asymptotic theory, which is also developed further. Perspectives will also be presented on the final objective of the work, which is to develop a subgrid scale model that can be utilized in large-scale simulations. The authors gratefully acknowledge the ANR for financial support (ANR-15-CE08-0031) and the meso-centre FLMSN for use of computational resources. This work was Granted access to the HPC resources of CINES under the allocation A0012B06893 made by GENCI.

  16. Lining seam elimination algorithm and surface crack detection in concrete tunnel lining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhong; Bai, Ling; An, Shi-Quan; Ju, Fang-Rong; Liu, Ling

    2016-11-01

    Due to the particularity of the surface of concrete tunnel lining and the diversity of detection environments such as uneven illumination, smudges, localized rock falls, water leakage, and the inherent seams of the lining structure, existing crack detection algorithms cannot detect real cracks accurately. This paper proposed an algorithm that combines lining seam elimination with the improved percolation detection algorithm based on grid cell analysis for surface crack detection in concrete tunnel lining. First, check the characteristics of pixels within the overlapping grid to remove the background noise and generate the percolation seed map (PSM). Second, cracks are detected based on the PSM by the accelerated percolation algorithm so that the fracture unit areas can be scanned and connected. Finally, the real surface cracks in concrete tunnel lining can be obtained by removing the lining seam and performing percolation denoising. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately, quickly, and effectively detect the real surface cracks. Furthermore, it can fill the gap in the existing concrete tunnel lining surface crack detection by removing the lining seam.

  17. Auxiliary verbs in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    Dinka, a Western Nilotic language, has a class of auxiliary verbs which is remarkable in the following four respects: (i) It is unusually large, comprising some 20 members; (ii) it is grammatically homogeneous in terms of both morphology and syntax; (iii) most of the auxiliary verbs correspond...... to adverbs in languages like English, while the rest are tense-aspect markers; and (iv) it is possible to combine several auxiliary verbs in a single clause. For some of the auxiliary verbs there are extant full verbs from which they have evolved. To some extent, therefore, it is possible to observe what...

  18. Steam generator auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, A.

    1982-01-01

    The author deals with damage and defect types obtaining in auxiliary systems of power plants. These concern water/steam auxiliary systems (feed-water tank, injection-control valves, slide valves) and air/fluegas auxiliary systems (blowers, air preheaters, etc.). Operating errors and associated damage are not dealt with; by contrast, weak spots are pointed out which result from planning and design. Damage types and events are collected in statistics in order to facilitate damage evaluation for arriving at improved design solutions. (HAG) [de

  19. Line operators from M-branes on compact Riemann surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amariti, Antonio [Physics Department, The City College of the CUNY, 160 Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10031 (United States); Orlando, Domenico [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Reffert, Susanne, E-mail: sreffert@itp.unibe.ch [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, we determine the charge lattice of mutually local Wilson and 't Hooft line operators for class S theories living on M5-branes wrapped on compact Riemann surfaces. The main ingredients of our analysis are the fundamental group of the N-cover of the Riemann surface, and a quantum constraint on the six-dimensional theory. The latter plays a central role in excluding some of the possible lattices and imposing consistency conditions on the charges. This construction gives a geometric explanation for the mutual locality among the lines, fixing their charge lattice and the structure of the four-dimensional gauge group.

  20. Meandered-line antenna with integrated high-impedance surface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forman, Michael A.

    2010-09-01

    A reduced-volume antenna composed of a meandered-line dipole antenna over a finite-width, high-impedance surface is presented. The structure is novel in that the high-impedance surface is implemented with four Sievenpiper via-mushroom unit cells, whose area is optimized to match the meandered-line dipole antenna. The result is an antenna similar in performance to patch antenna but one fourth the area that can be deployed directly on the surface of a conductor. Simulations demonstrate a 3.5 cm ({lambda}/4) square antenna with a bandwidth of 4% and a gain of 4.8 dBi at 2.5 GHz.

  1. Lining cells on normal human vertebral bone surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.B.; Lloyd, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    Thoracic vertebrae from two individuals with no bone disease were studied with the electron microscope to determine cell morphology in relation to bone mineral. The work was undertaken to determine if cell morphology or spatial relationships between the bone lining cells and bone mineral could account for the relative infrequency of bone tumors which arise at this site following radium intake, when compared with other sites, such as the head of the femur. Cells lining the vertebral mineral were found to be generally rounded in appearance with varied numbers of cytoplasmic granules, and they appeared to have a high density per unit of surface area. These features contrasted with the single layer of flattened cells characteristic of the bone lining cells of the femur. A tentative discussion of the reasons for the relative infrequency of tumors in the vertebrae following radium acquisition is presented

  2. Comparison of Transmission Line Methods for Surface Acoustic Wave Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, extremely low power and can be used to develop passive wireless sensors. For these reasons, NASA is investigating the use of SAW technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace structures. To facilitate rapid prototyping of passive SAW sensors for aerospace applications, SAW models have been developed. This paper reports on the comparison of three methods of modeling SAWs. The three models are the Impulse Response Method (a first order model), and two second order matrix methods; the conventional matrix approach, and a modified matrix approach that is extended to include internal finger reflections. The second order models are based upon matrices that were originally developed for analyzing microwave circuits using transmission line theory. Results from the models are presented with measured data from devices. Keywords: Surface Acoustic Wave, SAW, transmission line models, Impulse Response Method.

  3. Auxiliary Deep Generative Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Sønderby, Søren Kaae

    2016-01-01

    Deep generative models parameterized by neural networks have recently achieved state-of-the-art performance in unsupervised and semi-supervised learning. We extend deep generative models with auxiliary variables which improves the variational approximation. The auxiliary variables leave...... the generative model unchanged but make the variational distribution more expressive. Inspired by the structure of the auxiliary variable we also propose a model with two stochastic layers and skip connections. Our findings suggest that more expressive and properly specified deep generative models converge...... faster with better results. We show state-of-the-art performance within semi-supervised learning on MNIST (0.96%), SVHN (16.61%) and NORB (9.40%) datasets....

  4. Auxiliary mine ventilation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workplace Safety North

    2010-01-01

    An adequate ventilation system is needed for air quality and handling in a mine and is comprised of many different pieces of equipment for removing contaminated air and supplying fresh air and thereby provide a satisfactory working environment. This manual highlights auxiliary ventilation systems made up of small fans, ducts, tubes, air movers, deflectors and additional air flow controls which distribute fresh air delivered by the primary system to all areas. A review of auxiliary ventilation is provided. Design, operation and management issues are discussed and guidelines are furnished. This manual is limited to underground hard rock operations and does not address directly other, specific auxiliary systems, either in underground coal mines or uranium mines.

  5. Auxiliary mine ventilation manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Workplace Safety North

    2010-07-01

    An adequate ventilation system is needed for air quality and handling in a mine and is comprised of many different pieces of equipment for removing contaminated air and supplying fresh air and thereby provide a satisfactory working environment. This manual highlights auxiliary ventilation systems made up of small fans, ducts, tubes, air movers, deflectors and additional air flow controls which distribute fresh air delivered by the primary system to all areas. A review of auxiliary ventilation is provided. Design, operation and management issues are discussed and guidelines are furnished. This manual is limited to underground hard rock operations and does not address directly other, specific auxiliary systems, either in underground coal mines or uranium mines.

  6. CAREM-25. Auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, Eduardo; Amaya, Daniel; Carlevaris, Rodolfo; Patrignani, A.; Ramilo, L.; Santecchia, A.; Vindrola, C.

    2000-01-01

    CAREM is an innovative PWR reactor whose prototype will be of small power generation capacity (100MWt, about 25MWe).CAREM design is based on light water integrated reactor with slightly enriched uranium.In this work, a summary of the functions and most relevant design characteristics of main auxiliary systems associated to the chain of heat removal and physicochemical - radiological treatment of the cooling fluids of the CAREM-25 prototype is presented.Even though these auxiliary systems of the reactor are not safety system, they fulfill functions related with the nuclear safety at different operative modes of the reactor

  7. CAREM-25. Auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, Eduardo; Amaya, Daniel; Carlevaris, Rodolfo; Patrignani, Alberto; Santecchia, Alberto; Vindrola, Carlos; Ramilo, Lucia B.

    2000-01-01

    CAREM is an innovative PWR reactor whose prototype will be of small power generation capacity (100 M Wt, about 25 M We). CAREM design is based on light water integrated reactor with slightly enriched uranium. In this work, a summary of the functions and most relevant design characteristics of main auxiliary systems associated to the chain of heat removal and physicochemical - radiological treatment of the cooling fluids of the CAREM-25 prototype is presented. Even though these auxiliary systems of the reactor are not safety system, they fulfill functions related with the nuclear safety at different operative modes of the reactor. (author)

  8. Improvement of Surface Layer Characteristics by Shot Lining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Yasunori

    In the present study, lining of the metal with foils using shot peening was investigated to improve the surface layer characteristics. In the shot peening experiment, the foils set on the metal are pelted with hard particles traveling at a high velocity. The foils are bonded to the metal surface due to plastic deformation induced by the collision of the particles. The foils and the metal are heated to heighten the bondability because of the reduction of flow stress. Lining the metal with the hard powder sandwiched between two aluminum foil sheets was also attempted. In this experiment, a centrifugal shot peening machine wite an electrical heater was employed. The metals are commercially aluminium alloys and magnesium alloys, and the foils are commercially aluminum, titanium and nickel. The effects of shot speed and the heating temperature on the bondability were examined. Wear resistance was also evaluated by grinding. The foils were successfully bonded to the metal surface. It was found that the present method is effective in improving of surface layer characteristics.

  9. Auxiliary partial liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B. Reuvers (Cornelis Bastiaan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis studies on auxiliary partial liver transplantation in the dog and the pig are reported. The motive to perform this study was the fact that patients with acute hepatic failure or end-stage chronic liver disease are often considered to form too great a risk for successful

  10. PS auxiliary magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    Units of the PS auxiliary magnet system. The picture shows how the new dipoles, used for vertical and horizontal high-energy beam manipulation, are split for installation and removal so that it is not necessary to break the accelerator vacuum. On the right, adjacent to the sector valve and the windings of the main magnet, is an octupole of the set.

  11. Operation auxiliary system (SAO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lolich, J.; Santome, D.; Drexler, J.

    1990-01-01

    This work presents an auxiliary system for nuclear power plants operation (SAO). The development purpose consisted in a computing supervision system to be installed at different sites of a reactor, mainly in the control room. The inclusion of this system to a nuclear power plant minimizes the possibility of human error for the facility operation. (Author) [es

  12. Straight-Line Target Tracking for Unmanned Surface Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Breivik

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the subject of straight-line target tracking for unmanned surface vehicles (USVs. Target-tracking represents motion control scenarios where no information about the target behavior is known in advance, i.e., the path that the target traverses is not defined apriori. Specifically, this work presents the design of a motion control system which enables an underactuated USV to track a target that moves in a straight line at high speed. The motion control system employs a guidance principle originally developed for interceptor missiles, as well as a novel velocity controller inspired by maneuverability and agility concepts found in fighter aircraft literature. The performance of the suggested design is illustrated through full-scale USV experiments in the Trondheimsfjord.

  13. On the Nodal Lines of Eisenstein Series on Schottky Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, Dmitry; Naud, Frédéric

    2017-04-01

    On convex co-compact hyperbolic surfaces {X=Γ backslash H2}, we investigate the behavior of nodal curves of real valued Eisenstein series {F_λ(z,ξ)}, where {λ} is the spectral parameter, {ξ} the direction at infinity. Eisenstein series are (non-{L^2}) eigenfunctions of the Laplacian {Δ_X} satisfying {Δ_X F_λ=(1/4+λ^2)F_λ}. As {λ} goes to infinity (the high energy limit), we show that, for generic {ξ}, the number of intersections of nodal lines with any compact segment of geodesic grows like {λ}, up to multiplicative constants. Applications to the number of nodal domains inside the convex core of the surface are then derived.

  14. Auxiliary office chair

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Osés, Maite

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop an auxiliary office chair, which favorably will compete with the existing chairs on the market. Evolutions of ergonomical survey in the work environment and on the configuration of offices require new products which fulfill the requirements properly. In order to achieve it a survey about office chairs has been carried out: types, characteristics, ways of usage and products on the market besides a large antropometrical study and ergonomics related to work ...

  15. 30 CFR 75.705-2 - Repairs to energized surface high-voltage lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Repairs to energized surface high-voltage lines... Repairs to energized surface high-voltage lines. An energized high-voltage surface line may be repaired... on power circuits with a phase-to-phase nominal voltage no greater than 15,000 volts; (3) Such...

  16. Generic description of facilities at the shaft head (auxiliary entrance installations) of deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-10-01

    In a deep geological repository, the access structures function as the link between the surface and the installations and structures at the disposal level. In the planned implementation scenarios, at least two access structures will be in operation up to the time of closure of the repository. The radioactive waste will be transported via the main access from the surface to the disposal level during emplacement operations. For the construction and operation of a deep geological repository, additional access structures are required. These auxiliary accesses and the associated surface infrastructure (e.g. shaft head installations) form the subject of this report. To provide as broad and comprehensive a description as possible, seven types of auxiliary access facilities are defined; these are characterised in line with the current status of planning and their functions and impacts are described. During construction, operation and dismantling of auxiliary access facilities, the usual conventional safety measures (inter alia) have to be observed (e.g. groundwater protection, fire prevention, facility security, accident prevention). Regarding the 'Ordinance on Protection against Major Accidents' no large quantities of hazardous materials, i.e. above the corresponding threshold quantities, are to be expected in the auxiliary access facilities. Proper handling and compliance with applicable regulations in all phases will ensure no hazard to humans and the environment. As no handling of radioactive materials is foreseen in the auxiliary access facilities, and because exhaust air and waste water from the controlled zones of a repository will, in principle, be removed via the main access and not the auxiliary accesses, a safety-relevant emission of radioactive substances and transport of contaminated material can be ruled out for the auxiliary access facilities during both normal operation and also in the case of an accident. Based on the information presented in

  17. BE, DO, and Modal Auxiliaries of 3-Year-Old African American English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Oetting, Janna B.; Stockman, Ida J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined African American English--speaking children's use of BE, DO, and modal auxiliaries. Method: The data were based on language samples obtained from 48 three-year-olds. Analyses examined rates of marking by auxiliary type, auxiliary surface form, succeeding element, and syntactic construction and by a number of child…

  18. Comment on 'Surface thermodynamics, surface stress, equations at surfaces and triple lines for deformable bodies'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutman, E M

    2010-01-01

    In a recent publication by Olives (2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 085005) he studied 'the thermodynamics and mechanics of the surface of a deformable body, following and refining the general approach of Gibbs' and believed that 'a new definition of the surface stress is given'. However, using the usual way of deriving the equations of Gibbs-Duhem type the author, nevertheless, has fallen into a mathematical discrepancy because he has tried to unite in one equation different thermodynamic systems and 'a new definition of the surface stress' has appeared known in the usual theory of elasticity. (comment)

  19. Reactor auxiliary cooling facility and coolant supplying method therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1996-06-07

    A reactor auxiliary cooling facility of the present invention comprises a coolant recycling line for recycling coolants by way of a reactor auxiliary coolant pump and a cooling load, a gravitational surge tank for supplying coolants to the coolant recycling line and a supplemental water supplying line for supplying a supply the supplemental water to the tank. Then, a pressurization-type supply water surge tank is disposed for operating the coolant recycling line upon performing an initial system performance test in parallel with the gravitational surge tank. With such a constitution, the period of time required from the start of the installation of reactor auxiliary cooling facilities to the completion of the system performance test can be shortened at a reduced cost without enlarging the scale of the facility. (T.M.)

  20. Reactor auxiliary cooling facility and coolant supplying method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro.

    1996-01-01

    A reactor auxiliary cooling facility of the present invention comprises a coolant recycling line for recycling coolants by way of a reactor auxiliary coolant pump and a cooling load, a gravitational surge tank for supplying coolants to the coolant recycling line and a supplemental water supplying line for supplying a supply the supplemental water to the tank. Then, a pressurization-type supply water surge tank is disposed for operating the coolant recycling line upon performing an initial system performance test in parallel with the gravitational surge tank. With such a constitution, the period of time required from the start of the installation of reactor auxiliary cooling facilities to the completion of the system performance test can be shortened at a reduced cost without enlarging the scale of the facility. (T.M.)

  1. Mechanical (turbines and auxiliary equipment)

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2013-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Volume 3: Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment) focuses on the development of turbines and auxiliary equipment used in power stations in Great Britain. Topics covered include thermodynamics and steam turbine theory; turbine auxiliary systems such as lubrication systems, feed water heating systems, and the condenser and cooling water plants. Miscellaneous station services, and pipework in power plants are also described. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of thermodynamics and steam turbine theory, paying particular attenti

  2. DISCRETIZATION APPROACH USING RAY-TESTING MODEL IN PARTING LINE AND PARTING SURFACE GENERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jianwen; JIAN Bin; YAN Guangrong; LEI Yi

    2007-01-01

    Surface classification, 3D parting line, parting surface generation and demoldability analysis which is helpful to select optimal parting direction and optimal parting line are involved in automatic cavity design based on the ray-testing model. A new ray-testing approach is presented to classify the part surfaces to core/cavity surfaces and undercut surfaces by automatic identifying the visibility of surfaces. A simple, direct and efficient algorithm to identify surface visibility is developed. The algorithm is robust and adapted to rather complicated geometry, so it is valuable in computer-aided mold design systems. To validate the efficiency of the approach, an experimental program is implemented. Case studies show that the approach is practical and valuable in automatic parting line and parting surface generation.

  3. Mitigated subsurface transfer line leak resulting in a surface pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCOTT, D.L.

    1999-02-08

    This analysis evaluates the mitigated consequences of a potential waste transfer spill from an underground pipeline. The spill forms a surface pool. One waste composite, a 67% liquid, 33% solid, from a single shell tank is evaluated. Even drain back from a very long pipeline (50,000 ft), does not pose dose consequences to the onsite or offsite individual above guideline values.

  4. Mitigated subsurface transfer line leak resulting in a surface pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCOTT, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    This analysis evaluates the mitigated consequences of a potential waste transfer spill from an underground pipeline. The spill forms a surface pool. One waste composite, a 67% liquid, 33% solid, from a single shell tank is evaluated. Even drain back from a very long pipeline (50,000 ft), does not pose dose consequences to the onsite or offsite individual above guideline values

  5. Improving Energy Efficiency of Auxiliaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl T. Vuk

    2001-01-01

    The summaries of this report are: Economics Ultimately Dictates Direction; Electric Auxiliaries Provide Solid Benefits. The Impact on Vehicle Architecture Will be Important; Integrated Generators With Combined With Turbo Generators Can Meet the Electrical Demands of Electric Auxiliaries; Implementation Will Follow Automotive 42V Transition; Availability of Low Cost Hardware Will Slow Implementation; Industry Leadership and Cooperation Needed; Standards and Safety Protocols Will be Important. Government Can Play an Important Role in Expediting: Funding Technical Development; Incentives for Improving Fuel Economy; Developing Standards, Allowing Economy of Scale; and Providing Safety Guidelines

  6. Line printing solution-processable small molecules with uniform surface profile via ink-jet printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huimin; Xu, Wei; Tan, Wanyi; Zhu, Xuhui; Wang, Jian; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Line printing offers a feasible approach to remove the pixel well structure which is widely used to confine the ink-jet printed solution. In the study, a uniform line is printed by an ink-jet printer. To achieve a uniform surface profile of the printed line, 10vol% low-volatile solvent DMA (3,4-Dimethylanisole) is mixed with high-volatile solvent Pxy (p-xylene) as the solvent. After a solution-processable small molecule is dissolved, the surface tension of DMA solution becomes lower than that of Pxy solution, which creates an inward Marangoni flow during the solvent evaporation. The inward Marangoni flow balances out the outward capillary flow, thereby forming a flat film surface. The line width of the printed line depends on the contact angle of the solution on the hole injection layer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Initial analyses of surface spectral radiance between observations and Line-By-Line calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P.D.; Clough, S.A. [Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Miller, N.E.; Shippert, T.R.; Turner, D.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The evaluation an improvement of radiative transfer calculations are essential to attain improved performance of general circulation models (GCMs) for climate change applications. A Quality Measurement Experiment (QME) is being conducted to analyze the spectral residuals between the downwelling longwave radiance measured by the University of Wisconsin Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and spectral radiance calculated by the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM). The three critical components of this study are (1) the assessment of the quality of the high resolution AERI measurements, (2) the assessment of the ability to define the atmospheric state in the radiating column, and (3) the evaluation of the capability of LBLRTM. Validations have been performed on spectral radiance data, obtained from April 1994 through July 1994, through the analysis of the spectral interval and physical process. The results are archived as a function of time, enabling the retrieval of specific data and facilitating investigations and diurnal effects, seasonal effects, and longer-term trends. While the initial focus is restricted to clear-sky analyses, efforts are under way to include the effects of clouds and aerosols. Plans are well formulated for the extension of the current approach to the shortwave. An overview of the concept of the QME is described by Miller et al. (1994), and a detailed description of this study is provided by Clough et al. (1994).

  8. Interfacial stability of soil covers on lined surface impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.H.; Gates, T.E.

    1986-04-01

    The factors affecting the interfacial stability of soil covers on geomembranes were examined to determine the maximum stable slopes for soil cover/geomembrane systems. Several instances of instability of soil covers on geomembranes have occurred at tailings ponds, leaving exposed geomembranes with the potential for physical ddamage and possibly chemical and ultraviolet degradation. From an operator's viewpoint, it is desirable to maximize the slope of lined facilities in order to maximize the volume-to-area ratio; however, the likelihood for instability also increases with increasing slope. Frictional data obtained from direct shear tests are compared with stability data obtained using a nine-square-meter (m 2 ) engineering-scale test stand to verify that direct shear test data are valid in slope design calculations. Interfacial frictional data from direct shear tests using high-density polyethylene and a poorly graded sand cover agree within several degrees with the engineering-scale tests. Additional tests with other soils and geomembranes are planned. The instability of soil covers is not always an interfacial problem; soil erosion and limited drainage capacity are additional factors that must be considered in the design of covered slopes. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gaorong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants

    1995-07-01

    This document presents a general overview on hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment, emphasizing the turbine classification, in accordance with the different types of turbines, standard turbine series in China, turbine selection based on the basic data required for the preliminary design, general hill model curves, chart of turbine series and the arrangement of application for hydraulic turbines, hydraulic turbine testing, and speed regulating device.

  10. Aspectual auxiliary verbs in Xitsonga

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Let him always come' e. á vá hátl-é vá yá étlélà. OPT 3PL quickly-OPT 3PL go sleep. 'Let them quickly go to bed'. 3.4 Negative markers. Negation is marked on AA verbs. The auxiliary verb hatla 'quickly' is negated in three tenses.

  11. Auxiliary cooling device for power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanoi, Kozo.

    1996-01-01

    An auxiliary cooling sea water pipeline for pumping up cooling sea water, an auxiliary cooling sea water pipeline and a primary side of an auxiliary cooling heat exchanger are connected between a sea water taking vessel and a sea water discharge pit. An auxiliary cooling water pump is connected to an auxiliary water cooling pipeline on the second side of the auxiliary cooling heat exchanger. The auxiliary cooling water pipeline is connected with each of auxiliary equipments of a reactor system and each of auxiliary equipments of the turbine system connected to a turbine auxiliary cooling water pipeline in parallel. During ordinary operation of the reactor, heat exchange for each of the auxiliary equipments of the reactor and heat exchange for each of the equipments of the turbine system are conducted simultaneously. Since most portions of the cooling devices of each of the auxiliary equipments of the reactor system and each of the auxiliary equipments of the turbine system can be used in common, the operation efficiency of the cooling device is improved. In addition, the space for the pipelines and the cost for the equipments can be reduced. (I.N.)

  12. Application Of The SPV-based Surface Lifetime Technique To In-Line Monitoring Of Surface Cu Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, John; Savtchouk, Alexandre; Wilson, Matthew; Kim, Chul Hong; Yoo, Hyung Won; Lee, Chang Hwan; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Son, Sang Hoon

    2009-09-01

    Implementation of Cu interconnects into Silicon Integrated Circuits (IC's) has been instrumental in the continuing improvement of IC device performance. Copper as a well known Gate Oxide Integrity (GOI) killer [1, 2] requires extensive protocols to minimize the possibility of cross contamination. Despite such protocols the risk for cross contamination exists, and consequently there is the need for in-line Cu cross-contamination detection metrology. Preferably the metrology will be non-destructive, fast, and capable of mapping on product wafers. Up to now the most common approaches for monitoring Cu contamination in IC fabrication lines either measure Cu in the bulk Si, which is not applicable to Cu cross-contamination monitoring because Back-End-of-the-Line thermal budgets restrict the ability to diffuse the surface Cu into the bulk Si; or the techniques are not optimal for in-line monitoring due to their destructive, time-consuming, or costly nature. In this work we demonstrate for the first time the application of the ac-Surface Photo Voltage (ac-SPV) surface lifetime approach [3] to in-line, full wafer coverage mapping of low level (metrology system. Furthermore, because the metrology is non-contact (utilizing edge-grip handling) and non-destructive, it is directly applicable to measurement of production wafers. In-line fab data acquired using this metrology is presented and compared to data from Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS).

  13. 33 CFR 5.47 - Auxiliary ensign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... matching blue Coast Guard Auxiliary emblem is centered. The white slash shall be at a 70 degree angle, rising away from the hoist. (c) The Auxiliary emblem consists of a disk with the shield of the Coat of...

  14. Auxiliary equipment cooling circuit in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Ko.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the propagation of bacterias that transform NO 2 into NO 3 in auxiliary equipment coolants using corrosion inhibitors of nitrite type in BWR type reactors. Method: In auxiliary equipments coolant systems, water quality is controlled by using purified water as supplement water and nitrite such as Na 2 NO 2 as the corrosion inhibitors. However, in the circumstance where dissolved oxygen is present, bacteria propagate to oxidize NO 2 into NO 3 . Thus, NO 2 at 200 ppm is reduced to 20 ppm. In view of the above, a surge tank supplied from water supplement line is connected in series and a deaeration device is disposed thereto. Since the presence of dissolved oxygen causes the bacteria to propagate it is desired that the dissolved oxygen density in the supplement water is less than 5 ppm. Deaeration and pressure reduction in the surge tank can remove the dissolved oxygen, prevent NO 3 increase and also prevent stress corrosion cracks in the system pipeways. (Horiuchi, T.)

  15. A surface containing a line and a circle through each point is a quadric

    KAUST Repository

    Nilov, Fedor K.; Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2012-01-01

    We prove that a surface in 3-dimensional Euclidean space containing a line and a circle through each point is a quadric. We also give some particular results on the classification of surfaces containing several circles through each point. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  16. Validation of in-line surface characterization by light scattering in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    The suitability of a commercial scattered light sensor for in-line characterization of fine surfaces in the roughness range Sa 1 – 30 nm generated by the Robot Assisted Polishing (RAP) was investigated and validated. A number of surfaces were generated and directly measured with the scattered light...

  17. A surface containing a line and a circle through each point is a quadric

    KAUST Repository

    Nilov, Fedor K.

    2012-06-20

    We prove that a surface in 3-dimensional Euclidean space containing a line and a circle through each point is a quadric. We also give some particular results on the classification of surfaces containing several circles through each point. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  18. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary to...

  19. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary to...

  20. 30 CFR 57.6161 - Auxiliary facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary facilities. 57.6161 Section 57.6161...-Underground Only § 57.6161 Auxiliary facilities. (a) Auxiliary facilities used to store explosive material near work places shall be wooden, box-type containers equipped with covers or doors, or facilities...

  1. Unevenness of Sliding Surface of Overhead Rigid Conductor Lines and Method for Reducing Unevenness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboshi, Mitsuo; Shimizu, Masashi

    Rigid conductor lines are used in many subways, because the use of such conductor lines reduces the risk of accidents and because less space is required for their installation. However, as the unevenness of the sliding surface of the rigid conductor lines significantly influences the fluctuations in the contact force between pantographs and contact lines, it is necessary to decrease the unevenness at the construction as well as the maintenance stages. In order to investigate the installation accuracy of overhead rigid conductor lines, we have developed a device that accurately and continuously measures the unevenness of the sliding surface. By using this measuring device, we have confirmed that the unevenness of the sliding surface depends on various factors such as the sag between the support points, the deformation of the aluminum base or the conductive rail in the case of a long wavelength, the slight sagging unevenness between the bolts of the long ear, the undulating wear etc. This paper describes the actual unevenness conditions and the technical methods for decreasing the unevenness of the sliding surface of overhead rigid conductor lines.

  2. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  3. Specific features of auxiliary water supply at underground NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pergamenshchik, B.K.; Pavlov, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Specific features of auxiliary water supply systems for underground NPPs related to peculiarities of NPP basis equipment arrangement, are considered. Circulation water supply scheme, in which water cooling storage basin (cooling towers) with operational area corresponding to NPP power is on the surface and has traditional design, is proposed. Sufficiently high efficiency of the arrangement proposed is proved

  4. Proceedings: Power Plant Electric Auxiliary Systems Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The EPRI Power Plant Electric Auxiliary Systems Workshop, held April 24--25, 1991, in Princeton, New Jersey, brought together utilities, architect/engineers, and equipment suppliers to discuss common problems with power plant auxiliary systems. Workshop participants presented papers on monitoring, identifying, and solving problems with auxiliary systems. Panel discussions focused on improving systems and existing and future plants. The solutions presented to common auxiliary system problems focused on practical ideas that can enhance plant availability, reduce maintenance costs, and simplify the engineering process. The 13 papers in these proceedings include: Tutorials on auxiliary electrical systems and motors; descriptions of evaluations, software development, and new technologies used recently by electric utilities; an analysis of historical performance losses caused by power plant auxiliary systems; innovative design concepts for improving auxiliary system performance in future power plants

  5. Generic description of facilities at the shaft head (auxiliary entrance installations) of deep geological repositories; Generische Beschreibung von Schachtkopfanlagen (Nebenzugangsanlagen) geologischer Tiefenlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-10-15

    In a deep geological repository, the access structures function as the link between the surface and the installations and structures at the disposal level. In the planned implementation scenarios, at least two access structures will be in operation up to the time of closure of the repository. The radioactive waste will be transported via the main access from the surface to the disposal level during emplacement operations. For the construction and operation of a deep geological repository, additional access structures are required. These auxiliary accesses and the associated surface infrastructure (e.g. shaft head installations) form the subject of this report. To provide as broad and comprehensive a description as possible, seven types of auxiliary access facilities are defined; these are characterised in line with the current status of planning and their functions and impacts are described. During construction, operation and dismantling of auxiliary access facilities, the usual conventional safety measures (inter alia) have to be observed (e.g. groundwater protection, fire prevention, facility security, accident prevention). Regarding the 'Ordinance on Protection against Major Accidents' no large quantities of hazardous materials, i.e. above the corresponding threshold quantities, are to be expected in the auxiliary access facilities. Proper handling and compliance with applicable regulations in all phases will ensure no hazard to humans and the environment. As no handling of radioactive materials is foreseen in the auxiliary access facilities, and because exhaust air and waste water from the controlled zones of a repository will, in principle, be removed via the main access and not the auxiliary accesses, a safety-relevant emission of radioactive substances and transport of contaminated material can be ruled out for the auxiliary access facilities during both normal operation and also in the case of an accident. Based on the information presented in

  6. Study of the behaviour of magnetic lines after perturbation of a toroidal field with magnetic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, C.

    1989-02-01

    The effect of a perturbing magnetic field on a field whose magnetic surfaces are tori nested around a closed central line is studied. This perturbation effect creates magnetic islands around surfaces with rational rotational transform. These islands are investigated analytically, which makes it possible to evaluate their size. The resulting turbulence of the medium can then be studied by calculating the interaction of two neighbouring islands

  7. Beam line 4: A dedicated surface science facility at Daresbury Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhanak, V.R.; Robinson, A.W.; van der Laan, G.; Thornton, G.

    1992-01-01

    We describe a beam line currently under construction at the Daresbury Laboratory which forms part of a surface science research facility for the Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Surface Science. The beam line has three branches, two of which are described here. The first branch covers the high-energy range 640 eV≤hν≤10 keV, being equipped with a double-crystal monochromator and a novel multicoated premirror system. The second branch line is optimized for the energy range 15≤hν≤250 eV, using cylindrical focusing mirrors, a spherical diffraction grating and an ellipsoidal refocusing mirror to achieve high resolution with a small spot size

  8. Analysis and Application of River Surface Line in Hilly Area based on Hec-ras Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Congshan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For example—Cixian Fuyang River Regulation Project. Due to the character that Fuyang River is located in hilly areas of Cixian, we use the Hex-ras software to calculate the status of the river water surface line for the goal of determining the final treatment plan. We maintain the present situation of the river channel design as principle, select the most appropriate pushed water level and roughnessas the basic, and we combine the classification calculation of crossing structures of backwater and the encryption calculation section to get the more accurate result. We compare the water level elevation and the calculation of cross strait, analyze the design parameters, calculate repeated the water line section, analyze the rationality of the design plan, and then finally determine the applicability of Hex-rac software in the large continuous variation of cross section of embankment of river river surface line.

  9. Auxiliary reactor for a hydrocarbon reforming system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Robert; Rumsey, Jennifer W.

    2006-01-17

    An auxiliary reactor for use with a reformer reactor having at least one reaction zone, and including a burner for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, and heat exchanger for transferring heat from auxiliary reactor gas stream and heat transfer medium, preferably two-phase water, to reformer reaction zone. Auxiliary reactor may include first cylindrical wall defining a chamber for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, the chamber having an inlet end, an outlet end, a second cylindrical wall surrounding first wall and a second annular chamber there between. The reactor being configured so heated auxiliary reactor gas flows out the outlet end and into and through second annular chamber and conduit which is disposed in second annular chamber, the conduit adapted to carry heat transfer medium and being connectable to reformer reaction zone for additional heat exchange.

  10. Auxiliary feedwater system aging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueck, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Phase 1 Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) System Aging Study, NUREG/CR-5404 V1, focused on how and to what extent the various AFW system component types fail, how the failures have been and can be detected, and on the value of current testing requirements and practices. This follow-on study, which will be provided in full in NUREG/CR-5404 V2, provides a closure to the Phase 1 Study. For each of the component types and for the various sources of component failure identified in the Phase 1 Study, the methods of failure detection were designated and tabulated and the following findings became evident: Instrumentation and Control (I and C) related failures dominated the group of failures that were detected during demand conditions; many of the potential failure sources not detectable by the current monitoring practices were related to the I and C portion of the system; some component failure modes are actually aggravated by conventional test methods; and several important system functions did not undergo any function verification test. The goal of this follow-on study was to categorize and evaluate the deficiencies in testing identified by Phase 1 and to make specific recommendations for corrective action. In addition, this study presents discussions of alternate, state-of-the-art test methods, and provides a proposed Auxiliary Feedwater Pump test at normal operating pressure which should do much to verify system operability while eliminating degradation

  11. Singular surfaces in the open field line region of a diverted tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, A.

    1995-05-01

    The structure of the open field lines of a slightly nonaxisymmetric, poloidally diverted tokamak is explored by numerical integration of the field line equations for a simple model field. In practice, the nonaxisymmetry could be produced self-consistently by the nonlinear evolution of a free-boundary MHD mode, or it could be produced by field errors, or it could be imposed externally by design. In the presence of a nonaxisymmetric perturbation, the tokamak is shown to develop open field line regions of differing topology separated by singular surfaces. It is argued that the singular surfaces can be expected to play a role analogous to that of rational toroidal flux surfaces, in terms of constraining ideal MHD perturbations and thus constraining the free-energy that can be tapped by ideal MHD instabilities. The possibility of active control of free-boundary instabilities by means of currents driven on the open singular surfaces, which are directly accessible from the divertor plates, is discussed. Also discussed is the possibility of early detection of imminent disruptions through localized measurement of the singular surface currents

  12. Off-line testing of multifunctional surfaces for metal forming applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, A.; Grønbæk, J.; De Chiffre, L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, Bending-Under-Tension, an off-line test method simulating deep-drawing, is chosen for investigating the effectiveness of multifunctional (MUFU) surfaces in metal forming operations. Four different MUFU surfaces, characterized by a plateau bearing area and grooves for lubricant...... retention, are manufactured, together with two polished references. During the tests, surface texture is the only variable. The results show how MUFU surfaces perform better than the polished references, which produce severe galling, while MUFU surfaces with low bearing area display no clear evidence...... of galling. Metal-to-metal contact occurs anyway, but the strip material is pulverized and deposited onto the tool instead of cold-welding to it. The pockets create a discontinuity on the texture hindering pick-up propagation....

  13. Thermal Stress of Surface of Mold Cavities and Parting Line of Silicone Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajčičák Martin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the study of thermal stress of surface of mold cavities and parting line of silicone molds after pouring. The silicone mold White SD - THT was thermally stressed by pouring of ZnAl4Cu3 zinc alloy with pouring cycle 20, 30 and 40 seconds. The most thermally stressed part of surface at each pouring cycle is gating system and mold cavities. It could be further concluded that linear increase of the pouring cycle time leads to the exponential increasing of the maximum temperature of mold surface after its cooling. The elongated pouring cycle increases the temperature accumulated on the surface of cavities and the ability of silicone mold to conduct the heat on its surface decreases, because the low thermal conductivity of silicone molds enables the conduction of larger amount of heat into ambient environment.

  14. An interaction analysis of twin surface cracks by the line-spring model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Yang, W.H.; Choy, Y.S.; Lee, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    The fracture mechanics analysis of surface cracks is important for the integrity evaluation of flawed structural components. The objective of this paper is to numerically investigate the interaction effect of twin surface cracks in plate and cylindrical geometrie. First the usefulness of the line-spring model is verified by analyzing a single surface crack in a plate, and then the model is extended to twin surface crack in plate and cylindrical geometries. For the case of a finite plate under uniaxial loading, the effect of crack spacing on the stress intensity factor is negligible. However, for the case of a cylinder under moderate internal pressure, a significant increase in stress intensity factor is observed at the deepest point of the surface crack. (orig.)

  15. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  16. Singular surfaces in the open field line region of a diverted tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, A.

    1996-01-01

    The structure of the open field lines of a slightly nonaxisymmetric, poloidally diverted tokamak is explored by numerical integration of the field line equations for a simple model field. In practice, the nonaxisymmetry could be produced self-consistently by the nonlinear evolution of a free-boundary magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mode, or it could be produced by field errors, or it could be imposed externally by design. In the presence of a nonaxisymmetric perturbation, the tokamak is shown to develop open field line regions of differing topology separated by singular surfaces. It is argued that the singular surfaces can be expected to play a role analogous to that of rational toroidal flux surfaces, in terms of constraining ideal MHD perturbations and thus constraining the free-energy that can be tapped by ideal MHD instabilities. The possibility of active control of free-boundary instabilities by means of currents driven on the open singular surfaces, which are directly accessible from the divertor plates, is discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  17. Comment on 'Surface thermodynamics, surface stress, equations at surfaces and triple lines for deformable bodies'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutman, E M, E-mail: gutman@bgu.ac.i [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2010-10-27

    In a recent publication by Olives (2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 085005) he studied 'the thermodynamics and mechanics of the surface of a deformable body, following and refining the general approach of Gibbs' and believed that 'a new definition of the surface stress is given'. However, using the usual way of deriving the equations of Gibbs-Duhem type the author, nevertheless, has fallen into a mathematical discrepancy because he has tried to unite in one equation different thermodynamic systems and 'a new definition of the surface stress' has appeared known in the usual theory of elasticity. (comment)

  18. The Acquisition of Auxiliary Syntax: A Longitudinal Elicitation Study. Part 1: Auxiliary BE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theakston, Anna L.; Rowland, Caroline F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The question of how and when English-speaking children acquire auxiliaries is the subject of extensive debate. Some researchers posit the existence of innately given Universal Grammar principles to guide acquisition, although some aspects of the auxiliary system must be learned from the input. Others suggest that auxiliaries can be…

  19. Auxiliary feedwater system aging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueck, J.D.

    1993-07-01

    This report documents the results of a Phase I follow-on study of the Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) System that has been conducted for the US Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging research Program. The Phase I study found a number of significant AFW System functions that are not being adequately tested by conventional test methods and some that are actually being degraded by conventional testing. Thus, it was decided that this follow-on study would focus on these testing omissions nd equipment degradation. The deficiencies in current monitoring and operating practice are categorized and evaluated. Areas of component degradation caused by current practice are discussed. Recommendations are made for improved diagnostic methods and test procedures

  20. High Accuracy Potential Energy Surface, Dipole Moment Surface, Rovibrational Energies and Line List Calculations for ^{14}NH_3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Phillip; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Polyansky, Oleg; Kyuberis, Aleksandra; Ovsyannikov, Roman I.; Zobov, Nikolay Fedorovich; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    We present a new spectroscopic potential energy surface (PES) for ^{14}NH_3, produced by refining a high accuracy ab initio PES to experimental energy levels taken predominantly from MARVEL. The PES reproduces 1722 matched J=0-8 experimental energies with a root-mean-square error of 0.035 cm-1 under 6000 cm^{-1} and 0.059 under 7200 cm^{-1}. In conjunction with a new DMS calculated using multi reference configuration interaction (MRCI) and H=aug-cc-pVQZ, N=aug-cc-pWCVQZ basis sets, an infrared (IR) line list has been computed which is suitable for use up to 2000 K. The line list is used to assign experimental lines in the 7500 - 10,500 cm^{-1} region and previously unassigned lines in HITRAN in the 6000-7000 cm^{-1} region. Oleg L. Polyansky, Roman I. Ovsyannikov, Aleksandra A. Kyuberis, Lorenzo Lodi, Jonathan Tennyson, Andrey Yachmenev, Sergei N. Yurchenko, Nikolai F. Zobov, J. Mol. Spec., 327 (2016) 21-30 Afaf R. Al Derzia, Tibor Furtenbacher, Jonathan Tennyson, Sergei N. Yurchenko, Attila G. Császár, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Trans., 161 (2015) 117-130

  1. Characteristics of Speed Line Cutter and Fringe Analysis of Workpiece Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Easy to operate, speed line cutter has a high machining cost performance, so is very popular among the majority of users. The precision of guide rails, screws and nuts used in most of the machines is not high, and the machine control cannot compensate for the screw pitch error, clearance during the transmission and machining error due to electrode wear. Furthermore, control signal may also be lost in control process. The development of speed line cutter focuses on the quality and machining stability of CNC speed line cutter. This article makes an analysis about the impact of machine’s inherent characteristics on machining workpiece surface, and concludes that analysis shall be made on the irregular fringe, therefore to heighten the machining precision.

  2. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000 Btu/hr...

  3. 47 CFR 73.1675 - Auxiliary antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Class A TV licensees may request a decrease from the authorized facility's ERP in the license application. An FM, TV or Class A TV licensee may also increase the ERP of the auxiliary facility in a license... licensed main facility as an auxiliary facility with an ERP less than or equal to the ERP specified on the...

  4. 78 FR 27321 - Revision of Auxiliary Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... Auxiliary organizational structure, extending civil liability protection to Auxiliary units and members, and... entities. C. Assistance for Small Entities If you think that your business, organization, or governmental..., explain why you think your business or organization qualifies, how and to what degree this rule would...

  5. Pressurizer /Auxiliary Spray Piping Stress Analysis For Determination Of Lead Shielding Maximum Allow Able Load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setjo, Renaningsih

    2000-01-01

    Piping stress analysis for PZR/Auxiliary Spray Lines Nuclear Power Plant AV Unit I(PWR Type) has been carried out. The purpose of this analysis is to establish a maximum allowable load that is permitted at the time of need by placing lead shielding on the piping system on class 1 pipe, Pressurizer/Auxiliary Spray Lines (PZR/Aux.) Reactor Coolant Loop 1 and 4 for NPP AV Unit one in the mode 5 and 6 during outage. This analysis is intended to reduce the maximum amount of radiation dose for the operator during ISI ( In service Inspection) period.The result shown that the maximum allowable loads for 4 inches lines for PZR/Auxiliary Spray Lines is 123 lbs/feet

  6. SPATIAL UNCERTAINTY IN LINE-SURFACE INTERSECTIONS WITH APPLICATIONS TO PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marshall

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The fields of photogrammetry and computer vision routinely use line-surface intersections to determine the point where a line intersects with a surface. The object coordinates of the intersection point can be found using standard geometric and numeric algorithms, however expressing the spatial uncertainty at the intersection point may be challenging, especially when the surface morphology is complex. This paper describes an empirical method to characterize the unknown spatial uncertainty at the intersection point by propagating random errors in the stochastic model using repeated random sampling methods. These methods accommodate complex surface morphology and nonlinearities in the functional model, however the penalty is the resulting probability density function associated with the intersection point may be non-Gaussian in nature. A formal hypothesis test is presented to show that straightforward statistical inference tools are available whether the data is Gaussian or not. The hypothesis test determines whether the computed intersection point is consistent with an externally-derived known truth point. A numerical example demonstrates the approach in a photogrammetric setting with a single frame image and a gridded terrain elevation model. The results show that uncertainties produced by the proposed empirical method are intuitive and can be assessed with conventional methods found in textbook hypothesis testing.

  7. Drop evaporation on superhydrophobic PTFE surfaces driven by contact line dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, S M M; Dias, J F; Canut, B

    2015-02-15

    In the present study, we experimentally study the evaporation modes and kinetics of sessile drops of water on highly hydrophobic surfaces (contact angle ∼160°), heated to temperatures ranging between 40° and 70 °C. These surfaces were initially constructed by means of controlled tailoring of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrates. The evaporation of droplets was observed to occur in three distinct phases, which were the same for the different substrate temperatures. The drops started to evaporate in the constant contact radius (CCR) mode, then switched to a more complex mode characterized by a set of stick-slip events accompanied by a decrease in contact angle, and finally shifted to a mixed mode in which the contact radius and contact angle decreased simultaneously until the drops had completely evaporated. It is shown that in the case of superhydrophobic surfaces, the energy barriers (per unit length) associated with the stick-slip motion of a drop ranges in the nJ m(-1) scale. Furthermore, analysis of the evaporation rates, determined from experimental data show that, even in the CCR mode, a linear relationship between V(2/3) and the evaporation time is verified. The values of the evaporation rate constants are found to be higher in the pinned contact line regime (the CCR mode) than in the moving contact line regime. This behavior is attributed to the drop's higher surface to volume ratio in the CCR mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hybrid mesons with auxiliary fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buisseret, F.; Mathieu, V.

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid mesons are exotic mesons in which the color field is not in the ground state. Their understanding deserves interest from a theoretical point of view, because it is intimately related to nonperturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, it seems that some recently detected particles, such as the π 1 (1600) and the Y(4260), are serious hybrid candidates. In this work, we investigate the description of such exotic hadrons by applying the auxiliary fields technique (also known as the einbein field method) to the widely used spinless Salpeter Hamiltonian with appropriate linear confinement. Instead of the usual numerical resolution, this technique allows to find simplified analytical mass spectra and wave functions of the Hamiltonian, which still lead to reliable qualitative predictions. We analyse and compare two different descriptions of hybrid mesons, namely a two-body q system with an excited flux tube, or a three-body qg system. We also compute the masses of the 1 -+ hybrids. Our results are shown to be in satisfactory agreement with lattice QCD and other effective models. (orig.)

  9. Experimental Study of Thermo-hydraulic Characteristics of Surfaces with In-line Dimple Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Burtsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a conducted experimental study of the heat exchange intensification on the surfaces covered with a regular vortex-generating relief that is an in-line array of the shallow hemispherical dimples. Using 12 configuration options with the Reynolds numbers in the range of (0.2-7.0 106 as an example, it analyses how a longitudinal and cross step of the in-line dimple array (density dimples effects on the processes of heat exchange intensification and resistance.The monocomponent strain-gauge balance allows us to define a value of the resistance coefficient by direct weighing of models (located in parallel in a flow of "relief" and smooth "reference" ones being under study. Distribution fields of heat – transfer factor are determined by recording a cooling process of the surface of studied models having high spatial and temporary resolution. All researches were conducted with one-shot data record of these thermal and hydraulic measurements for the smooth (reference surfaces and the studied surfaces covered with a regular vortex-generating relief (dimples. The error of determined parameters was no more than ±5%.The oil-sooty method allows us to visualize flow around a regular relief and obtain a flow pattern for 12 options of dimples configuration. The analysis has been carried out and a compliance of the flow patterns with the field of heat-transfer factors has been obtained.It has been found that for the in-line configuration a Reynolds analogy factor for most models is nonlinearly dependent on the Reynolds number. The friction intensification, at first, falls (to some Reynolds number and, further, starts increasing, tending to the friction intensification value with self-similarity flow around. Thus with increasing Reynolds number, the heattransfer factor intensification falls (more slowly than resistance intensification.

  10. A low cost surface plasmon resonance biosensor using a laser line generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruipeng; Wang, Manping; Wang, Shun; Liang, Hao; Hu, Xinran; Sun, Xiaohui; Zhu, Juanhua; Ma, Liuzheng; Jiang, Min; Hu, Jiandong; Li, Jianwei

    2015-08-01

    Due to the instrument designed by using a common surface plasmon resonance biosensor is extremely expensive, we established a portable and cost-effective surface plasmon resonance biosensing system. It is mainly composed of laser line generator, P-polarizer, customized prism, microfluidic cell, and line Charge Coupled Device (CCD) array. Microprocessor PIC24FJ128GA006 with embedded A/D converter, communication interface circuit and photoelectric signal amplifier circuit are used to obtain the weak signals from the biosensing system. Moreover, the line CCD module is checked and optimized on the number of pixels, pixels dimension, output amplifier and the timing diagram. The micro-flow cell is made of stainless steel with a high thermal conductivity, and the microprocessor based Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) temperature-controlled algorithm was designed to keep the constant temperature (25 °C) of the sample solutions. Correspondingly, the data algorithms designed especially to this biosensing system including amplitude-limiting filtering algorithm, data normalization and curve plotting were programmed efficiently. To validate the performance of the biosensor, ethanol solution samples at the concentrations of 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% in volumetric fractions were used, respectively. The fitting equation ΔRU = - 752987.265 + 570237.348 × RI with the R-Square of 0.97344 was established by delta response units (ΔRUs) to refractive indexes (RI). The maximum relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.8% was obtained.

  11. Modeling of Throughput in Production Lines Using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Nuñez-Piña

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of assigning buffers in a production line to obtain an optimum production rate is a combinatorial problem of type NP-Hard and it is known as Buffer Allocation Problem. It is of great importance for designers of production systems due to the costs involved in terms of space requirements. In this work, the relationship among the number of buffer slots, the number of work stations, and the production rate is studied. Response surface methodology and artificial neural network were used to develop predictive models to find optimal throughput values. 360 production rate values for different number of buffer slots and workstations were used to obtain a fourth-order mathematical model and four hidden layers’ artificial neural network. Both models have a good performance in predicting the throughput, although the artificial neural network model shows a better fit (R=1.0000 against the response surface methodology (R=0.9996. Moreover, the artificial neural network produces better predictions for data not utilized in the models construction. Finally, this study can be used as a guide to forecast the maximum or near maximum throughput of production lines taking into account the buffer size and the number of machines in the line.

  12. A Sea-Sky Line Detection Method for Unmanned Surface Vehicles Based on Gradient Saliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Su, Yumin; Wan, Lei

    2016-04-15

    Special features in real marine environments such as cloud clutter, sea glint and weather conditions always result in various kinds of interference in optical images, which make it very difficult for unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) to detect the sea-sky line (SSL) accurately. To solve this problem a saliency-based SSL detection method is proposed. Through the computation of gradient saliency the line features of SSL are enhanced effectively, while other interference factors are relatively suppressed, and line support regions are obtained by a region growing method on gradient orientation. The SSL identification is achieved according to region contrast, line segment length and orientation features, and optimal state estimation of SSL detection is implemented by introducing a cubature Kalman filter (CKF). In the end, the proposed method is tested on a benchmark dataset from the "XL" USV in a real marine environment, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is significantly superior to other state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy rate and real-time performance, and its accuracy and stability are effectively improved by the CKF.

  13. A Sea-Sky Line Detection Method for Unmanned Surface Vehicles Based on Gradient Saliency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Special features in real marine environments such as cloud clutter, sea glint and weather conditions always result in various kinds of interference in optical images, which make it very difficult for unmanned surface vehicles (USVs to detect the sea-sky line (SSL accurately. To solve this problem a saliency-based SSL detection method is proposed. Through the computation of gradient saliency the line features of SSL are enhanced effectively, while other interference factors are relatively suppressed, and line support regions are obtained by a region growing method on gradient orientation. The SSL identification is achieved according to region contrast, line segment length and orientation features, and optimal state estimation of SSL detection is implemented by introducing a cubature Kalman filter (CKF. In the end, the proposed method is tested on a benchmark dataset from the “XL” USV in a real marine environment, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is significantly superior to other state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy rate and real-time performance, and its accuracy and stability are effectively improved by the CKF.

  14. Piercing the water surface with a blade: Singularities of the contact line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alimov, Mars M. [Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Kornev, Konstantin G. [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    An external meniscus on a narrow blade with a slit-like cross section is studied using the hodograph formulation of the Laplace nonlinear equation of capillarity. On narrow blades, the menisci are mostly shaped by the wetting and capillary forces; gravity plays a secondary role. To describe a meniscus in this asymptotic case, the model of Alimov and Kornev [“Meniscus on a shaped fibre: Singularities and hodograph formulation,” Proc. R. Soc. A 470, 20140113 (2014)] has been employed. It is shown that at the sharp edges of the blade, the contact line makes a jump. In the wetting case, the contact line sitting at each side of the blade is lifted above the points where the meniscus first meets the blade edges. In the non-wetting case, the contact line is lowered below these points. The contours of the constant height emanating from the blade edges generate unusual singularities with infinite curvatures at some points at the blade edges. The meniscus forms a unique surface made of two mirror-symmetric sheets fused together. Each sheet is supported by the contact line sitting at each side of the blade.

  15. Piercing the water surface with a blade: Singularities of the contact line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimov, Mars M.; Kornev, Konstantin G.

    2016-01-01

    An external meniscus on a narrow blade with a slit-like cross section is studied using the hodograph formulation of the Laplace nonlinear equation of capillarity. On narrow blades, the menisci are mostly shaped by the wetting and capillary forces; gravity plays a secondary role. To describe a meniscus in this asymptotic case, the model of Alimov and Kornev [“Meniscus on a shaped fibre: Singularities and hodograph formulation,” Proc. R. Soc. A 470, 20140113 (2014)] has been employed. It is shown that at the sharp edges of the blade, the contact line makes a jump. In the wetting case, the contact line sitting at each side of the blade is lifted above the points where the meniscus first meets the blade edges. In the non-wetting case, the contact line is lowered below these points. The contours of the constant height emanating from the blade edges generate unusual singularities with infinite curvatures at some points at the blade edges. The meniscus forms a unique surface made of two mirror-symmetric sheets fused together. Each sheet is supported by the contact line sitting at each side of the blade

  16. Stick-Slip Motion of Moving Contact Line on Chemically Patterned Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Congmin; Lei, Siulong; Qian, Tiezheng; Wang, Xiaoping

    2009-01-01

    Based on our continuum hydrodynamic model for immiscible two-phase flows at solid surfaces, the stick-slip motion has been predicted for moving contact line at chemically patterned surfaces [Wang et al., J. Fluid Mech., 605 (2008), pp. 59-78]. In this paper we show that the continuum predictions can be quantitatively verified by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our MD simulations are carried out for two immiscible Lennard-Jones fluids confined by two planar solid walls in Poiseuille flow geometry. In particular, one solid surface is chemically patterned with alternating stripes. For comparison, the continuum model is numerically solved using material parameters directly measured in MD simulations. From oscillatory fluid-fluid interface to intermittent stick-slip motion of moving contact line, we have quantitative agreement between the continuum and MD results. This agreement is attributed to the accurate description down to molecular scale by the generalized Navier boundary condition in our continuum model. Numerical results are also presented for the relaxational dynamics of fluid-fluid interface, in agreement with a theoretical analysis based on the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation. © 2010 Global-Science Press.

  17. THE METHOD OF ROLL SURFACE QUALITY MEASUREMENT FOR CONTINUOUS HOT DIP ZINC COATED STEEL SHEET PRODUCTION LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Yong Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes a developed analyzing system of roll surface during the process of continuous hot dip zinc coated steel sheet production line, in particular, adhering problem by transferred inclusions from roll to steel sheet surface during annealing process so called the pickup. The simulated test machine for coated roll surface in processing line has been designed and performed. The system makes it possible to analyze roll surface condition according to pickup phenomena from various roll coatings concerning operating conditions of hearth rolls in annealing furnace. The algorithm of fast pickup detection on surface is developed on the base of processing of several optical images of surface. The parameters for quality estimation of surface with pickups were developed. The optical system for images registration and image processing electronics may be used in real time and embed in processing line.

  18. Auxiliary/Master microprocessor CAMAC Crate Controller applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, E.

    1975-01-01

    The need for further sophistication of an already complex serial CAMAC control system at Fermilab led to the development of an Auxilary/Master CAMAC Crate Controller. The controller contains a Motorola 6800 microprocessor, 2K bytes of RAM, and 8K bytes of PROM memory. Bussed dataway lines are time shared with CAMAC signals to provide memory expansion and direct addressing of peripheral devices without the need of external cabling. The Auxiliary/Master Crate Controller (A/MCC) can function as either a Master, i.e., stand alone, crate controller or as an Auxiliary controller to Fermilab's Serial Crate Controller (SCC). Two modules, one single- and one double-width, make up an A/MCC. The microprocessor has one nonmaskable and one maskable vectored interrupt. Time sharing the dataway between SCC programmed and block transfer generated dataway cycles and A/MCC operations still allows a 99 percent microprocessor CPU busy time. Since the conception of the A/MCC, there has been an increasing number of control system-related projects proposed which would not have been possible or would have been very difficult to implement without such a device. The first such application now in use at Fermilab is a stand-alone control system for a mass spectrometer experiment in the Main Ring Internal Target Area. This application in addition to other proposed A/MCC applications, both stand-alone and auxiliary, is discussed

  19. Resolution of concerns in auxiliary feedwater piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, R.A.; Testa, M.F.

    1994-01-01

    Auxiliary feedwater piping systems at pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants have experienced unanticipated operating conditions during plant operation. These unanticipated conditions have included plant events involving backleakage through check valves, temperatures in portions of the auxiliary feedwater piping system that exceed design conditions, and the occurrence of unanticipated severe fluid transients. The impact of these events has had an adverse effect at some nuclear stations on plant operation, installed plant components and hardware, and design basis calculations. Beaver Valley Unit 2, a three loop pressurized water reactor nuclear plant, has observed anomalies with the auxiliary feedwater system since the unit went operational in 1987. The consequences of these anomalies and plant events have been addressed and resolved for Beaver Valley Unit 2 by performing engineering and construction activities. These activities included pipe stress, pipe support and pipe rupture analysis, the monitoring of auxiliary feedwater system temperature and pressure, and the modification to plant piping, supports, valves, structures and operating procedures

  20. Optimal surface segmentation using flow lines to quantify airway abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Nielsen, Mads; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2014-01-01

    are not well suited for surfaces with high curvature, we therefore propose to derive columns from properly generated, non-intersecting flow lines. This guarantees solutions that do not self-intersect. The method is applied to segment human airway walls in computed tomography images in three-dimensions. Phantom.......5%, the alternative approach in 11.2%, and in 20.3% no method was favoured. Airway abnormality measurements obtained with the method on 490 scan pairs from a lung cancer screening trial correlate significantly with lung function and are reproducible; repeat scan R(2) of measures of the airway lumen diameter and wall...

  1. A surface acoustic wave electric field strength meter for environmental studies of HV transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandolfo, M.; Ranghiasci, C.; Verona, E.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in concern over the health and safety aspects of high voltage transmission lines (HVTL). The majority of research has focused on effects directly or indirectly involved with the central nervous system, including physiological, ultrastructural, and biochemical alterations, changes in blood composition, behaviour, reproduction, and development. Several recent epidemiological reports have presented preliminary data suggesting an increase in the incidence of cancer among children and adults exposed to magnetic fields through living close to various types of electrical power lines or devices. With the increase in environmental concerns there has been a concomitant consideration of biological effects and health implications related to presently existing HVTL and those planned in the future. It was concluded that the electric and magnetic field strengths and the electrical discharges are the most important electrophysical factors. Thus, it has been deemed necessary to develop measuring means to determine the field strengths in areas surrounding electric installations, in particular at ground level. In the present paper an electric field meter, based on the use of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay line, is presented and the experimental results obtained are discussed

  2. Finite Element Based Response Surface Methodology to Optimize Segmental Tunnel Lining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rastbood

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to optimize the geometrical and engineering characteristics of concrete segments of tunnel lining using Finite Element (FE based Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Input data for RSM statistical analysis were obtained using FEM. In RSM analysis, thickness (t and elasticity modulus of concrete segments (E, tunnel height (H, horizontal to vertical stress ratio (K and position of key segment in tunnel lining ring (θ were considered as input independent variables. Maximum values of Mises and Tresca stresses and tunnel ring displacement (UMAX were set as responses. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was carried out to investigate the influence of each input variable on the responses. Second-order polynomial equations in terms of influencing input variables were obtained for each response. It was found that elasticity modulus and key segment position variables were not included in yield stresses and ring displacement equations, and only tunnel height and stress ratio variables were included in ring displacement equation. Finally optimization analysis of tunnel lining ring was performed. Due to absence of elasticity modulus and key segment position variables in equations, their values were kept to average level and other variables were floated in related ranges. Response parameters were set to minimum. It was concluded that to obtain optimum values for responses, ring thickness and tunnel height must be near to their maximum and minimum values, respectively and ground state must be similar to hydrostatic conditions.

  3. 30 CFR 75.331 - Auxiliary fans and tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans and tubing. 75.331 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.331 Auxiliary fans and tubing. (a) When auxiliary fans and tubing are used for face ventilation, each auxiliary fan shall be— (1...

  4. Neoclassical offset toroidal velocity and auxiliary ion heating in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzaro, E., E-mail: lazzaro@ifp.cnr.it [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    In conditions of ideal axisymmetry, for a magnetized plasma in a generic bounded domain, necessarily toroidal, the uniform absorption of external energy (e.g., RF or any isotropic auxiliary heating) cannot give rise to net forces or torques. Experimental evidence on contemporary tokamaks shows that the near central absorption of RF heating power (ICH and ECH) and current drive in presence of MHD activity drives a bulk plasma rotation in the co-I{sub p} direction, opposite to the initial one. Also the appearance of classical or neoclassical tearing modes provides a nonlinear magnetic braking that tends to clamp the rotation profile at the q-rational surfaces. The physical origin of the torque associated with P{sub RF} absorption could be due the effects of asymmetry in the equilibrium configuration or in power deposition, but here we point out also an effect of the response of the so-called neoclassical offset velocity to the power dependent heat flow increment. The neoclassical toroidal viscosity due to internal magnetic kink or tearing modes tends to relax the plasma rotation to this asymptotic speed, which in absence of auxiliary heating is of the order of the ion diamagnetic velocity. It can be shown by kinetic and fluid calculations, that the absorption of auxiliary power by ions modifies this offset proportionally to the injected power thereby forcing the plasma rotation in a direction opposite to the initial, to large values. The problem is discussed in the frame of the theoretical models of neoclassical toroidal viscosity.

  5. Cell surface glycopeptides from human intestinal epithelial cell lines derived from normal colon and colon adenocarcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youakim, A.; Herscovics, A.

    1985-01-01

    The cell surface glycopeptides from an epithelial cell line (CCL 239) derived from normal human colon were compared with those from three cell lines (HCT-8R, HCT-15, and CaCo-2) derived independently from human colonic adenocarcinomas. Cells were incubated with D-[2- 3 H]mannose or L-[5,6- 3 H]fucose for 24 h and treated with trypsin to release cell surface components which were then digested exhaustively with Pronase and fractionated on Bio-Gel P-6 before and after treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. The most noticeable difference between the labeled glycopeptides from the tumor and CCL 239 cells was the presence in the former of an endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H-resistant high molecular weight glycopeptide fraction which was eluted in the void volume of Bio-Gel P-6. This fraction was obtained with both labeled mannose and fucose as precursors. However, acid hydrolysis of this fraction obtained after incubation with [2- 3 H]mannose revealed that as much as 60-90% of the radioactivity was recovered as fucose. Analysis of the total glycopeptides (cell surface and cell pellet) obtained after incubation with [2- 3 H]mannose showed that from 40-45% of the radioactivity in the tumor cells and less than 10% of the radioactivity in the CCL 239 cells was recovered as fucose. After incubation of the HCT-8R cells with D-[1,6- 3 H]glucosamine and L-[1- 14 C]fucose, strong acid hydrolysis of the labeled glycopeptide fraction excluded from Bio-Gel P-6 produced 3 H-labeled N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine

  6. Quasi-static motion of microparticles at the depinning contact line of an evaporating droplet on PDMS surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying-Song; Xia, Xue-Lian; Zheng, Xu; Huang, Xianfu; Zhou, Jin-Zhi

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, evaporation of sessile water droplets containing fluorescent polystyrene (PS) microparticles on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces with different curing ratios was studied experimentally using laser confocal microscopy. At the beginning, there were some microparticles located at the contact line and some microparticles moved towards the line. Due to contact angle hysteresis, at first both the contact line and the microparticles were pinned. With the depinning contact line, the microparticles moved together spontaneously. Using the software ImageJ, the location of contact lines at different time were acquired and the circle centers and radii of the contact lines were obtained via the least square method. Then the average distance of two neighbor contact lines at a certain time interval was obtained to characterize the motion of the contact line. Fitting the distance-time curve at the depinning contact line stage with polynomials and differentiating the polynomials with time, we obtained the velocity and acceleration of both the contact line and the microparticles located at the line. The velocity and the maximum acceleration were, respectively, of the orders of 1 μm/s and 20-200 nm/s2, indicating that the motion of the microparticles located at the depinning contact line was quasi-static. Finally, we presented a theoretical model to describe the quasi-static process, which may help in understanding both self-pinning and depinning of microparticles.

  7. The Acquisition of Auxiliary Syntax: A Longitudinal Elicitation Study. Part 2: The Modals and Auxiliary DO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline F.; Theakston, Anna L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The study of auxiliary acquisition is central to work on language development and has attracted theoretical work from both nativist and constructivist approaches. This study is part of a 2-part companion set that represents a unique attempt to trace the development of auxiliary syntax by using a longitudinal elicitation methodology. The…

  8. Thermal measurement of brake pad lining surfaces during the braking process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątkowski, Tadeusz; Polakowski, Henryk; Kastek, Mariusz; Baranowski, Pawel; Damaziak, Krzysztof; Małachowski, Jerzy; Mazurkiewicz, Łukasz

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the test campaign concept and definition and the analysis of the recorded measurements. One of the most important systems in cars and trucks are brakes. The braking temperature on a lining surface can rise above 500°C. This shows how linings requirements are so strict and, what is more, continuously rising. Besides experimental tests, very supportive method for investigating processes which occur on the brake pad linings are numerical analyses. Experimental tests were conducted on the test machine called IL-68. The main component of IL-68 is so called frictional unit, which consists of: rotational head, which convey a shaft torque and where counter samples are placed and translational head, where samples of coatings are placed and pressed against counter samples. Due to the high rotational speeds and thus the rapid changes in temperature field, the infrared camera was used for testing. The paper presents results of analysis registered thermograms during the tests with different conditions. Furthermore, based on this testing machine, the numerical model was developed. In order to avoid resource demanding analyses only the frictional unit (described above) was taken into consideration. Firstly the geometrical model was performed thanks to CAD techniques, which in the next stage was a base for developing the finite element model. Material properties and boundary conditions exactly correspond to experimental tests. Computations were performed using a dynamic LS-Dyna code where heat generation was estimated assuming full (100%) conversion of mechanical work done by friction forces. Paper presents the results of dynamic thermomechanical analysis too and these results were compared with laboratory tests.

  9. Builtin vs. auxiliary detection of extrapolation risk.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Kegelmeyer, W. Philip,

    2013-02-01

    A key assumption in supervised machine learning is that future data will be similar to historical data. This assumption is often false in real world applications, and as a result, prediction models often return predictions that are extrapolations. We compare four approaches to estimating extrapolation risk for machine learning predictions. Two builtin methods use information available from the classification model to decide if the model would be extrapolating for an input data point. The other two build auxiliary models to supplement the classification model and explicitly model extrapolation risk. Experiments with synthetic and real data sets show that the auxiliary models are more reliable risk detectors. To best safeguard against extrapolating predictions, however, we recommend combining builtin and auxiliary diagnostics.

  10. A Cassie-Like Law Using Triple Phase Boundary Line Fractions for Faceted Droplets on Chemically Heterogeneous Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef

    2009-01-01

    We present experimental contact angle data for surfaces, which were surface-engineered with a hydrophobic micropattern of hexagonal geometry. The chemically heterogeneous surface of the same hexagonal pattern of defects resulted in faceted droplets of hexagonal shape. When measuring the advancing...... contact angles with a viewing position aligned parallel to rows of defects, we found that an area averaged Cassie-law failed in describing the data. By replacing the area fractions by line fractions of the triple phase boundary Line segments in the Cassie equation, we found excellent agreement with data....

  11. Know Your Bottom Line: The Control of Your Auxiliaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumph, Wayne J.

    Designed to help college administrators read and understand accounting statements, this paper provides tips about danger signals that may be evident in financial statements and that may call for speedy action. The first statement examined is a balance sheet; i.e., a summation of all of the possessions and debts of a business or entity, which shows…

  12. Nuclear reactor auxiliary heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.E.; Pierce, B.L.

    1977-01-01

    An auxiliary heat removal system to remove residual heat from gas-cooled nuclear reactors is described. The reactor coolant is expanded through a turbine, cooled in a heat exchanger and compressed by a compressor before reentering the reactor coolant. The turbine powers both the compressor and the pump which pumps a second fluid through the heat exchanger to cool the reactor coolant. A pneumatic starter is utilized to start the turbine, thereby making the auxiliary heat removal system independent of external power sources

  13. Nuclear reactors with auxiliary boiler circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, B.V.; Cook, R.K.

    1976-01-01

    A gas-cooled nuclear reactor has a main circulatory system for the gaseous coolant incorporating one or more main energy converting units, such as gas turbines, and an auxiliary circulatory system for the gaseous coolant incorporating at least one steam generating boiler arranged to be heated by the coolant after its passage through the reactor core to provide steam for driving an auxiliary steam turbine, such an arrangement providing a simplified start-up procedure also providing emergency duties associated with long term heat removal on reactor shut down

  14. Transport in Auxiliary Heated NSTX Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, B.P.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bitte, M.L.; Bourdelle, C.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.F.; Redi, M.H.; Roquemore, A.L.; Rosenberg, A.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Stutman, D.; Synakowski, E.J.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Wilson, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    The NSTX spherical torus (ST) provides a unique platform to investigate magnetic confinement in auxiliary-heated plasmas at low aspect ratio. Auxiliary power is routinely coupled to ohmically heated plasmas by deuterium neutral-beam injection (NBI) and by high-harmonic fast waves (HHFW) launch. While theory predicts both techniques to preferentially heat electrons, experiment reveals the electron temperature is greater than the ion temperature during HHFW, but the electron temperature is less than the ion temperature during NBI. In the following we present the experimental data and the results of transport analyses

  15. Elastoplastic analysis of surface cracks in pressure vessels using slip-line theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskinen, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    The paper considers the aspects of engineering application of SLF theory to long surface cracks in pressure vessels. Green's upper-bound SLF for a bend specimen with deep wedge-shaped notch of small flank angle is adopted to analyse the remaining ligament of the cracked section. The SLF involves only one unknown variable, i.e., the radius of a circular slip-line arc, which can be evaluated from the equilibrium condition across the ligament. The stress distribution across the ligament is easily computed by Hencky's theorem and the respective stress resultants produce the boundary conditions for the solution of the neighboring elastic material. The elastic solution readily yields the rotation of the crack edges, COA, and it in turn geometrically defines the applied CTOD. Comparison has proved their relation to the stress resultants identical with that following from the customary single plastic hinge model when Tresca's yield condition prevails and the tensile side plastic constraint factor of the hinge model is chosen as 1.7. The SLF approach is demonstrated for an internal circumferential surface crack subjected to thermal gradient and axial load representative of overpressurization and emergency cooling conditions of a pressure vessel. Analytical formulas relating COA and CTOD to applied loading are derived and CTOD-R curve based stable crack propagation is solved iteratively. Generic numerical results are presented for COA and CTOD under arbitrary loading combination. The risk of crack growth initiation appears to increase with the linear dimensions of the pressure vessel, but remains small for a chosen BWR application. For a long axial surface crack the approach agrees with a previous plastic hinge analysis by Ranta-Maunus et al. suggesting instability under certain combinations of thermal gradient and internal pressure. (orig./HP)

  16. Unsaturated phosphatidylcholines lining on the surface of cartilage and its possible physiological roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford Ross W

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence has strongly indicated that surface-active phospholipid (SAPL, or surfactant, lines the surface of cartilage and serves as a lubricating agent. Previous clinical study showed that a saturated phosphatidylcholine (SPC, dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC, was effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis, however recent studies suggested that the dominant SAPL species at some sites outside the lung are not SPC, rather, are unsaturated phosphatidylcholine (USPC. Some of these USPC have been proven to be good boundary lubricants by our previous study, implicating their possible important physiological roles in joint if their existence can be confirmed. So far, no study has been conducted to identify the whole molecule species of different phosphatidylcholine (PC classes on the surface of cartilage. In this study we identified the dominant PC molecule species on the surface of cartilage. We also confirmed that some of these PC species possess a property of semipermeability. Methods HPLC was used to analyse the PC profile of bovine cartilage samples and comparisons of DPPC and USPC were carried out through semipermeability tests. Results It was confirmed that USPC are the dominant SAPL species on the surface of cartilage. In particular, they are Dilinoleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DLPC, Palmitoyl-linoleoyl-phosphatidylcholine, (PLPC, Palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC and Stearoyl-linoleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (SLPC. The relative content of DPPC (a SPC was only 8%. Two USPC, PLPC and POPC, were capable of generating osmotic pressure that is equivalent to that by DPPC. Conclusion The results from the current study confirm vigorously that USPC is the endogenous species inside the joint as against DPPC thereby confirming once again that USPC, and not SPC, characterizes the PC species distribution at non-lung sites of the body. USPC not only has better anti-friction and lubrication properties than DPPC, they also

  17. Curricular Guidelines for Dental Auxiliary Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    AADS curricular guidelines suggest objectives for these areas of dental auxiliary radiology: physical principles of X-radiation in dentistry, related radiobiological concepts, principles of radiologic health, radiographic technique, x-ray films and intensifying screens, factors contributing to film quality, darkroom, and normal variations in…

  18. Auxiliary power unit for moving a vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Matthew D [Peoria, IL; Slone, Larry M [Washington, IL; Welter, James Milton [Chillicothe, IL

    2009-02-03

    A power system is provided having at least one traction device and a primary power source configured to power the at least one traction device. In addition, the power system includes an auxiliary power source also configured to power the at least one traction device.

  19. Window-mounted auxiliary solar heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, K. G.; Herndon, E. P.

    1977-01-01

    System uses hot-air collectors, no thermal storage, and fan with thermostat switches. At cost of heating efficiency, unit could be manufactured and sold at price allowing immediate entry to market as auxiliary heating system. Its simplicity allows homeowner installation, and maintenance is minimal.

  20. Computation within the auxiliary field approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeurle, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the classical auxiliary field methodology has been developed as a new simulation technique for performing calculations within the framework of classical statistical mechanics. Since the approach suffers from a sign problem, a judicious choice of the sampling algorithm, allowing a fast statistical convergence and an efficient generation of field configurations, is of fundamental importance for a successful simulation. In this paper we focus on the computational aspects of this simulation methodology. We introduce two different types of algorithms, the single-move auxiliary field Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm and two new classes of force-based algorithms, which enable multiple-move propagation. In addition, to further optimize the sampling, we describe a preconditioning scheme, which permits to treat each field degree of freedom individually with regard to the evolution through the auxiliary field configuration space. Finally, we demonstrate the validity and assess the competitiveness of these algorithms on a representative practical example. We believe that they may also provide an interesting possibility for enhancing the computational efficiency of other auxiliary field methodologies

  1. Vacuum switchgear for power station auxiliary switchboards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombs, P.E.

    1992-01-01

    Sizewell B is the first UK power station in which vacuum switchgear is used for the auxiliary switchboards. Previously the 3.3kV, 6.6kV or 11kV switchgear has used air-break circuit breakers and fused air-break contactors, known as motor starting devices or fused switching devices (FSD). The use of vacuum interrupters is therefore a new technology in this application, although it has been established in the UK distribution network and in industrial installations from the mid 1970s. Vacuum switchgear was already in use in the USA for power station auxiliary switchgear at the time that it was proposed for Sizewell B. The Sizewell B high voltage auxiliary switchgear comprises eight Unit and Station Auxiliary Switchboards at 3.3kV and 11kV, and four 3.3kV Essential Switchboards for the essential safety related circuits, making a total of 65 circuit breakers plus FSD panels. (Author)

  2. Aging assessment of auxiliary feedwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    A study of Pressurized Water Reactor Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) Systems has been conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the auspices of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. The study has reviewed historical failure experience and current monitoring practices for the AFW System. This paper provides an overview of the study approach and results. 7 figs

  3. A Finite Element Method for Free-Surface Flows of Incompressible Fluids in Three Dimensions, Part II: Dynamic Wetting Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, T.A.; Cairncross, R.A.; Rao, R.R.; Sackinger, P.A.; Schunk, P.R.

    1999-01-29

    To date, few researchers have solved three-dimensional free-surface problems with dynamic wetting lines. This paper extends the free-surface finite element method described in a companion paper [Cairncross, R.A., P.R. Schunk, T.A. Baer, P.A. Sackinger, R.R. Rao, "A finite element method for free surface flows of incompressible fluid in three dimensions, Part I: Boundary-Fitted mesh motion.", to be published (1998)] to handle dynamic wetting. A generalization of the technique used in two dimensional modeling to circumvent double-valued velocities at the wetting line, the so-called kinematic paradox, is presented for a wetting line in three dimensions. This approach requires the fluid velocity normal to the contact line to be zero, the fluid velocity tangent to the contact line to be equal to the tangential component of web velocity, and the fluid velocity into the web to be zero. In addition, slip is allowed in a narrow strip along the substrate surface near the dynamic contact line. For realistic wetting-line motion, a contact angle which varies with wetting speed is required because contact lines in three dimensions typically advance or recede a different rates depending upon location and/or have both advancing and receding portions. The theory is applied to capillary rise of static fluid in a corner, the initial motion of a Newtonian droplet down an inclined plane, and extrusion of a Newtonian fluid from a nozzle onto a moving substrate. The extrusion results are compared to experimental visualization. Subject Categories

  4. Coupling Fluid and Solute Dynamics Within the Ocular Surface Tear Film: A Modelling Study of Black Line Osmolarity

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V. S.

    2012-07-06

    We present a mathematical model describing the spatial distribution of tear film osmolarity across the ocular surface of a human eye during one blink cycle, incorporating detailed fluid and solute dynamics. Based on the lubrication approximation, our model comprises three coupled equations tracking the depth of the aqueous layer of the tear film, the concentration of the polar lipid, and the concentration of physiological salts contained in the aqueous layer. Diffusive boundary layers in the salt concentration occur at the thinnest regions of the tear film, the black lines. Thus, despite large Peclet numbers, diffusion ameliorates osmolarity around the black lines, but nonetheless is insufficient to eliminate the build-up of solute in these regions. More generally, a heterogeneous distribution of solute concentration is predicted across the ocular surface, indicating that measurements of lower meniscus osmolarity are not globally representative, especially in the presence of dry eye. Vertical saccadic eyelid motion can reduce osmolarity at the lower black line, raising the prospect that select eyeball motions more generally can assist in alleviating tear film hyperosmolarity. Finally, our results indicate that measured evaporative rates will induce excessive hyperosmolarity at the black lines, even for the healthy eye. This suggests that further evaporative retardation at the black lines, for instance due to the cellular glycocalyx at the ocular surface or increasing concentrations of mucus, will be important for controlling hyperosmolarity as the black line thins. © 2012 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  5. Surface inspection of flat products by means of texture analysis: on-line implementation using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Carlos; Platero, Carlos; Campoy, Pascual; Aracil, Rafael

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes some texture-based techniques that can be applied to quality assessment of flat products continuously produced (metal strips, wooden surfaces, cork, textile products, ...). Since the most difficult task is that of inspecting for product appearance, human-like inspection ability is required. A common feature to all these products is the presence of non- deterministic texture on their surfaces. Two main subjects are discussed: statistical techniques for both surface finishing determination and surface defect analysis as well as real-time implementation for on-line inspection in high-speed applications. For surface finishing determination a Gray Level Difference technique is presented to perform over low resolution images, that is, no-zoomed images. Defect analysis is performed by means of statistical texture analysis over defective portions of the surface. On-line implementation is accomplished by means of neural networks. When a defect arises, textural analysis is applied which result in a data-vector, acting as input of a neural net, previously trained in a supervised way. This approach tries to reach on-line performance in automated visual inspection applications when texture is presented in flat product surfaces.

  6. Radiation loss of planar surface plasmon polaritons transmission lines at microwave frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhixia; Li, Shunli; Yin, Xiaoxing; Zhao, Hongxin; Liu, Leilei

    2017-07-21

    Radiation loss of a typical spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs) transmission line (TL) is investigated in this paper. A 325 mm-long SSPPs TL is designed and fabricated. Simulated results show that radiation loss contributes more to transmission loss than dielectric loss and conductor loss from 2 GHz to 10 GHz. Radiation loss of the SSPPs TL could be divided into two parts, one is caused by the input mode converter, and the other is caused by the corrugated metallic strip. This paper explains mechanisms of radiation loss from different parts, designs a loaded SSPPs TL with a series of resistors to absorb electromagnetic energy on corrugated metallic strip, and then discriminates radiation loss from the input mode converter, proposes the concept of average radiation length (ARL) to evaluate radiation loss from SSPPs of finite length, and concludes that radiation loss is mainly caused by corrugated structure of finite length at low frequency band and by the input mode converter at high frequency band. To suppress radiation loss, a mixed slow wave TL based on the combination of coplanar waveguides (CPWs) and SSPPs is presented. The designed structure, sample fabrication and experimental verification are discussed.

  7. The English Primary Auxiliary Verbs: A Linguistic Theoretical Exercise

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Abstract. Obviously, the fact remains that English Language is a sensitive Language ... Even though the English auxiliary verbs are of two kinds: Primary and Modal auxiliary ..... Therefore we are of the opinion that most speakers lack adequate.

  8. Design and scope of impact of auxiliary lanes : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    For decades, Texas Department of Transportation districts have constructed auxiliary lanes to support interchange : ramp operations and to resolve congestion proximate to freeway entrance and exit ramps. While auxiliary lanes are : built throughout T...

  9. Aging and low-flow degradation of auxiliary feedwater pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper documents the results of research done under the auspices of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. It examines the degradation imparted to safety Auxiliary Feedwater System pumps at nuclear plants due to the low flow operation. The Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) System is normally a stand-by system. As such it is operated most often in the test mode. Since few plants are equipped with full flow test loops, most testing is accomplished at minimum flow conditions in pump by-pass lines. It is the vibration and hydraulic forces generated at low flow conditions that have been shown to be the major causes of AFW pump aging and degradation. The wear can be manifested in a number of ways, such as impeller or diffuser breakage, thrust bearing and/or balance device failure due to excessive loading, cavitation damage on such stage impellers, increase seal leakage or failure, sear injection piping failure, shaft or coupling breakage, and rotating element seizure

  10. Contact angle hysteresis on doubly periodic smooth rough surfaces in Wenzel's regime: The role of the contact line depinning mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Stanimir; Pesheva, Nina; Iliev, Pavel

    2018-04-01

    We report here on the contact angle hysteresis, appearing when a liquid meniscus is in contact with doubly sinusoidal wavelike patterned surfaces in Wenzel's wetting regime. Using the full capillary model we obtain numerically the contact angle hysteresis as a function of the surface roughness factor and the equilibrium contact angle for a block case and a kink case contact line depinning mechanism. We find that the dependencies of the contact angle hysteresis on the surface roughness factor are different for the different contact line depinning mechanisms. These dependencies are different also for the two types of rough surfaces we studied. The relations between advancing, receding, and equilibrium contact angles are investigated. A comparison with the existing asymptotical, numerical, and experimental results is carried out.

  11. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand the...

  12. 30 CFR 57.8529 - Auxiliary fan systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fan systems 57.8529 Section 57.8529 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.8529 Auxiliary fan systems When auxiliary fan systems are used, such systems shall...

  13. Bayesian Analysis of Geostatistical Models With an Auxiliary Lattice

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Jincheol; Liang, Faming

    2012-01-01

    of observations is large. In this article, we propose an auxiliary lattice-based approach for tackling this difficulty. By introducing an auxiliary lattice to the space of observations and defining a Gaussian Markov random field on the auxiliary lattice, our model

  14. The origin of narrowing of the Si 2p coincidence photoelectron spectroscopy main line of Si(1 0 0) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masahide

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The Si 2p coincidence photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) main line of Si(1 0 0) is calculated. → The PES main line shows an asymmetric line shape change compared to the singles one. → The narrowing of the coincidence Si 2p PES main line is well reproduced. → The inherent mechanism of APECS is explained by a many-body theory. - Abstract: The Si 2p photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) main line of Si(1 0 0) surface measured in coincidence with the singles (noncoincidence) Si L 2,3 -VV Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) elastic peak is calculated. The agreement with the experiment is good. The present work is the first many-body calculation of the experimental coincidence PES spectrum of solid surface. The narrowing of the coincidence Si 2p PES main line compared to the singles one is due to the mechanism inherent in the coincidence PES. The inherent mechanism is explained by a many-body theory by which photoemission and Auger-electron emission are treated on the same footing.

  15. Cortical surface registration using spherical thin-plate spline with sulcal lines and mean curvature as features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjin; Park, Jun-Sung; Seong, Joon-Kyung; Na, Duk L; Lee, Jong-Min

    2012-04-30

    Analysis of cortical patterns requires accurate cortical surface registration. Many researchers map the cortical surface onto a unit sphere and perform registration of two images defined on the unit sphere. Here we have developed a novel registration framework for the cortical surface based on spherical thin-plate splines. Small-scale composition of spherical thin-plate splines was used as the geometric interpolant to avoid folding in the geometric transform. Using an automatic algorithm based on anisotropic skeletons, we extracted seven sulcal lines, which we then incorporated as landmark information. Mean curvature was chosen as an additional feature for matching between spherical maps. We employed a two-term cost function to encourage matching of both sulcal lines and the mean curvature between the spherical maps. Application of our registration framework to fifty pairwise registrations of T1-weighted MRI scans resulted in improved registration accuracy, which was computed from sulcal lines. Our registration approach was tested as an additional procedure to improve an existing surface registration algorithm. Our registration framework maintained an accurate registration over the sulcal lines while significantly increasing the cross-correlation of mean curvature between the spherical maps being registered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Modified Darboux transformations with foreign auxiliary equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel

    2011-01-01

    We construct a new type of first-order Darboux transformations for the stationary Schroedinger equation. In contrast to the conventional case, our Darboux transformations support arbitrary (foreign) auxiliary equations. We show that among other applications, our formalism can be used to systematically construct Darboux transformations for Schroedinger equations with energy-dependent potentials, including a recent result (Lin et al., 2007) as a special case. -- Highlights: → We generalize the Darboux transformation for the Schroedinger equation. → By admitting arbitrary auxiliary functions, we provide a new tool for generating solutions. → As a special case we recover a recent result on energy-dependent potentials. → We extend the latter result to very general energy-dependence.

  17. Eigenstates with the auxiliary field method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semay, Claude [Service de Physique Nucleaire et Subnucleaire, Universite de Mons-UMONS, 20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Silvestre-Brac, Bernard, E-mail: claude.semay@umons.ac.b, E-mail: silvestre@lpsc.in2p3.f [LPSC Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, Avenue des Martyrs 53, F-38026 Grenoble-Cedex (France)

    2010-07-02

    The auxiliary field method is a powerful technique to obtain approximate closed-form energy formulas for eigenequations in quantum mechanics. Very good results can be obtained for Schroedinger and semirelativistic Hamiltonians with various potentials, even in the case of many-body problems. This method can also provide approximate eigenstates in terms of well-known wavefunctions, for instance harmonic oscillator or hydrogen-like states, but with a characteristic size which depends on quantum numbers. In this paper, we consider two-body Schroedinger equations with linear, logarithmic and exponential potentials and show that analytical approximations of the corresponding eigenstates can be obtained with the auxiliary field method, with very good accuracy in some cases.

  18. Eigenstates with the auxiliary field method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semay, Claude; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The auxiliary field method is a powerful technique to obtain approximate closed-form energy formulas for eigenequations in quantum mechanics. Very good results can be obtained for Schroedinger and semirelativistic Hamiltonians with various potentials, even in the case of many-body problems. This method can also provide approximate eigenstates in terms of well-known wavefunctions, for instance harmonic oscillator or hydrogen-like states, but with a characteristic size which depends on quantum numbers. In this paper, we consider two-body Schroedinger equations with linear, logarithmic and exponential potentials and show that analytical approximations of the corresponding eigenstates can be obtained with the auxiliary field method, with very good accuracy in some cases.

  19. PSA effect analysis of a design modification of the auxiliary feedwater system for a Westinghouse type plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Yeon Kyoung; Lee, Eun Chan

    2012-01-01

    The auxiliary feedwater system is an important system used to mitigate most accidents considered in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The reference plant has produced electric power for about thirty years. Due to age related deterioration and lack of parts, a turbine driven auxiliary feedwater pump (TD AFWP), some valves, and piping of the auxiliary feedwater system should be replaced. This change includes relocation of some valves, installation of valves for maintenance of the steam generator, and a new cross tie line. According to the design change, the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) has been revised. Therefore, this design modification affects the PSA. It is thus necessary to assess the improvement of plant safety. In this paper, the impact of the design change of the auxiliary feedwater system on the PSA is assessed. The results demonstrate that this modification considering the plant safety decreased the total CDF

  20. Auxiliary facilities on nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Shotaro; Takigami, Yoshio.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear ship 'MUTSU' has been moored at SEKINEHAMA, MUTU City in AOMORI Prefecture and several tests and works are being carried out on the ship. The construction of the auxiliary facilities for these works on the ship was completed in safety in August 1988. After that the facilities have fulfilled their function. The outlines of design, fabrication and construction of the facilities are described in this paper. (author)

  1. Auxiliary Heat Exchanger Flow Distribution Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, J.S.; Bressler, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The Auxiliary Heat Exchanger Flow Distribution Test was the first part of a test program to develop a water-cooled (tube-side), compact heat exchanger for removing heat from the circulating gas in a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Measurements of velocity and pressure were made with various shell side inlet and outlet configurations. A flow configuration was developed which provides acceptable velocity distribution throughout the heat exchanger without adding excessive pressure drop

  2. Categorical Data Fusion Using Auxiliary Information

    OpenAIRE

    Fosdick, Bailey K.; DeYoreo, Maria; Reiter, Jerome P.

    2015-01-01

    In data fusion, analysts seek to combine information from two databases comprised of disjoint sets of individuals, in which some variables appear in both databases and other variables appear in only one database. Most data fusion techniques rely on variants of conditional independence assumptions. When inappropriate, these assumptions can result in unreliable inferences. We propose a data fusion technique that allows analysts to easily incorporate auxiliary information on the dependence struc...

  3. Model predictions for auxiliary heating in spheromaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauler, T.K.; Khua, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    Calculations are presented of the plasma temperature waited for under auxiliary heating in spheromaks. A model, ensuring good agreement of earlier experiments with joule heating results, is used. The model includes heat losses due to magnetic fluctuations and shows that the plasma temperatures of the kilo-electron-volt order may be achieved in a small device with the radius of 0.3 m only

  4. Generation of murine tumor cell lines deficient in MHC molecule surface expression using the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Das

    Full Text Available In this study, the CRISPR/Cas9 technology was used to establish murine tumor cell lines, devoid of MHC I or MHC II surface expression, respectively. The melanoma cell line B16F10 and the murine breast cancer cell line EO-771, the latter stably expressing the tumor antigen NY-BR-1 (EO-NY, were transfected with an expression plasmid encoding a β2m-specific single guide (sgRNA and Cas9. The resulting MHC I negative cells were sorted by flow cytometry to obtain single cell clones, and loss of susceptibility of peptide pulsed MHC I negative clones to peptide-specific CTL recognition was determined by IFNγ ELISpot assay. The β2m knockout (KO clones did not give rise to tumors in syngeneic mice (C57BL/6N, unless NK cells were depleted, suggesting that outgrowth of the β2m KO cell lines was controlled by NK cells. Using sgRNAs targeting the β-chain encoding locus of the IAb molecule we also generated several B16F10 MHC II KO clones. Peptide loaded B16F10 MHC II KO cells were insusceptible to recognition by OT-II cells and tumor growth was unaltered compared to parental B16F10 cells. Thus, in our hands the CRISPR/Cas9 system has proven to be an efficient straight forward strategy for the generation of MHC knockout cell lines. Such cell lines could serve as parental cells for co-transfection of compatible HLA alleles together with human tumor antigens of interest, thereby facilitating the generation of HLA matched transplantable tumor models, e.g. in HLAtg mouse strains of the newer generation, lacking cell surface expression of endogenous H2 molecules. In addition, our tumor cell lines established might offer a useful tool to investigate tumor reactive T cell responses that function independently from MHC molecule surface expression by the tumor.

  5. Robust doubly charged nodal lines and nodal surfaces in centrosymmetric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdušek, Tomáš; Sigrist, Manfred

    2017-10-01

    Weyl points in three spatial dimensions are characterized by a Z -valued charge—the Chern number—which makes them stable against a wide range of perturbations. A set of Weyl points can mutually annihilate only if their net charge vanishes, a property we refer to as robustness. While nodal loops are usually not robust in this sense, it has recently been shown using homotopy arguments that in the centrosymmetric extension of the AI symmetry class they nevertheless develop a Z2 charge analogous to the Chern number. Nodal loops carrying a nontrivial value of this Z2 charge are robust, i.e., they can be gapped out only by a pairwise annihilation and not on their own. As this is an additional charge independent of the Berry π -phase flowing along the band degeneracy, such nodal loops are, in fact, doubly charged. In this manuscript, we generalize the homotopy discussion to the centrosymmetric extensions of all Atland-Zirnbauer classes. We develop a tailored mathematical framework dubbed the AZ +I classification and show that in three spatial dimensions such robust and multiply charged nodes appear in four of such centrosymmetric extensions, namely, AZ +I classes CI and AI lead to doubly charged nodal lines, while D and BDI support doubly charged nodal surfaces. We remark that no further crystalline symmetries apart from the spatial inversion are necessary for their stability. We provide a description of the corresponding topological charges, and develop simple tight-binding models of various semimetallic and superconducting phases that exhibit these nodes. We also indicate how the concept of robust and multiply charged nodes generalizes to other spatial dimensions.

  6. 78 FR 37660 - American Surface Lines, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Mikrut Properties, LLLP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... assignment from Mikrut Properties, LLLP (MP), and to operate as a common carrier, certain rail lines that...: (a) 1.37 miles (7,215 feet) of rail line, comprised of seven tracks, extending from point of... or near Pelzer Street to a transloading facility owned and operated by MP; and (b) 0.19 miles of rail...

  7. Pinning of the Contact Line during Evaporation on Heterogeneous Surfaces: Slowdown or Temporary Immobilization? Insights from a Nanoscale Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Müller-Plathe, Florian; Leroy, Frédéric

    2015-07-14

    The question of the effect of surface heterogeneities on the evaporation of liquid droplets from solid surfaces is addressed through nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The mechanism behind contact line pinning which is still unclear is discussed in detail on the nanoscale. Model systems with the Lennard-Jones interaction potential were employed to study the evaporation of nanometer-sized cylindrical droplets from a flat surface. The heterogeneity of the surface was modeled through alternating stripes of equal width but two chemical types. The first type leads to a contact angle of 67°, and the other leads to a contact angle of 115°. The stripe width was varied between 2 and 20 liquid-particle diameters. On the surface with the narrowest stripes, evaporation occurred at constant contact angle as if the surface was homogeneous, with a value of the contact angle as predicted by the regular Cassie-Baxter equation. When the width was increased, the contact angle oscillated during evaporation between two boundaries whose values depend on the stripe width. The evaporation behavior was thus found to be a direct signature of the typical size of the surface heterogeneity domains. The contact angle both at equilibrium and during evaporation could be predicted from a local Cassie-Baxter equation in which the surface composition within a distance of seven fluid-particle diameters around the contact line was considered, confirming the local nature of the interactions that drive the wetting behavior of droplets. More importantly, we propose a nanoscale explanation of pinning during evaporation. Pinning should be interpreted as a drastic slowdown of the contact line dynamics rather than a complete immobilization of it during a transition between two contact angle boundaries.

  8. Inundation Mapping for Heterogeneous Land Covers with Synthetic Aperture Radar and Auxiliary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal, F.; Judge, J.

    2017-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been widely used to detect surface water inundation and provides an advantage over multi-spectral instruments due to cloud penetration and higher spatial resolutions. However, detecting inundation for densely vegetated and urban areas with SAR remains a challenge due to corner reflection and diffuse scattering. Additionally, flat urban surfaces such as roads exhibit similar backscatter coefficients as urban surface water. Differences between inundated and non-inundated backscatter over vegetated land covers of static spatial domains have been demonstrated in previous studies. However, these backscatter differences are sensitive to changes in water depth, soil moisture, SAR sensor parameters, terrain, and vegetation properties. These factors tend to make accurate inundation mapping of heterogeneous regions across varying spatial and temporal extents difficult with exclusive use of SAR. This study investigates the utility of auxiliary data specifically high-resolution (10m) terrain information in conjunction with SAR (10m) for detecting inundated areas. Digital elevation models provide an absolute elevation which could enhance inundation mapping given a limited study extent with similar topography. To counter this limitation, a hydrologically relevant terrain index is proposed known as the Height Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) which normalizes topography to the local relative elevation of the nearest point along the relevant drainage line. HAND has been used for assisting remote sensing inundation mapping in the pre-processing stage as a terrain correction tool and as a post-processing mask that eliminates areas of low inundation risk. While the latter technique is useful for reduction of commission errors, it does not employ HAND for reducing omission errors that can occur from dense vegetation, spectral noise, and urban features. Sentinel-1 dual-pol SAR as well as auxiliary HAND will be used as predictors by various supervised and

  9. Comparative analysis of the surface exposed proteome of two canine osteosarcoma cell lines and normal canine osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovancev, Milan; Hilgart-Martiszus, Ian; McNamara, Michael J; Goodall, Cheri P; Seguin, Bernard; Bracha, Shay; Wickramasekara, Samanthi I

    2013-06-13

    Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common primary bone tumor of dogs and carries a poor prognosis despite aggressive treatment. An improved understanding of the biology of OSA is critically needed to allow for development of novel diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic tools. The surface-exposed proteome (SEP) of a cancerous cell includes a multifarious array of proteins critical to cellular processes such as proliferation, migration, adhesion, and inter-cellular communication. The specific aim of this study was to define a SEP profile of two validated canine OSA cell lines and a normal canine osteoblast cell line utilizing a biotinylation/streptavidin system to selectively label, purify, and identify surface-exposed proteins by mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Additionally, we sought to validate a subset of our MS-based observations via quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot and semi-quantitative immunocytochemistry. Our hypothesis was that MS would detect differences in the SEP composition between the OSA and the normal osteoblast cells. Shotgun MS identified 133 putative surface proteins when output from all samples were combined, with good consistency between biological replicates. Eleven of the MS-detected proteins underwent analysis of gene expression by PCR, all of which were actively transcribed, but varied in expression level. Western blot of whole cell lysates from all three cell lines was effective for Thrombospondin-1, CYR61 and CD44, and indicated that all three proteins were present in each cell line. Semi-quantitative immunofluorescence indicated that CD44 was expressed at much higher levels on the surface of the OSA than the normal osteoblast cell lines. The results of the present study identified numerous differences, and similarities, in the SEP of canine OSA cell lines and normal canine osteoblasts. The PCR, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry results, for the subset of proteins evaluated, were generally supportive of the mass spectrometry data

  10. Surface quality monitoring for process control by on-line vibration analysis using an adaptive spline wavelet algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, G. Y.; Osypiw, D.; Irle, M.

    2003-05-01

    The dynamic behaviour of wood machining processes affects the surface finish quality of machined workpieces. In order to meet the requirements of increased production efficiency and improved product quality, surface quality information is needed for enhanced process control. However, current methods using high price devices or sophisticated designs, may not be suitable for industrial real-time application. This paper presents a novel approach of surface quality evaluation by on-line vibration analysis using an adaptive spline wavelet algorithm, which is based on the excellent time-frequency localization of B-spline wavelets. A series of experiments have been performed to extract the feature, which is the correlation between the relevant frequency band(s) of vibration with the change of the amplitude and the surface quality. The graphs of the experimental results demonstrate that the change of the amplitude in the selective frequency bands with variable resolution (linear and non-linear) reflects the quality of surface finish, and the root sum square of wavelet power spectrum is a good indication of surface quality. Thus, surface quality can be estimated and quantified at an average level in real time. The results can be used to regulate and optimize the machine's feed speed, maintaining a constant spindle motor speed during cutting. This will lead to higher level control and machining rates while keeping dimensional integrity and surface finish within specification.

  11. System Study: Auxiliary Feedwater 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the AFW results.

  12. Influence of picosecond multiple/single line ablation on copper nanoparticles fabricated for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and photonics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, Syed; Tewari, Surya P; Podagatlapalli, G Krishna; Rao, S Venugopal

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive study comprising fabrication of copper nanoparticles (NPs) using picosecond (ps) multiple/single line ablation in various solvents such as acetone, dichloromethane (DCM), acetonitrile (ACN) and chloroform followed by optical, nonlinear optical (NLO), and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) characterization was performed. The influence of surrounding liquid media and the writing conditions resulted in fabrication of Cu NPs in acetone, CuCl NPs in DCM, CuO NPs in ACN and CuCl 2 NPs in chloroform. Prepared colloids were characterized through transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectra, selected area electron diffraction and UV-visible absorption spectra. A detailed investigation of the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity and the ps NLO properties of the colloids prepared through multiple/single line ablation techniques revealed that the best performance was achieved by Cu NPs for SERS applications and CuCl 2 NPs for NLO applications. (paper)

  13. Uniform surface-to-line integral reduction of physical optics for curved surfaces by modified edge representation with higher-order correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Pengfei; Ando, Makoto

    2017-09-01

    The modified edge representation is one of the equivalent edge currents approximation methods for calculating the physical optics surface radiation integrals in diffraction analysis. The Stokes' theorem is used in the derivation of the modified edge representation from the physical optics for the planar scatterer case, which implies that the surface integral is rigorously reduced into the line integral of the modified edge representation equivalent edge currents, defined in terms of the local shape of the edge. On the contrary, for curved surfaces, the results of radiation integrals depend upon the global shape of the scatterer. The physical optics surface integral consists of two components, from the inner stationary phase point and the edge. The modified edge representation is defined independently from the orientation of the actual edge, and therefore, it could be available not only at the edge but also at the arbitrary points on the scatterer except the stationary phase point where the modified edge representation equivalent edge currents becomes infinite. If stationary phase point exists inside the illuminated region, the physical optics surface integration is reduced into two kinds of the modified edge representation line integrations, along the edge and infinitesimally small integration around the inner stationary phase point, the former and the latter give the diffraction and reflection components, respectively. The accuracy of the latter has been discussed for the curved surfaces and published. This paper focuses on the errors of the former and discusses its correction. It has been numerically observed that the modified edge representation works well for the physical optics diffraction in flat and concave surfaces; errors appear especially for the observer near the reflection shadow boundary if the frequency is low for the convex scatterer. This paper gives the explicit expression of the higher-order correction for the modified edge representation.

  14. Biochar-amended filter socks reduce herbicide losses via tile line surface inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing water in depressions and behind terraces in fields with subsurface drainage systems can result in reduced crop yields. This concern can be partially alleviated by installing surface inlets that reduce the duration of ponding. Unfortunately, these inlets provide an open conduit for surface w...

  15. Silica-Assisted Nucleation of Polymer Foam Cells with Nanoscopic Dimensions: Impact of Particle Size, Line Tension, and Surface Functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanqiu; Eijkelenkamp, Rik; Duvigneau, Joost; Vancso, G Julius

    2017-11-01

    Core-shell nanoparticles consisting of silica as core and surface-grafted poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as shell with different diameters were prepared and used as heterogeneous nucleation agents to obtain CO 2 -blown poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposite foams. PDMS was selected as the shell material as it possesses a low surface energy and high CO 2 -philicity. The successful synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The cell size and cell density of the PMMA micro- and nanocellular materials were determined by scanning electron microscopy. The cell nucleation efficiency using core-shell nanoparticles was significantly enhanced when compared to that of unmodified silica. The highest nucleation efficiency observed had a value of ∼0.5 for nanoparticles with a core diameter of 80 nm. The particle size dependence of cell nucleation efficiency is discussed taking into account line tension effects. Complete engulfment by the polymer matrix of particles with a core diameter below 40 nm at the cell wall interface was observed corresponding to line tension values of approximately 0.42 nN. This line tension significantly increases the energy barrier of heterogeneous nucleation and thus reduces the nucleation efficiency. The increase of the CO 2 saturation pressure to 300 bar prior to batch foaming resulted in an increased line tension length. We observed a decrease of the heterogeneous nucleation efficiency for foaming after saturation with CO 2 at 300 bar, which we attribute to homogenous nucleation becoming more favorable at the expense of heterogeneous nucleation in this case. Overall, it is shown that the contribution of line tension to the free energy barrier of heterogeneous foam cell nucleation must be considered to understand foaming of viscoelastic materials. This finding emphasizes the need for new strategies including the use of

  16. Instability and Transition of Flow at, and Near, an Attachment-line - Including Control by Surface Suction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.

    1996-01-01

    Advances in aviation during and following the Second World War led to an enormous improvement in the performance of aircraft. The push for enhanced efficiency brought cruise speeds into the transonic range, where the associated drag rise due to the appearance of shock-waves became a limiting factor. Wing sweep was adopted to delay the onset of this drag rise, but with this development came several new and unforeseen problems. Preliminary theoretical work assumed that the boundary layer transition characteristics of a swept wing would be subject to the independence principle, so the chordwise transition position could be predicted from two-dimensional work Gas turbine development has now reached a point where additional increases in efficiency are both difficult and expensive to achieve. Consequently, aircraft manufacturers are looking elsewhere for ways to reduce Direct Operating Costs (DOC's) or increase military performance. The attention of industry is currently focusing on Hybrid Laminar Flow Control (HLFC) as a possible method of reducing DOC's for civil aircraft. Following this study and discussions with NASA Langley and Boeing a different series of questions have been addressed in the present work. There are five areas of interest: Relaminarisation of the attachment-line boundary layer when the value of R exceeds 600. The effects of large suction levels on transition in the attachment-line boundary layer (ie critical oversuction). The transition characteristics of a relaminarised attachment-line flow which encounters a non-porous surface. The effect of attachment-line suction on the spanwise propagation of gross disturbances emanating from the wing-fuselage junction. The attachment-line transition caused by surface blowing.

  17. Effect of surface treatments on the bond strength of soft denture lining materials to an acrylic resin denture base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Mustafa; Yesil Duymus, Zeynep; Alkurt, Murat

    2014-10-01

    Adhesive failure between acrylic resin and resilient liner material is commonly encountered in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on the bond strength of 2 different resilient lining materials to an acrylic resin denture base. Ninety-six dumbbell-shaped specimens were fabricated from heat-polymerized acrylic resin, and 3 mm of the material was cut from the thin midsection. The specimens were divided into 6 groups according to their surface treatments: no surface treatment (control group), 36% phosphoric acid etching (acid group), erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser (laser group), airborne-particle abrasion with 50-μm Al2O3 particles (abrasion group), an acid+laser group, and an abrasion+laser group. The specimens in each group were divided into 2 subgroups according to the resilient lining material used: heat-polymerized silicone based resilient liner (Molloplast B) and autopolymerized silicone-based resilient liner (Ufi Gel P). After all of the specimens had been polymerized, they were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 1 week. A tensile bond strength test was then performed. Data were analyzed with a 2-way ANOVA, and the Sidak multiple comparison test was used to identify significant differences (α=.05). The effects of the surface treatments and resilient lining materials on the surface of the denture base resin were examined with scanning electron microscopy. The tensile bond strength was significantly different between Molloplast B and Ufi Gel P (P<.001). The specimens of the acid group had the highest tensile bond strength, whereas those of the abrasion group had the lowest tensile bond strength. The scanning electron microscopy observations showed that the application of surface treatments modified the surface of the denture base resin. Molloplast B exhibited significantly higher bond strength than Ufi Gel P. Altering the surface of the acrylic resin denture base with 36

  18. On a free-surface problem with moving contact line: From variational principles to stable numerical approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Ivan; Parolini, Nicola; Verani, Marco

    2018-02-01

    We analyze a free-surface problem described by time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations. Surface tension, capillary effects and wall friction are taken into account in the evolution of the system, influencing the motion of the contact line - where the free surface hits the wall - and of the dynamics of the contact angle. The differential equations governing the phenomenon are first derived from the variational principle of minimum reduced dissipation, and then discretized by means of the ALE approach. The numerical properties of the resulting scheme are investigated, drawing a parallel with the physical properties holding at the continuous level. Some instability issues are addressed in detail, in the case of an explicit treatment of the geometry, and novel additional terms are introduced in the discrete formulation in order to damp the instabilities. Numerical tests assess the suitability of the approach, the influence of the parameters, and the effectiveness of the new stabilizing terms.

  19. On-line surveillance of lubricants in bearings by means of surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Gerhard; Schmitt, Martin; Schubert, Josephine; Krempel, Sandro; Faustmann, Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    The acoustic wave propagation in bearings filled with lubricants and driven by pulsed excitation of surface acoustic waves has been investigated with respect to the presence and the distribution of different lubricants. Experimental setups, which are based on the mode conversion between surface acoustic waves and compression waves at the interface between a solid substrate of the bearing and a lubricant are described. The results of preliminary measurements at linear friction bearings, rotation ball bearings and axial cylinder roller bearings are presented.

  20. Fabrication of a bionic microstructure on a C/SiC brake lining surface: Positive applications of surface defects for surface wetting control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M. L.; Ren, C. Z.; Xu, H. Z.; Zhou, C. L.

    2018-05-01

    The material removal processes generate interesting surface topographies, unfortunately, that was usually considered to be surface defects. To date, little attention has been devoted to the positive applications of these interesting surface defects resulted from laser ablation to improve C/SiC surface wettability. In this study, the formation mechanism behind surface defects (residual particles) is discussed first. The results showed that the residual particles with various diameters experienced regeneration and migration, causing them to accumulate repeatedly. The effective accumulation of these residual particles with various diameters provides a new method about fabricating bionic microstructures for surface wetting control. The negligible influence of ablation processes on the chemical component of the subsurface was studied by comparing the C-O-Si weight percentage at the C/SiC subsurface. A group of microstructures were fabricated under different laser trace and different laser parameters. Surface wettability experimental results for different types of microstructures were compared. The results showed that the surface wettability increased as the laser scanning speed decreased. The surface wettability increased with the density of the laser scanning trace. We also demonstrated the application of optimized combination of laser parameters and laser trace to simulate a lotus leaf's microstructure on C/SiC surfaces. The parameter selection depends on the specific material properties.

  1. Surfaces Relief Profilometry of Solid Objects by Sweeping of a Laser Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Peimbert, Didia P.; Trujillo-Schiaffino, Gerardo; Mendoza-Villegas, Paloma G.; Ojeda-González, Daniel; Almazán-Cuellar, Saúl; Corral-Martínez, Luis F.

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a laser system for the digitalization and three-dimensional reconstruction of solid objects. The first step consists of applying on the object a linear sweeping of a thin laser line using a laser diode with 635 nm and 5 mW, a motorized stage for linear displacement of 138 mm, and a controller with RS232 interface. The next step consists of capturing and transmitting the image of the deformed line on the object to a computer. For this step was used a monochrome camera CCD, and an image acquisition board. The last step consists of the three-dimensional reconstruction of the solid object. All the corresponding algorithms were implemented using the programming language LabVIEW.

  2. Immunophenotyping of Waldenstroms macroglobulinemia cell lines reveals distinct patterns of surface antigen expression: potential biological and therapeutic implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneel Paulus

    Full Text Available Waldenströms macroglobulinemia (WM is a subtype of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in which the tumor cell population is markedly heterogeneous, consisting of immunoglobulin-M secreting B-lymphocytes, plasmacytoid lymphocytes and plasma cells. Due to rarity of disease and scarcity of reliable preclinical models, many facets of WM molecular and phenotypic architecture remain incompletely understood. Currently, there are 3 human WM cell lines that are routinely used in experimental studies, namely, BCWM.1, MWCL-1 and RPCI-WM1. During establishment of RPCI-WM1, we observed loss of the CD19 and CD20 antigens, which are typically present on WM cells. Intrigued by this observation and in an effort to better define the immunophenotypic makeup of this cell line, we conducted a more comprehensive analysis for the presence or absence of other cell surface antigens that are present on the RPCI-WM1 model, as well as those on the two other WM cell lines, BCWM.1 and MWCL-1. We examined expression of 65 extracellular and 4 intracellular antigens, comprising B-cell, plasma cell, T-cell, NK-cell, myeloid and hematopoietic stem cell surface markers by flow cytometry analysis. RPCI-WM1 cells demonstrated decreased expression of CD19, CD20, and CD23 with enhanced expression of CD28, CD38 and CD184, antigens that were differentially expressed on BCWM.1 and MWCL-1 cells. Due to increased expression of CD184/CXCR4 and CD38, RPCI-WM1 represents a valuable model in which to study the effects anti-CXCR4 or anti-CD38 targeted therapies that are actively being developed for treatment of hematologic cancers. Overall, differences in surface antigen expression across the 3 cell lines may reflect the tumor clone population predominant in the index patients, from whom the cell lines were developed. Our analysis defines the utility of the most commonly employed WM cell lines as based on their immunophenotype profiles, highlighting unique differences that can be further studied for

  3. Effect of surface organic coatings of cellulose nanocrystals on the viability of mammalian cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimenez AS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambar S Jimenez,1 Francesca Jaramillo,1 Usha D Hemraz,2 Yaman Boluk,3 Karina Ckless,1 Rajesh Sunasee1 1Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Plattsburgh, Plattsburgh, NY, USA; 2National Research Council, Montreal, QC, Canada, 3Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta and National Institute for Nanotechnology, National Research Council, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs have emerged as promising candidates for a number of bio-applications. Surface modification of CNCs continues to gain significant research interest as it imparts new properties to the surface of the nanocrystals for the design of multifunctional CNCs-based materials. A small chemical surface modification can potentially lead to drastic behavioral changes of cell-material interactions thereby affecting the intended bio-application. In this work, unmodified CNCs were covalently decorated with four different organic moieties such as a diaminobutane fragment, a cyclic oligosaccharide (β-cyclodextrin, a thermoresponsive polymer (poly[N-isopropylacrylamide], and a cationic aminomethacrylamide-based polymer using different synthetic covalent methods. The effect of surface coatings of CNCs and the respective dose-response of the above organic moieties on the cell viability were evaluated on mammalian cell cultures (J774A.1 and MFC-7, using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Overall, the results indicated that cells exposed to surface-coated CNCs for 24 h did not display major changes in cell viability, membrane permeability as well as cell morphology. However, with longer exposure, all these parameters were somewhat affected, which appears not to be correlated with either anionic or cationic surface coatings of CNCs used in this study. Keywords: cellulose nanocrystals, surface coating, cell viability, MTT, LDH

  4. Auxiliary Electrodes for Chromium Vapor Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey; Shahzad, Moaiz; Britt, Tommy

    2018-05-15

    Measurement of chromia-containing vapors in solid oxide fuel cell systems is useful for monitoring and addressing cell degradation caused by oxidation of the chomia scale formed on alloys for interconnects and balance-of-plant components. One approach to measuring chromium is to use a solid electrolyte with an auxiliary electrode that relates the partial pressure of the chromium containing species to the mobile species in the electrolyte. One example is YCrO3 which can equilibrate with the chromium containing vapor and yttrium in yttria stabilized zirconia to establish an oxygen activity. Another is Na2CrO4 which can equilibrate with the chromium-containing vapor to establish a sodium activity.

  5. Auxiliary accelerating system for TRIUMF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, M.; Fong, K.; Laxdal, R.; Mackenzie, G.H.; Pacak, V.; Pearson, J.; Richardson, J.R.; Stanford, G.; Worsham, R.

    1990-06-01

    A 92 MHz auxiliary accelerating cavity has been designed and manufactured for installation in the TRIUMF cyclotron. Operating at the fourth harmonic of the RF with a peak voltage of 150 kV, it almost doubles the present energy gain per turn in the 400-500 MeV range, and reduces by ∼50% the stripping loss of the H - beam. This significant improvement will allow a substantial increase in the extracted current above the present routine level of 150μA while maintaining the same levels of residual radioactivity. The system is completed and being commissioned. A description of the design and commissioning procedures is presented, and results of beam tests given. (Author) 7 refs., 5 figs

  6. On Estimating Quantiles Using Auxiliary Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Yves G.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a transformation-based approach for estimating quantiles using auxiliary information. The proposed estimators can be easily implemented using a regression estimator. We show that the proposed estimators are consistent and asymptotically unbiased. The main advantage of the proposed estimators is their simplicity. Despite the fact the proposed estimators are not necessarily more efficient than their competitors, they offer a good compromise between accuracy and simplicity. They can be used under single and multistage sampling designs with unequal selection probabilities. A simulation study supports our finding and shows that the proposed estimators are robust and of an acceptable accuracy compared to alternative estimators, which can be more computationally intensive.

  7. Cooling system for auxiliary reactor component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujihira, Tomoko.

    1991-01-01

    A cooling system for auxiliary reactor components comprises three systems, that is, two systems of reactor component cooling water systems (RCCW systems) and a high pressure component cooling water system (HPCCW system). Connecting pipelines having partition valves are intervened each in a cooling water supply pipeline to an emmergency component of each of the RCCW systems, a cooling water return pipeline from the emmergency component of each of the RCCW systems, a cooling water supply pipeline to each of the emmergency components of one of the RCCW system and the HPCCW system and a cooling water return pipeline from each of the emmergency components of one of the RCCW system and the HPCCW system. With such constitution, cooling water can be supplied also to the emmergency components in the stand-by system upon periodical inspection or ISI, thereby enabling to improve the backup performance of the emmergency cooling system. (I.N.)

  8. SICS. A Sensor-Based In-Line Control System for the Surfaces of Continuously Cast Slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Tzyy-Shuh [OG Technologies, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2013-09-23

    The Phase II project has been carried out in accordance to the proposed tasks and budget, based on the original and extended schedule. The R&D team designed and implemented the test unit for the full width coverage, installed the unit in a caster. The development work further included enhanced image processing, in-depth defect study and process control models. The function, operation, and maintenance of the SICS was thoroughly studied during the Phase II research. The experience indicates additional hardware and procedures are required to make the SICS a commercially ready product in operation and maintenance aspect. Such developments have been finished and the team is contacting potential customers for the first commercial installation of SICS. Additionally, OGT is exploring the possibility to team up with a US company that specializes in surface cleaning for slabs/blooms/billets such that the in-line surface inspection can be integrated with in-line surface clean up for the maximum benefit to the steel industry.

  9. Determination of line profiles on nano-structured surfaces using EUV and x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltwisch, Victor; Wernecke, Jan; Haase, Anton; Probst, Jürgen; Schoengen, Max; Krumrey, Michael; Scholze, Frank; Pomplun, Jan; Burger, Sven

    2014-09-01

    Non-imaging techniques like X-ray scattering are supposed to play an important role in the further development of CD metrology for the semiconductor industry. Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS) provides directly assessable information on structure roughness and long-range periodic perturbations. The disadvantage of the method is the large footprint of the X-ray beam on the sample due to the extremely shallow angle of incidence. This can be overcome by using wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range, EUV small angle scattering (EUVSAS), which allows for much steeper angles of incidence but preserves the range of momentum transfer that can be observed. Generally, the potentially higher momentum transfer at shorter wavelengths is counterbalanced by decreasing diffraction efficiency. This results in a practical limit of about 10 nm pitch for which it is possible to observe at least the +/- 1st diffraction orders with reasonable efficiency. At the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the available photon energy range extends from 50 eV up to 10 keV at two adjacent beamlines. PTB commissioned a new versatile Ellipso-Scatterometer which is capable of measuring 6" square substrates in a clean, hydrocarbon-free environment with full flexibility regarding the direction of the incident light polarization. The reconstruction of line profiles using a geometrical model with six free parameters, based on a finite element method (FEM) Maxwell solver and a particle swarm based least-squares optimization yielded consistent results for EUV-SAS and GISAXS. In this contribution we present scatterometry data for line gratings and consistent reconstruction results of the line geometry for EUV-SAS and GISAXS.

  10. Major factors in critical equipment reliability - Auxiliary systems; The development of an auxiliary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsthoffer, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    In this article, the author details the development of an actual auxiliary system in order to fully understand the function of each major component and how it contributes to the total operation and reliability of the system. Only after the function of an auxiliary system is thoroughly understood, can one proceed to discuss specifications, design audits, testing, operation and preventive maintenance. The application selected will be to develop a pressurized lubrication and steam turbine control oil system for the critical equipment unit. This example was selected since many readers will be familiar with this type and because it provides a good foundation towards understanding fluid sealing systems. In the exercise that follow, he will define the system requirements and determine the system parameters. This information will then be used for component sizing

  11. Numerical study on the stick-slip motion of contact line moving on heterogeneous surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Chen, Xiao-Peng

    2017-08-01

    We present a numerical study of a moving contact line (CL) crossing the intersecting region of hydrophilic and hydrophobic patterns on a solid wall using lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs). To capture the interface between the two phases properly, we applied a phase field model coupled with the LBM. The evolutions of the CL velocity, dynamic contact angle, and apparent contact angle are analyzed for the so-called "stick" and "slip" processes. In the two processes, the evolution of the quantities follows different rules shortly after the initial quick transition, which is probably caused by finite interfacial thickness or non-equilibrium effects. For the stick process, the CL is almost fixed and energy is extracted from the main flow to rebuild the meniscus' profile. The evolution of the meniscus is mainly governed by mass conservation. The CL is depinned after the apparent contact angle surpasses the dynamic one, which implies that the interfacial segment in the vicinity of contact line is bended. For the slip process, the quantities evolve with features of relaxation. In the microscopic scale, the velocity of the CL depends on the balance between unbalanced Young's capillary force and viscous drag. To predict the apparent contact angle evolution, a model following the dynamics of an overdamped spring-mass system is proposed. Our results also show that the capillary flows in a channel with heterogeneous wall can be described generally with the Poiseuille flow superimposed by the above transient one.

  12. Energy consumption of auxiliary systems of electric cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evtimov Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the power demand of the auxiliary systems of electric cars. On the basis of existing electric cars an analysis of energy consumption of different auxiliary systems is done. As a result possibilities for rational use of these systems have been proposed, which can increase the mileage per one charge of the battery.

  13. 14 CFR 25.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 25.1142... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for starting...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 23.1142... Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the... power unit. [Doc. No. 26344, 58 FR 18974, Apr. 9, 1993] ...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1142 - Auxiliary power unit controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary power unit controls. 29.1142... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 29.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. Means must be provided on the flight deck for starting...

  16. Optimization of feed water control for auxiliary boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lingmao

    2004-01-01

    This paper described the feed water control system of the auxiliary boiler steam drum in Qinshan Phase III Nuclear Power Plant, analyzed the deficiency of the original configuration, and proposed the optimized configuration. The optimized feed water control system can ensure the stable and safe operation of the auxiliary boiler, and the normal operation of the users. (author)

  17. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power

  18. The Range of Gapping and the Status of Auxiliaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, A. R.

    Full verbs and auxiliaries are subject to gapping. In the simplest cases, this construction type involves apparent ellipsis within one or more clausal conjuncts under identity with the finite verb or auxiliary of a preceding conjunct. It has often been suggested that the apparent ellipsis must involve at least a verb. Some researchers see in the…

  19. Nanoparticle core stability and surface functionalization drive the mTOR signaling pathway in hepatocellular cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunova, Mariia; Prokhorov, Andriy; Jirsa, M.; Hof, Martin; Olžyńska, Agnieszka; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Kubinová, Šárka; Lunov, Oleg; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, Nov (2017), s. 1-16, č. článku 16049. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk LM2015088 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : nanoparticle core stability * surface functionalization drive * mTOR signaling pathway * hepatocellular cell lines Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) OBOR OECD: Biophysics; Physical chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  20. Development and Validation of an On-Line Water Toxicity Sensor with Immobilized Luminescent Bacteria for On-Line Surface Water Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woutersen, Marjolijn; van der Gaag, Bram; Abrafi Boakye, Afua; Mink, Jan; Marks, Robert S; Wagenvoort, Arco J; Ketelaars, Henk A M; Brouwer, Bram; Heringa, Minne B

    2017-11-22

    Surface water used for drinking water production is frequently monitored in The Netherlands using whole organism biomonitors, with for example Daphnia magna or Dreissena mussels, which respond to changes in the water quality. However, not all human-relevant toxic compounds can be detected by these biomonitors. Therefore, a new on-line biosensor has been developed, containing immobilized genetically modified bacteria, which respond to genotoxicity in the water by emitting luminescence. The performance of this sensor was tested under laboratory conditions, as well as under field conditions at a monitoring station along the river Meuse in The Netherlands. The sensor was robust and easy to clean, with inert materials, temperature control and nutrient feed for the reporter organisms. The bacteria were immobilized in sol-gel on either an optical fiber or a glass slide and then continuously exposed to water. Since the glass slide was more sensitive and robust, only this setup was used in the field. The sensor responded to spikes of genotoxic compounds in the water with a minimal detectable concentration of 0.01 mg/L mitomycin C in the laboratory and 0.1 mg/L mitomycin C in the field. With further optimization, which should include a reduction in daily maintenance, the sensor has the potential to become a useful addition to the currently available biomonitors.

  1. Development and Validation of an On-Line Water Toxicity Sensor with Immobilized Luminescent Bacteria for On-Line Surface Water Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolijn Woutersen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface water used for drinking water production is frequently monitored in The Netherlands using whole organism biomonitors, with for example Daphnia magna or Dreissena mussels, which respond to changes in the water quality. However, not all human-relevant toxic compounds can be detected by these biomonitors. Therefore, a new on-line biosensor has been developed, containing immobilized genetically modified bacteria, which respond to genotoxicity in the water by emitting luminescence. The performance of this sensor was tested under laboratory conditions, as well as under field conditions at a monitoring station along the river Meuse in The Netherlands. The sensor was robust and easy to clean, with inert materials, temperature control and nutrient feed for the reporter organisms. The bacteria were immobilized in sol-gel on either an optical fiber or a glass slide and then continuously exposed to water. Since the glass slide was more sensitive and robust, only this setup was used in the field. The sensor responded to spikes of genotoxic compounds in the water with a minimal detectable concentration of 0.01 mg/L mitomycin C in the laboratory and 0.1 mg/L mitomycin C in the field. With further optimization, which should include a reduction in daily maintenance, the sensor has the potential to become a useful addition to the currently available biomonitors.

  2. The surface energy, thermal vibrations of dislocation lines and the critical crack extension force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Chien.

    1979-09-01

    The connections between atomic structure and mechanical properties of metals are interested by many physicist and mechanists recently. The authors of this paper try to connect the fracture of materials with the surface energy and dislocation properties, which may be treated with lattice dynamics and electron theory of solids. It shows that to combine the knowledge of solid state physics and fracture mechanics is quite important. (author)

  3. Three dimensional mathematical modeling of violin plate surfaces: An approach based on an ensemble of contour lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantadosi, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to describing the three dimensional shape of a violin plate in mathematical form. The shape description begins with standard contour lines and ends with an equation for a surface in three dimensional space. The traditional specification of cross sectional arching is unnecessary. Advantages of this approach are that it employs simple and universal description of plate geometry and yields a complete, smoothed, precise mathematical equation of the plate that is suitable for modern three dimensional production. It is quite general and suitable for both exterior and interior plate surfaces, yielding the ability to control thicknesses along with shape. This method can produce mathematical descriptions with tolerances easily less than 0.001 millimeters suitable for modern computerized numerical control carving and hand finishing.

  4. Possible stibnite transformation at the friction surface of the semi-metallic friction composites designed for car brake linings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matějka, V.; Lu, Y.; Matějková, P.; Smetana, B.; Kukutschová, J.; Vaculík, M.; Tomášek, V.; Zlá, S.; Fan, Y.

    2011-12-01

    After a friction process several changes in phase composition of friction composites are often registered. High temperature, accompanied by high pressure induced during braking can cause initiation of chemical reactions which do not run at room or elevated temperatures under the atmospheric pressure. Most of the studies in the field of tribochemistry at friction surfaces of automotive semi-metallic brake linings deal with phenolic resin degradation and corrosion of metallic components. The paper addresses the formation of elemental antimony as well as the alloying process of iron with antimony observed on the surface of laboratory prepared semi-metallic friction composites containing stibnite. The role of alumina abrasives in the process of stibnite transformation is also discussed and mechanism of stibnite transformation was outlined.

  5. Charge and current transport in open field lines turbulence: Influence of plasma-surface boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futtersack, R., E-mail: romain.futtersack@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse, LAPLACE, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Hagelaar, G. [Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse, LAPLACE, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Ghendrih, Ph.; Simonin, A. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2013-07-15

    We investigate the impact of both parallel and transverse boundary conditions on the current and charge transport in open field line systems using the TOKAM2D code, which solves a minimal model for interchange turbulence. Various limit test cases are discussed and analyzed. In the parallel direction, the sheath conductivity is found to play an essential role in the stabilization of large-scale potential structures, leading to the formation of transport channel or transport barrier respectively for an insulating end wall or a wall with an enhanced sheath conductivity. On another hand, the addition of transverse boundary conditions intrinsically changes the transport characteristics, influencing both radial profiles and probability density functions. It underlines that in some cases a detailed description of the plasma-wall interaction process is required to get a proper description of the current loop pattern that determines electrostatic turbulent transport.

  6. Analysis of design of auxiliary system of Booshehr Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseh Hasanzadeh, M.

    1999-01-01

    Power plant's internal auxiliary system has an important role in its safety operation. Because of the decay heat and safety aspects in the nuclear power plants, this role is more important. In this thesis, operation of the nuclear power plant with PWR reactor is studied and deferent nuclear systems described. In the next section all electrical loads in the Booshehr Nuclear Power Plant identified and feeding methods of each load is determined. by use of the single line diagram of the internal auxiliary system, the nominal rating of all electrical devices as transformers, inverters, Ups, diesel generators and etc. is determined. In the following, short circuit calculations performed and by above conclusion, rating values of circuit breakers is determined. At last the starting problems of electrical motors is studied and the results of motor's behavior at starting moment is discussed

  7. Surface and 3D Quantum Hall Effects from Engineering of Exceptional Points in Nodal-Line Semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Rafael A.; González, José

    2018-04-01

    We show that, under a strong magnetic field, a 3D nodal-line semimetal is driven into a topological insulating phase in which the electronic transport takes place at the surface of the material. When the magnetic field is perpendicular to the nodal ring, the surface states of the semimetal are transmuted into Landau states which correspond to exceptional points, i.e., branch points in the spectrum of a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian which arise upon the extension to complex values of the momentum. The complex structure of the spectrum then allows us to express the number of zero-energy flat bands in terms of a new topological invariant counting the number of exceptional points. When the magnetic field is parallel to the nodal ring, we find that the bulk states are built from the pairing of surfacelike evanescent waves, giving rise to a 3D quantum Hall effect with a flat level of Landau states residing in parallel 2D slices of the 3D material. The Hall conductance is quantized in either case in units of e2/h , leading in the 3D Hall effect to a number of channels growing linearly with the section of the surface and opening the possibility to observe a macroscopic chiral current at the surface of the material.

  8. Cell surface area and membrane folding in glioblastoma cell lines differing in PTEN and p53 status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Memmel

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is characterized by rapid growth, invasion and resistance to chemo-/radiotherapy. The complex cell surface morphology with abundant membrane folds, microvilli, filopodia and other membrane extensions is believed to contribute to the highly invasive behavior and therapy resistance of GBM cells. The present study addresses the mechanisms leading to the excessive cell membrane area in five GBM lines differing in mutational status for PTEN and p53. In addition to scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the membrane area and folding were quantified by dielectric measurements of membrane capacitance using the single-cell electrorotation (ROT technique. The osmotic stability and volume regulation of GBM cells were analyzed by video microscopy. The expression of PTEN, p53, mTOR and several other marker proteins involved in cell growth and membrane synthesis were examined by Western blotting. The combined SEM, ROT and osmotic data provided independent lines of evidence for a large variability in membrane area and folding among tested GBM lines. Thus, DK-MG cells (wild type p53 and wild type PTEN exhibited the lowest degree of membrane folding, probed by the area-specific capacitance C m = 1.9 µF/cm(2. In contrast, cell lines carrying mutations in both p53 and PTEN (U373-MG and SNB19 showed the highest C m values of 3.7-4.0 µF/cm(2, which corroborate well with their heavily villated cell surface revealed by SEM. Since PTEN and p53 are well-known inhibitors of mTOR, the increased membrane area/folding in mutant GBM lines may be related to the enhanced protein and lipid synthesis due to a deregulation of the mTOR-dependent downstream signaling pathway. Given that membrane folds and extensions are implicated in tumor cell motility and metastasis, the dielectric approach presented here provides a rapid and simple tool for screening the biophysical cell properties in studies on targeting chemo- or radiotherapeutically the

  9. Reliability of supply of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage in substations extra high voltage to high voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Dragoslav M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Switchgear for auxiliary low voltage in substations (SS of extra high voltages (EHV to high voltage (HV - SS EHV/HV kV/kV is of special interest for the functioning of these important SS, as it provides a supply for system of protection and other vital functions of SS. The article addresses several characteristic examples involving MV lines with varying degrees of independence of their supply, and the possible application of direct transformation EHV/LV through special voltage transformers. Auxiliary sources such as inverters and diesel generators, which have limited power and expensive energy, are also used for the supply of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage. Corresponding reliability indices are calculated for all examples including mean expected annual engagement of diesel generators. The applicability of certain solutions of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage SS EHV/HV, taking into account their reliability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness is analyzed too. In particular, the analysis of applications of direct transformation EHV/LV for supply of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage, for both new and existing SS EHV/HV.

  10. Radiation Response of Cancer Stem-Like Cells From Established Human Cell Lines After Sorting for Surface Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Assar, Osama; Muschel, Ruth J.; Mantoni, Tine S.; McKenna, W. Gillies; Brunner, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: A subpopulation of cancer stem-like cells (CSLC) is hypothesized to exist in different cancer cell lines and to mediate radioresistance in solid tumors. Methods and Materials: Cells were stained for CSLC markers and sorted (fluorescence-activated cell sorter/magnetic beads) to compare foci and radiosensitivity of phosphorylated histone H2AX at Ser 139 (γ-H2AX) in sorted vs. unsorted populations in eight cell lines from different organs. CSLC properties were examined using anchorage-independent growth and levels of activated Notch1. Validation consisted of testing tumorigenicity and postirradiation enrichment of CSLC in xenograft tumors. Results: The quantity of CSLC was generally in good agreement with primary tumors. CSLC from MDA-MB-231 (breast) and Panc-1 and PSN-1 (both pancreatic) cells had fewer residual γ-H2AX foci than unsorted cells, pointing to radioresistance of CSLC. However, only MDA-MB-231 CSLC were more radioresistant than unsorted cells. Furthermore, MDA-MB-231 CSLC showed enhanced anchorage-independent growth and overexpression of activated Notch1 protein. The expression of cancer stem cell surface markers in the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model was increased after exposure to fractionated radiation. In contrast to PSN-1 cells, a growth advantage for MDA-MB-231 CSLC xenograft tumors was found compared to tumors arising from unsorted cells. Conclusions: CSLC subpopulations showed no general radioresistant phenotype, despite the quantities of CSLC subpopulations shown to correspond relatively well in other reports. Likewise, CSLC characteristics were found in some but not all of the tested cell lines. The reported problems in testing for CSLC in cell lines may be overcome by additional techniques, beyond sorting for markers.

  11. Plasmodium falciparum parasites expressing pregnancy-specific variant surface antigens adhere strongly to the choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Rikke N; Megnekou, Rosette; Lundquist, Maja

    2006-01-01

    Placenta-sequestering Plasmodium falciparum parasites causing pregnancy-associated malaria express pregnancy-specific variant surface antigens (VSA(PAM)). We report here that VSA(PAM)-expressing patient isolates adhere strongly to the choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo and that the BeWo line can...... be used to efficiently select for VSA(PAM) expression in vitro....

  12. SOLAR CYCLE VARIABILITY AND SURFACE DIFFERENTIAL ROTATION FROM Ca II K-LINE TIME SERIES DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Worden, Simon P. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, 94035 (United States); Keil, Stephen L. [National Solar Observatory, P.O. Box 57, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Analysis of over 36 yr of time series data from the NSO/AFRL/Sac Peak K-line monitoring program elucidates 5 components of the variation of the 7 measured chromospheric parameters: (a) the solar cycle (period {approx} 11 yr), (b) quasi-periodic variations (periods {approx} 100 days), (c) a broadband stochastic process (wide range of periods), (d) rotational modulation, and (e) random observational errors, independent of (a)-(d). Correlation and power spectrum analyses elucidate periodic and aperiodic variation of these parameters. Time-frequency analysis illuminates periodic and quasi-periodic signals, details of frequency modulation due to differential rotation, and in particular elucidates the rather complex harmonic structure (a) and (b) at timescales in the range {approx}0.1-10 yr. These results using only full-disk data suggest that similar analyses will be useful for detecting and characterizing differential rotation in stars from stellar light curves such as those being produced by NASA's Kepler observatory. Component (c) consists of variations over a range of timescales, in the manner of a 1/f random process with a power-law slope index that varies in a systematic way. A time-dependent Wilson-Bappu effect appears to be present in the solar cycle variations (a), but not in the more rapid variations of the stochastic process (c). Component (d) characterizes differential rotation of the active regions. Component (e) is of course not characteristic of solar variability, but the fact that the observational errors are quite small greatly facilitates the analysis of the other components. The data analyzed in this paper can be found at the National Solar Observatory Web site http://nsosp.nso.edu/cak{sub m}on/, or by file transfer protocol at ftp://ftp.nso.edu/idl/cak.parameters.

  13. Sea water take-up facility for cooling reactor auxiliary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numata, Noriko; Mizutani, Akira; Hirako, Shizuka; Uchiyama, Yuichi; Oda, Atsushi.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an improvement of a cooling sea water take-up facility for cooling auxiliary equipments of nuclear power plant. Namely, an existent sea water take-up facility for cooling reactor auxiliary equipments has at least two circulation water systems and three independent sea water systems for cooling reactor auxiliary equipments. In this case, a communication water channel is disposed, which connects the three independent sea water systems for cooling reactor auxiliary equipments mutually by an opening/closing operation of a flow channel partitioning device. With such a constitution, even when any combination of two systems among the three circulation water systems is in inspection at the same time, one system for cooling the reactor auxiliary equipments can be kept operated, and one system is kept in a stand-by state by the communication water channel upon periodical inspection of water take-up facility for cooling the auxiliary equipments. As a result, the sea water take-up facility for cooling auxiliary equipments of the present invention have operation efficiency higher than that of a conventional case while keeping the function and safety at the same level as in the conventional case. (I.S.)

  14. Aging assessment of auxiliary feedwater pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstreet, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    ORNL is conducting aging assessments of auxiliary feedwater pumps to provide recommendations for monitoring and assessing the severity of time-dependent degradation as well as to recommend maintenance and replacement practices. Cornerstones of these activities are the identification of failure modes and causes and ranking of causes. Failure modes and causes of interest are those due to aging and service wear. Design details, functional requirements, and operating experience data were used to identify failure modes and causes and to rank the latter. Based on this input, potentially useful inspection, surveillance, and condition monitoring methods that are currently available for use or in the developmental stage were examined and recommendations made. The methods selected are listed and discussed in terms of use and information to be obtained. Relationships between inspection, surveillance, and monitoring and maintenance practices entered prominently into maintenance recommendations. These recommendations, therefore, embrace predictive as well as corrective and preventative maintenance practices. The recommendations are described, inspection details are discussed, and periodic inspection and maintenance interval guidelines are given. Surveillance testing at low-flow conditions is also discussed. It is shown that this type of testing can lead to accelerated aging

  15. Two-dimensional analysis of metabolically and cell surface radiolabeled proteins of some human lymphoid and myeloid leukemia cell lines. II. Glycosylated and phosphorylated proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chorvath, B; Duraj, J; Sedlak, J; Pleskova, I

    1986-01-01

    Cell surface glycoproteins, radiolabelled by the sodium metaperiodate/tritiated borohydride technique, and cell phosphoproteins, metabolically radiolabelled with /sup 32/P-orthophosphate were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis in some myeloid and lymphoid leukemia cell lines. Some markedly expressed major glycoproteins were predominant in some of the cell lines (such as 95k and 100k glycoproteins with marked charge heterogeneity in non-T, non-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines NALM 6 and NALM 16), but markedly quantitatively reduced in other examined cell lines, such as lymphoblastoid cell line UHKT 34/2. /sup 32/P-orthophosphate radiolabelled phosphoprotein two-dimensional patterns of the examined lymphoid leukemia cell lines were essentially similar, with some minor differences, in examined lymphoid and myeloid leukemia cell lines, such as marked expression of a series of large phosphoproteins in the molecular weight range 80-100k in lymphoid cell lines and almost complete absence of these phosphoproteins on the examined myeloid leukemia cell lines. Another configuration of acidic phosphoproteins (30-35k) exhibited individual cell line variability and differences between both individual myeloid leukemia cell lines and between the lymphoid and myeloid cell lines examined. (author) 2 figs., 15 refs.

  16. [Screening serum response special antibodies of U251 cell line from surface display phage antibody library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Tan, De-Yong; Qian, Wei; Lai, Jian-Hua; Sun, Gui-Lin

    2004-05-01

    U251 cell is a sensitive cell line to serum, which stops at G0 phase of cell cycle in no-serum medium, and recovers growth when the serum is added into no-serum medium. The cell can express corresponding proteins in different phase of cell cycle. Therefore it is very signification for the study of cell cycle regulation mechanism that explores these proteins. In this paper, the mouse antibody phage display library was added into the bottle in which the serum starvation U251 cells had been cultured, and the special antibody phages were absorbed. Then the absorbed antibody phages were amplified by adding E. coli TG1 and helper phage M13K07. Amplified antibody phages were added into bottle in which the serum cultured cell after serum starvation (follow named as serum recovered cells) were incubated, so that the cell absorbed the no-special antibody phages for the serum starvation cell and the special antibody phages were in supernatant. The remaining no-special antibody phages in the supernatant were discarded by repeating above program 3-4 times. The pure special antibody phages were gotten, and amplified by adding the host cell E. coli TG1 and helper phage M13K07. Then the host bacterium infected special antibody phage was spread on the plate medium with ampicillin, and the monoclonal antibody phages were gotten. Using same as above program, the monoclonal antibody phages absorbed specially for serum recovered U251 cells were obtained when the serum recovered cells instead of serum starvation cells and serum starvation cells instead of serum recovered cells. In this study, ninety-six positive monoclonal antibody phages that absorbed specially the serum starvation cells and eighty-two positive monoclonal antibody phages that absorbed specially the serum recovered cells were obtained. By using cell immunochemistry assay, two special signification antibodies were obtained. one (No.11) was the strong response in serum starvation cells, the other (No.2) was the strong

  17. Ionizing radiation modulates the surface expression of human leukocyte antigen-G in a human melanoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelin, S.; Gallegos, C.E.; Dubner, D. [Radiopathology Laboratory, Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Favier, B.; Carosella, E.D. [CEA, I2BM, Hopital Saint-Louis, IUH, Service de Recherches en Hemato-Immunologie, Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) is a nonclassical HLA class I molecule involved in fetus protection from the maternal immune system, transplant tolerance, and viral and tumoral immune escape. Tumor-specific HLA-G expression has been described for a wide variety of malignancies, including melanomas. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ionizing radiation (IR) could modulate the surface expression of HLA-G1 in a human melanoma cell line that expresses endogenously membrane-bound HLA-G1. For this purpose, cells were exposed to increasing doses of {gamma}-irradiation (0-20 Gy) and HLA-G1 levels at the plasma membrane were analyzed at different times postirradiation by flow cytometry. HLA-G total expression and the presence of the soluble form of HLA-G1 (sHLA-G1) in the culture medium of irradiated cells were also evaluated. IR was capable of down regulating cell surface and total HLA-G levels, with a concomitant increase of sHLA-G1 in the medium. These results could indicate that {gamma}-irradiation decreases HLA-G1 surface levels by enhancing the proteolytic cleavage of this molecule. (authors)

  18. Ionizing radiation modulates the surface expression of human leukocyte antigen-G in a human melanoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelin, S.; Gallegos, C.E.; Dubner, D.; Favier, B.; Carosella, E.D.

    2009-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) is a nonclassical HLA class I molecule involved in fetus protection from the maternal immune system, transplant tolerance, and viral and tumoral immune escape. Tumor-specific HLA-G expression has been described for a wide variety of malignancies, including melanomas. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ionizing radiation (IR) could modulate the surface expression of HLA-G1 in a human melanoma cell line that expresses endogenously membrane-bound HLA-G1. For this purpose, cells were exposed to increasing doses of γ-irradiation (0-20 Gy) and HLA-G1 levels at the plasma membrane were analyzed at different times postirradiation by flow cytometry. HLA-G total expression and the presence of the soluble form of HLA-G1 (sHLA-G1) in the culture medium of irradiated cells were also evaluated. IR was capable of down regulating cell surface and total HLA-G levels, with a concomitant increase of sHLA-G1 in the medium. These results could indicate that γ-irradiation decreases HLA-G1 surface levels by enhancing the proteolytic cleavage of this molecule. (authors)

  19. Multiplex flow cytometry barcoding and antibody arrays identify surface antigen profiles of primary and metastatic colon cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sukhdeo

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is a deadly disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Current treatment challenges include management of disease burden as well as improvements in detection and targeting of tumor cells. To identify disease state-specific surface antigen signatures, we combined fluorescent cell barcoding with high-throughput flow cytometric profiling of primary and metastatic colon cancer lines (SW480, SW620, and HCT116. Our multiplexed technique offers improvements over conventional methods by permitting the simultaneous and rapid screening of cancer cells with reduced effort and cost. The method uses a protein-level analysis with commercially available antibodies on live cells with intact epitopes to detect potential tumor-specific targets that can be further investigated for their clinical utility. Multiplexed antibody arrays can easily be applied to other tumor types or pathologies for discovery-based approaches to target identification.

  20. Radiological conditions and experiences in the TMI-2 Auxiliary Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, P.E.; Zurliene, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    Although the radiological conditions following the TMI-2 accident were extraordinary, those that had a potential impact on personnel were largely confined to the Auxiliary and Fuel Handling Building. The most significant pathway was the Letdown and Make-Up and Purification System. Dose rates in some locations in the Aux/Fuel Handling Buildings were in excess of 3 mSv/s (1000 R/h) during the first few days following the accident. They decreased after three to four days and stabilized after about one week. Airborne radioactivity levels were initially due to the release of noble gases, and subsequently due to resuspension of surface contamination. During the first month, the mixture of fission products in the reactor coolant change from one of largely cesium to where the strontium and cesium were about equal in radiological importance. This created some very high beta radiation levels. The significant strontium levels caused the contamination control limit to be reduced to one-half of the pre-accident limit. 5 refs., 6 figs

  1. Ion engine auxiliary propulsion applications and integration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafran, S. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The benefits derived from application of the 8-cm mercury electron bombardment ion thruster were assessed. Two specific spacecraft missions were studied. A thruster was tested to provide additional needed information on its efflux characteristics and interactive effects. A Users Manual was then prepared describing how to integrate the thruster for auxiliary propulsion on geosynchronous satellites. By incorporating ion engines on an advanced communications mission, the weight available for added payload increases by about 82 kg (181 lb) for a 100 kg (2200 lb) satellite which otherwise uses electrothermal hydrazine. Ion engines can be integrated into a high performance propulsion module that is compatible with the multimission modular spacecraft and can be used for both geosynchronous and low earth orbit applications. The low disturbance torques introduced by the ion engines permit accurate spacecraft pointing with the payload in operation during thrusting periods. The feasibility of using the thruster's neutralizer assembly for neutralization of differentially charged spacecraft surfaces at geosynchronous altitude was demonstrated during the testing program.

  2. 46 CFR 182.620 - Auxiliary means of steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.620 Auxiliary means of steering. (a) Except as... personnel hazards during normal or heavy weather operation. (b) A suitable hand tiller may be acceptable as...

  3. Effects of Auxiliary-Source Connection in Multichip Power Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Wang, Xiongfei

    2017-01-01

    the power loop and the gate loop like how the Kelvin-source connection does, owing to their involvement in the loop of the power source current. Three effects of the auxiliary-source connections are then analyzed, which are 1) the common source stray inductance reduction, 2) the transient drain......Auxiliary-source bond wires and connections are widely used in power modules with paralleled MOSFETs or IGBTs. This paper investigates the operation mechanism of the auxiliary-source connections in multichip power modules. It reveals that the auxiliary-source connections cannot fully decouple......-source current imbalance mitigation, and 3) the influence on the steady-state current distribution. Lastly, simulations and experimental results validate the theoretical analysis....

  4. New set of auxiliary fields for supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Rivelles, V. de.

    1983-02-01

    A brief introduction on supersymmetry is given. The problems with the obtainment of the auxiliary fields in supergravity theories are discussed, after a short presentation of the supersymmetry algebra representations. (L.C.) [pt

  5. The installation of helium auxiliary systems in HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Zhenya; Fu Xiaodong

    1993-01-01

    The inert gas Helium was chosen as reactor coolant in high temperature gas coolant reactor, therefore a set of Special and uncomplex helium auxiliary systems will be installed, the safe operation of HTR-10 can be safeguarded. It does not effect the inherent safety of HTR-10 MW if any one of all those systems were damaged during operation condition. This article introduces the design function and the system principle of all helium auxiliary systems to be installed in HTR-10. Those systems include: helium purification and its regeneration system, helium supply and storage system, pressure control and release system of primary system, dump system for helium auxiliary system and fuel handling, gaseous waste storage system, water extraction system for helium auxiliary systems and evacuation system for primary system

  6. Auxiliary fields for super Yang-Mills from division algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Jonathan M.

    1994-01-01

    Division algebras are used to explain the existence and symmetries of various sets of auxiliary fields for super Yang-Mills in dimensions d=3,4,6,10. (Contribution to G\\"ursey Memorial Conference I: Strings and Symmetries)

  7. Parallel Auxiliary Space AMG Solver for $H(div)$ Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolev, Tzanio V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-12-18

    We present a family of scalable preconditioners for matrices arising in the discretization of $H(div)$ problems using the lowest order Raviart--Thomas finite elements. Our approach belongs to the class of “auxiliary space''--based methods and requires only the finite element stiffness matrix plus some minimal additional discretization information about the topology and orientation of mesh entities. Also, we provide a detailed algebraic description of the theory, parallel implementation, and different variants of this parallel auxiliary space divergence solver (ADS) and discuss its relations to the Hiptmair--Xu (HX) auxiliary space decomposition of $H(div)$ [SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 45 (2007), pp. 2483--2509] and to the auxiliary space Maxwell solver AMS [J. Comput. Math., 27 (2009), pp. 604--623]. Finally, an extensive set of numerical experiments demonstrates the robustness and scalability of our implementation on large-scale $H(div)$ problems with large jumps in the material coefficients.

  8. Progress on radio frequency auxiliary heating system designs in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowski, M.; Bosia, G.; Elio, F.

    1996-09-01

    ITER will require over 100 MW of auxiliary power for heating, on- and off-axis current drive, accessing the H-mode, and plasma shut-down. The Electron Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ECRF) and Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) are two forms of Radio Frequency (RF) auxiliary power being developed for these applications. Design concepts for both the ECRF and ICRF systems are presented, key features and critical design issues are discussed, and projected performances outlined

  9. An auxiliary differential equation FDTD method for anisotropic magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shaobin; Mo Jinjun; Yuan Naichang

    2004-01-01

    An auxiliary differential equation finite-difference time-domain (ADE-FDTD) methodology for anisotropic magnetized plasmas is derived. The method is based on a difference approximation of the auxiliary differential equation. A comparison with the JEC method is included. The CPU time saving by several times and accuracy of the method are confirmed by computing the reflection and transmission through a magnetized plasma layer with the direction of propagation parallel to the direction of the biasing field

  10. Operating experiences and degradation detection for auxiliary feedwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.; Farmer, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    A study of Pressurized Water Reactor Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) Systems has been conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the auspices of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. The results of the study are documented in NUREG/CR-5404, Vol. 1, Auxiliary Feedwater System Aging Study. The study reviewed historical failure experience and current monitoring practices for the AFW System. This paper provides an overview of the study approach and results

  11. Dynamic and steady state performance comparison of line-start permanent magnet synchronous motors with interior and surface rotor magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbuka Cosmas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive comparison of the dynamic and steady state performance characteristics of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM with interior and surface rotor magnets for line-start operation is presented. The dynamic model equations of the PMSM, with damper windings, are utilized for dynamic studies. Two typical loading scenarios are examined: step and ramp loading. The interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM showed superior asynchronous performance under no load, attaining faster synchronism compared to the surface permanent magnet synchronous motor (SPMSM. With step load of 10 Nm at 2 s the combined effect of the excitation and the reluctance torque forced the IPMSM to pull into synchronism faster than the SPMSM which lacks saliency. The ability of the motors to withstand gradual load increase, in the synchronous mode, was examined using ramp loading starting from zero at 2 s. SPMSM lost synchronism at 12 s under 11 Nm load while the IPMSM sustained synchronism until 41 seconds under 40 Nm load. This clearly suggests that the IPMSM has superior load-withstand capability. The superiority is further buttressed with the steady state torque analysis where airgap torque in IPMSM is enhanced by the reluctance torque within 90° to 180° torque angle.

  12. Experimental study on magnetically insulated transmission line electrode surface evolution process under MA/cm current density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, PengFei; Qiu, Aici [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulse Radiation of Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Hu, Yang; Yang, HaiLiang; Sun, Jiang; Wang, Liangping; Cong, Peitian [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulse Radiation of Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The design of high-current density magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) is a difficult problem of current large-scale Z-pinch device. In particular, a thorough understanding of the MITL electrode surface evolution process under high current density is lacking. On the “QiangGuang-I” accelerator, the load area possesses a low inductance short-circuit structure with a diameter of 2.85 mm at the cathode, and three reflux columns with a diameter of 3 mm and uniformly distributed circumference at the anode. The length of the high density MITL area is 20 mm. A laser interferometer is used to assess and analyze the state of the MITL cathode and anode gap, and their evolution process under high current density. Experimental results indicate that evident current loss is not observed in the current density area at pulse leading edge, and peak when the surface current density reaches MA/cm. Analysis on electrode surface working conditions indicates that when the current leading edge is at 71.5% of the peak, the total evaporation of MITL cathode structure can be realized by energy deposition caused by ohmic heating. The electrode state changes, and diffusion conditions are reflected in the laser interferometer image. The MITL cathode area mainly exists in metal vapor form. The metal vapor density in the cathode central region is higher than the upper limit of laser penetration density (∼4 × 10{sup 21}/cm{sup 3}), with an expansion velocity of ∼0.96 km/s. The metal vapor density in the electrode outer area may lead to evident distortion of fringes, and its expansion velocity is faster than that in the center area (1.53 km/s).

  13. 46 CFR 58.25-10 - Main and auxiliary steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main and auxiliary steering gear. 58.25-10 Section 58.25... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-10 Main and auxiliary steering gear. (a) Power-operated main and auxiliary steering gear must be separate systems that are independent throughout their...

  14. X-Ray Fluorescence Determination of the Surface Density of Chromium Nanolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashin, N. I.; Chernjaeva, E. A.; Tumanova, A. N.; Ershov, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    An auxiliary system consisting of thin-film layers of chromium deposited on a polymer film substrate is used to construct calibration curves for the relative intensities of the K α lines of chromium on bulk substrates of different elements as functions of the chromium surface density in the reference samples. Correction coefficients are calculated to take into account the absorption of primary radiation from an x-ray tube and analytical lines of the constituent elements of the substrate. A method is developed for determining the surface density of thin films of chromium when test and calibration samples are deposited on substrates of different materials.

  15. Manufacture and installation of reactor auxiliary facilities for advanced thermal prototype reactor 'Fugen'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Toshio; Matsushita, Tadashi

    1977-01-01

    The facilities of reactor auxiliary systems for the advanced thermal prtotype reactor ''Fugen'' were manufactured in factories since 1972, and the installation at the site began in November, 1974. It was almost completed in March, 1977, except a part of the tests and inspections, therefore the outline of the works is reported. The ATR ''Fugen'' is a heavy water-moderated, boiling light water reactor, and its reactor auxiliary systems comprise mainly the facilities for handling heavy water, such as heavy water cooling system, heavy water cleaning system, poison supplying system, helium circulating system, helium cleaning system, and carbon dioxide system. The poison supplying system supplies liquid poison to the heavy water cooling system to absorb excess reactivity in the initial reactor core. The helium circulating system covers heavy water surface with helium to prevent the deterioration of heavy water and maintains heavy water level by pressure difference. The carbon dioxide system flows highly pure CO 2 gas in the space of pressure tubes and carandria tubes, and provides thermal shielding. The design, manufacture and installation of the facilities of reactor auxiliary systems, and the helium leak test, synthetic pressure test and total cleaning are explained. (Kako, I.)

  16. VLTI First Fringes with Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    -infrared science instrument MIDI. Fringes on the star Alphard (Alpha Hydrae) were acquired on February 7 at 4:05 local time. For Roberto Gilmozzi, Director of ESO's La Silla Paranal Observatory, "this is a very important new milestone. The introduction of the Auxiliary Telescopes in the development of the VLT Interferometer will bring interferometry out of the specialist experiment and into the domain of common user instrumentation for every astronomer in Europe. Without doubt, it will enormously increase the potentiality of the VLTI." With two more telescopes to be delivered within a year to the Paranal Observatory, ESO cements its position as world-leader in ground-based optical astronomy, providing Europe's scientists with the tools they need to stay at the forefront in this exciting science. The VLT Interferometer will, for example, allow astronomers to study details on the surface of stars or to probe proto-planetary discs and other objects for which ultra-high precision imaging is required. It is premature to speculate on what the Very Large Telescope Interferometer will soon discover, but it is easy to imagine that there may be quite some surprises in store for all of us.

  17. Effects of cavity surface temperature on mechanical properties of specimens with and without a weld line in rapid heat cycle molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guilong; Zhao, Guoqun; Wang, Xiaoxin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Higher cavity surface temperature reduces tensile strength of non-weldline part. ► Higher cavity surface temperature increases weldline tensile strength for PS and PP. ► Higher cavity surface temperature reduces weldline tensile strength for ABS, ABS/PMMA, ABS/PMMA/nano-C a CO 3 and FRPP. ► Tensile strength is reduced more by the weldline than impact strength. ► FRPP has the lowest weld line factor than other plastics without reinforced fibers. - Abstract: Rapid heat cycle molding (RHCM) is a recently developed injection molding technology to enhance surface esthetic of the parts. By rapid heating and cooling of mold cavity surfaces in molding process, it can greatly alleviate or even eliminate the surface defects such as flow mark, weld line, glass fiber rich surface, silver mark, jetting mark, and swirl mark, and also improve gloss finish and dimensional accuracy without prolonging the molding cycle. Besides surface esthetic, mechanical property is also a very import issue for the molded plastic part. The aim of this study is focusing on the effects of the cavity surface temperature just before filling, T cs , in RHCM on the mechanical strength of the specimen with and without weld line. Six kinds of typical plastics including polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene/polymethylmethacrylate (ABS/PMMA), ABS/PMMA/nano-C a CO 3 and glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (FRPP) are used in experiments. The specimens with and without a weld line are produced with the different T cs on the developed electric-heating RHCM system. Tensile tests and notched Izod impact tests are conducted to characterize the mechanical strength of the specimens molded with different cavity surface temperatures. Simulations, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope are implemented to explain the impact mechanism of T cs on mechanical properties

  18. Probabilistic cloning with supplementary information contained in the quantum states of two auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lvjun; Qiu, Daowen

    2007-01-01

    In probabilistic cloning with two auxiliary systems, we consider and compare three different protocols for the success probabilities of cloning. We show that, in certain circumstances, it may increase the success probability to add an auxiliary system to the probabilistic cloning machine having one auxiliary system, but we always can find another cloning machine with one auxiliary system having the same success probability as that with two auxiliary systems

  19. Chemistry and radiochemistry strategies supported by FA3-EPRTM and UK-EPRTM auxiliary systems: performances and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tigeras, Arancha; Fourment, Pierre; Elgallaf; Anas; Chupin, Antoine; Fauvel, Nicola

    2012-09-01

    The design and the operation of auxiliary systems play an essential role in: - the preservation of the primary circuit integrity, - the prevention of hydrogen risk, - the control of the boron concentration and radioactivity, - the application of pH and zinc programmes. While the source term generation mainly depends on the primary circuit material and primary coolant chemistry conditioning, the source term spreading is directly linked to the auxiliary systems treatment and performances. Indeed, the auxiliary systems regulate the boron, hydrogen, lithium and zinc injection as well as the countermeasures to ensure the reactivity control and the hazardous H 2 /O 2 mixture prevention. The main principles governing the chemistry and radiochemistry in the auxiliary systems are based on the application of: - Design features for hydrogen and boron management. - Criteria for selecting the appropriate material of each system considering the functional requirements and the source term build up reduction. - Measures for minimizing the activity deposition on the surfaces of components and pipings. - Adequate and reliable systems of purification for reducing the accumulation of liquid/gas radioactivity and impurities in the circuits and for optimizing the waste production. - Chemistry program for limiting the material corrosion of auxiliary systems and preventing the source term transfer to the core. - Appropriate sampling locations and equipment to monitor the chemistry and radiochemistry parameters. This paper describes the operation of the main auxiliary systems of FLAMANVILLE3-EPR TM and UK-EPR- TM participating in the chemistry/radiochemistry management such as Chemical and Volume Control System (CVCS), Reactor Borated Water Make-up System (RBWMS), Coolant Treatment System (CTS), Gaseous Waste Processing System (GWPS), Fuel Pool Purification System (PTR [FPPS/FPCS]) also. The performances requested to these systems and the chemistry programs applied to them are discussed

  20. Auxiliary bearing design considerations for gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penfield, S.R. Jr.; Rodwell, E.

    2001-01-01

    The need to avoid contamination of the primary system, along with other perceived advantages, has led to the selection of electromagnetic bearings (EMBs) in most ongoing commercial-scale gas cooled reactor (GCR) designs. However, one implication of magnetic bearings is the requirement to provide backup support to mitigate the effects of failures or overload conditions. The demands on these auxiliary or 'catcher' bearings have been substantially escalated by the recent development of direct Brayton cycle GCR concepts. Conversely, there has been only limited directed research in the area of auxiliary bearings, particularly for vertically oriented turbomachines. This paper explores the current state-of-the-art for auxiliary bearings and the implications for current GCR designs. (author)

  1. Electrospinning of aligned fibers with adjustable orientation using auxiliary electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arras, Matthias M L; Grasl, Christian; Schima, Heinrich; Bergmeister, Helga

    2012-01-01

    A conventional electrospinning setup was upgraded by two turnable plate-like auxiliary high-voltage electrodes that allowed aligned fiber deposition in adjustable directions. Fiber morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). The auxiliary electric field constrained the jet bending instability and the fiber deposition became controllable. At target speeds of 0.9 m s −1 90% of the fibers had aligned within 2°, whereas the angular spread was 70° without the use of auxiliary electrodes. It was even possible to orient fibers perpendicular to the rotational direction of the target. The fiber diameter became smaller and its distribution narrower, while according to the FTIR-ATR measurement the molecular orientation of the polymer was unaltered. This study comprehensively documents the feasibility of directed fiber deposition and offers an easy upgrade to existing electrospinning setups. (paper)

  2. Extensions of the auxiliary field method to solve Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre-Brac, Bernard; Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien

    2008-01-01

    It has recently been shown that the auxiliary field method is an interesting tool to compute approximate analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation. This technique can generate the spectrum associated with an arbitrary potential V(r) starting from the analytically known spectrum of a particular potential P(r). In the present work, general important properties of the auxiliary field method are proved, such as scaling laws and independence of the results on the choice of P(r). The method is extended in order to find accurate analytical energy formulae for radial potentials of the form aP(r) + V(r), and several explicit examples are studied. Connections existing between the perturbation theory and the auxiliary field method are also discussed

  3. Extensions of the auxiliary field method to solve Schroedinger equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre-Brac, Bernard [LPSC Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, Avenue des Martyrs 53, F-38026 Grenoble-Cedex (France); Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien [Groupe de Physique Nucleaire Theorique, Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Academie universitaire Wallonie-Bruxelles, Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)], E-mail: silvestre@lpsc.in2p3.fr, E-mail: claude.semay@umh.ac.be, E-mail: fabien.buisseret@umh.ac.be

    2008-10-24

    It has recently been shown that the auxiliary field method is an interesting tool to compute approximate analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation. This technique can generate the spectrum associated with an arbitrary potential V(r) starting from the analytically known spectrum of a particular potential P(r). In the present work, general important properties of the auxiliary field method are proved, such as scaling laws and independence of the results on the choice of P(r). The method is extended in order to find accurate analytical energy formulae for radial potentials of the form aP(r) + V(r), and several explicit examples are studied. Connections existing between the perturbation theory and the auxiliary field method are also discussed.

  4. Linearized curvatures for auxiliary fields in the de Sitter space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, M A

    1988-09-19

    New consistent linearized curvatures in the de Sitter space are constructed. The sequence of actions, describing bosonic and fermionic gauge auxiliary fields, is found based on these curvatures. The proposed actions are parametrized by two integer parameters, n greater than or equal to 0 and m greater than or equal to 0. The simplest case n=m=0 corresponds in the flat limit to the auxiliary fields of 'new minimal' supergravity. The hamiltonian formulation is developed for the auxiliary fields suggested; hamiltonians and first- and second-class constraints are constructed. Using these results, it is shown that the systems of fields proposed possess no dynamical degrees of freedom in de Sitter and flat spaces. In addition the hamiltonian formalism is analysed for some free dynamical systems based on linearized higher-spin curvatures introduced previously.

  5. High-precision drop shape analysis (HPDSA) of quasistatic contact angles on silanized silicon wafers with different surface topographies during inclining-plate measurements: Influence of the surface roughness on the contact line dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heib, F.; Hempelmann, R.; Munief, W.M.; Ingebrandt, S.; Fug, F.; Possart, W.; Groß, K.; Schmitt, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of the triple line motion on surfaces with nanoscale surface topographies. • Analysis of the triple line motion is performed in sub-pixel resolution. • A special fitting and statistical approach for contact angle analysis is applied. • The analyses result set of contact angle data which is independent of “user-skills”. • Characteristically density distributions in dependence on the surface properties. - Abstract: Contact angles and wetting of solid surfaces are strongly influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the surfaces. These influence quantities are difficult to distinguish from each other if contact angle measurements are performed by measuring only the advancing θ a and the receding θ r contact angle. In this regard, time-dependent water contact angles are measured on two hydrophobic modified silicon wafers with different physical surface topographies. The first surface is nearly atomically flat while the second surface is patterned (alternating flat and nanoscale rough patterns) which is synthesized by a photolithography and etching procedure. The different surface topographies are characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FTIRRAS) and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). The resulting set of contact angle data obtained by the high-precision drop shape analysis approach is further analyzed by a Gompertzian fitting procedure and a statistical counting procedure in dependence on the triple line velocity. The Gompertzian fit is used to analyze overall properties of the surface and dependencies between the motion on the front and the back edge of the droplets. The statistical counting procedure results in the calculation of expectation values E(p) and standard deviations σ(p) for the inclination angle φ, contact angle θ, triple line velocity vel and the covered distance of the triple line dis

  6. High-precision drop shape analysis (HPDSA) of quasistatic contact angles on silanized silicon wafers with different surface topographies during inclining-plate measurements: Influence of the surface roughness on the contact line dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heib, F., E-mail: f.heib@mx.uni-saarland.de [Department of Physical Chemistry, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Hempelmann, R. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Munief, W.M.; Ingebrandt, S. [Department of Informatics and Microsystem Technology, University of Applied Sciences, Kaiserslautern, 66482 Zweibrücken (Germany); Fug, F.; Possart, W. [Department of Adhesion and Interphases in Polymers, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Groß, K.; Schmitt, M. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of the triple line motion on surfaces with nanoscale surface topographies. • Analysis of the triple line motion is performed in sub-pixel resolution. • A special fitting and statistical approach for contact angle analysis is applied. • The analyses result set of contact angle data which is independent of “user-skills”. • Characteristically density distributions in dependence on the surface properties. - Abstract: Contact angles and wetting of solid surfaces are strongly influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the surfaces. These influence quantities are difficult to distinguish from each other if contact angle measurements are performed by measuring only the advancing θ{sub a} and the receding θ{sub r} contact angle. In this regard, time-dependent water contact angles are measured on two hydrophobic modified silicon wafers with different physical surface topographies. The first surface is nearly atomically flat while the second surface is patterned (alternating flat and nanoscale rough patterns) which is synthesized by a photolithography and etching procedure. The different surface topographies are characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FTIRRAS) and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). The resulting set of contact angle data obtained by the high-precision drop shape analysis approach is further analyzed by a Gompertzian fitting procedure and a statistical counting procedure in dependence on the triple line velocity. The Gompertzian fit is used to analyze overall properties of the surface and dependencies between the motion on the front and the back edge of the droplets. The statistical counting procedure results in the calculation of expectation values E(p) and standard deviations σ(p) for the inclination angle φ, contact angle θ, triple line velocity vel and the covered distance of the triple

  7. Improving Semi-Supervised Learning with Auxiliary Deep Generative Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Sønderby, Søren Kaae

    Deep generative models based upon continuous variational distributions parameterized by deep networks give state-of-the-art performance. In this paper we propose a framework for extending the latent representation with extra auxiliary variables in order to make the variational distribution more...... expressive for semi-supervised learning. By utilizing the stochasticity of the auxiliary variable we demonstrate how to train discriminative classifiers resulting in state-of-the-art performance within semi-supervised learning exemplified by an 0.96% error on MNIST using 100 labeled data points. Furthermore...

  8. TMI-2 auxiliary building elevator shaft and pit decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengel, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    Decontamination of the elevator pit and shaft in the auxiliary building at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) was performed to remove high radiation and contamination levels which prevented personnel from utilizing the elevator. The radiation and contamination levels in the TMI-2 auxiliary building elevator shaft have been reduced to the point where plant personnel are again permitted to ride in the elevator without a radiation work permit, with the exception of access to the 281-ft (basement) level. Based on the declassification and expanded use of the elevator, the task goal has been met. The tax expended 16.16 man-rem and 621 man-hours.

  9. Intrinsically safe electrical installations, auxiliary circuits and electric communication equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herms, C D

    1981-11-19

    Technical progress has not stopped short of electrical systems in mining, so that three new chapters are new included in the VDE regulations leaflet No. 0118 on 'Installation of electrical systems in underground coal mining'. The regulations on intrinsically safe electric systems, auxiliary circuits and communication systems are briefly described, and grounds for the regulations are presented. The regulations already take account of European regulations on intrinsic safety which will soon be published in a European Regulation on Mine Explosions. In the chapters on auxiliary circuits and communication systems, protection against direct contact, fires, and explosions is discussed as well as the further goal of reliable signal transmission.

  10. Direction of Impurity Pinch and Auxiliary Heating in Tokamak Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angioni, C.; Peeters, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    A mechanism of particle pinch for trace impurities in tokamak plasmas, arising from the effect of parallel velocity fluctuations in the presence of a turbulent electrostatic potential, is identified analytically by means of a reduced fluid model and verified numerically with a gyrokinetic code for the first time. The direction of such a pinch reverses as a function of the direction of rotation of the turbulence in agreement with the impurity pinch reversal observed in some experiments when moving from dominant auxiliary ion heating to dominant auxiliary electron heating

  11. Analysis and Measurement of NOx Emissions in Port Auxiliary Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German de Melo Rodriguez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is made NOx pollution emitted by port auxiliary vessels, specifically by harbour tugs, due to its unique operating characteristics of operation, require a large propulsion power changes discontinuously, also possess some peculiar technical characteristics, large tonnage and high propulsive power, that differentiate them from other auxiliary vessels of the port. Taking into account all the above features, there are no studies of the NOx emission engines caused by different working regimes of power because engine manufacturers have not measured these emissions across the range of operating power, but usually we only report the pollution produced by its engines to a maximum continuous power.

  12. Development and Validation of an On-Line Water Toxicity Sensor with Immobilized Luminescent Bacteria for On-Line Surface Water Monitoring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, Marjolijn; van der Gaag, Bram; Abrafi Boakye, Afua; Mink, Jan; Marks, Robert S; Wagenvoort, Arco J; Ketelaars, Henk A M; Brouwer, Bram; Heringa, Minne B

    2017-01-01

    Surface water used for drinking water production is frequently monitored in The Netherlands using whole organism biomonitors, with for exampleDaphnia magnaorDreissenamussels, which respond to changes in the water quality. However, not all human-relevant toxic compounds can be detected by these

  13. Effects of diffusion and surface interactions on the line shape of electron paramagnetic resonances in the presence of a magnetic field gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaden, M.; Zhao, K. F.; Wu, Z.

    2007-01-01

    In an evanescent wave magnetometer the Zeeman polarization is probed at micrometer to submicrometer distances from the cell surface. The electron paramagnetic resonance lines of an evanescent wave magnetometer in the presence of a magnetic field gradient exhibit edge enhancement seen previously in nuclear magnetic resonance lines. We present a theoretical model that describes quantitatively the shape of the magnetic resonance lines of an evanescent wave magnetometer under a wide range of experimental conditions. It accounts for diffusion broadening in the presence of a magnetic field gradient as well as interactions of spin polarized Rb atoms with the coated Pyrex glass surfaces. Depending on the field gradient, cell thickness, and buffer gas pressure, the resonance line may have the form of a single asymmetric peak or two peaks localized near the front and back surfaces in frequency space. The double-peaked response depends on average characteristics of the surface interactions. Its shape is sensitive to the dwell time, relaxation probability, and average phase shift of adsorbed spin polarized Rb atoms

  14. Measurements of the toroidal plasma rotation velocity in TFTR major-radius compression experiments with auxiliary neutral beam heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitter, M.; Wong, K.L.; Scott, S.; Hsuan, H.; Grek, B.; Johnson, D.; Tait, G.

    1990-01-01

    The time history of the central toroidal plasma rotation velocity in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) experiments [Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2587 (1985)] with auxiliary heating by neutral deuterium beam injection and major-radius compression has been measured from the Doppler shift of the emitted Ti XXI Kα line radiation. The experiments were conducted for neutral beam powers in the range 2.1--3.8 MW and line-averaged densities in the range 1.8--3.0x10 19 m -2 . The observed rotation velocity increase during compression is consistent with theoretical estimates

  15. Development of KALIMER auxiliary sodium and cover gas management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sang Woon; Hwang, Sung Tae

    1996-11-01

    The objectives of this report are to develop and to describe the auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management systems of KALIMER. the system includes following system: (1) Auxiliary liquid metal system (2) Inert gas receiving and processing system (3) Impurity monitoring and analysis system. Auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management system of KALIMER was developed. Functions of each systems and design basis were describes. The auxiliary liquid metal system receives, transfers, and purifies all sodium used in the plant. The system furnishes the required sodium quantity at the pressure, temperature, flow rate, and purity specified by the interfacing system. The intermediated sodium processing subsystem (ISPS) provides continuous purification of IHTS sodium, as well as performs the initial fill operation for both the IHTS and reactor vessel. The primary sodium processing subsystem provides purification (cold trapping) for sodium used in the reactor vessel. The inert gas receiving and processing (IGRP) system provides liquefied and ambient gas storage, delivers inert gases of specified composition and purity at regulated flow rates and pressures to points of usage throughout the KALIMER, and accepts the contaminated gases through its vacuum facilities for storage and transfer to the gas radwaste system. Three gases are used in the KALIMER: helium, argon, and nitrogen. 11 tabs., 12 figs. (Author)

  16. Auxiliary services for petrochemistry. Cogeneration, thermocompression, steam distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergerio, G.; Bruzzi, V.

    1999-01-01

    The article gives some guidelines for the choice of the most suitable energy vectors distributed in petrochemical plants and refineries for auxiliary services and for processes (mainly distillation). Conclusions are summed up in a diagram showing the most suitable heat sources and sinks for the various temperature ranges [it

  17. Auxiliary controller for time-to-digital converter module readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolin, Yu.V.

    1992-01-01

    The KD-225 auxiliary controller for time-to-digital converter module readout in the SUMMA crate is described. After readout and preliminary processing the data are written in the P-140 buffer memory module. The controller is used in the FODS-2 experimental setup data acquisition system. 12 refs.; 1 fig

  18. Auxiliary equation method for solving nonlinear partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirendaoreji,; Jiong, Sun

    2003-01-01

    By using the solutions of an auxiliary ordinary differential equation, a direct algebraic method is described to construct several kinds of exact travelling wave solutions for some nonlinear partial differential equations. By this method some physically important nonlinear equations are investigated and new exact travelling wave solutions are explicitly obtained with the aid of symbolic computation

  19. 76 FR 22295 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection 9 CFR Part 145 [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0031] RIN 0579-AD21 National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions Correction In rule document 2011-6539 appearing on pages 15791-15798 in the issue of Tuesday, March 22, 2011, make the...

  20. Development of KALIMER auxiliary sodium and cover gas management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sang Woon; Hwang, Sung Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    The objectives of this report are to develop and to describe the auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management systems of KALIMER. the system includes following system: (1) Auxiliary liquid metal system (2) Inert gas receiving and processing system (3) Impurity monitoring and analysis system. Auxiliary liquid metal and cover gas management system of KALIMER was developed. Functions of each systems and design basis were describes. The auxiliary liquid metal system receives, transfers, and purifies all sodium used in the plant. The system furnishes the required sodium quantity at the pressure, temperature, flow rate, and purity specified by the interfacing system. The intermediated sodium processing subsystem (ISPS) provides continuous purification of IHTS sodium, as well as performs the initial fill operation for both the IHTS and reactor vessel. The primary sodium processing subsystem provides purification (cold trapping) for sodium used in the reactor vessel. The inert gas receiving and processing (IGRP) system provides liquefied and ambient gas storage, delivers inert gases of specified composition and purity at regulated flow rates and pressures to points of usage throughout the KALIMER, and accepts the contaminated gases through its vacuum facilities for storage and transfer to the gas radwaste system. Three gases are used in the KALIMER: helium, argon, and nitrogen. 11 tabs., 12 figs. (Author).

  1. Auxiliary basis expansions for large-scale electronic structure calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yousung; Sodt, Alex; Gill, Peter M W; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2005-05-10

    One way to reduce the computational cost of electronic structure calculations is to use auxiliary basis expansions to approximate four-center integrals in terms of two- and three-center integrals, usually by using the variationally optimum Coulomb metric to determine the expansion coefficients. However, the long-range decay behavior of the auxiliary basis expansion coefficients has not been characterized. We find that this decay can be surprisingly slow. Numerical experiments on linear alkanes and a toy model both show that the decay can be as slow as 1/r in the distance between the auxiliary function and the fitted charge distribution. The Coulomb metric fitting equations also involve divergent matrix elements for extended systems treated with periodic boundary conditions. An attenuated Coulomb metric that is short-range can eliminate these oddities without substantially degrading calculated relative energies. The sparsity of the fit coefficients is assessed on simple hydrocarbon molecules and shows quite early onset of linear growth in the number of significant coefficients with system size using the attenuated Coulomb metric. Hence it is possible to design linear scaling auxiliary basis methods without additional approximations to treat large systems.

  2. Verb and auxiliary movement in agrammatic Broca's aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.; Thompson, C.K.

    Verb production in agrammatic Broca's aphasia has repeatedly been shown to be impaired by a number of investigators. Not only is the number of verbs produced often significantly reduced, but verb inflections and auxiliaries are often omitted as well (e.g., Bastiaanse, Jonkers, & Moltmaker-Osinga,

  3. PWR auxiliary systems, safety and emergency systems, accident analysis, operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    The author presents a description of PWR auxiliary systems like volume control, boric acid control, coolant purification, -degassing, -storage and -treatment system and waste processing systems. Residual heat removal systems, emergency systems and containment designs are discussed. As an accident analysis the author gives a survey over malfunctions and disturbances in the field of reactor operations. (TK) [de

  4. Estimating the spatial distribution of soil moisture based on Bayesian maximum entropy method with auxiliary data from remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shengguo; Zhu, Zhongli; Liu, Shaomin; Jin, Rui; Yang, Guangchao; Tan, Lei

    2014-10-01

    Soil moisture (SM) plays a fundamental role in the land-atmosphere exchange process. Spatial estimation based on multi in situ (network) data is a critical way to understand the spatial structure and variation of land surface soil moisture. Theoretically, integrating densely sampled auxiliary data spatially correlated with soil moisture into the procedure of spatial estimation can improve its accuracy. In this study, we present a novel approach to estimate the spatial pattern of soil moisture by using the BME method based on wireless sensor network data and auxiliary information from ASTER (Terra) land surface temperature measurements. For comparison, three traditional geostatistic methods were also applied: ordinary kriging (OK), which used the wireless sensor network data only, regression kriging (RK) and ordinary co-kriging (Co-OK) which both integrated the ASTER land surface temperature as a covariate. In Co-OK, LST was linearly contained in the estimator, in RK, estimator is expressed as the sum of the regression estimate and the kriged estimate of the spatially correlated residual, but in BME, the ASTER land surface temperature was first retrieved as soil moisture based on the linear regression, then, the t-distributed prediction interval (PI) of soil moisture was estimated and used as soft data in probability form. The results indicate that all three methods provide reasonable estimations. Co-OK, RK and BME can provide a more accurate spatial estimation by integrating the auxiliary information Compared to OK. RK and BME shows more obvious improvement compared to Co-OK, and even BME can perform slightly better than RK. The inherent issue of spatial estimation (overestimation in the range of low values and underestimation in the range of high values) can also be further improved in both RK and BME. We can conclude that integrating auxiliary data into spatial estimation can indeed improve the accuracy, BME and RK take better advantage of the auxiliary

  5. Are ghost surfaces quadratic-flux-minimizing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, S.R.; Dewar, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Two candidates for 'almost-invariant' toroidal surfaces passing through magnetic islands, namely quadratic-flux-minimizing (QFMin) surfaces and ghost surfaces, use families of periodic pseudo-orbits (i.e. paths for which the action is not exactly extremal). QFMin pseudo-orbits, which are coordinate-dependent, are field lines obtained from a modified magnetic field, and ghost-surface pseudo-orbits are obtained by displacing closed field lines in the direction of steepest descent of magnetic action, ∫A.dl. A generalized Hamiltonian definition of ghost surfaces is given and specialized to the usual Lagrangian definition. A modified Hamilton's Principle is introduced that allows the use of Lagrangian integration for calculation of the QFMin pseudo-orbits. Numerical calculations show QFMin and Lagrangian ghost surfaces give very similar results for a chaotic magnetic field perturbed from an integrable case, and this is explained using a perturbative construction of an auxiliary poloidal angle for which QFMin and Lagrangian ghost surfaces are the same up to second order. While presented in the context of 3-dimensional magnetic field line systems, the concepts are applicable to defining almost-invariant tori in other 11/2 degree-of-freedom nonintegrable Lagrangian/Hamiltonian systems.

  6. Surface radiological investigations of Trench 6 and low-level waste Line Leak Site 7.4b at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uziel, M.S.; Tiner, P.F.; Williams, J.K.

    1991-08-01

    A surface radiological investigation of Trench 6 and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) Line Leak Site 7.4b was conducted in July and August 1989 and January 1990 by the Measurement Applications and Development Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The purposes of this survey were (1) to determine the presence, nature, and extent of surface radiological contamination and (2) to recommend interim corrective action to limit human exposures to radioactivity and minimize the potential for contaminant dispersion. Highest surface gamma levels encountered during the survey (39 mR/h) were found just south of the asphalt covering LLW Line Leak Site 7.4b. Elevated surface gamma levels (measuring 28 to 560 μR/h) extended from this area to a width of 100 ft, westward 250 ft, and beyond the survey boundary. Beta-gamma levels up to 17 mrad/h measured on contact with the trunks of trees growing in the area southwest of Trench 6 suggest that three roots are reaching contamination deep within the ground. Since no gamma activity is associated with the trees or their leaves, the elevated beta levels are probably due to the uptake of residual 90 Sr originating from the documented seepage at the Trench 6/Leak Site 7.4b area. Beta activity present in the leaf litter and surface soil indicate that decaying leaves are depositing measurable contaminants on the ground surface. Recommendations for corrective actions are included. 7 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs

  7. An Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources Solution for Plane Wave Scattering by Impedance Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2004-01-01

    Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solutions for plane wave scattering by circular impedance cylinders are derived by transformation of the exact eigenfunction series solutions employing the Hankel function wave transformation. The analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution thus obtained...

  8. Minimal set of auxiliary fields and S-matrix for extended supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, E S; Vasiliev, M A [Physical Lebedev Institute - Moscow

    1979-05-19

    Minimal set of auxiliary fields for linearized SO(2) supergravity and one-parameter extension of the minimal auxiliary fields in the SO(1) supergravity are constructed. The expression for the S-matrix in SO(2) supergravity are given.

  9. The mechanism and universal scaling law of the contact line friction for the Cassie-state droplets on nanostructured ultrahydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Cheng, Jiangtao

    2018-04-05

    Besides the Wenzel state, liquid droplets on micro/nanostructured surfaces can stay in the Cassie state and consequently exhibit intriguing characteristics such as a large contact angle, small contact angle hysteresis and exceptional mobility. Here we report molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the wetting dynamics of Cassie-state water droplets on nanostructured ultrahydrophobic surfaces with an emphasis on the genesis of the contact line friction (CLF). From an ab initio perspective, CLF can be ascribed to the collective effect of solid-liquid retarding and viscous damping. Solid-liquid retarding is related to the work of adhesion, whereas viscous damping arises from the viscous force exerted on the liquid molecules within the three-phase (liquid/vapor/solid) contact zone. In this work, a universal scaling law is derived to generalize the CLF on nanostructured ultrahydrophobic surfaces. With the decreasing fraction of solid-liquid contact (i.e., the solid fraction), CLF for a Cassie-state droplet gets enhanced due to the fact that viscous damping is counter-intuitively intensified while solid-liquid retarding remains unchanged. Nevertheless, the overall friction between a Cassie-state droplet and the structured surface is indeed reduced since the air cushion formed in the interstices of the surface roughness underneath the Cassie-state droplet applies negligible resistance to the contact line. Our results have revealed the genesis of CLF from an ab initio perspective, demonstrated the effects of surface structures on a moving contact line and justified the critical role of CLF in the analysis of wetting-related situations.

  10. Frequency Characteristics of Surface Wave Generated by Single-Line Pulsed Laser Beam with Two Kinds of Spatial Energy Profile Models: Gaussian and Square-Like

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Ho Geon; Kim, Myung Hwan; Choi, Sung Ho; Kim, Chung Seok; Jhang, Kyung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Using a single-line pulsed laser beam is well known as a useful noncontact method to generate a directional surface acoustic wave. In this method, different laser beam energy profiles produce different waveforms and frequency characteristics. In this paper, we considered two typical kinds of laser beam energy profiles, Gaussian and square-like, to find out a difference in the frequency characteristics. To achieve this, mathematical models were proposed first for Gaussian laser beam profile and square-like respectively, both of which depended on the laser beam width. To verify the theoretical models, experimental setups with a cylindrical lens and a line-slit mask were respectively designed to produce a line laser beam with Gaussian spatial energy profile and square-like. The frequency responses of the theoretical models showed good agreement with experimental results in terms of the existence of harmonic frequency components and the shift of the first peak frequencies to low.

  11. 47 CFR 74.601 - Classes of TV broadcast auxiliary stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classes of TV broadcast auxiliary stations. 74... Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.601 Classes of TV broadcast auxiliary stations. (a) TV pickup stations. A land mobile station used for the transmission of TV program material and related communications...

  12. 30 CFR 57.22209 - Auxiliary fans (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). 57.22209 Section 57... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22209 Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). Electric auxiliary fans shall be approved by MSHA under the applicable requirements of 30 CFR part 18...

  13. 30 CFR 57.8534 - Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans. 57.8534... Ventilation Underground Only § 57.8534 Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans. (a) Auxiliary fans installed and... fan maintenance or fan adjustments where air quality is maintained in compliance with the applicable...

  14. Surface characterization of dialyzer polymer membranes by imaging ToF-SIMS and quantitative XPS line scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzweber, Markus; Lippitz, Andreas; Krueger, Katharina; Jankowski, Joachim; Unger, Wolfgang E S

    2015-03-24

    The surfaces of polymeric dialyzer membranes consisting of polysulfone and polyvinylpyrrolidone were investigated regarding the lateral distribution and quantitative surface composition using time-of-flight secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Knowledge of the distribution and composition on the outer surface region is of utmost importance for understanding the biocompatibility of such dialyzer membranes. Both flat membranes and hollow fiber membranes were studied.

  15. Versatile Auxiliary Orthodontic Spring for Orthodontic Correction of Impacted Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavankumar Janardan Vibhute

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malocclusion such as impacted tooth is not uncommon. Many approaches with various auxiliary springs have been reported in literature till date for correction of such malocclusions. They had biomechanical, retentive and stability drawbacks inherent in their designs. This article presents the innovative approach for orthodontic correction of impacted tooth, especially with light force appliance, i.e. Begg′s appliance, where round wires in round molar tubes are used throughout treatment. A versatile auxiliary orthodontic spring (VAOS is fabricated in the 0.018 inch Australian stainless steel round wire, which may be anchored on round molar buccal tube, and desirable force vector may be applied in any of the three dimensions. Fabrication and its clinical application are discussed.

  16. Cooling system for auxiliary systems of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerker, W.; Mueller, K.; Roller, W.

    1981-01-01

    From the reactor auxiliary and ancillary systems of a nuclear facility heat has to be removed without the hazard arising that radioactive liquids or gases may escape from the safe area of the nuclear facility. A cooling system is described allowing at every moment to make available cooling fluid at a temperature sufficiently low for heat exchangers to be able to remove the heat from such auxiliary systems without needing fresh water supply or water reservoirs. For this purpose a dry cooling tower is connected in series with a heat exchanger that is cooled on the secondary side by means of a refrigerating machine. The cooling pipes are filled with a nonfreezable fluid. By means of a bypass a minimum temperature is guaranteed at cold weather. (orig.) [de

  17. Vanishing auxiliary variables in PPS sampling - with applications in microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ina Trolle; Hahn, Ute; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    Recently, non-uniform sampling has been suggested in microscopy to increase efficiency. More precisely, sampling proportional to size (PPS) has been introduced where the probability of sampling a unit in the population is proportional to the value of an auxiliary variable. Unfortunately, vanishing...... auxiliary variables are a common phenomenon in microscopy and, accordingly, part of the population is not accessible, using PPS sampling. We propose a modification of the design, for which an optimal solution can be found, using a model assisted approach. The optimal design has independent interest...... in sampling theory. We verify robustness of the new approach by numerical results, and we use real data to illustrate the applicability....

  18. Renormalization of supersymmetric models without using auxiliary fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanek, P.

    1986-01-01

    Previously a linear representation of supersymmetry (Ss) was used in investigations of renormalizability. There auxiliary fields have been introduced in order that the Ss-algebra closes 'off-shell'. When the auxiliary fields are eliminated by their equations of motion, the Ss representation becomes nonlinear and Ss closes only 'on-shell'. Following O.Piguet and K.Sibold 1984 Ss is expressed through Ward identities which are formulated as functional variations of the generating functional of the Green functions. These functional operators form a closed algebra, a fact essential for the proof of renormalizability, which is given. It is not necessary to use a specific subtraction scheme in the Green functions. The procedure is applied to the Wess-Zumino model and the supersymmetric extension of the quantum electrodynamics. 15 refs. (qui)

  19. Aging assessment of PWR [Pressurized Water Reactor] Auxiliary Feedwater Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a review of Pressurized Water Reactor Auxiliary Feedwater Systems. Two of the objectives of the NPAR Program are to identify failure modes and causes and identify methods to detect and track degradation. In Phase I of the Auxiliary Feedwater System study, a detailed review of system design and operating and surveillance practices at a reference plant is being conducted to determine failure modes and to provide an indication of the ability of current monitoring methods to detect system degradation. The extent to which current practices are contributing to aging and service wear related degradation is also being assessed. This paper provides a description of the study approach, examples of results, and some interim observations and conclusions. 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. Component Data Base for Space Station Resistojet Auxiliary Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Clayton H.

    1988-01-01

    The resistojet was baselined for Space Station auxiliary propulsion because of its operational versatility, efficiency, and durability. This report was conceived as a guide to designers and planners of the Space Station auxiliary propulsion system. It is directed to the low thrust resistojet concept, though it should have application to other station concepts or systems such as the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), Manufacturing and Technology Laboratory (MTL), and the Waste Fluid Management System (WFMS). The information will likely be quite useful in the same capacity for other non-Space Station systems including satellite, freeflyers, explorers, and maneuvering vehicles. The report is a catalog of the most useful information for the most significant feed system components and is organized for the greatest convenience of the user.

  1. An On-Line Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Drinking and Surface Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Mazzoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An UHPLC-MS/MS multiresidue method based on an on-line solid phase extraction (SPE procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of 9 perfluorinated carboxylates (from 4 to 12 carbon atoms and 3 perfluorinated sulphonates (from 4 to 8 carbon atoms. This work proposes using an on-line solid phase extraction before chromatographic separation and analysis to replace traditional methods of off-line SPE before direct injection to LC-MS/MS. Manual sample preparation was reduced to sample centrifugation and acidification, thus eliminating several procedural errors and significantly reducing time-consuming and costs. Ionization suppression between target perfluorinated analytes and their coeluting SIL-IS were detected for homologues with a number of carbon atoms less than 9, but the quantitation was not affected. Total matrix effect corrected by SIL-IS, inclusive of extraction efficacy, and of ionization efficiency, ranged between −34 and +39%. The percentage of recoveries, between 76 and 134%, calculated in different matrices (tap water and rivers impacted by different pollutions was generally satisfactory. LODs and LOQs of this on-line SPE method, which also incorporate recovery losses, ranged from 0.2 to 5.0 ng/L and from 1 to 20 ng/L, respectively. Validated on-line SPE-LC/MS/MS method has been applied in a wide survey for the determination of perfluoroalkyl acids in Italian surface and ground waters.

  2. An On-Line Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Drinking and Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Michela; Rusconi, Marianna; Valsecchi, Sara; Martins, Claudia P. B.; Polesello, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    An UHPLC-MS/MS multiresidue method based on an on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of 9 perfluorinated carboxylates (from 4 to 12 carbon atoms) and 3 perfluorinated sulphonates (from 4 to 8 carbon atoms). This work proposes using an on-line solid phase extraction before chromatographic separation and analysis to replace traditional methods of off-line SPE before direct injection to LC-MS/MS. Manual sample preparation was reduced to sample centrifugation and acidification, thus eliminating several procedural errors and significantly reducing time-consuming and costs. Ionization suppression between target perfluorinated analytes and their coeluting SIL-IS were detected for homologues with a number of carbon atoms less than 9, but the quantitation was not affected. Total matrix effect corrected by SIL-IS, inclusive of extraction efficacy, and of ionization efficiency, ranged between −34 and +39%. The percentage of recoveries, between 76 and 134%, calculated in different matrices (tap water and rivers impacted by different pollutions) was generally satisfactory. LODs and LOQs of this on-line SPE method, which also incorporate recovery losses, ranged from 0.2 to 5.0 ng/L and from 1 to 20 ng/L, respectively. Validated on-line SPE-LC/MS/MS method has been applied in a wide survey for the determination of perfluoroalkyl acids in Italian surface and ground waters. PMID:25834752

  3. Auxiliary representations of Lie algebras and the BRST constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdik, C.; Pashnev, A.I.; Tsulaya, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    The method of construction of auxiliary representations for a given Lie algebra is discussed in the framework of the BRST approach. The corresponding BRST charge turns out to be nonhermitian. This problem is solved by the introduction of the additional kernel operator in the definition of the scalar product in the Fock space. The existence of the kernel operator is proved for any Lie algebra

  4. Surgical nurse: his leadership style with nursing auxiliary personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Galvão, Cristina Maria; Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora; Okino Sawada, Namie

    2008-01-01

    This investigation as carried out in order to promote follow-up in the studies concerning nurse`s leadership in the hospital context. Emphasys is given to the nurses that works in surgical ward unities. As a theoretical framework, authors utilized the model of leadership proposed by Hersey na Blanchard, named Situational Leadership. The objective was to analyze the correspondence of opinion between nurses and nursing auxiliary personnel about the leadership style of nurse should adopt in acco...

  5. Restarting Automata with Auxiliary Symbols and Small Lookahead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schluter, Natalie Elaine

    2012-01-01

    We present a study on lookahead hierarchies for restarting automata with auxiliary symbols and small lookahead. In particular, we show that there are just two different classes of languages recognised by RRWW automata, through the restriction of lookahead size. We also show that the respective...... (left-) monotone restarting automaton models characterise the context-free languages and that the respective right-left-monotone restarting automata characterise the linear languages both with just lookahead length 2....

  6. Tube Model Predictive Control with an Auxiliary Sliding Mode Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Spasic

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies Tube Model Predictive Control (MPC with a Sliding Mode Controller (SMC as an auxiliary controller. It is shown how to calculate the tube widths under SMC control, and thus how much the constraints of the nominal MPC have to be tightened in order to achieve robust stability and constraint fulfillment. The analysis avoids the assumption of infinitely fast switching in the SMC controller.

  7. Exact fluctuations of nonequilibrium steady states from approximate auxiliary dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a framework to significantly reduce the computational effort to evaluate large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We do this by incorporating an auxiliary dynamics into trajectory based Monte Carlo calculations, through a transformation of the system's propagator using an approximate guiding function. This procedure importance samples the trajectories that most contribute to the large deviation function, mitigating the exponenti...

  8. EFFECT OF PHOTODESORPTION ON THE SNOW LINES AT THE SURFACE OF OPTICALLY THICK CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS AROUND HERBIG Ae/Be STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Akinori; Nakamoto, Taishi; Inoue, Akio K.; Honda, Mitsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the effect of photodesorption on the snow line position at the surface of a protoplanetary disk around a Herbig Ae/Be star, motivated by the detection of water ice particles at the surface of the disk around HD142527 by Honda et al. For this aim, we obtain the density and temperature structure in the disk with a 1+1D radiative transfer and determine the distribution of water ice particles in the disk by the balance between condensation, sublimation, and photodesorption. We find that photodesorption induced by far-ultraviolet radiation from the central star depresses the ice-condensation front toward the mid-plane and pushes the surface snow line significantly outward when the stellar effective temperature exceeds a certain critical value. This critical effective temperature depends on the stellar luminosity and mass, the water abundance in the disk, and the yield of photodesorption. We present an approximate analytic formula for the critical temperature. We separate Herbig Ae/Be stars into two groups on the HR diagram according to the critical temperature: one is the disks where photodesorption is effective and from which we may not find ice particles at the surface, and the other is the disks where photodesorption is not effective. We estimate the snow line position at the surface of the disk around HD142527 to be 100-300 AU, which is consistent with the water ice detection at >140 AU in the disk. All the results depend on the dust grain size in a complex way, and this point requires more work in the future.

  9. Modified PAMAM dendrimer with 4-carbomethoxypyrrolidone surface groups reveals negligible toxicity against three rodent cell-lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janaszewska, Anna; Ciolkowski, Michal; Wróbel, Dominika

    2013-01-01

    Modification of the surface groups of dendrimers is one of the methods to improve their biocompatibility. This article presents results of experiments related to the toxicity of a modified polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer of the fourth generation with 4-carbomethoxypyrrolidone surface groups (PAM...

  10. Bayesian Analysis of Geostatistical Models With an Auxiliary Lattice

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Jincheol

    2012-04-01

    The Gaussian geostatistical model has been widely used for modeling spatial data. However, this model suffers from a severe difficulty in computation: it requires users to invert a large covariance matrix. This is infeasible when the number of observations is large. In this article, we propose an auxiliary lattice-based approach for tackling this difficulty. By introducing an auxiliary lattice to the space of observations and defining a Gaussian Markov random field on the auxiliary lattice, our model completely avoids the requirement of matrix inversion. It is remarkable that the computational complexity of our method is only O(n), where n is the number of observations. Hence, our method can be applied to very large datasets with reasonable computational (CPU) times. The numerical results indicate that our model can approximate Gaussian random fields very well in terms of predictions, even for those with long correlation lengths. For real data examples, our model can generally outperform conventional Gaussian random field models in both prediction errors and CPU times. Supplemental materials for the article are available online. © 2012 American Statistical Association, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and Interface Foundation of North America.

  11. Generating Selected Color using RGB, Auxiliary Lights, and Simplex Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim HyungTae

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed light source generates various colors, with the potential to adjust intensities of multiple LEDs, which makes it possible to generate arbitrary colors. Currently, PCs and OSs provide color selection windows that can obtain the RGB or HSL color coordinates of a user’s selection. Mixed light sources are usually composed of LEDs in the primary colors, with LEDs in auxiliary colors such as white and yellow used in a few cases. When using auxiliary color LEDs, the number of LED inputs, the dimming levels, is larger than the number of elements in the color coordinate, which causes an under-determined problem. This study proposed how to determine the dimming levels of LEDs based on the selected color. Commercial LEDs have di_erent optical power values and impure color coordinates, even if they are RGB. Hence, the characteristics of the LEDs were described using a linear model derived from the tri-stimulus values (an XYZ color coordinate model and dimming levels. Color mixing models were derived for the arbitrary number of auxiliary color LEDs. The under-determined problem was solved using a simplex search method without an inverse matrix operation. The proposed method can be applied to a machine vision system and an RGBW light mixer for semiconductor inspection. The dimming levels, obtained using the proposed method were better than derived using other methods.

  12. ADAPTIVE SELECTION OF AUXILIARY OBJECTIVES IN MULTIOBJECTIVE EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Petrova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.We propose to modify the EA+RL method, which increases efficiency of evolutionary algorithms by means of auxiliary objectives. The proposed modification is compared to the existing objective selection methods on the example of travelling salesman problem. Method. In the EA+RL method a reinforcement learning algorithm is used to select an objective – the target objective or one of the auxiliary objectives – at each iteration of the single-objective evolutionary algorithm.The proposed modification of the EA+RL method adopts this approach for the usage with a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm. As opposed to theEA+RL method, in this modification one of the auxiliary objectives is selected by reinforcement learning and optimized together with the target objective at each step of the multiobjective evolutionary algorithm. Main Results.The proposed modification of the EA+RL method was compared to the existing objective selection methods on the example of travelling salesman problem. In the EA+RL method and its proposed modification reinforcement learning algorithms for stationary and non-stationary environment were used. The proposed modification of the EA+RL method applied with reinforcement learning for non-stationary environment outperformed the considered objective selection algorithms on the most problem instances. Practical Significance. The proposed approach increases efficiency of evolutionary algorithms, which may be used for solving discrete NP-hard optimization problems. They are, in particular, combinatorial path search problems and scheduling problems.

  13. Research of grounding capacitive current of neutral non-grounding auxiliary system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shan; Liu Li; Huang Xiaojing

    2014-01-01

    In the domestic and abroad standards, the grounding capacitive current limitation in the non-grounding electric auxiliary system is less than 10 A. Limiting capacitive current in the standard aims to speed up the arc extinguishing to reduce the duration of arc over-voltage, but not to prevent the arc producing, The arc over-voltage harm is related to the multiple, frequency and duration of the over-voltage. When the insulation vulnerabilities appear in the equipment, the arc over-voltage may result in insulation vulnerabilities of the electrical equipment breakdown, which leads to multiple, short-circuit accidents. The cable connector, accessory and electromotor winding are all insulation vulnerabilities. Setting the arc suppression coil which can counteract the grounding capacitive current makes the arc vanish quickly. Using the casting bus which remarkably reduces the ground capacitance of the electric transmission line makes the equipment safer. (authors)

  14. Reduction of DOM fractions and their trihalomethane formation potential in surface river water by in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakruam, Pharkphum; Wattanachira, Suraphong

    2014-03-01

    This research was aimed at investigating the reduction of DOM fractions and their trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) by in-line coagulation with 0.1 μm ceramic membrane filtration. The combination of ceramic membrane filtration with a coagulation process is an alternative technology which can be applied to enhance conventional coagulation processes in the field of water treatment and drinking water production. The Ping River water (high turbidity water) was selected as the raw surface water because it is currently the main raw water source for water supply production in the urban and rural areas of Chiang Mai Province. From the investigation, the results showed that the highest percent reductions of DOC, UV-254, and THMFP (47.6%, 71.0%, and 67.4%, respectively) were achieved from in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration at polyaluminum chloride dosage 40 mg/L. Resin adsorption techniques were employed to characterize the DOM in raw surface water and filtered water. The results showed that the use of a ceramic membrane with in-line coagulation was able to most efficiently reduce the hydrophobic fraction (HPOA) (68.5%), which was then followed by the hydrophilic fraction (HPIA) (49.3%). The greater mass DOC reduction of these two fractions provided the highest THMFP reductions (55.1% and 37.2%, respectively). Furthermore, the in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration was able to reduce the hydrophobic (HPOB) fraction which is characterized by high reactivity toward THM formation. The percent reduction of mass DOC and THMFP of HPOB by in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration was 45.9% and 48.0%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Herschel/HIFI spectral line survey of the Orion Bar. Temperature and density differentiation near the PDR surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Z.; Choi, Y.; Ossenkopf-Okada, V.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Bergin, E. A.; Gerin, M.; Joblin, C.; Röllig, M.; Simon, R.; Stutzki, J.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Photon dominated regions (PDRs) are interfaces between the mainly ionized and mainly molecular material around young massive stars. Analysis of the physical and chemical structure of such regions traces the impact of far-ultraviolet radiation of young massive stars on their environment. Aims: We present results on the physical and chemical structure of the prototypical high UV-illumination edge-on Orion Bar PDR from an unbiased spectral line survey with a wide spectral coverage which includes lines of many important gas coolants such as [Cii], [Ci], and CO and other key molecules such as H2CO, H2O, HCN, HCO+, and SO. Methods: A spectral scan from 480-1250 GHz and 1410-1910 GHz at 1.1 MHz resolution was obtained by the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. We obtained physical parameters for the observed molecules. For molecules with multiple transitions we used rotational diagrams to obtain excitation temperatures and column densities. For species with a single detected transition we used an optically thin LTE approximation. In the case of species with available collisional rates, we also performed a non-LTE analysis to obtain kinetic temperatures, H2 volume densities, and column densities. Results: About 120 lines corresponding to 29 molecules (including isotopologues) have been detected in the Herschel/HIFI line survey, including 11 transitions of CO, 7 transitions of 13CO, 6 transitions of C18O, 10 transitions of H2CO, and 6 transitions of H2O. The rotational temperatures are in the range between 22 and 146 K and the column densities are in the range between 1.8 × 1012 cm-2 and 4.5 × 1017 cm-2. For species with at least three detected transitions and available collisional excitation rates we derived a best fit kinetic temperature and H2 volume density. Most species trace kinetic temperatures in the range between 100 and 150 K and H2 volume densities in the range between 105 and 106 cm-3. The species with temperatures and

  16. Coupling Fluid and Solute Dynamics Within the Ocular Surface Tear Film: A Modelling Study of Black Line Osmolarity

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V. S.; Breward, C. J. W.; Gaffney, E. A.

    2012-01-01

    in these regions. More generally, a heterogeneous distribution of solute concentration is predicted across the ocular surface, indicating that measurements of lower meniscus osmolarity are not globally representative, especially in the presence of dry eye. Vertical

  17. Highly accurate potential energy surface, dipole moment surface, rovibrational energy levels, and infrared line list for {sup 32}S{sup 16}O{sub 2} up to 8000 cm{sup −1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xinchuan, E-mail: Xinchuan.Huang-1@nasa.gov, E-mail: Timothy.J.Lee@nasa.gov [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Ave, Suite No. 100, Mountain View, California 94043 (United States); Schwenke, David W., E-mail: David.W.Schwenke@nasa.gov [MS T27B-1, NAS Facility, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States); Lee, Timothy J., E-mail: Xinchuan.Huang-1@nasa.gov, E-mail: Timothy.J.Lee@nasa.gov [MS 245-1, Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States)

    2014-03-21

    A purely ab initio potential energy surface (PES) was refined with selected {sup 32}S{sup 16}O{sub 2} HITRAN data. Compared to HITRAN, the root-mean-squares error (σ{sub RMS}) for all J = 0–80 rovibrational energy levels computed on the refined PES (denoted Ames-1) is 0.013 cm{sup −1}. Combined with a CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV(Q+d)Z dipole moment surface (DMS), an infrared (IR) line list (denoted Ames-296K) has been computed at 296 K and covers up to 8000 cm{sup −1}. Compared to the HITRAN and CDMS databases, the intensity agreement for most vibrational bands is better than 85%–90%. Our predictions for {sup 34}S{sup 16}O{sub 2} band origins, higher energy {sup 32}S{sup 16}O{sub 2} band origins and missing {sup 32}S{sup 16}O{sub 2} IR bands have been verified by most recent experiments and available HITRAN data. We conclude that the Ames-1 PES is able to predict {sup 32/34}S{sup 16}O{sub 2} band origins below 5500 cm{sup −1} with 0.01–0.03 cm{sup −1} uncertainties, and the Ames-296K line list provides continuous, reliable and accurate IR simulations. The K{sub a}-dependence of both line position and line intensity errors is discussed. The line list will greatly facilitate SO{sub 2} IR spectral experimental analysis, as well as elimination of SO{sub 2} lines in high-resolution astronomical observations.

  18. Numerical simulation of mesoscale surface pressure features with trailing stratiform squall lines using WRF -ARW model over Gangetic West Bengal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, Soma; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the simulation of mesoscale surface pressure patterns like pre-squall mesolow, mesohigh and wake low associated with leading convective line-trailing stratiform (TS) squall lines over Gangetic West Bengal (GWB). For this purpose, a two way interactive triple nested domain with high resolution WRF model having2 km grid length in the innermost domain is used. The model simulated results are compared with the available in-situ observations obtained as a part of Severe Thunderstorm: Observations and Regional Modeling (STORM) programme, reflectivity products of Doppler Weather Radar (DWR) Kolkata and TRMM rainfall. Three TS squall lines (15 May 2009, 5 May 2010 and 7 May 2010) are chosen during pre-monsoon thunderstorm season for this study. The model simulated results of diurnal variation of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction at the station Kharagpur in GWB region reveal a sudden fall in temperature, increase in the amount of relative humidity and sudden rise in wind speed during the arrival of the storms. Such results are well comparable with the observations though there are some leading or lagging of time in respect of actual occurrences of such events. The study indicates that the model is able to predict the occurrences of three typical surface pressure features namely: pre-squall mesolow, meso high and wake low. The predicted surface parameters like accumulated rainfall, maximum reflectivity and vertical profiles (temperature, relative humidity and winds) are well accorded with the observations. The convective and stratiform precipitation region of the TS squall lines are well represented by the model. A strong downdraft is observed to be a contributory factor for formation of mesohigh in the convective region of the squall line. Wake low is observed to reside in the stratiform rain region and the descending dry air at this place has triggered the wake low through adiabatic

  19. Do the contact angle and line tension of surface-attached droplets depend on the radius of curvature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subir K; Egorov, Sergei A; Virnau, Peter; Winter, David; Binder, Kurt

    2018-06-27

    Results from Monte Carlo simulations of wall-attached droplets in the three-dimensional Ising lattice gas model and in a symmetric binary Lennard-Jones fluid, confined by antisymmetric walls, are analyzed, with the aim to estimate the dependence of the contact angle [Formula: see text] on the droplet radius [Formula: see text] of curvature. Sphere-cap shape of the wall-attached droplets is assumed throughout. An approach, based purely on 'thermodynamic' observables, e.g. chemical potential, excess density due to the droplet, etc, is used, to avoid ambiguities in the decision which particles belong (or do not belong, respectively) to the droplet. It is found that the results are compatible with a variation [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] being the contact angle in the thermodynamic limit ([Formula: see text]). The possibility to use such results to estimate the excess free energy related to the contact line of the droplet, namely the line tension, at the wall, is discussed. Various problems that hamper this approach and were not fully recognized in previous attempts to extract the line tension are identified. It is also found that the dependence of wall tensions on the difference of chemical potential of the droplet from that at the bulk coexistence provides effectively a change of the contact angle of similar magnitude. The simulation approach yields precise estimates for the excess density due to wall-attached droplets and the corresponding free energy excess, relative to a system without a droplet at the same chemical potential. It is shown that this information suffices to estimate nucleation barriers, not affected by ambiguities on droplet shape, contact angle and line tension.

  20. S-matrix for the theories that admit closure of the algebra with the aid of auxiliary fields. Auxiliary fields in supergravity. [Word identities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, E S; Vasiliev, M A [AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.

    1978-08-19

    A minimal set of auxiliary fields (scalarpseudoscalar and pseudovector) providing the closed algebra in supergravity is constructed. A compact scheme for the generating functional with closed gauge algebra is proposed. The S-matrix and the Ward identities for arbitrary theory that admits the closing of the algebra by introducing auxiliary fields is obtained.

  1. Establishment of a common acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line (LC4-1) and effects of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) on the surface antigen expression of the cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, T; Mayumi, M; Yorifuji, T; Kim, K M; Heike, T; Miyanomae, T; Shinomiya, K; Mikawa, H

    1987-09-01

    A common acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell line, designated LC4-1, was established from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a patient with acute non-T-cell ALL. LC4-1 cells were characteristically positive for Ia, B4, and common ALL antigens (CALLA), but negative for B2, Tac, T3, T4, T8, T11, and M1 antigens and E-rosette formation. Approximately 30% of LC4-1 cells expressed detectable amounts of B1 antigens. LC4-1 cells expressed neither Epstein-Barr-virus-associated nuclear antigen (EBNA), cytoplasmic immunoglobulins (cIg) nor surface immunoglobulins (sIg). Gene rearrangements had already occurred in LC4-1 in the D-J region of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes, but not in T-cell receptor (beta-chain) genes, suggesting that LC4-1 is a progenitor cell line of B-cell lineage earlier than pre-B-cells. The expression of cell surface antigens of LC4-1 was changed by treatment with 4-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (0.1 ng/ml) for 2 days. Before treatment with PMA, about 98% of LC4-1 cells were positive for B4, CALLA, and Ia. However, following treatment they lost CALLA expression without any change in expression of Ia and B4. There was no change in B1-positive population. The change in surface antigens on LC4-1 cells seems to be due to differentiation induced in the cells by PMA. These results support the hypothesis that CALLA is a differentiation antigen and suggest one possible differentiation pathway for pre-B-cells.

  2. Zero-phonon lines and electron–phonon interaction characteristics of near-surface layer radiation color centers in lithium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitovich, A.P.; Kalinov, V.S.; Mudryi, A.V.; Pavlovskii, V.N.; Runets, L.P.; Svitsiankou, I.E.

    2016-01-01

    Zero-phonon lines have been registered in photoluminescence spectra of near-surface layer radiation color centers in lithium fluoride nanocrystals. They have been assigned to transitions of the definite types centers. The frequencies of phonons participating in the transitions of the different type centers located both in the near-surface layer and in the crystal bulk have been measured and compared. The Huang-Rhys parameters for the transitions of these centers have been determined. It has been found that the Huang-Rhys parameters for the studied transitions in the near-surface layer centers of the certain composition are less than for those in the crystal bulk centers of the same composition. This feature is connected with the difference of the electron density distribution in defects. Temperature dependences of the zero-phonon lines widths and shifts have been measured. It has been determined that both widths and shifts grow faster with the increase of a temperature for the defects transitions with the lesser Huang-Rhys parameters. Phonons lifetimes are estimated from the experimental data.

  3. Zero-phonon lines and electron–phonon interaction characteristics of near-surface layer radiation color centers in lithium fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitovich, A.P., E-mail: voitovich@ifanbel.bas-net.by [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezavisimosti Avenue, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Kalinov, V.S. [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezavisimosti Avenue, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Mudryi, A.V. [Scientific-Practical Materials Research Center, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 19 Brovka Street, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Pavlovskii, V.N.; Runets, L.P.; Svitsiankou, I.E. [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezavisimosti Avenue, 220072 Minsk (Belarus)

    2016-04-15

    Zero-phonon lines have been registered in photoluminescence spectra of near-surface layer radiation color centers in lithium fluoride nanocrystals. They have been assigned to transitions of the definite types centers. The frequencies of phonons participating in the transitions of the different type centers located both in the near-surface layer and in the crystal bulk have been measured and compared. The Huang-Rhys parameters for the transitions of these centers have been determined. It has been found that the Huang-Rhys parameters for the studied transitions in the near-surface layer centers of the certain composition are less than for those in the crystal bulk centers of the same composition. This feature is connected with the difference of the electron density distribution in defects. Temperature dependences of the zero-phonon lines widths and shifts have been measured. It has been determined that both widths and shifts grow faster with the increase of a temperature for the defects transitions with the lesser Huang-Rhys parameters. Phonons lifetimes are estimated from the experimental data.

  4. Silica-Assisted Nucleation of Polymer Foam Cells with Nanoscopic Dimensions : Impact of Particle Size, Line Tension, and Surface Functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shanqiu; Eijkelenkamp, Rik; Duvigneau, Joost; Vancso, G. Julius

    2017-01-01

    Core-shell nanoparticles consisting of silica as core and surface-grafted poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as shell with different diameters were prepared and used as heterogeneous nucleation agents to obtain CO2-blown poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposite foams. PDMS was selected as the shell

  5. In-plane confinement and waveguiding of surface acoustic waves through line defects in pillars-based phononic crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkrim Khelif

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a theoretical analysis of an in-plane confinement and a waveguiding of surface acoustic waves in pillars-based phononic crystal. The artificial crystal is made up of cylindrical pillars placed on a semi-infinite medium and arranged in a square array. With a well-chosen of the geometrical parameters, this pillars-based system can display two kinds of complete band gaps for guided waves propagating near the surface, a low frequency gap based on locally resonant mode of pillars as well as a higher frequency gap appearing at Bragg scattering regime. In addition, we demonstrate a waveguiding of surface acoustic wave inside an extended linear defect created by removing rows of pillars in the perfect crystal. We discuss the transmission and the polarization of such confined mode appearing in the higher frequency band gap. We highlight the strong similarity of such defect mode and the Rayleigh wave of free surface medium. An efficient finite element analysis is used to simulate the propagation of guided waves through silicon pillars on a silicon substrate.

  6. Coinfection of Hepatic Cell Lines with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus Leads to an Increase in Intracellular Hepatitis B Surface Antigen▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, David M.; Warner, Nadia; Revill, Peter A.; Solomon, Ajantha; Wightman, Fiona; Saleh, Suha; Crane, Megan; Cameron, Paul U.; Bowden, Scott; Nguyen, Tin; Pereira, Cândida F.; Desmond, Paul V.; Locarnini, Stephen A.; Lewin, Sharon R.

    2010-01-01

    Liver-related mortality is increased in the setting of HIV-hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection. However, interactions between HIV and HBV to explain this observation have not been described. We hypothesized that HIV infection of hepatocytes directly affects the life cycle of HBV. We infected human hepatic cell lines expressing HBV (Hep3B and AD38 cells) or not expressing HBV (Huh7, HepG2, and AD43 cells) with laboratory strains of HIV (NL4-3 and AD8), as well as a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-pseudotyped HIV expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Following HIV infection with NL4-3 or AD8 in hepatic cell lines, we observed a significant increase in HIV reverse transcriptase activity which was infectious. Despite no detection of surface CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 by flow cytometry, AD8 infection of AD38 cells was inhibited by maraviroc and NL4-3 was inhibited by AMD3100, demonstrating that HIV enters AD38 hepatic cell lines via CCR5 or CXCR4. High-level infection of AD38 cells (50%) was achieved using VSV-pseudotyped HIV. Coinfection of the AD38 cell line with HIV did not alter the HBV DNA amount or species as determined by Southern blotting or nucleic acid signal amplification. However, coinfection with HIV was associated with a significant increase in intracellular HBsAg when measured by Western blotting, quantitative HBsAg, and fluorescence microscopy. We conclude that HIV infection of HBV-infected hepatic cell lines significantly increased intracellular HBsAg but not HBV DNA synthesis and that increased intrahepatic HBsAg secondary to direct infection by HIV may contribute to accelerated liver disease in HIV-HBV-coinfected individuals. PMID:20357083

  7. Coinfection of hepatic cell lines with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus leads to an increase in intracellular hepatitis B surface antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, David M; Warner, Nadia; Revill, Peter A; Solomon, Ajantha; Wightman, Fiona; Saleh, Suha; Crane, Megan; Cameron, Paul U; Bowden, Scott; Nguyen, Tin; Pereira, Cândida F; Desmond, Paul V; Locarnini, Stephen A; Lewin, Sharon R

    2010-06-01

    Liver-related mortality is increased in the setting of HIV-hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection. However, interactions between HIV and HBV to explain this observation have not been described. We hypothesized that HIV infection of hepatocytes directly affects the life cycle of HBV. We infected human hepatic cell lines expressing HBV (Hep3B and AD38 cells) or not expressing HBV (Huh7, HepG2, and AD43 cells) with laboratory strains of HIV (NL4-3 and AD8), as well as a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-pseudotyped HIV expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Following HIV infection with NL4-3 or AD8 in hepatic cell lines, we observed a significant increase in HIV reverse transcriptase activity which was infectious. Despite no detection of surface CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 by flow cytometry, AD8 infection of AD38 cells was inhibited by maraviroc and NL4-3 was inhibited by AMD3100, demonstrating that HIV enters AD38 hepatic cell lines via CCR5 or CXCR4. High-level infection of AD38 cells (50%) was achieved using VSV-pseudotyped HIV. Coinfection of the AD38 cell line with HIV did not alter the HBV DNA amount or species as determined by Southern blotting or nucleic acid signal amplification. However, coinfection with HIV was associated with a significant increase in intracellular HBsAg when measured by Western blotting, quantitative HBsAg, and fluorescence microscopy. We conclude that HIV infection of HBV-infected hepatic cell lines significantly increased intracellular HBsAg but not HBV DNA synthesis and that increased intrahepatic HBsAg secondary to direct infection by HIV may contribute to accelerated liver disease in HIV-HBV-coinfected individuals.

  8. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic characterization of immortalized human ovarian surface epithelial cell lines: consistent loss of chromosome 13 and amplification of chromosome 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuesheng; Zhang, Hao; Tsao, Sai Wah; Jin, Charlotte; Lv, Mei; Strömbeck, Bodil; Wiegant, Joop; Wan, Thomas Shek Kong; Yuen, Po Wing; Kwong, Yok-Lam

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the genetic events involved in immortalization of ovarian epithelial cells, which might be important steps in ovarian carcinogenesis. The genetic profiles of five human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cell lines immortalized by retroviral transfection of the human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 genes were thoroughly characterized by chromosome banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), at various passages pre- and post-crisis. In pre-crisis, most cells had simple, non-clonal karyotypic changes. Telomere association was the commonest aberration, suggesting that tolermase dysfunction might be an important genetic event leading to cellular crisis. After immortalization post-crisis, however, the karyotypic patterns were non-random. Loss of genetic materials was a characteristic feature. The commonest numerical aberrations were -13, -14, -16, -17, -18, and +5. Among them, loss of chromosome 13 was common change observed in all lines. The only recurrent structural aberration was homogeneously staining regions (hsr) observed in three lines. FISH and combined binary ratio labeling (COBRA)-FISH showed in two cases that the hsrs were derived from chromosome 20. Clonal evolution was observed in four of the lines. In one line, hsr was the only change shared by all subclones, suggesting that it might be a primary event in cell immortalization. The results of the present study suggested that loss of chromosome 13 and the amplification of chromosome 20 might be early genetic events involved in ovarian cell immortalization, and might be useful targets for the study of genomic aberrations in ovarian carcinogenesis.

  9. Seismic Qualification of Auxiliary Feed Water Control Valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, K. M.; Jang, J. B.; Kim, J. K.; Suh, Y. P.

    2006-01-01

    Although domestic nuclear power industry has almost accomplished technical independence, Auxiliary Feed Water Control Valve (AFWCV) is still depending on import. In order to jump to advanced nation in nuclear power industry, it is very important to achieve technical independence in designing and manufacturing AFWCV. At last, AFWCV is self-manufactured using the domestic technology under the financial support of the government. Therefore, the seismic qualification is carried out to verify the safety and operability of AFWCV against the earthquake in this study

  10. Sampling general N-body interactions with auxiliary fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körber, C.; Berkowitz, E.; Luu, T.

    2017-09-01

    We present a general auxiliary field transformation which generates effective interactions containing all possible N-body contact terms. The strength of the induced terms can analytically be described in terms of general coefficients associated with the transformation and thus are controllable. This transformation provides a novel way for sampling 3- and 4-body (and higher) contact interactions non-perturbatively in lattice quantum Monte Carlo simulations. As a proof of principle, we show that our method reproduces the exact solution for a two-site quantum mechanical problem.

  11. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 8, Auxiliary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    This volume describes RA reactor auxiliary systems, as follows: special ventilation system, special drainage system, hot cells, systems for internal transport. Ventilation system is considered as part of the reactor safety and protection system. Its role is eliminate possible radioactive particles dispersion in the environment. Special drainage system includes pipes and reservoirs with the safety role, meaning absorption or storage of possible radioactive waste water from the reactor building. Hot cells existing in the RA reactor building are designed for production of sealed radioactive sources, including packaging and transport [sr

  12. Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities. Auxiliary capabilities: environmental health information science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    Sandia Laboratories is an engineering laboratory in which research, development, testing, and evaluation capabilities are integrated by program management for the generation of advanced designs. In fulfilling its primary responsibility to ERDA, Sandia Laboratories has acquired extensive research and development capabilities. The purpose of this series of documents is to catalog the many technical capabilities of the Laboratories. After the listing of capabilities, supporting information is provided in the form of highlights, which show applications. This document deals with auxiliary capabilities, in particular, environmental health and information science. (11 figures, 1 table) (RWR)

  13. GOTHIC Simulation of APR1400 Auxiliary Charging Pump room heat up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Hui-Un; Heo, Sun [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    As a part of the Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Design Certification (NRC DC) project, we have been investigating Auxiliary Charging Pump (ACP) room heat up. With reference to the design specification of the ACP room, we determined input information and developed a GOTHIC model of the APR1400 ACP room. This calculation model is described herein, and representative results from the calculation are presented as well. The results of the present paper are used to determine the integrity of ACP operating in the accident. APR 1400 GOTHIC model was developed for ACP room heat up calculation. Calculation results confirm that door opening is cooling the room properly. It is found that the difference due to the surface option of heat conductors is insignificant. Based on this result, further studies should be performed to confirm integrity of ACP.

  14. Effects of vacuum ultraviolet photons, ion energy and substrate temperature on line width roughness and RMS surface roughness of patterned 193 nm photoresist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, M J; Graves, D B; Yamaguchi, Y; Hudson, E A

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparison of patterned 193 nm photoresist (PR) line width roughness (LWR) of samples processed in a well characterized argon (Ar) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system to RMS surface roughness and bulk chemical modification of blanket 193 nm PR samples used as control samples. In the ICP system, patterned and blanket PR samples are irradiated with Ar vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV) and Ar ions while sample temperature, photon flux, ion flux and ion energy are controlled and measured. The resulting chemical modifications to bulk 193 nm PR (blanket) and surface roughness are analysed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). LWR of patterned samples are measured with scanning electron microscopy and blanket portions of the patterned PRs are measured with AFM. We demonstrate that with no RF-bias applied to the substrate the LWR of 193 nm PR tends to smooth and correlates with the smoothing of the RMS surface roughness. However, both LWR and RMS surface roughness increases with simultaneous high-energy (≥70 eV) ion bombardment and VUV-irradiation and is a function of exposure time. Both high- and low-frequency LWR correlate well with the RMS surface roughness of the patterned and blanket 193 nm PR samples. LWR, however, does not increase with temperatures ranging from 20 to 80 deg. C, in contrast to the RMS surface roughness which increases monotonically with temperature. It is unclear why LWR remains independent of temperature over this range. However, the fact that blanket roughness and LWR on patterned samples, both scale similarly with VUV fluence and ion energy suggests a similar mechanism is responsible for both types of surface morphology modifications.

  15. Effects of vacuum ultraviolet photons, ion energy and substrate temperature on line width roughness and RMS surface roughness of patterned 193 nm photoresist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titus, M J; Graves, D B [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Yamaguchi, Y; Hudson, E A, E-mail: graves@berkeley.edu [Lam Research Corporation, 4400 Cushing Parkway, Freemont, CA 94538 (United States)

    2011-03-02

    We present a comparison of patterned 193 nm photoresist (PR) line width roughness (LWR) of samples processed in a well characterized argon (Ar) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system to RMS surface roughness and bulk chemical modification of blanket 193 nm PR samples used as control samples. In the ICP system, patterned and blanket PR samples are irradiated with Ar vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV) and Ar ions while sample temperature, photon flux, ion flux and ion energy are controlled and measured. The resulting chemical modifications to bulk 193 nm PR (blanket) and surface roughness are analysed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). LWR of patterned samples are measured with scanning electron microscopy and blanket portions of the patterned PRs are measured with AFM. We demonstrate that with no RF-bias applied to the substrate the LWR of 193 nm PR tends to smooth and correlates with the smoothing of the RMS surface roughness. However, both LWR and RMS surface roughness increases with simultaneous high-energy ({>=}70 eV) ion bombardment and VUV-irradiation and is a function of exposure time. Both high- and low-frequency LWR correlate well with the RMS surface roughness of the patterned and blanket 193 nm PR samples. LWR, however, does not increase with temperatures ranging from 20 to 80 deg. C, in contrast to the RMS surface roughness which increases monotonically with temperature. It is unclear why LWR remains independent of temperature over this range. However, the fact that blanket roughness and LWR on patterned samples, both scale similarly with VUV fluence and ion energy suggests a similar mechanism is responsible for both types of surface morphology modifications.

  16. Simulation of mirror surfaces for virtual estimation of visibility lines for 3D motor vehicle collision reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipner, Anja; Dobler, Erika; Braun, Marcel; Sieberth, Till; Ebert, Lars

    2017-10-01

    3D reconstructions of motor vehicle collisions are used to identify the causes of these events and to identify potential violations of traffic regulations. Thus far, the reconstruction of mirrors has been a problem since they are often based on approximations or inaccurate data. Our aim with this paper was to confirm that structured light scans of a mirror improve the accuracy of simulating the field of view of mirrors. We analyzed the performances of virtual mirror surfaces based on structured light scans using real mirror surfaces and their reflections as references. We used an ATOS GOM III scanner to scan the mirrors and processed the 3D data using Geomagic Wrap. For scene reconstruction and to generate virtual images, we used 3ds Max. We compared the simulated virtual images and photographs of real scenes using Adobe Photoshop. Our results showed that we achieved clear and even mirror results and that the mirrors behaved as expected. The greatest measured deviation between an original photo and the corresponding virtual image was 20 pixels in the transverse direction for an image width of 4256 pixels. We discussed the influences of data processing and alignment of the 3D models on the results. The study was limited to a distance of 1.6m, and the method was not able to simulate an interior mirror. In conclusion, structured light scans of mirror surfaces can be used to simulate virtual mirror surfaces with regard to 3D motor vehicle collision reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Surface wettability and triple line behavior controlled by nano-coatings: effects on the sessile drop evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobac, Benjamin; Brutin, David; Gavillet, Jerôme

    2010-11-01

    Sessile drop evaporation is a phenomenon commonly came across in nature or in industry with cooling, paintings or DNA mapping. However, the evaporation of a drop posed on a substrate is not completely understood due to the complexity of the problem. Here we investigate, with several nano-coating of the substrate (SiOx, SiOc and CF), the wettability and the triple line dynamic of a sessile drop under natural phase change. The experiment consists in analyzing simultaneously the kinetics of evaporation, internal thermal motion and heat and mass transfer. Measurements of temperature, heat-flux and visualizations with visible and infrared cameras are performed. The dynamic of the evaporative heat flux appears clearly different for a drop evaporating in pinned mode than in receding mode. Moreover, the kinetics of evaporation, the internal flow structure and the evaporative heat flux are drastically influenced by the wettability the substrate.

  18. On the Auxiliary Status of Dare in Old English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska Magdalena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OE *durran ‘dare’ belongs to a group of the so-called preterite-present verbs which developed weak past tense forms replacing the originally strong forms throughout the paradigm. The present study hypothesizes that the potential sources of this development are related to the decay of the subjunctive mood in Old English. Further, this corpus-based study analyses the status of DARE in Old English, with the findings showing that the verb displayed both lexical and auxiliary verb characteristics. These results are juxtaposed and compared with the verb's developments in Middle English. The databases examined are the corpus of The Dictionary of Old English in Electronic Form (A-G and the Innsbruck Computer Archive of Machine-Readable English Texts. In both cases, a search of potential forms was performed on all the files of the corpora, the raw results were then analysed in order to eliminate irrelevant instances (adjectives, nouns, foreign words, etc.. The relevant forms were examined with the aim to check the properties of DARE as a lexical and an auxiliary verb, and compare the findings with Molencki’s (2002, 2005 observations.

  19. Ignition and burn propagation with suprathermal electron auxiliary heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Shensheng; Wu Yanqing

    2000-01-01

    The rapid development in ultrahigh-intensity lasers has allowed the exploration of applying an auxiliary heating technique in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. It is hoped that, compared with the 'standard fast ignition' scheme, raising the temperature of a hot-spot over the ignition threshold based on the shock-heated temperature will greatly reduce the required output energy of an ignition ultrahigh-intensity pulse. One of the key issues in ICF auxiliary heating is: how can we transport the exogenous energy efficiently into the hot-spot of compressed DT fuel? A scheme is proposed with three phases. First, a partial-spherical-shell capsule, such as double-conical target, is imploded as in the conventional approach to inertial fusion to assemble a high-density fuel configuration with a hot-spot of temperature lower than the ignition threshold. Second, a hole is bored through the shell outside the hot-spot by suprathermal electron explosion boring. Finally, the fuel is ignited by suprathermal electrons produced in the high-intensity ignition laser-plasma interactions. Calculations with a simple hybrid model show that the new scheme can possibly lead to ignition and burn propagation with a total drive energy of a few tens of kilojoules and an output energy as low as hundreds of joules for a single ignition ultrahigh-intensity pulse. (author)

  20. VLTI auxiliary telescopes: a full object-oriented approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Duhoux, Philippe; Karban, Robert

    2000-06-01

    The Very Large Telescope (VLT) Telescope Control Software (TCS) is a portable system. It is now in use or will be used in a whole family of ESO telescopes VLT Unit Telescopes, VLTI Auxiliary Telescopes, NTT, La Silla 3.6, VLT Survey Telescope and Astronomical Site Monitors in Paranal and La Silla). Although it has been developed making extensive usage of Object Oriented (OO) methodologies, the overall development process chosen at the beginning of the project used traditional methods. In order to warranty a longer lifetime to the system (improving documentation and maintainability) and to prepare for future projects, we have introduced a full OO process. We have taken as a basis the United Software Development Process with the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and we have adapted the process to our specific needs. This paper describes how the process has been applied to the VLTI Auxiliary Telescopes Control Software (ATCS). The ATCS is based on the portable VLT TCS, but some subsystems are new or have specific characteristics. The complete process has been applied to the new subsystems, while reused code has been integrated in the UML models. We have used the ATCS on one side to tune the process and train the team members and on the other side to provide a UML and WWW based documentation for the portable VLT TCS.

  1. Dynamic analysis of auxiliary buildings in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, K.V.; Madhava Rao, A.S.; Warudkar, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    All nuclear power plants have a large number of auxiliary buildings housing various services and control systems required for the operation of the plant. Illustrative examples are turbine building, control building, service building etc. These buildings are seismically qualified as Class I or Class II structures. Usually, these auxiliary buildings are of low rise type with two or three floors and floor heights varying from five to eight meters and of framed construction in steel or concrete or a combination of both the materials. The floors are usually staggered with large cutouts and may not extend over the full area in plan. Some of the bays are often of double story height with the columns continuous over a story in order to accommodate cranes and other equipment. The structural elements supporting the roof may consist of steel roof trusses instead of beams. The seismic analysis of these structures involves the formulation of the analytical model that can simulate the physical behavior of the structure as close as possible taking into consideration the practical aspects. The criteria adopted to formulate the mathematical model has an important bearing on the evaluated dynamic characteristics and seismic response

  2. Modulated solar pressure-based surface shape control of paraboloid space reflectors with an off-axis Sun-line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiafu; McInnes, Colin R.

    2018-03-01

    This paper considers utilizing solar radiation pressure (SRP) to actively control the surface shape of a reflector consisting of a rigid hoop and slack membrane with embedded reflectivity control devices. The full nonlinear static partial differential governing equations for a reflector with negligible elastic deformations are established for the circumferential, radial and transverse directions respectively, in which the SRP force with ideal/non-perfect models, the centripetal force caused by the rotation of the reflector and the internal stresses are considered. The inverse problem is then formulated by assuming that the required surface shape is known, and then the governing algebraic-differential equations used to determine the required surface reflectivity, together with the internal stresses where are presented accordingly. The validity of the approach is verified by comparing the results in this paper with corresponding published results as benchmarks. The feasible regions of the angular velocity and Sun angle for a paraboloidal reflector with an invariant radius and focal length (case 1), and the achievable focal lengths with a specific angular velocity and Sun angle (case 2) are presented for two SRP models respectively, both by considering the constraints on the reflectivity and internal stresses. It is then found that the feasible region is toward a larger angular velocity and Sun angle when using the non-perfect SRP model, compared with the ideal one in case 1. The angular velocity of the spinning reflector should be within a certain range to make the required reflectivity profiles within a practical range, i.e., [0, 0.88], as indicated from prior NASA solar sail studies. In case 2, it is found that the smallest achievable focal length of the reflector with the non-perfect SRP model is smaller than that with the ideal SRP model. It is also found that the stress level is extremely low for all cases considered and that the typical real material strength

  3. The impact of different nanoparticle surface chemistry and size on uptake and toxicity in a murine macrophage cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clift, Martin J.D.; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Brown, David M.; Duffin, Rodger; Donaldson, Ken; Proudfoot, Lorna; Guy, Keith; Stone, Vicki

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the uptake, kinetics and cellular distribution of different surface coated quantum dots (QDs) before relating this to their toxicity. J774.A1 cells were treated with organic, COOH and NH 2 (PEG) surface coated QDs (40 nM). Model 20 nm and 200 nm COOH-modified coated polystyrene beads (PBs) were also examined (50 μg ml -1 ). The potential for uptake of QDs was examined by both fixed and live cell confocal microscopy as well as by flow cytometry over 2 h. Both the COOH 20 nm and 200 nm PBs were clearly and rapidly taken up by the J774.A1 cells, with uptake of 20 nm PBs being relatively quicker and more extensive. Similarly, COOH QDs were clearly taken up by the macrophages. Uptake of NH 2 (PEG) QDs was not detectable by live cell imaging however, was observed following 3D reconstruction of fixed cells, as well as by flow cytometry. Cells treated with organic QDs, monitored by live cell imaging, showed only a small amount of uptake in a relatively small number of cells. This uptake was insufficient to be detected by flow cytometry. Imaging of fixed cells was not possible due to a loss in cell integrity related to cytotoxicity. A significant reduction (p 2 (PEG) QDs, 20 nm and 200 nm PBs at pH 4.0 (indicative of an endosome) after 2 h, suggesting reduced stability. No evidence of exocytosis was found over 2 h. These findings confirm that surface coating has a significant influence on the mode of NP interaction with cells, as well as the subsequent consequences of that interaction

  4. Stereoselective conjugate radical additions: application of a fluorous oxazolidinone chiral auxiliary for efficient tin removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jason E; Zimmerman, Jake; Sibi, Mukund P; Hultin, Philip G

    2005-06-23

    [reaction: see text] A series of asymmetric free-radical-mediated intermolecular conjugate additions using a fluorous oxazolidinone chiral auxiliary has been completed. The fluorous auxiliary facilitated product isolation using fluorous solid phase extractions (FSPE), effectively removing excess organic and organometallic reagents. Parallel reactions carried out with a similar but nonfluorous norephedrine-derived oxazolidinone demonstrated the superior stereoselectivity and purification obtainable with the fluorous chiral auxiliary.

  5. Energy confinement scaling in tokamaks: some implications of recent experiments with ohmic and strong auxiliary heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R.J.

    1984-02-01

    Recent results from confinement scaling experiments on tokamaks with ohmic and strong auxiliary heating are reviewed. An attempt is made to draw these results together into a low-density ohmic confinement scaling law, and a scaling law for confinement with auxiliary heating. The auxiliary heating confinement law may also serve to explain the saturation in tau/sub E/ vs anti n/sub e/ observed in some ohmic heating density scaling experiments

  6. Entanglement Capacity of Two-Qubit Unitary Operator with the Help of Auxiliary System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Baolin; Di Yaomin

    2007-01-01

    The entanglement capacity of general two-qubit unitary operators is studied when auxiliary systems are allowed, and the analytical results based on linear entropy when input states are disentangled are given. From the results the condition for perfect entangler, α 1 = α 2 = π/4, is obtained. Contrary to the case without auxiliary system, the parameter α 3 may play active role to the entanglement capacity when auxiliary systems are allowed.

  7. The relationship among the solutions of two auxiliary ordinary differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoping; Liu Chunping

    2009-01-01

    In a recent article [Phys. Lett. A 356 (2006) 124], Sirendaoreji extended their auxiliary equation method by introducing a new auxiliary ordinary differential equation (NAODE) and its 14 solutions. Then the author studied some nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs) and got more exact travelling wave solutions. In this paper, we will show that the 14 solutions of the NAODE are actually the same as the solutions obtained by original auxiliary equation method, and they are only different in the form.

  8. The Future Mission Tasking and Resourcing of the U.S. Coast Guard Auxiliary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    the years. Therefore, this study cannot present what the demographic makeup of the Auxiliary was at any past point, and cannot identify if there were...Auxiliary, and the Nation’s projected demographic composition. The demographic makeup of the country, the country’s future volunteers, is changing...command in the spring of 2010.104 This one-page document broad- brushes three prioritized overarching Auxiliary missions: 1) to promote and improve

  9. Effect of accelerated ageing and surface sealing on the permanent deformation of auto-polymerising soft linings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Joaquim; Takahashi, Jessica; Nuňez, Juliana; Consani, Rafael; Mesquita, Marcelo

    2012-09-01

    To compare the effects of different ageing methods on the permanent deformation of two permanent soft liners. The materials selected were auto-polymerising acrylic resin and silicone-based reliners. Sealer coating was also evaluated. Sixty specimens of each reliner were manufactured (12.7 mm diameter and 19 mm length). Specimens were randomly distributed into 12 groups (n = 10) and submitted to one of the accelerated ageing processes. Permanent deformation tests were conducted with a mechanical device described within the American Dental Association specification number 18 with a compressive load of 750 gf applied for 30 s. All data were submitted for statistical analysis. Mann-Whitney test compared the effect of the surface sealer on each material and the permanent deformation of the materials in the same ageing group (p = 0.05). Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests compared all ageing groups of each material (p = 0.05). The silicone-based reliner presented a lower permanent deformation than the acrylic resin-based reliner, regardless of the ageing procedure. The surface sealer coating was effective only for the thermocycled silicone group and the accelerated ageing processes affected only the permanent deformation of the acrylic resin-based material. The silicone-based reliner presented superior elastic properties and the thermocycling was more effective in ageing the materials. © 2010 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Design, development, and evaluation of an automatic guidance system for tractor tracking along the contour line on inclined surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dehghani

    2016-04-01

    to the computer and received angular position in x and y coordinates. An assumed degree could be considered as basis degree and the measured frequency was adjustable. The tilt sensor located along the axial length of tractor and leads the angles which are created by longitudinal axle transverse axle of the tractor in related to horizontal level. It was used for contour lines detecting. The potentiometer located on the steering wheel of the tractor and pressure sensor which used with goniometer sensor used keeping uniformly of leveling points in tractor motion. The pressure sensor (SN-SCP1000- South Korea which is used in leveling system can detect the elevation changes. In this way, by defining a limitation of altitude for system, it would be able to stop steering turning motor which was coupled to tractor steering rod automatically. By resetting, the tractor could be able to live in a new level position. To avoid excessive left and right steering wheels deviation and interfering with other lines of travel, potentiometer was used. The deviation degree for steering rod from center to left or right was selected 120 degrees. Accordingly, the wheels would not be able to move more than 10 degrees to each direction. The Processing System: The electrical circuit graphically designed and simulated by software (Altium Designer, 2009 and installed on the tractor. The components of this circuit are as follows: Electrical board, two relays which control the electrical pathway in both directions, a battery with 12 volts of electric potential as electrical power supply, ATmeGA32 microcontroller which was made by Atmel company as main core for information processing, RS232 protocol was used for making correlation between serial port (COM and the microcontroller and two capacitors for reducing noises. The Actuator System: The output signals from the a processing system, were lead in the actuator system would order and indicative of left- turn or right- turn command, were introduced

  11. Influence of surface geometry on the culture of human cell lines: A comparative study using flat, round-bottom and v-shaped 96 well plates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Shafaie

    Full Text Available In vitro cell based models have been invaluable tools for studying cell behaviour and for investigating drug disposition, toxicity and potential adverse effects of administered drugs. Within this drug discovery pipeline, the ability to assess and prioritise candidate compounds as soon as possible offers a distinct advantage. However, the ability to apply this approach to a cell culture study is limited by the need to provide an accurate, in vitro-like, microenvironment in conjunction with a low cost and high-throughput screening (HTS methodology. Although the geometry and/or alignment of cells has been reported to have a profound influence on cell growth and differentiation, only a handful of studies have directly compared the growth of a single cell line on different shaped multiwell plates the most commonly used substrate for HTS, in vitro, studies. Herein, the impact of various surface geometries (flat, round and v-shaped 96 well plates, as well as fixed volume growth media and fixed growth surface area have been investigated on the characteristics of three commonly used human cell lines in biopharmaceutical research and development, namely ARPE-19 (retinal epithelial, A549 (alveolar epithelial and Malme-3M (dermal fibroblastic cells. The effect of the surface curvature on cells was characterised using a combination of a metabolic activity assay (CellTiter AQ/MTS, LDH release profiles (CytoTox ONE and absolute cell counts (Guava ViaCount, respectively. In addition, cell differentiation and expression of specific marker proteins were determined using flow cytometry. These in vitro results confirmed that surface topography had a significant effect (p < 0.05 on cell activity and morphology. However, although specific marker proteins were expressed on day 1 and 5 of the experiment, no significant differences were seen between the different plate geometries (p < 0.05 at the later time point. Accordingly, these results highlight the impact of

  12. Experimental fast reactor JOYO MK-III functional test. Primary auxiliary cooling system test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karube, Koji; Akagi, Shinji; Terano, Toshihiro; Onuki, Osamu; Ito, Hideaki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Odo, Toshihiro

    2004-03-01

    This paper describes the results of primary auxiliary cooling system, which were done as a part of JOYO MK-III function test. The aim of the tests was to confirm the operational performance of primary auxiliary EMP and the protection system including siphon breaker of primary auxiliary cooling system. The items of the tests were: (Test No.): (Test item). 1) SKS-117: EMP start up test. 2) SKS-118-1: EMP start up test when pony motor running. 3) SKS-121: Function test of siphon breaker. The results of the tests satisfied the required performance, and demonstrated successful operation of primary auxiliary cooling system. (author)

  13. On the widths of Stokes lines in Raman scattering from molecules adsorbed at metal surfaces and in molecular conduction junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yi, E-mail: yig057@ucsd.edu; Galperin, Michael, E-mail: migalperin@ucsd.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Nitzan, Abraham, E-mail: nitzan@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA and School of Chemistry, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2016-06-28

    Within a generic model we analyze the Stokes linewidth in surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) from molecules embedded as bridges in molecular junctions. We identify four main contributions to the off-resonant Stokes signal and show that under zero voltage bias (a situation pertaining also to standard SERS experiments) and at low bias junctions only one of these contributions is pronounced. The linewidth of this component is determined by the molecular vibrational relaxation rate, which is dominated by interactions with the essentially bosonic thermal environment when the relevant molecular electronic energy is far from the metal(s) Fermi energy(ies). It increases when the molecular electronic level is close to the metal Fermi level so that an additional vibrational relaxation channel due to electron-hole (eh) exciton in the molecule opens. Other contributions to the Raman signal, of considerably broader linewidths, can become important at larger junction bias.

  14. Assessment of the effects of surface preparation and coatings on the susceptibility of line pipe to stress-corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavers, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Objectives were to evaluate susceptibility of pipeline steel to SCC when coated with coal-tar enamel, fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE), and polyethylene tape coatings. The tests included standard cathodic disbondment tests, potential gradients beneath disbonded coatings, electrochemical measurements, and SCC tests. It was concluded that factors affecting relative SCC susceptibility of pipelines with different coatings are the disbonding resistance of the coating and the ability of the coating to pass cathodic protection (CP) current. FBE coated pipelines would be expected to exhibit good SCC resistance, since the FBE coating had high cathodic disbonding resistance and could pass CP current. Grit blasting at levels used at coating mills may be beneficial or detrimental to SCC susceptibility. Excellent correlation was found between th Almen strip deflection and change in SCC threshold stress. It appears to be beneficial to remove as much mill scale as possible, and a white surface finish probably should also be specified. 50 figs, 10 tabs

  15. High Resolution Trichromatic Road Surface Scanning with a Line Scan Camera and Light Emitting Diode Lighting for Road-Kill Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Lopes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a road surface scanning system that operates with a trichromatic line scan camera with light emitting diode (LED lighting achieving road surface resolution under a millimeter. It was part of a project named Roadkills—Intelligent systems for surveying mortality of amphibians in Portuguese roads, sponsored by the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation. A trailer was developed in order to accommodate the complete system with standalone power generation, computer image capture and recording, controlled lighting to operate day or night without disturbance, incremental encoder with 5000 pulses per revolution attached to one of the trailer wheels, under a meter Global Positioning System (GPS localization, easy to utilize with any vehicle with a trailer towing system and focused on a complete low cost solution. The paper describes the system architecture of the developed prototype, its calibration procedure, the performed experimentation and some obtained results, along with a discussion and comparison with existing systems. Sustained operating trailer speeds of up to 30 km/h are achievable without loss of quality at 4096 pixels’ image width (1 m width of road surface with 250 µm/pixel resolution. Higher scanning speeds can be achieved by lowering the image resolution (120 km/h with 1 mm/pixel. Computer vision algorithms are under development to operate on the captured images in order to automatically detect road-kills of amphibians.

  16. High Resolution Trichromatic Road Surface Scanning with a Line Scan Camera and Light Emitting Diode Lighting for Road-Kill Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Gil; Ribeiro, A Fernando; Sillero, Neftalí; Gonçalves-Seco, Luís; Silva, Cristiano; Franch, Marc; Trigueiros, Paulo

    2016-04-19

    This paper presents a road surface scanning system that operates with a trichromatic line scan camera with light emitting diode (LED) lighting achieving road surface resolution under a millimeter. It was part of a project named Roadkills-Intelligent systems for surveying mortality of amphibians in Portuguese roads, sponsored by the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation. A trailer was developed in order to accommodate the complete system with standalone power generation, computer image capture and recording, controlled lighting to operate day or night without disturbance, incremental encoder with 5000 pulses per revolution attached to one of the trailer wheels, under a meter Global Positioning System (GPS) localization, easy to utilize with any vehicle with a trailer towing system and focused on a complete low cost solution. The paper describes the system architecture of the developed prototype, its calibration procedure, the performed experimentation and some obtained results, along with a discussion and comparison with existing systems. Sustained operating trailer speeds of up to 30 km/h are achievable without loss of quality at 4096 pixels' image width (1 m width of road surface) with 250 µm/pixel resolution. Higher scanning speeds can be achieved by lowering the image resolution (120 km/h with 1 mm/pixel). Computer vision algorithms are under development to operate on the captured images in order to automatically detect road-kills of amphibians.

  17. Transition between bulk and surface refractive index sensitivity of micro-cavity in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer induced by thin film deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmietana, Mateusz; Janik, Monika; Koba, Marcin; Bock, Wojtek J

    2017-10-16

    In this work we discuss the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of a micro-cavity in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the form of a cylindrical hole (40-50 μm in diameter) fabricated in a standard single-mode optical fiber using a femtosecond laser. The surface of the micro-cavity was coated with up to 400 nm aluminum oxide thin film using the atomic layer deposition method. Next, the film was progressively chemically etched and the influence on changes in the RI of liquid in the micro-cavity was determined at different stages of the experiment, i.e., at different thicknesses of the film. An effect of transition between sensitivity to the film thickness (surface) and the RI of liquid in the cavity (bulk) is demonstrated for the first time. We have found that depending on the interferometer working conditions determined by thin film properties, the device can be used for investigation of phenomena taking place at the surface, such as in case of specific label-free biosensing applications, or for small-volume RI analysis as required in analytical chemistry.

  18. Measurements of the toroidal plasma rotation velocity in TFTR major-radius compression experiments with auxiliary neutral beam heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitter, M.; Scott, S.; Wong, K.L.

    1986-07-01

    The time history of the central toroidal plasma rotation velocity in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) experiments with auxiliary heating by neutral deuterium beam injection and major-radius compression has been measured from the Doppler shift of the emitted TiXXI-Kα line radiation. The experiments were conducted for neutral beam powers in the range from 2.1 to 3.8 MW and line-averaged densities in the range from 1.8 to 3.0 x 10 19 m -2 . The observed rotation velocity increase during compression is in agreement with results from modeling calculations which assume classical slowing-down of the injected fast deuterium ions and momentum damping at the rate established in the precompression plasma

  19. Design of auxiliary shield for remote controlled metallographic microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hiroki; Okamoto, Hisato

    2014-06-01

    The remote controlled optical microscope installed in the lead cell at the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been upgraded to a higher performance unit to study the effect of the microstructural evolution in clad material on the high burn-up fuel behavior under the accident condition. The optical pass of the new microscope requires a new through hole in the shielding lead wall of the cell. To meet safety regulations, auxiliary lead shieldings were designed to cover the lost shielding function of the cell wall. Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System (PHITS) was used to calculate and determine the shape and setting positions of the shielding unit. Seismic assessments of the unit were also performed. (author)

  20. LOX/LH2 vane pump for auxiliary propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminger, J. A.; Ulbricht, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    Positive displacement pumps offer potential efficiency advantages over centrifugal pumps for future low thrust space missions. Low flow rate applications, such as space station auxiliary propulsion or dedicated low thrust orbiter transfer vehicles, are typical of missions where low flow and high head rise challenge centrifugal pumps. The positive displacement vane pump for pumping of LOX and LH2 is investigated. This effort has included: (1) a testing program in which pump performance was investigated for differing pump clearances and for differing pump materials while pumping LN2, LOX, and LH2; and (2) an analysis effort, in which a comprehensive pump performance analysis computer code was developed and exercised. An overview of the theoretical framework of the performance analysis computer code is presented, along with a summary of analysis results. Experimental results are presented for pump operating in liquid nitrogen. Included are data on the effects on pump performance of pump clearance, speed, and pressure rise. Pump suction performance is also presented.

  1. Development of the APR+ Auxiliary Building General Arrangement (GA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hyung Keun; Park, Young Sheop; Kang, Yong Chul

    2011-01-01

    The general arrangement (GA) drawing of a nuclear power plant is the most basic drawing which contains all of the plant equipment, systems, and rooms. Therefore, it should be issued at an early design stage to provide the contours of the overall plant structure. This type of drawing is typically used widely throughout the design stages. The development project of APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor+), as a succeeding model of the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400) design, has its own GA that encompasses all of its power buildings. This was developed starting in October of 2009. Among several of the buildings in this design, the Auxiliary Building (AB) is one of the most important buildings to produce electricity, and to protect against undesirable radiation emissions. This paper focuses on the design characteristics of the general arrangement of the AB

  2. Auxiliary fields in the geometrical relativistic particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, A; Bagatella, N; Rojas, E; Cordero, R

    2008-01-01

    We describe how to construct the dynamics of relativistic particles, following either timelike or null curves, by means of an auxiliary variables method instead of the standard theory of deformations for curves. There are interesting physical particle models governed by actions that involve higher order derivatives of the embedding functions of the worldline. We point out that the mechanical content of such models can be extracted wisely from a lower order action, which can be performed by implementing in the action a finite number of constraints that involve the geometrical relationship structures inherent to a curve and by using a covariant formalism. We emphasize our approach for null curves. For such systems, the natural time parameter is a pseudo-arclength whose properties resemble those of the standard proper time. We illustrate the formalism by applying it to some models for relativistic particles

  3. Auxiliary fields in the geometrical relativistic particle dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador, A; Bagatella, N; Rojas, E [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Cordero, R [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico D.F (Mexico)], E-mail: aramador@gmail.com, E-mail: nbagatella@uv.mx, E-mail: cordero@esfm.ipn.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx

    2008-03-21

    We describe how to construct the dynamics of relativistic particles, following either timelike or null curves, by means of an auxiliary variables method instead of the standard theory of deformations for curves. There are interesting physical particle models governed by actions that involve higher order derivatives of the embedding functions of the worldline. We point out that the mechanical content of such models can be extracted wisely from a lower order action, which can be performed by implementing in the action a finite number of constraints that involve the geometrical relationship structures inherent to a curve and by using a covariant formalism. We emphasize our approach for null curves. For such systems, the natural time parameter is a pseudo-arclength whose properties resemble those of the standard proper time. We illustrate the formalism by applying it to some models for relativistic particles.

  4. Bistable energy harvesting enhancement with an auxiliary linear oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harne, R. L.; Thota, M.; Wang, K. W.

    2013-12-01

    Recent work has indicated that linear vibrational energy harvesters with an appended degree-of-freedom (DOF) may be advantageous for introducing new dynamic forms to extend the operational bandwidth. Given the additional interest in bistable harvester designs, which exhibit a propitious snap through effect from one stable state to the other, it is a logical extension to explore the influence of an added DOF to a bistable system. However, bistable snap through is not a resonant phenomenon, which tempers the presumption that the dynamics induced by an additional DOF on bistable designs would inherently be beneficial as for linear systems. This paper presents two analytical formulations to assess the fundamental and superharmonic steady-state dynamics of an excited bistable energy harvester to which is attached an auxiliary linear oscillator. From an energy harvesting perspective, the model predicts that the additional linear DOF uniformly amplifies the bistable harvester response magnitude and generated power for excitation frequencies less than the attachment’s resonance while improved power density spans a bandwidth below this frequency. Analyses predict bandwidths having co-existent responses composed of a unique proportion of fundamental and superharmonic dynamics. Experiments validate key analytical predictions and observe the ability for the coupled system to develop an advantageous multi-harmonic interwell response when the initial conditions are insufficient for continuous high-energy orbit at the excitation frequency. Overall, the addition of an auxiliary linear oscillator to a bistable harvester is found to be an effective means of enhancing the energy harvesting performance and robustness.

  5. STARTER-GENERATOR SYSTEM FOR AUXILIARY POWER UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Levin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a starter-generator system for an auxiliary power unit of an aircraft. A feature of the presented system is the use of a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets and a semiconductor converter. The main problem of the system is the generation of electric energy of an aircraft on the basis of a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets is the absence of the possibility of regulating the voltage and frequency of electrical energy, in this connection, a semiconductor converter that ensures the conversion of generated electric energy with significant mass-dimensions characteristics.The article proposes an approach to designing a starter-generator system with a parallel connection of a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets and a semiconductor converter. This approach makes it possible to significantly reduce the part of the electrical energy that needs to be converted, as a consequence, the semiconductor converter has significantly smaller mass-and-batch characteristics.In the article the modes of generation of electric energy and the starter mode of operation of the starter-generator system are considered in detail, the circuit realization of the semiconductor converter is shown. A scheme for replacing one phase of the system for generating electric energy and calculating electric parameters is presented.The possibility of creating a highly efficient starter-generator system based on a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets and a semiconductor converter for an auxiliary power plant of aircrafts is shown. Structural and basic schemes for constructing a system for generating electrical energy are proposed. The approach to the choice of rational circuit solutions is substantiated, basic estimates of the electrical parameters of the system are obtained. The possibility of achieving a specific mass of a semiconductor converter for synchronous

  6. Dimers at Ge/Si(001) surfaces: Ge coverage dependent quenching, reactivation of flip-flop motion, and interaction with dimer vacancy lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, H.; Mizuno, H.; Yoshida, R.

    2002-01-01

    We studied Ge coverage (θ Ge ) dependent quenching, reactivation of the flip-flop motion, and interaction with dimer vacancy lines (DVLs) of dimers on Ge/Si(001) surfaces using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) combined with a molecular beam epitaxy apparatus. Deposition of ∼0.3 ML (monolayer) Ge quenched the flip-flop motion, making all dimers asymmetric. Further deposition introduced DVLs at θ Ge ≥∼0.5 ML, and symmetric dimer domains appeared again locally at θ≥1.5 ML. High-resolution STM images indicated that asymmetric dimer rows always invert their phase in alternation with buckled dimer's up-end at the DVLs. Low-temperature STM images indicated that the symmetric dimer domains were due to flip-flopping of asymmetric dimers activated by large θ Ge at room temperature. The symmetric dimer domains extended along the dimer rows over the DVLs due to the phase correlation

  7. Morphology, cell viability, karyotype, expression of surface markers and plasticity of three human primary cell line cultures before and after the cryostorage in LN2 and GN2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino, Alberto; Ligero, Gertrudis; López, María B; Navarro, Héctor; Carrillo, Jose A; Pantoll, Siobhan C; Díaz de la Guardia, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Primary cell line cultures from human skin biopsies, adipose tissue and tumor tissue are valuable samples for research and therapy. In this regard, their derivation, culture, storage, transport and thawing are important steps to be studied. Towards this end, we wanted to establish the derivation, and identify the culture characteristics and the loss of viability of three human primary cell line cultures (human adult dermal fibroblasts (hADFs), human adult mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), and primary culture of tumor cells from lung adenocarcinoma (PCTCLA)). Compared to fresh hADFs, hMSCs and PCTCLA, thawed cells stored in a cryogenic Dewar tanks with liquid nitrogen (LN2), displayed 98.20% ± 0.99, 95.40% ± 1.41 and 93.31% ± 3.83 of cell viability, respectively. Thawed cells stored in a Dry Vapor Shipper container with gas phase (GN2), for 20 days, in addition displayed 4.61% ± 2.78, 3.70% ± 4.09 and 9.13% ± 3.51 of average loss of cells viability, respectively, showing strong correlation between the loss of viability in hADFs and the number of post-freezing days in the Dry Vapor Shipper. No significant changes in morphological characteristics or in the expression of surface markers (being hADFs, hMSCs and PCTCLA characterized by positive markers CD73+; CD90+; CD105+; and negative markers CD14-; CD20-; CD34-; and CD45-; n=2) were found. Chromosome abnormalities in the karyotype were not found. In addition, under the right conditions hMSCs were differentiated into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages in vitro. In this paper, we have shown the characteristics of three human primary cell line cultures when they are stored in LN2 and GN2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. UAV Remote Sensing Can Reveal the Effects of Low-Impact Seismic Lines on Surface Morphology, Hydrology, and Methane (CH4) Release in a Boreal Treed Bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovitt, J.; Rahman, M. M.; Saraswati, S.; McDermid, G. J.; Strack, M.; Xu, B.

    2018-03-01

    Peatlands are globally significant stores of soil carbon, where local methane (CH4) emissions are strongly linked to water table position and microtopography. Historically, these factors have been difficult to measure in the field, constraining our capacity to observe local patterns of variability. In this paper, we show how remote sensing surveys conducted from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms can be used to map microtopography and depth to water over large areas with good accuracy, paving the way for spatially explicit estimates of CH4 emissions. This approach enabled us to observe—for the first time—the effects of low-impact seismic lines (LIS; petroleum exploration corridors) on surface morphology and CH4 emissions in a treed-bog ecosystem in northern Alberta, Canada. Through compaction, LIS lines were found to flatten the observed range in microtopographic elevation by 46 cm and decrease mean depth to water by 15.4 cm, compared to surrounding undisturbed conditions. These alterations are projected to increase CH4 emissions by 20-120% relative to undisturbed areas in our study area, which translates to a total rise of 0.011-0.027 kg CH4 day-1 per linear kilometer of LIS ( 2 m wide). The 16 km of LIS present at our 61 ha study site were predicted to boost CH4 emissions by 20-70 kg between May and September 2016.

  9. Determination of six microcystins and nodularin in surface and drinking waters by on-line solid phase extraction-ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Eduardo; Ibáñez, María; Sancho, Juan Vicente; Hernández, Félix

    2012-11-30

    Microcystins and nodularin are cyclic peptides hepatotoxins produced by cyanobacterial genera (blue-green algae). Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are a worldwide problem, as reported in several countries, like China, Australia, or the United States. Therefore, it is necessary to develop sensitive and reliable analytical methodology to determine this type of toxins in water at parts per billion levels, or even lower. In this work, the potential of solid-phase extraction coupled on-line to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS) has been investigated for the efficient quantification and confirmation of microcystins LR, RR, YR, LY, LW, LF and nodularin in surface and drinking water samples, at sub-ppb levels. The method developed involves the injection of only 1 mL of water sample into the on-line SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS system and allows the rapid determination of the compounds selected (8 min of chromatographic run), avoiding laborious sample treatment. The method was validated in surface and drinking water by means of recovery experiments at 0.25 and 1 μg L(-1). Average recoveries (n=5) ranged from 71 to 116%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 15%. For microcystins LR, RR, YR and nodularin, a third level was also assayed (0.1 μg L(-1)) obtaining satisfactory data too. Limits of detection between 0.002 and 0.0405 μg L(-1) were estimated (0.0005 μg L(-1) for nodularin). The developed method was applied to the analysis of water samples collected in the province of Castellón (Spain). The acquisition of three MS/MS transitions for each compound allowed the unequivocal confirmation of positive samples, which was supported by the accomplishment of ion intensity ratios and retention time when compared with reference standards. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Modal Auxiliaries and Their Semantic Functions Used by Advanced EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabiardakani, Najmeh; Khojasteh, Laleh; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Since modal auxiliary verbs have been proved to be one of the most troublesome grammatical structures in English, the researchers of this study decided to do an analysis on the ways in which advanced EFL Iranian students use modal auxiliaries focusing specially on nine modals' semantic functions. Consequently, was conducted based on the following…

  11. Auxiliary Armed Forces and Innovations in Security Governance in Mozambique’s Civil War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentzsch, C.

    2017-01-01

    Who rules during the civil war? This article argues that the concept of armed group governance must be expanded to include auxiliary armed forces linked to rebels or the government. Comparing the organization of rebel and government auxiliaries, the article demonstrates that security governance

  12. 14 CFR 33.96 - Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.96 Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode. If the engine is designed with a propeller brake which...

  13. Auxiliary bearing design and rotor dynamics analysis of blower fan for HTR-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Mingshan; Yang Guojun; Xu Yang; Zhao Lei; Yu Suyuan

    2005-01-01

    The electromagnetic bearing instead of ordinary mechanical bearing was chosen to support the rotor in the blower fan system with helium of 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled test reactor (HTR-10), and the auxiliary bearing was applied in the HTR-10 as the backup protector. When the electromagnetic bearing doesn't work suddenly for the power broken, the auxiliary bearing is used to support the falling rotor with high rotating speed. The rotor system will be protected by the auxiliary bearing. The design of auxiliary bearing is the ultimate safeguard for the system. This rotor is vertically mounted to hold the blower fan. The rotor's length is about 1.5 m, its weight is about 240 kg and the rotating speed is about 5400 r/min. Auxiliary bearing design and rotor dynamics analysis are very important for the design of blower fan to make success. The research status of the auxiliary bearing was summarized in the paper. A sort of auxiliary bearing scheme was proposed. MSC.Marc was selected to analyze the vibration mode and the natural frequency of the rotor. The scheme design of auxiliary bearing and analysis result of rotor dynamics offer the important theoretical base for the protector design and control system of electromagnetic bearing of the blower fan. (authors)

  14. How Does Dissociation between Written and Oral Forms Affect Reading: Evidence from Auxiliary Verbs in Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Raphiq

    2011-01-01

    In Arabic, auxiliary verbs are necessary in the written language, but absent from the oral language. This is contrary to languages such as English and French in which auxiliary verbs are mandatory in both written and oral languages. This fact was exploited to examine if dissociation between written and oral forms affects reading measures like…

  15. Dummy auxiliaries in child and adult second language acquisition of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.B.T.; de Korte, S.

    2011-01-01

    In previous research it has been observed that second language (L2) learners of Dutch and German use analytic verbs in contexts where the target language requires synthetic verbs. These analytic verbs consist of a semantically empty auxiliary (dummy auxiliary) that selects a lexical infinitive. In

  16. 46 CFR 52.01-35 - Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and heating boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and... (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-35 Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal... requirements for miscellaneous boiler types, such as donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, heating boiler, etc...

  17. A probabilistic evaluation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant auxiliary feedwater isolation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anoba, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a fault tree approach that was used to evaluate the safety significance of modifying the Shearon Harris Auxiliary Feedwater Isolation System. The design modification was a result of on-site reviews which identified a single failure in the Auxiliary Feedwater Isolation circuitry

  18. 29 CFR Appendix II to Part 1918 - Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear (Mandatory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear (Mandatory) II Appendix II to Part 1918 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND.... 1918, App. II Appendix II to Part 1918—Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear (Mandatory...

  19. Carbon 1s photoemission line analysis of C-based adsorbate on (111)In{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface: The influence of reducing and oxidizing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinzari, V., E-mail: vbrinzari@mail.ru [State University of Moldova, Chisinau, str. Mateevich 60A, MD-2009, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Cho, B.K. [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Korotcenkov, G., E-mail: ghkoro@yahoo.com [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • C 1s PE line of (111)In{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer after cleaning and gas probing in HV was studied. • C 1s line fine structure is formed by various residual C-based adsorbates. • Some C 1s line features were interpreted as CO adsorption and dissociation. • Redox properties of surface determine either adsorption or dissociation of CO. • Dissociation of CO on oxidized surface is responsible for acceptor-like effect. - Abstract: Synchrotron radiation photoemission study of C 1s line of (111) In{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface was carried out under HV (high vacuum) doses of oxygen, carbon monoxide and water. Gas interaction with the surface was activated by heating of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} monocrystalline film at temperatures of 160 or 250 °C. The study of complex structure of C 1 s line and evolution of its fine components allowed to establish their nature and to propose possible surface adsorbed species and reactions, including a direct chemisorption and dissociation of CO molecules. Reduction or oxidation of the surface determines whether the first (chemisorption) or the second (dissociation) process takes place. The latter is responsible for additional formation of ionosorbed oxygen. Both processes have not been previously reported for In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and for conductive metal oxides.

  20. Goal programming for cyclical auxiliary police scheduling at UiTM Cawangan Perlis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapar, Wasilatul Effah; Nasir, Diana Sirmayunie Mohd; Nor, Nor Azriani Mohamad; Abas, Sharifah Fhahriyah Syed

    2017-11-01

    Constructing a good and fair schedule for shift workers poses a great challenge as it requires a lot of time and effort. In this study, goal programming has been applied on scheduling to achieve the hard and soft constraints for a cyclical schedule that would ease the head of auxiliary police at building new schedules. To accomplish this goal, shift types were assigned in order to provide a fair schedule that takes into account the auxiliary police's policies and preferences. The model was run using Lingo software. Three out of four goals set for the study were achieved. In addition, the results considered an equal allocation for every auxiliary police, namely 70% for total duty and 30% for the day. Furthermore, the schedule was able to cyclically generate another 10 sets schedule. More importantly, the model has provided unbiased scheduling of auxiliary policies which led to high satisfaction in auxiliary police management.

  1. Expression of surface markers on the human monocytic leukaemia cell line, THP-1, as indicators for the sensitizing potential of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Susun; Kim, Seoyoung; Huh, Yong; Lee, Tae Ryong; Kim, Han-Kon; Park, Kui-Lea; Eun, Hee Chul

    2009-04-01

    Evaluation of skin sensitization potential is an important part of the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and topical drugs. Recently, evaluation of changes in surface marker expression induced in dendritic cells (DC) or DC surrogate cell lines following exposure to chemicals represents one approach for in vitro test methods. The study aimed to test the change of expression patterns of surface markers on THP-1 cells by chemicals as a predictive in vitro method for contact sensitization. We investigated the expression of CD54, CD86, CD83, CD80, and CD40 after a 1-day exposure to sensitizers (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene; 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene; benzocaine; 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one; hexyl cinnamic aldehyde; eugenol; nickel sulfate hexahydrate; potassium dichromate; cobalt sulfate; 2-mercaptobenzothiazole; and ammonium tetrachloroplatinate) and non-sensitizers (sodium lauryl sulfate, benzalkonium chloride, lactic acid, salicylic acid, isopropanol, and dimethyl sulphoxide). The test concentrations were 0.1x, 0.5x, and 1x of the 50% inhibitory concentration, and the relative fluorescence intensity was used as an expression indicator. By evaluating the expression patterns of CD54, CD86, and CD40, we could classify the chemicals as sensitizers or non-sensitizers, but CD80 and CD83 showed non-specific patterns of expression. These data suggest that the THP-1 cells are good model for screening contact sensitizers and CD40 could be a useful marker complementary to CD54 and CD86.

  2. Determination of biocides and pesticides by on-line solid phase extraction coupled with mass spectrometry and their behaviour in wastewater and surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, Heinz; Jaus, Sylvia; Hanke, Irene; Lueck, Alfred; Hollender, Juliane; Alder, Alfredo C.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the input of hydrophilic biocides into the aquatic environment and on the efficiency of their removal in conventional wastewater treatment by a mass flux analysis. A fully automated method consisting of on-line solid phase extraction coupled to LC-ESI-MS/MS was developed and validated for the simultaneous trace determination of different biocidal compounds (1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one (BIT), 3-Iodo-2-propynylbutyl-carbamate (IPBC), irgarol 1051 and 2-N-octyl-4-isothiazolinone (octhilinone, OIT), carbendazim, diazinon, diuron, isoproturon, mecoprop, terbutryn and terbutylazine) and pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole) in wastewater and surface water. In the tertiary effluent, the highest average concentrations were determined for mecoprop (1010 ng/L) which was at comparable levels as the pharmaceuticals diclofenac (690 ng/L) and sulfamethoxazole (140 ng/L) but 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the other biocidal compounds. Average eliminations for all compounds were usually below 50%. During rain events, increased residual amounts of biocidal contaminants are discharged to receiving surface waters. - Incomplete removal of biocides and pesticides during wastewater treatment.

  3. Determination of biocides and pesticides by on-line solid phase extraction coupled with mass spectrometry and their behaviour in wastewater and surface water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Heinz; Jaus, Sylvia; Hanke, Irene; Lueck, Alfred; Hollender, Juliane [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Alder, Alfredo C., E-mail: alfredo.alder@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2010-10-15

    This study focused on the input of hydrophilic biocides into the aquatic environment and on the efficiency of their removal in conventional wastewater treatment by a mass flux analysis. A fully automated method consisting of on-line solid phase extraction coupled to LC-ESI-MS/MS was developed and validated for the simultaneous trace determination of different biocidal compounds (1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one (BIT), 3-Iodo-2-propynylbutyl-carbamate (IPBC), irgarol 1051 and 2-N-octyl-4-isothiazolinone (octhilinone, OIT), carbendazim, diazinon, diuron, isoproturon, mecoprop, terbutryn and terbutylazine) and pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole) in wastewater and surface water. In the tertiary effluent, the highest average concentrations were determined for mecoprop (1010 ng/L) which was at comparable levels as the pharmaceuticals diclofenac (690 ng/L) and sulfamethoxazole (140 ng/L) but 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the other biocidal compounds. Average eliminations for all compounds were usually below 50%. During rain events, increased residual amounts of biocidal contaminants are discharged to receiving surface waters. - Incomplete removal of biocides and pesticides during wastewater treatment.

  4. Conditional inactivation of p53 in mouse ovarian surface epithelium does not alter MIS driven Smad2-dominant negative epithelium-lined inclusion cysts or teratomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M Quartuccio

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy among US women. The etiology of this disease, although poorly understood, may involve the ovarian surface epithelium or the epithelium of the fallopian tube fimbriae as the progenitor cell. Disruptions in the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ pathway and p53 are frequently found in chemotherapy-resistant serous ovarian tumors. Transgenic mice expressing a dominant negative form of Smad2 (Smad2DN, a downstream transcription factor of the TGFβ signaling pathway, targeted to tissues of the reproductive tract were created on a FVB background. These mice developed epithelium-lined inclusion cysts, a potential precursor lesion to ovarian cancer, which morphologically resembled oviductal epithelium but exhibited protein expression more closely resembling the ovarian surface epithelium. An additional genetic "hit" of p53 deletion was predicted to result in ovarian tumors. Tissue specific deletion of p53 in the ovaries and oviducts alone was attempted through intrabursal or intraoviductal injection of Cre-recombinase expressing adenovirus (AdCreGFP into p53 (flox/flox mice. Ovarian bursal cysts were detected in some mice 6 months after intrabursal injection. No pathological abnormalities were detected in mice with intraoviductal injections, which may be related to decreased infectivity of the oviductal epithelium with adenovirus as compared to the ovarian surface epithelium. Bitransgenic mice, expressing both the Smad2DN transgene and p53 (flox/flox, were then exposed to AdCreGFP in the bursa and oviductal lumen. These mice did not develop any additional phenotypes. Exposure to AdCreGFP is not an effective methodology for conditional deletion of floxed genes in oviductal epithelium and tissue specific promoters should be employed in future mouse models of the disease. In addition, a novel phenotype was observed in mice with high expression of the Smad2DN transgene as validated

  5. Heat removal performance of auxiliary cooling system for the high temperature engineering test reactor during scrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Takeshi; Tachibana, Yukio; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Takenaka, Satsuki

    2003-01-01

    The auxiliary cooling system of the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) is employed for heat removal as an engineered safety feature when the reactor scrams in an accident when forced circulation can cool the core. The HTTR is the first high temperature gas-cooled reactor in Japan with reactor outlet gas temperature of 950 degree sign C and thermal power of 30 MW. The auxiliary cooling system should cool the core continuously avoiding excessive cold shock to core graphite components and water boiling of itself. Simulation tests on manual trip from 9 MW operation and on loss of off-site electric power from 15 MW operation were carried out in the rise-to-power test up to 20 MW of the HTTR. Heat removal characteristics of the auxiliary cooling system were examined by the tests. Empirical correlations of overall heat transfer coefficients were acquired for a helium/water heat exchanger and air cooler for the auxiliary cooling system. Temperatures of fluids in the auxiliary cooling system were predicted on a scram event from 30 MW operation at 950 degree sign C of the reactor outlet coolant temperature. Under the predicted helium condition of the auxiliary cooling system, integrity of fuel blocks among the core graphite components was investigated by stress analysis. Evaluation results showed that overcooling to the core graphite components and boiling of water in the auxiliary cooling system should be prevented where open area condition of louvers in the air cooler is the full open

  6. Practical auxiliary basis implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janesko, Benjamin G.; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Approximate exchange-correlation functionals for Kohn-Sham density functional theory often benefit from incorporating exact exchange. Exact exchange is constructed from the noninteracting reference system's nonlocal one-particle density matrix γ(r -vector ,r -vector ′). Rung 3.5 functionals attempt to balance the strengths and limitations of exact exchange using a new ingredient, a projection of γ(r -vector ,r -vector ′) onto a semilocal model density matrix γ SL (ρ(r -vector ),∇ρ(r -vector ),r -vector −r -vector ′). γ SL depends on the electron density ρ(r -vector ) at reference point r -vector , and is closely related to semilocal model exchange holes. We present a practical implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals, expanding the r -vector −r -vector ′ dependence of γ SL in an auxiliary basis set. Energies and energy derivatives are obtained from 3D numerical integration as in standard semilocal functionals. We also present numerical tests of a range of properties, including molecular thermochemistry and kinetics, geometries and vibrational frequencies, and bandgaps and excitation energies. Rung 3.5 functionals typically provide accuracy intermediate between semilocal and hybrid approximations. Nonlocal potential contributions from γ SL yield interesting successes and failures for band structures and excitation energies. The results enable and motivate continued exploration of Rung 3.5 functional forms

  7. Seismic qualification of PWR plant auxiliary feedwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.C.; Tsai, N.C.

    1983-08-01

    The NRC Standard Review Plan specifies that the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) is a safeguard system that functions in the event of a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) to remove the decay heat via the steam generator. Only recently licensed PWR plants have an AFW system designed to the current Standard Review Plan specifications. The NRC devised the Multiplant Action Plan C-14 in order to make a survey of the seismic capability of the AFW systems of operating PWR plants. The purpose of this survey is to enable the NRC to make decisions regarding the need of requiring the licensees to upgrade the AFW systems to an SSE level of seismic capability. To implement the first phase of the C-14 plan, the NRC issued a Generic Letter (GL) 81-14 to all operating PWR licensees requesting information on the seismic capability of their AFW systems. This report summarizes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's efforts to assist the NRC in evaluating the status of seismic qualification of the AFW systems in 40 PWR plants, by reviewing the licensees' responses to GL 81-14

  8. Auxiliary controllers for data acquisition from scintillation detector electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonenko, D A; Rybakov, V G; Sen' ko, V A [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Serpukhov. Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij

    1983-01-01

    Structural schemes of auxiliary controllers of three types ensuring compression, filtration and record in buffer storage of data from scintillation detectors electronic equipment are described. The electronics is made according to the CAMAC ideology. The KD-85 controller exercises data readout from analog-to-digital converters (ADC), subtraction of pedestal values, discrimination by the bottom level and record into the buffer storage module. The KD-86 controller summarizes data from all the ADC channels in a crate dicscriminates the summarized data by the upper and bottom levels, and rejects data classified as useless. The KD-90 controller ensures data reading from different modules of the crate according to preset code and records information in the buffer storage module. The considered controllers employ integral microcircuits of the K 155 series. At present the controllers are under experimental operation. Their utilization would permit to adopt new arrangement of data acquisition from experimental facilities in the nearest future and essentially increase the operating efficiency of these facilities.

  9. A magnetorheological clutch for efficient automotive auxiliary device actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bucchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of a project funded by Regione Toscana aimed at reducing the power absorption of auxiliary devices in vehicles are presented. In particular the design, testing and application of a magnetorheological clutch (MR is proposed, aimed at disengaging the vacuum pump, which draws in air from the power-brake booster chamber, in order to reduce the device power absorption. Several clutch preliminary studies done to choose the clutch geometry and the magnetic field supply are illustrated. The final choice consisted in an MR clutch with permanent magnet, which satisfied size, torque and fail-safe specifications. The clutch characteristics, in terms of torque versus slip, were obtained experimentally for three different clutch prototypes on an ad-hoc developed test bench.As result of a preliminary simulation, a comparison between the power absorption of a current production vacuum pump, an innovative vacuum pump and both vacuum pumps coupled with the MR clutch is presented. The New European Driving Cycle is considered for simulating the vacuum pump operation both in urban and highway driving. Results show that the use of the innovative vacuum pump reduces the device consumption of about 35%, whereas the use of MR clutch coupled with the innovative vacuum pump reduces it up to about 44% in urban driving and 50% in highway driving.

  10. Auxiliary water supply device for BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Hiroshi.

    1994-01-01

    In the device of the present invention, a cooling condensation means is disposed to a steam discharge channel of a turbine for driving pumps to directly return condensates to the reactor, so that the temperature of the suppression pool water is not elevated. Namely, the cooling condensation means for discharged steams is disposed to the discharge channel of the turbine. The condensate channel from the cooling condensation means is connected to a sucking side of the turbine driving pump. With such a constitution, when the reactor is isolated from a main steam system, reactor scram is conducted. Although the reactor water level is lowered by the reactor scram, the lowering of the reactor water level is prevented by supplementing cooling water by the turbine driving pump using steams generated in the reactor as a power source. The discharged steams after driving the turbine are cooled and condensated by the cooling condensation means by way of the discharge channel and returned to the reactor again by way of the condensate channel. With such procedures, since the temperature of suppression pool water is not elevated, there is no need to operate other cooling systems. In addition, auxiliary water can be supplied for a long period of time. (I.S.)

  11. Simulation of a passive auxiliary feedwater system with TRACE5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorduy, María; Gallardo, Sergio; Verdú, Gumersindo, E-mail: maloral@upv.es, E-mail: sergalbe@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [Instituto Universitario de Seguridad Industrial, Radiofísica y Medioambiental (ISIRYM), València (Spain)

    2017-07-01

    The study of the nuclear power plant accidents occurred in recent decades, as well as the probabilistic risk assessment carried out for this type of facility, present human error as one of the main contingency factors. For this reason, the design and development of generation III, III+ and IV reactors, which include inherent and passive safety systems, have been promoted. In this work, a TRACE5 model of ATLAS (Advanced Thermal- Hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation) is used to reproduce an accidental scenario consisting in a prolonged Station BlackOut (SBO). In particular, the A1.2 test of the OECD-ATLAS project is analyzed, whose purpose is to study the primary system cooling by means of the water supply to one of the steam generators from a Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS). This safety feature prevents the loss of secondary system inventory by means of the steam condensation and its recirculation. Thus, the conservation of a heat sink allows the natural circulation flow rate until restoring stable conditions. For the reproduction of the test, an ATLAS model has been adapted to the experiment conditions, and a PAFS has been incorporated. >From the simulation test results, the main thermal-hydraulic variables (pressure, flow rates, collapsed water level and temperature) are analyzed in the different circuits, contrasting them with experimental data series. As a conclusion, the work shows the TRACE5 code capability to correctly simulate the behavior of a passive feedwater system. (author)

  12. A Corpus-Based Study on the Use of Past Tense Auxiliary "Be" in Argumentative Essays of Malaysian ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manokaran, Janaki; Ramalingam, Chithra; Adriana, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This research is a corpus-based study of secondary and college ESL Malaysian learner's written work by identifying and classifying the types of errors in the Past Tense Auxiliary "Be". This research studied the past tense auxiliary "be", types of past tense auxiliary "be" errors and frequency of past tense auxiliary…

  13. 76 FR 28795 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security United States Coast Guard-024 Auxiliary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... 1974; Department of Homeland Security United States Coast Guard-024 Auxiliary Database System of... Security/United States Coast Guard-024 Auxiliary Database (AUXDATA) System of Records.'' This system of...: United States Coast Guard Auxiliary Database (AUXDATA). Security classification: Unclassified. System...

  14. On an Approximate Solution Method for the Problem of Surface and Groundwater Combined Movement with Exact Approximation on the Section Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Glazyrina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the initial-boundary problem for two nonlinear parabolic combined equations has been considered. One of the equations is set on the bounded domain Ω from R2, another equation is set along the curve lying in Ω. Both of the equations are parabolic equations with double degeneration. The degeneration can be present at the space operator. Furthermore, the nonlinear function which is under the sign of partial derivative with respect to the variable t, can be bound to zero. This problem has an applied character: such structure is needed to describe the process of surface and ground water combined movement. In this case, the desired function determines the level of water above the given impenetrable bottom, the section simulates the riverbed. The Bussinesk equation has been used for mathematical description of the groundwater filtration process in the domain Ω; a diffusion analogue of the Saint-Venant's system has been used on the section for description of the process of water level change in the open channel. Earlier, the authors proved the theorems of generalized solution existence and uniqueness for the considered problem from the functions classes which are called strengthened Sobolev spaces in the literature. To obtain these results, we used the technique which was created by the German mathematicians (H.W. Alt, S. Luckhaus, F. Otto to establish the correctness of the problems with a double degeneration. In this paper, we have proposed and investigated an approximate solution method for the above-stated problem. This method has been constructed using semidiscretization with respect to the variable t and the finite element method for space variables. Triangulation of the domain has been accomplished by triangles. The mesh has been set on the section line. On each segment of the line section lying between the nearby mesh points, on both side of this segment we have constructed the triangles with a common side which matches with

  15. Auxiliary System Load Schemes in Large Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzle, I.; Bosnjak, D.; Pandzic, H.

    2010-01-01

    Uninterrupted auxiliary system power supply in large power plants is a key factor for normal operation, transient states, start-ups and shutdowns and particularly during fault conditions. Therefore, there are many challenges in designing the main electrical system as well as the auxiliary systems power supply. Depending upon the type of fuel used and the environmental control system required, a thermal power plant may consume as much as 10% of its total generation for auxiliary power, while a nuclear power plant may require only 4 - 6% auxiliaries. In general, the larger the power generating plant, the higher the voltage selected for the AC auxiliary electric system. Most stations in the 75 to 500 MW range utilize 4,2 kV as the base auxiliary system voltage. Large generating stations 500 - 1000 MW and more use voltage levels of 6,9 kV and more. Some single dedicated loads such as electric driven boiler feed pumps are supplied ba a 13,8 kV bus. While designing the auxiliary electric system, the following areas must be considered: motor starting requirements, voltage regulation requirements, short-circuit duty requirements, economic considerations, reliability and alternate sources. Auxiliary power supply can't be completely generalized and each situation should be studied on its own merits to determine the optimal solution. Naturally, nuclear power plants have more reliability requirements and safety design criteria. Main coolant-pump power supply and continuity of service to other vital loads deserve special attention. This paper presents an overview of some up-to-date power plant auxiliary load system concepts. The main types of auxiliary loads are described and the electric diagrams of the modern auxiliary system supply concepts are given. Various alternative sources of auxiliary electrical supply are considered, the advantages and disadvantages of these are compared and proposals are made for high voltage distribution systems around the thermal and nuclear plant

  16. An Auxiliary Equation for the Bellman Equation in a One-Dimensional Ergodic Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Y.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we consider the Bellman equation in a one-dimensional ergodic control. Our aim is to show the existence and the uniqueness of its solution under general assumptions. For this purpose we introduce an auxiliary equation whose solution gives the invariant measure of the diffusion corresponding to an optimal control. Using this solution, we construct a solution to the Bellman equation. Our method of using this auxiliary equation has two advantages in the one-dimensional case. First, we can solve the Bellman equation under general assumptions. Second, this auxiliary equation gives an optimal Markov control explicitly in many examples

  17. Perceived oral health status and treatment needs of dental auxiliaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodo, Clement C; Ehizele, Adebola O; Umoh, Agnes; Ojehanon, Patrick I; Akhionbare, Osagie; Okechukwu, Robinson; Igbinosa, Lawrence

    2010-03-15

    To determine the perceived oral health status and treatment needs of Nigerian dental therapists in training and dental technology students. A descriptive cross-sectional study of students from Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted using self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on demography, self-reported oral health status, knowledge of impact of oral health on daily life activity, dental attendance and perceived dental need. The perception of oral health status and treatment need of the two groups of dental auxiliaries was the same. Fewer respondents (27.3%) rated their oral health as excellent, while 50.4% rated their oral health as good. Majority (95.5%) agreed that oral health is a part of general health and 94.6% agreed that oral health has a role in daily life. Out of 81.4% that had previous dental treatment, scaling and polishing accounted for 66.1%. Presently, 48.8% think they need dental treatment ranging from scaling and polishing (33.9%), tooth restoration (10.3%), to extraction (1.2%). This survey revealed that most of the students are aware that oral health is a component of general health and that it has an impact on an individual's daily life. More than half of the students perceived their oral health as good, but only a few knew that there is a need for a preventive approach to oral health as evident by the percentage that perceived scaling and polishing as a treatment need.

  18. Perceived oral health status and treatment needs of dental auxiliaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement C. Azodo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the perceived oral health status and treatment needs of Nigerian dental therapists in training and dental technology students. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of students from Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted using self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on demography, self-reported oral health status, knowledge of impact of oral health on daily life activity, dental attendance and perceived dental need. Results: The perception of oral health status and treatment need of the two groups of dental auxiliaries was the same. Fewer respondents (27.3% rated their oral health as excellent, while 50.4% rated their oral health as good. Majority (95.5% agreed that oral health is a part of general health and 94.6% agreed that oral health has a role in daily life.Out of 81.4% that had previous dental treatment, scaling and polishing accounted for 66.1%. Presently, 48.8% think they need dental treatment ranging from scaling and polishing (33.9%, tooth restoration (10.3%, to extraction (1.2%. Conclusion: This survey revealed that most of the students are aware that oral health is a component of general health and that it has an impact on an individual's daily life. More than half of the students perceived their oral health as good, but only a few knew that there is a need for a preventive approach to oral health as evident by the percentage that perceived scaling and polishing as a treatment need.

  19. 49 CFR 393.24 - Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.24 Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps. (a) Headlamps. Every bus, truck and truck tractor shall be equipped with headlamps as required by...

  20. Derived Requirements for Double Shell Tank (DST) High Level Waste (HLW) Auxiliary Solids Mobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI, A.R.

    2000-02-28

    The potential need for auxiliary double-shell tank waste mixing and solids mobilization requires an evaluation of optional technologies. This document formalizes those operating and design requirements needed for further engineering evaluations.

  1. Wigner Transport Simulation of Resonant Tunneling Diodes with Auxiliary Quantum Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon-Ho; Shin, Mincheol; Byun, Seok-Joo; Kim, Wangki

    2018-03-01

    Resonant-tunneling diodes (RTDs) with auxiliary quantum wells ( e.g., emitter prewell, subwell, and collector postwell) are studied using a Wigner transport equation (WTE) discretized by a thirdorder upwind differential scheme. A flat-band potential profile is used for the WTE simulation. Our calculations revealed functions of the auxiliary wells as follows: The prewell increases the current density ( J) and the peak voltage ( V p ) while decreasing the peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR), and the postwell decreases J while increasing the PVCR. The subwell affects J and PVCR, but its main effect is to decrease V p . When multiple auxiliary wells are used, each auxiliary well contributes independently to the transport without producing side effects.

  2. The Impact Of Dental Auxiliaries In Oral Health Delivery In Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treat 6-10 patients per day while 13 (29.5%) of respondents work without any direct supervision. Out of ... the training and job description of dental auxiliaries in Cameroon. Introduction .... A Textbook for Preventive and. Community Dentistry.

  3. Numerical analysis of magnetically suspended rotor in HTR-10 helium circulator being dropped into auxiliary bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingxiong; Yang Guojun; Li Yue; Yu Suyuan

    2012-01-01

    Active magnetic bearings (AMB) have been selected to support the rotor of primary helium circulator in commercial 10 Mega-Walt High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTR-10). In an AMB system, the auxiliary bearings are necessary to protect the AMB components in case of losing power. This paper performs the impact simulation of Magnetically Suspended Rotor in HTR-10 Helium Circulator being dropped into the auxiliary bearings using the finite element program ABAQUS. The dynamic response and the strain field of auxiliary bearings are analyzed. The results achieved by the numerical analysis are in agreement with the experiment results. Therefore, the feasibility of the design of auxiliary bearing and the possibility of using the AMB system in the HTR are proved. (authors)

  4. Derived Requirements for Double-Shell Tank (DST) High Level Waste (HLW) Auxiliary Solids Mobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEDESCHI, A.R.

    2000-01-01

    The potential need for auxiliary double-shell tank waste mixing and solids mobilization requires an evaluation of optional technologies. This document formalizes those operating and design requirements needed for further engineering evaluations

  5. [Evaluating work intensity in major and auxiliary occupations of by-product coke industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagulov, N K; Alpysbayeva, Zh T

    2015-01-01

    The article covers evaluation of work strain in major and auxiliary occupations of by-product coke industry. The study results conclude that occupational activity of by-product coke industry workers, under exposure to occupational hazards, affects the workers' performance. Major occupations workers demonstrate higher level of functional strain of CNS, poor concentration of attention and lower ability to switch over, decreased general performance, vs. the auxiliary occupations workers who demonstrated increased cardiovascular and neuro-muscular strain due to occupational activity.

  6. A Method of Auxiliary Sources Approach for Modelling the Impact of Ground Planes on Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2006-01-01

    The Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is employed to model the impact of finite ground planes on the radiation from antennas. Two different antenna test cases are shown and the calculated results agree well with reference measurements......The Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is employed to model the impact of finite ground planes on the radiation from antennas. Two different antenna test cases are shown and the calculated results agree well with reference measurements...

  7. A high-sensitive and quantitative in-line monitoring method for transplutonium elements separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Rongbao; Wang Shiju; Xu Yingpu; Zhang Zengrui

    1986-04-01

    A high-sensitive monitoring device and a quantitative analys technigue for transplutonium elements separation processes are described. X-ray and low energy γ-ray are measured by means of a scintillation monitor with two NaI(Tl) thin crystals. The α spectra of the fluents of ion-exchange column is measured by means of Si(Au) surface barrier in-line monitor. The construction of the monitors, auxiliary electronics, investigation result for the α spectra character of thick source and the calibration method were described. The determination results for extracting process of 243 Am and 244 Cm by ion-exchange chromatography were given. The sensitivity of total adding amount for 243 Am using the 4π scintillation monitor is better than 0.1 μCi. The precision of 243 Am and 244 Cm concentration determination using Si(Au) monitor is +- 5%. The precision of the two metals contents in containers is about +- 10%

  8. Improvement of stability of sinusoidally driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet using auxiliary bias voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jin Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have proposed the auxiliary bias pulse scheme to improve the stability of atmospheric pressure plasma jets driven by an AC sinusoidal waveform excitation source. The stability of discharges can be significantly improved by the compensation of irregular variation in memory voltage due to the effect of auxiliary bias pulse. From the parametric study, such as the width, voltage, and onset time of auxiliary bias pulse, it has been demonstrated that the auxiliary bias pulse plays a significant role in suppressing the irregular discharges caused by the irregular variation in memory voltage and stable discharge can be initiated with the termination of the auxiliary bias pulse. As a result of further investigating the effects of the auxiliary pulse scheme on the jet stability under various process conditions such as the distance between the jet head and the counter electrode, and carrier gas flow, the jet stability can be improved by adjusting the amplitude and number of the bias pulse depending on the variations in the process conditions.

  9. On-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for insect repellent residue analysis in surface waters using atmospheric pressure photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins-Delgado, Daniel; García-Sillero, Daniel; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2018-04-06

    Insect repellents (IRs) are a group of organic chemicals whose function is to prevent the ability of insects of landing in a surface. These compounds have been found in the environment and may pose a risk to non-target organisms. In this study, an on-line solid phase extraction - high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry multiresidue method was developed using an atmospheric photoionization source (SPE-HPLC-(APPI)-MS/MS). The use of the APPI as an alternative ionization technique to electrospray (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) allowed expanding the range of analytical techniques suitable for the analysis of IRs, so far relied in gas chromatography. High sensitivity and precision was reached with method limits of quantification between 0.2 and 4.6 ng l -1 and interday and intraday precision equal or below 15%. The validated method was applied to the study of surface water samples from three European river basins with different flow regime (Adige River in Italy, Sava River in the Balkans, and Evrotas River in Greece). The results showed that two IRs (DEET and Bayrepel) were ubiquitous in the Sava and Evrotas basins, reaching concentrations as high as 105 μg l -1 of Bayrepel in the Sava River, and 5 μg l -1 of DEET in the Evrotas River. Densely populated areas and effluent waste waters are pointed out as the responsible for this pollution. In the alpine river Adige, only three samples showed low levels of IRs (6.01-37.8 ng l -1 ). The concentrations measured were used to perform an environmental risk assessment based on the hazard quotients (HQs) estimation approach by using the chronic and acute eco-toxicity data available. The results revealed that despite the high frequency and eventually high concentrations of these IRs determined in the three basins, only few sites were at risk, with 1 < HQs < 3.3. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prediction of preservative sensitization potential using surface marker CD86 and/or CD54 expression on human cell line, THP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Yoshida, Yukiko; Ito, Yuichi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2007-02-01

    Preservatives are important components in many products, but have a history of purported allergy. Several assays [e.g., guinea pig maximization test (GPMT), local lymph node assay (LLNA)] are used to evaluate allergy potential of preservatives. We recently developed the human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT), an in vitro skin sensitization test using human THP-1 cells. This test evaluates the augmentation of CD86 and CD54 expression, which are key events in the sensitization process, as an indicator of allergy following treatment with test chemical. Earlier, we found that a sub-toxic concentration was needed for the up-regulation of surface marker expression. In this study, we further evaluate the capability of h-CLAT to predict allergy potential using eight preservatives. Cytotoxicity was determined using propidium iodide with flow cytometry analysis and five doses that produce a 95, 85, 75, 65, and 50% cell viability were selected. If a material did not have any cytotoxicity at the highest technical dose (HTD), five doses are set using serial 1.3 dilutions of the HTD. The test materials used were six known allergic preservatives (e.g., methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, formaldehyde), and two non-allergic preservatives (methylparaben and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid). All allergic preservatives augmented CD86 and/or CD54 expression, indicating h-CLAT correctly identified the allergens. No augmentation was observed with the non-allergic preservatives; also correctly identified by h-CLAT. In addition, we report two threshold concentrations that may be used to categorize skin sensitization potency like the LLNA estimated concentration that yield a three-fold stimulation (EC3) value. These corresponding values are the estimated concentration which gives a relative fluorescence intensity (RFI) = 150 for CD86 and an RFI = 200 for CD54. These data suggest that h-CLAT, using THP-1 cells, may be able to predict the allergy potential of preservatives and

  11. Improvement of Equipment reliability for Auxiliary Feed Water System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deok, Lee Sang; Kwan, Lee Yong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    According to AP913 ER) of INPO, Number of the event related to equipment is higher than others like external or human performance. In the top 25 systems, Auxiliary feed water system is the seventh highest among systems. AWFS consists of many component and complex system and Main Function of AFWS is to supply feedwater to the steam generators for the removal of heat from the RCS(Reactor Coolant System) in event the main feedwater system is unavailable following a transient or accident. Reliability of component means how well operate on demands and monitoring is necessary to keep track of condition of component. If component performance is lower than the required value, corrective action for failure mode should be done. The objective of this study is focused to improve of AF pump by adding the tasks of SHR(System Health Report) into the task of system engineer walkdown of PMT(Preventive Maintenance Template). Increasing the reliability of AF pump will contribute to improvement of reliability of AFWS. Based on operating history, there was high vibration of AF pump during performance test. In that case, there were a lot of maintenance works for normal operation of AF pump. Vibration problem related pump can't be detected by tasks of SE walkdown because it's not running during normal operation except for surveillance test. CHR(Component Health Report) of AF pump in AFWS can be made from necessary part which means monitoring and functional failure because problem of Stand-by pump can be covered by conducting monitoring and analysis of functional failure. To improve reliability of AF pump, walkdown of PMT and SHR should be conducted both in accordance with surveillance test frequency. Health of AF pump based on operation history can be verified first and then can find out which parts of pump are weak. Finally, weak part can be managed intensively and failure can be reduced according to SE walkdown. But this work can be risky and burdensome because all parts of

  12. Role stress among auxiliary nurses midwives in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Bhaskar; Vasava, Paul

    2017-01-23

    Understanding Role Stress is important as health service providers, especially nurses experience high levels of Role Stress which is linked to burnout, poor quality of care and high turnover. The current study explicates the concept of Role Stress and assesses the Role Stress experienced by the Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs) working with rural government health centres from Gujarat, India. The study included 84 ANMs working with government health centres from one district in India. A structured instrument with established reliability and validity was used to measure 10 dimensions of Role Stress namely: Inter-role distance, role stagnation, role expectation conflict, role erosion: role overload, role isolation, personal inadequacy, self-role distance, role ambiguity and resource inadequacy. The study instrument was based on 5 point Likert rating scale that contained 50 unidirectional negative statements, 5 for each dimension. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk test were carried out to assess if the data were normally distributed. Cronbach's alpha test was carried out to assess reliability of the instrument. The study data was analyzed using descriptive statistics mainly using mean scores with higher scores indicating higher Role Stress and vice versa. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 19. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk test indicated that the data were normally distributed. Cronbach's alpha test indicated values of 0.852 suggesting high reliability of the tool. The highest Role Stress among ANMs was experienced for resource inadequacy. Role overload, role stagnation and inter-role distance were among the other important role stressors for ANMs. The study results suggests that ANMs frequently feel that: they do not have adequate amount of resources, facilities and financial support from the high levels authorities; people have too many expectations from their roles and as result they are overloaded with work and have very limited opportunities for

  13. Auxiliary heat exchanger for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, H.; Gasch, K.; Lischer, R.; Spilker, H.

    1978-01-01

    The proposal concerns the design configuration of the individual components of a heat exchanger with circular cross-section, being placed within a lined pod of the concrete shell of the pressure vessel. The heat exchanger has got a vertical cooler installed below the circulator. The components are arranged in such manner that the access to the pipe lines for in-service inspections is assured. Uniform velocity distribution of the gas streaming into the cooler from below is to be achieved. (GL) 891 GL/GL 892 MKO [de

  14. Loss Model and Efficiency Analysis of Tram Auxiliary Converter Based on a SiC Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the auxiliary converter in the auxiliary power supply system of a modern tram adopts Si IGBT as its switching device and with the 1700 V/225 A SiC MOSFET module commercially available from Cree, an auxiliary converter using all SiC devices is now possible. A SiC auxiliary converter prototype is developed during this study. The author(s derive the loss calculation formula of the SiC auxiliary converter according to the system topology and principle and each part loss in this system can be calculated based on the device datasheet. Then, the static and dynamic characteristics of the SiC MOSFET module used in the system are tested, which aids in fully understanding the performance of the SiC devices and provides data support for the establishment of the PLECS loss simulation model. Additionally, according to the actual circuit parameters, the PLECS loss simulation model is set up. This simulation model can simulate the actual operating conditions of the auxiliary converter system and calculate the loss of each switching device. Finally, the loss of the SiC auxiliary converter prototype is measured and through comparison it is found that the loss calculation theory and PLECS loss simulation model is valuable. Furthermore, the thermal images of the system can prove the conclusion about loss distribution to some extent. Moreover, these two methods have the advantages of less variables and fast calculation for high power applications. The loss models may aid in optimizing the switching frequency and improving the efficiency of the system.

  15. Communication: Calculation of interatomic forces and optimization of molecular geometry with auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Mario; Zhang, Shiwei

    2018-05-01

    We propose an algorithm for accurate, systematic, and scalable computation of interatomic forces within the auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AFQMC) method. The algorithm relies on the Hellmann-Feynman theorem and incorporates Pulay corrections in the presence of atomic orbital basis sets. We benchmark the method for small molecules by comparing the computed forces with the derivatives of the AFQMC potential energy surface and by direct comparison with other quantum chemistry methods. We then perform geometry optimizations using the steepest descent algorithm in larger molecules. With realistic basis sets, we obtain equilibrium geometries in agreement, within statistical error bars, with experimental values. The increase in computational cost for computing forces in this approach is only a small prefactor over that of calculating the total energy. This paves the way for a general and efficient approach for geometry optimization and molecular dynamics within AFQMC.

  16. The challenges encountered in the integration of an early test wafer surface scanning inspection system into a 450mm manufacturing line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeffrey; McGarvey, Steve

    2013-04-01

    The introduction of early test wafer (ETW) 450mm Surface Scanning Inspection Systems (SSIS) into Si manufacturing has brought with it numerous technical, commercial, and logistical challenges on the path to rapid recipe development and subsequent qualification of other 450mm wafer processing equipment. This paper will explore the feasibility of eliminating the Polystyrene Latex Sphere deposition process step and the subsequent creation of SSIS recipes based upon the theoretical optical properties of both the SSIS and the process film stack(s). The process of Polystyrene Latex Sphere deposition for SSIS recipe generation and development is generally accepted on the previous technology nodes for 150/200/300mm wafers. PSL is deposited with a commercially available deposition system onto a non-patterned bare Si or non-patterned filmed Si wafer. After deposition of multiple PSL spots, located in different positions on a wafer, the wafer is inspected on a SSIS and a response curve is generated. The response curve is based on the the light scattering intensity of the NIST certified PSL that was deposited on the wafer. As the initial 450mm Si wafer manufacturing began, there were no inspection systems with sub-90nm sensitivities available for defect and haze level verification. The introduction of a 450mm sub-30nm inspection system into the manufacturing line generated instant challenges. Whereas the 450mm wafers were relatively defect free at 90nm, at 40nm the wafers contained several hundred thousand defects. When PSL was deposited onto wafers with these kinds of defect levels, PSL with signals less than the sub-90nm defects were difficult to extract. As the defectivity level of the wafers from the Si suppliers rapidly improves the challenges of SSIS recipe creation with high defectivity decreases while at the same time the cost of PSL deposition increases. The current cost per wafer is fifteen thousand dollars for a 450mm PSL deposition service. When viewed from the

  17. Awareness of biomedical waste management among dental professionals and auxiliary staff in Amritsar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Ramandeep S; Manchanda, Adesh; Singh, Simarpreet; Verma, Nitin; Padda, Sarfaraz

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine awareness of biomedical waste (BMW) management policies and practices among dental professionals and auxiliary staff in a dental hospital/clinics in Amritsar, India, to inform the development of future policies for effective implementation of BMW rules. The study involved 160 staff members at the Amritsar hospital/clinics (80 dentists and 80 auxiliary staff) to whom a questionnaire was distributed regarding policies, practices and awareness relating to BMW. The questionnaire was first piloted. Completed questionnaires were returned anonymously. The resulting data were statistically tested using the chi-square test for differences between the dentists and auxiliary staff. In respect of BMW management policies, there was a highly significant difference in the responses of the dentists, whose answers suggested far greater knowledge than that of the auxiliaries (Pmanagement practices, the dentists were significantly more aware (Pwaste collection in the hospital and the disposal of various items into different colour-coded bags. As for employee education/awareness, there was a significant difference (Pmanagement among dental auxiliary staff in the dental hospital/clinics in Amritsar and a lack of awareness of some aspects among dentists who work in the hospital/clinics. The results provide the hospital authorities with data upon which they can develop a strategy for improving BMW management.

  18. Environmental practices of the auxiliary companies to the Spanish automobile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torre, Pilar L.; González, Beatriz A.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The automobile manufacturing industry plays a very important role in a country's economy. The importance of automobile manufacturing industry lies in its sheer size and complexity in terms of the direct and indirect influence it commands across many other industries. While millions of people are employed in the automobile manufacturing industry, it is estimated that more than two and half times that number are employed in the auxiliary companies that supply parts to the automobile manufacturing companies. The auxiliary companies represent a group of businesses of various sizes, types, and geographical locations, producing a vast variety of products ranging from the very simple to the extremely intricate. In this study, the current environmental practices of management in the core Spanish auxiliary companies that do business with the automobile manufacturing industry (and thus form a large part of the automobile manufacturing industry's supply chain) are investigated. We show that while automobile manufacturing companies are under scrutiny to become more and more environmentally friendly, not only at their manufacturing stage but also at their products' useful and EOL stages, there appears to be no such burden on the auxiliary companies. Our conclusion is based on an elaborate survey conducted during the fall of 2004 of Spanish auxiliary companies with questions about the characteristics, environmental practices and reverse logistics related activities carried out by the companies.

  19. Design and Experiment of Auxiliary Bearing for Helium Blower of HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guojun; Shi Zhengang; Liu Xingnan; Zhao Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    The helium blower is the important equipment for HTR-PM. Active magnetic bearing (AMB) instead of mechanical bearing is selected to support the rotor of the helium blower. However, one implication of AMB is the requirement to provide the auxiliary bearing to mitigate the effects of failures or overload conditions. The auxiliary bearing is used to support the rotor when the AMB fails to work. It must support the dropping rotor and bear the great impact force and friction heat. The design of the auxiliary bearing is one of the challenging problems in the whole system. It is very important for the helium blower with AMB of HTR-PM to make success. The rotor’s length of helium blower of HTR-PM is about 3.3 m, its weight is about 4000 kg and the rotating speed is 4000 r/min. The axial load is 4500kg, and the radial load is 1950kg. The angular contact ball bearing was selected as the auxiliary bearing. The test rig has been finished. It is difficult to analyze the falling course of the rotor. The preliminary analysis of the dropping rotor was done in the special condition. The impact force of auxiliary bearing was computed for the axial and radial load. And the dropping test of the blower rotor for HTR-10 will be introduced also in this paper. Results offer the important theoretical base for the protector design of the helium blower with AMB for HTR-PM. (author)

  20. Reduction of residual gas in a sputtering system by auxiliary sputter of rare-earth metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dejie

    2002-01-01

    In film deposition by sputtering, the oxidation and nitrification of the sputtered material lead to degradation of film quality, particularly with respect to metal sulfide films. We propose to use auxiliary sputtering as a method to produce a fresh film of rare-earth metal, usually dysprosium (Dy), that absorbs the active gases in a sputtering system, greatly reducing the background pressure and protecting the film from oxidation and nitrification effectively. The influence of the auxiliary sputtering power consumption, sputtering time, and medium gas pressure on the background pressure in the vacuum chamber is investigated in detail. If the auxiliary sputtering power exceeds 120 W and the sputtering time is more than 4 min, the background pressure is only one fourth of the ultimate pressure pumped by an oil diffusion pump. The absorption activity of the sputtered Dy film continues at least an hour after completion of the auxiliary sputter. Applied to film deposition of Ti and ZnS, this technique has been proven to be effective. For the Ti film, the total content of N and O is reduced from 45% to 20% when the auxiliary sputtering power of Dy is 120 W, and the sputtering time is 20 min. In the case of ZnS, the content of O is reduced from 8% to 2%

  1. Total synthesis of cytochrome b562 by native chemical ligation using a removable auxiliary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Donald W.; Hill, Michael G.; Carrasco, Michael R.; Kent, Stephen B. H.; Botti, Paolo

    2001-01-01

    We have completed the total chemical synthesis of cytochrome b562 and an axial ligand analogue, [SeMet7]cyt b562, by thioester-mediated chemical ligation of unprotected peptide segments. A novel auxiliary-mediated native chemical ligation that enables peptide ligation to be applied to protein sequences lacking cysteine was used. A cleavable thiol-containing auxiliary group, 1-phenyl-2-mercaptoethyl, was added to the α-amino group of one peptide segment to facilitate amide bond-forming ligation. The amine-linked 1-phenyl-2-mercaptoethyl auxiliary was stable to anhydrous hydrogen fluoride used to cleave and deprotect peptides after solid-phase peptide synthesis. Following native chemical ligation with a thioester-containing segment, the auxiliary group was cleanly removed from the newly formed amide bond by treatment with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, yielding a full-length unmodified polypeptide product. The resulting polypeptide was reconstituted with heme and folded to form the functional protein molecule. Synthetic wild-type cyt b562 exhibited spectroscopic and electrochemical properties identical to the recombinant protein, whereas the engineered [SeMet7]cyt b562 analogue protein was spectroscopically and functionally distinct, with a reduction potential shifted by ≈45 mV. The use of the 1-phenyl-2-mercaptoethyl removable auxiliary reported here will greatly expand the applicability of total protein synthesis by native chemical ligation of unprotected peptide segments. PMID:11390992

  2. Simplified technique for auxiliary orthotopic liver transplantation using a whole graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROCHA-SANTOS, Vinicius; NACIF, Lucas Souto; PINHEIRO, Rafael Soares; DUCATTI, Liliana; ANDRAUS, Wellington; D'ALBURQUERQUE, Luiz Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute liver failure is associated with a high mortality rate and the main purposes of treatment are to prevent cerebral edema and infections, which often are responsible for patient death. The orthotopic liver transplantation is the gold standard treatment and improves the 1-year survival. Aim To describe an alternative technique to auxiliary liver transplant on acute liver failure. Method Was performed whole auxiliary liver transplantation as an alternative technique for a partial auxiliary liver transplantation using a whole liver graft from a child removing the native right liver performed a right hepatectomy. The patient met the O´Grady´s criteria and the rational to indicate an auxiliary orthotopic liver transplantation was the acute classification without hemodynamic instability or renal failure in a patient with deterioration in consciousness. Results The procedure improved liver function and decreased intracranial hypertension in the postoperative period. Conclusion This technique can overcome some postoperative complications that are associated with partial grafts. As far as is known, this is the first case of auxiliary orthotopic liver transplantation in Brazil. PMID:26176253

  3. 30 CFR 57.22208 - Auxiliary fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines... fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). (a) Auxiliary fans, except fans used in shops and other areas... applicable requirements of 30 CFR part 18, and be operated so that recirculation is minimized. Auxiliary fans...

  4. On adjustment for auxiliary covariates in additive hazard models for the analysis of randomized experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vansteelandt, S.; Martinussen, Torben; Tchetgen, E. J Tchetgen

    2014-01-01

    We consider additive hazard models (Aalen, 1989) for the effect of a randomized treatment on a survival outcome, adjusting for auxiliary baseline covariates. We demonstrate that the Aalen least-squares estimator of the treatment effect parameter is asymptotically unbiased, even when the hazard...... that, in view of its robustness against model misspecification, Aalen least-squares estimation is attractive for evaluating treatment effects on a survival outcome in randomized experiments, and the primary reasons to consider baseline covariate adjustment in such settings could be interest in subgroup......'s dependence on time or on the auxiliary covariates is misspecified, and even away from the null hypothesis of no treatment effect. We furthermore show that adjustment for auxiliary baseline covariates does not change the asymptotic variance of the estimator of the effect of a randomized treatment. We conclude...

  5. Treatment for chronic daily headache by using auxiliary and alternative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golovacheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic daily headache (CDH is one of the top 10 causes of adult disability and one of the 5 most common causes of female disability. To treat patients with CDH is one of the most difficult tasks in neurological practice. Difficulties in managing patients with CHD are associated with the high prevalence of comorbid mental disorders, analgesic abuse, pain syndromes at another site, and misconceptions of a patient about his/her disease. A combination of drug and non-drug therapies is the mainstay of the current approach to treating patients with CDH. Standard, alternative, and auxiliary therapies are identified. The paper describes different types of current auxiliary and alternative therapy used in the world’s leading headache centers and clinics. It describes experience with cerebrolysin used as auxiliary and alternative pharmacotherapies for CDH.

  6. Theoretical and numerical analysis of auxiliary heating for cryogenic target fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaohu; Tian Chenglin; Yin Yan; Xu Han; Zhuo Hongbin

    2008-01-01

    In order to compensate for the nonspherical-symmetric heat flux in the hohlraum, auxiliary heating is usually applied to the outside wall of the hohlraum during the cooling process. A one-dimensional heat exchange theoretical model has been proposed in the indirect-drive target, to analyze the required auxiliary heat flux. With a two dimensional axisymmetric model, the auxiliary heating mechanism has been simulated by FLUENT code. The optimum heat flux which is 635 W/m 2 has been obtained as the heaters around the outside of the hohlraum about 1.3 mm above and below the mid-plane. The result is in good agreement with the theoretical model. (authors)

  7. Aiming of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope based on auxiliary optical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shengling; Mu Baozhong; Yi Shengzhen; Wang Xin; Wang Zhanshan; Ding Yongkun; Miao Wenyong; Dong Jianjun

    2009-01-01

    An auxiliary optical system has been designed, which can provide precise positioning for aiming Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscope object location. An 8 keV X-ray imaging system by KB microscope with periodic multilayer films has been designed. The field of view and depth of field in the resolution of 5 μm are got, and then the corresponding point and depth of field in diagnostic experiments are calculated. Based on the object-image relations and precision of the KB microscope, an auxiliary visible light imaging system is designed and X-ray imaging experiments are performed, which can achieve equivalent aiming between the visible imaging system and the KB microscope. The results show that ±20 μm vertical axis plane and ±300 μm axial accuracy are achieved through the auxiliary optical path, which can meet the object point positioning requirements of the KB microscope. (authors)

  8. Continuous-flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe connected on-line with high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for spatially resolved analysis of small molecules and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2013-06-30

    A continuous-flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe extracts soluble material from surfaces for direct ionization and detection by mass spectrometry. Demonstrated here is the on-line coupling of such a probe with high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) enabling extraction, separation and detection of small molecules and proteins from surfaces in a spatially resolved (~0.5 mm diameter spots) manner. A continuous-flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe was connected to a six-port, two-position valve for extract collection and injection to an HPLC column. A QTRAP® 5500 hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap equipped with a Turbo V™ ion source operated in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode was used for all experiments. The system operation was tested with the extraction, separation and detection of propranolol and associated metabolites from drug dosed tissues, caffeine from a coffee bean, cocaine from paper currency, and proteins from dried sheep blood spots on paper. Confirmed in the tissue were the parent drug and two different hydroxypropranolol glucuronides. The mass spectrometric response for these compounds from different locations in the liver showed an increase with increasing extraction time (5, 20 and 40 s). For on-line separation and detection/identification of extracted proteins from dried sheep blood spots, two major protein peaks dominated the chromatogram and could be correlated with the expected masses for the hemoglobin α and β chains. Spatially resolved sampling, separation, and detection of small molecules and proteins from surfaces can be accomplished using a continuous-flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe coupled on-line with HPLC/MS detection. Published in 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Nonperturbative renormalization of nonlocal quark bilinears for quasi-PDFs on the lattice using an auxiliary field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Jeremy; Jansen, Karl; Steffens, Fernanda [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2017-07-15

    Quasi-PDFs provide a path toward an ab initio calculation of parton distribution functions (PDFs) using lattice QCD. One of the problems faced in calculations of quasi-PDFs is the renormalization of a nonlocal operator. By introducing an auxiliary field, we can replace the nonlocal operator with a pair of local operators in an extended theory. On the lattice, this is closely related to the static quark theory. In this approach, we show how to understand the pattern of mixing that is allowed by chiral symmetry breaking, and obtain a master formula for renormalizing the nonlocal operator that depends on three parameters. We present an approach for nonperturbatively determining these parameters and use perturbation theory to convert to the MS scheme. Renormalization parameters are obtained for two lattice spacings using Wilson twisted mass fermions and for different discretizations of the Wilson line in the nonlocal operator. Using these parameters we show the effect of renormalization on nucleon matrix elements with pion mass approximately 370 MeV, and compare renormalized results for the two lattice spacings. The renormalized matrix elements are consistent among the different Wilson line discretizations and lattice spacings.

  10. Nonperturbative renormalization of nonlocal quark bilinears for quasi-PDFs on the lattice using an auxiliary field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Jeremy; Jansen, Karl; Steffens, Fernanda

    2017-07-01

    Quasi-PDFs provide a path toward an ab initio calculation of parton distribution functions (PDFs) using lattice QCD. One of the problems faced in calculations of quasi-PDFs is the renormalization of a nonlocal operator. By introducing an auxiliary field, we can replace the nonlocal operator with a pair of local operators in an extended theory. On the lattice, this is closely related to the static quark theory. In this approach, we show how to understand the pattern of mixing that is allowed by chiral symmetry breaking, and obtain a master formula for renormalizing the nonlocal operator that depends on three parameters. We present an approach for nonperturbatively determining these parameters and use perturbation theory to convert to the MS scheme. Renormalization parameters are obtained for two lattice spacings using Wilson twisted mass fermions and for different discretizations of the Wilson line in the nonlocal operator. Using these parameters we show the effect of renormalization on nucleon matrix elements with pion mass approximately 370 MeV, and compare renormalized results for the two lattice spacings. The renormalized matrix elements are consistent among the different Wilson line discretizations and lattice spacings.

  11. The sensitivity of auxiliary examinations in different stages of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao-jiao JIANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the sensitivity of auxiliary examinations in different periods of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD. Methods The clinical data of 53 sCJD patients were retrospectively analyzed including the different stages of skull diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI, 24-hour ambulatory electroencephalogram (EEG, 18F-FDG PET/CT (PET-CT and cerebrospinal fluid 14-3-3 protein. When calculating the sensitivity of an auxiliary examination, the diagnostic criteria were defined by combining the specific clinical manifestations with two or more positive results of other auxiliary examinations. Results There were 24, 53 and 22 sCJD patients, respectively, met the criterion of early (E, middle (M and later (L stage of disease (some patients fit 2 or 3 stages. The sensitivity of DWI (E: 58.3%, M: 85.4%, L: 94.7%, EEG (E: 45.8%, M: 62.7%, L: 77.8%, 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (E: 11.1%, M: 52.9% and PET-CT (E: 80%, M: 100% increased gradually with disease progression. The sensitivity of PET-CT was higher than the other auxiliary examinations for E and M stages; no PET-CT was conducted in L stage. High signal regions mainly distributed in the cortex in E and M stages, but in L stage, no significant difference was found on the distribution of high signal regions between cortex and basal ganglia. Conclusions The sensitivities of the auxiliary examinations were different for sCJD patients in different stages. Reexaminations in different periods may improve the sensitivity for sCJD diagnosis. The sensitivity of PET-CT was high, and the combination of PET-CT and other auxiliary examinations may play a key role in the diagnosis of sCJD. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.05.15

  12. Solar combisystems with forecast control to increase the solar fraction and lower the auxiliary energy cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Solar Combi systems still need quite a lot of auxiliary energy especially in small systems without seasonal storage possibilities. The control of the auxiliary energy input both in time and power is important to utilize as much as possible of the solar energy available from the collectors and also...... energy sources. It can be either direct electric heating elements or a heat pump upgrading ambient energy in the air, ground, solar collector or waste heat from the house. The paper describes system modeling and simulation results. Advanced laboratory experiments are also starting now with three...

  13. Analysis of Circularly Polarized Hemispheroidal Dielectric Resonator Antenna Phased Arrays Using the Method of Auxiliary Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    The method of auxiliary sources is employed to model and analyze probe-fed hemispheroidal dielectric resonator antennas and arrays. Circularly polarized antenna elements of different designs are analyzed, and impedance bandwidths of up to 14.7% are achieved. Selected element designs are subsequen......The method of auxiliary sources is employed to model and analyze probe-fed hemispheroidal dielectric resonator antennas and arrays. Circularly polarized antenna elements of different designs are analyzed, and impedance bandwidths of up to 14.7% are achieved. Selected element designs...

  14. A new auxiliary equation and exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirendaoreji

    2006-01-01

    A new auxiliary ordinary differential equation and its solutions are used for constructing exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations in a unified way. The main idea of this method is to take full advantage of the auxiliary equation which has more new exact solutions. More new exact travelling wave solutions are obtained for the quadratic nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation, the combined KdV and mKdV equation, the sine-Gordon equation and the Whitham-Broer-Kaup equations

  15. The auxiliary field method and approximate analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation with exponential potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre-Brac, Bernard [LPSC Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, Avenue des Martyrs 53, F-38026 Grenoble-Cedex (France); Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien [Groupe de Physique Nucleaire Theorique, Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Academie universitaire Wallonie-Bruxelles, Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)], E-mail: silvestre@lpsc.in2p3.fr, E-mail: claude.semay@umh.ac.be, E-mail: fabien.buisseret@umh.ac.be

    2009-06-19

    The auxiliary field method is a new and efficient way to compute approximate analytical eigenenergies of the Schroedinger equation. This method has already been successfully applied to the case of central potentials of power-law and logarithmic forms. In the present work, we show that the Schroedinger equation with exponential potentials of the form -{alpha}r{sup {lambda}}exp(-{beta}r) can also be analytically solved by using the auxiliary field method. Closed formulae giving the critical heights and the energy levels of these potentials are presented. Special attention is drawn to the Yukawa potential and the pure exponential potential.

  16. The auxiliary field method and approximate analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation with exponential potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre-Brac, Bernard; Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien

    2009-01-01

    The auxiliary field method is a new and efficient way to compute approximate analytical eigenenergies of the Schroedinger equation. This method has already been successfully applied to the case of central potentials of power-law and logarithmic forms. In the present work, we show that the Schroedinger equation with exponential potentials of the form -αr λ exp(-βr) can also be analytically solved by using the auxiliary field method. Closed formulae giving the critical heights and the energy levels of these potentials are presented. Special attention is drawn to the Yukawa potential and the pure exponential potential

  17. Research on vibration properties of auxiliary bearing cage used in HTR-10 GT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Qingquan; Yang Guojun; Shi Zhengang; Yu Suyuan

    2009-01-01

    Auxiliary Bearings (ABs) is one of the most important parts in Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) system, which was used in HTR-10 GT project. This paper uses finite element method to analyze the centrifugal stress and free vibration properties of the cage according to its work condition. And different geometric parameters of the cage that has effects on its vibration performance are discussed. The results show that the highest centrifugal stress is in the middle of the cage side sill. The low odder vibration modes of the cage can be induced when the auxiliary bearings are working. Proper geometric parameters and ball pocket number can enhance the performance of the cage. (authors)

  18. Review of the Shearon Harris Unit 1 auxiliary feedwater system reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresco, A.; Youngblood, R.; Papazoglou, I.A.

    1986-02-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the Auxiliary Feedwater System Reliability Analysis for the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (SHNPP) Unit 1. The objective of this report is to estimate the probability that the Auxiliary Feedwater System will fail to perform its mission for each of three different initiators: (1) loss of main feedwater with offsite power available, (2) loss of offsite power, (3) loss of all ac power except vital instrumentation and control 125-V dc/120-V ac power. The scope, methodology, and failure data are prescribed by NUREG-0611 for other Westinghouse plants

  19. Pure spinors as auxiliary fields in the ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, B.E.W.

    1986-01-01

    A new way of introducing auxiliary fields into the ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory is proposed. The auxiliary fields are commuting 'pure spinors' and constitute a non-linear realisation of the Lorentz group. This invalidates previous no-go theorems concerning the possibility of going off-shell in this theory. There seems to be a close relation between pure spinors and the concepts usually used in twistor theory. The non-Abelian theory can be constructed for all groups having pseudo-real representations. (author)

  20. Ultra-trace levels analysis of microcystins and nodularin in surface water by on-line solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balest, Lydia; Murgolo, Sapia; Sciancalepore, Lucia; Montemurro, Patrizia; Abis, Pier Paolo; Pastore, Carlo; Mascolo, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    An on-line solid phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry (on-line SPE/HPLC/MS-MS) method for the determination of five microcystins and nodularin in surface waters at submicrogram per liter concentrations has been optimized. Maximum recoveries were achieved by carefully optimizing the extraction sample volume, loading solvent, wash solvent, and pH of the sample. The developed method was also validated according to both UNI EN ISO IEC 17025 and UNICHIM guidelines. Specifically, ten analytical runs were performed at three different concentration levels using a reference mix solution containing the six analytes. The method was applied for monitoring the concentrations of microcystins and nodularin in real surface water during a sampling campaign of 9 months in which the ELISA method was used as standard official method. The results of the two methods were compared showing good agreement when the highest concentration values of MCs were found. Graphical abstract An on-line SPE/HPLC/MS-MS method for the determination of five microcystins and nodularin in surface waters at sub μg L(-1) was optimized and compared with ELISA assay method for real samples.

  1. Model predictive control-based dynamic coordinate strategy for hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system of a heavy commercial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaohua; Li, Guanghan; Yin, Guodong; Song, Dafeng; Li, Sheng; Yang, Nannan

    2018-02-01

    Equipping a hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system (HHMAS), which mainly consists of a hydraulic variable pump, a hydraulic hub-motor, a hydraulic valve block and hydraulic accumulators, with part-time all-wheel-drive functions improves the power performance and fuel economy of heavy commercial vehicles. The coordinated control problem that occurs when HHMAS operates in the auxiliary drive mode is addressed in this paper; the solution to this problem is the key to the maximization of HHMAS. To achieve a reasonable distribution of the engine power between mechanical and hydraulic paths, a nonlinear control scheme based on model predictive control (MPC) is investigated. First, a nonlinear model of HHMAS with vehicle dynamics and tire slip characteristics is built, and a controller-design-oriented model is simplified. Then, a steady-state feedforward + dynamic MPC feedback controller (FMPC) is designed to calculate the control input sequence of engine torque and hydraulic variable pump displacement. Finally, the controller is tested in the MATLAB/Simulink and AMESim co-simulation platform and the hardware-in-the-loop experiment platform, and its performance is compared with that of the existing proportional-integral-derivative controller and the feedforward controller under the same conditions. Simulation results show that the designed FMPC has the best performance, and control performance can be guaranteed in a real-time environment. Compared with the tracking control error of the feedforward controller, that of the designed FMPC is decreased by 85% and the traction efficiency performance is improved by 23% under a low-friction-surface condition. Moreover, under common road conditions for heavy commercial vehicles, the traction force can increase up to 13.4-15.6%.

  2. Actin cytoskeleton organization, cell surface modification and invasion rate of 5 glioblastoma cell lines differing in PTEN and p53 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuzenova, Cholpon S.; Fiedler, Vanessa; Memmel, Simon; Katzer, Astrid; Hartmann, Susanne; Krohne, Georg; Zimmermann, Heiko; Scholz, Claus-Jürgen; Polat, Bülent; Flentje, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma cells exhibit highly invasive behavior whose mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The present study explores the relationship between the invasion capacity of 5 glioblastoma cell lines differing in p53 and PTEN status, expression of mTOR and several other marker proteins involved in cell invasion, actin cytoskeleton organization and cell morphology. We found that two glioblastoma lines mutated in both p53 and PTEN genes (U373-MG and SNB19) exhibited the highest invasion rates through the Matrigel or collagen matrix. In DK-MG (p53wt/PTENwt) and GaMG (p53mut/PTENwt) cells, F-actin mainly occurred in the numerous stress fibers spanning the cytoplasm, whereas U87-MG (p53wt/PTENmut), U373-MG and SNB19 (both p53mut/PTENmut) cells preferentially expressed F-actin in filopodia and lamellipodia. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the abundant filopodia and lamellipodia in the PTEN mutated cell lines. Interestingly, the gene profiling analysis revealed two clusters of cell lines, corresponding to the most (U373-MG and SNB19, i.e. p53 and PTEN mutated cells) and less invasive phenotypes. The results of this study might shed new light on the mechanisms of glioblastoma invasion. - Highlights: • We examine 5 glioblastoma lines on the invasion capacity and actin cytoskeleton. • Glioblastoma cell lines mutated in both p53 and PTEN were the most invasive. • Less invasive cells showed much less lamellipodia, but more actin stress fibers. • A mechanism for the differences in tumor cell invasion is proposed

  3. Actin cytoskeleton organization, cell surface modification and invasion rate of 5 glioblastoma cell lines differing in PTEN and p53 status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuzenova, Cholpon S., E-mail: djuzenova_t@ukw.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, D-97080 Würzburg (Germany); Fiedler, Vanessa [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, D-97080 Würzburg (Germany); Memmel, Simon [Lehrstuhl für Biotechnologie und Biophysik, Universität Würzburg, Biozentrum Am Hubland, 97070 Würzburg (Germany); Katzer, Astrid; Hartmann, Susanne [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, D-97080 Würzburg (Germany); Krohne, Georg [Elektronenmikroskopie, Biozentrum, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97070 Würzburg (Germany); Zimmermann, Heiko [Hauptabteilung Biophysik and Kryotechnologie, Fraunhofer-Institut für Biomedizinische Technik, Lehrstuhl für Molekulare und Zelluläre Biotechnologie/Nanotechnologie, Universität des Saarlandes, Ensheimer Strasse 48, 66386 St. Ingbert (Germany); Scholz, Claus-Jürgen [Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research, University Hospital, Versbacher Strasse 7, 97078 Würzburg (Germany); Polat, Bülent; Flentje, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, D-97080 Würzburg (Germany); and others

    2015-01-15

    Glioblastoma cells exhibit highly invasive behavior whose mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The present study explores the relationship between the invasion capacity of 5 glioblastoma cell lines differing in p53 and PTEN status, expression of mTOR and several other marker proteins involved in cell invasion, actin cytoskeleton organization and cell morphology. We found that two glioblastoma lines mutated in both p53 and PTEN genes (U373-MG and SNB19) exhibited the highest invasion rates through the Matrigel or collagen matrix. In DK-MG (p53wt/PTENwt) and GaMG (p53mut/PTENwt) cells, F-actin mainly occurred in the numerous stress fibers spanning the cytoplasm, whereas U87-MG (p53wt/PTENmut), U373-MG and SNB19 (both p53mut/PTENmut) cells preferentially expressed F-actin in filopodia and lamellipodia. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the abundant filopodia and lamellipodia in the PTEN mutated cell lines. Interestingly, the gene profiling analysis revealed two clusters of cell lines, corresponding to the most (U373-MG and SNB19, i.e. p53 and PTEN mutated cells) and less invasive phenotypes. The results of this study might shed new light on the mechanisms of glioblastoma invasion. - Highlights: • We examine 5 glioblastoma lines on the invasion capacity and actin cytoskeleton. • Glioblastoma cell lines mutated in both p53 and PTEN were the most invasive. • Less invasive cells showed much less lamellipodia, but more actin stress fibers. • A mechanism for the differences in tumor cell invasion is proposed.

  4. Biological and Mechanical Effects of Micro-Nanostructured Titanium Surface on an Osteoblastic Cell Line In vitro and Osteointegration In vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jingzu; Li, Ying; Li, Baoe; Wang, Xiaolin; Li, Haipeng; Liu, Shimin; Liang, Chunyong; Wang, Hongshui

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid micro-nanostructure implant surface was produced on titanium (Ti) surface by acid etching and anodic oxidation to improve the biological and mechanical properties. The biological properties of the micro-nanostructure were investigated by simulated body fluid (SBF) soaking test and MC3T3-E1 cell co-culture experiment. The cell proliferation, spreading, and bone sialoprotein (BSP) gene expression were examined by MTT, SEM, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. In addition, the mechanical properties were evaluated by instrumented nanoindentation test and friction-wear test. Furthermore, the effect of the micro-nanostructure surface on implant osteointegration was examined by in vivo experiment. The results showed that the formation of bone-like apatite was accelerated on the micro-nanostructured Ti surface after immersion in simulated body fluid, and the proliferation, spreading, and BSP gene expression of the MC3T3-E1 cells were also upregulated on the modified surface. The micro-nanostructured Ti surface displayed decreased friction coefficient, stiffness value, and Young's modulus which were much closer to those of the cortical bone, compared to the polished Ti surface. This suggested much better mechanical match to the surrounding bone tissue of the micro-nanostructured Ti surface. Furthermore, the in vivo animal experiment showed that after implantation in the rat femora, the micro-nanostructure surface displayed higher bonding strength between bone tissues and implant; hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining suggested that much compact osteoid tissue was observed at the interface of Micro-nano-Ti-bone than polished Ti-bone interface after implantation. Based on these results mentioned above, it was concluded that the improved biological and mechanical properties of the micro-nanostructure endowed Ti surface with good biocompatibility and better osteointegration, implying the enlarged application of the micro

  5. The mouse tumor cell lines EL4 and RMA display mosaic expression of NK-related and certain other surface molecules and appear to have a common origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gays, F; Unnikrishnan, M; Shrestha, S; Fraser, K P; Brown, A R; Tristram, C M; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Z M; Brooks, C G

    2000-05-15

    As a potential means for facilitating studies of NK cell-related molecules, we examined the expression of these molecules on a range of mouse tumor cell lines. Of the lines we initially examined, only EL4 and RMA expressed such molecules, both lines expressing several members of the Ly49 and NKRP1 families. Unexpectedly, several of the NK-related molecules, together with certain other molecules including CD2, CD3, CD4, CD32, and CD44, were often expressed in a mosaic manner, even on freshly derived clones, indicating frequent switching in expression. In each case examined, switching was controlled at the mRNA level, with expression of CD3zeta determining expression of the entire CD3-TCR complex. Each of the variable molecules was expressed independently, with the exception that CD3 was restricted to cells that also expressed CD2. Treatment with drugs that affect DNA methylation and histone acetylation could augment the expression of at least some of the variable molecules. The striking phenotypic similarity between EL4 and RMA led us to examine the state of their TCRbeta genes. Both lines had identical rearrangements on both chromosomes, indicating that RMA is in fact a subline of EL4. Overall, these findings suggest that EL4 is an NK-T cell tumor that may have retained a genetic mechanism that permits the variable expression of a restricted group of molecules involved in recognition and signaling.

  6. Verb Placement in Second Language Acquisition: Experimental Evidence for the Different Behavior of Auxiliary and Lexical Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Josje

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the acquisition of verb placement by Moroccan and Turkish second language (L2) learners of Dutch. Elicited production data corroborate earlier findings from L2 German that learners who do not produce auxiliaries do not raise lexical verbs over negation, whereas learners who produce auxiliaries do. Data from elicited…

  7. 75 FR 3639 - Revisions to Rules Authorizing the Operation of Low Power Auxiliary Stations in the 698-806 MHz...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    .... 10-24; DA 10-92] Revisions to Rules Authorizing the Operation of Low Power Auxiliary Stations in the... Auxiliary Stations, Including Wireless Microphones, and the Digital Television Transition AGENCY: Federal... language that must be used in the consumer disclosure that is required by Section 15.216 of Appendix B in...

  8. Teaching Grammar: The Use of The English Auxiliary "BE" Present Tense Verb among Malaysian Form 4 and Form 5 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jishvithaa, Joanna M.; Tabitha, M.; Kalajahi, Seyed Ali Rezvani

    2013-01-01

    This research paper aims to explore the usage of the English Auxiliary "Be" Present Tense Verb, using corpus based method among Malaysian form 4 and form 5 students. This study is conducted by identifying and classifying the types of errors in the Auxiliary "Be" Present Tense verb in students' compositions from the MCSAW corpus…

  9. Acylation, Diastereoselective Alkylation, and Cleavage of an Oxazolidinone Chiral Auxiliary: A Multistep Asymmetric Synthesis Experiment for Advanced Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas E.; Richardson, David P.; Truran, George A.; Belecki, Katherine; Onishi, Megumi

    2008-01-01

    An introduction to the concepts and experimental techniques of diastereoselective synthesis using a chiral auxiliary is described. The 4-benzyl-2-oxazolidinone chiral auxiliary developed by Evans is acylated with propionic anhydride under mild conditions using DMAP as an acyl transfer catalyst. Deprotonation with NaN(TMS)[subscript 2] at -78…

  10. From Root Infinitive to Finite Sentence : The acquisition of verbal inflections and auxiliaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.B.T.

    2003-01-01

    Across languages, children in the earliest stages of syntactic development tend to omit overt markings of finiteness, such as verbal inflections and auxiliaries: when children use a verb, they use an infinitival form (e.g. Dutch) or a bare stem (e.g. English). From Root Infinitive to Finite Sentence

  11. Compact driver, notably for a light emitting diode, having an auxiliary output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The current invention relates to a driver(10,20) for driving at least one main load and one auxiliary load comprising: ä power converter(101) adapted to convert an input voltage(Vin) into at least one main output voltage provided through a main output(1011) for driving said main load, and at least

  12. Development of Intelligent Auxiliary System for Customized Physical Fitness and Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chung-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of global high-tech industry and commerce era, the sedentary reduces opportunities of physical activity. And physical fitness and health of people is getting worse and worse. At present, the shortage of physical fitness instructors greatly affected the effectiveness of health promotion. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an auxiliary system which can reduce the workload of instructors and enhance physical fitness and health for people. But current general physical fitness and healthcare system is hard to meet individualized needs. The main purpose of this research is to develop an intelligent auxiliary system for customized physical fitness and healthcare. It records all processes of physical fitness and healthcare system by wireless sensors network. The results of intelligent auxiliary systems for customized physical fitness and healthcare will be generated by fuzzy logic Inference. It will improve individualized physical fitness and healthcare. Finally, we will demonstrate the advantages of the intelligent auxiliary system for customized physical fitness and healthcare.

  13. Harmonic Analysis and Mitigation of Low- Frequency Switching Voltage Source Inverter with Auxiliary VSI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    The output currents of high-power Voltage Source Inverters (VSIs) are distorted by the switching harmonics and the background harmonics in the grid voltage. This paper presents an active harmonic filtering scheme for high-power, low-frequency switching VSIs with an additional auxiliary VSI. In th...

  14. Auxiliary Verbs, Dictionaries and the Late Evolution of the Italian Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, John J.

    2004-01-01

    The use of BE as an auxiliary verb with intransitive verbs has declined in all the Romance languages over the past five centuries. Today, Spanish and Portuguese use only HAVE, in Catalan and Romanian BE occurs in marginal contexts, and in French, BE is used with approximately 40 verbs. Italian is a notable exception, since BE is still used as the…

  15. Meaningful questions: The acquisition of auxiliary inversion in a connectionist model of sentence production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Hartmut; Chang, Franklin

    2017-09-01

    Nativist theories have argued that language involves syntactic principles which are unlearnable from the input children receive. A paradigm case of these innate principles is the structure dependence of auxiliary inversion in complex polar questions (Chomsky, 1968, 1975, 1980). Computational approaches have focused on the properties of the input in explaining how children acquire these questions. In contrast, we argue that messages are structured in a way that supports structure dependence in syntax. We demonstrate this approach within a connectionist model of sentence production (Chang, 2009) which learned to generate a range of complex polar questions from a structured message without positive exemplars in the input. The model also generated different types of error in development that were similar in magnitude to those in children (e.g., auxiliary doubling, Ambridge, Rowland, & Pine, 2008; Crain & Nakayama, 1987). Through model comparisons we trace how meaning constraints and linguistic experience interact during the acquisition of auxiliary inversion. Our results suggest that auxiliary inversion rules in English can be acquired without innate syntactic principles, as long as it is assumed that speakers who ask complex questions express messages that are structured into multiple propositions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Polyethylene Moderator Design for Auxiliary Ex-core Neutron Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwan Soo; Shin, Ho Cheol; Bae, Seong Man

    2012-01-01

    The moderator of detector assembly in ENFMS (Excore Neutron Flux Monitoring System) plays a key role for slowing down from fast neutron to thermal neutron at outside of reactor vessel. Since neutron monitoring detector such as BF3, fission chamber detectors mostly responds to thermal neutron, moderator should be included to neutron detector assembly to detect more efficiently. Generally, resin has been used for moderator of detector in ENFMS of OPR1000 and APR1400, because resin has stable thermal resistance, availability and high neutron moderation characteristics due to the light atomic materials. In case of an auxiliary ex-core neutron detector, the polyethylene is suggested that polyethylene has a better moderator rather than resin, then, the amounts of moderator are reduced. This is important thing for auxiliary ex-core detector equipment at reactor, because the auxiliary equipment should affect minimally to another system. In this study, polyethylene moderator is designed for auxiliary ex-core neutron detector. To find out the optimal thickness of polyethylene moderator, preliminary simulation and experiments are performed. And sensitivity simulation for detector moderator at actual reactor is performed by DORT code

  17. Computer determination of event maps with application to auxiliary supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wredenberg, L.; Billinton, R.

    1975-01-01

    A method of evaluating the reliability of sequential operations in systems containing standby and alternate supply facilities is presented. The method is based upon the use of a digital computer for automatic development of event maps. The technique is illustrated by application to a nuclear power plant auxiliary supply system. (author)

  18. Effect of subject types on the production of auxiliary is in young English-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling-Yu; Owen, Amanda J; Tomblin, J Bruce

    2010-12-01

    In this study, the authors tested the unique checking constraint (UCC) hypothesis and the usage-based approach concerning why young children variably use tense and agreement morphemes in obligatory contexts by examining the effect of subject types on the production of auxiliary is. Twenty typically developing 3-year-olds were included in this study. The children's production of auxiliary is was elicited in sentences with pronominal subjects, high-frequency lexical noun phrase (NP) subjects (e.g., the dog), and low-frequency lexical NP subjects (e.g., the deer). As a group, children did not use auxiliary is more accurately with pronominal subjects than with lexical NP subjects. Furthermore, individual data revealed that although some children used auxiliary is more accurately with pronominal subjects than with lexical NP subjects, the majority of children did not show this trend. The symmetry observed between lexical and pronominal subjects supports the predictions of the UCC hypothesis, although additional mechanisms may be needed to account for the asymmetry between subject types in some individual children. Discrepant results between the present study and previous studies were attributed to differences in task formats and children's developmental levels.

  19. Words without Grammar: Linguists and the International Auxiliary Language Movements in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Julia S.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses movements in the United States during the first half of the 20th century to develop an international language, focusing on proponents of the reestablishment of Latin as an international language and the work of the International Auxiliary Language Association to develop an entirely new language. (72 references) (MDM)

  20. The Status of the Auxiliary "Do" in L1 and L2 English Negative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Susana

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of whether negative sentences containing auxiliary "do" in L1 and L2 English share the same underlying syntactic representation. To this end, I compare the negative sentences produced by 77 bilingual (Spanish/Basque) L2 learners of English with the corresponding data available for L1 acquirers reported on in Schutze…

  1. Effect of Subject Types on the Production of Auxiliary "Is" in Young English-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling-Yu; Owen, Amanda J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors tested the unique checking constraint (UCC) hypothesis and the usage-based approach concerning why young children variably use tense and agreement morphemes in obligatory contexts by examining the effect of subject types on the production of auxiliary "is". Method: Twenty typically developing 3-year-olds were…

  2. Dummy Auxiliaries in the Second Language Acquisition of Moroccan Learners of Dutch: Form and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Craats, Ineke; van Hout, Roeland

    2010-01-01

    This study examines an interlanguage in which Moroccan learners of Dutch use non-thematic verbs in combination with thematic verbs that can be inflected as well. These non-thematic verbs are real dummy auxiliaries because they are deprived of semantic content and primarily have a syntactic function. Whereas in earlier second language (L2) research…

  3. Auxiliary BE Production by African American English-Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, April W.; Oetting, Janna B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine 3 forms ("am," "is," "are") of auxiliary BE production by African American English (AAE)-speaking children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Thirty AAE speakers participated: 10 six-year-olds with SLI, 10 age-matched controls, and 10 language-matched controls. BE production was examined through…

  4. Natural convection in an asymmetrically heated vertical channel with an adiabatic auxiliary plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taieb, Soumaya; Hatem, Laatar Ali; Balti, Jalloul

    2013-01-01

    The effect of an auxiliary plate on natural convection in an asymmetrically heated channel is studied numerically in laminar regime. The computational procedure is made by solving the unsteady two dimensional Navier-Stokes and energy equations. This nonlinear system is integrated by a finite volume approach and then solved in time using the projection method, allowing the decoupling pressure from velocity. More than hundred simulations are performed to determine the best positions of the auxiliary plate that enhance the induced mass flow and the heat transfer rate for modified Rayleigh numbers ranging from Ra m = 10 2 to Ra m = 10 5 . Contour maps are plotted and then used to precise the enhancement rates of the mass flow and the heat transfer for any position of the auxiliary plate in the channel. The numerical results (velocity, pressure and temperature fields) provide detailed information about the evolution of the flow structure according to the geometry considered in this study. In addition, they permit to explain why the mass flow rate and Nusselt number are enhanced for certain positions of the auxiliary plate and are on the contrary deteriorated for others. (authors)

  5. Progress in the integration of the ITER plant systems in auxiliary buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotamäki, M.; Cordier, J.-J.; Kuehn, I.; Perrin, J.-L.; Sweeney, S.; Villedary, B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Usage of 3D CAD model in ITER configuration management presented. • 3D CAD models efficient in configuration and interface management. • Costly and schedule delaying changes avoided with proper interface management. • ITER buildings construction progressing. - Abstract: The ITER Tokamak machine is located in the center of Tokamak complex buildings consisting of Tokamak, Diagnostic, and Tritium buildings. Around the Tokamak complex there are over 30 auxiliary buildings housing various plant systems serving the Tokamak machine either directly or indirectly. The layout and space allocation of each auxiliary building and plant systems housed by the building are represented in the so-called Configuration Management Models (CMM). These are light 3D CAD models that define the required space envelope and the physical interfaces between the systems and the buildings and in-between the systems. The paper describes the CMM and interface management processes of the ITER auxiliary buildings and plant systems, and discusses the preparations for the plant installation phase. In addition, the current baseline configuration of the ITER plant systems in auxiliary buildings is described together with the recent developments in the configuration of different systems, as well as the current status of the construction of the buildings.

  6. Introduction to deaerator in auxiliary water supply system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jianguo; Zhou Xia; Lei Yongxia

    2015-01-01

    The paper introduces the operation theory and thermal calculation and verification requirements for the deaerator in the auxiliary water supply system of nuclear power plant. In addition, it describes the key factors in terms of function, structure, design and fabrication of equipment. (authors)

  7. (S)-1-Aminoindane : synthesis by chirality transfer using (R)-phenylglycine amide as chiral auxiliary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uiterweerd, Patrick G.H.; Sluis, Marcel van der; Kaptein, Bernard; Lange, Ben de; Kellogg, Richard M.; Broxterman, Quirinus B.

    2003-01-01

    A practical asymmetric synthesis of nearly enantiomerically pure (S)-1-aminoindane has been developed. The key step involves the diastereoselective heterogeneous metal-catalyzed reduction of the ketimine of 1-indanone with the chiral auxiliary (R)-phenylglycine amide. The selectivity of the

  8. Preliminary report on the development of rf auxiliary heating systems for TEPR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, B.W.; Bowen, O.N.; Hill, H.M.; Lawson, J.Q.; Newman, W.G.; Sivo, A.J.

    1977-12-01

    Conceptual designs for 50 MW (expandable to 100 MW) ICRF and LHRF heating systems suitable for auxiliary heating of the TEPR-1 plasma to ignition temperatures are presented. Engineering milestones are enumerated and the extensions of current technology required for successful completion of the project are identified

  9. Vehicle energy management for on/off controlled auxiliaries : fuel economy vs. switching frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Weiland, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an integrated approach for designing energy management strategies concerning vehicle auxiliaries with on/off control is proposed. This approach provides the possibility of making different trade-offs between fuel economy and switching frequency. In this paper, we demonstrate the

  10. Speckle Interferometry with the McMath-Pierce East Auxiliary Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard; Ray, Jimmy; Douglass, David; Prause, Lori; Genet, Russell

    2015-09-01

    Engineering runs and tests on the McMath-Pierce 0.8 meter East Auxiliary telescope successfully configured the telescope for speckle interferometry observations of close visual double stars. This paper reports the procedure and results of the speckle analysis of four double stars.

  11. Application of the Method of Auxiliary Sources for the Analysis of Electromagnetic Scattering by Impedance Spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamehmedovic, Mirza; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2002-01-01

    The Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is applied to 3D scattering problems involving spherical impedance scatterers. The MAS results are compared with the reference spherical wave expansion (SWE) solution. It is demonstrated that good agreement is achieved between the MAS and SWE results....

  12. The auxiliary elliptic-like equation and the exp-function method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    exact solutions of the nonlinear evolution equations are derived with the aid of auxiliary elliptic-like equation. ... (NEE) have been paid attention by many researchers, especially the investigations of exact solutions for ... elliptic-like equation with the aid of the travelling wave reduction are introduced. The exact solutions of ...

  13. Reliability analysis of the auxiliary feedwater system; Analiza zanesljivosti sistema pomozne napajalne vode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susnik, J; Dusic, M [Institut Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)

    1984-07-01

    The reliability of a NPP auxiliary feedwater system is evaluated using the fault tree analysis. The system is analyzed during the time interval 0 to 6 hours with the computer package program PREP/KITT which is described in more detail. (author)

  14. Progress in the integration of the ITER plant systems in auxiliary buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotamäki, M., E-mail: miikka.kotamaki@iter.org; Cordier, J.-J.; Kuehn, I.; Perrin, J.-L.; Sweeney, S.; Villedary, B.

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Usage of 3D CAD model in ITER configuration management presented. • 3D CAD models efficient in configuration and interface management. • Costly and schedule delaying changes avoided with proper interface management. • ITER buildings construction progressing. - Abstract: The ITER Tokamak machine is located in the center of Tokamak complex buildings consisting of Tokamak, Diagnostic, and Tritium buildings. Around the Tokamak complex there are over 30 auxiliary buildings housing various plant systems serving the Tokamak machine either directly or indirectly. The layout and space allocation of each auxiliary building and plant systems housed by the building are represented in the so-called Configuration Management Models (CMM). These are light 3D CAD models that define the required space envelope and the physical interfaces between the systems and the buildings and in-between the systems. The paper describes the CMM and interface management processes of the ITER auxiliary buildings and plant systems, and discusses the preparations for the plant installation phase. In addition, the current baseline configuration of the ITER plant systems in auxiliary buildings is described together with the recent developments in the configuration of different systems, as well as the current status of the construction of the buildings.

  15. Auxiliary VHF transmitter to aid recovery of solar Argos/GPS PTTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; R. Scott Gamo; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2014-01-01

    While conducting greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) research, we found that solar-powered global positioning systems platform transmitter terminals (GPS PTTs) can be lost if the solar panel does not receive adequate sunlight. Thus, we developed 5-g (mortality sensor included; Prototype A) and 9.8-g (no mortality sensor; Prototype B) auxiliary very high...

  16. 30 CFR 18.22 - Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary face ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.22 Boring-type machines equipped for...

  17. Harbingers of Artin's Reciprocity Law. I. The Continuing Story of Auxiliary Primes

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmermeyer, Franz

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present the history of auxiliary primes used in proofs of reciprocity laws from the quadratic to Artin's reciprocity law. We also show that the gap in Legendre's proof can be closed with a simple application of Gauss's genus theory.

  18. Catalytic Reforming of Higher Hydrocarbon Fuels to Hydrogen: Process Investigations with Regard to Auxiliary Power Units

    OpenAIRE

    Kaltschmitt, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    This thesis discusses the investigation of the catalytic partial oxidation on rhodium-coated honeycomb catalysts with respect to the conversion of a model surrogate fuel and commercial diesel fuel into hydrogen for the use in auxiliary power units. Furthermore, the influence of simulated tail-gas recycling was investigated.

  19. Histochemical demonstration of creatine kinase activity using polyvinyl alcohol and auxiliary enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiks, W. M.; Marx, F.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1987-01-01

    Creatine kinase activity (EC 2.7.3.2.) has been demonstrated in myocardium and skeletal muscle from rats by a method based on the incubation of cryostat sections with a polyvinyl alcohol-containing medium and the use of auxiliary enzymes. Hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were spread

  20. Performance assessment of auxiliary bearing in HTR-10 AMB helium circulator on the event of rotor drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhen; Yang Guojun; Li Yue; Shi Zhengang; Yu Suyuan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a model for analyzing internal contact stress arid external load of ball bearing from rotor displacement was developed based on the Hertz contact theory and applied to the analysis of the rotor drop test in HTR-10 helium circulator equipped with AMB (Active Magnetic Bearing) to gain a better understanding of auxiliary bearing performance at different stages after the rotor drop. It was shown that the auxiliary bearing can well resist axial impact produced by rotor drop, avoiding of internal severe plastic deformation and damage to the performance of the auxiliary bearing. Rotor's rotary motion and the heat accumulation of the inner ring resulted from the initial acute acceleration are the main contributor of radial load during the rotor idling and may cause the failure of auxiliary bearing. This paper analyzed the influence of this load and confirmed that the auxiliary bearing can still work in its loading limits. (authors)

  1. Two Domains of Vimentin Are Expressed on the Surface of Lymph Node, Bone and Brain Metastatic Prostate Cancer Lines along with the Putative Stem Cell Marker Proteins CD44 and CD133

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, Nicole F. [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Maurer, Jochen [Sanford-Burnham, Medical Research Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Sheng, Huiming [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Division of Immune Regulation, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Bensussan, Armand [INSERM U976, Hôpital Saint Louis, F-75475 Paris (France); Department of Immunology, Dermatology and Oncology, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMRS976 F-75475 Paris (France); Maricic, Igor; Kumar, Vipin [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Laboratory of Autoimmunity, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Braciak, Todd A., E-mail: tbraciak@tpims.org [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Division of Immune Regulation, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2011-07-13

    Vimentin was originally identified as an intermediate filament protein present only as an intracellular component in many cell types. However, this protein has now been detected on the surface of a number of different cancer cell types in a punctate distribution pattern. Increased vimentin expression has been indicated as an important step in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) required for the metastasis of prostate cancer. Here, using two vimentin-specific monoclonal antibodies (SC5 and V9 directed against the coil one rod domain and the C-terminus of the vimentin protein, respectively), we examined whether either of these domains would be displayed on the surface of three commonly studied prostate cancer cell lines isolated from different sites of metastases. Confocal analysis of LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines (derived from lymph node, bone or brain prostate metastases, respectively) demonstrated that both domains of vimentin are present on the surface of these metastatic cancer cell types. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed that vimentin expression was readily detected along with CD44 expression but only a small subpopulation of prostate cancer cells expressed vimentin and the putative stem cell marker CD133 along with CD44. Finally, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) nanoparticles that target vimentin could bind and internalize into tested prostate cancer cell lines. These results demonstrate that at least two domains of vimentin are present on the surface of metastatic prostate cancer cells and suggest that vimentin could provide a useful target for nanoparticle- or antibody- cancer therapeutic agents directed against highly invasive cancer and/or stem cells.

  2. Multireference Density Functional Theory with Generalized Auxiliary Systems for Ground and Excited States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zehua; Zhang, Du; Jin, Ye; Yang, Yang; Su, Neil Qiang; Yang, Weitao

    2017-09-21

    To describe static correlation, we develop a new approach to density functional theory (DFT), which uses a generalized auxiliary system that is of a different symmetry, such as particle number or spin, from that of the physical system. The total energy of the physical system consists of two parts: the energy of the auxiliary system, which is determined with a chosen density functional approximation (DFA), and the excitation energy from an approximate linear response theory that restores the symmetry to that of the physical system, thus rigorously leading to a multideterminant description of the physical system. The electron density of the physical system is different from that of the auxiliary system and is uniquely determined from the functional derivative of the total energy with respect to the external potential. Our energy functional is thus an implicit functional of the physical system density, but an explicit functional of the auxiliary system density. We show that the total energy minimum and stationary states, describing the ground and excited states of the physical system, can be obtained by a self-consistent optimization with respect to the explicit variable, the generalized Kohn-Sham noninteracting density matrix. We have developed the generalized optimized effective potential method for the self-consistent optimization. Among options of the auxiliary system and the associated linear response theory, reformulated versions of the particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) and the spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory (SF-TDDFT) are selected for illustration of principle. Numerical results show that our multireference DFT successfully describes static correlation in bond dissociation and double bond rotation.

  3. ASCERTAINMENT OF ELECTRIC-SUPPLY SCHEMES RELIABILITY FOR THE ATOMIC POWER PLANT AUXILIARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Starzhinskij

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper completes ascertainment of electrical-supply scheme reliability for the auxiliaries of a nuclear power plant. Thereat the author considers the system behavior during the block normal operation, carrying out current maintenance, and capital repairs in combination with initiating events. The initiating events for reactors include complete blackout, i.e. the loss of outside power supply (normal and reserve; emergency switching one of the working turbogenerators; momentary dumping the normal rating to the level of auxiliaries with seating the cutout valve of one turbo-generator. The combination of any initiating event with the repairing mode in case of one of the system elements failure should not lead to blackout occurrence of more than one system of the reliable power supply. This requirement rests content with the help of the reliable power supply system self-dependence (electrical and functional and the emergency power-supply operational autonomy (diesel generator and accumulator batteries.The reliability indicators of the power supply system for the nuclear power plant auxiliaries are the conditional probabilities of conjoined blackout of one, two, and three sections of the reliable power supply conditional upon an initiating event emerging and the blackout of one, two, and three reliable power-supply sections under the normal operational mode. Furthermore, they also are the blackout periodicity of one and conjointly two, three, and four sections of normal operation under the block normal operational mode. It is established that the blackout of one bus section of normal operation and one section of reliable power-supply system of the auxiliaries that does not lead to complete blackout of the plant auxiliaries may occur once in three years. The probability of simultaneous power failure of two or three normal-operation sections and of two reliable power-supply sections during the power plant service life is unlikely.

  4. Fast Simulation of 3-D Surface Flanging and Prediction of the Flanging Lines Based On One-Step Inverse Forming Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Yidong; Hu Sibo; Lang Zhikui; Hu Ping

    2005-01-01

    A fast simulation scheme for 3D curved binder flanging and blank shape prediction of sheet metal based on one-step inverse finite element method is proposed, in which the total plasticity theory and proportional loading assumption are used. The scheme can be actually used to simulate 3D flanging with complex curve binder shape, and suitable for simulating any type of flanging model by numerically determining the flanging height and flanging lines. Compared with other methods such as analytic algorithm and blank sheet-cut return method, the prominent advantage of the present scheme is that it can directly predict the location of the 3D flanging lines when simulating the flanging process. Therefore, the prediction time of flanging lines will be obviously decreased. Two typical 3D curve binder flanging including stretch and shrink characters are simulated in the same time by using the present scheme and incremental FE non-inverse algorithm based on incremental plasticity theory, which show the validity and high efficiency of the present scheme

  5. The effect of surface modifications of carbon nanotubes on the electrical properties of inkjet-printed SWNT/PEDOT-PSS composite line patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najeeb, C K; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Chang, Jingbo; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2010-01-01

    We prepared nanocomposite inks of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) filled with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) purified by acidic treatment, carboxylated by chemical oxidation and carboxyl-functionalized nanotubes physically modified with a natural gum, gum arabic. Inkjet printing of line patterns with a feature size of 100 μm width and lengths ranging from 1 to 5 cm was performed on glass substrates with a piezoelectric inkjet printer. The carboxyl-functionalized SWNT-based composite demonstrated a significant decrease (fourfold) of electrical resistance for the line patterns compared to that with a purified CNT-based composite due to improved dispersability of nanotubes in the polymer matrix. The use of gum arabic for the dispersion of carboxyl-functionalized nanotubes demonstrated a further drastic decrease (18-fold) of the resistance compared with a purified CNT-based composite owing to the formation of an extended continuous network within the line pattern. The inkjet-printed conductive patterns can be applied in various fields, such as flexible high speed transistors, high efficiency solar cells and transparent electrodes.

  6. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...

  7. Computing conformational free energy differences in explicit solvent: An efficient thermodynamic cycle using an auxiliary potential and a free energy functional constructed from the end points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert C; Deng, Nanjie; Levy, Ronald M; Ishizuka, Ryosuke; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2017-06-05

    Many biomolecules undergo conformational changes associated with allostery or ligand binding. Observing these changes in computer simulations is difficult if their timescales are long. These calculations can be accelerated by observing the transition on an auxiliary free energy surface with a simpler Hamiltonian and connecting this free energy surface to the target free energy surface with free energy calculations. Here, we show that the free energy legs of the cycle can be replaced with energy representation (ER) density functional approximations. We compute: (1) The conformational free energy changes for alanine dipeptide transitioning from the right-handed free energy basin to the left-handed basin and (2) the free energy difference between the open and closed conformations of β-cyclodextrin, a "host" molecule that serves as a model for molecular recognition in host-guest binding. β-cyclodextrin contains 147 atoms compared to 22 atoms for alanine dipeptide, making β-cyclodextrin a large molecule for which to compute solvation free energies by free energy perturbation or integration methods and the largest system for which the ER method has been compared to exact free energy methods. The ER method replaced the 28 simulations to compute each coupling free energy with two endpoint simulations, reducing the computational time for the alanine dipeptide calculation by about 70% and for the β-cyclodextrin by > 95%. The method works even when the distribution of conformations on the auxiliary free energy surface differs substantially from that on the target free energy surface, although some degree of overlap between the two surfaces is required. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. SAF line pellet gaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedlovec, D.R.; Bowen, W.W.; Brown, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    Automated and remotely controlled pellet inspection operations will be utilized in the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line. A prototypic pellet gage was designed and tested to verify conformance to the functions and requirements for measurement of diameter, surface flaws and weight-per-unit length

  9. Mixed Lubricated Line Contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraon, I.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals with friction in mixed lubricated line contacts. Components in systems are becoming smaller and due to, for instance power transmitted, partial contact may occur. In industrial applications, friction between the moving contacting surfaces cannot be avoided, therefore it is

  10. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  11. The structurally effect of surface coated rhamnogalacturonan I on response of the osteoblast-like cell line SaOS-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svava, Rikke; Gurzawska, Katarzyna; Yihau, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Osseointegration is important when implants are inserted into the bone and can be improved by biochemical surface coating of the implant. In this paper enzymatically modified rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) from apple and lupin was used for biochemical coating of aminated surfaces and the importance...... remove small fragments of galacturonic acid (GalA) and binding studies showed that the purity of the RG-I molecules was important for the quality of the coating. The structure of RG-I and osteoblast-like cells' viability were positively correlated so that high content of 1,4-linked galactose (Gal...

  12. Analysis of Humoral Immune Responses to Surface and Virulence-Associated Chlamydia abortus Proteins in Ovine and Human Abortions by Use of a Newly Developed Line Immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Jürgen Benjamin; Simnacher, Ulrike; Longbottom, David; Livingstone, Morag; Maile, Julia; Soutschek, Erwin; Walder, Gernot; Boden, Katharina; Sachse, Konrad; Essig, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia abortus is the causative agent of enzootic abortion of ewes and poses a significant zoonotic risk for pregnant women. Using proteomic analysis and gene expression library screening in a previous project, we identified potential virulence factors and candidates for serodiagnosis, of which nine were scrutinized here with a strip immunoassay. We have shown that aborting sheep exhibited a strong antibody response to surface (MOMP, MIP, Pmp13G) and virulence-associated (CPAF, TARP, SINC) antigens. While the latter disappeared within 18 weeks following abortion in a majority of the animals, antibodies to surface proteins persisted beyond the duration of the study. In contrast, nonaborting experimentally infected sheep developed mainly antibodies to surface antigens (MOMP, MIP, Pmp13G), all of which did not persist. We were also able to detect antibodies to these surface antigens in C abortus-infected women who had undergone septic abortion, whereas a group of shepherds and veterinarians with occupational exposure to C abortus-infected sheep revealed only sporadic immune responses to the antigens selected. The most specific antigen for the serodiagnosis of human C abortus infections was Pmp13G, which showed no cross-reactivity with other chlamydiae infecting humans. We suggest that Pmp13G-based serodiagnosis accomplished by the detection of antibodies to virulence-associated antigens such as CPAF, TARP, and SINC may improve the laboratory diagnosis of human and animal C abortus infections. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Testing the variability of PSA expression by different human prostate cancer cell lines by means of a new potentiometric device employing molecularly antibody assembled on graphene surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelo, Tânia S.C.R.; Noronha, João P.; Galésio, Marco; Santos, Hugo; Diniz, Mário; Sales, M. Goreti F.; Fernandes, Maria H.; Costa-Rodrigues, João

    2016-01-01

    Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is widely used as a biomarker for prostate cancer. Recently, an electrochemical biosensor for PSA detection by means of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was developed. This work evaluated the performance and the effectiveness of that PSA biosensor in screening the biomarker PSA in biological media with complex composition, collected from different human prostate cell line cultures. For that, the prostate cancer LNCaP and PC3 cells, and the non-cancerous prostate cell line PNT2 were cultured for 2, 7 and 14 days in either α-MEM or RPMI in the presence of 10% or 30% fetal bovine serum. Human gingival fibroblasts were used as a non-cancerous non-prostatic control. The different culture conditions modulated cellular proliferation and the expression of several prostate markers, including PSA. The electrochemical biosensor was able to specifically detect PSA in the culture media and values obtained were similar to those achieved by a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit, the most commonly used method for PSA quantification in prostate cancer diagnosis. Thus, the tested biosensor may represent a useful alternative as a diagnostic tool for PSA determination in biological samples. - Highlights: • PSA quantification was performed in prostate cancer cell culture media. • Culture media composition and culture period significantly affect PSA production. • The PSA biosensor detected a wide range of PSA levels in complex media. • A high data correlation was observed between the biosensor and the ELISA analysis.

  14. The immunodominant HLA-A2-restricted MART-1 epitope is not presented on the surface of many melanoma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Baek; Junker, Niels; Kirkin, Alexei

    2009-01-01

    Among the relatively large number of known tumor-associated antigens (TAA) which are recognized by human CD8 T-cells, Melan-A/MART-1 is one of the most-if not the most-frequently used target for anti-cancer vaccines in HLA-A2 + melanoma patients. In this study, we analyzed the killing of a large...... panel of melanoma cells by a high avidity, MART-1-specific T-cell clone or a MART-1-specific, polyclonal T-cell culture. Strikingly, we observed that the MART-1-specific T-cells only killed around half of the analyzed melanoma cell lines. In contrast a Bcl-2-specific T-cell clone killed all melanoma...... cell lines, although the T-cell avidity of this clone was significantly lower. The MART-1-specific T-cell clone expressed NKG-2D and was fully capable of releasing both perforin and Granzyme B. Notably, the resistance to killing by the MART-1-specific T-cells could be overcome by pulsing...

  15. Analytical solution for the transient wave propagation of a buried cylindrical P-wave line source in a semi-infinite elastic medium with a fluid surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Zhendong; Ling, Daosheng

    2018-02-01

    This article develops an analytical solution for the transient wave propagation of a cylindrical P-wave line source in a semi-infinite elastic solid with a fluid layer. The analytical solution is presented in a simple closed form in which each term represents a transient physical wave. The Scholte equation is derived, through which the Scholte wave velocity can be determined. The Scholte wave is the wave that propagates along the interface between the fluid and solid. To develop the analytical solution, the wave fields in the fluid and solid are defined, their analytical solutions in the Laplace domain are derived using the boundary and interface conditions, and the solutions are then decomposed into series form according to the power series expansion method. Each item of the series solution has a clear physical meaning and represents a transient wave path. Finally, by applying Cagniard's method and the convolution theorem, the analytical solutions are transformed into the time domain. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate some interesting features in the fluid layer, the interface and the semi-infinite solid. When the P-wave velocity in the fluid is higher than that in the solid, two head waves in the solid, one head wave in the fluid and a Scholte wave at the interface are observed for the cylindrical P-wave line source.

  16. Testing the variability of PSA expression by different human prostate cancer cell lines by means of a new potentiometric device employing molecularly antibody assembled on graphene surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebelo, Tânia S.C.R. [BioMark-CINTESIS/ISEP, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto (Portugal); LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Noronha, João P.; Galésio, Marco; Santos, Hugo; Diniz, Mário [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Sales, M. Goreti F. [BioMark-CINTESIS/ISEP, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, Maria H. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Costa-Rodrigues, João, E-mail: jrodrigues@fmd.up.pt [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); ESTSP — Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto (Portugal)

    2016-02-01

    Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is widely used as a biomarker for prostate cancer. Recently, an electrochemical biosensor for PSA detection by means of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was developed. This work evaluated the performance and the effectiveness of that PSA biosensor in screening the biomarker PSA in biological media with complex composition, collected from different human prostate cell line cultures. For that, the prostate cancer LNCaP and PC3 cells, and the non-cancerous prostate cell line PNT2 were cultured for 2, 7 and 14 days in either α-MEM or RPMI in the presence of 10% or 30% fetal bovine serum. Human gingival fibroblasts were used as a non-cancerous non-prostatic control. The different culture conditions modulated cellular proliferation and the expression of several prostate markers, including PSA. The electrochemical biosensor was able to specifically detect PSA in the culture media and values obtained were similar to those achieved by a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit, the most commonly used method for PSA quantification in prostate cancer diagnosis. Thus, the tested biosensor may represent a useful alternative as a diagnostic tool for PSA determination in biological samples. - Highlights: • PSA quantification was performed in prostate cancer cell culture media. • Culture media composition and culture period significantly affect PSA production. • The PSA biosensor detected a wide range of PSA levels in complex media. • A high data correlation was observed between the biosensor and the ELISA analysis.

  17. Free-Energy Barrier of Filling a Spherical Cavity in the Presence of Line Tension: Implication to the Energy Barrier between the Cassie and Wenzel States on a Superhydrophobic Surface with Spherical Cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamatsu, Masao

    2016-09-20

    The free-energy barrier of filling a spherical cavity having an inner wall of various wettabilities is studied. The morphology and free energy of a lens-shaped droplet are determined from the minimum of the free energy. The effect of line tension on the free energy is also studied. Then, the equilibrium contact angle of the droplet is determined from the generalized Young's equation. By increasing the droplet volume within the spherical cavity, the droplet morphology changes from spherical with an equilibrium contact angle of 180° to a lens with a convex meniscus, where the morphological complete drying transition occurs. By further increasing the droplet volume, the meniscus changes from convex to concave. Then, the lens-shaped droplet with concave meniscus spreads over the whole inner wall, resulting in an equilibrium contact angle of 0° to leave a spherical bubble, where the morphological complete wetting transition occurs. Finally, the whole cavity is filled with liquid. The free energy shows a barrier from complete drying to complete wetting as a function of droplet volume, which corresponds to the energy barrier between the Cassie and Wenzel states of the superhydrophobic surface with spherical cavities. The free-energy maximum occurs when the meniscus of the droplet becomes flat, and it is given by an analytic formula. The effect of line tension is expressed by the scaled line tension, and this effect is largest at the free-energy maximum. The positive line tension increases the free-energy maximum, which thus increases the stability of the Cassie superhydrophobic state, whereas the negative line tension destabilizes the superhydrophobic state.

  18. Holonomic surface codes for fault-tolerant quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiang; Devitt, Simon J.; You, J. Q.; Nori, Franco

    2018-02-01

    Surface codes can protect quantum information stored in qubits from local errors as long as the per-operation error rate is below a certain threshold. Here we propose holonomic surface codes by harnessing the quantum holonomy of the system. In our scheme, the holonomic gates are built via auxiliary qubits rather than the auxiliary levels in multilevel systems used in conventional holonomic quantum computation. The key advantage of our approach is that the auxiliary qubits are in their ground state before and after each gate operation, so they are not involved in the operation cycles of surface codes. This provides an advantageous way to implement surface codes for fault-tolerant quantum computation.

  19. Characterization of Genotoxic Response to 15 Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes with Variable Physicochemical Properties Including Surface Functionalizations in the FE1-Muta(TM) Mouse Lung Epithelial Cell Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Kling, Kirsten; Jensen, Keld Alstrup

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes vary greatly in physicochemical properties. We compared cytotoxic and genotoxic response to 15 multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with varying physicochemical properties to identify drivers of toxic responses. The studied MWCNT included OECD Working Party on Manufactured...... Nanomaterials (WPMN) (NM-401, NM-402, and NM-403), materials (NRCWE-026 and MWCNT-XNRI-7), and three sets of surface-modified MWCNT grouped by physical characteristics (thin, thick, and short I-III, respectively). Each Groups I-III included pristine, hydroxylated and carboxylated MWCNT. Group III also included...... an amino-functionalized MWCNT. The level of surface functionalization of the MWCNT was low. The level and type of elemental impurities of the MWCNT varied by...

  20. Estimates for the Probabilities of Surface-to-Air Cloud-Free Lines-of-Sight and Low Cloud Statistics from Ship Observations. Part 1. Fifteen Marine Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-24

    time before and after) or cumulus fractus of bad weath’er, or both ( pannus ), usually below altostratus or nimbostratus. 8 = Cumulus and stratocumulus...vibrous upper part by cumulus, stratocumulus, stratus or pannus . + . from Surface Marine Observations Tape Deck TDF-11 *Fog All clouds in the 0-50...Fractus of bad weather, cr V both ( pannus ), usually below Alto- stratus or N~imbostratus. The term "bad weather* denotes the conditions which coenerally

  1. Silver linings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Test system design for Hardware-in-Loop evaluation of PEM fuel cells and auxiliaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolf, Guenter; Moore, Robert M. [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2006-07-14

    In order to evaluate the dynamic behavior of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and their auxiliaries, the dynamic capability of the test system must exceed the dynamics of the fastest component within the fuel cell or auxiliary component under test. This criterion is even more critical when a simulated component of the fuel cell system (e.g., the fuel cell stack) is replaced by hardware and Hardware-in-Loop (HiL) methodology is employed. This paper describes the design of a very fast dynamic test system for fuel cell transient research and HiL evaluation. The integration of the real time target (which runs the simulation), the test stand PC (that controls the operation of the test stand), and the programmable logic controller (PLC), for safety and low-level control tasks, into one single integrated unit is successfully completed. (author)

  3. Energy Recovery for the Main and Auxiliary Sources of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binggang Cao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the traditional regenerative braking electrical circuit, a novel energy recovery system for the main and auxiliary sources of electric vehicles (EVs has been developed to improve their energy efficiency. The electrical circuit topology is presented in detail. During regenerative braking, the recovered mechanical energy is stored in both the main source and the auxiliary source at the same time. The mathematical model of the proposed system is derived step by step. Combining the merits and defects of H2 optimal control and H∞ robust control, a H2/H∞ controller is designed to guarantee both the system performance and robust stability. The perfect match between the simulated and experimental results validates the notion that the proposed novel energy recovery system is both feasible and effective, as more energy is recovered than that with the traditional energy recovery systems, in which recovered energy is stored only in the main source.

  4. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements target area auxiliary subsystem SSDR 1.8.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, T.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystem Design Requirement (SSDR) establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Target Area Auxiliary Subsystems (WBS 1.8.6), which is part of the NIF Target Experimental System (WBS 1.8). This document responds directly to the requirements detailed in NIF Target Experimental System SDR 003 document. Key elements of the Target Area Auxiliary Subsystems include: WBS 1.8.6.1 Local Utility Services; WBS 1.8.6.2 Cable Trays; WBS 1.8.6.3 Personnel, Safety, and Occupational Access; WBS 1.8.6.4 Assembly, Installation, and Maintenance Equipment; WBS 1.8.6.4.1 Target Chamber Service System; WBS 1.8.6.4.2 Target Bay Service Systems

  5. Biased divertor performance under auxiliary heating conditions on the TdeV tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decoste, R.; Lachambre, J.L.; Demers, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma biasing has been shown on TdeV in the ohmic regime to be very promising for divertor applications. Negative biasing, with shortened SOL density gradients, improves the divertor performance, whereas positive biasing, with longer gradients, does not do much for the divertor. The next objectives were to extrapolate those results to auxiliary heated plasmas and optimize/simplify the biasing geometry for future upgrades. New results are now available with an improved divertor geometry and auxiliary heating/current drive provided by a new lower hybrid (LH) system. The new geometry, optimized for positive biasing with predictably acceptable negative biasing performances, allows for a fair comparison between the two polarities. (author) 4 refs., 5 figs

  6. Design of an increase in the CNAAA unit I South auxiliary building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorentz, R.G.; Loyola Benedicto Ottoni, I. de; Roech, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    In this work it is presented the description of the model adopted in the structural calculations for a modification in the CNAAA Unit I South Auxiliary Building. This modification intended to increase the facilities destinated to keeping and changing of special clothing for access to the controlled area. The design basically constitutes of a slab at the Elevation 5,15m, for which a tridimensional frame model was adopted, in reinforced adopted concrete, fixed in the South Auxiliary Building foundation slab and structurally independent on the building, at the slab level. It was demonstrated in this study that the introduction, in the existing structure, of the masses of this enlarged area does not considerably change the dynamic behaviour of the building, which allowed proceeding the analysis of the new structure independently of the existing one. (author)

  7. Energy Recovery for the Main and Auxiliary Sources of Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Ye [Key Laboratory for Highway Construction Technology and Equipment of Ministry of Education, Chang’an University, Xi’an (China); Sengjie Jiao [Key Laboratory for Highway Construction Technology and Equipment of Ministry of Education, Chang’an University, Xi’an (China); Binggang Cao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an (China)

    2010-09-15

    Based on the traditional regenerative braking electrical circuit, a novel energy recovery system for the main and auxiliary sources of electric vehicles (EVs) has been developed to improve their energy efficiency. The electrical circuit topology is presented in detail. During regenerative braking, the recovered mechanical energy is stored in both the main source and the auxiliary source at the same time. The mathematical model of the proposed system is derived step by step. Combining the merits and defects of H2 optimal control and H-infinity robust control, a H2/H-infinity controller is designed to guarantee both the system performance and robust stability. The perfect match between the simulated and experimental results validates the notion that the proposed novel energy recovery system is both feasible and effective, as more energy is recovered than that with the traditional energy recovery systems, in which recovered energy is stored only in the main source.

  8. Energy Recovery for the Main and Auxiliary Sources of Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, M.; Jiao, S. [Key Laboratory for Highway Construction Technology and Equipment of Ministry of Education, Chang' an University, Xi' an 710064 (China); Cao, B. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Based on the traditional regenerative braking electrical circuit, a novel energy recovery system for the main and auxiliary sources of electric vehicles (EVs) has been developed to improve their energy efficiency. The electrical circuit topology is presented in detail. During regenerative braking, the recovered mechanical energy is stored in both the main source and the auxiliary source at the same time. The mathematical model of the proposed system is derived step by step. Combining the merits and defects of H{sub 2} optimal control and H{sub {infinity}} robust control, a H{sub 2}/H{sub {infinity}} controller is designed to guarantee both the system performance and robust stability. The perfect match between the simulated and experimental results validates the notion that the proposed novel energy recovery system is both feasible and effective, as more energy is recovered than that with the traditional energy recovery systems, in which recovered energy is stored only in the main source. (authors)

  9. [The surgical nurse: his/her leadership of auxiliary nursing personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, C M; Trevizan, M A; Sawada, N O; Mendes, I A

    1997-01-01

    This investigation as carried out in order to promote follow-up in the studies concerning nurse's leadership in the hospital context. Emphasys is given to the nurses that works in surgical ward unities. As a theoretical framework, authors utilized the model of leadership proposed by Hersey and Blanchard, named Situational Leadership. The objective was to analyze the correspondence of opinion between nurses and nursing auxiliary personnel about the leadership style of nurse should adopt in accordance with the maturity level of an element of the auxiliary personnel based on six categories of activities that were studied. Authors found out that nurses should adopt the styles of participant leadership, such as E3 (participating) and/or E4 (delegating).

  10. Modeling and stability analysis for the upper atmosphere research satellite auxiliary array switch component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, R.; Natarajan, T.; Day, J.

    1987-01-01

    A feedback control system, called an auxiliary array switch, was designed to connect or disconnect auxiliary solar panel segments from a spacecraft electrical bus to meet fluctuating demand for power. A simulation of the control system was used to carry out a number of design and analysis tasks that could not economically be performed with a breadboard of the hardware. These tasks included: (1) the diagnosis of a stability problem, (2) identification of parameters to which the performance of the control system was particularly sensitive, (3) verification that the response of the control system to anticipated fluctuations in the electrical load of the spacecraft was satisfactory, and (4) specification of limitations on the frequency and amplitude of the load fluctuations.

  11. The application of 99Tcm-phytate scintigraphy in pig auxiliary liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jianhua; Li Xiaoping; Li Chaolong; He Xu; Lin Zhiqi; Zhu Weibing

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To affirm the application value of 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy in pig auxiliary liver transplantation. Methods: The graft was transplanted in the right subhepatic space of recipient to establish pig auxiliary liver transplantation model. The artery blood supplies were the very same in all grafts and the portal vein (PV) blood flows were differently controlled by trussing the host PV at the site neared host liver. According to the constriction degree, PV blood supplies were divided into three groups including A (constricted by 1/3), B (constricted by 1/2) and C(not constricted). The blood flows of the graft liver and the host liver were measured by 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy and livers functions were estimated after auxiliary liver transplantation. Contrasted with its histological findings the reflection of graft survival with 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy was investigated. Results: It was detected by 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy that the blood flows were almost equilibrated and abundant in grafts and host liver' in group A, and were abundant in grafts of group B and host livers of group C and were significantly decreased in host livers of group B and grafts of group C. Histological work-up demonstrated that the liver was not atrophic while the blood flow was abundant and the liver was atrophic while the blood flow was decreased. Conclusion: 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy could accurately reflect the survival and function of grafts and host livers after auxiliary liver transplantation and it is a reliable technique which can be used to estimate the survival and function of the grafts and host livers

  12. Reducing Auxiliary Energy Consumption of Heavy Trucks by Onboard Prediction and Real-time Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad; Feng, Lei; Börjesson, Stefan; Lindgärde, Olof; Wikander, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The electric engine cooling system, where the coolant pump and the radiator fan are driven by electric motors, admits advanced control methods to decrease auxiliary energy consumption. Recent publications show the fuel saving potential of optimal control strategies for the electric cooling system through offline simulations. These strategies often assume full knowledge of the drive cycle and compute the optimal control sequence by expensive global optimization methods. In reality, the full dr...

  13. Experimental simulation of a light aircraft crash on to a nuclear power plant auxiliary building roof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.; Barr, P.; Garton, G.; Howe, W.D.; Neilson, A.J.

    1984-08-01

    The experiments described were conducted at a reduced scale with geometric dimensions of prototype structures of one-fifth full size. The target was based on the auxiliary buildings for the proposed Sizewell PWR. Descriptions of the simulated aircraft model and the test panels are given, together with the instrumentation. Details are given of the test programme and the results are summarized and discussed. Comparison is made of the model aircraft tests with an equivalent hard missile impact. (U.K.)

  14. Direct enantioselective conjugate addition of carboxylic acids with chiral lithium amides as traceless auxiliaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Jackson, Jeffrey J; Eickhoff, John A; Zakarian, Armen

    2015-01-21

    Michael addition is a premier synthetic method for carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bond formation. Using chiral dilithium amides as traceless auxiliaries, we report the direct enantioselective Michael addition of carboxylic acids. A free carboxyl group in the product provides versatility for further functionalization, and the chiral reagent can be readily recovered by extraction with aqueous acid. The method has been applied in the enantioselective total synthesis of the purported structure of pulveraven B.

  15. Auxiliary collimating device for obtaining irradiation fields of any shape for high energy radiotherapy apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piret, P.; Fraikin, H.; Hubert, A.

    1976-01-01

    An auxiliary collimator is added to the main collimator of a radiotherapy apparatus and comprises a master-container filled with mercury and a localizing container containing a block of nonabsorbent material having a predetermined shape; means being provided for automatically positioning these containers with respect to the main collimator and for allowing the mercury to enter the localizing container when once it has taken its working position

  16. Sodium--NaK engineering handbook. Volume IV. Sodium pumps, valves, piping, and auxiliary equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foust, O.J.

    1978-01-01

    The handbook is useful for designers in the Liquid Metals Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) program and by the engineering and scientific community performing investigation and experimentation requiring high-temperature Na and NaK technology. Data are presented for pumps, bearings and seals, valves, vessels and piping, and auxiliary equipment including vapor traps, freeze plugs, fuel-channel flow regulators, antivortexing devices, and miscellaneous mechanical elements. Reactor materials are also discussed

  17. Think different: applying the old macintosh mantra to the computability of the SUSY auxiliary field problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkins, Mathew; Gates, D.E.A.; Gates, S. James Jr. [Center for String and Particle Theory, Department of Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, MD 20742-4111 (United States); Golding, William M. [Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, US Army Research Laboratory,Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States)

    2015-04-13

    Starting with valise supermultiplets obtained from 0-branes plus field redefinitions, valise adinkra networks, and the “Garden Algebra,” we discuss an architecture for algorithms that (starting from on-shell theories and, through a well-defined computation procedure), search for off-shell completions. We show in one dimension how to directly attack the notorious “off-shell auxiliary field” problem of supersymmetry with algorithms in the adinkra network-world formulation.

  18. Common-cause failure analysis of McGuire Unit 2 auxiliary feedwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, D.M.; Shepherd, J.C.; Fowler, R.D.; Summitt, R.L.; Logan, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    A powerful method for qualitative common cause failure analysis (CCFA) of nuclear power plant systems was developed by EG and G Idaho at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. As a cooperative project to demonstrate and evaluate the usefulness of the method, the Duke Power Company agreed to allow a CCFA of the auxiliary feedwater system (AFWS) in their McGuire Nuclear Station Unit 2. The results of the CCFA are the subject of this discussion

  19. The Quantum N-Body Problem and the Auxiliary Field Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semay, C.; Buisseret, F.; Silvestre-Brac, B.

    2011-01-01

    Approximate analytical energy formulas for N-body semirelativistic Hamiltonians with one- and two-body interactions are obtained within the framework of the auxiliary field method. We first review the method in the case of nonrelativistic two-body problems. A general procedure is then given for N-body systems and applied to the case of baryons in the large-N c limit. (author)

  20. Civil engineering in nuclear power stations: design of the turbine building and nuclear auxiliary building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, R.

    1985-01-01

    After enumerating the specific features of civil engineering in nuclear power stations. One goes on to examine the principal deliberations undertaken with the aim of optimising projects for transition from the P4 to P'4 and then N4 generations of nuclear power stations. The courses of action decided with respect to the design of the machine room and auxiliary equipment building are described [fr

  1. Utilization of Lavandula angustifolia Miller extracts as naturalrepellents, pharmaceutical and industrial auxiliaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYOE YUSUFOGLU

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils, absolutes and concretes were prepared from the flowers and leaves of the plant Lavandula angustifolia Miller cultivated in the Bosphorus region of Istanbul, Turkey. The difference in the chemical composition of the mentioned extracts was investigated and compared by using a combination of capillary GC-MS with the aim of offering them as repellent, pharmaceutical and industrial auxiliaries. The IR-spectra, the yields and the physico-chemical data of the extracts were also analysed.

  2. Arm-length stabilisation for interferometric gravitational-wave detectors using frequency-doubled auxiliary lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Mullavey, Adam J.; Slagmolen, Bram J. J.; Miller, John; Evans, Matthew; Fritschel, Peter; Sigg, Daniel; Waldman, Sam J.; Shaddock, Daniel A.; McClelland, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Residual motion of the arm cavity mirrors is expected to prove one of the principal impediments to systematic lock acquisition in advanced gravitational-wave interferometers. We present a technique which overcomes this problem by employing auxiliary lasers at twice the fundamental measurement frequency to pre-stabilise the arm cavities’ lengths. Applying this approach, we reduce the apparent length noise of a 1.3 m long, independently suspended Fabry-Perot cavity to 30 pm rms and successfully...

  3. Direct Enantioselective Conjugate Addition of Carboxylic Acids with Chiral Lithium Amides as Traceless Auxiliaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Michael addition is a premier synthetic method for carbon–carbon and carbon–heteroatom bond formation. Using chiral dilithium amides as traceless auxiliaries, we report the direct enantioselective Michael addition of carboxylic acids. A free carboxyl group in the product provides versatility for further functionalization, and the chiral reagent can be readily recovered by extraction with aqueous acid. The method has been applied in the enantioselective total synthesis of the purported structure of pulveraven B. PMID:25562717

  4. Implementation of GNASH and auxiliary codes on the Harwell CRAY-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.W.

    1985-07-01

    The report describes a version of the preequilibrium, statistical nuclear-model code GNASH which has been implemented, along with a set of small auxiliary codes, on the CRAY-1 at AERE Harwell. GNASH provides a flexible tool for calculating cross sections, isomer ratios and emission spectra. A detailed description of the current user input is provided along with a full listing of the actual FORTRAN code, as modified for this implementation. (author)

  5. The SOL-2/Neto auxiliary protein modulates the function of AMPA-subtype ionotropic glutamate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Mellem, Jerry E; Jensen, Michael; Brockie, Penelope J; Walker, Craig S; Hoerndli, Frédéric J; Hauth, Linda; Madsen, David M; Maricq, Andres V

    2012-09-06

    The neurotransmitter glutamate mediates excitatory synaptic transmission by gating ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). AMPA receptors (AMPARs), a subtype of iGluR, are strongly implicated in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. We previously discovered two classes of AMPAR auxiliary proteins in C. elegans that modify receptor kinetics and thus change synaptic transmission. Here, we have identified another auxiliary protein, SOL-2, a CUB-domain protein that associates with both the related auxiliary subunit SOL-1 and with the GLR-1 AMPAR. In sol-2 mutants, behaviors dependent on glutamatergic transmission are disrupted, GLR-1-mediated currents are diminished, and GLR-1 desensitization and pharmacology are modified. Remarkably, a secreted variant of SOL-1 delivered in trans can rescue sol-1 mutants, and this rescue depends on in cis expression of SOL-2. Finally, we demonstrate that SOL-1 and SOL-2 have an ongoing role in the adult nervous system to control AMPAR-mediated currents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of regeneration of liver function in pig model of auxiliary partial liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiaxin; Chen Xiaopeng; Rui Ging; Shong Qun; Chen Fangman; Lu Meijing; Chen Yongquan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To establish a pig model of auxiliary partial liver transplantation and observe the liver function regeneration of host liver and graft. Methods: The portal vein providing for the host liver were gradually contracted; the donor hepatic veins were eng-to-side anastomosed to inferior vena cava in host caudal; graft was transplanted into the space under the host liver, part of receivers relieved portal vein angiography and color Doppler flow imaging was performed 3 days after surgery. Liver function of double livers in relievers was checked up, 3 days and 1 week after surgery respectively. Results: After surgery 10 relievers survived over 1 week, blood enzymology from hepatic vein of grafts 1 week after surgery were not ameliorative significantly compared with those 3 days after surgery (P > 0.05). Blood enzymology indexes from hepatic veins of grafts 1 week after surgery were were improved significantly compared with 3 days after surgery (P < 0.05). The graft did not reveal atrophic and gained favorable function. Conclusion: Favorable regeneration in the auxiliary partial liver transplantation model has achieved. Ideal foundation has been established for simulating and investigating human auxiliary liver transplantation. (authors)

  7. When you have too many features: Auxiliaries, agreement and clitics in Italian varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta D'Alessandro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Syntactic variation can be ascribed to a range of factors. The Borer-Chomsky conjecture, as Mark Baker (2008 refers to it, states for instance that all parameters of variation are attributable to differences in the features of particular items (e.g. functional heads in the lexicon. In this paper, this hypothesis is carefully considered in relation to a group of Abruzzese dialects that exhibit three seemingly unrelated syntactic patterns: split auxiliary selection, split differential object marking, and omnivorous participial agreement in number/argumental agreement mismatch marking. It will be proposed that these three patterns are closely interrelated, and can be attributed to the presence of an unvalued bundle of φ-features (π. Depending on which XP this head is merged with, different agreement patterns will emerge. Furthermore, these dialects will be shown to differ from another macrogroup of northern Italian dialects purely in the locus of Merge of this extra functional head: it will also be shown that the almost perfect areal complementary distribution between languages with subject clitics and languages with person-driven auxiliary selection is not accidental, but is the result of the presence of an extra φ-probe doubling the features of the subject in different parts of the syntactic spine. A microtypology of 'v 'will be presented, unifying many phenomena that were previously considered unrelated, such as auxiliary selection, participial agreement, differential object marking and subject clitics.

  8. Evaluation of the pressure loads generated by hydrogen explosion in auxiliary nuclear building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed Bentaib; Alexandre Bleyer; Pierre Pailhories; Jean-Pierre L'heriteau; Bernard Chaumont; Jerome Dupas; Jerome Riviere

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the framework of nuclear safety, a hydrogen leaks in the auxiliary nuclear building would raise a explosion hazard. A local ignition of the combustible mixture would give birth initially to a slow flame, rapidly accelerated by obstacles. This flame acceleration is responsible for high pressure loads that can damage the auxiliary building and destroy safety equipments in it. In this paper, we evaluate the pressure loads generated by an hydrogen explosion for both bounding and realistic explosion scenarios. The bounding scenarios use stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures and the realistic scenarios correspond to hydrogen leaks with mass flow rate varying between 1 g/s and 9 g/s. For every scenario, the impact of the ignition location and ignition time are investigated. The hydrogen dispersion and explosion are computed using the TONUS code. The dispersion model used is based on a finite element solver and the explosion is simulated by a structured finite volumes EULER equation solver and the combustion model CREBCOM which simulates the hydrogen/air turbulent flame propagation, taking into account 3D complex geometry and reactants concentration gradients. The pressure loads computed are then used to investigate the occurrence of a mechanical failure of the tanks located in the auxiliary nuclear building and containing radioactive fluids. The EUROPLEXUS code is used to perform 3D mechanical calculations because the loads are non uniform and of rather short deviation. (authors)

  9. Simulative technology for auxiliary fuel tank separation in a wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Xin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a simulative experimental system in wind tunnel conditions for the separation of auxiliary fuel tanks from an aircraft. The experimental system consists of a simulative release mechanism, a scaled model and a pose measuring system. A new release mechanism was designed to ensure stability of the separation. Scaled models of the auxiliary fuel tank were designed and their moment of inertia was adjusted by installing counterweights inside the model. Pose parameters of the scaled model were measured and calculated by a binocular vision system. Additionally, in order to achieve high brightness and high signal-to-noise ratio of the images in the dark enclosed wind tunnel, a new high-speed image acquisition method based on miniature self-emitting units was presented. Accuracy of the pose measurement system and repeatability of the separation mechanism were verified in the laboratory. Results show that the position precision of the pose measurement system can reach 0.1 mm, the precision of the pitch and yaw angles is less than 0.1° and that of the roll angle can be up to 0.3°. Besides, repeatability errors of models’ velocity and angular velocity controlled by the release mechanism remain small, satisfying the measurement requirements. Finally, experiments for the separation of auxiliary fuel tanks were conducted in the laboratory.

  10. Auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo calculations of molecular systems with a Gaussian basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Saidi, W.A.; Zhang Shiwei; Krakauer, Henry

    2006-01-01

    We extend the recently introduced phaseless auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) approach to any single-particle basis and apply it to molecular systems with Gaussian basis sets. QMC methods in general scale favorably with the system size as a low power. A QMC approach with auxiliary fields, in principle, allows an exact solution of the Schroedinger equation in the chosen basis. However, the well-known sign/phase problem causes the statistical noise to increase exponentially. The phaseless method controls this problem by constraining the paths in the auxiliary-field path integrals with an approximate phase condition that depends on a trial wave function. In the present calculations, the trial wave function is a single Slater determinant from a Hartree-Fock calculation. The calculated all-electron total energies show typical systematic errors of no more than a few millihartrees compared to exact results. At equilibrium geometries in the molecules we studied, this accuracy is roughly comparable to that of coupled cluster with single and double excitations and with noniterative triples [CCSD(T)]. For stretched bonds in H 2 O, our method exhibits a better overall accuracy and a more uniform behavior than CCSD(T)

  11. The effect of an auxiliary discharge on anode sheath potentials in a transverse discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.E.; Gallimore, A.D.

    1997-01-01

    A novel scheme that employs the use of an auxiliary discharge has been shown to reduce markedly anode sheath potentials in a transverse discharge. An 8.8 A low-pressure argon discharge in the presence of a transverse magnetic field was used as the plasma source in this study. In such discharges, the transverse flux that is collected by the anode is severely limited due to marked reductions in the transverse diffusion coefficient. Findings of this study indicate that the local electron number density and the transverse flux increase when the auxiliary discharge is operated. Changes in these parameters are reflected in the measured anode sheath voltage. Anode sheath potentials, estimated by using Langmuir probes, were shown to be reduced by over 33% when the auxiliary discharge is operated. These reductions in anode sheath potentials translated into significant reductions in anode power flux as measured using water calorimeter techniques. The reductions in anode power flux also correlate well with changes in the electron transverse flux. Finally, techniques implementing these positive effects in real plasma accelerators are discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  12. Auxiliary en-bloc liver-small bowel transplantation with partial pancreas preservation in pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Yu Yin; Xiao-Dong Ni; Feng Jiang; Ning Li; You-Sheng Li; Xiao-Ming Wang; Jie-Shou Li

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to describe an auxiliary combined liver-small bowel transplantation model with the preservation of duodenum, head of pancreas and hepatic biliary system in pigs. The technique, feasibility, security and immunosuppression were commented.METHODS: Forty outbred long-white pigs were randomized into two groups, and the auxiliary composite liver/small bowel allotransplantations were undertaken in 10 long-white pigs in each group with the recipient liver preserved.Group A was not treated with immunosuppressive drugs while group B was treated with cyclosporine A and methylprednisolone after operation. The hemodynamic changes and amylase of body fluid (including blood, urine and abdominal drain) were analyzed.RESULTS: The average survival time of the animals was 10±1.929 d (6 to 25 d) in group A while more than 30 d in group B. The pigs could tolerate the hemodynamic fluctuation during operation and the hemodynamic parameters recovered to normal 2 h after blood reperfusion. The transient high amylase level was decreased to normal one week after operation and autopsy showed no pancreatitis.CONCLUSION: Auxiliary en-bloc liver-small bowel transplantation with partial pancreas preservation is a feasible and safe model with simplified surgical techniques for composite liver/small bowel transplantation. This model may be used as a preclinical training model for clinical transplantation method, clinical liver-small bowel transplantation related complication research, basic research including immunosuppressive treatment, organ preservation, acute rejection, chronic rejection, immuno-tolerance and xenotransplantation.

  13. Comparative LCA of methanol-fuelled SOFCs as auxiliary power systems on-board ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strazza, C.; Del Borghi, A.; Costamagna, P.; Traverso, A.; Santin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Fuel cells own the potential for significant environmental improvements both in terms of air quality and climate protection. Through the use of renewable primary energies, local pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions can be significantly minimized over the full life cycle of the electricity generation process, so that marine industry accounts renewable energy as its future energy source. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the use of methanol in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), as auxiliary power systems for commercial vessels, through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The LCA methodology allows the assessment of the potential environmental impact along the whole life cycle of the process. The unit considered is a 20 kWel fuel cell system. In a first part of the study different fuel options have been compared (methanol, bio-methanol, natural gas, hydrogen from cracking, electrolysis and reforming), then the operation of the cell fed with methanol has been compared with the traditional auxiliary power system, i.e. a diesel engine. The environmental benefits of the use of fuel cells have been assessed considering different impact categories. The results of the analysis show that fuel production phase has a strong influence on the life cycle impacts and highlight that feeding with bio-methanol represents a highly attractive solution from a life cycle point of view. The comparison with the conventional auxiliary power system shows extremely lower impacts for SOFCs.

  14. Nasca Lines, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  15. Identification of microbes from the surfaces of food-processing lines based on the flow cytometric evaluation of cellular metabolic activity combined with cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzwa, W; Duber, A; Myszka, K; Białas, W; Czaczyk, K

    2016-09-01

    In this study the design of a flow cytometry-based procedure to facilitate the detection of adherent bacteria from food-processing surfaces was evaluated. The measurement of the cellular redox potential (CRP) of microbial cells was combined with cell sorting for the identification of microorganisms. The procedure enhanced live/dead cell discrimination owing to the measurement of the cell physiology. The microbial contamination of the surface of a stainless steel conveyor used to process button mushrooms was evaluated in three independent experiments. The flow cytometry procedure provided a step towards monitoring of contamination and enabled the assessment of microbial food safety hazards by the discrimination of active, mid-active and non-active bacterial sub-populations based on determination of their cellular vitality and subsequently single cell sorting to isolate microbial strains from discriminated sub-populations. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.97; p vitality and the identification of species from defined sub-populations, although the identified microbes were limited to culturable cells.

  16. Design and synthesis of pH-sensitive polyamino-ester magneto-dendrimers: Surface functional groups effect on viability of human prostate carcinoma cell lines DU145.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayyani, Nahid; Khoee, Sepideh; Ramazani, Ali

    2015-06-15

    Novel pH-sensitive, biocompatible and biodegradable magneto-dendrimers with OH and/or NH2 functional groups based on poly amino-ester were synthesized for delivery of anti-cancer drugs. Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by the co-precipitation method and their surfaces were modified by 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane. The first and second generations of the magneto-dendrimer with hydroxyl end groups were produced by sequential acrylation and Michael addition reactions using the required amounts of acryloyl chloride and diethanolamine, respectively. The dendrimer containing amino functional surface groups up to second generation was synthesized by the same method using the necessary amounts of acryloyl chloride and ethylenediamine. These dendrimers were fully characterized by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential analysis, vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). In-vitro release profiles of the drug-loaded magnetic nanoparticles and their cytotoxicity assay were investigated at two pHs (7.4 and 5.8). The hydrolytic degradation behavior of magneto-dendrimers was evaluated in PBS buffer. Our research suggests that magneto-dendrimers having amine or hydroxyl functional groups could be considered as the suitable nanocarriers for therapy applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, and other variables collected from surface underway observations using carbon dioxide gas analyzer, shower head equilibrator and other instruments from SOOP M/V Nuka Arctica lines in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2008-01-08 to 2009-01-07 (NCEI Accession 0162251)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162251 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from SOOP M/V Nuka Arctica lines in the North Atlantic Ocean...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, and other variables collected from surface underway observations using carbon dioxide gas analyzer, shower head equilibrator and other instruments from SOOP M/V Nuka Arctica lines in the North Atlantic Ocean in 2016 (NCEI Accession 0165355)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0165355 includes surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from SOOP M/V Nuka Arctica lines in the North Atlantic Ocean...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, and other variables collected from surface underway observations using carbon dioxide gas analyzer, shower head equilibrator and other instruments from SOOP M/V Nuka Arctica lines in the North Atlantic Ocean in 2015 (NCEI Accession 0165353)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0165353 includes surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from SOOP M/V Nuka Arctica lines in the North Atlantic Ocean...

  20. Different surface sensing of the cell body and nucleus in healthy primary cells and in a cancerous cell line on nanogrooves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Patricia M; Bigerelle, Maxence; Reiter, Günter; Anselme, Karine

    2015-10-01

    Cancer cells are known to have alterations compared to healthy cells, but can these differences extend to the way cells interact with their environment? Here, the authors focused on the alignment on an array of grooves of nanometer depth using two cell types: healthy osteoprogenitor primary cells (HOP) and a cancerous osteosarcoma (SaOs-2) cell line. Another concern was how this alignment affects the cell's interior, namely, the nucleus. Based on the results, it is proposed that these two cell types respond to different size regimes: SaOs-2 cells are more sensitive to shallow grooves while HOP cells are strongly aligned with deep grooves. As a measure of the impact of cell alignment on the nucleus the orientation and elongation of the nucleus were determined. Compared to HOP cells, the cell nucleus of SaOs-2 cells is more aligned and elongated in response to grooves, suggesting a softer nucleus and/or increased force transmission. These results support the hypothesis that cancer cells have reduced nucleus rigidity compared to healthy ones and further indicate differences in sensing, which may be important during metastasis.